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Sample records for young soldiers strongly

  1. Soldiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2018-01-01

    War, armies and soldiers were omnipresent in the ancient Greek society, and thus these phenomena are equally present in the worlds of ancient Greek comedy. However, the comic outlook on war differs from Old to New Comedy. While the citizen soldier remains the norm, but mainly at periphery of Old...... comedy, the independent mercenary becomes a central character of New Comedy. Thus the comic view on soldiers reflects the martial attitudes and ideologies of contemporary society....

  2. Incidence and risk factors for backpack palsy in young Korean soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Eun; Kim, E-J

    2016-02-01

    Backpack palsy (BPP) is a common aetiology of brachial plexopathy in military hospitals. We aimed to determine the incidence and risk factors of BPP in young Korean soldiers. We identified enlisted patients who were diagnosed with BPP from a review of the medical records of all the Korean military hospitals in 2011 and 2012 and investigated their clinical findings and medical study results. To identify risk factors of BPP, we also surveyed, by questionnaire, healthy recruits of a company in a training centre who had just finished night marches. We divided them according to whether they had paresthaesia and/or weakness in their arm(s) during marching and compared their characteristics. The incidence of BPP in Korean soldiers was 29.7 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 17.2 to 24.3). Body mass index (BMI) was significantly lower in patients with BPP than it was in healthy recruits. Among healthy recruits, those who had experienced paresthaesia and/or weakness during marching had a significantly lower BMI than did those who had not. We report the incidence of BPP in young Korean soldiers. A low BMI was a risk factor for BPP. These results may be helpful in establishing a strategy for the prevention of BPP in the setting of military training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. MR imaging findings of fatigue fractures of lower extremity in young soldiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Jong Hyun; Moon, Sung Hee; Kim, Young Bok; Park, Yang Hee; Park, Jin Kyoon

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the MR imaging findings of fatigue fractures of the lower extremity in young soldiers. In 22 cases of fatigue fractures of the lower extremity in young soldiers proven by clinical findings and radiological follow up, the MRI findings were retrospectively evalvated. All patients were male and aged between 19 and 21 years. As seen on MRI, the bone marrow edema, intramedullary low signal intensity band, cortical fracture line, periosteal reaction, surrounding soft tissue edema, and enhancement pattern were analyzed and the site of involvement was determined in the axial plane. The locations of fatigue fractures of the lower extremity were the tibia (n=12), fibula (n=8), femur (n=1) and second metatarsus (n=1). All occurred in diaphyses: the junction of the proximal and middle (n=10), middle (n=9), proximal (n=2), and distal shaft (n=1). The sites of involvement were the posteromedial (n=6) and medial side (n=6) of the tibia, and the entire portion of the fibula(n=5) in the axial plane. MRI findings were bone marrow edema in 20 cases, intramedullary low signal intensity band in 14 (which were continuous with the cortex or cortical fracture line), cortical fracture line in 13, and periosteal reaction and surrounding soft tissue edema in all. On gadolinium-enhanced images, enhancement was seen in the bone marrow in 19 cases, in the subperiosteal region in 18, and in the surrounding soft tissue in 22. In fatigue fractures of the lower extremity in young soldiers, the main locations were the tibia and fibula, and characteristic MR imaging findings were intramedullary low signal intensity bands, which were continuous with the cortex or cortical fracture line and often accompanied by bone marrow edema, periosteal reaction, and surrounding soft tissue edema

  4. Dynamics of moral judgments in young soldiers during the period of military service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshevskiy D.S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted an empirical study of the dynamics of the level of moral judgments in the military. Two groups of Missile Defense Force soldiers present the sample: preparing for demobilization (n=30 and new recruits (n=25. As the methods we used specially developed semi-structured interview modeling the situation of moral choice, and the questionnaire in order to assess the socio-psychological characteristics of the military and their attitude to service. The young soldiers have a positive trend in the development of moral judgments and a greater differentiation in the estimates. It is shown that the old-timers in comparison with newcomers have intensive development of group-oriented and prosocial moral reasoning. It presumably connected with successful adaptation to military service, following the manual, the ability to cope with aggressive impulses, flexibility and value assessments in decision-making. It is noted that educational work with young recruits should include measures to increase group cohesion in the army.

  5. 78 FR 18777 - Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... father's military service as a Union soldier during the Civil War, and he heeded his father's advice by... appropriation; however, the monument shall be the dominant reservation. Warning is hereby given to all...

  6. Even One Is Too Much: Sole Presence of One of the Risk Factors Overweight, Lack of Exercise, and Smoking Reduces Physical Fitness of Young Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyk, Dieter; Witzki, Alexander; Willi, Gorges; Rohde, Ulrich; Rüther, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Health and physical fitness are key factors for soldiers. Increased sedentary military work, significant sitting periods during commuting and leisure time, and unhealthy dietary habits have caused a considerable increase in the number of physically unfit soldiers. Even worse, the adoption of harmful lifestyle habits occurs increasingly earlier in life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was (a) to determine the physical fitness of young male soldiers and (b) to investigate the association between physical fitness and both the presence and frequency of the health risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. A total of 4,553 volunteers aged 18-25 years performed the Basis Fitness Test consisting of the 3 disciplines agility (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), strength (flexed-arm hang), and endurance (1,000-m run). The presence and frequency of risk factors were determined by means of anthropometric measures (body mass index, waist circumference) and questionnaire data. The portion of soldiers without risk factors decreased from 49.4% (18-year-olds) to 16.4% for 25-year-olds. Persons without risk factors completed the agility test in 41.1 ± 3.7 seconds, flexed-arm hang in 60.1 ± 19.7 seconds, and 1,000-m run in 235 ± 32 seconds. Physical performance in all dimensions tested (agility, strength, endurance) notably deteriorated with the sole presence of one of the risk factors overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. Any further risk factor led to further fitness decreases (p < 0.001). Mean performances of soldiers with 3 risk factors were 46.7 ± 4.1 seconds (11 × 10 m shuttle sprint), 27.6 ± 6.4 seconds (flexed-arm hang), and 298 ± 45 seconds (1,000-m run). Impacts of unhealthy lifestyles and significant losses in physical fitness are already visible in young male soldiers. Armed Forces must intensify their efforts to maintain health and performance of their soldiers.

  7. Shadow Soldiering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster Christensen, Maya

    The thesis is an inquiry into what is at stake for a surplus population of militia soldiers in the aftermaths of the civil war in Sierra Leone. The analysis takes its point of departure in how militarised networks are transformed and gradualy morph into new constellations of soldiering. The central......, or in the margins of official political economies. Rather, shadow soldiering is a phenomenon that is becoming increasingly central in the context of security outsourcing and militarisation in a global economy....

  8. <strong>Towards Automatic Trunk Classification on Young Conifersstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Stig; Immerkær, John

    2009-01-01

    In the garden nursery industry providing young Nordmann firs for Christmas tree plantations, there is a rising interest in automatic classification of their products to ensure consistently high quality and reduce the cost of manual labor. This paper describes a fully automatic single-view algorit...... performance of the algorithm by incorporating color information into the data considered by the dynamic programming algorithm....

  9. Aggressive-antisocial boys develop into physically strong young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isen, Joshua D; McGue, Matthew K; Iacono, William G

    2015-04-01

    Young men with superior upper-body strength typically show a greater proclivity for physical aggression than their weaker male counterparts. The traditional interpretation of this phenomenon is that young men calibrate their attitudes and behaviors to their physical formidability. Physical strength is thus viewed as a causal antecedent of aggressive behavior. The present study is the first to examine this phenomenon within a developmental framework. We capitalized on the fact that physical strength is a male secondary sex characteristic. In two longitudinal cohorts of children, we estimated adolescent change in upper-body strength using the slope parameter from a latent growth model. We found that males' antisocial tendencies temporally precede their physical formidability. Boys, but not girls, with greater antisocial tendencies in childhood attained larger increases in physical strength between the ages of 11 and 17. These results support sexual selection theory, indicating an adaptive congruence between male-typical behavioral dispositions and subsequent physical masculinization during puberty. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Administrative management of the soldier with seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, C H

    1991-07-01

    Based on improvement in our understanding of the prognosis of young adults with new onset seizures, and cumulative experience with the rules in effect for the last 30 years, a substantial change in the regulations affecting the fitness and profiling of these soldiers has been made. In general, these liberalize retention and profiling, set limits on the duration of trials of duty, provide for fitness determinations in soldiers with pseudo-seizures, and specify when neurologic consultation is required.

  11. Soldier motivation – different or similar?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    Recent research in military sociology has shown that in addition to their strong peer motivation modern soldiers are oriented toward contributing to society. It has not, however, been tested how soldier motivation differs from the motivation of other citizens in this respect. In this paper......, by means of public service motivation, a concept developed within the public administration literature, we compare soldier and civilian motivation. The contribution of this paper is an analysis of whether and how Danish combat soldiers differs from other Danes in regard to public service motivation? Using...... surveys with similar questions, we find that soldiers are more normatively motivated to contribute to society than other citizens (higher commitment to the public interest), while their affectively based motivation is lower (lower compassion). This points towards a potential problem in regard...

  12. Characteristics of Chinese Rural Young Suicides Who Did Not Have a Strong Intention to Die1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Long; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background In exploration of the risk factors of the Chinese rural young suicide, previous researchers found low prevalence of mental problems, high degree of impulsivity, and great proportion of lethal pesticide consumption. It noticed that some of the young suicides in rural China did not intend to die from the suicidal behavior which was only instrumentally used for certain gains. Aims This study aims to look into the characteristics of those young suicides who did not really intend to die and compare them with those young suicides who had a strong intent to die. Methods Subjects were 386 suicides aged 15-34 years in the rural areas of three provinces in China. The data were obtained by psychological autopsy method. The degree of suicidal intent of the subjects was evaluated by the first 8 items of Beck’s Suicide Intent Scale (SIS). Results It was found that those suicides who had a strong intent of death were more likely to have higher age, more years of education, live alone, and suffer mental disease. On the other hand, the low intent suicides were more likely to have pesticides at home and to be impulsive. In other words, pesticides and impulsivity killed some Chinese rural young men and women who did not really want to die by suicide. Conclusion Findings of the study may be translated into practical measures in suicide prevention in China as well as elsewhere in the world. PMID:25497170

  13. Characteristics of Chinese rural young suicides: who did not have a strong intent to die.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Long; Zhang, Jie

    2015-02-01

    In exploration of the risk factors of the Chinese rural young suicide, previous researchers found low prevalence of mental problems, high degree of impulsivity, and great proportion of lethal pesticide consumption. It noticed that some of the young suicides in rural China did not intend to die from the suicidal behavior which was only instrumentally used for certain gains. This study aims to look into the characteristics of those young suicides who did not really intend to die and compare them with those young suicides who had a strong intent to die. Subjects were 386 suicides aged 15-34years in the rural areas of three provinces in China. The data were obtained by psychological autopsy method. The degree of suicidal intent of the subjects was evaluated by the first 8 items of Beck's Suicide Intent Scale (SIS). It was found that those suicides that had a strong intent of death were more likely to have higher age, more years of education, live alone, and suffer mental disease. On the other hand, the low intent suicides were more likely to have pesticides at home and to be impulsive. In other words, pesticides and impulsivity killed some Chinese rural young men and women who did not really want to die by suicide. Findings of the study may be translated into practical measures in suicide prevention in China as well as elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatial aspects of tree mortality strongly differ between young and old-growth forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Andrew J; Lutz, James A; Donato, Daniel C; Freund, James A; Swanson, Mark E; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Sprugel, Douglas G; Franklin, Jerry F

    2015-11-01

    Rates and spatial patterns of tree mortality are predicted to change during forest structural development. In young forests, mortality should be primarily density dependent due to competition for light, leading to an increasingly spatially uniform pattern of surviving trees. In contrast, mortality in old-growth forests should be primarily caused by contagious and spatially autocorrelated agents (e.g., insects, wind), causing spatial aggregation of surviving trees to increase through time. We tested these predictions by contrasting a three-decade record of tree mortality from replicated mapped permanent plots located in young (old) and old-growth (> 300-year-old) Abies amabilis forests. Trees in young forests died at a rate of 4.42% per year, whereas trees in old-growth forests died at 0.60% per year. Tree mortality in young forests was significantly aggregated, strongly density dependent, and caused live tree patterns to become more uniform through time. Mortality in old-growth forests was spatially aggregated, but was density independent and did not change the spatial pattern of surviving trees. These results extend current theory by demonstrating that density-dependent competitive mortality leading to increasingly uniform tree spacing in young forests ultimately transitions late in succession to a more diverse tree mortality regime that maintains spatial heterogeneity through time.

  15. Abdominal obesity is strongly associated to blood pressure in young Mexicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquidez Romero, Rene; Murguía Romero, Miguel; Esparza Romero, Julián; Díaz Torres, Beatriz Araceli; Rodríguez Tadeo, Alejandra; Medrano Donlucas, Gabriel; Ramos Jiménez, Arnulfo; Wall Medrano, Abraham; Gallardo Ortíz, Itzell A; Tapia Pancardo, Diana C Tapia-Pancardo C; Méndez Cruz, A René; Jiménez Flores, J Rafael; Villalobos Molina, Rafael

    2017-03-30

    The objective of this study was to determine associations between abdominal obesity (AOb) and the other components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in young Mexicans in a cross-sectional survey completed during a 4 year period. This cross-sectional study reports on components and prevalence of MetS by using Alberti et al. (16) criteria, as well as association between AOb and elevated blood pressure (BP) of 2,993 Mexican university students, ages 17 to 25 years (66% women) from central and northern Mexico, over a 4-year survey (2010-2013). The most prevalent MetS components in the total sample were low HDL-C concentration (43.6%) and AOb (41.1%). MetS prevalence was 11.8%, more men than women were classified with MetS (14.3% vs. 10.5%, p < 0.01). BP was the MetS component with the lowest prevalence (8.6%). A strong association between AOb and altered BP with in both men and women was found (OR 4.3, IC95% 2.5-7.4). Even BP was the component with the lowest prevalence, AOb was more strongly associated with it. This fact, could explain the prevalence of hypertension among young Mexican adults.

  16. Danish soldiers in Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2011-01-01

    the assumption that other factors than combat exposure-psychosocial and cultural-are of importance in increasing psychological distress among soldiers deployed to Iraq. Additionally, we have shown that the reporting of multiple physical symptoms among the deployed soldiers is closely related to increased...

  17. Soldiers Magazine | Telling the Soldier's story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldier, fight in the Korean War and serve as a intelligence agent during the Cold War. 14 April 2016 professionals vying for Best Medic bragging rights. 14 October 2016 The U.S. Army's Hispanic-American Medal of possible On Women's Equality Day, learn about 19 ways U.S. Army women helped make the 19th Amendment

  18. Patents for Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    PATENTS FOR SOLDIERS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment...COVERED (From - To) AUG 2015 – JUNE 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Patents for Soldiers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...protection of an innovative idea; that is, a patent . A Soldier’s pursuit of patents provides the Army with tangible and intangible benefits. There are on

  19. Young and going strong?: A longitudinal study on occupational health among young employees of different educational levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, J.; Brenninkmeijer, V.; Bossche, S.N.J van den; Blonk, R.W.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify job characteristics that determine young employees' wellbeing, health, and performance, and to compare educational groups. Design/methodology/approach: Using the job demands-resources (JD-R) model and 2-wave longitudinal data (n=1,284), the paper

  20. Chronic daily headache in U.S. soldiers after concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeler, Brett J; Flynn, Frederick G; Erickson, Jay C

    2012-05-01

    -one percent of soldiers with CDH screened positive for PTSD compared to only 18% of soldiers with episodic headache. The prevalence of CDH in returning U.S. soldiers after a deployment-related concussion is 20%, or 4- to 5-fold higher than that seen in the general U.S. population. CDH following a concussion usually resembles chronic migraine and is associated with onset of headaches within the first week after concussion. The mechanism and number of concussions are not specifically associated with CDH as compared to episodic headache. In contrast, PTSD symptoms are strongly associated with CDH, suggesting that traumatic stress may be an important mediator of headache chronification. These findings justify future studies examining strategies to prevent and treat CDH in military service members following a concussive injury. © 2012 American Headache Society.

  1. A room for design: Through participatory design young adults with schizophrenia become strong collaborators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terp, Malene; Laursen, Birgitte Schantz; Jørgensen, Rikke; Mainz, Jan; Bjørnes, Charlotte D

    2016-12-01

    Smartphone technology is being increasingly viewed as key to engaging young adults with schizophrenia in their own mental health care. In an attempt to use smartphones as an engagement tool, we conducted a participatory design process, where young adults with schizophrenia (n = 4), healthcare providers (n = 7), software designers (n = 3), graphic designer (n = 1), graphic recorder (n = 1), and team leader (n = 1) co-designed a smartphone application for use in early phase schizophrenia care. This paper reports the co-design process. Based on a variety of written data-sources, the paper describes if, and how, participatory design can help construct a physical and relational environment that enables young adults with schizophrenia to become active participants in the design of a more participatory mental health practice. Guided by Etienne Wenger's construct of Community of Practice, three major categories of characteristics and construction of a physical and relational environment supporting and inspiring participation and engagement were identified: (i) a pre-narrative about a community of practice, (ii) the room for design is a community of practice and (iii) the community of practice as a practice of special qualities. It is concluded that participatory design can support and inspire participation and engagement in the development of mental health care with young adults with schizophrenia, given that the environment in which participatory design unfolds is transparent, flexible, secure and informal. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  2. Total and regional fat distribution is strongly influenced by genetic factors in young and elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malis, Charlotte; Rasmussen, Eva L; Poulsen, Pernille

    2005-01-01

    was to estimate the heritability (h(2)) of total and regional fat distribution in young and elderly Danish twins. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Monozygotic (108) and dizygotic (88) twins in two age groups (25 to 32 and 58 to 66 years) underwent anthropometric measurements and DXA scans. Intraclass correlations...... and etiologic components of variance were estimated for total and regional fat percentages using biometric modeling. RESULTS: The intraclass correlations demonstrated higher correlations for all fat percentages among monozygotic twins as compared with dizygotic twins. The biometric modeling revealed a major...

  3. Sudden increase in atmospheric concentration reveals strong coupling between shoot carbon uptake and root nutrient uptake in young walnut trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaire, M.; Sigogne, M.; Beaujard, F.; Frak, E.; Adam, B.; Le Roux, X.

    2005-01-01

    Short-term effects of a sudden increase in carbon dioxide concentration on nutrient uptake by roots during vegetative growth was studied in young walnut trees. Rates of carbon dioxide uptake and water loss by individual trees were determined by a branch bag method from three days before and six days after carbon dioxide concentration was increased. Nutrient uptake rates were measured concurrently by a hydroponic recirculating nutrient solution system. Carbon dioxide uptake rates increased greatly with increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide; nutrient uptake rates were proportional to carbon dioxide uptake rates, except for the phosphorus ion. Daily water loss rates were only slightly affected by elevated carbon dioxide. Overall, it was concluded that in the presence of non-limiting supplies of water and nutrients, root nutrient uptake and shoot carbon assimilation are strongly coupled in the short term in young walnut trees despite the important carbon and nutrient storage capacities od woody species. 45 refs., 7 figs

  4. The evolution of accretion in young stellar objects: Strong accretors at 3-10 Myr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingleby, Laura; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Miller, Jon; McClure, Melissa [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hernández, Jesus; Briceno, Cesar [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía (CIDA), Mérida, 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Espaillat, Catherine, E-mail: lingleby@umich.edu, E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu, E-mail: cce@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    While the rate of accretion onto T Tauri stars is predicted to decline with age, objects with strong accretion have been detected at ages of up to 10 Myr. We analyze a sample of these old accretors, identified by having a significant U band excess and infrared emission from a circumstellar disk. Objects were selected from the ∼3 Myr σ Ori, 4-6 Myr Orion OB1b, and 7-10 Myr Orion OB1a star forming associations. We use high-resolution spectra from the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle to estimate the veiling of absorption lines and calculate extinction for our T Tauri sample. We also use observations obtained with the Magellan Echellette and, in a few cases, the SWIFT Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope to estimate the excess produced in the accretion shock, which is then fit with accretion shock models to estimate the accretion rate. We find that even objects as old as 10 Myr may have high accretion rates, up to ∼10{sup –8} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. These objects cannot be explained by viscous evolution models, which would deplete the disk in shorter timescales unless the initial disk mass is very high, a situation that is unstable. We show that the infrared spectral energy distribution of one object, CVSO 206, does not reveal evidence of significant dust evolution, which would be expected during the 10 Myr lifetime. We compare this object to predictions from photoevaporation and planet formation models and suggest that neither of these processes have had a strong impact on the disk of CVSO 206.

  5. The contribution of scalars to N=4 SYM amplitudes II: Young tableaux, asymptotic factorisation and strong coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Bonini

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We disentangle the contribution of scalars to the OPE series of null hexagonal Wilson loops/MHV gluon scattering amplitudes in multicolour N=4 SYM. In specific, we develop a systematic computation of the SU(4 matrix part of the Wilson loop by means of Young tableaux (with several examples. Then, we use a peculiar factorisation property (when a group of rapidities becomes large to deduce an explicit polar form. Furthermore, we emphasise the advantages of expanding the logarithm of the Wilson loop in terms of ‘connected functions’ as we apply this procedure to find an explicit strong coupling expansion (definitively proving that the leading order can prevail on the classical AdS5 string contribution.

  6. Soldier Survey Data Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    programs and policies and to increase the knowledge base needed for informed decisionmaking. Data for the soldier survey were collected in on-site...Subsequent analyses will be prepared in the form of reports and other materials designed to meet the needs of Army program and policy staff and other...743 * -C Mm C mm l W G gi’ 4.18L. 1 mmI 2In m -P 6- C-4 , 4. C14 u Cc 3 4.1 41 4.1 - C I-D 6. 1 +5 4.1 4-- C-4 RO C4 r ’ C-4, CD 0 f33 Es *i C5 W CNCD

  7. When Military Parents Come Home: Building "Strong Families Strong Forces," a Home-Based Intervention for Military Families with Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Ruth; Acker, Michelle L.; Ross, Abigail M.; DeVoe, Ellen R.

    2011-01-01

    The long wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have presented unique challenges to military-connected families with very young children, yet few evidence-based services are available to support these families through deployment and reintegration. Although many military families have shown remarkable resilience throughout the intense demands of the wars,…

  8. Study of smoking habit among soldiers in Cairo Security Forces Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Mahmoud Khattab

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is a common habit among soldiers and it starts in a relatively young age mainly due to social influence. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms are the most frequent encountered complaints among soldiers. Main causes that led them to try quitting were health concerns and financial issues; as most of them spend a considerable percentage of their monthly income to obtain cigarettes. Unfortunately there was no organized positive support to help the quitters.

  9. The voices of the invisible girls : reintegration of former female child soldiers in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Aase, Camilla Carlsen

    2013-01-01

    Master thesis in development management - University of Agder 2013 Child soldiers are used in armed groups and forces around the word. Children as young as seven years of age have been reported to actively participate in armed conflict. The phenomenon of child soldiering has become increasingly recognized in recent decades. Females constitute between ten per cent to one third of the fighting forces worldwide. Despite this, girls and women have until recently been highly invisible in both r...

  10. [Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Dima

    2016-12-01

    Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany How do former child soldiers cope with their potentially traumatic experiences, and how do the living conditions as refugees influence these coping processes? A dissertation at the faculty of human and social sciences at the University of Wuppertal, based on biographical-narrative interviews with 15 young refugees from six African countries, describes the characteristics of the traumatic sequences in the countries of origin and in exile, and elaborates typical coping processes. In order to survive a situation of absolute subjection within armed groups, children develop forms of adequate adaptation to the context like regulation and detachment of emotions e.g. with the use of drugs, assimilation to an idea of "hard masculinity" etc. They become victims, witnesses and often perpetrators of extreme violence (man-made-disaster), respectively traumatic processes can be seen in all sequences. After leaving the armed groups there is no way back into the families and communities destroyed by armed conflict, so they become refugees. In Germany, they are subjected to a bureaucratic and excluding asylum system, in which decisions on all relevant areas of life (age determination, place and right of residence, form of accommodation, access to education, etc.) are imposed on them. Especially the insecure right of residence and the living conditions in refugee camps are severe risk factors, impeding stabilization. Social support, e. g. by competent professionals, access to trauma- and culture-sensitive psychotherapy, societal inclusion, but also personal resilience are essential for coping with trauma and developing new future perspectives.

  11. The Myth of the Citizen Soldier: Rhode Island Provincial Soldiers in the French and Indian War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    14 Revolution, is an excellent account of social, economic, and political factors in colonial America that influenced the concept of the citizen ...THE MYTH OF THE CITIZEN -SOLDIER: RHODE ISLAND PROVINCIAL SOLDIERS IN THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR A thesis presented to the...From - To) AUG 2015 – JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Myth of the Citizen Soldier: Rhode Island Provincial Soldiers in the French and Indian War

  12. Soldiering Shaky Grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster Christensen, Maya

    2014-01-01

    lives’. In recent years, however, there has been an increasing demand for military labour not just locally, but also regionally and globally. Based on long-term fieldwork in Sierra Leone, this presentation addresses how ex-militias come to operate as providers of global security as a consequence......In Sierra Leone, the large population of militarily skilled young men that became available in the aftermath of the civil war is considered a major threat to security. As a result, the internationally-steered peace process targeted the demobilisation and reintegration of ex-militias into ‘civilian...... of this demand. With point of departure in the recruitment of Sierra Leonean ex-militias for mercenary missions in Guinea and for private security contracting in Iraq, the paper discusses the linkages and discrepancies between local and global security provision, and the ambiguities that characterises...

  13. Training Dismounted Soldiers in Virtual Environments: Enhancing Configuration Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Witmer, Bob

    2000-01-01

    ...) has conducted research in using virtual environments (VE) to train dismounted soldiers. While showing that some dismounted soldiers skills can be trained in VE, the research has also identified problems in using VE for soldier training...

  14. A educação do corpo para o "soldado integral", "forte de físico, culto de cérebro e grande de alma" The education of the body for an "integral soldier", "physically strong, intelligent and soul superior"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Duarte Simões

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo reflete sobre o treinamento paramilitar realizado pela Milícia Integralista, unidade armada da Ação Integralista Brasileira (AIB, principal partido de extrema direita no Brasil da década de 1930, no sentido de formar o "soldado integral", "forte de físico, culto de cérebro e grande de alma". Analisa os números do jornal Monitor Integralista, periódico doutrinário e prescritivo do movimento, encontrado no Arquivo Público e Histórico do Município de Rio Claro, SP, e o jornal A Offensiva, que se encontra microfilmado na Biblioteca Nacional no Rio de Janeiro. Concluiu que o objetivo de Plínio Salgado, Chefe Nacional da AIB, era treinar verbalmente, por meio de discursos, de propaganda boca a boca e pelo voto, ou corporalmente, pela luta armada e corporal, os integralistas para torná-los aptos a defender as causas do movimento.This study examines the paramilitary training carried out by the Integralist Militia (Milícia Integralista, unit of the Brazilian Integralist Action (Ação Integralista Brasileira, AIB of the extreme right wing political party in Brazil in the 1930s. The training was aimed to create the "integral soldier", a "physically strong, intelligent and soul superior" one. The study analyzes issues of the newspaper "Monitor Integralista", a prescriptive and dogmatic journal of the movement, found in the Public and History Archives of the city of Rio Claro, State of São Paulo, and in the "A Offensiva" newspaper, microfilmed an archived at the National Library of Rio de Janeiro. It concludes that Plínio Salgado's goal, the National Head of the AIB, was to train, by using verbal persuasion, speeches, word of mouth and by vote, by force and physical combat, the integralists to defend the causes of the movement.

  15. The German-Jewish soldier: from participant to victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penslar, Derek

    2011-01-01

    The story of German-Jewish soldiers and veterans of World War I illustrates how, under circumstances of inclusion (even if incomplete) rather than vicious persecution, Jewish suffering in wartime, and with it the forms of collective memory and strategies for commemoration of the dead, could closely parallel, even intersect with, the suffering of Germans as a whole. To be sure, the points of intersection were accompanied by points of deflection. Even when Jews served, fought, suffered and died as German soldiers, their interpretations of the war experience, and their communities’ postwar memory and commemorative practices, differed from those of other Germans. In many ways, however, German-Jewish veterans suffered the aftermath of the war as did other Germans; they shared the prevailing fury over war guilt and reparations, and they retained a strong pride in their military service, a pride through which they interpreted the events of 1933–1945.

  16. How we eat what we eat: identifying meal routines and practices most strongly associated with healthy and unhealthy dietary factors among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Melissa N; Hearst, Mary O; Lust, Katherine; Lytle, Leslie A; Story, Mary

    2015-08-01

    (i) To examine associations between young adults' meal routines and practices (e.g. food preparation, meal skipping, eating on the run) and key dietary indicators (fruit/vegetable, fast-food and sugar-sweetened beverage intakes) and (ii) to develop indices of protective and risky meal practices most strongly associated with diet. Cross-sectional survey. Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area, Minnesota (USA). A diverse sample of community college and public university students (n 1013). Meal routines and practices most strongly associated with healthy dietary patterns were related to home food preparation (i.e. preparing meals at home, preparing meals with vegetables) and meal regularity (i.e. routine consumption of evening meals and breakfast). In contrast, factors most strongly associated with poor dietary patterns included eating on the run, using media while eating and purchasing foods/beverages on campus. A Protective Factors Index, summing selected protective meal routines and practices, was positively associated with fruit/vegetable consumption and negatively associated with fast-food and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (PMeal routines and practices were significantly associated with young adults' dietary patterns, suggesting that ways in which individuals structure mealtimes and contextual characteristics of eating likely influence food choice. Thus, in addition to considering specific food choices, it also may be important to consider the context of mealtimes in developing dietary messaging and guidelines.

  17. Facilitating Soldier Receipt of Needed Mental Health Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Young males, 18 or 19-year-old males; it’s like a soldier (that inhibits treatment- bullpen. They beat each other up, and don’t give seeking...forced me to go to mental health. After seeing a therapist, [they said I] someone wasn’t suicidal , wasn’t homicidal, but [they] told me I...I was given a choice to either stay at the house or go to this Uuvenile delinquency ] group home...Our therapist was good at what she did. That

  18. Picture Book Soldiers: Men and Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Christina M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines children's picture books about soldiers and war, including fiction, folktales, and historical fiction, analyzing their implicit and explicit messages about war and the military, and evaluating them for gender stereotyping. Finds that the soldiers conform almost uniformly to an exaggerated male stereotype. Shows different value judgments…

  19. A Strong Immune Response in Young Adult Honeybees Masks Their Increased Susceptibility to Infection Compared to Older Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, James C.; Ryabov, Eugene V.; Prince, Gill; Mead, Andrew; Zhang, Cunjin; Baxter, Laura A.; Pell, Judith K.; Osborne, Juliet L.; Chandler, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Honeybees, Apis mellifera, show age-related division of labor in which young adults perform maintenance (“housekeeping”) tasks inside the colony before switching to outside foraging at approximately 23 days old. Disease resistance is an important feature of honeybee biology, but little is known about the interaction of pathogens and age-related division of labor. We tested a hypothesis that older forager bees and younger “house” bees differ in susceptibility to infection. We coupled an infection bioassay with a functional analysis of gene expression in individual bees using a whole genome microarray. Forager bees treated with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. survived for significantly longer than house bees. This was concomitant with substantial differences in gene expression including genes associated with immune function. In house bees, infection was associated with differential expression of 35 candidate immune genes contrasted with differential expression of only two candidate immune genes in forager bees. For control bees (i.e. not treated with M. anisopliae) the development from the house to the forager stage was associated with differential expression of 49 candidate immune genes, including up-regulation of the antimicrobial peptide gene abaecin, plus major components of the Toll pathway, serine proteases, and serpins. We infer that reduced pathogen susceptibility in forager bees was associated with age-related activation of specific immune system pathways. Our findings contrast with the view that the immunocompetence in social insects declines with the onset of foraging as a result of a trade-off in the allocation of resources for foraging. The up-regulation of immune-related genes in young adult bees in response to M. anisopliae infection was an indicator of disease susceptibility; this also challenges previous research in social insects, in which an elevated immune status has been used as a marker of increased disease

  20. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: global delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach. The platform needed to be agile, provide powerful real-time reporting, and have the capacity to quickly transform to meet emerging requirements. Existing organizational applications, such as "Single Sign-On," and authoritative data sources were exploited to the maximum extent possible. Development of the "Soldier Fitness Tracker" is the most recent, and possibly the best, demonstration of the potential benefits possible when existing organizational capabilities are married to new, innovative applications. Combining the capabilities of the extant applications with the newly developed applications expedited development, eliminated redundant data collection, resulted in the exceeding of program objectives, and produced a comfortable experience for the end user, all in less than six months. This is a model for future technology integration. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Oviposition Preference for Young Plants by the Large Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris brassicae ) Does not Strongly Correlate with Caterpillar Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Minghui; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Yin, Yi; Gols, Rieta

    2017-06-01

    The effects of temporal variation in the quality of short-lived annual plants on oviposition preference and larval performance of insect herbivores has thus far received little attention. This study examines the effects of plant age on female oviposition preference and offspring performance in the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae. Adult female butterflies lay variable clusters of eggs on the underside of short-lived annual species in the family Brassicaceae, including the short-lived annuals Brassica nigra and Sinapis arvensis, which are important food plants for P. brassicae in The Netherlands. Here, we compared oviposition preference and larval performance of P. brassicae on three age classes (young, mature, and pre-senescing) of B. nigra and S. arvensis plants. Oviposition preference of P. brassicae declined with plant age in both plant species. Whereas larvae performed similarly on all three age classes in B. nigra, preference and performance were weakly correlated in S. arvensis. Analysis of primary (sugars and amino acids) and secondary (glucosinolates) chemistry in the plant shoots revealed that differences in their quality and quantity were more pronounced with respect to tissue type (leaves vs. flowers) than among different developmental stages of both plant species. Butterflies of P. brassicae may prefer younger and smaller plants for oviposition anticipating that future plant growth and size is optimally synchronized with the final larval instar, which contributes >80% of larval growth before pupation.

  2. Sociality in Parasitic Flatworms: When Do Soldiers Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vedrenne, A. E.

    2016-02-01

    Although not traditionally recognized as such, trematode infections in molluscan first intermediate hosts comprise colonies. When two trematode species simultaneously infect a snail host, one generally kills the other. Thus, there can be strong selective pressure for established trematode colonies to protect and defend against new infections. Recent findings demonstrate that some trematode species have a reproductive division of labor involving a reproductive and a soldier caste. Reproductives are larger and filled with offspring, while soldiers lack developing embryos, and are specialized for inter-trematode antagonism. This reproductive division of labor has now been documented for intramolluscan stages of fourteen trematode species from different geographic regions and host species. Further, literature descriptions of the life history of several species suggest that this phenomenon is widespread, although there are important intra- and inter-specific differences in colony structure. It has been predicted that trematode soldier castes would most likely evolve in taxa that are typically dominant in interspecific hierarchies, in situations of invasion risk, and among trematodes that infect longer lived hosts. Here I address these hypotheses and present the extent of evidence for trematode social organization.

  3. Injury patterns of soldiers in the second Lebanon war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Dagan; Glassberg, Elon; Nadler, Roy; Hirschhorn, Gil; Marom, Ophir Cohen; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor

    2014-01-01

    In the second Lebanon war in 2006, the Israeli Defense Forces fought against well-prepared and well-equipped paramilitary forces. The conflict took place near the Israeli border and major Israeli medical centers. Good data records were maintained throughout the campaign, allowing accurate analysis of injury characteristics. This study is an in-depth analysis of injury mechanisms, severity, and anatomic locations. Data regarding all injured soldiers were collected from all care points up to the definitive care hospitals and were cross-referenced. In addition, trauma branch physicians and nurses interviewed medical teams to validate data accuracy. Injuries were analyzed using Injury Severity Score (ISS) (when precise anatomic data were available) and multiple injury patterns scoring for all. A total of 833 soldiers sustained combat-related injury during the study period, including 119 fatalities (14.3%). Although most soldiers (361) sustained injury only to one Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) region, the average number of regions per soldier was 2.0 but was 1.5 for survivors versus 4.2 for fatalities. Current war injury classifications have limitations that hinder valid comparisons between campaigns and settings. In addition, limitation on full autopsy in war fatalities further hinders data use. To partly compensate for those limitations, we have looked at the correlation between fatality rates and number of involved anatomic regions and found it to be strong. We have also found high fatality rates in some "combined" injuries such as head and chest injuries (71%) or in the abdomen and an extremity (75%). The use of multiinjury patterns analysis may help understand fatality rates and improve the utility of war injury analysis. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  4. Whatever happened to the soldiers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Dorthe Varning; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Refshauge, Anne Dahl

    2015-01-01

    Nature-assisted therapy (NAT) has become more common and recognized in both practice and research. The literature often describes how NAT gradually emerged in the UK and the US offering rehabilitation of soldiers suffering from traumatic experiences after active service in WW I and WW II. The main...... the systematic analysis of the qualitative case studies. This review found that a large amount of projects offering NAT to veterans suffering from PTSD exist in many parts of the world and they present no adverse negative results. Recommendations for future practice and research are posed....... and status of practice and research concerning NAT for veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The systematic review included a seven-step literature search. Relevant data sources were scrutinized in order to retrieve literature meeting the predefined inclusion criteria. Due to the limited...

  5. Tailoring the delivery of cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult patients displaying strong emotions: An observational study of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Live Korsvold

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Delivering the bad news of a cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult (AYA patients who display strong emotions is particularly challenging not the least because AYAs are at a vulnerable developmental stage. Due to the lack of research on how to personalize the delivery of bad news to AYA patients’ emotions we report a case study of the communicative behavior of oncologists in two such consultations to describe the complexity of the phenomena at study. We audio-recorded and transcribed consultations where oncologists delivered cancer diagnoses to nine AYAs aged 12–25 years. Two of these patients displayed particularly strong emotional behavior (anger, fear, and sadness and were chosen as cases. An interpretative analysis in three steps was applied to investigate the oncologists’ communicative behavior when delivering bad news. The focus was on how the oncologists responded to the strong but different emotional behaviors of the AYAs. We also related the oncologists’ communicative behavior to elements from a widely used protocol for delivering bad news. We found that the oncologists applied five communication strategies: elicit patient perspective, provide information, respond to patient's expression of emotion (acknowledging and containing emotions, encourage commitment to treatment, and provide hope. The findings illustrate how oncologists’ communicative behavior may be tailored to individual expressions of emotions in AYA cancer patients.

  6. Soldier Flexible Personal Digital Assistant Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Mark; Woytowich, Jason; Carlson, Marc

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of the Soldier Flexible Personal Digital Assistant Program was to develop prototypes of a novel flexible display technology device for demonstration in a laboratory setting and use in Future Force Warrior (FFW) demonstrations...

  7. Immersive Simulation Training for the Dismounted Soldier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knerr, Bruce W

    2007-01-01

    ... R&D organizations during the period 1997 - 2005. The major findings are organized around the topics of training effectiveness, Soldier task performance, and advantages and disadvantages of immersive...

  8. Support of USARIEM Postpartum Soldier Research Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dettori, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    It is estimated approximately 9% of Army women are pregnant at any one time. Shortly after delivery, postpartum soldiers are expected to return to full duty, meet body fat standards and pass the APFT...

  9. Cultural Adaptation of Second Language Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-05

    Micronesian), Operations Sergeant; SSG Willie Maxwell, Field First Sergeant; SGT Tipo Toomalatai (Western Samoan), Platoon Sergeant, and SSG Alfredo Taitague...Rican), ESL Instructor and Ms. Norma Garrett (Puerto Rican), ESL Instructor, BSEP Program, Ft Jackson, SC, 16 Jun 81. NARRATIVE Ms. Padilla and Ms...psychiatric disor- de .’s in the Puerto Rican population at large and among Puerto Rican soldiers. Compare these with the US population and Anglo soldiers. 9. Mr

  10. Could rebel child soldiers prolong civil wars?

    OpenAIRE

    Haer, Roos; Böhmelt, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    While we know why rebels may recruit children for their cause, our understanding of the consequences of child soldiering by non-state armed groups remains limited. The following research contributes to addressing this by examining how rebels’ child recruitment practice affects the duration of internal armed conflicts. We advance the argument that child soldiering increases the strength of rebel organizations vis-a-vis the government. This, in turn, lowers the capability asymmetry between thes...

  11. Soldier Readiness: Insights from Qualitative Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-10

    domains interact and influence performance. From January to May 2016, the research team conducted three qualitative studies with Soldiers including... Research Questions UNCLASSIFIED 9 • From January to May 2016, the research team conducted a series of qualitative studies with Soldiers from the 82nd...that the Army’s current approach for providing these types of training is not always ideal. Specifically, the train-the-trainer method or use of

  12. Does political ideology moderate stress: the special case of soldiers conducting forced evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechner, Tomer; Slone, Michelle; Bialik, Gadi

    2007-04-01

    This study examined the moderating role of political ideology on psychological outcomes for Israeli soldiers participating in the forced evacuation of Jewish settlements from Gaza. Change in psychopathology and well-being was assessed for 3 concurrent mission groups differing in their political ideological contentiousness--forced evacuation, Gaza security, and Northern border security. After soldiers in each mission group were classified on the basis of relatively left- or right-wing political ideological tendencies, the authors examined differential impact of each mission on soldiers of differing political ideology. Results confirmed strong moderation effects of political ideology on psychological outcomes in these extreme contexts. Implications for research, prevention, and treatment are discussed. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Low physical fitness is a strong predictor of health problems among young men: a follow-up study of 1411 male conscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taanila, Henri; Hemminki, Antti J M; Suni, Jaana H; Pihlajamäki, Harri; Parkkari, Jari

    2011-07-25

    Military service in Finland is compulsory for male citizens and annually about 90% of 19-year-old men enter into the service. Approximately 15% of them are discharged due to medical reasons constituting a group of young men who are at risk of being marginalised in society. The purpose of the study was to evaluate predictive associations between medical discharge from the compulsory military service and various intrinsic risk factors, including socio-economic, health, health behavior, and physical fitness outcomes. We followed four successive cohorts of conscripts who formed a representative sample of Finnish young men (18-28 years old, median age 19 yrs) for 6 months. To exclude injuries and illnesses originating before the onset of service, conscripts discharged from the service at the medical screenings during the 2-week run-in period were excluded from the analyses. Data regarding medical discharge were charted from computerised patient records. Predictive associations between medical discharge and intrinsic risk factors were examined using multivariate Cox's proportional hazard models. Of 1411 participants, 9.4% (n = 133) were discharged prematurely for medical reasons, mainly musculoskeletal (44%, n = 59) and mental and behavioral (29%, n = 39) disorders. Low levels of physical fitness assessed with a 12-min running test (hazard ratio [HR] 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7-6.4), poor school success (HR 4.6; 95% CI: 2.0-11.0), poor self-assessed health (HR 2.8; 95% CI: 1.6-5.2), and not belonging to a sports club (HR 4.9; 95% CI: 1.2-11.6) were most strongly associated with medical discharge in a graded manner. The present results highlight the need for an improved pre-enlistment examination and provide a new means of identifying young persons with a high risk for discharge. The majority of the observed risk factors are modifiable. Thus preventive measures and programs could be implemented. The findings suggest that increasing both aerobic and muscular

  14. Low physical fitness is a strong predictor of health problems among young men: a follow-up study of 1411 male conscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taanila Henri

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Military service in Finland is compulsory for male citizens and annually about 90% of 19-year-old men enter into the service. Approximately 15% of them are discharged due to medical reasons constituting a group of young men who are at risk of being marginalised in society. The purpose of the study was to evaluate predictive associations between medical discharge from the compulsory military service and various intrinsic risk factors, including socio-economic, health, health behavior, and physical fitness outcomes. Methods We followed four successive cohorts of conscripts who formed a representative sample of Finnish young men (18-28 years old, median age 19 yrs for 6 months. To exclude injuries and illnesses originating before the onset of service, conscripts discharged from the service at the medical screenings during the 2-week run-in period were excluded from the analyses. Data regarding medical discharge were charted from computerised patient records. Predictive associations between medical discharge and intrinsic risk factors were examined using multivariate Cox's proportional hazard models. Results Of 1411 participants, 9.4% (n = 133 were discharged prematurely for medical reasons, mainly musculoskeletal (44%, n = 59 and mental and behavioral (29%, n = 39 disorders. Low levels of physical fitness assessed with a 12-min running test (hazard ratio [HR] 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7-6.4, poor school success (HR 4.6; 95% CI: 2.0-11.0, poor self-assessed health (HR 2.8; 95% CI: 1.6-5.2, and not belonging to a sports club (HR 4.9; 95% CI: 1.2-11.6 were most strongly associated with medical discharge in a graded manner. The present results highlight the need for an improved pre-enlistment examination and provide a new means of identifying young persons with a high risk for discharge. Conclusions The majority of the observed risk factors are modifiable. Thus preventive measures and programs could be implemented. The

  15. User Evaluation of a Soldier Flexible Display Personal Digital Assistant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sampson, James B; Boynton, Angela C; Mitchell, K. B; Magnifico, Dennis S; DuPont, Frederick J

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center and U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Human Research and Engineering Directorate conducted an evaluation of a Soldier Flexible Display Personal Digital Assistant...

  16. Anthropometry and Range of Motion of the Encumbered Soldier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    claims of the encumbered dismounted Soldier. Soldiers are required to wear multiple layers of clothing and protective equipment in addition to mission...depth (i.e., bulk) measurements related to Soldier CIE that had a significant decrement on the Soldiers’ range of motion for many body movements...bulk) measurements related to Soldier CIE that had a significant decrement on the Soldiers’ range of motion for many body movements. The

  17. Role Reversal Protest in Nigeria: Soldiers Still the Boss? A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today's world is used to all sorts of inter-group violent conflicts, but definitely not the type in the post military Nigeria where soldiers and policemen fatally combat each other; soldiers claiming superiority over policemen who, in turn, want to seize every opportunity to act that in a democracy, they, no longer the soldiers, are ...

  18. Sleep quality of German soldiers before, during and after deployment in Afghanistan-a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danker-Hopfe, Heidi; Sauter, Cornelia; Kowalski, Jens T; Kropp, Stefan; Ströhle, Andreas; Wesemann, Ulrich; Zimmermann, Peter L

    2017-06-01

    In this prospective study, subjective sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness prior to, during and after deployment of German soldiers in Afghanistan were examined. Sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; PSQI) and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale; ESS) were assessed in 118 soldiers of the German army, who were deployed in Afghanistan for 6 months (deployment group: DG) and in 146 soldiers of a non-deployed control group (CG) at baseline. Results of the longitudinal analysis are reported, based on assessments conducted prior to, during the deployment and afterwards in the DG, and in the CG in parallel. Sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in the DG were already impaired during the predeployment training phase and remained at that level during the deployment phase, which clearly indicates the need for more attention on sleep in young soldiers, already at this early stage. The percentage of impaired sleepers decreased significantly after deployment. Programmes to teach techniques to improve sleep and reduce stress should be implemented prior to deployment to reduce sleep difficulties and excessive daytime sleepiness and subsequent psychiatric disorders. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  19. Streamflow conditions along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2017-11-14

    The availability of adequate water to meet the present (2017) and future needs of humans, fish, and wildlife is a fundamental issue for the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation in northeast Kansas. Because Soldier Creek flows through the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation Reservation, it is an important tribal resource. An understanding of historical Soldier Creek streamflow conditions is required for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages along Soldier Creek were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends by Juracek (2017). Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to compute annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow. Results of the assessment are summarized in this fact sheet.

  20. SUZAKU OBSERVATION OF STRONG FLUORESCENT IRON LINE EMISSION FROM THE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECT V1647 ORI DURING ITS NEW X-RAY OUTBURST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Grosso, Nicolas; Kastner, Joel H.; Richmond, Michael; Weintraub, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The Suzaku X-ray satellite observed the young stellar object (YSO) V1647 Ori on 2008 October 8 during the new mass accretion outburst reported in 2008 August. During the 87 ks observation with a net exposure of 40 ks, V1647 Ori showed a high level of X-ray emission with a gradual decrease in flux by a factor of 5 and then displayed an abrupt flux increase by an order of magnitude. Such enhanced X-ray variability was also seen in XMM-Newton observations in 2004 and 2005 during the 2003-2005 outburst, but has rarely been observed for other YSOs. The spectrum clearly displays emission from Helium-like iron, which is a signature of hot plasma (kT ∼ 5 keV). It also shows a fluorescent iron Kα line with a remarkably large equivalent width (EW) of ∼600 eV. Such a large EW suggests that a part of the incident X-ray emission that irradiates the circumstellar material and/or the stellar surface is hidden from our line of sight. XMM-Newton spectra during the 2003-2005 outburst did not show a strong fluorescent iron Kα line, so that the structure of the circumstellar gas very close to the stellar core that absorbs and re-emits X-ray emission from the central object may have changed in between 2005 and 2008. This phenomenon may be related to changes in the infrared morphology of McNeil's nebula between 2004 and 2008.

  1. The Factors of Soldier’s Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-03

    turtles . My ruck weighed 120 pounds. American Airborne Soldier Grenada, 1983 One of the tenets of Army doctrine in Field Manual 100-5 QIp.r.aition•. is...from a lack of the appropriate physical conditioning in some units; and the more nebulous problem of insufficient logistical challenges built into

  2. How Satisfied are Soldiers with their Ballistic Helmets? A Comparison of Soldiers' Opinions about the Advanced Combat Helmet and the Personal Armor System for Ground Troops

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ivins, Brian J; Schwab, Karen; Crowley, John S; McEntire, B. J; Trumble, Christopher C; Brown, Fred H; Warden, Deborah L

    2008-01-01

    .... These factors affect Soldiers' decisions about helmet use; therefore, rigorous research about Soldiers' real-life experiences with helmets is critical to assessing a helmet's overall protective efficacy...

  3. Backache amongst soldiers: a prospective analytical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyas, S.; Rehman, A.U.; Janjua, S.H.; Tarrar, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the occupational predispositions of low back pain in soldiers Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Bahawalpur, from June 2009 to Jan 2010. Patients and Methods: A questionnaire was developed to investigate the occupation-related issues in soldiers reporting with low backache in surgical OPD at CMH Bahawalpur. It included personal and occupational factors. The body mass index was also calculated. Of the 107 male soldiers assessed, 90 were enrolled into the study. The statistical analysis was performed by descriptive analysis of the data using SPSS 17.0. Results: Of all the soldiers evaluated (n=90), 32 (35.6%) were clerks/computer operators, 21 (23.1%) were drivers and 14(15.6%) were signal men. All were males (100%) and the average BMI was 24.8 kg/m2. The 69 (76.7%) patients who had backache had prolonged working hours (average 10.8 hours per day), 68 (75.6%) patients used to sleep over tape/nawar bed and only 12 (13.3%) had been sleeping on mattresses. The onset of pain was sudden in 58 (64.4%) patients. 27 (23.3%) had developed acute backache after prolonged sitting, 21 (30%) after lifting heavy objects. The pain was exaggerated by doing morning physical training 82 (91.1%), prolonged sitting 61 (67.8%) and standing with rifle 24 (26.7%). Conclusion: The prevalence of low back pain in sedentary occupation or soldiers on sitting jobs was higher 69 (76%). The number of working hours on these occupations was associated with occurrence as well as aggravation of low back pain. (author)

  4. Informal and Formal Supports for Former Child Soldiers in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Vindevogel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the potential contribution of informal community initiatives and formal interventions in support of former child soldiers' resilience in the wake of armed conflict. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a stratified random sample of 330 formerly recruited and 677 nonrecruited young people was consulted about their perspective on desirable support for former child soldiers provided by close support figures, communities, humanitarian organizations, and governments. Data analysis occurred by conducting qualitative thematic analysis and statistical chi-square analysis to explore clusters, similarities, and variations in reported support across the different “agents,” hereby comparing the perspectives of formerly recruited and non-recruited participants. The results indicated that formerly recruited and non-recruited participants had comparable perspectives that call for the contribution of various informal and formal support systems to former child soldiers' human capacities and the communal sociocultural fabric of war-affected societies. This highlights the importance of community-based, collective, and comprehensive support of formerly recruited young people and their surroundings in the aftermath of armed conflict.

  5. Informal and Formal Supports for Former Child Soldiers in Northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Wessells, Michael; De Schryver, Maarten; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential contribution of informal community initiatives and formal interventions in support of former child soldiers' resilience in the wake of armed conflict. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a stratified random sample of 330 formerly recruited and 677 nonrecruited young people was consulted about their perspective on desirable support for former child soldiers provided by close support figures, communities, humanitarian organizations, and governments. Data analysis occurred by conducting qualitative thematic analysis and statistical chi-square analysis to explore clusters, similarities, and variations in reported support across the different “agents,” hereby comparing the perspectives of formerly recruited and non-recruited participants. The results indicated that formerly recruited and non-recruited participants had comparable perspectives that call for the contribution of various informal and formal support systems to former child soldiers' human capacities and the communal sociocultural fabric of war-affected societies. This highlights the importance of community-based, collective, and comprehensive support of formerly recruited young people and their surroundings in the aftermath of armed conflict. PMID:23346023

  6. Gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among US Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguen, Shira; Skopp, Nancy A; Zhang, Ying; Smolenski, Derek J

    2015-02-28

    In order to best tailor suicide prevention initiatives and programs, it is critical to gain an understanding of how service members׳ suicide risk factors may differ by gender. We aimed to better understand gender differences in suicide and suicide attempts among soldiers, including demographic, military, mental health, and other risk factors. We also examined risk factors uniquely associated with suicide and suicide attempts. We conducted a retrospective study of 1857 US Army soldiers who died by suicide or attempted suicide between 2008 and 2010 and had a Department of Defense Suicide Event Report. Female and male soldiers had more similarities than differences when examining risk factors associated with suicide. The only gender difference approaching significance was workplace difficulties, which was more strongly associated with suicide for female soldiers, compared to their male counterparts. Among suicide decedents, the most common risk factor was having a failed intimate relationship in the 90 days prior to suicide. Among those who attempted suicide, the most common risk factor was a major psychiatric diagnosis. Better understanding both gender differences and risk factors uniquely associated with suicide has critical prevention and public health implications as we work to better understand preventable mortality in our youngest generation of service members. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Ant tending influences soldier production in a social aphid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingleton, A W; Foster, W A

    2000-09-22

    The aphid Pseudoregma sundanica (Van der Goot) (Homoptera: Aphididae) has two defence strategies. It is obligatorily tended by various species of ant and also produces sterile soldiers. We investigated how they allocate their investment in these two strategies. We measured the size, number of soldiers, number and species of tending ant, and number and species of predators in P. sundanica populations. We found that the level of ant tending correlated negatively with soldier investment in P. sundanica. The species of tending ant also influenced soldier investment. We excluded ants from aphid populations and recorded changes in population size and structure over four weeks. Ant exclusion led to population decline and extinction. At the same time, surviving populations showed a significant increase in soldier investment. The data demonstrate that social aphids can adjust their investment in soldiers in direct response to environmental change.

  8. US Army Soldiers With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y Sammy; Cucura, Jon

    2018-04-01

    US Army soldiers diagnosed with type 1 diabetes were previously considered unfit for duty. For highly motivated soldiers, current advanced technologies allow the possibility of not only retention on active duty, but military deployment. We present our experience at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, taking care of soldiers newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Through intensive diabetes education, extensive military and physical training, optimization of diabetes technology, and remote real-time monitoring, soldiers are able to continue to serve their country in the most specialized roles.

  9. War-related experiences of former child soldiers in northern Uganda: comparison with non-recruited youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Schryver, Maarten de; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2013-11-01

    Armed conflict imposes huge hardship on young people living in war zones. This study assessed former child soldiers' experience and perception of stress in common war events during the armed conflict in northern Uganda and compares it with their non-recruited counterparts. To investigate whether child soldiers experienced more severe exposure to war events, and explore how war might affect youths differently, depending on the co-occurrence of these events. The study was undertaken in four northern Ugandan districts in 22 secondary schools with a sample size of 981 youths, about half of whom had been child soldiers. The participants completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and stressful war events which was analyzed using descriptive statistics, a probabilistic index and correlation network analysis. Former child soldiers had significantly greater experience of war events than their non-recruited counterparts. The violence of war is more central in their experience and perception of stress, whereas the scarcity of resources and poor living conditions are most central for non-recruited participants. The extent to which a war event, such as separation from the family, is perceived as stressful depends on the experience and perception of other stressful war events, such as confrontation with war violence for former child soldiers and life in an Internally Displaced Persons' camp for non-recruited participants. The network approach permitted demonstration of the many ways in which war-affected youths encounter and appraise stressful war events. War events might function as moderators or mediators of the effect that other war events exert on the lives and well-being of young people living in war zones. This demands comprehensive and individualized assessment.

  10. Tyraminergic and Octopaminergic Modulation of Defensive Behavior in Termite Soldier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available In termites, i.e. a major group of eusocial insects, the soldier caste exhibits specific morphological characteristics and extremely high aggression against predators. Although the genomic background is identical to the other non-aggressive castes, they acquire the soldier-specific behavioral character during the course of caste differentiation. The high aggressiveness and defensive behavior is essential for colony survival, but the neurophysiological bases are completely unknown. In the present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we focused on two biogenic amines, octopamine (OA and tyramine (TA, as candidate neuromodulators for the defensive behavior in soldiers. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that TA levels in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG and the OA level in brain were increased in soldiers than in pseudergates (worker caste. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TA/OA neurons that innervate specific areas, including the mandibular muscles, antennal nerve, central complex, suboesophageal ganglion, and thoracic and/or abdominal ganglia, were enlarged in a soldier-specific manner. Together with the results that pharmacological application of TA promoted the defensive behavior in pseudergates, these findings suggest that the increased TA/OA levels induce the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior in termite soldiers. The projection targets of these soldier-specific enlarged TA/OA neurons may have important roles in the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior of the termite soldiers, inducing the neuronal transition that accompanies external morphological changes.

  11. Perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Objective: To determine the perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers of Sobi ... Methodology: A cross-sectional survey of 334 male soldiers using multistage sampling ..... gender equality and involvement of religious leaders ... unusual in Nigeria for women to use contraceptives .... United Arab Emirates.

  12. Global Deployment of Reserve Soldiers: A Leadership Challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKenzie, Wendy; Healy-Morrow, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    ...? Is there an overlap in organizational cultures, or does military leadership need to provide special attention for these unique soldiers? The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how a deeper understanding of the overlap between civilian and military organizational culture can improve the psychological preparedness of Reserve Force soldiers who are mobilized for full-time military operations.

  13. Hold Your Fire!: Preventing Fratricide in the Dismounted Soldier Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Jong, J.L. de; Hiemstra, H.; Schutte, K.; Marvelde, A. te; Norden, W. van; Spaans, M.

    2008-01-01

    Since WWI, an estimated 15% of all soldiers killed in combat are attributed to fratricide, and recent military operations show no decline. A substantial amount concerns fratricide incidents between dismounted soldiers. However, most techniques introduced to prevent fratricide focus on inter-vehicle

  14. Psycho-physiological response of soldiers in urban combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente J. Clemente-Suárez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Current armed conflicts are asymmetrical and are developed m urban areas. These new requirements have not been studied for current literature. The aim of this study was to analyse changes in cortical arousal, blood lactate, muscle strength, autonomic modulation and rate of perceived exertion in a simulated urban combat. We analyzed 20 soldiers before and after an urban combat simulation. The results showed how urban combat produced high sympathetic nervous system activation, increasing the muscle strength, heart rate and blood lactate concentration of the soldiers. Despite this effort, rate of perceived exertion were not consistent with the physiological response that soldiers presented, the rate of perceived exertion was lower than the physiological response evaluated. Furthermore, the information processing and cortical arousal decreased after the urban combat simulation. These results have showed the psycho-physiological response of soldiers in combat, helping to better understanding and enabling an improvement of current training methods of soldiers.

  15. Stress fractures of the femora in soldiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meurman, K.O.A.; Somer, K.; Lamminen, A.

    1981-01-01

    Amongst 936 stress fractures found in soldiers, there were 58 in the femora (6%); of these 31 were in the neck and 27 in the shaft. Two were bilateral, and two patients had other stress fractures. Three displacements were found in the necks. In the shaft, 20 fractures were proximal, four were in the middle third and three in the distal third. In the latter group, it is necessary to differentiate from a sarcoma. CT is a new aid in this respect. Sport in highly motivated individuals appears to contribute particularly to fractures of the shaft. The symptoms from these fractures are relatively mild. (orig.) [de

  16. Stress fractures of the femora in soldiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meurman, K O.A.; Somer, K; Lamminen, A

    1981-05-01

    Amongst 936 stress fractures found in soldiers, there were 58 in the femora (6%); of these 31 were in the neck and 27 in the shaft. Two were bilateral, and two patients had other stress fractures. Three displacements were found in the necks. In the shaft, 20 fractures were proximal, four were in the middle third and three in the distal third. In the latter group, it is necessary to differentiate from a sarcoma. CT is a new aid in this respect. Sport in highly motivated individuals appears to contribute particularly to fractures of the shaft. The symptoms from these fractures are relatively mild.

  17. A Structural Equation Modeling of the Relationships between Depression, Drug Abuse and Social Support with Suicidal Ideation among Soldiers in Iran in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratabadi, Mehdi; Halvaiepour, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Military service is a crucial period in the lives of young people and during this period soldier facing with multiple psychosocial problems. The present study aimed to explore structural analysis of the relationships between depression, drug abuse, social support and the risk of suicidal ideation among Military Medical University soldiers in Iran. In the present correlational research, a sample of 176 soldiers, from three units, was selected using randomly stratified sampling. Data were collected through the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) and the Possibility of Drug Abuse Scale (LDAS). Structural equation modeling was used to test the fit of the model, identify direct and indirect effects of the psychosocial correlates. Data were analyzed using the SPSS and AMOS software (Verson22). out of the whole subjects, 28.4% had suicidal ideation and 65.3% had degrees of depression (mild to severe). A significant reverse relationship was observed between social support and suicidal ideation (pdrug abuse and suicidal ideation. The final structural model indicated that 74% of the variance in suicidal ideation was explained by the three examined variables of depression, social support and drug abuse. The overall results showed that the risk of suicidal ideation, depression and drug abuse are relatively significant in Military Medical University soldiers requiring taking serious actions by the authorities and other relevant organizations in order to improve the psychosocial health status of these soldiers.

  18. BOOK REVIEW - International Law and Child Soldiers by Gus Waschefort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbie Robinson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Long gone are the days that the law pertaining to children essentially dealt with the position of children within the parent-child relationship. On the contrary it has become a highly specialised legal discipline in which international and regional conventions progressively establish norms and standards to be adhered to. This book by Waschefort, the 53rd volume in the series Studies in International Law, bears ample testimony to this. It reviews all of the international instruments containing proscriptive norms to prohibit the use and recruitment of child soldiers. It commences with an analysis of the current state of child soldiering internationally, after which relevant international instruments are comprehensively discussed with a clear focus on the question of whether or not the prohibitive norms are optimally enforced – are they capable of better enforcement? The author adopts an “issues-based approach” in terms of which no specific regime of law, for instance International Humanitarian Law, is considered dominant. He assesses universal and regional human rights law together with International Human Rights Law and International Criminal Law to establish a mutually reinforcing web of protection for children. He also critically assesses the international judicial, quasi-judicial and non-judicial entities most relevant to child soldier prevention. He argues that the effective implementation of child soldier prohibitive norms does not require fundamental changes to any entity or functionary engaged in such prevention. In fact, what is required according to the author is the constant reassessment and refinement of all such entities and functionaries. The conclusions which are reached are ultimately tested against the background of a comprehensive case study on the use and recruitment of child soldiers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. International Law and Child Soldiers is to be welcomed as a timely contribution to the evaluation

  19. Technological Areas to Improve Soldier Decisiveness: Insights From the Soldier-System Design Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    input several sets of words or concepts and return novel concepts or ideas. While being driven largely by the advertising industry , these base...Soldiers fitted with ballistic and laser-protective eyewear that contains or is itself a screen on which images and information can be projected. Images...visible through the eyewear would be augmented by imagery created by the UAV surveillance platforms described previously. In addition to augmenting

  20. Leveraging strong social ties among young men in Dar es Salaam: A pilot intervention of microfinance and peer leadership for HIV and gender-based violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maman, Suzanne; Kajula, Lusajo; Balvanz, Peter; Kilonzo, Mrema; Mulawa, Marta; Yamanis, Thespina

    2016-12-01

    Gender inequality is at the core of the HIV patterns that are evident in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender-based violence (GBV) and lack of economic opportunity are important structural determinants of HIV risk. We piloted a microfinance and health promotion intervention among social networks of primarily young men in Dar es Salaam. Twenty-two individuals participated in the microfinance component and 30 peer leaders were recruited and trained in the peer health leadership component. We collected and analysed observational data from trainings, monitoring data on loan repayment, and reports of peer conversations to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Eighteen of the loan recipients (82%) paid back their loans, and of these 15 (83%) received a second, larger loan. Among the loan defaulters, one died, one had chronic health problems, and two disappeared, one of whom was imprisoned for theft. The majority of conversations reported by peer health leaders focused on condoms, sexual partner selection, and HIV testing. Few peer leaders reported conversations about GBV. We demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of this innovative HIV and GBV prevention intervention. The lessons learned from this pilot have informed the implementation of a cluster-randomised trial of the microfinance and peer health leadership intervention.

  1. Exploring the ambiguities of masculinity in accounts of emotional distress in the military among young ex-servicemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Gill; Emslie, Carol; O'Neill, Dan; Hunt, Kate; Walker, Steven

    2010-10-01

    This paper examines the experiences and perspectives of ex-military servicemen in the UK. It focuses specifically on the complex links between emotional distress and various constructions of 'masculinity' in a military context. Aspects of military culture that exacerbate vulnerability and also those that are protective to mental health are identified and discussed with reference to the theoretical constructs relating to hegemonic masculinity. A qualitative research design using semi-structured interviews provided in-depth accounts of the experiences of 20 ex-servicemen aged 23-44, all but one of whom were in the Army. We found that in a military setting hegemonic masculinity is embedded in the construction of a soldier identity and expression of emotion may be seen as inappropriate. As a result soldiers often lack a language with which to express distress (in a context in which they may witness extremely distressing events), which may result in delays in recognising and treating mental health problems. However, constructions of masculinity in this setting to some degree also promote a caring, sharing ethos based on strong inter-dependent bonds. A young soldier who can cope with the stresses of military life 'becomes a man', adopts a masculine/soldier identity and is well-placed to benefit from these protective factors, notably the camaraderie that is part of service life. In this manner a caring ethos in which some admissions of weakness may be permissible is situated within hegemonic masculinity. This seeming paradox between hyper masculinity and caring masculinities appears to be embedded within military culture, perhaps reflecting the flexibility and ambiguity inherent in constructions of hegemonic masculinity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Soldier's Expectancies, Implications for Recruitment and Job Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelooven, Renier

    1999-01-01

    .... Also expectancies about a job influence attrition and job satisfaction. This paper uses results of several studies to describe the image of the soldiers job and its effects on recruitment, early attrition and job satisfaction.

  3. Theory to Strategy: War Insight for the Strategic Soldier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fregoso, Luis A

    2008-01-01

    .... These Strategic Soldiers and their respective leaders must not only be aware of their potential influence in a war environment, they must learn how to harness this ability in support of their nation's war strategy...

  4. Post traumatic stress disorder among former child soldiers attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post traumatic stress disorder among former child soldiers attending a rehabilitative service ... school in northern Uganda with a case of mass psychotic behavior. ... Methods: Data on post-traumatic stress disorder, depressed mood, physical ...

  5. Computer Backgrounds of Soldiers in Army Units: FY00

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fober, Gene

    2001-01-01

    .... Soldiers from four Army installations were given a survey that examined their experiences with computers, self-perceptions of their skill, and an objective test of their ability to identify Windows-based icons...

  6. The Computer Backgrounds of Soldiers in Army Units: FY01

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Harnam

    2002-01-01

    A multi-year research effort was instituted in FY99 to examine soldiers' experiences with computers, self- perceptions of their computer skill, and their ability to identify frequently used, Windows-based icons...

  7. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...

  8. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance

    OpenAIRE

    Askew, Graham N.; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E.

    2011-01-01

    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined...

  9. Improving Employment Prospects for Soldiers Leaving the Regular Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    difficulties in the civilian job market . Furthermore, since 2012, the Army has been reducing its active component end strength; this has increased the number... online versions of the surveys to collect data on civilian occupations. Making the surveys available to soldiers online and integrating them into the...civilian occupation matches by MOS and pay grade. An online format could even help gen- erate job recommendations for individual soldiers based on

  10. Training Capability Data for Dismounted Soldier Training System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Virtual Squad Training System ( VSTS ). Like some of its predecessors, VSTS included a combination of man-wearable, tethered, and desktop interfaces...Simulator Bayonet w/Omni Directional Treadmill TRAC-WSMR Soldier Station Soldier Visualization Station V-IMTS SVS2-DI, DAGGERS, ASWETS VSTS Dismounted...Simulation, VSTS – Virtual Squad Training System 4 and microphone. The VSMM utilizes radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and hand sensors to

  11. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  12. A Methodology for Measuring the Physiological Strain of Enhanced Soldiers: The 1998 Soldier Combat System Enhancement Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amos, Denys

    1998-01-01

    ... or enhanced capabilities conducting routine operations in the tropics. Core temperature, mean skin temperature and heart rate are appropriate measures for evaluating the physiological burden of soldier combat system enhancements...

  13. The Healthy Children, Strong Families intervention promotes improvements in nutrition, activity and body weight in American Indian families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Prince, Ronald J; Cronin, Kate A; Adams, Alexandra K

    2016-10-01

    American Indian children of pre-school age have disproportionally high obesity rates and consequent risk for related diseases. Healthy Children, Strong Families was a family-based randomized trial assessing the efficacy of an obesity prevention toolkit delivered by a mentor v. mailed delivery that was designed and administered using community-based participatory research approaches. During Year 1, twelve healthy behaviour toolkit lessons were delivered by either a community-based home mentor or monthly mailings. Primary outcomes were child BMI percentile, child BMI Z-score and adult BMI. Secondary outcomes included fruit/vegetable consumption, sugar consumption, television watching, physical activity, adult health-related self-efficacy and perceived health status. During a maintenance year, home-mentored families had access to monthly support groups and all families received monthly newsletters. Family homes in four tribal communities, Wisconsin, USA. Adult and child (2-5-year-olds) dyads (n 150). No significant effect of the mentored v. mailed intervention delivery was found; however, significant improvements were noted in both groups exposed to the toolkit. Obese child participants showed a reduction in BMI percentile at Year 1 that continued through Year 2 (PChild fruit/vegetable consumption increased (P=0·006) and mean television watching decreased for children (P=0·05) and adults (P=0·002). Reported adult self-efficacy for health-related behaviour changes (P=0·006) and quality of life increased (P=0·02). Although no effect of delivery method was demonstrated, toolkit exposure positively affected adult and child health. The intervention was well received by community partners; a more comprehensive intervention is currently underway based on these findings.

  14. Soldiers suicides risk factors in the Serbian Army Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedić Gordana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Analyses of suicide risk factors enable to undertake appropriate preventive measures within the Suicide Prevention Program in Military Environment, which was fully applied in 2003 in the Serbian Army Forces. The aim of our study was to identify the most important suicide risk factors in soldiers within the period from 1998 to 2007. Methods. Analysis of suicide risk factors was carried out on the basis of data obtained by psychological suicide autopsy. The control group was matched with adapted soldiers by socio-demographic factors. A descriptive statistical analysis was used. Comparison of groups of soldiers was done by the t-test and Pearson's χ2-test. Results. A total of 35 soldiers aged 22-49 years (21.76 ± 1.76 years on average committed suicide within the period 1999-2007, the 2/3 within, and 1/3 out of a military compound. More than one half soldiers committed suicide after transferring to a different post. Soldiers who committed suicide had come from uncompleted, dysfunctional families (p < 0.05. In comparison with the adapted soldiers, in premilitary period they had more interpersonal problems with their comrades (p < 0.001 and problems with law (p < 0.05. During military service, alcohol consumption was less presented; they used to have fewer separation problems (p < 0.05 and to be rarely awarded (p < 0.001 in comparison with the adapted soldiers. A soldier who committed suicide was emotionally and socially immature persons. The commonest motives for suicide were: decreased capacity of adaptation to military service, actual psychic disturbance, emotional interruption, fear of environment judgment, actual family problems, but in the one fifth, motive stayed unrecognized. Conclusion. Suicide risk factors in soldiers are primary in their immature personality organization, its relation with family and military environment factors which, in coexistence with actual life accidents, result in suicide as a consequence. A

  15. The Nation and the Soldier in German Civil-Military Relations, 1800-1945

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brumley, Donald W

    2005-01-01

    .... The abdication of the monarchy in 1918 forced the professional soldier to look for a substitute sovereign who would insure the survival of the privileged role of the soldier in republican state and society...

  16. The Utility and Consequences of Using Impressed Child Soldiers in Africa's Contemporary Wars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woguwale, Jasom

    2000-01-01

    .... The purpose of this paper titled, "The Utility and Consequences of Using Impressed Child Soldiers in Africa's Contemporary Wars," is to examine the practice of using children as soldiers by various...

  17. The post-conflict treatment of child soldiers: A study of Liberian child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The post-conflict treatment of child soldiers: A study of Liberian child soldiers. ... applied an unvarying standard of prevention in response to every occurrence ... encourage both domestic political transition and a changed understanding of

  18. Growing up in armed groups: trauma and aggression among child soldiers in DR Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Katharin Hermenau; Tobias Hecker; Anna Maedl; Maggie Schauer; Thomas Elbert

    2013-01-01

    Background: Child soldiers are often both victims and perpetrators of horrendous acts of violence. Research with former child soldiers has consistently shown that exposure to violence is linked to trauma-related disorders and that living in a violent environment is correlated with enhanced levels of aggression.Objective: To gain more insight into the experiences and the mental health status of former child soldiers, we conducted a survey with N=200 former child soldiers and adult combatants i...

  19. Young and strong: looking for work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langelaan, S.; Boneschansker, O.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The first aim of this study was to examine the relationship between health complaints experienced by youth on social welfare and their self-efficacy with regard to job search. Second, the role of proactive coping behavior and social support as moderators in this relationship was studied.

  20. Former child soldiers' problems and needs: Congolese experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Steinar; Holgersen, Helge

    2014-01-01

    With this article, we explore how staff working at transit centers and vocational training centers in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo experienced the problems and needs of former child soldiers. We argued that the staff's experience of the children's daily lives and their understanding of the sociocultural context of the conflict make their perspective a valuable source of information when trying to understand the phenomenon of child soldiering. Additionally, we reasoned that how the staff frame these children's problems influences how they attempt to aid the children. We conducted 11 semistructured interviews and analyzed these using a hermeneutical-phenomenological approach. We clustered our findings around six themes: unfavorable contextual factors, acting as if still in the army, addiction, symptoms of psychopathology, social rejection, and reintegration needs. The overarching message we observed was that the informants experienced that former child soldiers require help to be transformed into civilians who participate proactively in their society.

  1. Exoskeleton for Soldier Enhancement Systems Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, J.F.

    2000-09-28

    The development of a successful exoskeleton for human performance augmentation (EHPA) will require a multi-disciplinary systems approach based upon sound biomechanics, power generation and actuation systems, controls technology, and operator interfaces. The ability to integrate key components into a system that enhances performance without impeding operator mobility is essential. The purpose of this study and report are to address the issue of feasibility of building a fieldable EHPA. Previous efforts, while demonstrating progress and enhancing knowledge, have not approached the level required for a fully functional, fieldable system. It is doubtless that the technologies required for a successful exoskeleton have advanced, and some of them significantly. The question to be addressed in this report is have they advanced to the point of making a system feasible in the next three to five years? In this study, the key technologies required to successfully build an exoskeleton have been examined. The primary focus has been on the key technologies of power sources, actuators, and controls. Power sources, including internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, and hybrid sources have been investigated and compared with respect to the exoskeleton application. Both conventional and non-conventional actuator technologies that could impact EHPA have been assessed. In addition to the current state of the art of actuators, the potential for near-term improvements using non-conventional actuators has also been addressed. Controls strategies, and their implication to the design approach, and the exoskeleton to soldier interface have also been investigated. In addition to these key subsystems and technologies, this report addresses technical concepts and issues relating to an integrated design. A recommended approach, based on the results of the study is also presented.

  2. Muzzle flash localization for the dismounted soldier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy Scott, Will

    2015-05-01

    The ability to accurately and rapidly know the precise location of enemy fire would be a substantial capability enhancement to the dismounted soldier. Acoustic gun-shot detections systems can provide an approximate bearing but it is desired to precisely know the location (direction and range) of enemy fire; for example to know from `which window' the fire is coming from. Funded by the UK MOD (via Roke Manor Research) QinetiQ is developing an imaging solution built around an InGaAs camera. This paper presents work that QinetiQ has undertaken on the Muzzle Flash Locator system. Key technical challenges that have been overcome are explained and discussed in this paper. They include; the design of the optical sensor and processing hardware to meet low size, weight and power requirements; the algorithm approach required to maintain sensitivity whilst rejecting false alarms from sources such as close passing insects and sun glint from scene objects; and operation on the move. This work shows that such a sensor can provide sufficient sensitivity to detect muzzle flash events to militarily significant ranges and that such a system can be combined with an acoustic gunshot detection system to minimize the false alarm rate. The muzzle flash sensor developed in this work operates in real-time and has a field of view of approximately 29° (horizontal) by 12° (vertical) with a pixel resolution of 0.13°. The work has demonstrated that extension to a sensor with realistic angular rotation rate is feasible.

  3. Enemy recognition is linked to soldier size in a polymorphic stingless bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüter, Christoph; Segers, Francisca H I D; Santos, Luana L G; Hammel, Benedikt; Zimmermann, Uwe; Nascimento, Fabio S

    2017-10-01

    Many ant and termite colonies are defended by soldiers with powerful mandibles or chemical weaponry. Recently, it was reported that several stingless bee species also have soldiers for colony defence. These soldiers are larger than foragers, but otherwise lack obvious morphological adaptations for defence. Thus, how these soldiers improve colony fitness is not well understood. Robbing is common in stingless bees and we hypothesized that increased body size improves the ability to recognize intruders based on chemosensory cues. We studied the Neotropical species Tetragonisca angustula and found that large soldiers were better than small soldiers at recognizing potential intruders. Larger soldiers also had more olfactory pore plates on their antennae, which is likely to increase their chemosensory sensitivity. Our results suggest that improved enemy recognition might select for increased guard size in stingless bees. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Streamflow characteristics and trends along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2017-08-16

    Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages along Soldier Creek in northeast Kansas were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends. This information is required by the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to assess annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow.Annual mean streamflows along Soldier Creek were characterized by substantial year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trends. On average, annual mean base flow accounted for about 20 percent of annual mean streamflow. Mean monthly flows followed a general seasonal pattern that included peak values in spring and low values in winter. Annual peak flows, which were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability, were most likely to occur in May and June and least likely to occur during November through February. With the exception of a weak yet statistically significant increasing trend at the Soldier Creek near Topeka, Kansas, streamgage, there were no pronounced long-term trends in annual peak flows. Annual 1-day, 30-day, and 90-day mean minimum flows were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trend. During an extreme drought, as was the case in the mid-1950s, there may be zero flow in Soldier Creek continuously for a period of one to several months.

  5. A LONG WAY GONE – MEMOIRS OF A BOY SOLDIER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abel

    “This is how wars are fought now: by children, traumatized, hopped-up on drugs and wielding AK-47s. Children ... existence perceived as endless oppressive reigns of varied proportions (World War. II, Apartheid, the Berlin Wall ... UK, and what is the currency of a child soldier “a long way gone” in the streets of. South Africa?

  6. Soldier-worn augmented reality system for tactical icon visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David; Menozzi, Alberico; Clipp, Brian; Russler, Patrick; Cook, James; Karl, Robert; Wenger, Eric; Church, William; Mauger, Jennifer; Volpe, Chris; Argenta, Chris; Wille, Mark; Snarski, Stephen; Sherrill, Todd; Lupo, Jasper; Hobson, Ross; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Heinly, Jared

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development and demonstration of a soldier-worn augmented reality system testbed that provides intuitive 'heads-up' visualization of tactically-relevant geo-registered icons. Our system combines a robust soldier pose estimation capability with a helmet mounted see-through display to accurately overlay geo-registered iconography (i.e., navigation waypoints, blue forces, aircraft) on the soldier's view of reality. Applied Research Associates (ARA), in partnership with BAE Systems and the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), has developed this testbed system in Phase 2 of the DARPA ULTRA-Vis (Urban Leader Tactical, Response, Awareness, and Visualization) program. The ULTRA-Vis testbed system functions in unprepared outdoor environments and is robust to numerous magnetic disturbances. We achieve accurate and robust pose estimation through fusion of inertial, magnetic, GPS, and computer vision data acquired from helmet kit sensors. Icons are rendered on a high-brightness, 40°×30° field of view see-through display. The system incorporates an information management engine to convert CoT (Cursor-on-Target) external data feeds into mil-standard icons for visualization. The user interface provides intuitive information display to support soldier navigation and situational awareness of mission-critical tactical information.

  7. Child Soldiers in Africa: Solutions to a Complex Dilemma | Kalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on the dilemma of using child soldiers in violent conflicts throughout Africa and on ways of resolving it in the future. The first section briefly examines some important domestic and international aspects and dimensions of the problem. Then, attention is shifted to particular individual countries on the ...

  8. Conference on soldiers, civilians and environment protection against contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The military and civil aspects of radiation protection have been discussed. The special emphasize has been done on contamination monitoring of environment, soldier radiological protection during hypothetical warfare, radiological health hazard assessment, post Chernobyl contamination control of environment and food products in Poland, dose equivalent estimation and radiometric control equipment used in military and civil service

  9. Child Soldiers - Lessons Learned on Prevention, Demobilization, and Reintegration

    OpenAIRE

    Verhey, Beth

    2002-01-01

    As highlighted in the seminal UN study on the "Impact of armed conflict on children," an increased involvement of recent decades, stands as one of the most egregious child rights violations. Yet, a new study "Child soldiers: preventing, demobilizing, and reintegrating," demonstrates that children, and youth involved in armed conflict can re-engage positive social relations, and productive ...

  10. The role of silence in Burundian former child soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, S.; de Jong, J.

    2014-01-01

    Conscription of children into the armed forces continues to be a worldwide problem. Understanding the transition from being a child soldier to becoming a civilian adult is crucial in understanding the longitudinal and social effects of childhood trauma. This study examined the community and family

  11. Czech Soldiers during the Great War (1914-1918)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladký, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2016), s. 71-83 ISSN 0354-6497 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : first world war * Austria-Hungary * Czech soldiers * eastern (Russian) front * southwest (Italian) front * Czechoslovak legionnaries * Czechoslovakia Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings)

  12. Third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance: Translating State-of-the-Science Soldier Research for Operational Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2015-11-01

    The Third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance (ICSPP) was held on August 18-21, 2014 in Boston, MA, where it had a record attendance of 374 registrants from 27 countries. The Congress included 8 invited keynote lectures, 12 symposia, 1 featured science session, more than 200 oral and poster free communication sessions, 8 thematic poster sessions, and a Warfighter Readiness Roundtable. Collectively, the presentations focused on a fundamental premise that soldiers are the center of warfighting capability, and the human service member is the prime resource and key enabler of all warfighting systems. The intent of the ICSPP series is to focus on the soldier-the individual service member. As we move forward with focus placed on the human dimension of soldiering, the key to our scientific success and what will prove to be transformative will be the extent to which we can operationalize and disseminate our scientific knowledge for the benefit of our soldiers on the ground. The Congress fostered important scientific exchange, and dialog centered on improving military physical performance and readiness. As countries around the globe respond to current and emerging threats to their national security, it is increasingly clear that we must ensure optimal human performance of our military personnel. By taking advantage of the science and applications of physical fitness and injury prevention research, we can leverage our increased understanding for the optimal application of physical readiness processes while minimizing the injury risk potential. We believe that the continued scientific and evidence-based dialog across international partners will prove to be transformative in identifying the most effective strategies for human performance optimization in the 21st century. Innovation, leveraging current state-of-the-science, and international partnerships were all key themes throughout the Congress. From the ICSPP scientific program, it was clear that there

  13. Meningitis and Meningoencephalitis among Israel Defense Force Soldiers: 20 Years Experience at the Hadassah Medical Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikkel, Yoav Y; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Eliahou, Ruth; Honig, Asaf

    2015-11-01

    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis pose major risks of morbidity and mortality. To describe 20 years of experience treating infections of the central nervous system in Israel Defense Force (IDF) soldiers, including the common presentations, pathogens and sequelae, and to identify risk groups among soldiers. All soldiers who were admitted to the Hadassah University Medical Center (both campuses: Ein Kerem and Mt. Scopus) due to meningitis and meningoencephalitis from January 1993 to January 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Clinical, laboratory and radiologic data were reviewed from their hospital and army medical corps files. Attention was given to patients' military job description, i.e., combat vs. non-combat soldier, soldiers in training, and medical personnel. We identified 97 cases of suspected meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Six were mistakenly filed and these patients were found to have other disorders. Four soldiers were diagnosed with epidural abscess and five with meningitis due to non-infectious in flammatory diseases. Eighty-two soldiers in active and reserve duty had infectious meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Of these, 46 (56.1%) were combat soldiers and 31 (37.8%) non-combat; 20 (29.2%) were soldiers in training, 10 (12.2%) were training staff and 8 (9.8%) were medical staff. The main pathogens were enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus an d Neisseria meningitidis. In our series, soldiers in training, combat soldiers and medical personnel had meningitis and meningoencephalitis more than other soldiers. Enteroviruses are highly infectious pathogens and can cause outbreaks. N. meningitidis among IDF soldiers is still a concern. Early and aggressive treatment with steroids should be considered especially in robust meningoencephalitis cases.

  14. [A historical medical study of post-traumatic stress disorders in World War I soldiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, S

    2007-01-01

    The concept of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was to be verified considering World War I soldiers suffering from psychiatric and neurologic diseases. According to hypotheses, relevant circumstances of the case history and significance of the direct military action had to be examined. In 2002, medical histories dating from 1914 to 1921 of male soldiers in Jena, Germany, were analyzed. Statistical examination carried out by means of the chi2 test revealed mental illness more frequently in soldiers with relevant family anamnesis, previous psychiatric treatment, or degree of voluntariness than in soldiers not so characterized. The accumulation of mental illnesses was lower in soldiers involved in military actions or directly with firing weapons than in soldiers never involved in battles. These results are in accord with historical but not current literature on PTSD. The author is of the opinion that psychiatric anamnesis is not given enough consideration in the concept of PTSD.

  15. The Bluebirds: World War I Soldiers' Experiences of Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Judith; Robinson, Katie; Moloney, Stephanie

    More is known about the experience of occupational therapists than the experience of patients during the profession's early years. We examined soldiers' experiences of occupational therapy in American Base Hospital 9 in France during World War I through analysis of a 53-line poem by Corporal Frank Wren contained in the unpublished memoir of occupational therapy reconstruction aide Lena Hitchcock. Historical documentary research methods and thematic analysis were used to analyze the poem, the memoir, and the hospital's published history. The poem describes the activities engaged in during occupational therapy, equipment used, and the context of therapy. It articulates positive dimensions of the experience of engaging in activities, including emotional benefits, diversion, and orthopedic benefits. Previous historical research has identified core philosophical premises about the use of occupational therapy; in this article, the enactment of these principles is established through the analysis of a soldier's account of receiving occupational therapy. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  16. Mental health care use by soldiers conducting counterinsurgency operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applewhite, Larry; Keller, Nathan; Borah, Adam

    2012-05-01

    Counterinsurgency (COIN) has become the cornerstone of the military's strategy to combat terrorist threats. COIN operations are complex and often expose soldiers to unfamiliar stressors as they fight the enemy while developing and maintaining rapport with the local populace. Utilizing a retrospective record review protocol, we examined 282 mental health files of soldiers assigned to a brigade combat team that operated from a large forward operating base in Iraq during the counterinsurgency campaign. Most reported sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety, irritability, and conflict with supervisors related to either operational stress, exposure to direct combat, or home front concerns. Most received brief individual supportive therapy or attended solution-focused group counseling emphasizing life skills training, post-traumatic stress treatment, women's support, or relationship skills. Psychopharmacologic treatment was an essential adjunct to the counseling program. Results indicate that supporting a COIN deployment requires a comprehensive mental health program that can respond to a wide range of mental health problems.

  17. A new soldier beetle from Eocene Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Fanti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The family Cantharidae is a worldwide distributed group of flattened and soft-bodied beetles displaying aposematic colouration. These beetles, commonly known as soldier beetles, have an extensive fossil record dating back to the Lower Cretaceous. The majority of fossil material, referred to Cantharidae, is known from amber inclusions. In this paper we describe and illustrate a new soldier beetle Kuskaella macroptera gen. et sp. nov. from the Baltic amber. It is characterised by pronotum of the male parallel-sided in basal third and abruptly narrowed towards apex, and of the female gradually and steadily narrowing from the basal margin to the apex; globular head; unequal maxillary palpomeres with the last segment elongated-globular and pointed; long elytra slightly surpassing the last abdominal segment. This finding is the first described species of both sexes preserved in a single amber piece.

  18. Asthma and psychiatric disorders in male army recruits and soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Tzion, Raffi; Friedman, Tal; Shochat, Tzippy; Gazala, Eliyahu; Wohl, Yonit

    2007-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown an association between asthma and mental disorders. While elevated rates of asthma have been noted among psychiatric patients with anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder, several studies have found elevated rates of mental disorders among asthma patients. Such studies, however, have generally relied upon questionnaires and assessment by non-specialist physicians to diagnose mental disorders and asthma. To examine a possible association between asthma and psychiatric diagnoses in Israeli military recruits and soldiers. In this cross-sectional study we compared the prevalence of mental diagnoses in asthmatic recruits and soldiers with that in non-asthmatic recruits and soldiers. A total of 195,903 recruits and soldiers were examined by Israel Defense Forces recruiting offices and fitness boards. Diagnoses of asthma were based on a pulmonologist's diagnosis, including spirometry at rest and exercise testing as indicated; diagnoses of mental disorders were based on examination by a psychiatrist. The prevalence of asthma was found to be 7.8% (current) and 9.8% (lifetime). The prevalence of mental disorders was 13.4%. Current asthma was associated with an increased likelihood of any mental disorder (OR = 1.20, 95% Cl = 1.15-1.26), and specifically with mood and anxiety disorders (1.31, 1.19-1.46), introvert personality disorders (1.20, 1.12-1.28) and adjustment disorder (1.43, 1.26-1.62). Lifetime asthma was associated with an increased likelihood of the same disorders, but the association was not as powerful. The results validate the previously documented association between asthma and mental disorders, using a sample of unprecedented size and improved methodology. A multidisciplinary approach to asthma that incorporates mental health professionals in the treatment of poorly controlled asthma and perhaps of asthma in general is recommended.

  19. CERDEC Fuel Cell Team: Military Transitions for Soldier Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-27

    Fuel Cell (DMFC) (PEO Soldier) Samsung: 20W DMFC (CRADA) General Atomics & Jadoo: 50W Ammonia Borane Fueled PEMFC Current Fuel Cell Team Efforts...Continued Ardica: 20W Wearable PEMFC operating on Chemical Hydrides Spectrum Brands w/ Rayovac: Hydrogen Generators and Alkaline Fuel Cells for AA...100W Ammonia Borane fueled PEMFC Ultralife: 150W sodium borohydride fueled PEMFC Protonex: 250W RMFC and Power Manager (ARO) NanoDynamics: 250W SOFC

  20. Injury Prevention and Performance Enhancement in 101st Airbourne Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    testing results of over 400 Soldiers, the Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP) was developed and validated (AUG 08-MAR 09- PHASE 3) for implementation...0.075 kg per kg body mass. Resistance often increases to 1.0 kg x body mass or higher (up to 1.3 kg) when testing power and sprint athletes. An...Arkray LactatePro blood lactate test meter Purpose: Examine cardiorespiratory endurance (VO2max) Background: The development of overuse injuries has

  1. A Review of the Soldier’s Equipment Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    allow heavy items to be packed close to the soldier’s natural centre of mass . The Infantryman, with such a large equipment burden, is in effect...COM Centre of Mass COTS Commercial Off-the-Shelf CPL Corporal DARPA Defense Advanced Research Project Agency DMO Defence Materiel...Eighteen soldiers had customised their packs, either the issued packs or their own. The most common customisation was the addition of an external

  2. Injury Prevention and Performance Enhancement in 101st Airborne Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    assessments consisting of strength, cardiorespiratory, anaerobic, and body composition tests. Isokinetic strength testing 10 was performed on the...a meter or more. Moreover, the maximum VGRF experienced during landing tasks performed in the field could be much greater than the standardized... isokinetic strength. Subjects were assigned to groups based on the DoD’s standard for body fat (Group 1: ≤18% BF; Group 2 >18% BF). Soldiers who met

  3. Distress Levels among Parents of Active Duty Soldiers during Wartime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar Bitton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Military service is a highly stressful period both for the soldiers serving and for their parents. Surprisingly, parents’ experience has been mostly ignored in the research. This study’s goal is to shed light on the experience and distress levels of parents of active duty combat soldiers during Operation Protective Edge, a military operation carried out by the Israel Defense Forces during July and August of 2014.Methods: During the advanced stages of the operation, 69 parents of Israeli male combat soldiers (55 mothers and 14 fathers completed an online survey measuring symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD-Checklist-5 and distress (Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Participants were recruited using a convenience sample, by posting ads on the public Facebook pages of the researchers and of the groups dedicated to parents of Israeli soldiers.Results: Parents’ depression and anxiety symptom levels were higher than depression and anxiety symptom levels of the adult community norms in Israel. General distress rates of parents were similar to those presented by adults in southern Israel who were exposed for 7 years to the ongoing threat of daily rocket fire from Gaza, and higher than rates of a non-threatened Israeli population. Finally, 20.2% of the parents presented PTSD-like symptoms, a higher percentage than the probable PTSD diagnosis rates that were found in the general population in Israel during previous terror waves.Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence of soldiers’ parents’ distress and indicates the need for a better understanding of the impact of military service on soldiers’ parents.

  4. Ethics and the Military Profession. Values and the Professional Soldier

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    endangered? A genuine relativist would have to forego such action. And what about the egoist? Egoism is the claim that self-interest is the focus of all...may not have made a careful study of egoism and may hold other moral views inconsistent with the egoist position. This would be true of the...professional soldier who thinks he accepts egoism ; without reconciling it to his commitment to military values. Because so much of what any person routinely

  5. The United States Army Comprehensive Soldier Fitness: A Critical Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Psychoanalysis Professor Stephen Soldz, stated “ the problems identified with CSF are legion. It is time for the Army to step back from uncritically...Frederick J. Gellert Department of Command, Leadership and Management Project Adviser This manuscript is submitted in partial fulfillment of the ...organization and at every level within the Army, MRTs serve as the principal advisor to the leadership regarding CSF and as a resource for Soldiers

  6. Watch Out for the Children: Army Policy and Child Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Arbor, MI: Fairfax Press, 1960), 63. 17 Emmy E . Werner, Reluctant Witnesses: Children’s Voices from the Civil War (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998...Soldiers: From Violence to Protection (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006), 20–21. 71 Vera Achvarina and Simon F. Reich, “No Place to Hide...Conflict: Law, Policy and Practice (Leiden, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2005), 23. 86 Tanya Zayed and Svenja Vollmer, E -Learning

  7. Non-Deployable Soldiers: Understanding the Army’s Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-07

    Effects ( MFE ) specialties. As reflected in table 3, most Soldiers opted for DEIP within 90 days of LAD or after deployment.86 Unit Type from LAD...Eligible Takers Take % BCTs ៊ / Dep 14935 5163 34.6% 91-180 6663 1246 18.7% 181+ 841 89 10.6% Total 22439 6498 29.0% MFE ៊ / Dep 8352 2232 26.7% 91...MEDPROS Medical Protection System MFE Maneuver, Fires, and Effects MILPER Military Personnel [message] MMC Medical Management

  8. Understanding and Managing the Career Continuance of Enlisted Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    presented. Although this presentation would be informative, it would use comedy and action movie clips to maintain the interest of the recruits...a history of Family members serving in the military. Additionally, Soldiers may join the Army due to a lack of alternative job options, as a way to...joining, pre-existing behavioral or emotional difficulties, physical injuries or problems, family history of service, and ability to adjust to Army

  9. Child Soldiers: Are U.S. Military Members Prepared to Deal with the Threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-15

    killing child soldiers. Additional attention should also be invested into identifying interventions that would decrease the negative stigma of mental...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY CHILD SOLDIERS: ARE U.S. MILITARY MEMBERS PREPARED TO DEAL WITH THE THREAT? by Judith Hughes, LtCol, USAF A...COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Child Soldiers: Are U.S. Military Members Prepared to Deal with the Threat? 5a. CONTRACT

  10. Analysis of posttraumatic stress disorders in Polish soldiers who returned from stabilization mission in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Skotnicka, Justyna

    2013-01-01

    Aims. The aim of the survey was to establish whether PTSD is present among Polish soldiers returning from a one-year deployment to Iraq and an analysis of its individual symptoms. Methods. Sixty soldiers were examined, including 30 who returned from the Iraqi mission and 30 who remained in Poland. Five analysing devices were used: (IPSA), (STAI), (BDI), a PTSD questionnaire and a socio-demographical form. Results: A significant number of soldiers experienced a traumatic event during th...

  11. Soldier Health Habits and the Metabolically Optimized Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Karl E; Breivik, Torbjorn J; Carter, Robert; Leyk, Dieter; Opstad, Per Kristian; Taverniers, John; Trousselard, Marion

    2016-11-01

    Human performance enhancement was the subject of a NATO workshop that considered the direct benefits of individual soldier health and fitness habits to brain health and performance. Some of the important health and fitness include physical activity and purposeful exercise, nutritional intake, sleep and rest behaviors, psychological outlook and mindfulness, and other physiologically based systemic challenges such as thermal exposure. These influences were considered in an integrated framework with insights contributed by each of five participating NATO member countries using representative research to highlight relevant interrelationships. Key conclusions are that (1) understanding the neurobiological bases and consequences of personal health behaviors is a priority for soldier performance research, and this also involves long-term brain health consequences to veterans and (2) health and fitness habits have been underappreciated as reliably effective performance enhancers and these should be preferred targets in the development of scientifically based recommendations for soldier brain health and performance. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  12. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Graham N; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E

    2012-02-22

    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined the effects on physical performance. We found that the net cost of locomotion (C(met)) during armoured walking and running is much more energetically expensive than unloaded locomotion. C(met) for locomotion in armour was 2.1-2.3 times higher for walking, and 1.9 times higher for running when compared with C(met) for unloaded locomotion at the same speed. An important component of the increased energy use results from the extra force that must be generated to support the additional mass. However, the energetic cost of locomotion in armour was also much higher than equivalent trunk loading. This additional cost is mostly explained by the increased energy required to swing the limbs and impaired breathing. Our findings can predict age-associated decline in Medieval soldiers' physical performance, and have potential implications in understanding the outcomes of past European military battles.

  13. Policing and Transgressing Borders: Soldiers, Slave Rebels, and the Early Modern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjoleine Kars

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1763, a regiment of mercenary soldiers stationed on the border of Suriname and Berbice in South America, rebelled. The men had been sent to help subdue a large slave rebellion. Instead, they mutinied and joined the rebelling slaves. This paper reconstructs the mutiny from Dutch records and uses it to look at the role of soldiers as border crosser in the Atlantic world. Colonial historians have usually studied soldiers in their capacity of border enforcers, men who maintained the cultural and legal divisions that supported colonial authority. However, as I show, soldiers with great regularity crossed those same borders, threatening the very foundations of colonialism.

  14. Military Nutrition Research: Eight Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna H

    2005-01-01

    To assess, maintain, or improve a soldier's physical/physiological/psychological capability to function effectively under environmental and operational stress and to minimize adverse effects of stress...

  15. Military Nutrition Research: Six Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna

    1998-01-01

    To assess, maintain or improve a soldier's physical/ physiological/psychological capability to function effectively under environmental and emotional stress and to minimize adverse effects of stress...

  16. Military Nutrition Research: Six Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna

    1997-01-01

    To assess, maintain, or improve a soldier's physical/physiological/psychological capability to function effectively under environmental and operational stress and to minimize adverse effects of stress...

  17. Fathering after military deployment: parenting challenges and goals of fathers of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Tova B; Dayton, Carolyn J; Erwin, Michael S; Muzik, Maria; Busuito, Alexandra; Rosenblum, Katherine L

    2014-02-01

    Although often eagerly anticipated, reunification after deployment poses challenges for families, including adjusting to the parent-soldier's return, re-establishing roles and routines, and the potentially necessary accommodation to combat-related injuries or psychological effects. Fourteen male service members, previously deployed to a combat zone, parent to at least one child under seven years of age, were interviewed about their relationships with their young children. Principles of grounded theory guided data analysis to identify key themes related to parenting young children after deployment. Participants reported significant levels of parenting stress and identified specific challenges, including difficulty reconnecting with children, adapting expectations from military to family life, and coparenting. Fathers acknowledged regret about missing an important period in their child's development and indicated a strong desire to improve their parenting skills. They described a need for support in expressing emotions, nurturing, and managing their tempers. Results affirm the need for support to military families during reintegration and demonstrate that military fathers are receptive to opportunities to engage in parenting interventions. Helping fathers understand their children's behavior in the context of age-typical responses to separation and reunion may help them to renew parent-child relationships and reengage in optimal parenting of their young children.

  18. Nutritional Status and Physical and Mental Performance of Special Operations Soldiers Consuming the Ration, Lightweight, or the Meal, Ready-to-Eat Military Field Ration during a 30-Day Field Training Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-23

    in long foot patrols in West Malaysia subsisting on 1770 or 3080 kcal/day for 12 days. He concluded that 12 days of energy restriction did not impair...loss observed in this study was moderate and similar to that strived for in the treatment of moderate obesity in young males (19). These soldiers...however, were not obese , but lean active athletes. In individuals such as these, any loss of lean body mass (muscular tissue) is highly undesirable. This

  19. The Problems of Authority and the Want of Apprenticeship in Soldiers' Character Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghaus, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Militaries that take a character development approach in their moral education programs but rely heavily on authority figures as subject matter experts to teach soldiers face two serious problems. First, soldiers improperly defer to their instructors and, as a result, do not understand the moral virtues taught in class. Second, instructors are in…

  20. Spontaneous cure of American cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania naiffi in two Dutch infantry soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Snoek, E. M.; Lammers, A. M.; Kortbeek, L. M.; Roelfsema, J. H.; Bart, A.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.

    2009-01-01

    We report two Dutch infantry soldiers who acquired American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) during military jungle training in Surinam. The lesions had existed for 3 and 5 months, respectively, before the soldiers presented for treatment. The lesions occurred on the head and right thigh, and were

  1. Sustaining Soldier Health and Performance in Southwest Asia: Guidance for Small Unit Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    extended post - partum depression . Because of family problems, soldiers may be irritable, nervous, inattentive and have difficulty sleeping. Soldiers returning...it most, regardless of rank, shyness or distance from post . c. Keep families and friends Informed. Establish effective lines of communication with the

  2. Revolting Soldiers: The Origins of Education in the Armies of the Empire in World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshier, Roger

    1985-01-01

    Explores the circumstances surrounding the creation of education schemes in the armies of the British Empire. Discusses attitudes toward war and toward the soldier's role in the early 1900s, attitudes of the soldiers toward war, the University of Vimy Ridge, the Canadian Khaki University, the Oatlands program, and education for the New Zealand…

  3. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  4. [Reconstructive investigations and identification measures in unknown soldiers of the Second World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopp-van Well, Eilin; Gehl, Axel; Säring, Dennis; Amling, Michael; Hahn, Michael; Sperhake, Jan; Augustin, Christa; Krebs, Oliver; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The article reports on the exhumation and identification of unknown soldiers from the Second World War. With the help of medicolegal investigation and reconstruction methods an American pilot presumably murdered by a shot to the head (lynch law) and an interned Italian soldier could be identified after about 70 years and brought back home.

  5. Relationship of Life Satisfaction and Job Satisfaction among Pakistani Army Soldiers

    OpenAIRE

    Summaira Naz

    2015-01-01

    The present study had two main objectives; first, to discover the relationships between job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers, second, to find out the age, salary, marital status, and education differences on job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers. In the present study two questionnaires; Job Satisfaction Scale JSS (Macdonald & Maclntyre, 1997) and Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, ...

  6. Prior Health Care Utilization Patterns and Suicide among U.S. Army Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nicole S.; Harford, Thomas C.; Amoroso, Paul J.; Hollander, Ilyssa E.; Kay, Ashley B.

    2010-01-01

    Suicides among U.S. Army soldiers are increasing and, in January 2009, outpaced deaths due to combat. For this study, 1,873 army suicides identified through death, inpatient, and emergency room records were matched with 5,619 controls. In multivariate models, older, male, White, single, and enlisted soldiers with a prior injury (OR = 2.04, 95% CI…

  7. Indero: Intergenerational trauma and resilience between Burundian former child soldiers and their children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, S.; Tol, W.; de Jong, J.

    2014-01-01

    Since many former child soldiers are aging and having children of their own, this study aimed to understand how the effects of trauma are passed to the next generation. In this qualitative study, semistructured interviews, focus groups, and observations were conducted with 25 former child soldiers

  8. [Analysis of posttraumatic stress disorders in Polish soldiers who returned from stabilization mission in Iraq].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotnicka, Justyna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the survey was to establish whether PTSD is present among Polish soldiers returning from a one-year deployment to Iraq and an analysis of its individual symptoms. Sixty soldiers were examined, including 30 who returned from the Iraqi mission and 30 who remained in Poland. Five analysing devices were used: (IPSA), (STAI), (BDI), a PTSD questionnaire and a socio-demographical form. A significant number of soldiers experienced a traumatic event during the mission in Iraq. Although the Iraq deployment did not change the level of depression and anxiety among the two groups of soldiers, disproportions were found in the range of anger level intensity, which was significantly higher among soldiers who returned from Iraq. Stabilisation mission and the experience of a traumatic event influenced the biological and psychological functioning patterns among soldiers who returned from Iraq. The manifestations of this were emotional and physiological reactions that the soldiers experienced (nightmares, excessive sweating, increased heartbeat rate, stressful reactions in situations similar to the traumatic occurrence and intensified responses to them). However, contrary to the assumptions, it was not concluded that soldiers who returned from Iraq are suffering from PTSD.

  9. Growing up in armed groups: trauma and aggression among child soldiers in DR Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharin Hermenau

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child soldiers are often both victims and perpetrators of horrendous acts of violence. Research with former child soldiers has consistently shown that exposure to violence is linked to trauma-related disorders and that living in a violent environment is correlated with enhanced levels of aggression. Objective: To gain more insight into the experiences and the mental health status of former child soldiers, we conducted a survey with N=200 former child soldiers and adult combatants in the DR Congo. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews concerning military experiences, experienced and perpetrated violence, and mental health. Results: Former child soldiers reported more experienced and perpetrated violence, a greater severity of trauma-related suffering, as well as higher appetitive aggression than adult ex-combatants. Appetitive aggression was related to more perpetrated violence, higher military ranks, voluntary recruitment and higher rates of reenlistments in former child soldiers. Conclusions: Our results indicate that growing up in an armed group is related to higher levels of trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior. This may explain the challenge of reintegrating former child soldiers. It is thus important to consider mental health problems, particularly trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior, of former child soldiers for designing adequate reintegration programs.

  10. DefenseLink Special: U.S. Forces Help Afghan Soldiers Train for Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Us Afghanistan, U.S. Forces Help Afghan Soldiers Train for Future 'Forces of Freedom, Decency Will people, defend our freedom, and send a clear message to the extremists: The forces of freedom and decency will prevail," he said in a speech at Latvia University. Story U.S. Soldiers Work With Afghan Army

  11. Reintegration of National Guard Soldiers with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). An alarming number of soldiers returning from our current wars in Iraq...veterans have been diagnosed with the invisible wounds of Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). An alarming number of soldiers returning from our current...returning veterans have been diagnosed with the invisible wounds of Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). These veterans’ coping skills have

  12. Examination of soldier target recognition with direct view optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Frederick H.; Larkin, Gabriella; Bisordi, Danielle; Dorsey, Shauna; Marianucci, Damien; Goss, Lashawnta; Bastawros, Michael; Misiuda, Paul; Rodgers, Glenn; Mazz, John P.

    2017-10-01

    Target recognition and identification is a problem of great military and scientific importance. To examine the correlation between target recognition and optical magnification, ten U.S. Army soldiers were tasked with identifying letters on targets at 800 and 1300 meters away. Letters were used since they are a standard method for measuring visual acuity. The letters were approximately 90 cm high, which is the size of a well-known rifle. Four direct view optics with angular magnifications of 1.5x, 4x, 6x, and 9x were used. The goal of this approach was to measure actual probabilities for correct target identification. Previous scientific literature suggests that target recognition can be modeled as a linear response problem in angular frequency space using the established values for the contrast sensitivity function for a healthy human eye and the experimentally measured modulation transfer function of the optic. At the 9x magnification, the soldiers could identify the letters with almost no errors (i.e., 97% probability of correct identification). At lower magnification, errors in letter identification were more frequent. The identification errors were not random but occurred most frequently with a few pairs of letters (e.g., O and Q), which is consistent with the literature for letter recognition. In addition, in the small subject sample of ten soldiers, there was considerable variation in the observer recognition capability at 1.5x and a range of 800 meters. This can be directly attributed to the variation in the observer visual acuity.

  13. Soldiers' Preferences Regarding Sperm Preservation, Posthumous Reproduction, and Attributes of a Potential "Posthumous Mother".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokek-Cohen, Ya'arit; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2017-01-01

    We present study results regarding soldiers' willingness to conduct posthumous reproduction. Two hundred twelve Israeli soldiers filled in a questionnaire designed to examine their willingness to cryopreserve sperm and evaluate in which familial circumstances they would consent to posthumous reproduction. They ranked the desirability of 46 attributes of a potential mother and a life partner. Findings indicate a relatively high predisposition in favor of posthumous-assisted reproduction; the wishes of soldiers' parents had much more influence on soldiers' willingness to pursue this technology than those of a partner. Soldiers preferred "feminine" jobs for a potential mother that would allow her to dedicate herself to child-rearing. The desired traits of such a mother were rated similarly to partner preferences; however, significant differences were found in attributes that are most related to the potential mother's devotion to maternity. Interpretations of these findings are contextualized in relation to ethical and bereavement considerations.

  14. Childhood maltreatment history as a risk factor for sexual harassment among U.S. Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, L N; Martin, L

    1998-01-01

    Four different types of childhood maltreatment were examined as predictors of unwanted sexual experiences and acknowledged sexual harassment among male and female active duty soldiers in the United States Army. Predictor variables included childhood sexual abuse, physical-emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect. Three types of unwanted sexual experiences in the workplace were examined as outcome variables: gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and coercion. Both sexual and physical-emotional abuse during childhood were found to be predictors of unwanted sexual experiences and of acknowledged sexual harassment in the workplace. Among female soldiers, the most severe type of unwanted experience-coercion-was predicted only by childhood physical-emotional abuse. Among male soldiers childhood sexual abuse was the strongest predictor of coercion. A greater variety of types of childhood maltreatment predicted sexual harassment outcomes for male soldiers. Childhood maltreatment and adult sexual harassment were predictors of psychological well-being for soldiers of both genders.

  15. Militares galaicos en las cohortes pretorianas = Galician soldiers among praetorian cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narciso Santos Yanguas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Los galaicos que tomaron parte en las tropas asentadas en la capital del Imperio, como oficiales y simples pretorianos, contribuirían a reforzar el poder del emperador. Al parecer la mayoría de estos galaicos pretorianos desempeñarían su actividad militar en el siglo II. Se trataba de personas jóvenes, algunos de los cuales podían reengancharse en el servicio y protección de la figura imperial.The Galician among the imperial troops in the capital, either as officers or base soldiers, would have contributed to strengthening imperial power. As it seems, the majority of these Praetorian Galicians carried out their duties during the second century AD. In most cases they were young, this being a fact that allowed some of them to re-enlist with the aim of protecting the emperor.

  16. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics :soldier fatigue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E.; Miller, Dwight Peter

    2005-10-01

    The military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives as can be seen in the Department of Defense's (DoD) Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's (DMSO) Master Plan (DoD 5000.59-P 1995). To this goal, the military is currently spending millions of dollars on programs devoted to HPM in various military contexts. Examples include the Human Performance Modeling Integration (HPMI) program within the Air Force Research Laboratory, which focuses on integrating HPMs with constructive models of systems (e.g. cockpit simulations) and the Navy's Human Performance Center (HPC) established in September 2003. Nearly all of these initiatives focus on the interface between humans and a single system. This is insufficient in the era of highly complex network centric SoS. This report presents research and development in the area of HPM in a system-of-systems (SoS). Specifically, this report addresses modeling soldier fatigue and the potential impacts soldier fatigue can have on SoS performance.

  17. Drug Use in Soldiers: Family and Peer Contextual Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mojtaba; Darharaj, Mohammad; Kelly, Adrian B; Shahmiri, Hasan; Malekianjabali, Mona; Kheirolomoom, Seyedeh Leili

    2017-08-24

    Given the stressful nature of military life, people in the armed forces are vulnerable to substance use. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between family and peers with drug use among military forces in Iran. Convenience sampling was used to recruit a total of 422 draftees doing military service in army units in Tehran, Iran. Measures of family and peers' risk and protective factors, alcohol use, and other drug use were administered. Findings indicated significant relationships between family (i.e., family models for risk behavior, parent sanctions, and family controls) and peers (i.e., peer modeling for risk behavior, peer controls, support from friends) with drug use. A multiple regression analysis revealed that peer modeling for risk behavior, family models for risk behavior, and parent sanctions were significant predictors of drug use in soldiers. These results were consistent with the influence of family and peer on drug use amongst soldiers. Programs designed to reduce alcohol and other drug use may benefit from tailoring to fit risk and protective files amongst peer and family networks.

  18. Relationships between soldiers' PTSD symptoms and spousal communication during deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Sarah; Loew, Benjamin; Allen, Elizabeth; Stanley, Scott; Rhoades, Galena; Markman, Howard

    2011-06-01

    Social support, including support from spouses, may buffer against posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The current study assessed whether the frequency of spousal communication during a recent deployment, a potentially important source of support for soldiers, was related to postdeployment PTSD symptoms. Data came from 193 married male Army soldiers who returned from military deployment within the past year. For communication modalities conceptualized as delayed (i.e., letters, care packages, and e-mails), greater spousal communication frequency during deployment was associated with lower postdeployment PTSD symptom scores, but only at higher levels of marital satisfaction (p = .009). At lower marital satisfaction, more delayed spousal communication during deployment was associated with more PTSD symptoms (p = .042). For communication modalities conceptualized as interactive (i.e., phone calls, instant messaging, instant messaging with video), the same general direction of effects was seen, but the interaction between communication frequency and marital satisfaction predicting PTSD symptoms did not reach significance. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  19. Supplemental tests in the evaluation of occupational hand dermatitis in soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R; Movshowitz, M; Brenner, S

    1996-03-01

    Hand dermatitis in soldiers is a considerable problem. The purpose of the study was to evaluate appropriate screening tests to improve the diagnosis of hand dermatitis in soldiers. A group of 111 soldiers with occupational dermatitis from contact with fuels and oils underwent "tailored patch tests" with allergens relevant to their field of work and their environment. The control group consisted of 24 soldiers with various jobs similar to those of civilian life, who had not been exposed to oils and fuels. Seventy-three civilian patients, attending the clinic for patch testing, were also included. Twenty soldiers, who had a history of intensive contact with oil and fuels, but no contact dermatitis, and who were admitted because of various skin diseases (fungal infections, acne, etc.) also underwent the supplemental testing and served as an additional control group. Of the soldiers, 31 (29%) showed one or more positive skin tests of the oil series and 30 patients of this group one or more positive reactions to the standard patch tests trays. No patient of the control groups had a positive test to the oil series. Our results show the value of the supplementary tests as a first-step screening test for detection of oil allergy in soldiers and automobile-mechanics or in workers handling other gasoline- or diesel-powered engineering equipment. The test method appears to be practical, easy to perform, reliable and giving clear and accurate results, with a negligible rate of false positive reactions.

  20. Differential Child Maltreatment Risk Across Deployment Periods of US Army Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christine M; Ross, Michelle E; Wood, Joanne N; Griffis, Heather M; Harb, Gerlinde C; Mi, Lanyu; Song, Lihai; Strane, Douglas; Lynch, Kevin G; Rubin, David M

    2016-01-01

    We described the risk for maltreatment among toddlers of US Army soldiers over different deployment cycles to develop a systematic response within the US Army to provide families appropriate supports. We conducted a person-time analysis of substantiated maltreatment reports and medical diagnoses among children of 112,325 deployed US Army soldiers between 2001 and 2007. Risk of maltreatment was elevated after deployment for children of soldiers deployed once but not for children of soldiers deployed twice. During the 6 months after deployment, children of soldiers deployed once had 4.43 substantiated maltreatment reports and 4.96 medical diagnoses per 10,000 child-months. The highest maltreatment rate among children of soldiers deployed twice occurred during the second deployment for substantiated maltreatment (4.83 episodes per 10,000 child-months) and before the first deployment for medical diagnoses of maltreatment (3.78 episodes per 10,000 child-months). We confirmed an elevated risk for child maltreatment during deployment but also found a previously unidentified high-risk period during the 6 months following deployment, indicating elevated stress within families of deployed and returning soldiers. These findings can inform efforts by the military to initiate and standardize support and preparation to families during periods of elevated risk.

  1. Engaging Military Fathers in a Reflective Parenting Program: Lessons from Strong Families Strong Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Ellen R.; Paris, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Through Strong Families Strong Forces, a reflective parenting program for military families with young children, we were privileged to work with contemporary military fathers who served in the post-9/11 conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Due to this work, the authors gained valuable insight into the complexity of fathering during wartime, the…

  2. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  3. For soldier and state: dual loyalty and World War One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Leo

    2012-01-01

    Military medicine has always been characterized by some form of dual loyalty: physicians have to consider the interests of the individual soldier--patient as well as the interests of the state and the military in general. The way in which each individual doctor responds to this dual loyalty has mostly been viewed as a product of war circumstances on the one hand, and the personal character and/or religious and ideological beliefs of the physician on the other. Taking World War One as an example, this article argues that the nature of the illness or wound also had a part to play in this. The article shows that the disfigured were looked upon mainly in relation to the patient's own interests; the invalided-out through a combination of the patient's as well as the state's interests; and the neurotic mainly out of concern for the interests of the state.

  4. Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benny; Huebner, Larry; Kuhns, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space (SWORDS) project was a joint project between the U.S. Army Space & Missile Defense Command (SMDC) and NASA. The effort, lead by SMDC, was intended to develop a three-stage liquid bipropellant (liquid oxygen/liquid methane), pressure-fed launch vehicle capable of inserting a payload of at least 25 kg to a 750-km circular orbit. The vehicle design was driven by low cost instead of high performance. SWORDS leveraged commercial industry standards to utilize standard hardware and technologies over customized unique aerospace designs. SWORDS identified broadly based global industries that have achieved adequate levels of quality control and reliability in their products and then designed around their expertise and business motivations.

  5. Evaluation of the Performance of Females as Light Infantry Soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon S. Finestone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A few countries permit women to serve in combat roles, but their long term performance in these positions has not been reported. The incidences of overuse injuries and attrition of 85 male and 235 female recruits in a light infantry brigade was followed in a three-year prospective study. Females were shorter (162 cm, CI 161–163 cm than males (174 cm, CI 173–176, had more body fat (18.9 kg, CI 18.2–19.6 kg than males (12.6 kg, 11.3–13.8 kg, had lower V˙O2max (36.8 mL·min−1·kg−1, CI 35.8–37.78 mL·min−1·kg−1 than males (50.48 mL·min−1·kg−1, CI 48.4 to 52.48 mL·min−1·kg−1, had more stress fractures (21.0%, 95% CI 16.2–26.5% than males (2.3%, CI 0.3–8.2%, and had more anterior knee pain (41.2%, CI 34.9–47.7% than males (24.7%, CI 16.0–35.2%. Three-year attrition was 28% CI 22–34% for females and 37% CI 26–48% for males. The females in this study successfully served as light infantry soldiers. Their lower fitness and high incidence of overuse injuries might impede service as regular infantry soldiers.

  6. A Qualitative Study of Soldier Perceptions of the Relative Importance of MRE Portion Size and Variety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, R

    1999-01-01

    .... Bliss, Biggs Army Airfield, and Fort Leonard Wood during 1997 to understand how soldiers perceive Meal, Ready-to-Eat portion size and MRE variety and to begin to determine what types of trade offs...

  7. From Rampart to Chamber House: Soldiers, Statesmen and the Dialogue of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Redman, Edwin H

    2005-01-01

    .... Huntington, and Eliot Cohen. Clausewitz maintains that, because war is an extension of policy, both dialog and action must be two-way, even to the extent that the soldier become a statesman during war...

  8. The Effects of an Auditory Versus a Visual Presentation of Information on Soldier Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glumm, Monica

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a field study designed to measure the effects of an auditory versus a visual presentation of position information on soldier performance of land navigation and target acquisition tasks...

  9. Military Nutrition Research: Six Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna

    1997-01-01

    .... Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM). (2) The Stable Isotope Laboratory performs analyses to measure the energy expenditure and body composition of soldiers during prolonged field exercise. (3...

  10. Military Nutrition Research: Six Tasks to Address Medical Factors Limiting Soldier Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Donna

    1998-01-01

    .... Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM). 2) The Stable Isotope Laboratory performed analyses to measure the energy expenditure and body composition of soldiers during prolonged field exercise. 3...

  11. Current Issues in the Use of Virtual Simulations for Dismounted Soldier Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knerr, Bruce W

    2006-01-01

    Research on the use of virtual simulation to train Soldiers and leaders in small dismounted units has largely focused on the use of specially developed, relatively high-fidelity PC-based simulators...

  12. Health promotion research in active duty army soldiers: The road to a fit and ready force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mary S; Elshaw, Evelyn B; Szekely, Barbara M; Pflugeisen, Bethann

    In the last decade the Military Health System has changed its paradigm to focus on health promotion and disease prevention. This paper reviews a decade of research exploring the effects of military life on nutritional status and bone health of Army soldiers. Descriptive and experimental approaches have assessed occupational demands on soldiers in variable environments that require optimal nutrition status and physical health. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the military has risen dramatically and the implications for health, readiness, productivity, and cost demands attention. The related nutritional deficits such as suboptimal vitamin D status likely contribute to musculoskeletal injuries which have a greater impact on the performance and readiness of soldiers than any other medical condition in peacetime or conflict. The greatest challenge in our system for health is optimizing the performance of all soldiers while minimizing health risks and long-term disability resulting from occupational hazards, particularly those inherent to war. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. U.S. Soldier Peacekeeping Experiences and Wellbeing After Returning from Deployment to Kosovo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Amy

    2000-01-01

    ... (alcohol consumption, sick days, and sleep). Findings indicated that soldiers reporting high levels of exposure to peacekeeping experiences reported more post-traumatic symptoms, greater use of conflict-related tactics, more alcohol consumption...

  14. The Nation and the Soldier in German Civil-Military Relations, 1800-1945

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brumley, Donald W

    2005-01-01

    This study of civil-military relations addresses the parallel development of the professional soldier and the Prussian-German Army from 1806 until 1945, as well as the rise of nationalism in central...

  15. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in U.S. Soldiers Returning from Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoge, Charles W; McGurk, Dennis; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Cox, Anthony L; Engel, Charles C; Castro, Carl A

    2008-01-01

    .... Validated clinical instruments were used to compare soldiers reporting mild traumatic brain injury, defined as an injury with loss of consciousness or altered mental status (e.g., dazed or confused...

  16. Soldier Performance and Heat Strain During Evaluation of a Combat Fitness Assessment in Northern Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cotter, James

    2000-01-01

    ...). A prototype CFA trial, conducted using 64 male soldiers of 3 Brigade, Townsville, allowed for the evaluation of both the CFA and the severity of heat strain experienced during physical training...

  17. WHICH MOTOR ABILITIES HAVE THE HIGHEST IMPACT ON WORKING PERFORMANCE OF SLOVENIAN SOLDIERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Pori

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to find a correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency of soldiers in a battle unit of Slovenia Armed Forces (SAF. The subject consisted of 115 soldiers (age = 27,1 ± 3,7 years who were serving in the first brigade of the SAF. Motor abilities were measured with 11 motor tests, assessing the level of flexibility, speed, strength and coordination. To evaluate working efficiency of soldiers a special questionnaire was used, which consisted of 19 statements. Superior officer was asked to fill a questionnaire for each inferior soldier with values from 1 to 5. The correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency was assessed with the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. We have found 5 statistically significant correlations. Motor tests correlating most with working performance were tests of arm strength.

  18. Soldier Dimensions and Operational Readiness in U.S. Army Forces Deployed to Kosovo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castro, Carl

    1999-01-01

    .... In a recent study of U.S. Army units deployed to Kosovo in support of a multinational peacekeeping mission, soldier attitudes and health were surveyed on site, mid-way during a 6-month deployment...

  19. Review of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens as Animal Feed and Human Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shiang Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food futurists accept that sustainability-minded humanity will increasingly incorporate insects as alternative protein. The most studied and easily reared species are not necessarily the most sustainable, acceptable, or delicious. Here, we review the literature on the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, which is capable of efficiently converting a wide variety of organic materials, from food waste to manure, into insect biomass. They can be grown and harvested without dedicated facilities and are not pestiferous. Their larvae are 42% crude protein and 29% fat, although they are higher in saturated fats than most insects. They do not concentrate pesticides or mycotoxins. They are already grown and recommended for use as animal feed, but with regional legal restrictions on how this is done. For commercial use in human foods, larvae could potentially be milled and converted into a textured protein with a strong flavor. Their biggest advantage over other insects is their ability to convert waste into food, generating value and closing nutrient loops as they reduce pollution and costs. This general advantage is also their greatest disadvantage, for the social stigmas and legal prohibitions against eating organisms that eat waste are added to extant taboos facing insect consumption.

  20. Review of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) as Animal Feed and Human Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Shiang; Shelomi, Matan

    2017-10-18

    Food futurists accept that sustainability-minded humanity will increasingly incorporate insects as alternative protein. The most studied and easily reared species are not necessarily the most sustainable, acceptable, or delicious. Here, we review the literature on the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, which is capable of efficiently converting a wide variety of organic materials, from food waste to manure, into insect biomass. They can be grown and harvested without dedicated facilities and are not pestiferous. Their larvae are 42% crude protein and 29% fat, although they are higher in saturated fats than most insects. They do not concentrate pesticides or mycotoxins. They are already grown and recommended for use as animal feed, but with regional legal restrictions on how this is done. For commercial use in human foods, larvae could potentially be milled and converted into a textured protein with a strong flavor. Their biggest advantage over other insects is their ability to convert waste into food, generating value and closing nutrient loops as they reduce pollution and costs. This general advantage is also their greatest disadvantage, for the social stigmas and legal prohibitions against eating organisms that eat waste are added to extant taboos facing insect consumption.

  1. Home-based, Online Mindfulness and Cognitive Training for Soldiers and Veterans with TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0685 TITLE: Home-based, Online Mindfulness and Cognitive Training for Soldiers and Veterans with TBI PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Home-based, Online Mindfulness and Cognitive Training for Soldiers and Veterans with TBI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...individuated brain training program (cognitive training + mindfulness /stress- reduction training) with caregiver support portal and lifestyle monitor is

  2. Soldier Quality of Life (Operational) and Readiness at Contingency Base Camps: Insights From Qualitative Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-13

    Providing familiar foods and beverages reminds Soldiers of the world outside the AO and can provide an important bump that sustains morale. “I’m Hispanic...including fellow Soldiers, local nationals, civilians, etc. Emotional Anything having to do with managing your emotions, handling stress, and...almost removed from the group for your own mental well-being.” Back 38UNCLASSIFIED Billets Act as an Oasis Food Is More Than Fuel Top-Line: Field

  3. Family Functioning and Soldier PTSD: Correlates of Treatment Engagement and Military Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    a mother with depression may be less sensitive to her child’s cues, and may feel less efficacious as a parent, decreasing her application of...functioning, spouse depression , spouse anxiety, child mental health symptoms and service use, and Soldier job satisfaction. Spouse depression was the...in Soldiers with PTSD and their spouses, and also to describe rates of spouse depression and anxiety, as well as child mental health problems. The

  4. Prevalence and impact of short sleep duration in redeployed OIF soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton, David D; Greenburg, David; Ryan, Jenny; Niven, Alexander; Wheeler, Gary; Mysliwiec, Vincent

    2011-09-01

    Short sleep duration (SSD) is common among deployed soldiers. The prevalence of SSD during redeployment, however, is unknown. Cross-sectional study of a brigade combat team (n = 3152 US Army soldiers) surveyed 90-180 days after completing a 6-15 month deployment to Iraq as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Survey items targeted sleep habits and comorbid medical conditions. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios of medical comorbidities associated with SSD. US Army Infantry Post. All soldiers from a redeploying brigade combat team participated in a health assessment between 90 and 180 days upon return to Ft. Lewis from Iraq. None. A total of 2738 (86.9%) soldiers answered questions regarding self-perceived sleep and were included in the analysis. Mean sleep duration was 5.8 ± 1.2 hours. Nineteen hundred fifty-nine (72%) slept ≤ 6 h, but only 16% reported a daytime nap or felt their job performance was affected due to lack of sleep. Short sleep was more common among soldiers who reported combat exposure. After controlling for combat exposure, short sleep duration (SSD) was associated with symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic syndrome, and with high-risk health behaviors such as abuse of tobacco and alcohol products, and suicide attempts. SSD is common among redeployed soldiers. Soldiers who experienced combat are at increased risk for persistent SSD and comorbidities associated with SSD. Efforts to reestablish good sleep habits and aggressive evaluation of soldiers with persistent SSD following deployment may aid in the prevention and management of associated medical conditions.

  5. A statistical campaign: Florence Nightingale and Harriet Martineau’s 'England and her Soldiers'

    OpenAIRE

    Iris Veysey

    2016-01-01

    This essay is an account of the making of England and her Soldiers (1859) by Harriet Martineau and Florence Nightingale. The book is a literary account of the Crimean War, written by Martineau and based on Nightingale’s statistical studies of mortality during the conflict. Nightingale was passionate about statistics and healthcare. Whilst working as a nurse in the Crimea, she witnessed thousands of soldiers die of infectious diseases that might have been prevented with proper sanitation. Afte...

  6. Trends in mental health services utilization and stigma in US soldiers from 2002 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartana, Phillip J; Wilk, Joshua E; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Bray, Robert M; Rae Olmsted, Kristine L; Brown, Janice M; Williams, Jason; Kim, Paul Y; Clarke-Walper, Kristina; Hoge, Charles W

    2014-09-01

    We characterized trends in mental health services utilization and stigma over the course of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars among active-component US soldiers. We evaluated trends in mental health services utilization and stigma using US Army data from the Health-Related Behavior (HRB) surveys from 2002, 2005, and 2008 (n = 12,835) and the Land Combat Study (LCS) surveys administered to soldiers annually from 2003 to 2009 and again in 2011 (n = 22,627). HRB and LCS data suggested increased mental health services utilization and decreased stigma in US soldiers between 2002 and 2011. These trends were evident in soldiers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), or PTSD and MDD. Despite the improving trends, more than half of soldiers with mental health problems did not report seeking care. Mental health services utilization increased and stigma decreased over the course of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although promising, these findings indicate that a significant proportion of US soldiers meeting criteria for PTSD or MDD do not utilize mental health services, and stigma remains a pervasive problem requiring further attention.

  7. Challenges faced by former child soldiers in the aftermath of war in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindevogel, Sofie; De Schryver, Maarten; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2013-06-01

    Warfare takes a profound toll of all layers of society, creating multiple and multilevel challenges that impinge on the psychosocial well-being of affected individuals. This study aims to assess the scope and salience of challenges confronting former child soldiers and at identifying additional challenges they face compared to non-recruited young people in war-affected northern Uganda. The study was carried out with a stratified random sample of northern Ugandan adolescents (n = 1,008), of whom a third had formerly been recruited (n = 330). The mixed-method comparison design consisted of a constrained free listing task to determine the challenges; a free sorting task to categorize them into clusters; and statistical analysis of their prevalence among formerly recruited youth and of how they compare with those of nonrecruited youth. Altogether, 237 challenges were identified and clustered into 15 categories, showing that formerly recruited participants mainly identified "emotional" and "training and skills"-related challenges. Compared with nonrecruited counterparts, they reported significantly more "emotional" and fewer "social and relational" challenges, with the exception of stigmatization. Overall, there was similarity between the challenges reported by both groups. The challenges confronting formerly recruited youths reach well beyond the effects of direct war exposure and emerge mainly from multiple influence spheres surrounding them. These challenges are largely shared in common with nonrecruited youths. This multidimensional and collective character of challenges calls for comprehensive psychosocial interventions through which healing the psychological wounds of war is complemented by mending the war-affected surroundings at all levels and in all life areas. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Soldier-Cyborg Transformation: A Framework for Analysis of Social and Ethical Issues of Future Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-26

    government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE SOLDIER- CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE...UNCLASSIFIED USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE SOLDIER- CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE...P) Donald A. Gagliano, M.D. TITLE: THE SOLDIER CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE WARFARE

  9. Stigma, barriers to care, and use of mental health services among active duty and National Guard soldiers after combat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul Y; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Wilk, Joshua E; Castro, Carl A; Hoge, Charles W

    2010-06-01

    This study examined rates of utilization of mental health care among active duty and National Guard soldiers with mental health problems three and 12 months after they returned from combat in Iraq. Stigma and barriers to care were also reported for each component (active duty and National Guard). Cross-sectional, anonymous surveys were administered to 10,386 soldiers across both time points and components. Mean scores from 11 items measuring stigma and barriers to care were computed. Service utilization was assessed by asking soldiers whether they had received services for a mental health problem from a mental health professional, a medical doctor, or the Department of Veterans Affairs in the past month. Risk of mental problems was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire, the PTSD Checklist, and items asking about aggressive behaviors and "stress, emotional, alcohol, or family" problems within the past month. A higher proportion of active duty soldiers than National Guard soldiers reported at least one type of mental health problem at both three months (45% versus 33%) and 12 months (44% versus 35%) postdeployment. Among soldiers with mental health problems, National Guard soldiers reported significantly higher rates of mental health care utilization 12 months after deployment, compared with active duty soldiers (27% versus 13%). Mean stigma scores were higher among active duty soldiers than among National Guard soldiers. Active duty soldiers with a mental health problem had significantly lower rates of service utilization than National Guard soldiers and significantly higher endorsements of stigma. Current and future efforts to improve care for veterans should work toward reducing the stigma of receiving mental health care.

  10. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  11. Strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)

  12. Effects of a Nutrient Enriched Beverage on Host Defense Mechanisms of Soldiers Completing the Special Forces Assessment and Selection School

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated a liquid supplement containing anti-oxidants, indigestible carbohydrate, structured lipid, and vitamins and minerals for its effects upon the immune responses of soldiers participating...

  13. Psychological effects of sexual harassment, appraisal of harassment, and organizational climate among U.S. Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, L N; Martin, L

    1998-02-01

    This study examines the effects of three types of unwanted sexual experiences in the workplace on the psychological well-being of male and female U.S. Army soldiers, and the mediating or moderating roles of appraisal of sexual harassment, organizational climate, and the sociodemographic profile of victims. A survey was administered to 1,060 male soldiers and 305 female soldiers between May and July, 1995, at three Army posts in the United States. Unwanted sexual experiences were found to be significant predictors of psychological symptoms for male and female soldiers. Certain aspects of organizational climate and appraisal of sexual harassment were also significant predictors of psychological symptoms.

  14. Relationship Between Job Burnout and Neuroendocrine Indicators in Soldiers in the Xinjiang Arid Desert: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between job burnout and neuroendocrine indicators in soldiers living in a harsh environment. Three hundred soldiers stationed in the arid desert and 600 in an urban area were recruited. They filled in the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire. One hundred soldiers were randomly selected from each group to measure their levels of noradrenaline, serotonin, heat shock protein (HSP-70, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and serum cortisol. Job burnout was more common in soldiers from urban areas than those from rural areas. Job burnout was significantly higher among soldiers stationed in the arid desert than those in urban areas. For soldiers in the arid desert, the levels of HSP-70, serum cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone were significantly higher than in soldiers in urban areas. Correlation analyses showed that the degree of job burnout was weakly negatively correlated with the level of HSP-70. Being an only child, HSP-70 levels, cortisol levels, and ACTH levels were independently associated with job burnout in soldiers stationed in the arid desert. A higher level of job burnout in soldiers stationed in arid desert and a corresponding change in neuroendocrine indicators indicated a correlation between occupational stress and neurotransmitters.

  15. The Ethics of Child-soldiering in the Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    In cutting-edge conflict theory, ‘young men’ are framed as a potential source of violence and insecurity in underdeveloped countries, especially in the so-called ‘failed states’. Supposedly, ‘young men’ bereft of socio-economic opportunities constitute a dangerous sub-population which can easily...

  16. Physical training risk factors for musculoskeletal injury in female soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tanja C; Songer, Thomas; Ye, Feifei; LaPorte, Ronald; Grier, Tyson; Anderson, Morgan; Chervak, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) result in the most medical encounters, lost duty days, and permanent disability. Women are at greater risk of injury than men and physical training is the leading cause of injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographic, body composition, fitness, and physical training risk factors for injuries in female Soldiers serving in garrison Army units over the past 12 months. Self-report survey was collected from 625 women. The ankle was the most frequently injured body region, 13%. Running was the activity most often associated with injury, 34%. In univariate analysis lower rank, older age, history of deployment, no unit runs, weekly frequency of personal resistance training, and history of injury were all associated with injury. In multivariate analysis rank, history of injury, weekly frequency of unit runs, and weekly frequency of personal resistance training were the best combination of predictors of injury. Running once or twice a week with the unit protected against MSIs, whereas participating in personal resistance training sessions once or twice a week increased the risk of MSIs. With more emphasis on running and resistance training, the U.S. Army could reduce injuries and save billions of dollars in training and health care costs. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  18. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  19. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  20. Long-term military work outcomes in soldiers who become mental health casualties when deployed on operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Norman; Fear, Nicola T; Jones, Margaret; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil

    2010-01-01

    little is known about longer term military work outcomes in UK military personnel who develop mental health problems when operationally deployed. Deployed Field Mental Health Teams (FMHTs) who support them follow the principles of "Forward Psychiatry," aiming to treat psychiatric casualties close to the front line to maximize operational effectiveness and occupational retention. to examine the short- and long-term military work outcomes in soldiers deployed to Iraq between 2003 and 2007 who were referred to the FMHT. FMHT clinical records were linked to occupational records with 825 resulting matches. 71.6% of the referred soldiers with a documented short-term military work outcome returned to their operational unit, and 73.5% of those who had a documented long-term military work outcome served on for a period in excess of two years. Adjusting for potential confounders, a shorter service length and removal from the operational theatre were both strongly associated with premature discharge; however, it was not possible to determine the severity of the presenting mental health problem and assess whether this impacted outcome. the results of this study support the use of the Forward Psychiatry principles in achieving good short-term military work outcomes. Utilizing these principles, three-quarters of those referred to the FMHT were returned to their deployed unit and approximately three-quarters of those assessed by the FMHT remained in service two years after referral. We suggest that these are positive work outcomes; however, being evacuated out of the operational environment and having a short service length were both associated with premature discharge, though we were unable to examine the role of illness severity.

  1. Postdeployment reintegration experiences of female soldiers from national guard and reserve units in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Berkel, LaVerne A; Nilsson, Johanna E

    2014-01-01

    Women are an integral part of Reserve and National Guard units and active duty armed forces of the United States. Deployment to conflict and war zones is a difficult experience for both soldiers and their families. On return from deployment, all soldiers face the challenge of reintegration into family life and society, but those from the National Guard and Reserve units face the additional challenge of reintegration in relative isolation from other soldiers. There is limited research about the reintegration experiences of women and the functioning of the families during reintegration following deployment. The goal was to document postdeployment family reintegration experiences of women in the National Guard. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 42 female members of Midwestern National Guard units. Directed content analysis was used to identify categories of experiences related to women's family reintegration. Five categories of postdeployment experience for female soldiers and their families were identified: Life Is More Complex, Loss of Military Role, Deployment Changes You, Reestablishing Partner Connections, and Being Mom Again. The categories reflected individual and family issues, and both need to be considered when soldiers and their families seek care. Additional research is needed to fully understand the specific impact of gender on women's reintegration.

  2. Documented family violence and risk of suicide attempt among U.S. Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursano, Robert J; Stein, Murray B; Herberman Mash, Holly B; Naifeh, James A; Fullerton, Carol S; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Ng, Tsz Hin Hinz; Aliaga, Pablo A; Wynn, Gary H; Dinh, Hieu M; McCarroll, James E; Sampson, Nancy A; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Schoenbaum, Michael; Heeringa, Steven G; Kessler, Ronald C

    2018-04-01

    Suicide attempt (SA) rates in the U.S. Army increased substantially during the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. This study examined associations of family violence (FV) history with SA risk among soldiers. Using administrative data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS), we identified person-month records of active duty, Regular Army, enlisted soldiers with medically documented SAs from 2004 to 2009 (n = 9650) and a sample of control person-months (n = 153,528). Logistic regression analyses examined associations of FV with SA, adjusting for socio-demographics, service-related characteristics, and prior mental health diagnosis. Odds of SA were higher in soldiers with a FV history and increased as the number of FV events increased. Soldiers experiencing past-month FV were almost five times as likely to attempt suicide as those with no FV history. Odds of SA were elevated for both perpetrators and those who were exclusively victims. Male perpetrators had higher odds of SA than male victims, whereas female perpetrators and female victims did not differ in SA risk. A discrete-time hazard function indicated that SA risk was highest in the initial months following the first FV event. FV is an important consideration in understanding risk of SA among soldiers. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Interpersonal conflict and referrals to counseling among married soldiers following return from deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Deborah A; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Johnson, Ruby E

    2012-10-01

    Deployment represents a significant potential strain on military families. The impact of postdeployment stresses may be increased if family coping resources are diminished by returning service members' physical injuries, mental health issues, or substance abuse. This article examines the health and mental health correlates of self-reported concerns regarding interpersonal conflict among married soldiers following return from deployment and the likelihood that soldiers acknowledging such concerns are referred to counseling services. Among 20,166 married Army soldiers completing Post-Deployment Health Reassessments, 18% reported having experienced serious interpersonal conflict with their spouse, family members, close friends, or coworkers. Results indicate that interpersonal conflict was more common among those who reported health problems, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and alcohol abuse. Among soldiers reporting interpersonal conflict and not already receiving services, 11% were referred to service. Findings support the need to communicate with soldiers and their spouses about the availability of services following return from deployment and to continue efforts to reduce stigma associated with seeking treatment.

  4. The reality of war: wounded and fallen Norwegian soldiers in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkan, Geir; Iversen, Petter; Asak, Håkon; Pillgram-Larsen, Johan; Rolandsen, Bent-Åge

    2012-05-15

    Norway has been contributing military forces to Afghanistan since 2001. The following is an overview of all combat-related injuries and deaths among Norwegian soldiers in the period from 2002 to 2010. All medical records for Norwegian military personnel in Afghanistan in the period to January 2011 were reviewed and those who fell or were injured during combat were identified. The mechanism and anatomical region of the injury were registered and an injury severity score (ISS), revised trauma score (RTS) and probability of survival score were calculated. Deaths were classified according to military trauma terminology and were additionally assessed as either "non-survivable" or "potentially survivable". There were 45 injury incidents with nine deaths among 42 soldiers. The injury mechanism behind seven of the deaths was an improvised explosive device (IED). All injuries resulting in deaths were "non-survivable". Seven soldiers were severely injured. The mechanisms were bullet wounds, IED, splinters from grenades and landmine explosions. Twenty nine incidents involving 28 soldiers resulted in minor injuries. The most frequent mechanism was ricochet or splinter injury from shooting or an exploding grenade. The majority of conflict-related injuries in Afghanistan were due to explosions. The mechanism and anatomical distribution of the injuries was the same among Norwegian soldiers as among allies. The deaths were due to extensive injuries that were non-survivable.

  5. Suboptimal Nutritional Characteristics in Male and Female Soldiers Compared to Sports Nutrition Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Kim; Darnell, Matthew E; Lovalekar, Mita; Baker, Rachel A; Nagai, Takashi; San-Adams, Thida; Wirt, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrient intake of male and female Soldiers in the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) compared to sports nutrition standards for athletes, and to identify suboptimal eating characteristics that may impair physical performance and jeopardize military readiness. Male and female Soldiers from the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) completed a 24-hour dietary recall and nutrition history questionnaire before anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken. Compared to sports nutrition guidelines, Soldiers of the 101 st under consume carbohydrates (males: 3.9 ± 2.0 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p < 0.001; females: 4.0 ± 2.1 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p = 0.001), male Soldiers eat too much fat (32.4% of kcal vs. <30% of kcal, p = 0.000) and saturated fat (males: 10.5 ± 3.9% of kcal vs. 10.0% of kcal, p = 0.044), and both males and females follow a meal pattern that may not optimize energy availability throughout the day. Eating too much fat and under fueling carbohydrate may negatively impact the adaptations to physical training and compromise overall health. Although Soldiers continue to participate in arduous training programs, future research should be aimed at determining the energy and macronutrient needs to fuel and recover from specific types of military training. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  6. Associations of childhood bullying victimization with lifetime suicidal behaviors among new U.S. Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Sills, Laura; Kessler, Ronald C; Ursano, Robert J; Rosellini, Anthony J; Afifi, Tracie O; Colpe, Lisa J; Heeringa, Steven G; Nock, Matthew K; Sampson, Nancy A; Sareen, Jitender; Schoenbaum, Michael; Sun, Xiaoying; Jain, Sonia; Stein, Murray B

    2017-08-01

    Prior studies have documented associations of childhood bullying victimization with suicidal behaviors. However, many failed to adjust for concomitant risk factors and none investigated this relationship in military personnel. This study aimed to estimate independent associations of childhood bullying victimization with suicidal behaviors among U.S. Army soldiers. Soldiers reporting for basic training completed a cross-sectional survey assessing mental disorders, suicidal behaviors, and childhood adversities including two types of bullying victimization: (1) Physical Assault/Theft and (2) Bullying Comments/Behaviors. Associations of childhood bullying experiences with suicidal behaviors were estimated using discrete-time survival analysis of person-year data from 30,436 soldiers. Models adjusted for sociodemographic factors, childhood maltreatment by adults, and mental disorders. After comprehensive adjustment for other risk factors, more frequent Physical Assault/Theft by peers during childhood was associated with increased odds of lifetime suicidal ideation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.11-1.26, P Bullying Comments/Behaviors were associated with increased risk of ideation (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.26-1.35, P bullying victimization, exposure to the most persistent bullying was associated with two- to fourfold increase in risk for suicidal behaviors. Childhood bullying victimization is associated with lifetime suicidal behaviors among new soldiers. Exposure to Bullying Comments/Behaviors during childhood is associated with progression from suicidal ideation to plan. Improved recognition of these relationships may inform risk mitigation interventions for soldiers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mozambique child soldier life outcome study: lessons learned in rehabilitation and reintegration efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothby, N; Crawford, J; Halperin, J

    2006-01-01

    As the use of child soldiers continues to proliferate throughout the world, effective psychosocial interventions must be developed and evaluated. Our research shows that former child soldiers who are provided rehabilitative services and accepted back into their families and communities are able to become productive, responsible and caring adults. In 1988, 39 captured or escaped child soldiers were brought by the Mozambican government to the Lhanguene Rehabilitation Center in Maputo, Mozambique's capital city. Interventions that focused on rehabilitating the children both psychologically and physically were initiated during their 6-month stay at the Lhanguene centre, and reintegration assistance was provided for 2 years thereafter to support their return to families and communities. Our research continued to follow these former child soldiers for 16 years, and focused on their psychological, social and economic functioning. The study included qualitative and quantitative data collection methods to obtain adult well-being outcomes and was also designed to identify interventions that enabled these child soldiers to re-enter civilian life and lead relatively productive lives. Efficacious rehabilitation activities included those that strengthened individuals' coping skills for anticipated trauma and grief, instilled a sense of social responsibility and promoted self-regulation and security (versus survival) seeking behaviour. Activities that supported long term reintegration and self-sufficiency included community acceptance and forgiveness, traditional cleansing and healing rituals, livelihoods and apprenticeships.

  8. Zombie soldier beetles: Epizootics in the goldenrod soldier beetle, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus (Coleoptera: Cantharidae) caused by Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina: Entomophthoraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkraus, Donald C; Hajek, Ann E; Liebherr, Jim K

    2017-09-01

    Adult goldenrod soldier beetles, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus, were found infected by the fungus Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina) in Arkansas during September - October (1996, 2001, 2015 and 2016). Living and dead infected beetles were found on flowering frost aster, Symphyotrichum pilosum, common boneset, Eupatorium perfoliatum, and Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Live and dead beetles (n=446) were collected in 1996 from S. pilosum flowers and held individually in the laboratory for determination of fungal prevalence. Of the beetles collected, 281 (63%) were males and 165 (37%) were females. A total of 90 beetles were infected with E. lampyridarum, an overall prevalence of 20.2%. Prevalence in males was 19.6% (n=55 infected/281 males total) and prevalence in females was 21.2% (n=35 infected /165 females total). Conidia were produced from 57% of the infected beetles, 23% of the infected beetles produced resting spores, and 20% contained the hyphal body stage. Infected beetles produced either conidia or resting spores but never both in the same host. Post-mortem morphological changes in the hosts due to E. lampyridarum were observed periodically for 24h. Shortly before death, by unknown mechanisms, dying infected beetles tightly clamped their mandibles into flower heads and ca. 15-22h later (between 2400 and 0700h) the fungus caused dead beetles to raise their elytra and expand their metathoracic wings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. A structural model of burnout syndrome, coping behavior and personality traits in professional soldiers of the Slovene armed forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Serec

    2012-04-01

    Conclusions: To reduce burnout in the Slovenian Army, it may be of great benefit to provide training of effective stress-coping mechanisms, and create peer support groups among soldiers. Such intervention should be especially beneficial for soldiers with a vulnerable personality structure (high neuroticism and psychoticism and low extraversion.

  10. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  11. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  12. Personal values in soldiers after military deployment: associations with mental health and resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zimmermann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: After military deployment, soldiers are at an increased risk of developing posttraumatic psychiatric disorders. The correlation of personal values with symptoms, however, has not yet been examined within a military context. Method: Schwartz's Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS, and the 11-item version of the Resilience Scale (RS-11 were completed by 117 soldiers of the German Armed Forces who had recently been deployed to Afghanistan (n=40 undergoing initial psychiatric treatment, n=77 untreated. Results: Logistic regression showed that the value types of hedonism (−, power (−, tradition (+, and universalism (+ were significantly correlated with the probability and severity of PTSD and whether the participant was in treatment or not. The effects were partially mediated by the RS-11 scale values. Conclusions: Value types seem to be associated with psychiatric symptoms in soldiers after deployment. These results could contribute to the further development of therapeutic approaches.

  13. [Mental disorders in German soldiers after deployment - impact of personal values and resilience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Firnkes, Susanne; Kowalski, Jens; Backus, Johannes; Alliger-Horn, Christina; Willmund, Gerd; Hellenthal, Andrea; Bauer, Amanda; Petermann, Franz; Maercker, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Soldiers are at increased risk of developing mental health disorders after military deployment. The impact of personal values on psychological symptomatology based on an empirical working model has not yet been studied in a military environment. 117 German Armed Forces soldiers completed the Portrait-Values-Questionnaire (PVQ), the Patient-Health-Questionnaire (PHQ) and the Resilience-Scale (RS-11) after their deployment to Afghanistan. In the regression analyses the values hedonism, benevolence, tradition, self-direction and universalism had a differential significant impact on depression, anxiety and somatoform symptoms of the PHQ. The RS-11 sum scale values were negatively correlated with symptomatology. Personal values and resilience seem to be associated with psychological symptomatology in soldiers after military deployment. The results can contribute to the further development of both preventive and therapeutic approaches. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Personal values in soldiers after military deployment: associations with mental health and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Firnkes, Susanne; Kowalski, Jens T; Backus, Johannes; Siegel, Stefan; Willmund, Gerd; Maercker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    After military deployment, soldiers are at an increased risk of developing posttraumatic psychiatric disorders. The correlation of personal values with symptoms, however, has not yet been examined within a military context. Schwartz's Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ), the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), and the 11-item version of the Resilience Scale (RS-11) were completed by 117 soldiers of the German Armed Forces who had recently been deployed to Afghanistan (n=40 undergoing initial psychiatric treatment, n=77 untreated). Logistic regression showed that the value types of hedonism (-), power (-), tradition (+), and universalism (+) were significantly correlated with the probability and severity of PTSD and whether the participant was in treatment or not. The effects were partially mediated by the RS-11 scale values. Value types seem to be associated with psychiatric symptoms in soldiers after deployment. These results could contribute to the further development of therapeutic approaches.

  15. Potential biodiesel and biogas production from corncob by anaerobic fermentation and black soldier fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wu; Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jibin; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Yanlin

    2015-10-01

    Bioenergy has become attractive as alternatives of gradually exhausted fossil fuel. Obtaining high grade bioenergy from lignocellulose is attractive that can gradually meet the demand. This study reported biogas and biodiesel were produced from corncob by a two-step bioprocess, biogas was produced from corncob by anaerobic fermentation, then biogas residue was converted by black soldier fly larvae, and then biodiesel was produced from larvae grease. 86.70 L biogas was obtained from 400 g corncob with the accumulation of biogas yield of 220.71 mL/g VS(added) by anaerobic digestion. Besides, 3.17 g of biodiesel was produced from grease after inoculating black soldier fly larvae into 400 g biogas residue. Meanwhile, the results showed that the addition of black soldier fly larvae could be effective for the degradation of lignocellulose and the accumulation of grease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship of Life Satisfaction and Job Satisfaction among Pakistani Army Soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summaira Naz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study had two main objectives; first, to discover the relationships between job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers, second, to find out the age, salary, marital status, and education differences on job satisfaction and life satisfaction in Pakistani army soldiers. In the present study two questionnaires; Job Satisfaction Scale JSS (Macdonald & Maclntyre, 1997 and Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, et al., 1985; were administered to a sample (N=400 along with a demographic sheet. The results of the study revealed a significant positive correlation between job satisfaction and life satisfaction of Pakistani army soldiers. The findings of the study also showed a significant age, education, salary, and marital status differences in job satisfaction and life satisfaction. Age, marital status, and salary variables had positive correlation with job satisfaction and life satisfaction but education had a negative association with job satisfaction and life satisfaction

  17. Prevalence of Pain Diagnoses and Burden of Pain Among Active Duty Soldiers, FY2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Sharon; Adams, Rachel Sayko; Ritter, Grant A; Williams, Thomas V; Larson, Mary Jo

    2018-03-14

    Soldiers are at risk for acute and chronic pain due to the mental and physical challenges of military duties and ongoing training for force readiness. With the burden of pain on any individual attributable across pain sources, a broad perspective that goes beyond prior characterizations of pain is important. We aim to further the understanding of pain's effects among non-deployed active duty soldiers and the Military Health System (MHS), by describing prevalence of 10 painful conditions, reported pain levels, duration of pain and impact of pain on military duty limitations. Data are from the MHS Data Repository including outpatient MHS direct care encounters, claims for outpatient purchased care from civilian providers, and vital records, for all soldiers continuously enrolled in TRICARE and not deployed in FY 2012. Ten pain-related diagnostic categories were conceptually derived for this analysis and identified using ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes. We report the FY 2012 prevalence at the soldier-level (N = 297,120) for each pain category as a primary diagnosis, as well as in any diagnostic position, and at the soldier-level for reported pain level, duration, and military duty limitations. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained prior to analyses. Overall, 63% of soldiers had at least one pain diagnosis and 59% had a primary pain diagnosis during FY 2012. Back and neck pain (22%), non-traumatic joint disorders (28%), and other musculoskeletal pain (30%) were the most frequent categories for primary diagnosis. Nearly two-thirds of soldiers had a primary pain diagnosis in more than one category, and 23% in four or more categories. Moderate or severe pain levels were reported at least once during the year by 55% of soldiers who had a primary pain diagnosis. In the subsample of soldiers with primary pain in the first quarter, duration and chronicity of pain diagnoses varied by pain category: the back and neck pain category was the most common for both persistent

  18. Risk factors for disability discharge in enlisted active duty Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccirillo, Amanda L; Packnett, Elizabeth R; Cowan, David N; Boivin, Michael R

    2016-04-01

    The rate of permanent disability retirement in U.S. Army soldiers and the prevalence of combat-related disabilities have significantly increased over time. Prior research on risk factors associated with disability retirement included soldiers retired prior to conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. To identify risk factors for disability discharge among soldiers enlisted in the U.S. Army during military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. In this case-control study, cases included active duty soldiers evaluated for disability discharge. Controls, randomly selected from soldiers with no history of disability evaluation, were matched to cases based on enlistment year and sex. Conditional logistic regression models calculated odds of disability discharge. Attributable fractions estimated burden of disability for specific pre-existing condition categories. Poisson regression models compared risk of disability discharge related to common disability types by deployment and combat status. Characteristics at military enlistment with increased odds of disability discharge included a pre-existing condition, increased age or body mass index, white race, and being divorced. Musculoskeletal conditions and overweight contributed the largest proportion of disabilities. Deployment was protective against disability discharge or receiving a musculoskeletal-related disability, but significantly increased the risk of disability related to a psychiatric or neurological condition. Soldiers with a pre-existing condition at enlistment, particularly a musculoskeletal condition, had increased odds of disability discharge. Risk of disability was dependent on condition category when stratified by deployment and combat status. Additional research examining conditions during pre-disability hospitalizations could provide insight on specific conditions that commonly lead to disability discharge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Post-traumatic stress disorder in U.S. soldiers with post-traumatic headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Jacqueline F; Erickson, Jay C

    2013-01-01

    To determine the impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on headache characteristics and headache prognosis in U.S. soldiers with post-traumatic headache. PTSD and post-concussive headache are common conditions among U.S. Army personnel returning from deployment. The impact of comorbid PTSD on the characteristics and outcomes of post-traumatic headache has not been determined in U.S. Army soldiers. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 270 consecutive U.S. Army soldiers diagnosed with post-traumatic headache at a single Army neurology clinic. All subjects were screened for PTSD at baseline using the PTSD symptom checklist. Headache frequency and characteristics were determined for post-traumatic headache subjects with and without PTSD at baseline. Headache measures were reassessed 3 months after the baseline visit, and were compared between groups with and without PTSD. Of 270 soldiers with post-traumatic headache, 105 (39%) met screening criteria for PTSD. There was no significant difference between subjects with PTSD and those without PTSD with regard to headache frequency (17.2 vs 15.7 headache days per month; P = .15) or chronic daily headache (58.1% vs 52.1%; P = .34). Comorbid PTSD was associated with higher headache-related disability as measured by the Migraine Disability Assessment Score. Three months after the baseline neurology clinic visit, the number of subjects with at least 50% reduction in headache frequency was similar among post-traumatic headache cases with and without PTSD (25.9% vs 26.8%). PTSD is prevalent among U.S. Army soldiers with post-traumatic headache. Comorbid PTSD is not associated with more frequent headaches or chronic daily headache in soldiers evaluated at a military neurology clinic for chronic post-traumatic headache. Comorbid PTSD does not adversely affect short-term headache outcomes, although prospective controlled trials are needed to better assess this relationship. © 2013 American Headache

  20. SOLDIERS' CODES OF CONDUCT IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES AROUND THE WORLD. A COMPARATIVE OUTLOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice MOMPEYSSIN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In all countries around the world, the duties of the soldier are codified in detail, but in very different ways, according to the various histories, and cultural backgrounds of the respective Nations. As this soldier has the right to legally use a powerful lethal force, a lot is required from him, which is normal. He is now most often a professional. He has mainly to master perfectly his weapons, to respect the Law of Armed Conflicts and to apply the principle of humanity. But his leaders have to guide him and his Nation to understand and support him.

  1. Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury Prevention for Soldiers: Phase 2 and 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-10-2-0165 TITLE: “ Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury Prevention for Soldiers: Phase 2 & 3”.” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...27Sep2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-2-0165 “ Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury Prevention for Soldiers: Phase 2...Virginia Tech – Wake Forest University, Center for Injury Biomechanics and the U.S. Army entitled “ Biomechanics of Head, Neck, and Chest Injury

  2. The prevalence of causative organisms of community-acquired urethritis in an age group at high risk for sexually transmitted infections in Korean Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Jin; Park, J K; Park, S C; Kim, Y G; Choi, H; Ko, J I; Kim, M K; Jeong, Y B; Shin, Y S

    2017-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the causative organisms in young male soldiers with clinical signs and symptoms after sexual contact that suggests a diagnosis of urethritis. Between June 2012 and January 2015, male patients with urethritis symptoms that had resulted from sexual contact within 3 months participated in this study. All patients were evaluated using urinalysis and were screened for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), herpes simplex virus (HSV) type II and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) using multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay in order to detect sexually transmitted infections (STI) or pathogens. A total of 436 male patients aged 18-28 years were included in the study. The median age was 22.0 years. The prevalence of STI pathogens were as follows: NG in 19.0%, CT in 36.6%, UU in 24.0%, MG in 21.5%, MH in 6.1%, HSV type II in 1.6%, TV in 0.2% and indeterminate STI pathogens in 9.4%. Coinfection of NG with non-NG was detected in 5.7% of the participants, while the coinfection rates for STI pathogens were: with CT in 3.4%, with UU in 2.7%, with MG in 0.2% and with MH in 0.2%. CT was the most prevalent STI pathogen and coinfections of NG with non-NG appeared less frequently. The young male soldiers with urethritis should be administered suitable antibiotics for STI pathogens that were found by mPCR results, rather than an experimental combination of antibiotics for coinfections. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  4. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  5. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  6. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  7. Soldiers’ Psychological Responses to Tactical Nuclear Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    530. Greene , T.L. (1987). Description of a nuclear battlefield. In R.H. Young & B.H. Drum (Edo.), Proceedings of the Defense Nuclear Agency Symposium...ATTN: DEPT OF BEHAVOR SCI & LEADERSHIP ATTN: PMS/PMA-423 ATTN: DEPT OF PHYSICS COL J G CAMPBELL ATTN: SCIENCE RESEARCH LAB OPERATIONAL TEST & EVALUATION

  8. The Great Bravery of Croatian Soldier by Giuseppe Maria Mitelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Premerl

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches the iconography of two etchings with Croatian subject matter made by the Bolognese etcher Giuseppe Maria Mitelli in 1684. In the focus is the etching Great Bravery of Croatian soldier (Gran prodezza di soldato croatto. The author concludes, interpreting the explanatory text below the etching, that it depicts an event of the so-called Great Turkish War (1683-1699. The depicted hero belonged to the Croatian Regiment commanded by general James Leslie, and the depicted heroic act occurred, in all probability, during the battle of Virovitica in 1684. Also, the author points out to a model for Mitelli's etching as well as to the literary image of the simultaneous decapitation of both a horseman and a horse in the Croatian literature. In the same year, Mitelli also made the portrait of the Zagreb bishop and the politician Martin Borković. The existence of both etchings is associated with the Illyrian-Hungarian College in Bologna, governed by the Zagreb cathedral Chapter. L'articolo indaga l'iconografia di due incisioni con soggetto croato realizzate dall'incisore bolognese Giuseppe Maria Mitelli nel 1684. Il focus del saggio è l'incisione Gran prodezza di soldato croatto. Interpretando il testo esplicativo sotto l'acquaforte, l'autore ritiene che essa raffiguri un evento della cosiddetta Grande Guerra Turca (1683-1699. L'eroe raffigurato apparteneva al reggimento croato comandato dal generale James Leslie e l'atto eroico raffigurato avvenne, con ogni probabilità, durante la battaglia di Virovitica nel 1684. L'autore individua inoltre un modello per l'incisione di Mitelli e un riferimento a una fonte nella letteratura croata ove compare la decapitazione simultanea di un cavaliere e di un cavallo. Nello stesso anno Mitelli fece anche il ritratto del vescovo di Zagabria e del politico Martin Borković. L'esistenza di entrambe le acqueforti è associata al Collegio illirico-ungarico di Bologna, governato dal Capitolo della

  9. Multi-functional roles of a soldier-specific volatile as a worker arrestant, primer pheromone and an antimicrobial agent in a termite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitaka, Yuki; Mori, Naoki; Matsuura, Kenji

    2017-07-26

    Division of labour in eusocial insects is characterized by efficient communication systems based on pheromones. Among such insects, termites have evolved specialized sterile defenders, called soldiers. Because they are incapable of feeding themselves, it has been suggested that soldiers are sustained by workers and emit the pheromone arresting workers. However, such a soldier pheromone has not been identified in any termite species, and the details of the soldier-worker interaction remain to be explored. Here, we identified a soldier-specific volatile sesquiterpene as a worker arrestant, which also acts as a primer pheromone regulating soldier differentiation and fungistatic agent in a termite Reticulitermes speratus Chemical analyses revealed that (-)- β -elemene is the major component of soldier extract, and its authentic standard exhibited arrestant activity to workers and inhibited the differentiation from workers to soldiers. This compound also showed fungistatic activity against entomopathogenic fungi. These suggest that (-)- β -elemene secreted by soldiers acts not only as a worker arrestant but also as one component of inhibitory primer pheromone and an anti-pathogenic agent. Our study provides novel evidence supporting the multi-functionality of termite soldier pheromone and provides new insights into the role of soldiers and the evolutionary mechanisms of pheromone compounds. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Strongly disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttalib, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    We examine some universal effects of strong non-magnetic disorder on the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. In particular we explicitly take into account the effect of slow diffusion of electrons in a disordered medium by working in an exact impurity eigenstate representation. We find that the normal diffusion of electrons characterized by a constant diffusion coefficient does not lead to any significant correction to the electron-phonon or the effective electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. We then consider sufficiently strong disorder where Anderson localization of electrons becomes important and determine the effect of localization on the electron-electron interactions. We find that due to localization, the diffusion of electrons becomes anomalous in the sense that the diffusion coefficient becomes scale dependent. This results in an increase in the effective electron-electron interaction with increasing disorder. We propose that this provides a natural explanation for the unusual sensitivity of the transition temperature T/sub c/ of the high T/sub c/ superconductors (T/sub c/ > 10 0 K) to damage effects

  11. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  12. From Soldiers to Children: Developmental Sciences Transform the Construct of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Bridget A.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was first included in the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders" in 1980. Long used to describe the reactions of soldiers affected by stress in combat situations, PTSD is now recognised as a disorder affecting abused and neglected infants and…

  13. Reading at the Front: Books and Soldiers in the First World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Marcella P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the reading and educational practices of common soldiers during the First World War. It argues that the question of how war libraries were imagined and constructed by civilians needs to be framed in the larger context of pre-war Edwardian debates surrounding the "value of books" in society. Indeed, it was within…

  14. Stress and counterproductive work behavior: multiple relationships between demands, control, and soldier indiscipline over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jennifer S; Sinclair, Robert R; Mohr, Cynthia D; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Salvi, Angela D; Adler, Amy B

    2009-07-01

    Cognitive Resource Theory (CRT) suggests that under high levels of stress, employees are more prone to committing indiscipline. As few studies have examined this relationship over time, the authors conducted a six-wave longitudinal study examining the relationship of soldiers' indiscipline with work demands and control. The study included archival data collected quarterly over 2 years from 1,701 soldiers representing 10 units in garrison (Germany and Italy), in training rotations (Grafenwoehr, Germany), and on peacekeeping deployments (Kosovo, Kuwait). No main effects were found for work overload, and the findings for the moderating effects of control were contradictory. Within each time point, as work overload increased, soldiers who felt less control committed more indiscipline, supporting CRT. Over time, however, as work overload increased, soldiers who perceived less control 6 months earlier committed less indiscipline. Additionally, the authors found reverse causal effects for control such that prior perceptions of a lack of control were associated with indiscipline and prior incidents of indiscipline with less control. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Inequality in MINUSMA: African Soldiers are in the Firing Line in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, Peter; Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe Marie; Haugegaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    African and European soldiers in the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Mali (MINUSMA) work under very different conditions regarding levels of training, equipment, general support from their governments and the fact that African troops are deployed in the most dangerous areas. The UN should ...

  16. Short Report: High Incidence of Shigellosis Among Peruvian Soldiers Deployed in the Amazon River Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Franca R; Sanchez, Jose L; Meza, Rina; Batsel, Tanis M; Burga, Rosa; Canal, Enrique; Block, Karla; Perez, Juan; Bautista, Christian T; Escobedo, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    ...). Most (83 of 90; 92%) of the Shigella isolates were S. flexneri, of which 57 (69%) were serotype 2a. Seventy-six percent of Shigella isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim and all were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Peruvian soldiers may be an excellent population in which to test the efficacy of S. flexneri vaccines in advanced development.

  17. MENTAL DEVELOPMENT TRAINING FOR MILITARY SOLDIER AT ISKANDAR MUDA MILITARY COMMAND (A Theocentrical Humanism Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Husein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the process of soldier's mental development in Iskandar Muda Military Command, both seen from the selection process to be soldier in educational institutions as well as in the unit assignment. This research is expected to find the development pattern in accordance with the challenging tasks for the National Military (TNI ahead. By using a qualitative approach, this research has achieved several findings: 1 in the selection process, a soldier was just demanded to fundamentally have religious understanding without a standard point for depth understanding of religion, 2 in the first stage of education, the subject matter of religion only a broad outline of religious teachings, 3 religious activities is not part of military trainings curriculum, but it is merely education administrators’ policy, 4 the soldiers in unit deemed to have knowledge of the religion and an unwavering faith. Despite the fact that soldiers’ religious knowledge is still very low, while the faith is generally used as the symbolic emphasis that is less discussed. As a result, it is feared that mentality weakness when facing a tough task, both faced with the sophistication of tools, strategies and mental demands in modern warfare in the future.

  18. Psychotrauma and effective treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in soldiers and peacekeepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quarcoo David

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Psychotrauma occurs as a result to a traumatic event, which may involve witnessing someone's actual death or personally experiencing serious physical injury, assault, rape and sexual abuse, being held as a hostage, or a threat to physical or psychological integrity. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder and was defined in the past as railway spine, traumatic war neurosis, stress syndrome, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat fatigue, or post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS. If untreated, post-traumatic stress disorder can impair relationships of those affected and strain their families and society. Deployed soldiers are especially at a high risk to be affected by PTSD but often receive inadequate treatment. Reviews to date have focused only on a single type of treatment or groups of soldiers from only one country. The aim of the current review was to evaluate characteristics of therapeutic methods used internationally to treat male soldiers' PTSD after peacekeeping operations in South Eastern Europe and the Gulf wars. This systematic literature review returned results pertaining to the symptoms, diagnosis, timing and effectiveness of treatment. Sample groups and controls were relatively small and, therefore, the results lack generalizability. Further research is needed to understand the influence and unique psychological requirements of each specific military operation on the internationally deployed soldiers.

  19. Nutritional composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae reared on different organic waste substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spranghers, Thomas; Ottoboni, Matteo; Klootwijk, Cindy; Ovyn, Anneke; Deboosere, Stefaan; Meulenaer, De Bruno; Michiels, Joris; Eeckhout, Mia; Clercq, De Patrick; Smet, De Stefaan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black soldier fly larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and

  20. Psychological resilience and the gene regulatory impact of posttraumatic stress in Nepali child soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Worthman, Carol M; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Luitel, Nagendra P; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; McCreath, Heather; Seeman, Teresa E; Crimmins, Eileen M; Cole, Steven W

    2016-07-19

    Adverse social conditions in early life have been linked to increased expression of proinflammatory genes and reduced expression of antiviral genes in circulating immune cells-the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA). However, it remains unclear whether such effects are specific to the Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) cultural environments in which previous research has been conducted. To assess the roles of early adversity and individual psychological resilience in immune system gene regulation within a non-WEIRD population, we evaluated CTRA gene-expression profiles in 254 former child soldiers and matched noncombatant civilians 5 y after the People's War in Nepal. CTRA gene expression was up-regulated in former child soldiers. These effects were linked to the degree of experienced trauma and associated distress-that is, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity-more than to child soldier status per se. Self-perceived psychological resilience was associated with marked buffering of CTRA activation such that PTSD-affected former child soldiers with high levels of personal resilience showed molecular profiles comparable to those of PTSD-free civilians. These results suggest that CTRA responses to early life adversity are not restricted to WEIRD cultural contexts and they underscore the key role of resilience in determining the molecular impact of adverse environments.

  1. Evolution of low-profile and lightweight electrical connectors for soldier-worn applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Eric; Lee, Kang; Jannson, Tomasz; Walter, Kevin

    2011-06-01

    In addition to military radios, modern warfighters carry cell phones, GPS devices, computers, and night-vision aids, all of which require electrical cables and connectors for data and power transmission. Currently each electrical device operates via independent cables using conventional cable and connector technology. Conventional cables are stiff and difficult to integrate into a soldier-worn garment. Conventional connectors are tall and heavy, as they were designed to ensure secure connections to bulkhead-type panels, and being tall, represent significant snag-hazards in soldier-worn applications. Physical Optics Corporation has designed a new, lightweight and low-profile electrical connector that is more suitable for body-worn applications and operates much like a standard garment snap. When these connectors are mated, the combined height is <0.3 in. - a significant reduction from the 2.5 in. average height of conventional connectors. Electrical connections can be made with one hand (gloved or bare) and blindly (without looking). Furthermore, POC's connectors are integrated into systems that distribute data or power from a central location on the soldier's vest, reducing the length and weight of the cables necessary to interconnect various mission-critical electronic systems. The result is a lightweight power/data distribution system offering significant advantages over conventional electrical connectors in soldier-worn applications.

  2. Characterization of Foot-Strike Patterns: Lack of an Association With Injuries or Performance in Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warr, Bradley J; Fellin, Rebecca E; Sauer, Shane G; Goss, Donald L; Frykman, Peter N; Seay, Joseph F

    2015-07-01

    Characterize the distribution of foot-strike (FS) patterns in U.S. Army Soldiers and determine if FS patterns are related to self-reported running injuries and performance. 341 male Soldiers from a U.S. Army Combined Arms Battalion ran at their training pace for 100 meters, and FSs were recorded in the sagittal plane. Participants also completed a survey related to training habits, injury history, and run times. Two researchers classified FS patterns as heel strike (HS) or nonheel strike (NHS, combination of midfoot strike and forefoot strike patterns). Two clinicians classified the musculoskeletal injuries as acute or overuse. The relationship of FS type with two-mile run time and running-related injury was analyzed (p ≤ 0.05). The Soldiers predominately landed with an HS (87%) and only 13% were characterized as NHS. Running-related injury was similar between HS (50.3%) and NHS (55.6%) patterns (p = 0.51). There was no difference (p = 0.14) between overuse injury rates between an HS pattern (31.8%) and an NHS pattern (31.0%). Two-mile run times were also similar, with both groups averaging 14:48 minutes. Soldiers were mostly heel strikers (87%) in this U.S. Army Combined Arms Battalion. Neither FS pattern was advantageous for increased performance or decreased incidence of running-related injury. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  3. Moral othering at the checkpoint: The case of Israeli soldiers and Palestinian civilians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grassiani, E.

    2015-01-01

    In many ways the Palestinian civilian is the ultimate or significant ‘other' for the Israeli soldier serving in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT). (S)he is the one who will be stopped, checked, controlled and at times arrested. (S)he is the one who negotiates, pleads, begs and sometimes

  4. A comparison between two methods of measuring total fat in the Iranian soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rahmani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Constant checkup and control of body fat mass is an important parameter for the health and efficiency of individuals in any society. This parameter is especially crucial in army soldiers since physical fitness is a key role in reaching high physical performance, health, and survival in war. Objective: This study was designed to compare two methods of measuring fat, the method of circumference-based military equations (CBEs to estimate body fat mass compared to the method of skinfold thickness-based equation (SBE in Iranian soldiers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 246 Iranian soldiers were recruited in Tehran (2016. Height, waist, and neck circumference were measured and the total body fat mass was calculated using CBEs. Then, the results of using Pierson’s correlation and Bland-Altman methods were compared with Jackson and Pollock’s skinfold thickness measurement. Findings: The total body fat mass of the soldiers using CBEs was 18.94±6.30% and using Jakson and Pollock’s skinfold thickness formula was 17.43±4.45%. The correlation between the two methods was r=0.984 and SEE was 1.1% (P<0.001. Conclusion: The more body fat makes the error waist circumference greater. The error is so much that don’t use this method to measure fat.

  5. Reasons for medical evacuations of soldiers serving in International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) operation in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Gregulski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of a research study into the reasons for medical evacuations of Polish military personnel taking part in the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) operation in Afghanistan from 2007 to 2013. The authors have analysed medical records of 485 soldiers who were medically evacuated out of a combat zone in Afghanistan for battle injuries, non-battle injuries and diseases. Each medically evacuated Polish soldier was subjected to statistical analysis. The study population comprised 25,974 soldiers assigned to the Polish Military Contingent Afghanistan in the given period. From 2007 to 2013, 1.9% of the Polish military personnel (n = 485) participating in the ISAF operation in Afghanistan were evacuated for medical reasons before the scheduled termination of their contract. 40.6% of all medical evacuations were due to battle injuries, 32.4% due to non-battle injuries, and 27.0% due to diseases. ISAF is an example of a combat operation, in which battle injuries remain the leading health problem in mission participants. 3 of 4 Polish soldiers who were medically evacuated from Afghanistan were no longer fit for military service in the area of operations due to the traumas they had suffered.

  6. Warrior Heroes and Little Green Men: Soldiers, Military Training, and the Construction of Rural Masculinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    Examines military training in the United Kingdom; the construction of military masculinities, particularly the ideal type of the warrior hero; and the role of the countryside (as the training location) and rurality (as a social construction) in that process. Argues that becoming an infantry soldier means being molded to this hegemonic model of…

  7. Respiratory symptoms necessitating spirometry among soldiers with Iraq/Afghanistan war lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szema, Anthony M; Salihi, Walid; Savary, Khalil; Chen, John J

    2011-09-01

    New-onset asthma rates are higher among US soldiers deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan than stateside, but overall respiratory symptom and spirometry rates among soldiers returning from Iraq/Afghanistan have not yet been addressed. We determined these rates in soldiers deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan versus troops stationed elsewhere. Retrospective review of active-duty soldiers (2004 to 2010) registered at Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Northport, New York, with Long Island/New York City zip codes. Subjects were examined by physicians or physicians' assistants. We counted number of spirometries, which required respiratory symptoms, and the provider was required to submit a diagnosis as part of the request process. Twenty-five percent of 7151 troops went to Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 1816) and 75% went elsewhere (n = 5335), with more smokers in the Iraq/Afghanistan group (16.1% vs 3.3%). Rates of symptoms and spirometry were 14.5% and 1.8%, for Iraq/Afghanistan, versus troops deployed elsewhere, respectively (P Afghanistan war lung injury is common and rates of symptoms leading to a diagnosis requiring spirometry are high. (C)2011The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

  8. Sensory analysis of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, fed enriched black soldier fly prepupae, hermetia illucens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A growth trial and fillet sensory analysis were conducted to examine the effects of replacing dietary fish meal with black soldier fly (BSF) prepupae, Hermetia illucens, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. A practical-type trout diet was formulated to contain 45% protein; four test diets were dev...

  9. Predicting and explaining behavioral intention and hand sanitizer use among US Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Naiqing; Roberts, Kevin R

    2017-04-01

    Using hand sanitizers can reduce bacterial contamination and is an efficient and inexpensive method of preventing infections. The purpose of this study was to explore the behavioral intention (low and absolute), attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control of hand sanitizer use among US Army soldiers. A questionnaire was developed following an expert panel (N = 5) review and 2 pilot studies (N = 35) to ensure questionnaire validity and clarity. Surveys were distributed among nontrainee soldiers during lunch periods. A total of 201 surveys were collected. Results indicated that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral controls explained 64% of the variance in behavioral intention. Attitude remained the strongest predictor of behavior (β = 0.70, P hand sanitizers hold significantly different behavioral and normative beliefs than low intenders. Other soldiers create negative social pressure about using hand sanitizers, indicating that if other soldiers use hand sanitizers, they will refuse to do so. Intervention to ensure use of hand sanitizer should focus on strengthening behavioral and normative beliefs among low intenders. This should increase the overall well being of the military. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Social Welfare of Soldiers' Families in Yenisei Province (1914–1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya M. Dolidovich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Authors examine the question of the types, scale, efficiency of public aid and social support of soldiers' families in Yenisei province during the First World War. Particular attention is paid to the activities of cities and urban guardianship organizations that have paid to families of the mobilized amount exceeding the amount of state benefits. It is shown that in the rural guardianship organizations did not have more money. They failed to organize labor help with the agricultural work. Soldiers' families reduced tillage, many of them wanted to move to the provincial center. Siberian city were not a major commercial and industrial centers, their budgets have been modest. Siberia had no zemstvo institutions, therefore, the city suffered heavy costs for the solution of many other problems caused by wartime (the organization of assistance to refugees and the injured, the fight against the high cost and lack of, the development of cooperatives, and others, they were making regular payments for all-Russian charitable societies. The flow of donations to urban guardianship and charitable organizations has decreased dramatically in 1916, and the number in need has increased significantly, the municipal government began to curtail payments to soldiers' families. The discontent of the soldiers' wives resulted in the pogroms of malls and attacks against members of municipal self-government bodies of Minusinsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kansk in 1916–1917.

  11. Technological evaluation of gesture and speech interfaces for enabling dismounted soldier-robot dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattoju, Ravi Kiran; Barber, Daniel J.; Abich, Julian; Harris, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    With increasing necessity for intuitive Soldier-robot communication in military operations and advancements in interactive technologies, autonomous robots have transitioned from assistance tools to functional and operational teammates able to service an array of military operations. Despite improvements in gesture and speech recognition technologies, their effectiveness in supporting Soldier-robot communication is still uncertain. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the performance of gesture and speech interface technologies to facilitate Soldier-robot communication during a spatial-navigation task with an autonomous robot. Gesture and speech semantically based spatial-navigation commands leveraged existing lexicons for visual and verbal communication from the U.S Army field manual for visual signaling and a previously established Squad Level Vocabulary (SLV). Speech commands were recorded by a Lapel microphone and Microsoft Kinect, and classified by commercial off-the-shelf automatic speech recognition (ASR) software. Visual signals were captured and classified using a custom wireless gesture glove and software. Participants in the experiment commanded a robot to complete a simulated ISR mission in a scaled down urban scenario by delivering a sequence of gesture and speech commands, both individually and simultaneously, to the robot. Performance and reliability of gesture and speech hardware interfaces and recognition tools were analyzed and reported. Analysis of experimental results demonstrated the employed gesture technology has significant potential for enabling bidirectional Soldier-robot team dialogue based on the high classification accuracy and minimal training required to perform gesture commands.

  12. Disgust and the development of posttraumatic stress among soldiers deployed to Afghanistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, Iris M.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; de Jung, Peter J.

    Although the DSM-IV recognizes that events can traumatize by evoking horror, not just fear, the role of disgust in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has received little research attention. In a study of soldiers deployed to Afghanistan, we examined whether reports of

  13. Cytokine production as a putative biological mechanism underlying stress sensitization in high combat exposed soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, Geert E.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Geuze, Elbert; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Vermetten, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Combat stress exposed soldiers may respond to post-deployment stressful life events (SLE) with increases in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), consistent with a model of stress sensitization. Several lines of research point to sensitization as a model to describe the

  14. Professional soldier assessment of a rifle-mounted target hand-off system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levesque, J.; Banko, K.; Binsch, O.

    2015-01-01

    The miniaturization of digital image acquisition and processing hardware, positional sensors, and batteries has enabled the creation of assisted targeting systems light enough to be integrated onto small firearms to increase the probability of soldiers detecting and hitting targets. As well, the

  15. Cytokine production as a putative biological mechanism underlying stress sensitization in high combat exposed soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, Geert E.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Geuze, Elbert; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Vermetten, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Combat stress exposed soldiers may respond to post-deployment stressful life events (SLE) with increases in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), consistent with a model of stress sensitization. Several lines of research point to sensitization as a model to describe the relations between

  16. Children of former child soldiers and never-conscripted civilians: a preliminary intergenerational study in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, S.; de Jong, J.; O'Hara, R.; Koopman, C.

    2013-01-01

    Studies around the world show that former child soldiers (FCSs) have mental health strengths and limitations, and highlight the important role of families and communities in reintegration to society. However, there are limited data that examine the mental health risks and protective factors of the

  17. Gait retraining as part of the treatment programme for soldiers with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gait retraining as part of a treatment programme for exercise-related leg pain (ERLP) was introduced in the sports medicine department of the Royal ... Conclusion: Soldiers with exercise-related leg pain (ERLP), among them patients with Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome, respond well to a treatment programme ...

  18. Mental Health among Former Child Soldiers and Never-Abducted Children in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ughetta Moscardino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems in former Ugandan child soldiers in comparison with civilian children living in the same conflict setting. Participants included 133 former child soldiers and 101 never-abducted children in northern Uganda, who were interviewed about exposure to traumatic war-related experiences, posttraumatic stress symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems. Results indicated that former child soldiers had experienced significantly more war-related traumatic events than nonabducted children, with 39.3% of girls having been forced to engage in sexual contact. Total scores on measures of PTSD symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems were significantly higher among child soldiers compared to their never-abducted peers. Girls reported significantly more emotional and behavioral difficulties than boys. In never-abducted children, more mental health problems were associated with experiencing physical harm, witnessing the killings of other people, and being forced to engage in sexual contact.

  19. Tactic-operational problems of soldiers, civilians and environmental protection against contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauze, M.

    1994-01-01

    The military problems connected with the probable use in warfare the chemical and nuclear weapon have been discussed. The concept of soldiers, civilians and environmental protection against the chemical and radiological contamination has been presented from the view point of military tactics

  20. Gait retraining as part of the treatment programme for soldiers with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    Gait retraining, as a treatment for overuse injuries of the lower extremities is ... pressure (N/cm2) on the heels at 317 days follow-up (average,. SD 108). ... The running style (type of strike) was .... findings on strike patterns among soldiers.

  1. CORRELATION BETWEEN COORDINATION AND PERSONALITY TRAITS OF SOLDIERS IN BATTLE UNIT OF SLOVENIAN ARMED FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Pori

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor ability of coordination and personality traits of Slovenian soldiers. The subject sample consisted of 94 soldiers in a battle unit of Slovenian Armed Forces (SAF who were serving in the first brigade (age 26,5 ± 3,4 years. Motor ability of coordination was assessed with two motor tasks (polygon bac- kwards and figure 8 duck test. The structure of personality traits was measured with a FPI (Freiburg Personality Inventory included 114 items and measured 9 personality traits of order I (neuroticism, impulsivity, depression, irritability, sociability, calmness, dominance, suppression, sincerity and 3 personality traits of order II (extroversion, emotional istability, masculinity. The correlation between coordination and personality traits was estimated by the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The results show that soldiers who did worse in motor test polygon backwards were more neurotic, suppressed, and impulsive. They also tend to be more sociable. The correlation between second test of coordination shows that better soldiers in this test are more extrovert or less introvert.

  2. Chemistry and Anatomy of the Frontal Gland in Soldiers of the Sand Termite Psammotermes hybostoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krasulová, Jana; Hanus, Robert; Kutalová, Kateřina; Šobotník, Jan; Sillam-Dusses, David; Tichý, Michal; Valterová, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 5 (2012), s. 557-565 ISSN 0098-0331 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : termites * frontal gland of soldiers * chemical defense * Rhinotermitidae * Psammotermes hybostoma Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.462, year: 2012

  3. [The disease and treatment of the frontline soldiers in Han dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hookie

    2015-04-01

    This paper purports to identify and analyze the medical information of the frontline soldiers in the Northwest borderland provinces of Han Dynasty, especially Juyan and Dunhuang region, through an heuristic reading of the Juyan Bamboo Slips and the Dunhuang Bamboo Slips of the Han Dynasty. My findings are as follows. The most frequent disease found in the bamboo slips was the external injury. The injury of the frontline soldiers mainly occurred from the quarrels among armed soldiers using weapons. The bamboo slips also demonstrate that the quarrels usually arose due to the fierce tension caused by the frontier line service such as heavy guard activity and labour duty. Undernourishment and chronic stress the soldiers suffered might be another reasons. The second most common disease harassing the soldiers was exogenous febrile disease. In most cases reviewed in this paper, the exogenous febrile disease was usually concurrent with complex symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, etc. The bamboo slips show that the exogenous febrile disease was related to the harsh climate of the Northwest provinces, featuring extremely dry weather and the large magnitude of diurnal temperature fluctuations. In addition, the annual temperature range in the Northwest province was huge, fluctuating between very cold and dry winter and very hot and dry summer. The third most common disease this study identified was the disorder of the digestive system and respiratory system. However, these two types of disease were virtually indistinguishable in the bamboo slips, because the ancient Chinese chroniclers did not distinguish them, usually dubbing both diseases simply 'abdominal pain.' It should be mentioned that a few slips mention contagious disease such as dysentery and dermatolosis, and sudden death, as well. Overall, the bamboo slips demonstrate extremely poor status of the soldiers' heath condition and poor medical environment surrounding the soldiers stationing in the Northwest

  4. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  5. Strongly interacting Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed

  6. Integration of an intelligent systems behavior simulator and a scalable soldier-machine interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tony; Manteuffel, Chris; Brewster, Benjamin; Tierney, Terry

    2007-04-01

    As the Army's Future Combat Systems (FCS) introduce emerging technologies and new force structures to the battlefield, soldiers will increasingly face new challenges in workload management. The next generation warfighter will be responsible for effectively managing robotic assets in addition to performing other missions. Studies of future battlefield operational scenarios involving the use of automation, including the specification of existing and proposed technologies, will provide significant insight into potential problem areas regarding soldier workload. The US Army Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) is currently executing an Army technology objective program to analyze and evaluate the effect of automated technologies and their associated control devices with respect to soldier workload. The Human-Robotic Interface (HRI) Intelligent Systems Behavior Simulator (ISBS) is a human performance measurement simulation system that allows modelers to develop constructive simulations of military scenarios with various deployments of interface technologies in order to evaluate operator effectiveness. One such interface is TARDEC's Scalable Soldier-Machine Interface (SMI). The scalable SMI provides a configurable machine interface application that is capable of adapting to several hardware platforms by recognizing the physical space limitations of the display device. This paper describes the integration of the ISBS and Scalable SMI applications, which will ultimately benefit both systems. The ISBS will be able to use the Scalable SMI to visualize the behaviors of virtual soldiers performing HRI tasks, such as route planning, and the scalable SMI will benefit from stimuli provided by the ISBS simulation environment. The paper describes the background of each system and details of the system integration approach.

  7. Giving Work a Rain Check: Relationship Between Soldiering and Positive Work Outcomes Within the Job Demands-Resources Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Baran Metin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soldiering is defined as engaging behaviourally or cognitively into non-work-related activities during working hours with no intention of harming the employer, co-workers, and/or clients. The present study will investigate this phenomenon using the Job-Demands Resources Model. The proposed model will consider the influence of job demands and resources on soldiering, as well as the relationship of soldiering with employee wellbeing and performance. The data, collected via online questionnaires across seven European countries, will be analysed using structural equation modelling in order to explore the goodness-of-fit of the proposed model as well as its potential cross cultural variations.

  8. Public-academic partnerships: working together to meet the needs of Army National Guard soldiers: an academic-military partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalack, Gregory W; Blow, Adrian J; Valenstein, Marcia; Gorman, Lisa; Spinner, Jane; Marcus, Sheila; Kees, Michelle; McDonough, Susan; Greden, John F; Ames, Barbara; Francisco, Burton; Anderson, James R; Bartolacci, James; Lagrou, Robert

    2010-11-01

    The conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq have greatly increased the number of veterans returning home with combat exposure, reintegration issues, and psychiatric symptoms. National Guard soldiers face additional challenges. Unlike active duty soldiers, they do not return to military installations with access to military health services or peers. The authors describe the formation and activities of a partnership among two large state universities in Michigan and the Michigan Army National Guard, established to assess and develop programming to meet the needs of returning soldiers. The process of forming the partnership and the challenges, opportunities, and benefits arising from it are described.

  9. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  10. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  11. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  12. Longitudinal Assessment of Mental Health Problems Among Active and Reserve Component Soldiers Returning From the Iraq War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milliken, CHarles S; Auchterlonie, Jennifer L; Hoge, Charles W

    2007-01-01

    Described the Department of Defense's (DoDs) screening efforts to identify mental health concerns among soldiers and Marines as they return from Iraq and Afghanistan using the Post-Deployment Health Assessment (PDHA...

  13. The Relationship Between Air Particulate Levels and Upper Respiratory Disease in Soldiers Deployed to Bosnia (1997-1998)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hastings, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    This study had three objectives: to determine if there is a relationship between air particulate levels and upper respiratory disease in soldiers deployed to Bosnia between 1997-98, to establish a method for linking environmental...

  14. Risks of moral exploitation of soldiers through unrealistic recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Jockheck, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Not unlike the recent report Filling the ranks on the recruitment problems of the British Army shows for the UK, the German armed forces (Bundeswehr) struggle badly to meet their recruitment goals and to fulfill the “Trendwende Personal” (the turnaround in the personnel strength) as proclaimed by the German Defence Minister Ursula von der Leyen. Last year the recruitment department of the Bundeswehr tried a new way of targeting especially young people on YouTube. With a series of 59 episodes ...

  15. Warrior Transition Command Information Briefing to 2011 AMEDD Pre-Command Course: Soldier Success Through Focused Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    JTF CAPMED Veterans Affairs – Veterans Health Administration – Veterans Benefits Administration – Federal Recovery Coordinators – Polytrauma...investment of families is critical • Initial interview should reveal services that the Soldier and Family needs • Increased Social Workers exposure for...Soldier has his/her own unique set of challenges • Early involvement and investment of Families is critical • We cannot do enough for the Families of

  16. U.S. Army Physical Demands Study: Reliability of Simulations of Physically Demanding Tasks Performed by Combat Arms Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulis, Stephen A; Redmond, Jan E; Frykman, Peter N; Warr, Bradley J; Zambraski, Edward J; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2017-12-01

    Foulis, SA, Redmond, JE, Frykman, PN, Warr, BJ, Zambraski, EJ, and Sharp, MA. U.S. Army physical demands study: reliability of simulations of physically demanding tasks performed by combat arms soldiers. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3245-3252, 2017-Recently, the U.S. Army has mandated that soldiers must successfully complete the physically demanding tasks of their job to graduate from their Initial Military Training. Evaluating individual soldiers in the field is difficult; however, simulations of these tasks may aid in the assessment of soldiers' abilities. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of simulated physical soldiering tasks relevant to combat arms soldiers. Three cohorts of ∼50 soldiers repeated a subset of 8 simulated tasks 4 times over 2 weeks. Simulations included: sandbag carry, casualty drag, and casualty evacuation from a vehicle turret, move under direct fire, stow ammunition on a tank, load the main gun of a tank, transferring ammunition with a field artillery supply vehicle, and a 4-mile foot march. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard errors of measurement (SEMs), and 95% limits of agreement. Performance of the casualty drag and foot march did not improve across trials (p > 0.05), whereas improvements, suggestive of learning effects, were observed on the remaining 6 tasks (p ≤ 0.05). The ICCs ranged from 0.76 to 0.96, and the SEMs ranged from 3 to 16% of the mean. These 8 simulated tasks show high reliability. Given proper practice, they are suitable for evaluating the ability of Combat Arms Soldiers to complete the physical requirements of their jobs.

  17. Posttraumatic growth, social acknowledgment as survivors, and sense of coherence in former German child soldiers of World War II

    OpenAIRE

    Forstmeier, Simon; Kuwert, P; Spitzer, C; Freyberger, H J; Maercker, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine posttraumatic growth and its predictors social acknowledgment as survivors, sense of coherence, trauma severity, and further factors in former child soldiers more than 60 years after deployment. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: University-based geropsychiatric center in Germany. Participants: 103 former German child soldiers of World War II, mean age 78 years, 96% experienced at least one war trauma. Measurement: Subjects completed the Posttraumatic Growth ...

  18. Design Considerations of a Lower Limb Exoskeleton System to Assist walking and Load-Carrying of Infantry Soldiers

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Seungnam; Han, Changsoo; Cho, Ilje

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a wearable exoskeleton system for the lower extremities of infantry soldiers and proposes appropriate design criteria based on existing case studies. Because infantry soldiers carry a variety of equipment, the interference with existing equipment and additional burden of the exoskeleton support system should be minimized. Recent studies have shown that a user only needs to be supported in the gravitational direction when walking on flat terrain; however...

  19. Modulation of nutrient composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae by feeding seaweed-enriched media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liland, Nina S; Biancarosa, Irene; Araujo, Pedro; Biemans, Daan; Bruckner, Christian G; Waagbø, Rune; Torstensen, Bente E; Lock, Erik-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae are a promising source of protein and lipid for animal feeds. The nutritional composition of the BSF larvae depend partly on the composition of the feeding medium. The BSF lipid profile in part mimics the feeding media lipid profile, and micronutrients, like minerals and vitamins, can readily accumulate in black soldier fly larvae. However, investigative studies on bioconversion and accumulation of nutrients from media to black soldier fly larvae are scarce. Here we show that inclusion of the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum in the substrate for black soldier fly larvae can introduce valuable nutrients, commonly associated with the marine environment, into the larvae. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), iodine and vitamin E concentrations increased in the larvae when more seaweed was included in the diet. When the feeding media consisted of more than 50% seaweed, the larvae experienced poorer growth, lower nutrient retention and lower lipid levels, compared to a pure plant based feeding medium. Our results confirm the plasticity of the nutritional make-up of black soldier fly larvae, allowing it to accumulate both lipid- and water-soluble compounds. A broader understanding of the effect of the composition of the feeding media on the larvae composition can help to tailor black soldier fly larvae into a nutrient profile more suited for specific feed or food purposes.

  20. Modulation of nutrient composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens larvae by feeding seaweed-enriched media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina S Liland

    Full Text Available Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens larvae are a promising source of protein and lipid for animal feeds. The nutritional composition of the BSF larvae depend partly on the composition of the feeding medium. The BSF lipid profile in part mimics the feeding media lipid profile, and micronutrients, like minerals and vitamins, can readily accumulate in black soldier fly larvae. However, investigative studies on bioconversion and accumulation of nutrients from media to black soldier fly larvae are scarce. Here we show that inclusion of the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum in the substrate for black soldier fly larvae can introduce valuable nutrients, commonly associated with the marine environment, into the larvae. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, iodine and vitamin E concentrations increased in the larvae when more seaweed was included in the diet. When the feeding media consisted of more than 50% seaweed, the larvae experienced poorer growth, lower nutrient retention and lower lipid levels, compared to a pure plant based feeding medium. Our results confirm the plasticity of the nutritional make-up of black soldier fly larvae, allowing it to accumulate both lipid- and water-soluble compounds. A broader understanding of the effect of the composition of the feeding media on the larvae composition can help to tailor black soldier fly larvae into a nutrient profile more suited for specific feed or food purposes.

  1. Young Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard Obling, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Book review of: Kevin Roose: "Young Money: Inside the Hidden World of Wall Street's Post-Crash Recruits". New York: Grand Central Publishing, 2014. 320 pp.......Book review of: Kevin Roose: "Young Money: Inside the Hidden World of Wall Street's Post-Crash Recruits". New York: Grand Central Publishing, 2014. 320 pp....

  2. Efforts to Promote Reintegration and Rehabilitation of Traumatized Former Child Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Ivelina I.; Betancourt, Theresa S.; Willett, John B.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the role of caregivers in the reintegration of former child soldiers from Sierra Leone. Using data on 282 youth and their respective caregivers, our aim is to focus on the caregiver–child relationship after reintegration. We investigate the extent to which caregivers know about child soldiers' experiences of direct and indirect violence, as well as involvement in war activities. We further examine variables that might shape the degree of caregiver knowledge of child's war experiences. Finally, we examine if caregiver knowledge of war experiences is associated with child's psychosocial outcomes. Findings highlight the importance of developing thoughtful programs that consider the needs of the child in the context of the family and caregivers with whom he or she is reunified. PMID:29249893

  3. Serological markers for hepatitis types A and B among U.S. Arym soldiers, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J J; Smith, L

    1979-01-01

    Viral hepatitis rates among U.S. Army soldiers in Europe have been found to be two to three times higher than corresponding rates for soldiers stationed in the U.S. Sera from 89 per cent of a representative Army unit with 865 members and a known hepatitis problem were tested for HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, and anti-HA. The prevalence of HB markers was 20 per cent, and hepatitis A antibody was present in 25 per cent. A six-month follow-up, conducted on 260 individuals initially negative for all four tests, revealed that 11 of these were now HB seropositive, whereas none had seroconverted to anti-HA positive. The HB virus was the principal agent responsible for hepatitis in the unit surveyed. PMID:228562

  4. Intestinal parasites in First World War German soldiers from "Kilianstollen", Carspach, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bailly, Matthieu; Landolt, Michaël; Mauchamp, Leslie; Dufour, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitological investigations revealed the presence of intestinal helminths in samples taken from the abdominal cavities of two German soldiers, recovered in the First World War site named "Kilianstollen" in Carspach, France. Eggs from roundworm, whipworm, tapeworm and capillariids were identified. The morphological and morphometrical comparison, followed by statistical analyses, showed that the Carspach capillariid eggs are similar to rodent parasites. Poor sanitary conditions in the trenches, the lack of knowledge of parasites, and the widespread presence of commensal animals, can explain the occurrence of such parasites in human intestines. This study is the second dealing with 20th century human samples. It confirms the presence of intestinal worms in First World War German soldiers. In this case study, the application of statistics to precise measurements facilitated the diagnosis of ancient helminth eggs and completed the microscopic approach.

  5. Chiral Induction with Chiral Conformational Switches in the Limit of Low "Sergeants to Soldiers" Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuermaimaiti, Ajiguli; Bombis, Christian; Knudsen, Martin Markvard

    2014-01-01

    Molecular-level insights into chiral adsorption phenomena are highly relevant within the fields of asymmetric heterogeneous catalysis or chiral separation and may contribute to understand the origins of homochirality in nature. Here, we investigate chiral induction by the "sergeants and soldiers......" mechanism for an oligo(phenylene ethynylene) based chiral conformational switch by coadsorbing it with an intrinsically chiral seed on Au(111). Through statistical analysis of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) data we demonstrate successful chiral induction with a very low concentration of seeding...... molecules down to 3%. The microscopic mechanism for the observed chiral induction is suggested to involve nucleation of the intrinsically chiral seeds, allowing for effective transfer and amplification of chirality to large numbers of soldier target molecules....

  6. Squad-Level Soldier-Robot Dynamics: Exploring Future Concepts Involving Intelligent Autonomous Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    a Blue Force Tracker system with a computer keyboard for conveying the mission to the ASM. One Soldier said the operator should be able to verbally...The ASM is equipped with multiple cameras, acoustic sensors, and lasers . It has a cargo carrying capability for squad equipment and other...location in reference to its initial position? No, needs to remain in good spot to cover squad if need be or move to kill sniper. Roster Number 27

  7. Innovation in the Prevention of the Use of Child Soldiers: Women in the Security Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    committed to the Paris Principles defining a child soldiers as: any person below 18 years of age who is or has been recruited or used by an armed force or...armed group in any capacity, including but not limited to children, boys and girls, used as fighters, cooks, porters, messengers, spies or for sexual ... age of women that make up security forces worldwide and the limited professional devel- opment opportunities that are made available to them. Despite

  8. Physical Training Programs in Light Infantry Units: Are They Preparing Soldiers for the Rigors of Combat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    selection is made which ensure further injury is not incurred during evacuation. As a result, the basic task identified is carry. Demanding Physical Tasks...greatest amount of force a muscle or muscle group can exert in a single effort.3 An example, in very simple terms, would be an Olympic weightlifter ...Olympic weightlifters lift as much as possible in one lift. This requires a great amount of strength. A need for strength in light infantry soldiers is

  9. Anti-Jam GPS Antennas for Wearable Dismounted Soldier Navigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    GPS antenna, the Novatel GAJT-700M/ L CRPA is currently being considered, as shown in Fig. 6. Fig. 6 A basic 7-element CRPA (right) compared with a...ARL-TR-7670 ● JUNE 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Anti-Jam GPS Antennas for Wearable Dismounted Soldier Navigation Systems...longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-7670 ● JUNE 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Anti-Jam GPS Antennas for

  10. Army Reserve Components: Improvements Needed to Data Quality and Management Procedures to Better Report Soldier Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    the advantages and disadvantages of using the different assignment approaches. In order to better understand how initial military training policies...account. We did not evaluate the advantages or disadvantages of either accounting practice. Page 31 GAO-15-626 Army Reserve Components...coordinate on a mutually agreeable time. The Army Reserve and Army National Guard provided us individual soldier availability data from the five main

  11. The Effects of Soldier Gear Encumbrance on Restraints in a Frontal Crash Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-31

    ASME 2015 IDETC/ CIE AVT-7-1 Advances in Military and Commercial Ground Vehicle Design Sebastian Karwaczynski Lead Restraint Development Engineer...release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ASME 2015 IDETC/ CIE AVT-7-1 Advances in Military and Commercial Ground Vehicle Design 14...has to date not accounted for the Soldier gear burden. •Actual loads imparted onto the occupant in a representative military vehicle crash test

  12. Killing in Combat: Utilizing a Christian Perspective, When is a Soldier Justified in Taking a Life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Vietnam War combat veterans suffering from PTSD, has to say concerning subjects such as grief, guilt , honor, suffering, and healing while investigating...Gray, who served as an intelligence 11 officer in World War I, offers his thoughts on death and killing while discussing the guilt Soldiers so...battlefield (1959, 104). Gray also discusses the need for hating one’s enemy while having pride in the number of kills on the battlefield as a necessity

  13. Evaluation of Reproductive Health Training of Soldiers at the First Army of Turkish Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Bakir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study has aimed to evaluate results of reproductive health training in the First army as a part the Reproductive Health Program of Turkish Armed Forces (TAF. Hard copies of training results from the a sample of 9 reproductive health classrooms between November 2006 and February 2007 have been collected and analyzed after entering in a SPSS file. A Pre-test and a post-test included the same 25 questions on RH issues were given to the soldiers. Total mean scores and scores for 5 modules of Sexual Health, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs, Contraceptives, Safe Motherhood, and Gender, were estimated. By deciding 60 as cutting point, achievement of soldiers was also evaluated. Total Pre and posttest mean scores were compared between groups according to the achievement, hometown, and region of residency, educational level, and marital status. Furthermore, Relative efficiency, Efficiency attributed to training course and Efficiency Ratio has been also calculated. The mean pre-test score of soldiers is 60.4 ± 21.0 and it has been significantly increased up to 82.8 ± 14.5 after the training course (p<0.05. This significant increase was also found for each of sub dimensions similar to total score (p<0.05. While 52.5 % of soldiers have been successful on pretest, this percent has been rise up to 93.1% for the post test (p<0.05.. The relative efficiency of intervention as 6.9, efficiency attributed to training as 40.6%, and efficiency ratio as 85.5% have been estimated. Involving in reproductive health training has improved soldiers� awareness particularly on women�s health. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(1.000: 41-48

  14. Guilt, Shame and Compassionate Imagery in War: Traumatized German Soldiers with PTSD, a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Alliger-Horn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The consideration of specific trauma-associated emotions poses a challenge for the differential treatment planning in trauma therapy. Soldiers experiencing deployment-related posttraumatic stress disorder often struggle with emotions of guilt and shame as a central component of their PTSD. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which soldiers’ PTSD symptoms and their trauma-related guilt and shame may be affected as a function of their ability to develop compassionate imagery between their CURRENT SELF (today and their TRAUMATIZED SELF (back then. Method: The sample comprised 24 male German soldiers diagnosed with PTSD who were examined on the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS and two additional measures: the Emotional Distress Inventory (EIBE and the Quality of Interaction between the CURRENT SELF and the TRAUMATIZED SELF (QUI-HD: Qualität der Interaktion zwischen HEUTIGEN ICH und DAMALIGEN ICH at pre- and post-treatment and again at follow-up. The treatment used was imagery rescripting and reprocessing therapy (IRRT. Results: Eighteen of the 24 soldiers showed significant improvement in their PTSD symptoms at post-treatment and at follow-up (on their reliable change index. A significant change in trauma-associated guilt and shame emerged when compassionate imagery was developed towards one’s TRAUMATIZED SELF. The degree and intensity of the guilt and shame felt at the beginning of treatment and the degree of compassionate imagery developed toward the TRAUMATIZED SELF were predictors for change on the PDS scores. Conclusions: For soldiers suffering from specific war-related trauma involving PTSD, the use of self-nurturing, compassionate imagery that fosters reconciling with the traumatized part of the self can effectively diminish trauma-related symptoms, especially when guilt and shame are central emotions.

  15. Optimizing The Scheduling Of Recruitment And Initial Training For Soldiers In The Australian Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Positions versus Target Number of Positions .............24 Figure 5. Model 1 Number of Students Attending IET versus Days’ Wait between IET and ARTC...30 Figure 9. Model 2 Number of Students Attending IET versus Days’ Wait between IET and ARTC...never fill their corresponding IET positions. IET gaps made by the ARTC dropouts are often used for trade transfers, which occur when a soldier

  16. Looking for ‘Home’? New Zealand Soldiers Visiting London during the First World War

    OpenAIRE

    Maguire, Anna

    2016-01-01

    For colonial troops from the British Empire, the military mobilizations of the First World War created the opportunity to visit the imperial metropolis – London – leaving the war behind. This article explores the experience and encounters of New Zealand's soldiers in London during the First World War and the ambiguity of their identity and belonging in a city that could be positioned as ‘home’. Using diaries, letters, newspapers and oral testimonies, the article builds on the work of Felicity...

  17. Family involvement in the reintegration of former child soldiers in Sierra Leone:A critical examination

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1980s Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) programmes have been an integral part of post-conflict reconstruction. This was especially true of Sierra Leone’s post-conflict reconstruction which has frequently been hailed a ‘multilateral success story’ by the international community. Nevertheless, within Western-authored DDR literature there is a widespread but little interrogated assertion that, in post-conflict contexts, resettling former child soldiers with their...

  18. An Unexpected Case of Lyme Disease in a Soldier Serving in Northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    MILITARY MEDICINE, 175,5:367,2010 An Unexpected Case of Lyme Disease in a Soldier Serving in Northern Iraq CPT Jeremy B. Fisher, SP USA *; CPT...Christopher E. Curtis, MC USAt 188143 ABSTRACT Lyme disease is a tick-transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Cases have been...Turkey.3-S We report an unexpected case of Lyme disease from Iraq. CASE REPORT A 28-year-old active duty Army male, on a deployment to northern Iraq

  19. Guilt, Shame and Compassionate Imagery in War: Traumatized German Soldiers with PTSD, a Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alliger-Horn, Christina; Zimmermann, Peter Lutz; Schmucker, Mervyn

    2016-01-01

    Background: The consideration of specific trauma-associated emotions poses a challenge for the differential treatment planning in trauma therapy. Soldiers experiencing deployment-related posttraumatic stress disorder often struggle with emotions of guilt and shame as a central component of their PTSD. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which soldiers’ PTSD symptoms and their trauma-related guilt and shame may be affected as a function of their ability to develop...

  20. A Coaching Intervention to Promote Nutrition and Bone Health in Deployed Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-13

    statistically significant differences in calories, micronutrients, macronutrients , calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus, vitamin C, vitamin K, or...Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (20-35%) 3 Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) 4 Vitamin D: 15 ug/day = 600 IU As evident in Table 4, neither...encouraging TG soldiers to engage in weight-bearing, muscle-strengthening exercises. The most frequently reported sports included soccer

  1. A morphologically specialized soldier caste improves colony defense in a neotropical eusocial bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüter, Christoph; Menezes, Cristiano; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2012-01-24

    Division of labor among workers is common in insect societies and is thought to be important in their ecological success. In most species, division of labor is based on age (temporal castes), but workers in some ants and termites show morphological specialization for particular tasks (physical castes). Large-headed soldier ants and termites are well-known examples of this specialization. However, until now there has been no equivalent example of physical worker subcastes in social bees or wasps. Here we provide evidence for a physical soldier subcaste in a bee. In the neotropical stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula, nest defense is performed by two groups of guards, one hovering near the nest entrance and the other standing on the wax entrance tube. We show that both types of guards are 30% heavier than foragers and of different shape; foragers have relatively larger heads, whereas guards have larger legs. Low variation within each subcaste results in negligible size overlap between guards and foragers, further indicating that they are distinct physical castes. In addition, workers that remove garbage from the nest are of intermediate size, suggesting that they might represent another unrecognized caste. Guards or soldiers are reared in low but sufficient numbers (1-2% of emerging workers), considering that bee Lestrimelitta limao, an important natural enemy, larger workers were able to fight for longer before being defeated by the much larger robber. This discovery opens up opportunities for the comparative study of physical castes in social insects, including the question of why soldiers appear to be so much rarer in bees than in ants or termites.

  2. Perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers in Sobi barracks, Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, N A; Akande, T M; Osagbemi, G K; Olasupo, S T; Salawu, K Y; Adebayo, E T

    2013-06-01

    There is a popular belief among the general population that Nigerian soldiers tend to have large families but this has not been substantiated with evidence-based research. The Nigerian military health authority implements female-targetted contraception strategies, with less focus on their husbands; who are the dominant fertility determinants. To determine the perception and practice of contraception among male soldiers of Sobi Cantonment, Ilorin, Nigeria, with a view to instituting male-targeted contraceptive/family planning strategies. A cross-sectional survey of 334 male soldiers using multistage sampling technique and pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaires. The respondents' approval of contraception (73.6%) and willingness to discuss it with their spouses/partners (71.6%) were high. Fear of wives/partner's sexual promiscuity (55.7%), cultural and religious beliefs (43.2%), fear of the side effects of contraceptives (29.5%) and the desire for more children (21.6%) were reported reasons for the non-approval of contraception. The prevalence of contraceptive use among the respondents was low (12.3%). There was a significant relationship between the respondents' educational level and contraceptive use (pcontraception with their spouses/partners but low contraceptive use.

  3. Community integration after deployment to Afghanistan: a longitudinal investigation of Danish soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie; Andersen, Søren B; Bertelsen, Mette; Madsen, Trine

    2015-04-01

    In the years following military deployment, soldiers may experience problems integrating into the community. However, little is known about the nature and prevalence of these problems and if they relate to posttraumatic symptomatology. In a prospective, longitudinal study of Danish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2009 (N = 743), we assessed community reintegration difficulties 2.5 years after home coming (study sample: N = 454). Furthermore, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were assessed before, during, and after deployment. Trajectories of PTSD symptoms from a previously published latent growth mixture modeling analysis were used to address whether community reintegration difficulties differ as a result of course and level of PTSD symptoms. Between 3.6 and 18.0% reported to have some, a lot, or extreme difficulties in reintegration domains such as interpersonal functioning, productivity, community involvement, and self-care. Mean level of reintegration difficulties differed significantly across six PTSD symptom trajectories (range 6.35-36.00); with more symptomatic trajectories experiencing greater community reintegration difficulties. Reintegration difficulties after deployment are present in less than 20% of Danish soldiers who return from Afghanistan. Difficulties are greater in individuals who follow symptomatic PTSD trajectories in the first years following deployment than in those who follow a low-stable trajectory with no or few symptoms.

  4. Mental skills training with basic combat training soldiers: A group-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Amy B; Bliese, Paul D; Pickering, Michael A; Hammermeister, Jon; Williams, Jason; Harada, Coreen; Csoka, Louis; Holliday, Bernie; Ohlson, Carl

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive skills training has been linked to greater skills, self-efficacy, and performance. Although research in a variety of organizational settings has demonstrated training efficacy, few studies have assessed cognitive skills training using rigorous, longitudinal, randomized trials with active controls. The present study examined cognitive skills training in a high-risk occupation by randomizing 48 platoons (N = 2,432 soldiers) in basic combat training to either (a) mental skills training or (b) an active comparison condition (military history). Surveys were conducted at baseline and 3 times across the 10-week course. Multilevel mixed-effects models revealed that soldiers in the mental skills training condition reported greater use of a range of cognitive skills and increased confidence relative to those in the control condition. Soldiers in the mental skills training condition also performed better on obstacle course events, rappelling, physical fitness, and initial weapons qualification scores, although effects were generally moderated by gender and previous experience. Overall, effects were small; however, given the rigor of the design, the findings clearly contribute to the broader literature by providing supporting evidence that cognitive training skills can enhance performance in occupational and sports settings. Future research should address gender and experience to determine the need for targeting such training appropriately. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Predicting domestic and community violence by soldiers living in a conflict region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Corina; Elbert, Thomas; Bambonye, Manassé; Weierstall, Roland; Reichert, Manfred; Zeller, Anja; Crombach, Anselm

    2017-11-01

    Past research revealed war trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as potential predictors for domestic and community violence in crisis regions and among soldiers in different armed conflicts. The impact of family violence and other adversities experienced in childhood as well as of a combat-enhanced appeal for aggressive behavior (appetitive aggression) remains to be specified. In the present study, the authors separately predicted violence against children, intimate partner violence and community violence in 381 Burundian soldiers returning from foreign deployment and living in a post- conflict region. Using path analysis, they aimed to disentangle the independent contributions and pathways of the following variables: Exposure to war trauma and childhood familial violence, PTSD and depression symptom severity, and appetitive aggression. Childhood familial violence had an independent effect on all contexts of violence and was the only significant predictor for violence against the soldiers' own children. Intimate partner violence was additionally predicted by depression symptom severity, while community violence was additionally predicted by PTSD symptom severity and appetitive aggression. Besides war-related mental ill-health and appetitive aggression, violent experiences during childhood development must not be overlooked as a factor fueling the cycle of violence in conflict regions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Repeated evolution of soldier sub-castes suggests parasitism drives social complexity in stingless bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüter, Christoph; Segers, Francisca H I D; Menezes, Cristiano; Vollet-Neto, Ayrton; Falcón, Tiago; von Zuben, Lucas; Bitondi, Márcia M G; Nascimento, Fabio S; Almeida, Eduardo A B

    2017-02-23

    The differentiation of workers into morphological castes represents an important evolutionary innovation that is thought to improve division of labor in insect societies. Given the potential benefits of task-related worker differentiation, it is puzzling that physical worker castes, such as soldiers, are extremely rare in social bees and absent in wasps. Following the recent discovery of soldiers in a stingless bee, we studied the occurrence of worker differentiation in 28 stingless bee species from Brazil and found that several species have specialized soldiers for colony defence. Our results reveal that worker differentiation evolved repeatedly during the last ~ 25 million years and coincided with the emergence of parasitic robber bees, a major threat to many stingless bee species. Furthermore, our data suggest that these robbers are a driving force behind the evolution of worker differentiation as targets of robber bees are four times more likely to have nest guards of increased size than non-targets. These findings reveal unexpected diversity in the social organization of stingless bees.Although common in ants and termites, worker differentiation into physical castes is rare in social bees and unknown in wasps. Here, Grüter and colleagues find a guard caste in ten species of stingless bees and show that the evolution of the guard caste is associated with parasitization by robber bees.

  7. Multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter infections in critically injured Canadian forces soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brisebois Ronald

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Military members, injured in Afghanistan or Iraq, have returned home with multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections. The source of these infections is unknown. Methods Retrospective study of all Canadian soldiers who were injured in Afghanistan and who required mechanical ventilation from January 1 2006 to September 1 2006. Patients who developed A. baumannii ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP were identified. All A. baumannii isolates were retrieved for study patients and compared with A. baumannii isolates from environmental sources from the Kandahar military hospital using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Results During the study period, six Canadian Forces (CF soldiers were injured in Afghanistan, required mechanical ventilation and were repatriated to Canadian hospitals. Four of these patients developed A. baumannii VAP. A. baumannii was also isolated from one environmental source in Kandahar – a ventilator air intake filter. Patient isolates were genetically indistinguishable from each other and from the isolates cultured from the ventilator filter. These isolates were resistant to numerous classes of antimicrobials including the carbapenems. Conclusion These results suggest that the source of A. baumannii infection for these four patients was an environmental source in the military field hospital in Kandahar. A causal linkage, however, was not established with the ventilator. This study suggests that infection control efforts and further research should be focused on the military field hospital environment to prevent further multi-drug resistant A. baumannii infections in injured soldiers.

  8. Egalitarianism in young children

    OpenAIRE

    Fehr, Ernst; Bernhard, Helen; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Human social interaction is strongly shaped by other-regarding preferences. These preferences are key for a unique aspect of human sociality – large scale cooperation with genetic strangers – but little is known about their developmental roots. We show here that young children’s other-regarding preferences assume a particular form – inequality aversion – that develops strongly between the ages of 3 and 8. At age 3-4, the overwhelming majority of children behave selfishly, while the vast major...

  9. Faith and the Soldier: Religious Support on the Airland Battlefield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-31

    more than membership per se, contributes most to faith development . 2) There is a strong positive correlation between one’s psychosocial health ( Erikson ...considered to have an identity and meaning of vital importance in faith development . The following summaries are from Fowler’s Stages of Faith as...measure) and his/her faith development (Fowler stage structure) . (See "Faith Development in the Adult Life Cycle [FD/ALCI," May 1987, a report

  10. Designing Interactive Multimedia Instruction to Address Soldiers’ Learning Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    combat leader follow this sequence. 3 See Soldier’s Manual of Common Tasks, Warrior Leader Skills Level 2, 3, 4 ( STP 21-24-SMCT), September 2008... market segment for these companies is very competitive, so they have strong incentive to innovate new features and capabilities. The version of... market , or supported in current versions of the software. Similar compatibility problems can arise when existing IMI is extracted from an LMS.6

  11. Young Love

    OpenAIRE

    Regmi, Pramod; Simkhada, Padam; Van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    Your article on love and relationship deals with a very important issue (“Love makes the world go round,” Feb. 15, Page 1).It is now widely accepted that romantic relationships and dating are normative among adolescents and young people in Nepal. In our qualitative study of urban and rural young males and females using same sex researchers — in perhaps the first study of dating practice among Nepali youth — almost all of our respondents reported that young people in Nepal form partnerships wi...

  12. Media life of the young

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlund, Oscar; Bjur, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    This is a thorough investigation into contemporary young people and their media life. The article conceptualizes a typology of media life, drawing on a theoretical body involving the sociology of generations, life course research, media life and individualization. This empirically derived typology...... makes a strong instrument for an understanding of the media life of the young, furnishing insights into how they have constructed their use of media. The investigation is based on a robust national survey with Swedes born 1994–2001, conducted in 2010, and focusing on four media: television, gaming......, the Internet and mobile devices. Two of the findings are particularly surprising. Firstly, the results reveal that the young generally lead heterogeneous media lives, varying with age and sex. Secondly, although some young people literarily live their life in media, there are also de facto young who live...

  13. Leadership and post-traumatic stress disorder: are soldiers' perceptions of organizational justice during deployment protective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrond, Andreas F; Høgh, Annie; Andersen, Søren B

    2018-01-01

    Background : Soldiers' perception of leadership during military deployment has gained research attention as a potentially modifiable factor to buffer against the development of postdeployment post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Within nonmilitary research, the organizational justice (OJ) framework, i.e. distributive justice, procedural justice (PJ) and interactional justice (IJ), has been found to relate to mental health outcomes. Aspects of OJ may, therefore, be protective against PTSD. Objectives : We examined the prospective relationship between aspects of OJ, namely the perceptions of PJ and IJ by subordinate soldiers without leadership obligations in relationship to immediate superiors and PTSD. Method : Participants were soldiers ( n =  245) deployed to Helmand Province in Afghanistan in 2009. Logistic regression procedures were used. The primary analysis measured PTSD cases using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis-I Disorder (SCID) 2½ years after homecoming. PJ/IJ was measured during deployment with a 6-item composite measure ranging from 0 to 12. Supplementary primary analyses were performed with PJ/IJ measured before and immediately after deployment. A secondary PJ/IJ analysis also tested against four postdeployment measures with the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Civilian (PCL-C) dichotomized at screening symptom levels. Results : Higher levels of perceived PJ/IJ for soldiers without leadership obligations during deployment had a prospective relation (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.75-0.98) with PTSD on the SCID 2½ years after homecoming after adjustment for factors including predeployment PTSD symptoms, trauma and combat exposure, and state affectivity. Similar results were found by measuring PJ/IJ before (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.71-0.95) but not immediately after homecoming (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.85-1.11). A relationship with PTSD symptoms at the screening level at the four measurements of PCL-C was found, but only

  14. CANDIDATE GENE ANALYSIS IN ISRAELI SOLDIERS WITH STRESS FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Yanovich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the association of polymorphisms within candidate genes which we hypothesized may contribute to stress fracture predisposition, a case-control, cross- sectional study design was employed. Genotyping 268 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms- SNPs within 17 genes in 385 Israeli young male and female recruits (182 with and 203 without stress fractures. Twenty-five polymorphisms within 9 genes (NR3C1, ANKH, VDR, ROR2, CALCR, IL6, COL1A2, CBG, and LRP4 showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05 in the distribution between stress fracture cases and non stress fracture controls. Seventeen genetic variants were associated with an increased stress fracture risk, and eight variants with a decreased stress fracture risk. None of the SNP associations remained significant after correcting for multiple comparisons (false discovery rate- FDR. Our findings suggest that genes may be involved in stress fracture pathogenesis. Specifically, the CALCR and the VDR genes are intriguing candidates. The putative involvement of these genes in stress fracture predisposition requires analysis of more cases and controls and sequencing the relevant genomic regions, in order to define the specific gene mutations

  15. Soldiers at risk for individual readiness or morale problems during a six-month peacekeeping deployment to the Sinai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, W R; Bell, D B

    2000-10-01

    Longitudinal data were examined to predict soldiers' morale, satisfaction with Army life, and the effects of family issues on performance of duties during an overseas deployment (Sinai peacekeeping force during the spring of 1995). Few variables were significant predictors of the outcome measures; however, rank, leaders' support for families, prior satisfaction with Army life and with information released about the deployment appeared to predict better outcomes during the deployment. Rank and leaders' support for families appeared to be more important for married soldiers while satisfaction with predeployment information seemed to be more important for single soldiers. Those who were worried about the effects of the deployment on their families also tended to report interference with their duty performance because of family concerns, but that effect was offset by perceived leaders' concern for families. In conclusion, it appears to the authors that the pre-existing factors studied had much less to do with deployment outcomes than did leadership success before and during the deployment. That's good news for Army leaders about their power to have a positive effect on soldiers' morale during overseas deployments but may be bad news for anyone hoping to find a "magic bullet" for pre-identification of soldiers most likely to retain high morale, regardless of their leadership's competence during an overseas deployment.

  16. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  17. Instabilities in strongly coupled plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kalman, G J

    2003-01-01

    The conventional Vlasov treatment of beam-plasma instabilities is inappropriate when the plasma is strongly coupled. In the strongly coupled liquid state, the strong correlations between the dust grains fundamentally affect the conditions for instability. In the crystalline state, the inherent anisotropy couples the longitudinal and transverse polarizations, and results in unstable excitations in both polarizations. We summarize analyses of resonant and non-resonant, as well as resistive instabilities. We consider both ion-dust streaming and dust beam-plasma instabilities. Strong coupling, in general, leads to an enhancement of the growth rates. In the crystalline phase, a resonant transverse instability can be excited.

  18. The Influence of Combat Experience on Psychologically Healthy Soldiers' Attentiveness to Environmental Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranes, Bethany; Long, Chris P; Traynham, Stephanie; Hayes, Amanda

    2017-07-01

    In contrast to previous research that has primarily examined how psychological disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], anxiety) are affected by and affect individuals' threat perceptions, this study examines the relationship between combat experience and threat-monitoring in psychologically healthy Soldiers. Existing research has established how prolonged or intense experiences with war-related stressors can lead individuals to undergo an unconscious fear-conditioning process that affects the circuitry of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex regions of the brain. We predict that the intensity of one's combat experience positively influences Soldiers' attention to environmental threats. Participants included U. S. Army Soldiers with a score of 50 or below on the PTSD Checklist-Military Version. Participants completed the Combat Exposure Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The experimental prediction task we employed assesses the expectation of an intrusively loud white noise sound that occurred on three variable patterns in a pseudorandomized order. Each tone pattern was used 20 times over a total of 60 trials. The experimental prediction task included two neutral tones (700 and 1,300 Hz) that were presented in a repeated pattern along with a 100-dB burst of white noise (0.5-second duration). In each trial, one of three possible tone combinations was presented. To assess their attentiveness to threats, participants were asked to continuously rate their expectancy of the burst of white noise using a visual analogue scale (VAS) ranging from 0 to 100. VAS ratings were collected at controlled points throughout the task. None of the participants reported scores on any of the diagnostic surveys that met standards for clinical significance. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to assess the overall effect of the three prediction conditions on participants' VAS ratings. There was a significant

  19. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  20. Cleveland Clinic intelligent mouthguard: a new technology to accurately measure head impact in athletes and soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam; Samorezov, Sergey

    2013-05-01

    Nearly 2 million Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) occur in the U.S. each year, with societal costs approaching $60 billion. Including mild TBI and concussion, TBI's are prevalent in soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan as well as in domestic athletes. Long-term risks of single and cumulative head impact dosage may present in the form of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, suicide, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE), dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Quantifying head impact dosage and understanding associated risk factors for the development of long-term sequelae is critical toward developing guidelines for TBI exposure and post-exposure management. The current knowledge gap between head impact exposure and clinical outcomes limits the understanding of underlying TBI mechanisms, including effective treatment protocols and prevention methods for soldiers and athletes. In order to begin addressing this knowledge gap, Cleveland Clinic is developing the "Intelligent Mouthguard" head impact dosimeter. Current testing indicates the Intelligent Mouthguard can quantify linear acceleration with 3% error and angular acceleration with 17% error during impacts ranging from 10g to 174g and 850rad/s2 to 10000rad/s2, respectively. Correlation was high (R2 > 0.99, R2 = 0.98, respectively). Near-term development will be geared towards quantifying head impact dosages in vitro, longitudinally in athletes and to test new sensors for possible improved accuracy and reduced bias. Long-term, the IMG may be useful to soldiers to be paired with neurocognitive clinical data quantifying resultant TBI functional deficits.

  1. Sickle Cell Trait, Rhabdomyolysis, and Mortality among U.S. Army Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. Alan; Deuster, Patricia A.; Carter, Robert; Hill, Owen T.; Wolcott, Vickee L.; Kurina, Lianne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have suggested that sickle cell trait elevates the risks of exertional rhabdomyolysis and death. We conducted a study of sickle cell trait in relation to these outcomes, controlling for known risk factors for exertional rhabdomyolysis, in a large population of active persons who had undergone laboratory tests for hemoglobin AS (HbAS) and who were subject to exertional-injury precautions. Methods We used Cox proportional-hazards models to test whether the risks of exertional rhabdomyolysis and death varied according to sickle cell trait status among 47,944 black soldiers who had undergone testing for HbAS and who were on active duty in the U.S. Army between January 2011 and December 2014. We used the Stanford Military Data Repository, which contains comprehensive medical and administrative data on all active-duty soldiers. Results There was no significant difference in the risk of death among soldiers with sickle cell trait, as compared with those without the trait (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46 to 2.13; P = 0.97), but the trait was associated with a significantly higher adjusted risk of exertional rhabdomyolysis (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.12; P = 0.008). This effect was similar in magnitude to that associated with tobacco use, as compared with no use (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.94; Prhabdomyolysis. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.) PMID:27518662

  2. Detection of Giardia intestinalis infections in Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Konior, Monika; Augustynowicz, Alina; Lass, Anna; Kowalska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Polish Military Contingent (PMC) have been stationed in Afghanistan since 2002. They typically serve in areas characterised by low standards of sanitation which often leads to the development of food- and waterborne diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of Giardia intestinalis infections among Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan. The research study was conducted as part of a programme for prevention of parasitic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract run by the Polish Armed Forces. The study was carried out in August 2011; it involved 630 asymptomatic Polish soldiers serving in the Forward Operational Base (FOB) Ghazni in eastern Afghanistan. Stool specimens obtained from members of the PMC were first tested in FOB Ghazni (detection of Giardia intestinalis by Rida Quick Giardia immunochromatographic tests and Ridascreen Giardia immunoenzymatic tests - single samples). Next, the same biological material and two other faecal specimens fixed in 10% formalin were transported to the Military Institute of Medicine in Poland, where they were tested for Giardia intestinalis under light microscopy (direct smear, decantation in distilled water). Parasitological tests performed under light microscopy showed that 2.7% (17/630) of the study group were infected with Giardia intestinalis. Some of these results were confirmed by immunochromatographic tests (6/630). In contrast, immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) demonstrated a significantly higher detection rate reaching 18.1% (114/630). Immunoenzymatic tests confirmed all the positive results given by light microscopy and by immunochromatographic tests. The prevalence rate of Giardia intestinalis infections in Polish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan was found to be high. Microscopic methods exhibit low sensitivity and therefore may result in the underestimation of the true parasite prevalence. Immunoenzymatic tests (ELISA) showing a much higher sensitivity in comparison to light microscopy

  3. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  4. Posttraumatic stress disorder among Danish soldiers 2.5 years after military deployment in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellerup, Janne; Andersen, Søren Bo; Høgh (Hogh), Annie

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) implicates research regarding factors besides the preceding traumatic event. This study investigated the influence of predisposing personality traits on development of PTSD in a group of Danish Soldiers deployed to Afghanistan (N...... = 445). Using a prospective design data was collected using questionnaires including the NEO Five Factor Inventory and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. The results showed a PTSD-prevalence of 9.2% in the total sample 2.5 years after homecoming. Using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U...

  5. Militares galaicos en las cohortes pretorianas = Galician soldiers among praetorian cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Narciso Santos Yanguas

    2015-01-01

    Los galaicos que tomaron parte en las tropas asentadas en la capital del Imperio, como oficiales y simples pretorianos, contribuirían a reforzar el poder del emperador. Al parecer la mayoría de estos galaicos pretorianos desempeñarían su actividad militar en el siglo II. Se trataba de personas jóvenes, algunos de los cuales podían reengancharse en el servicio y protección de la figura imperial.The Galician among the imperial troops in the capital, either as officers or base soldiers, would ha...

  6. Association between baseline psychological attributes and mental health outcomes after soldiers returned from deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Chu; Arkes, Jeremy; Lester, Paul B

    2017-10-05

    Psychological health is vital for effective employees, especially in stressful occupations like military and public safety sectors. Yet, until recently little empirical work has made the link between requisite psychological resources and important mental health outcomes across time in those sectors. In this study we explore the association between 14 baseline psychological health attributes (such as adaptability, coping ability, optimism) and mental health outcomes following exposure to combat deployment. Retrospective analysis of all U.S. Army soldiers who enlisted between 2009 and 2012 and took the Global Assessment Tools (GAT) before their first deployment (n = 63,186). We analyze whether a soldier screened positive for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after returning from deployment using logistic regressions. Our key independent variables are 14 psychological attributes based on GAT, and we control for relevant demographic and service characteristics. In addition, we generate a composite risk score for each soldier based on the predicted probabilities from the above multivariate model using just baseline psychological attributes and demographic information. Comparing those who scored in the bottom 5 percentile of each attribute to those in the top 95 percentile, the odds ratio of post-deployment depression symptoms ranges from 1.21 (95% CI 1.06, 1.40) for organizational trust to 1.73 (CI 1.52, 1.97) for baseline depression. The odds ratio of positive screening of PTSD symptoms ranges from 1.22 for family support (CI 1.08, 1.38) to 1.51 for baseline depression (CI 1.32, 1.73). The risk profile analysis shows that 31% of those who screened positive for depression and 27% of those who screened positive for PTSD were concentrated among the top 5% high risk population. A set of validated, self-reported questions administered early in a soldier's career can predict future mental health problems, and can be used to improve workforce fit and

  7. Development of a capitation scale for IDF career soldiers in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnezi, Racheli; Weiss, Yossi; Cohen, Yossi; Shmueli, Amir

    2007-03-01

    The Israeli National Health Insurance Law allocates a national healthcare budget to the sickness funds, which provide medical care to civilian population. Medical care for members of the IDF is financed through the budget of the Ministry of Defense and is not included in the national healthcare budget. Benefits provided to soldiers serving in the permanent forces are far more extensive than those provided to civilians. Because of no co-payments, poor management, and the cost-based budget, military healthcare costs in Israel are expected to exceed civilian healthcare costs, adjusting for age and sex. The present paper derives age- and sex-based capitation rates for military personnel, and compares military and civilian age-based expenditure and capitation rates. The study population comprised career soldiers and civilians aged 21-54 years. Expenses of career soldiers were calculated to provide information on the financial costs of medical services for each age group in 2003. Overall expenses for women were higher than for men in all age groups. As anticipated, the older the group, the higher the total expenditure for both men and women. In-patient care represented a higher percentage of the total costs for men (28.3%) than for women (22.1%). Emergency room care was higher for women in the 22-24 age group but comparable to that of men in higher age groups. Specialist visits represented a significantly higher percentage of the total costs for women than for men in the 22-24 and 25-34 age groups (by 6% and 15%, respectively). The difference decreased to 13% in the 35-44 age groups and, in the 45-54 age group, the difference for men was 14% higher than for women. Military costs were similar to civilian costs in the 22-24 age groups, higher in the following two groups, and lower in the 45-54 age group. Like in other organizations, military healthcare services might benefit from outsourcing. The inequality in medical services to soldiers and civilians, the over-use of the

  8. Helping Soldiers Leverage Army Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities in Civilian Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    soldiers by the end of fiscal year (FY) 2018 to reach a planned end strength of 450,000 ( Tan , 2015). This has increased the number of enlisted...Duration of Unemployment,” Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 165–172. Kiefer, Nicholas M., and George R. Neumann (1979). “An...1989). “Estimating a Simultaneous Search Model,” Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 348–369. Tan , Michelle (June 10, 2015). “Army Lays Out

  9. Facial morphology predicts male fitness and rank but not survival in Second World War Finnish soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, John; O'Hara, Robert B

    2013-08-23

    We investigated fitness, military rank and survival of facial phenotypes in large-scale warfare using 795 Finnish soldiers who fought in the Winter War (1939-1940). We measured facial width-to-height ratio-a trait known to predict aggressive behaviour in males-and assessed whether facial morphology could predict survival, lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and social status. We found no difference in survival along the phenotypic gradient, however, wider-faced individuals had greater LRS, but achieved a lower military rank.

  10. PTSD Trajectory, Comorbidity, and Utilization of Mental Health Services Among National Guard Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Reserve), 45 years or older, divorced/separated or never married ( vs . married ), enlisted ( vs . officer), or living in a household with a total income...officers, and those who were married had a lower prevalence of anger than unmarried soldiers. Probable civilian-related PTSD was documented among 4.3% of...between the ages of 18 and 35 (59.9%), and married (53.1%). In our sample, the Army National Guard had the highest representation (43.4%) and the

  11. Young Murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, James

    1999-01-01

    Reflects on the moral world of children who have committed acts of lethal violence. Young killers do not see any positive alternatives at the moment of violence. When they kill, they are seeking justice--as they see it. Emphasizes the importance of adults stimulating the development of empathy and spirituality. (SLD)

  12. Research on deployed Danish soldiers: why is knowledge derived from a small, Nordic country relevant for other countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Andersen, Soren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the Danish military has deployed more than 40,000 soldiers to war zones, especially to the Balkans, Iraq, and Afghanistan. To the war in Afghanistan alone, the Danish Defense has to date deployed 9,918 unique soldiers with a total of 18,015 deployments. The total...... focusing on the development of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in this sample will be presented, and the relevance and generalizability of these findings to military populations from other countries will be discussed....

  13. Haunted by ghosts: prevalence, predictors and outcomes of spirit possession experiences among former child soldiers and war-affected civilians in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Frank; Pfeiffer, Anett; Schauer-Kaiser, Elisabeth; Odenwald, Michael; Elbert, Thomas; Ertl, Verena

    2012-08-01

    Phenomena of spirit possession have been documented in many cultures. Some authors have argued that spirit possession is a type of psychopathology, and should be included as a category in diagnostic manuals of mental disorders. However, there are hardly any quantitative studies that report the prevalence of spirit possession on a population level and that provide evidence for its validity as a psychopathological entity. In an epidemiological study that was carried out in 2007 and 2008 with N = 1113 youths and young adults aged between 12 and 25 years in war-affected regions of Northern Uganda we examined the prevalence, predictors and outcomes of cen, a local variant of spirit possession. Randomly selected participants were interviewed using a scale of cen, measures of psychopathology (PTSD and depression) as well as indicators of functional outcome on different levels, including suicide risk, daily activities, perceived discrimination, physical complaints and aggression. We found that cen was more common among former child soldiers then among subjects without a history of abduction. Cen was related to extreme levels of traumatic events and uniquely predicted functional outcome even when the effects of PTSD and depression were controlled for. Our findings show that a long-lasting war that is accompanied by the proliferation of spiritual and magical beliefs and propaganda can lead to high levels of harmful spirit possession. In addition, we provide evidence for the incremental validity of spirit possession as a trauma-related psychological disorder in this context. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Exercise Response in a Young, High Risk Population: Submaximal Invasive Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (ICPET) in Active Duty Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-17

    funding source for your study [e.g., S9 MOW CRD Graduate Health Sciences Educa tion (GHSE) (SGS O&M); SGS R&D; Tri-Service Nursing Research Program (TSNRP...Fidelity Hemodynamic Waveform and Data Repository for Training A llied Health Personnel and Research 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED...Ph.D. February 11 , 2015 FROM: PROJECT TITLE: Brooke Army Medical Center (BAMC) Institutional Review Board (408191-1] High-Fidelity Hemodynamic

  15. Attitudes towards disclosing a mental illness among German soldiers and their comrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Rose, Carolyn; Holzhausen, Fabian; Mulfinger, Nadine; Krumm, Silvia; Corrigan, Patrick W; Willmund, Gerd-Dieter; Zimmermann, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Many soldiers with mental illness (SWMIs) struggle with the decision whether to disclose their condition in or outside the military. This study therefore explored views on (self-)labeling as 'mentally ill', experiences of discrimination and coping, risks and benefits of (non-)disclosure, service use, disclosure decisions and consequences of disclosing. Active-duty SWMIs as well as soldiers without mental illness (commanding officers; enlisted ranks) and military social workers participated in focus groups. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. SWMIs perceived negative stereotypes about their group (weakness, incompetence, blame, malingering) and saw stigma as a barrier to help-seeking. Being labeled 'mentally ill' was seen as harmful for one's career. Self-labeling led to poor self-esteem, greater need for help and feelings of weakness. Many SWMIs had experienced discrimination, such as gossip or inappropriate comments. Social isolation was a disadvantage of secrecy. Most SWMIs preferred selective disclosure and many did not disclose to their family. Military staff without mental illness expressed partly different views and described organizational challenges posed by SWMIs. Our findings suggest that disclosure decisions are personal and difficult and that stigma remains a barrier to re-integration and recovery of SWMIs in the military. Implications for interventions to support SWMIs are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stress-induced deficits in working memory and visuo-constructive abilities in Special Operations soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Charles A; Doran, Anthony; Steffian, George; Hazlett, Gary; Southwick, Steven M

    2006-10-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown acute stress may impair working memory and visuo-spatial ability. This study was designed to clarify the nature of stress-induced cognitive deficits in soldiers and how such deficits may contribute to operational or battlefield errors. One hundred eighty-four Special Operations warfighters enrolled in Survival School completed pre-stress measures of dissociation and trauma exposure. Subjects were randomized to one of three assessment groups (Pre-stress, Stress, Post-stress) and were administered the Rey Ostereith Complex Figure (ROCF). All subjects completed post-stress measures of dissociation. ROCF copy and recall were normal in the Pre- and Post-stress groups. ROCF copy and recall were significantly impaired in the Stress Group. Stress group ROCF copy performance was piecemeal, and ROCF recall was impaired. Symptoms of dissociation were negatively associated with ROCF recall in the Stress group. Baseline dissociation and history of traumatic stress predicted cognitive impairment during stress. Stress exposure impaired visuo-spatial capacity and working memory. In rats, monkeys, and humans, high dopamine and NE turnover in the PFC induce deficits in cognition and spatial working memory. Improved understanding of stress-induced cognitive deficits may assist in identification of soldiers at risk and lead to the development of better countermeasures.

  17. Resilience training with soldiers during basic combat training: randomisation by platoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Amy B; Williams, Jason; McGurk, Dennis; Moss, Andrew; Bliese, Paul D

    2015-03-01

    Resilience Training has the potential to mitigate mental health symptoms when provided during initial military training. The present study examined the impact of Resilience Training on US soldier well-being and attitudes during Basic Combat Training. Platoons were randomly assigned to Resilience Training or Military History provided during the first few days of Basic Combat Training. Surveys were conducted at baseline, post-intervention, and 3, 6, and 9 weeks. The sample resulted in a total of 1,939 soldiers who completed at least the baseline and one follow-up survey. There were no significant differences between conditions in terms of depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, or sleep problems. However, while anxiety decreased in both conditions, the rate of decrease was faster in the Resilience Training condition. In contrast, Resilience Training had a slower rate of increase in group cohesion over time than the Military History condition. In addition, Resilience Training was associated with greater confidence in helping others and received more positive ratings than Military History. Findings demonstrate that the brief Resilience Training studied here may have some utility in supporting mental health and peer support but may not benefit unit climate. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  18. A multimodal interface for real-time soldier-robot teaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Daniel J.; Howard, Thomas M.; Walter, Matthew R.

    2016-05-01

    Recent research and advances in robotics have led to the development of novel platforms leveraging new sensing capabilities for semantic navigation. As these systems becoming increasingly more robust, they support highly complex commands beyond direct teleoperation and waypoint finding facilitating a transition away from robots as tools to robots as teammates. Supporting future Soldier-Robot teaming requires communication capabilities on par with human-human teams for successful integration of robots. Therefore, as robots increase in functionality, it is equally important that the interface between the Soldier and robot advances as well. Multimodal communication (MMC) enables human-robot teaming through redundancy and levels of communications more robust than single mode interaction. Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies released in recent years for smart-phones and gaming provide tools for the creation of portable interfaces incorporating MMC through the use of speech, gestures, and visual displays. However, for multimodal interfaces to be successfully used in the military domain, they must be able to classify speech, gestures, and process natural language in real-time with high accuracy. For the present study, a prototype multimodal interface supporting real-time interactions with an autonomous robot was developed. This device integrated COTS Automated Speech Recognition (ASR), a custom gesture recognition glove, and natural language understanding on a tablet. This paper presents performance results (e.g. response times, accuracy) of the integrated device when commanding an autonomous robot to perform reconnaissance and surveillance activities in an unknown outdoor environment.

  19. Field use of D218O to measure energy expenditure of soldiers at different energy intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLany, J.P.; Schoeller, D.A.; Hoyt, R.W.; Askew, E.W.; Sharp, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    To test the application of doubly labeled water under adverse field conditions, energy expenditures of 16 special operations soldiers were measured during a 28-day field training exercise. Subjects were matched by fat-free mass and divided equally between an ad libitum ready-to-eat meal diet and a 2,000 kcal/day lightweight ration. Subjects recorded intakes daily, and body composition was measured before and after the exercise. At the beginning of the study, subjects moved to a new northerly location and, therefore, a new water supply. To compensate for this, a group of soldiers who did not receive heavy water was followed to measure isotopic base-line changes. Energy expenditure by doubly labeled water was in agreement with intake/balance (3,400 ± 260 vs. 3,230 ± 520 kcal/day). The overall coefficient of variation of energy expenditure by doubly labeled water was half that of intake/balance (7.6 vs. 16.1%). The coefficient of variation of repeat measures with doubly labeled water was 7.3%. Energy expenditure of the ready-to-eat meal group, 3,540 ± 180 kcal/day, was not significantly different from the lightweight ration group, 3,330 ± 301 kcal/day. Doubly labeled water was valid under field conditions

  20. Two war-torn soldiers: combat-related trauma through an intersubjective lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Russell B

    2013-01-01

    The author, himself an Iraq war veteran, presents a contemporary psychodynamic understanding, known as intersubjective therapy, of combat-related Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). At the onset of this case example, the patient was highly suicidal and his PTSD symptoms had not responded to a first-line treatment: manualized cognitive processing therapy. Robert Stolorow's intersubjective, psychodynamic approach to traumatic emotional experiences was then selected for treatment, and illustrates how combat in Afghanistan shattered this soldier's world and self experience. Therapeutic action arises from this intersubjective perspective by providing a relational home so that unendurable emotions can be borne, processed, and integrated to achieve a more constant and individualized sense of self. Being a two-person model of therapy, the author also describes how his work with this traumatized soldier affected him, ultimately contributing to his own sense of authentic existing. The author discusses the need for therapists to recognize and acknowledge to traumatized patients their shared finitude and the ubiquity of trauma. In the Postscript, the patient describes what he felt was therapeutic and contrasts this to his previous experiences with manualized cognitive processing therapy.

  1. Nutritional composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae reared on different organic waste substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spranghers, Thomas; Ottoboni, Matteo; Klootwijk, Cindy; Ovyn, Anneke; Deboosere, Stefaan; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Michiels, Joris; Eeckhout, Mia; De Clercq, Patrick; De Smet, Stefaan

    2017-06-01

    Black soldier fly larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and substrates were freeze-dried and proximate, amino acid, fatty acid and mineral analyses were performed. Protein content of prepupae varied between 399 and 431 g kg -1 dry matter (DM) among treatments. Differences in amino acid profile of prepupae were small. On the other hand, the ether extract (EE) and ash contents differed substantially. Prepupae reared on digestate were low in EE and high in ash (218 and 197 g kg -1 DM, respectively) compared to those reared on vegetable waste (371 and 96 g kg -1 DM, respectively), chicken feed (336 and 100 g kg -1 DM, respectively) and restaurant waste (386 and 27 g kg -1 DM, respectively). Prepupal fatty acid profiles were characterised by high levels of C12:0 in all treatments. Since protein content and quality were high and comparable for prepupae reared on different substrates, black soldier fly could be an interesting protein source for animal feeds. However, differences in EE and ash content as a function of substrate should be considered. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Food and drinking water hygiene and intestinal protozoa in deployed German soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickmann, Hagen; Schwarz, Norbert G; Wiemer, Dorothea F; Fischer, Marcellus; Tannich, Egbert; Scheid, Patrick L; Müller, Martin; Schotte, Ulrich; Bock, Wolfgang; Hagen, Ralf M

    2013-03-01

    This report analyzes the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, and G. intestinalis in stool of returnees from military deployments and the impact of hygiene precautions. Between 2007 and 2010, stool samples of 830 returnees that were obtained 8-12 weeks after military deployments in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, the Balkans, Democratic Republic of the Congo/Gabonese Republic, and Sudan and 292 control samples from non-deployed soldiers were analyzed by PCR for Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica, G. intestinalis, and the commensal indicator of fecal contamination E. dispar. Data on hygiene precautions were available. The soldiers were questioned regarding gastrointestinal and general symptoms. Among 1122 stool samples, 18 were positive for G. intestinalis, 10 for E. dispar, and no-one for Cryptosporidium spp. and E. histolytica. An increased risk of acquiring chronic parasitic infections in comparison with non-deployed controls was demonstrated only for G. intestinalis in Sudan, where standardized food and drinking water hygiene precautions could not be implemented. Standard food and drinking water hygiene precautions in the context of screened military field camps proved to be highly reliable in preventing food-borne and water-borne chronic infections and colonization by intestinal protozoa, leading to detection proportions similar to those in non-deployed controls.

  3. Rehabilitation and restoration: orthopaedics and disabled soldiers in Germany and Britain in the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Julie; Perry, Heather R

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a comparative analysis of the evolution of orthopaedics and rehabilitation within German and British military medicine during the Great War. In it, we reveal how the field of orthopaedics became integral to military medicine by tracing the evolution of the discipline and its practitioners in each nation during the war. In doing so, however, we document not only when and why both medical specialists and military officials realized that maintaining their respective national fighting forces depended upon the efficient rehabilitation of wounded soldiers, but also how these rehabilitative practices and goals reflected the particularities of the military context, civilian society and social structure of each nation. Thus, while our comparison reveals a number of similarities in the orthopaedic developments within each nation as a response to the Great War, we also reveal significant national differences in war-time medical goals, rehabilitation treatments and soldierly 'medical experiences'. Moreover, as we demonstrate, a social and cultural re-conceptualization of the disabled body accompanied the medical advancements developed for him; however, this re-conceptualization was not the same in each nation. Thus, what our article reveals is that although the guns of August fell silent in 1918, the war's medical experiences lingered long thereafter shaping the future of disability medicine in both nations.

  4. Soldiers, Artisans, Cultivators and Revolutionaries: The Movement of Sikhs in the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Gera Roy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The geography of Punjab, a land-locked region divided between India and Pakistan, makes it an unlikely player in oceanic sojourns. But imperial interventions in Punjab in the middle of the 19th century triggered movements from Punjab that inserted this region in the littoral narrative of the Indian Ocean. Unlike the movements of lascars and traders, who have been central to the revisionist histories of the Indian Ocean, those from Punjab have not featured in oceanic dialogues. The absence of Sikhs in Indian Ocean studies is largely due to the silence of Sikh soldiers, skilled craftsmen and cultivators with largely rural roots who were uprooted to strange lands. The confusion of Sikhs with Hindus, Muslims and, even Afghans, in the colonial era, as well as the classification of Punjabi Muslims as Pakistani in the post-colonial, further problematizes the Sikh migration narrative. Drawing on a wide range of official and unofficial historical sources, this essay argues that twin developments in Punjab, namely the construction of Sikhs as ‘a martial race’ and their integration into the imperial capitalist economy, connects the movements of soldiers and policemen to Shanghai, Hong Kong, the Straits Settlements and Kenya with those of skilled artisans to Mombasa and Uganda. Keywords: Sikhs, Indian Ocean, labour migration, cultural identity

  5. Genetics and Other Risk Factors for Past Concussions in Active-Duty Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretsch, Michael N; Silverberg, Noah; Gardner, Andrew J; Panenka, William J; Emmerich, Tanja; Crynen, Gogce; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Chaytow, Helena; Mathura, Venkat; Crawford, Fiona C; Iverson, Grant L

    2017-02-15

    Risk factors for concussion in active-duty military service members are poorly understood. The present study examined the association between self-reported concussion history and genetics (apolipoprotein E [APOE], brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], and D2 dopamine receptor genes [DRD2]), trait personality measures (impulsive-sensation seeking and trait aggression-hostility), and current alcohol use. The sample included 458 soldiers who were preparing to deploy for Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom. For those with the BDNF Met/Met genotype, 57.9% (11/19) had a history of one or more prior concussions, compared with 35.6% (154/432) of those with other BDNF genotypes (p = 0.049, odds ratio [OR] = 2.48). APOE and DRD2 genotypes were not associated with risk for past concussions. Those with the BDNF Met/Met genotype also reported greater aggression and hostility personality characteristics. When combined in a predictive model, prior military deployments, being male, and having the BDNF Met/Met genotype were independently associated with increased lifetime history of concussions in active-duty soldiers. Replication in larger independent samples is necessary to have more confidence in both the positive and negative genetic associations reported in this study.

  6. A statistical campaign: Florence Nightingale and Harriet Martineau’s 'England and her Soldiers'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Veysey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an account of the making of England and her Soldiers (1859 by Harriet Martineau and Florence Nightingale. The book is a literary account of the Crimean War, written by Martineau and based on Nightingale’s statistical studies of mortality during the conflict. Nightingale was passionate about statistics and healthcare. Whilst working as a nurse in the Crimea, she witnessed thousands of soldiers die of infectious diseases that might have been prevented with proper sanitation. After the war, she launched a campaign to convince the British government to make permanent reforms to military healthcare, compiling a dataset on mortality in the Crimea. She worked with the government’s Royal Commission investigating healthcare during the war, but also worked privately with Martineau to publicise her findings. Martineau and Nightingale grasped that the lay reader was more receptive to statistical information in a literary format than in dense statistical reports. As such, Nightingale’s data was interwoven with Martineau’s text. The pair illustrated their book with Nightingale’s ‘Rose Diagram’, a statistical graphic which simply illustrated the rate of mortality.

  7. State institutions and social identity: National representation in soldiers' and civilians' interview talk concerning military service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Stephen; Condor, Susan

    2009-06-01

    Theory and research deriving from social identity or self-categorization perspectives often starts out with the presumption that social actors necessarily view societal objects such as nations or states as human categories. However, recent work suggests that this may be only one of a number of forms that societal representation may take. For example, nations may be understood variously as peoples, places, or institutions. This paper presents findings from a qualitative interview study conducted in England, in which soldiers and civilians talked about nationhood in relation to military service. Analysis indicated that, in this context, speakers were often inclined to use the terms 'Britain', 'nation', and 'country' as references to a political institution as opposed to a category of people. In addition, there were systematic differences between the ways in which the two samples construed their nation in institutional terms. The civilians were inclined to treat military service as a matter of obedience to the dictates of the Government of the day. In contrast, the soldiers were more inclined to frame military service as a matter of loyalty to state as symbolically instantiated in the body of the sovereign. Implications for work adopting a social identity perspective are discussed.

  8. The guiltless guilty: trauma-related guilt and psychopathology in former Ugandan child soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Fionna; Reissmann, Sina; Voss, Catharina; Okello, James

    2015-04-01

    Child soldiers often experience complex trauma as victims and perpetrators, and feelings of guilt may affect their psychological health. The relationship between the children's traumatic experiences as victims or perpetrators, their perception of themselves as victim or perpetrator, guilt and psychopathology were investigated: of the 330 former child soldiers interviewed, 50.8 % perceived themselves as victims and 19.1 % as perpetrators. On psychopathology measures, scores within the clinical range were 33 % for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 36.4 % for major depressive disorder (MDD), and 26.1 % for externalizing problems. Low socio-economic status, traumatic experience as perpetrator, and guilt were significant predictors of PTSD. Significant predictors of MDD were low socio-economic status, traumatic experiences as victim, and guilt. A greater number of traumatic experiences as perpetrator and guilt were associated with externalizing problems. The current paper underscores the significance of guilt following traumatic experiences and has implications for the development of clinical interventions for war-affected children.

  9. "The Service I Rendered Was Just as True": African American Soldiers and Veterans as Activist Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Jessica L

    2017-05-01

    In this article, I examine how African American soldiers and veterans experienced and shaped federally sponsored health care during and after World War I. Building on studies of the struggles of Black leaders and health care providers to win professional and public health advancement in the 1920s and 1930s, and of advocates to mobilize for health care rights in the mid-20th century, I focus primarily on the experiences and activism of patients in the interwar years. Private and government correspondence, congressional testimony, and reports from Black newspapers reveal that African American soldiers and veterans communicated directly with policymakers and bureaucrats regarding unequal treatment, assuming roles as "policy actors" who viewed health and medical care as "politics by other means." In the process, they drew attention to the paradoxes inherent in expanding government entitlements in the era of Jim Crow, and helped shape a veterans' health system that emerged in the 1920s and remained in place for the following century. They also laid the groundwork for the system's precedent-setting desegregation, referred to by advocates of the time as "a shining example to the rest of the country."

  10. What pre-deployment and early post-deployment factors predict health function after combat deployment?: a prospective longitudinal study of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Lisa M; D'Andrea, Elizabeth; Lu, Shou-En; Abbi, Bhavna; Yan, Grace W; Engel, Charles; Quigley, Karen S

    2013-04-30

    Physical and mental function are strong indicators of disability and mortality. OEF/OIF Veterans returning from deployment have been found to have poorer function than soldiers who have not deployed; however the reasons for this are unknown. A prospective cohort of 790 soldiers was assessed both pre- and immediately after deployment to determine predictors of physical and mental function after war. On average, OEF/OIF Veterans showed significant declines in both physical (t=6.65, pfunction (t=7.11, pdeployment function, poorer physical function after deployment was associated with older age, more physical symptoms, blunted systolic blood pressure reactivity and being injured. After controlling for pre-deployment function, poorer mental function after deployment was associated with younger age, lower social desirability, lower social support, greater physical symptoms and greater PTSD symptoms. Combat deployment was associated with an immediate decline in both mental and physical function. The relationship of combat deployment to function is complex and influenced by demographic, psychosocial, physiological and experiential factors. Social support and physical symptoms emerged as potentially modifiable factors.

  11. Validating the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist with Soldiers Returning from Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliese, Paul D.; Wright, Kathleen M.; Adler, Amy B.; Cabrera, Oscar; Castro, Carl A.; Hoge, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to assess the diagnostic efficiency of the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen (PC-PTSD) and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) as clinical screening tools for active duty soldiers recently returned from a combat deployment. A secondary goal was to examine the item-level characteristics…

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among National Guard Soldiers Deployed to Iraq: Associations with Parenting Behaviors and Couple Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewirtz, Abigail H.; Polusny, Melissa A.; DeGarmo, David S.; Khaylis, Anna; Erbes, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this article, we report findings from a 1-year longitudinal study examining the impact of change in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following combat deployment on National Guard soldiers' perceived parenting and couple adjustment 1 year following return from Iraq. Method: Participants were 468 Army National Guard…

  13. A report of 3 soldiers returned to full duty after lumbar radiofrequency facet denervation in a theater of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragovich, Anthony; Trainer, Robert J

    2011-04-01

    To provide the advanced interventional procedure of zygapophysial joint neurotomy to soldiers meeting the diagnostic criteria in a combat environment and thus reduce medical evacuations of soldiers from a theater of war. Retrospective chart review was performed on three consecutive soldiers who received neuroablation of the lumbar ZP joint. Patients received single MBB with 1 cc of 1% lidocaine at the b/l L3-L5 levels considered diagnostic if >50% analgesia was achieved concordant with duration of anesthetic.   All procedures were co-performed by the two authors at the Ibn Sina hospital in Baghdad, Iraq over a 3-month period. Three consecutive patients with >50% pain relief from diagnostic medial branch blocks were treated with radiofrequency ablation of the bilateral L3-L4 medial branch nerves and L5 posterior primary ramus. Sensory test stimulation at 50 Hz and motor stimulation at 2 Hz were performed at each level. The nerves were then lesioned at 80° Centigrade for 90 seconds after injection of lidocaine and methylprednisolone. Procedure was considered successful if patients were able to wear body armour without significant discomfort (at least 1 hour/day). Medical evacuation from Iraq was prevented and all soldiers returned to rigorous combat duties including the wearing of body armour daily. We believe to be the first to report on the use of RF nerve ablation in a war time setting and with this functional outcome. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The use of immunoenzymatic method for detection of antibodies against zoonotic diseases in Czech soldiers returning from Afghanistan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straková, Petra; Rudolf, Ivo; Pavlis, O.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 2 (2014), s. 67-72 ISSN 0372-7025 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : ELISA method * zoonoses * soldiers * Afghanistan Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology http://www.mmsl.cz/archive/dl/266

  15. Assessing the Impact of Clothing and Individual Equipment (CIE) on Soldier Physical, Biomechanical, and Cognitive Performance Part 1: Test Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    29 during Soldier Equipment Configuration Impact on Performance: Establishing a Test Methodology for the...during ACSM’S resource manual for exercise testing and prescription Human Movement Science, 31(2), Proceedings of the 2016 American Biomechanics...Performance of Medium Rucksack Prototypes An investigation: Comparison of live-fire and weapon simulator test methodologies and the of three extremity armor

  16. 77 FR 6865 - Pricing for 2012 Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar and 2012 Star-Spangled Banner Commemorative Coin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2012 Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar and... Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing adjusted pricing for the 2012...-Spangled Banner Bicentennial Silver N/A 53.95 Dollar Set The introductory pricing period for the 2012...

  17. A Healthy Eating Identity is Associated with Healthier Food Choice Behaviors Among U.S. Army Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayne, Julianna M; Frongillo, Edward A; Torres-McGehee, Toni M; Emerson, Dawn M; Glover, Saundra H; Blake, Christine E

    2018-04-04

    Promoting healthy eating among Soldiers is a priority to the Army due to the link between nutrition and performance. The Army typically uses nutrition education to encourage Soldiers to make healthier food choices with low emphasis on other psychosocial determinants of food choice behaviors. Drill Sergeant Candidates (n = 575) completed surveys assessing nutrition knowledge, eating identity type, and food choice behaviors including fruit and vegetable intake, skipping meals, and eating out frequency. In multiple linear regression models using full-information maximum likelihood estimation while controlling for race/ethnicity, education, and marital status, we examined relationships between nutrition knowledge, a healthy eating identity, and Soldiers' food choice behaviors. The study was approved by the Department of Defense and University of South Carolina's Institutional Review Boards. A healthy eating identity was positively associated with greater fruit and vegetable consumption (p eating out frequency (p healthy eating identity may be more effective for promoting healthy food choice behaviors than nutrition education alone. Determining if various points in a Soldier's career could be leveraged to influence a healthy eating identity and behaviors could be an important strategy to improve compliance with health promotion programs.

  18. Soldier Satisfaction with Life in Restructured Units during Phase 1 of the Restructuring of the Heavy Division Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    working and living in their units during the estructuring of the Heavy Division test at Fort Hood, TX. The questionnaire -as administered to unit...to a control group of soldiers who did not estructure . Results of the study showed that immediately following DO ,’, 1473 EDITIONOF IOV SISO SOLFT

  19. Sand fly population dynamics and cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers in an Atlantic forest remnant in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; da Silva, Fernando José; Figueredo, Luciana Aguiar; de Melo, Fábio Lopes; de Brito, Maria Edileuza Felinto; Andrade, Maria Sandra; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto

    2017-02-01

    Outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis are relatively common among soldiers involved in nocturnal activities in tropical forests. We investigated the population dynamics of sand flies in a military training camp located in a remnant of Atlantic rainforest in northeastern Brazil, where outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis have sporadically been described. From July 2012 to July 2014, light traps were monthly placed in 10 collection sites, being nine sites located near the forest edge and one near a sheep and goat stable. Light traps operated from 5:00 pm to 6:00 am, during four consecutive nights. Leishmania infection in sand flies was assessed using a fast real-time PCR assay. Cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers were also investigated. In total, 24,606 sand flies belonging to 25 species were identified. Males (n = 12,683) predominated over females (n = 11,923). Sand flies were present during all months, being more numerous in March (n = 1,691) and April 2013 (n = 3,324). Lutzomyia choti (72.9%) was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia longispina (13.8%), Lutzomyia complexa (5.3%), representing together >90% of the sand flies collected. Forty cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded among soldiers from January 2012 to December 2014. Leishmania isolates were obtained from eight patients and were all characterized as Leishmania braziliensis. Soldiers and anyone overnighting in Atlantic rainforest remnants should adopt preventative measures such as the use of repellents on bare skin or clothes and insecticide-treated tents.

  20. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  1. Strong interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1995-01-01

    Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  2. Strong-field dissociation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiMauro, L.F.; Yang, Baorui.

    1993-01-01

    The strong-field dissociation behavior of diatomic molecules is examined under two distinctive physical scenarios. In the first scenario, the dissociation of the isolated hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions is discussed. The dynamics of above-threshold dissociation (ATD) are investigated over a wide range of green and infrared intensities and compared to a dressed-state model. The second situation arises when strong-field neutral dissociation is followed by ionization of the atomic fragments. The study results in a direct measure of the atomic fragment's ac-Stark shift by observing the intensity-dependent shifts in the electron or nuclear fragment kinetic energy. 8 figs., 14 refs

  3. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in professional soldiers of the Czech Army over an 11-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajfrová, Jana; Pavlík, Vladimír; Psutka, Jan; Husarová, Michaela; Krutišová, Pavla; Fajfr, Miroslav

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is currently considered to be the most frequent metabolic disease worldwide, not only in developed but also in developing countries. The aim of this work was to describe the development of health status in soldiers of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic (ACR) and to emphasizethe markers of non-communicable diseases. Our study describes the anthropometric and biochemical parameters of a large group of Czech Army professional soldiers. Data were obtained over a period of 11 years. During the monitored period, from 1999 to 2009, military physicians carried out on the average 6,360 examinations on professional soldiers per year and monitored their health and nutritional status with the aim of preventing the risk factors of non-communicable diseases. These examinations are compulsory for all professional soldiers at the age of 25, 30, 33, and 36 years. From the age of 39, these examinations are carried out every year till the end of their career. Besides taking personal histories and carrying out standard physical examinations, blood was taken for biochemical examination. The following anthropometric parameters were monitored: body constitution using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Our study describes only part of the data concerning anthropometric and biochemical parameters of professional soldiers which were obtained over a period of 11 years. Average BMI values in men were in the overweight range (26.5-27 kg/m2). Average values of waist circumference, however, ranged from 91.9 cm to 93.4 cm. Between the first and the last year of monitoring a statistically significant decrease in these values ranging from 93.4 ± 9.8 cm to 92.7 ± 9.5 cm (p values of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol was observed; from 5.5 ± 1.1 mmol/L to 5.1 ± 1.0 mmol/L (p values in the overweight range was observed. Although the number of overweight soldiers was overestimated as a result of the inclusion of individuals with increased body weight due

  4. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  5. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklow, T.L.; Burdman, G.; Chivukula, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models

  6. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  7. The colours of strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this session is to draw a consistent framework about the different ways to consider strong interaction. A large part is dedicated to theoretical work and the latest experimental results obtained at the first electron collider HERA are discussed. (A.C.)

  8. Strong cosmic censorship and the strong curvature singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1987-01-01

    Conditions are given under which any asymptotically simple and empty space-time that has a partial Cauchy surface with an asymptotically simple past is globally hyperbolic. It is shown that this result suggests that the Cauchy horizons of the type occurring in Reissner--Nordstroem and Kerr space-times are unstable. This in turn gives support for the validity of the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis

  9. Sprawność fizyczna żołnierzy z województwa Zachodniopomorskiego = Physical fitness of soldiers from the province of Zachodniopomorskie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Stanisław Stankiewicz

    2016-12-01

    The study shows that the greatest level of physical fitness showed officers, who obtained the greatest number of very good grades in all four trials. In contrast, the lowest level of physical fitness showed a number. Respondents soldiers the best results obtained during the execution of the torso bends 2 minutes. While the worst performing subjects soldiers received during the slow-run 3000 meters, which indicates a low level of strength. Differentiation of ratings within each age group, present in all three bodies, proved that the age of the respondents soldiers and binding with it the standard requirements do not affect the achieved results.

  10. Old soldiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riordan, M.

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the history of the spectrometer installed at the SLAC 20-GeV-linac and its use from the study of the electroproduction of resonances to the study of the EMC effect with electrons. (HSI).

  11. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  12. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  13. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  14. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  15. Assessment of an alternative postdeployment reintegration strategy with soldiers returning from Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, Maurice L; Foran, Heather M; Wood, Michael D; Wright, Kathleen M; Barnhart, Vincent J; Riviere, Lyndon A; Adler, Amy B

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined behavioral health outcomes, risk behaviors, aggression, alcohol misuse, marital satisfaction, and attitudes toward reintegration associated with an alternative, front-loaded reintegration strategy compared with a more standardized reintegration process in soldiers returning from combat deployments. The type of reintegration strategy used did not predict differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, alcohol misuse, aggression, and marital satisfaction, although slightly higher reports of risk behaviors were found in the unit using the standard reintegration approach even after controlling for demographic covariates and combat exposure. These findings may help guide leadership when making decisions regarding reintegration approaches in the future. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Rhabdomyolysis in a Sickle Cell Trait Positive Active Duty Male Soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Pulkit; Chavarria, Christopher; Thurlow, John

    2016-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a complication of sickle cell trait (SCT) likely first reported in the military population over 40 years ago. Although commonly a benign condition, numerous studies and case reports have identified SCT positive patients to be at increased risk for rhabdomyolysis, compartment syndrome and sudden cardiac death. We report a recent case of an SCT positive African American active duty male Soldier who suffered exertional rhabdomyolysis following an Army Physical Fitness Test. His course was complicated by acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis, and he eventually recovered renal function. The diagnosis was significantly delayed despite a typical clinical presentation and available SCT screening results. The case highlights the importance of the recognition of SCT as a risk factor for severe rhabdomyolysis, and suggests more must be done for an effective SCT screening program for the active duty military population.

  17. Alteration and mineralization in the eastern part of the Soldier Mountains, Camas County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Reed S.

    2001-01-01

    The eastern part of the Soldier Mountains in Camas County, south-central Idaho, is underlain principally by plutonic rocks of Cretaceous and Eocene age that locally have undergone propylitic, potassic, and muscovite-quartz alteration. Muscovite- quartz alteration is Cretaceous in age and is localized along joints and fractures, some of which are filled with quartz. Associated veins have yielded minor amounts of gold. Potassic alteration is probably both Cretaceous and Eocene in age but is weakly developed and limited in extent. Propylitic alteration is Eocene in age and is pronounced around biotite granite plutons. Despite a clear association between plutons of biotite granite and widespread propylitic alteration, mineralization associated with these rocks was minimal. Mineralized areas within more mafic Eocene plutons are characterized by veins and (or) stockworks(?) enriched in copper, molybdenum, and silver, but these areas are restricted in size and have not been productive.

  18. Recent eolian activity and paleoclimate fluctuations in the Ferris Lost Soldier Area, South-Central Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, D. R.

    1983-09-01

    The Ferris Dune Fields were examined. Sand dunes are especially valuable in paleoclimate reconstructions because they: (1) bury and preserve datable materials and artifacts; (2) respond to even subtle changes in wind velocity and direction as reflected both in external morphology and internal structures; and (3) remain unconsolidated, making them amenable to easy textural and compositional examination. The valley of Clear Creek in the Ferris Dunes reveals a relatively continuous Holocene section of interbedded dune and interdunal pond deposits. Radiocarbon dates from the interdunal pond strata at Clear Creek, theoretical sand dune migration rates, compositional analysis of periglacial sand wedges, and relative dating of actively migrating parabolic dunes reveals a general sequence of geologic-climatic events that affected the Ferris-Lost Soldier area. The most recent major reactivaton of dunes occurred approximately 290 years ago.

  19. Silhouettes of War: Technologies of U.S. Soldiering and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. Behm

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper forwards a theory of silhouetting in relation to technological augmenta-tion in U.S. Military uniforms and suggests that the increasing utilization of metamaterials, nanotechnology, and surveillance technologies operates under a rhetoric of invisibility that complicates the technologies' visible destruction. Methodologically, the paper attends to three general technological developments in the evolution of the U.S. Army uniform: the design of the new Army Combat Uniform (ACU; the technological advances in the uniform, including embedded wearables, biometric identification devices, and 3D combat enhancement systems; and the bio-networking, GPS, and digital communication arrays that physically link digital uniforms to a larger geopolitical network of U.S. military strategy and surveillance. Throughout, the work traces the aforementioned theory of silhouet-ting in relation to select sociopolitical consequences of linking digitally enhanced soldiers into a transnational grid of surveillance.

  20. Paralysis as a Presenting Symptom of Hyperthyroidism in an Active Duty Soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennette, John; Tauferner, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is an endocrine disorder presenting with proximal motor weakness, typically greatest in the lower extremities, hypokalemia, and signs or laboratory findings consistent with hyperthyroidism. The incidence of TPP is highest in Asian males. This is a case report of a 30-year-old male active duty Soldier who presented to the emergency department complaining of several recent episodes of lower extremity paralysis. The patient underwent a workup which included serum and cerebrospinal fluid studies, and was found to be hypokalemic and hyperthyroid. Following consultation with neurology, the patient was admitted to the medicine service and treated for thyrotoxic periodic paralysis with potassium replacement and treatment of his hyperthyroidism. Since achieving a euthyroid state, he has had no recurrences of TPP. This disease should be considered in patients presenting with symmetric motor weakness and hypokalemia, whether or not symptoms of hyperthyroidism are elicited during the review of systems.

  1. Results of the reproductive health education program for soldiers and noncommissioned officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevig, Umit; Yilmaz, Senay; Başer, Mürüvvet; Taşci, Sultan

    2006-12-01

    The Turkish Armed Forces Commando Brigade has started a continuous and systematic education program, called the Patriotic Awareness Acquirement Project (PCAP), to inform soldiers who will be demobilized. Within the PCAP, topics such as Turkish history, the Armenian question, and manners/etiquette, as well as healthy living, reproductive health, family planning, general hygiene, and sexually transmitted diseases were included. The aim of Reproductive Health Education (RHE) conducted within the PCAP is to inform male individuals about reproductive health and to increase their knowledge, awareness, and sensitivity. In the RHE, the privates were provided with information regarding male and female reproductive organs, the menstruation mechanism, pregnancy, determination of gender, fertility-infertility, and sexually transmitted diseases. After the evaluation, it was reported that the privates indicated they were satisfied with RHE, were informed, took notice of the incorrect information, and, for postmilitary life, would visit health clinics for counseling.

  2. Comparing post-deployment mental health services utilization in soldiers deployed to Balkan, Iraq and Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T; Sadowa Vedtofte, M; Nordentoft, M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Insight on how different missions have impacted rates of mental health service (MHS) utilization is unexplored. We compared postdeployment MHS utilization in a national cohort of first-time deployed to missions in Balkan, Iraq, and Afghanistan respectively. METHODS: A prospective...... national cohort study of 13 246 first-time deployed in the period 1996 through 2012 to missions in Balkan area, Iraq, or Afghanistan respectively. Soldiers 'MHS utilization was also compared with a 5:1 sex-, age-, and calendar year-matched never-deployed background population. Postdeployment utilization...... of psychotropics. RESULTS: Utilizing of psychiatric outpatient services and psychotropics was significantly higher in first-time deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan compared with deployed to Balkan. However, the rate of postdeployment admission to psychiatric hospital did not differ between missions. Postdeployment...

  3. Depleted uranium internal contamination of US soldiers deployed in Samawah, Iraq during operation Iraqi freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaf Durakovic; Isaac Zimmerman; Axel Gerdes

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the concentration and precise isotopic composition and ratios of four uranium isotopes ( 234 U, 235 U, 236 U, and 238 U) in the urine of United States soldiers deployed in Samawah, Iraq during the second Gulf War. Methods: Seven active duty US soldiers deployed as military police unit 442 presenting with non-specific symptoms of intractable headaches, excessive fatigue, intermittent fevers, musculoskeletal pains, respiratory impairment, affect changes, urinary tract symptoms, and neurological alterations were clinically evaluated. Each soldier signed a consent form to participate in our study. The collection of 24-hour urine samples of each subject was performed under controlled conditions. The urine samples were personally carried to the laboratory of the Institute of Geochemistry, JW Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany. Each sample was analyzed in duplicate by multicollector inductively coupled plasma ionization mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Control samples consisting of an internal urine standard were also analyzed by the same procedure. The analytical methodology included pre-concentration of the urine samples using evaporation, oxidation of organic matter, uranium purification by ion-exchange chromatography, and analysis by mass spectrometry. The final analysis of the specimens was performed by using a double-focusing Thermo Finnigan Neptune multicollector ICP-MS equipped with retarding potential quadrupole lens and a secondary electron multiplier for ion counting. Results: The mean concentration of total uranium was 3.6±1.3 ng/L. The average 238 U/ 235 U ratio was 146.2±10.2. The ratio of 238 U/ 235 U, being considered as the single most important parameter in determining the quantitative state of depletion of the natural uranium ratio, demonstrates a significant internal contamination with depleted uranium in four soldiers. The 234 U/ 238 U ratio was 6.5 x 10 -5 ±5.7 x 10 -6 . The 236 U/ 238 U ratio was

  4. Dirhinus giffardii (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, parasitoid affecting Black Soldier Fly production systems in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Devic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest for insect farming is currently growing globally. Conditions in West Africa appear suitable for developing such farming systems that can benefit communities by improving livelihoods, food and feed security or sanitation. In Ghana and Mali, the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, 1758 is being produced for waste recycling and animal feed. In a two stages process (egg and larvae production, egg production was hampered by a pupal parasitoid, Dirhinus giffardii Silvestri, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, which reduced future broodstock by almost 72%. This is the first time D. giffardii is reported as a parasitoid of H. illucens pupae and one of the first reports of parasitism in this commercially important fly species. The introduction of precautionary measures is highly recommended for the success of H. illucens production systems in West Africa.

  5. Postdeployment Suicidal Ideations and Trajectories of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Danish Soldiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T.; Karstoft, K. I.; Bertelsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Suicidal ideation in veterans is of great concern. The objective of this study is to examine how heterogeneous posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) trajectories are associated with postdeployment suicidal ideation in veterans 2.5 years postdeployment to a combat zone in Afghanistan....... If PTSD trajectories are associated with postdeployment suicidal ideations, then the accumulative knowledge on what characterizes veterans falling into different PTSD trajectories may provide better opportunities for early identification of suicidal high-risk veterans. Method: In this prospective study...... of PTSD (measured by the PTSD Checklist, Civilian Version) and other mental and physical health variables, demographics, and social and combat-related factors. Suicidal ideation was measured by an item from the European Parasuicide Study Interview Schedule II. In a previous study based on soldiers from...

  6. String dynamics at strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of superstring, supergravity and M-theories and their compactifications are probed by studying the various perturbation theories that emerge in the strong and weak-coupling limits for various directions in coupling constant space. The results support the picture of an underlying non-perturbative theory that, when expanded perturbatively in different coupling constants, gives different perturbation theories, which can be perturbative superstring theories or superparticle theories. The p-brane spectrum is considered in detail and a criterion found to establish which p-branes govern the strong-coupling dynamics. In many cases there are competing conjectures in the literature, and this analysis decides between them. In other cases, new results are found. The chiral 6-dimensional theory resulting from compactifying the type IIB string on K 3 is studied in detail and it is found that certain strong-coupling limits appear to give new theories, some of which hint at the possibility of a 12-dimensional origin. (orig.)

  7. Identification of Yeast Species In the Oral Cavity of Iranian Soldiers By Disk Diffusion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Imami

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:The disk diffusion method for identification of yeasts species was performed based on different but distinct susceptibilities of yeasts spp.to chemicals:janus green, ethidium bromide,2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride, brilliant green, cycloheximide and rhodamine 6G. Methods: Atotal of 568 Iranian soldiers went under study for isolation and identification of Yeast species from their oral cavity. Asterile swab was used for each individual and specimens were collected from the nasopharynx region, then inoculated to petri dishes containing Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated for 48 hrs at 37 °C. All colonies were counted and stocked in distilled water and stored in a refrigerator for further analysis. The yeasts were identified by the “disk diffusion test” [6,8]. This is a simple, rapid, accurate, and inexpensive technique presented by Sobczak [8]. By this method we identified yeast species within 24-48 hrs. Results: 51.4% of petri dishes were positive for yeast species and 318 strains were identified. Candida albicans, Candida kefyr, Candida tropicalis and Candida guilliermondii were the most common yeast species isolated from the oral cavity of soldiers. Conclusion: We used this method because of its simplicity and other beneficial characteristics for rapid identification of large and numerous isolates and the results were compared with other morphological characters such as chlamydospore and germ tube production. In addition,we used some type strains (Candida parapsilosis: PTCC 5089,Candida tropicalis: PTCC 5028,Saccharomyces cerevisiae:PTCC 5052,Candida lipolytica: PTCC 5063,Candida lipolytica:PTCC 5064,and the results were acceptable.

  8. Predictors of posttraumatic stress and appetitive aggression in active soldiers and former combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Nandi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the period between 1993 and 2005, the people of Burundi were trapped within a violent civil war. In post-conflict regions, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were found to be widespread. At the same time, combatants often reported having perceived committing violence as exciting and appealing, an experience referred to as appetitive aggression. Both of these phenomena hamper the building of a functional and peaceful society. Objective: This study aims to investigate the factors that are associated with the level of PTSD and appetitive aggression in former and still active combatants. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 948 male Burundians: 556 active soldiers and 392 ex-combatants. PTSD symptom severity was assessed using the PTSD Symptom Scale Interview, while appetitive aggression was assessed using the Appetitive Aggression Scale. Results: Linear regression analyses revealed that the number of traumatic events, childhood maltreatment, and their interaction predicted PTSD symptom severity, whereas self-committed violence did not. The number of traumatic events and self-committed violence were associated with appetitive aggression. Childhood maltreatment alone was not associated with appetitive aggression; however, its interaction with self-committed violence did predict appetitive aggression. When controlling for predictors, ex-combatants reported a higher degree of PTSD symptomatology, whereas active soldiers reported a higher degree of appetitive aggression. Conclusion: We conclude that childhood maltreatment is an additional, significant risk factor that exacerbates the psychological consequences of violent conflicts. Self-committed violence may not necessarily engender trauma-related disorders, but is highly related to appetitive aggression.

  9. Psychiatric disorders moderate the relationship between insomnia and cognitive problems in military soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlow, Janeese A; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Boland, Elaine M; Brewster, Glenna S; Gehrman, Philip R

    2017-10-15

    There has been a great deal of research on the comorbidity of insomnia and psychiatric disorders, but much of the existing data is based on small samples and does not assess the full diagnostic criteria for each disorder. Further, the exact nature of the relationship between these conditions and their impact on cognitive problems are under-researched in military samples. Data were collected from the All Army Study of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Service members (unweighted N = 21, 449; weighted N = 674,335; 18-61 years; 13.5% female). Participants completed the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire to assess for insomnia disorder and a self-administered version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Screening Scales to assess for psychiatric disorders and cognitive problems. Military soldiers with current major depressive episode (MDE) had the highest prevalence of insomnia disorder (INS; 85.0%), followed by current generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; 82.6%) and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 69.7%), respectively. Significant interactions were found between insomnia and psychiatric disorders; specifically, MDE, PTSD, and GAD status influenced the relationship between insomnia and memory/concentration problems. Cross-sectional nature of the assessment and the absence of a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Psychiatric disorders moderated the relationship between insomnia and memory/concentration problems, suggesting that psychiatric disorders contribute unique variance to cognitive problems even though they are associated with insomnia disorder. Results highlight the importance of considering both insomnia and psychiatric disorders in the diagnosis and treatment of cognitive deficits in military soldiers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effective Induction Heating around Strongly Magnetized Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislyakova, K. G.; Fossati, L.; Johnstone, C. P.; Noack, L.; Lüftinger, T.; Zaitsev, V. V.; Lammer, H.

    2018-05-01

    Planets that are embedded in the changing magnetic fields of their host stars can experience significant induction heating in their interiors caused by the planet’s orbital motion. For induction heating to be substantial, the planetary orbit has to be inclined with respect to the stellar rotation and dipole axes. Using WX UMa, for which the rotation and magnetic axes are aligned, as an example, we show that for close-in planets on inclined orbits, induction heating can be stronger than the tidal heating occurring inside Jupiter’s satellite Io; namely, it can generate a surface heat flux exceeding 2 W m‑2. An internal heating source of such magnitude can lead to extreme volcanic activity on the planet’s surface, possibly also to internal local magma oceans, and to the formation of a plasma torus around the star aligned with the planetary orbit. A strongly volcanically active planet would eject into space mostly SO2, which would then dissociate into oxygen and sulphur atoms. Young planets would also eject CO2. Oxygen would therefore be the major component of the torus. If the O I column density of the torus exceeds ≈1012 cm‑2, the torus could be revealed by detecting absorption signatures at the position of the strong far-ultraviolet O I triplet at about 1304 Å. We estimate that this condition is satisfied if the O I atoms in the torus escape the system at a velocity smaller than 1–10 km s‑1. These estimates are valid also for a tidally heated planet.

  11. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in professional soldiers of the Czech army over a 11-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajfrová Jana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Obesity is currently considered to be the most frequent metabolic disease worldwide, not only in developed but also in developing countries. The aim of this work was to describe the development of health status in soldiers of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic (ACR and to emphasize the markers of non-communicable diseases. Our study describes the anthropometric and biochemical parameters of a large group of Czech Army professional soldiers. Data were obtained over a period of 11 years. Methods. During the monitored period, from 1999 to 2009, military physicians carried out on the average 6,360 examinations on professional soldiers per year and monitored their health and nutritional status with the aim of preventing the risk factors of non-communicable diseases. These examinations are compulsory for all professional soldiers at the age of 25, 30, 33, and 36 years. From the age of 39, these examinations are carried out every year till the end of their career. Besides taking personal histories and carrying out standard physical examinations, blood was taken for biochemical examination. The following anthropometric parameters were monitored: body constitution using body mass index (BMI and waist circumference. Our study describes only part of the data concerning anthropometric and biochemical parameters of professional soldiers which were obtained over a period of 11 years. Results. Average BMI values in men were in the overweight range (26.5-27 kg/m2. Average values of waist circumference, however, ranged from 91.9 cm to 93.4 cm. Between the first and the last year of monitoring a statistically significant decrease in these values ranging from 93.4 ± 9.8 cm to 92.7 ± 9.5 cm (p < 0.001 was observed. All monitored anthropometric parameters in female professional soldiers were within normal limits. During the monitored period the proportion of overweight men gradually increased from 52% to 57.1% (p < 0.001. There were no

  12. 5-HTTLPR genotype potentiates the effects of war zone stressors on the emergence of PTSD, depressive and anxiety symptoms in soldiers deployed to iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telch, Michael J.; Beevers, Christopher G.; Rosenfield, David; Lee, Han Joo; Reijntjes, Albert; Ferrell, Robert E.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to war zone stressors is common, yet only a minority of soldiers experience clinically meaningful disturbance in psychological function. Identification of biomarkers that predict vulnerability to war zone stressors is critical for developing more effective treatment and prevention

  13. Effects of a Nutrient-Enriched Beverage on Host Defense Mechanisms of Soldiers Completing the Special Forces Assessment and Selection School

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated a liquid supplement containing antioxidants, indigestible carbohydrate, structured lipid, and vitamins and minerals for its effects upon the immune responses of soldiers participating in the U.S...

  14. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  15. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  16. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  17. Strong versions of Bell's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    Technical aspects of a recently constructed strong version of Bell's theorem are discussed. The theorem assumes neither hidden variables nor factorization, and neither determinism nor counterfactual definiteness. It deals directly with logical connections. Hence its relationship with modal logic needs to be described. It is shown that the proof can be embedded in an orthodox modal logic, and hence its compatibility with modal logic assured, but that this embedding weakens the theorem by introducing as added assumptions the conventionalities of the particular modal logic that is adopted. This weakening is avoided in the recent proof by using directly the set-theoretic conditions entailed by the locality assumption

  18. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  19. Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Robles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.

  20. On the strong CP problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowrick, N.J. (Dept. of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)); McDougall, N.A. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1992-07-09

    We show that two well-known solutions to the strong CP problem, the axion and a massless quark, may be understood in terms of the mechanism recently proposed by Samuel where long-range interactions between topological charges may be responsible for the removal of CP violation. We explain how the axion and a QCD meson (identified as the {eta}' if all quarks are massless) suppress fluctuations in global topological charge by almost identical dynamical although the masses, couplings and relevant length scales are very different. Furthermore, we elucidate the precise origin of the {eta}' mass. (orig.).

  1. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  2. Estimation of strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Makoto

    1993-01-01

    Fault model has been developed to estimate a strong ground motion in consideration of characteristics of seismic source and propagation path of seismic waves. There are two different approaches in the model. The first one is a theoretical approach, while the second approach is a semi-empirical approach. Though the latter is more practical than the former to be applied to the estimation of input motions, it needs at least the small-event records, the value of the seismic moment of the small event and the fault model of the large event

  3. Strong Mechanoluminescence from Oxynitridosilicate Phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lin; Xu Chaonan; Yamada, Hiroshi, E-mail: cn-xu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1 Shuku, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    We successfully developed a novel Mechanoluminescence (ML) material with water resistance, oxynitridosilicate; BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+}. The crystal structure, photoluminescence (PL) and ML properties were characterized. The ML of BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+} is so strong that the blue-green emission can be observed by the naked eyes clearly. In addition, it shows superior water resistance property. No changes were found in the ML intensities during the total water treatment test.

  4. Technology-Enabled Capability Demonstration 4A Sustainability and Logistics-Basing: Initial Quality of Life and Soldier Readiness User Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    Eat (MRE), Meal Cold Weather/Long Range Patrol (MCW/LRP), Unitized Group Ration (UGR) Heat & Serve, UGR‐E...1000 PAX camp has the Soldiers receiving a hot meal (UGR‐A) for dinner in addition to breakfast. The 1000 PAX camp also has larger numbers of MWR...over AC in the TOC any day.” Figure 14: MWR Attribute Scores 3.1.3.5 Field Feeding The Soldiers prioritized breakfast rations slightly over dinner

  5. Nutrition for Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Aging Nutrition for Young Men Print Email Nutrition for Young Men Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, ... 2017 XiXinXing/iStock/Thinkstock For many young men, nutrition isn't always a focus. There are many ...

  6. Efforts to Promote Reintegration and Rehabilitation of Traumatized Former Child Soldiers: Reintegration of Former Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone: The Role of Caregivers and Their Awareness of the Violence Adolescents Experienced During the War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Ivelina I; Betancourt, Theresa S; Willett, John B

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the role of caregivers in the reintegration of former child soldiers from Sierra Leone. Using data on 282 youth and their respective caregivers, our aim is to focus on the caregiver-child relationship after reintegration. We investigate the extent to which caregivers know about child soldiers' experiences of direct and indirect violence, as well as involvement in war activities. We further examine variables that might shape the degree of caregiver knowledge of child's war experiences. Finally, we examine if caregiver knowledge of war experiences is associated with child's psychosocial outcomes. Findings highlight the importance of developing thoughtful programs that consider the needs of the child in the context of the family and caregivers with whom he or she is reunified.

  7. Effective lagrangian for strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.

    1988-01-01

    We attempt to construct a realistic phenomenological Lagrangian in order to describe strong interactions. This is in general a very complicated problem and we shall explore its various aspects. We first include the vector mesons by writing down the most general chiral invariant terms proportional to the Levi-Civita symbol ε μναβ . These terms involve three unknown coefficients, which are calculated by using the experimental results of strong interaction processes. We then calculate the static nucleon properties by finding the solitonic excitations of this model. The results turn out to be, as is also the case for most other vector-pseudoscalar Lagrangians, better than the Skyrme model but are still somewhat different from the experiments. Another aspect that we shall study is the incorporation of scale anomaly of QCD into the Skyrme model. We thus introduce a scalar glueball in our Lagrangian. Here we find an interesting result that the effective glue field dynamically forms a bag for the soliton. Depending on the values of the parameters, we get either a deep bag or a shallow bag. However by including the scalar meson, we find that to get realistic scalar sector we must have the shallow bag. Finally we show some intriguing connections between the chiral quark model, in which the nucleon is described as a solitonic excitation, and the ordinary potential binding quark model

  8. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  9. Strong Selective Adsorption of Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ting; Rubinstein, Michael

    2015-06-09

    A scaling theory is developed for selective adsorption of polymers induced by the strong binding between specific monomers and complementary surface adsorption sites. By "selective" we mean specific attraction between a subset of all monomers, called "sticky", and a subset of surface sites, called "adsorption sites". We demonstrate that, in addition to the expected dependence on the polymer volume fraction ϕ bulk in the bulk solution, selective adsorption strongly depends on the ratio between two characteristic length scales, the root-mean-square distance l between neighboring sticky monomers along the polymer, and the average distance d between neighboring surface adsorption sites. The role of the ratio l / d arises from the fact that a polymer needs to deform to enable the spatial commensurability between its sticky monomers and the surface adsorption sites for selective adsorption. We study strong selective adsorption of both telechelic polymers with two end monomers being sticky and multisticker polymers with many sticky monomers between sticky ends. For telechelic polymers, we identify four adsorption regimes at l / d 1, we expect that the adsorption layer at exponentially low ϕ bulk consists of separated unstretched loops, while as ϕ bulk increases the layer crosses over to a brush of extended loops with a second layer of weakly overlapping tails. For multisticker chains, in the limit of exponentially low ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers are well separated from each other. As l / d increases, the conformation of an individual polymer changes from a single-end-adsorbed "mushroom" to a random walk of loops. For high ϕ bulk , adsorbed polymers at small l / d are mushrooms that cover all the adsorption sites. At sufficiently large l / d , adsorbed multisticker polymers strongly overlap. We anticipate the formation of a self-similar carpet and with increasing l / d a two-layer structure with a brush of loops covered by a self-similar carpet. As l / d exceeds the

  10. Egalitarianism in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Ernst; Bernhard, Helen; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2008-08-28

    Human social interaction is strongly shaped by other-regarding preferences, that is, a concern for the welfare of others. These preferences are important for a unique aspect of human sociality-large scale cooperation with genetic strangers-but little is known about their developmental roots. Here we show that young children's other-regarding preferences assume a particular form, inequality aversion that develops strongly between the ages of 3 and 8. At age 3-4, the overwhelming majority of children behave selfishly, whereas most children at age 7-8 prefer resource allocations that remove advantageous or disadvantageous inequality. Moreover, inequality aversion is strongly shaped by parochialism, a preference for favouring the members of one's own social group. These results indicate that human egalitarianism and parochialism have deep developmental roots, and the simultaneous emergence of altruistic sharing and parochialism during childhood is intriguing in view of recent evolutionary theories which predict that the same evolutionary process jointly drives both human altruism and parochialism.

  11. Empowering young people/ young adults to action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Birgitte Gade

    Research questions: How do the young students relate to their community? How do young students position themselves as agents in their own lives and in the places they live – which discourse is used?......Research questions: How do the young students relate to their community? How do young students position themselves as agents in their own lives and in the places they live – which discourse is used?...

  12. Strong growth for Queensland mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    The Queensland mining industry experienced strong growth during 1989-90 as shown in the latest statistics released by the Department of Resource Industries. The total value of Queensland mineral and energy production rose to a new record of $5.1 billion, an increase of 16.5% on 1988-89 production. A major contributing factor was a 20.9 percent increase in the value of coal production. While the quantity of coal produced rose only 1.1 percent, the substantial increase in the value of coal production is attributable to higher coal prices negotiated for export contracts. In Australian dollar terms coal, gold, lead, zinc and crude oil on average experienced higher international prices than in the previous year. Only copper and silver prices declined. 3 tabs.

  13. Strong moduli stabilization and phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Dudas, Emilian; Mambrini, Yann; Mustafayev, Azar; Olive, Keith A

    2013-01-01

    We describe the resulting phenomenology of string theory/supergravity models with strong moduli stabilization. The KL model with F-term uplifting, is one such example. Models of this type predict universal scalar masses equal to the gravitino mass. In contrast, A-terms receive highly suppressed gravity mediated contributions. Under certain conditions, the same conclusion is valid for gaugino masses, which like A-terms, are then determined by anomalies. In such models, we are forced to relatively large gravitino masses (30-1000 TeV). We compute the low energy spectrum as a function of m_{3/2}. We see that the Higgs masses naturally takes values between 125-130 GeV. The lower limit is obtained from the requirement of chargino masses greater than 104 GeV, while the upper limit is determined by the relic density of dark matter (wino-like).

  14. Strongly interacting W's and Z's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    The study focussed primarily on the dynamics of a strongly interacting W, Z(SIW) sector, with the aim of sharpening predictions for total W, Z yield and W, Z multiplicities expected from WW fusion for various scenarios. Specific issues raised in the context of the general problem of modeling SIW included the specificity of the technicolor (or, equivalently, QCD) model, whether or not a composite scalar model can be evaded, and whether the standard model necessarily implies an I = J = O state (≅ Higgs particle) that is relatively ''light'' (M ≤ hundreds of TeV). The consensus on the last issue was that existing arguments are inconclusive. While the author shall briefly address compositeness and alternatives to the technicolor model, quantitative estimates will be of necessity based on technicolor or an extrapolation of pion data

  15. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  16. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  17. Psychological characteristics of Swedish mandatory enlisted soldiers volunteering and not volunteering for international missions: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydstedt, Leif W; Osterberg, Johan

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess personality traits, psychological fitness, and hardiness among conscript soldiers volunteering for international missions (n = 146), by comparing them with conscripts from the same year class and unit who did not apply for international missions (n = 275). The sample consisted of all mandatory enlisted soldiers assigned to a supply and maintenance regiment. There were no demographic differences between the groups. The volunteers reported greater stress tolerance, concern for others, extraversion, and self-confidence than the non-volunteers. There were no differences between the groups in orderliness, temper instability, or independence. Volunteers repeatedly reported greater psychological fitness for military missions and greater hardiness over the period of military service compared to the non-volunteers.

  18. Optical correction and quality of vision of the French soldiers stationed in the Republic of Djibouti in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignal, Rodolphe; Ollivier, Lénaïck

    2011-03-01

    To ensure vision readiness on the battlefield, the French military has been providing its soldiers with eyewear since World War I. A military refractive surgery program was initiated in 2008. A prospective questionnaire-based investigation on optical correction and quality of vision among active duty members with visual deficiencies stationed in Djibouti, Africa, was conducted in 2009. It revealed that 59.3% of the soldiers were wearing spectacles, 21.2% were wearing contact lenses--despite official recommendations--and 8.5% had undergone refractive surgery. Satisfaction rates were high with refractive surgery and contact lenses; 33.6% of eyeglass wearers were planning to have surgery. Eye dryness and night vision disturbances were the most reported symptoms following surgery. Military optical devices were under-prescribed before deployment. This suggests that additional and more effective studies on the use of military optical devices should be performed and policy supporting refractive surgery in military populations should be strengthened.

  19. Psychosocial adjustment and mental health in former child soldiers--systematic review of the literature and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Borisova, Ivelina; Williams, Timothy P; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E; Rubin-Smith, Julia E; Annan, Jeannie; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the available quantitative research on psychosocial adjustment and mental health among children (age reintegration in CAAFAG. Abduction, age of conscription, exposure to violence, gender, and community stigma were associated with increased internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Family acceptance, social support, and educational/economic opportunities were associated with improved psychosocial adjustment. Research on the social reintegration and psychosocial adjustment of former child soldiers is nascent. A number of gaps in the available literature warrant future study. Recommendations to bolster the evidence base on psychosocial adjustment in former child soldiers and other war-affected youth include more studies comprising longitudinal study designs, and validated cross-cultural instruments for assessing mental health, as well as more integrated community-based approaches to study design and research monitoring. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. Design Considerations of a Lower Limb Exoskeleton System to Assist walking and Load-Carrying of Infantry Soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungnam Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a wearable exoskeleton system for the lower extremities of infantry soldiers and proposes appropriate design criteria based on existing case studies. Because infantry soldiers carry a variety of equipment, the interference with existing equipment and additional burden of the exoskeleton support system should be minimized. Recent studies have shown that a user only needs to be supported in the gravitational direction when walking on flat terrain; however, active joints are necessary to support walking over rough and sloped terrain such as mountains. Thus, an underactuated exoskeleton system was considered: passive joints are applied to the hip and ankle joints, and active joints are applied to the knee joints to exploit the dynamic coupling effect of the link structure and muscular activation patterns when the user is going up and down stairs. A prototype of the exoskeleton system was developed and validated through a simple stair-climbing experiment.

  1. Understanding Combat-Related PTSD Symptom Expression Through Index Trauma and Military Culture: Case Studies of Filipino Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela Cruz Fajarito, Cariñez; De Guzman, Rosalito G

    2017-05-01

    Few studies demonstrate how the index trauma may influence subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, especially among soldiers. There is still no consensus on specific trauma types and their corresponding PTSD symptom profiles. Furthermore, varied PTSD symptom manifestations that may yield to PTSD trauma subtypes are yet to be known. Importantly, the significance of the military culture's possible influence on soldiers' PTSD has also been underexplored. And the dominant PTSD construct may possibly be unable to capture the essential aspects of the military context in understanding combat-related PTSD. Hence, this study aims to reach an understanding into how index trauma and military culture may possibly shape participants' PTSD expressions. Case study design was used, wherein multiple sources of data-such as PTSD assessments, and interviews with the participants and key informants-enabled data triangulation. The three case reports are the outcomes of the corroboration of evidences that reveal an enriched and holistic understanding of the phenomenon under study. The Ethics Review Board Committee of the Armed Forces of the Philippines Medical Center approved the study. The participants were three Filipino active duty combat soldiers. Although all participants had similar index traumas, their PTSD symptom expressions are unique from one another, in that they differ in terms of their most incapacitating PTSD symptoms and other symptoms that have been potentially shaped by military culture. Their most incapacitating symptoms: hypervigilance (case 1), negative belief in oneself and negative emotions (case 2), prolonged distress, and marked physiological reactions to trauma-related cues (case 3), may be understood in the light of how they personally experienced different circumstances of their index traumas. The way participants have anchored specific components of their sworn soldier's creed (i.e., not leaving a fallen comrade) into some of their PTSD

  2. Young Nearby Loose Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, C. A. O.; Quast, G. R.; Melo, C. H. F.; Sterzik, M. F.

    2008-12-01

    A significant population of stars with ages younger than the Pleiades exists in the solar neighborhood. They are grouped in loose young associations, sharing similar kinematical and physical properties, but, due to their vicinity to the Sun, they are dispersed in the sky, and hard to identify. Their strong stellar coronal activity, causing enhanced X-ray emission, allows them to be identified as counterparts of X-ray sources. The analysis presented here is based mainly on the SACY project, aimed to survey in a systematic way counterparts of ROSAT all-sky X-ray sources in the Southern Hemisphere for which proper motions are known. We give the definition, main properties, and lists of high-probability members of nine confirmed loose young associations that do not belong directly to the well-known Oph-Sco-Cen complex. The youth and vicinity of many members of these new associations make them ideal targets for follow-up studies, specifically geared towards the understanding of planetary system formation. Searches for very low-mass and brown dwarf companions are ongoing, and it will be promising to search for planetary companions with next generation instruments.

  3. Sand fly population dynamics and cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers in an Atlantic forest remnant in northeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis are relatively common among soldiers involved in nocturnal activities in tropical forests. We investigated the population dynamics of sand flies in a military training camp located in a remnant of Atlantic rainforest in northeastern Brazil, where outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis have sporadically been described. From July 2012 to July 2014, light traps were monthly placed in 10 collection sites, being nine sites located near the forest edge and one near a sheep and goat stable. Light traps operated from 5:00 pm to 6:00 am, during four consecutive nights. Leishmania infection in sand flies was assessed using a fast real-time PCR assay. Cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers were also investigated. In total, 24,606 sand flies belonging to 25 species were identified. Males (n = 12,683 predominated over females (n = 11,923. Sand flies were present during all months, being more numerous in March (n = 1,691 and April 2013 (n = 3,324. Lutzomyia choti (72.9% was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia longispina (13.8%, Lutzomyia complexa (5.3%, representing together >90% of the sand flies collected. Forty cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded among soldiers from January 2012 to December 2014. Leishmania isolates were obtained from eight patients and were all characterized as Leishmania braziliensis. Soldiers and anyone overnighting in Atlantic rainforest remnants should adopt preventative measures such as the use of repellents on bare skin or clothes and insecticide-treated tents.

  4. Social Ecology of Child Soldiers: Child, Family, and Community Determinants of Mental Health, Psychosocial Wellbeing, and Reintegration in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Kohrt, Brandon A.; Jordans, Mark J.D.; Tol, Wietse A.; Perera, Em; Karki, Rohit; Koirala, Suraj; Upadhaya, Nawaraj

    2010-01-01

    This study employs social ecology to evaluate psychosocial wellbeing in a cross-sectional sample of 142 former child soldiers in Nepal. Outcome measures included the Depression Self Rating Scale (DSRS), Child Posttraumatic Stress Scale (CPSS), and locally developed measures of function impairment and reintegration. At the child level, traumatic exposures, especially torture, predicted poor outcomes, while education improved outcomes. At the family level, conflict-related death of a relative, ...

  5. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS AND STRESS FACED BY SOLDIERS WHO OPERATE IN ASYMMETRIC WARFARE ENVIRONMENTS: EXPERIENCES IN THE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe CAFORIO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of anxiety, stress and psychological discomfort that can affect soldiers sent on asymmetric warfare operations. It is based on secondary analysis of the data of two important field researches whose results have recently (2013 been published. Although the two researches adopted different methodologies, the testimonies are fully comparable and show that soldiers from different countries and cultures display common or similar reactions when they are placed in the stress conditions that the asymmetric environment involves. The approach of the paper is drawn up in such a way as to make the reader a participating observer of the reality of such missions. It is therefore centered on the personal testimonies of the soldiers interviewed in the two researches, testimonies reported just as they are, in their simplicity and, often, drama, with comments by the author kept to a minimum in order to give readers ample opportunity to evaluate and interpret the reported texts on their own. The research data, drawn from the declarations of those directly concerned, reveal the existence of a problem of psychological distress resulting from deployment in asymmetric warfare situations that is in part different in the causes of the problems resulting from deployment in traditional combat and affects percentages of participating soldiers that are not high but definitely significant. The highest incidence appears to be constituted by problems relating to reintegration into normal social and working life upon returning from the mission. This is followed in percentage terms by anxiety situations relating to life far from the family, due in large part to a sense of powerlessness for the scant possibility of managing family situations that may have cropped up or already existed beforehand.

  6. Citizens, Soldiers, and War: Comparing American Societal-Military Relationships with the Use of Forces Abroad, 1975-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    connection is the same as a smaller gap. Both manners of speech seek to explain the convergence or divergence between a society and its military...the Military Establishment,” 100-122. 23 Morris Janowitz, The Professional Soldier: A Social and Political Portrait (New York: Free Press, 1960...indications of discomfort between non-military citizens and some of the service members who have been fighting in the Global War on Terror. Although it is

  7. Not Only Soldiers Have Weapons: Evolution of the Frontal Gland in Imagoes of the Termite Families Rhinotermitidae and Serritermitidae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šobotník, Jan; Bourguignon, T.; Hanus, Robert; Sillam-Dusses, David; Pflegerová, Jitka; Weyda, František; Kutalová, Kateřina; Vytisková, B.; Roisin, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 12 (2010), e15761/1-e15761/7 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : termites * imagoes * soldiers * Rhinotermitidae * Serritermitidae * frontal gland Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.411, year: 2010 www.plosone.org

  8. Risk and protective factors for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among deployed Danish soldiers from 1990 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejdesgaard, Bo Andersen; Zøllner, Lilian; Jensen, Børge Frank; Jørgensen, Hans-Ole; Kähler, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The study was undertaken to identify risk and protective factors for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among deployed Danish soldiers. Research on suicide among Danish veterans has only been conducted to a limited degree. The method applied was a questionnaire survey administered to a population of 1,264 Danish soldiers deployed from 1990 to 2009. The data were analyzed using backward logistic regression modeling in SAS 9.2. In the logistic regression analysis, the following were significant risk factors for suicidal ideation: drug abuse, a poor financial situation before deployment, a heavy workload and/or repatriation during deployment, and attending a poor athletic and recreation program after deployment. Significant protective factors against suicidal ideation were support from friends at home during deployment and appreciation by the general population after deployment. Significant risk factors for suicide attempts were an unhappy childhood and pointless tasks during deployment. No significant protective factors against suicide attempts were identified. On the basis of the results presented in this study, intervention against suicidal behavior would benefit from screening for certain childhood issues, drug abuse, and poor financial situation before deployment. During deployment, measures should be taken to minimize the amount of meaningless tasks and heavy workloads. At the same time, efficient ways of communicating with home should be ensured. After deployment, good athletic and recreation programs should be warranted for all military personnel-including repatriated soldiers. Finally, priority should be given to ensure public appreciation of what deployed soldiers accomplish. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. Use of Body Armor Protection Levels with Squad Automatic Weapon Fighting Load Impacts Soldier Performance, Mobility, and Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Industrial Security Manual , Section ll-19 or DoD 5200.1-R, Information Security Program Regulation, Chapter IX. For Unclassified/Limited...accomplished using PSAW Statistics 18.0 ( SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Separate analyses were performed to test each of the three hypotheses stated. However...the Soldier and diminish his/her lethality or survivability , which may be an area of consideration for future research. 4.2 Consequences of Body Armor

  10. Early identification of posttraumatic stress following military deployment: Application of machine learning methods to a prospective study of Danish soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Statnikov, Alexander; Andersen, Søren B; Madsen, Trine; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R

    2015-09-15

    Pre-deployment identification of soldiers at risk for long-term posttraumatic stress psychopathology after home coming is important to guide decisions about deployment. Early post-deployment identification can direct early interventions to those in need and thereby prevents the development of chronic psychopathology. Both hold significant public health benefits given large numbers of deployed soldiers, but has so far not been achieved. Here, we aim to assess the potential for pre- and early post-deployment prediction of resilience or posttraumatic stress development in soldiers by application of machine learning (ML) methods. ML feature selection and prediction algorithms were applied to a prospective cohort of 561 Danish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2009 to identify unique risk indicators and forecast long-term posttraumatic stress responses. Robust pre- and early postdeployment risk indicators were identified, and included individual PTSD symptoms as well as total level of PTSD symptoms, previous trauma and treatment, negative emotions, and thought suppression. The predictive performance of these risk indicators combined was assessed by cross-validation. Together, these indicators forecasted long term posttraumatic stress responses with high accuracy (pre-deployment: AUC = 0.84 (95% CI = 0.81-0.87), post-deployment: AUC = 0.88 (95% CI = 0.85-0.91)). This study utilized a previously collected data set and was therefore not designed to exhaust the potential of ML methods. Further, the study relied solely on self-reported measures. Pre-deployment and early post-deployment identification of risk for long-term posttraumatic psychopathology are feasible and could greatly reduce the public health costs of war. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. United Nations Impact on Child Soldier Use in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo: 1999-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-12

    remained at large at the time of writing ( Malinowski 2008). Psychological Effects and Indoctrination Some works defined the psychological effect of...imprisonment. Biyoyo subsequently escaped from prison and remained at large at the time of writing ( Malinowski 2008). From a purely judicial...Armed Conflict on Children. Report of the expert of the Secretary General, New York: United Nations. Malinowski , Tom. 2008. Child Soldiers

  12. ISIS Child Soldiers in Syria: The Structural and Predatory Recruitment, Enlistment, Pre-Training Indoctrination, Training, and Deployment

    OpenAIRE

    Asaad Almohammad

    2018-01-01

    Research on the engagement of children with the so-called Islamic State (a.k.a. ISIS) relies heavily on the analysis of obtained ISIS documents and ISIS-disseminated propaganda, leaving major elements of the recruitment and deployment process uncovered. Such ambiguities hinder future efforts aimed at dealing with ISIS’ child soldiers. As such, an intensive effort to compile data using interviews and naturalistic observations across ISIS-held territories in Syria was made to exhaustively explo...

  13. Expectations from different perspectives on future work outcome of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental

  14. Expectations from Different Perspectives on Future Work Outcome of Young Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, A.; Brouwer, S.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.; van der Klink, J.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental

  15. Expectations from Different Perspectives on Future Work Outcome of Young Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental

  16. Molecular basis of young ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersano, Anna; Borellini, Linda; Motto, Cristina; Lanfranconi, Silvia; Pezzini, Alessandro; Basilico, Paola; Micieli, Giuseppe; Padovani, Alessandro; Parati, Eugenio; Candelise, Livia

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and family studies have provided evidence on the role of genetic factors in stroke, particularly in stroke occurring at young age. However, despite its impact, young stroke continues to be understudied. This article reviews the existing literature on the most investigated monogenic disorders (CADASIL, Fabry disease, MELAS, RVCL, COL4A1, Marfan and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes) causing stroke in young and a number of candidate genes associated with stroke occurring in patients younger than 50 years. Although our study failed in identifying strong and reliable associations between specific genes and young stroke, our detailed literature revision on the field allowed us to compile a panel of genes possibly generating a susceptibility to stroke, which could be a starting point for future research. Since stroke is a potentially preventable disease, the identification of genes associated with young stroke may promote novel prevention strategies and allow the identification of therapeutic disease targets.

  17. Uptake of heavy metals and arsenic in black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae grown on seaweed-enriched media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancarosa, Irene; Liland, Nina S; Biemans, Daan; Araujo, Pedro; Bruckner, Christian G; Waagbø, Rune; Torstensen, Bente E; Lock, Erik-Jan; Amlund, Heidi

    2018-04-01

    The black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is one of the most promising insect species for use in animal feed. However, studies investigating feed and food safety aspects of using black soldier fly as feed are scarce. In this study, we fed black soldier fly larvae feeding media enriched with seaweed, which contains naturally high concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential transfer of such undesirable substances from the feeding media to the larvae. The larvae accumulated cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic. Concentrations of these elements in the larvae increased when more seaweed was added to the feeding media. The highest retention was seen for cadmium (up to 93%) and the lowest for total arsenic (up to 22%). When seaweed inclusion exceeded 20% in the media, this resulted in larval concentrations of cadmium and total arsenic above the current European Union maximum levels for these elements in complete feed. Our results confirm that insect larvae can accumulate heavy metals and arsenic when present in the feeding media. A broader understanding of the occurrence of these undesirable substances in processed larvae products is needed to assess feed and food safety. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. The impact of an educational film on promoting knowledge and attitudes toward HIV in soldiers of the Serbian armed forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranin Željko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Millions of soldiers around the world represent one of the most vulnerable populations regarding exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. The programs for HIV prevention remain the most viable approach to reducing the spread of HIV infection. Very few studies have tested the effectiveness of HIV preventive interventions undertaken in military population. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of educational film to transfer knowledge about HIV infection to soldiers. Methods. We performed a quasi-experimental study among 102 soldiers of the Serbian Armed Forces. The experimental intervention consisted of the HIV knowledge pre-questionnaire, watching a film on HIV knowledge, then the post-HIV knowledge questionnaire. The results of pre-and post-HIV knowledge questionnaires were compared. Results. There were 23 questions in the test. The average total score on the questionnaire before watching the film was 18.23 and after watching it was 20.14, which was statistically significant difference (p < 0.001. Conclusions. The results of the study show that viewing a film on HIV infection is an effective method of transferring knowledge about HIV to the Serbian military population.

  19. Early Intervention for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Quality of Life in Mortuary Affairs Soldiers Postdeployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Quinn M; Fullerton, Carol S; McCarroll, James E; Liu, Xian; Wang, Leming; Dacuyan, Nicole M; Zatzick, Douglas F; Ursano, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    U.S. Army mortuary affairs (MA) soldiers experience stressors of deployment and exposure to the dead, increasing risk for post-traumatic stress and depression. This study examines Troop Education for Army Morale, a postdeployment early intervention based on Psychological First Aid. MA soldiers (N = 126) were randomized to intervention or comparison groups 1-month postdeployment. Intervention sessions were held at 2, 3, 4, and 7 months. Assessments of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and quality of life (QOL) were conducted at 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 10 months for both groups. At baseline, 25.0% of the total sample had probable PTSD (17-item PTSD Checklist M = 35.4, SD = 16.9) and 23.6% had probable depression (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale M = 7.8, SD = 6.9). Over 10 months, PTSD and depression symptoms decreased and QOL improved for the total sample. At study conclusion, intervention and comparison groups were not different. Intervention group males showed a transient symptom increase at 2 to 3 months. Males attended fewer intervention sessions than females. Lower attendance was associated with more symptoms and lower QOL. Higher attendance was associated with greater intervention benefits. Findings highlight the need for better understanding postdeployment interventions and facilitating attendance. Further intervention for MA soldiers is indicated. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  20. Investigation of army soldiers readiness about health actions in critical circumstances. Case study: Malek Ashtar Military Garrison’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdollah vosoughi niri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health related measures in emergencies are of the issues that, if taken properly, can reduce damages of a disaster effectively. To have this situation happened knowledge of health personnel, crisis staff, and military and other related groups has to improve. This study aimed to determine military staffs’ attitude and knowledge about health measures in emergencies. Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted through a self-administrated questionnaire. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire was previously proven. The questionnaire included items on personal information and knowledge and attitude about health measures in emergencies. Using a multi-stage sampling, 190 soldiers of Malek Ashtar Military Garrison in Arak were selected. ANOVA, Kruskal- Wallis, Chi Square, Spearman rho’s coefficient correlation and T-test were used to analyze that data. Results: Findings showed that 43 percent of soldiers had good knowledge of health measures in emergencies. About 11 percent of staff had poor knowledge. Half of staff had an average attitude toward emergency health measures. Concerning the degree of knowledge, no significant difference was observed between soldiers with different levels of education. Regarding knowledge and attitude, there was no statistically significant difference between different age groups. Conclusion: Having a basic knowledge of health measures in emergencies is of salient importance. Considering lack of such basic knowledge among some military staff, provision of training on health related measures for those staff is recommended. Keywords: knowledge, attitude, health measures, military staff, crisis

  1. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  2. Strong Statistical Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Şençimen, Celaleddin; Pehlivan, Serpil

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the concepts of strongly statistically convergent sequence and strong statistically Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong statistical limit points and the strong statistical cluster points of a sequence in this space and investigate the relations between these concepts.

  3. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  4. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  5. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  6. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  7. Effect of Schisandrae on stress system of soldiers undergone high-intensity military training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan XIA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the changes in basic serum levels of hypothalamus-pituitrin-adrenal (HPA axis, hypothalamus-pituitrin-gonad (HPG axis and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-2 and IL-6 in repeated acute stress caused by one-week intensive training, and study the effects of oral administration of Schisandrae, salidroside and Schisandrae compound on the contents of those stress hormones and cytokines mentioned above. Methods One hundred and twenty healthy soldiers chosen from junior infantry combat troops who had never received long-term amphibious training were randomly divided into four groups (30 each: group A (Schisandrae compound group, group B (Schisandrae group, group C (salidroside group and group D (control group. Each and every soldier of all the groups underwent high-intensity composite military training, 8 hours per day, for a week. Venous blood sampling was collected at 7:00-8:00 a.m. before and after the training, respectively. Levels of cortisol (CORT, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, testosterone (T, IL-1, IL-2 and IL-6 in different groups were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA. The changes in the levels of all the above mentioned hormones and cytokines in every group were observed and compared. Results In group D, as compared with the pre-stress levels, no marked difference was found in the levels of serum CORT and ACTH (P>0.05, but the levels of T and IL-6 significantly decreased (P0.05. In group C, the levels of T and IL-6 significantly decreased (P0.05. In group A, the serum levels of CORT, ACTH, T, IL-1 and IL-6 significantly decreased, while that of IL-2 significantly increased (P<0.01. As compared with group D, the level of ACTH in group A and group B, the level of IL-2 in group C significantly decreased (P<0.05. Conclusions  Schisandrae and Schisandrae compound have a marked and lasting inhibitory effect on the activation of HPA axis and the elevation of serum CORT levels induced by stress, while the similar

  8. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  9. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  10. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  11. Emotional reactivity to a single inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide and its association with later symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety in soldiers deployed to Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telch, Michael J; Rosenfield, David; Lee, Han-Joo; Pai, Anushka

    2012-11-01

    The identification of modifiable predeployment vulnerability factors that increase the risk of combat stress reactions among soldiers once deployed to a war zone offers significant potential for the prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other combat-related stress disorders. Adults with anxiety disorders display heightened emotional reactivity to a single inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide (CO(2)); however, data investigating prospective linkages between emotional reactivity to CO(2) and susceptibility to war-zone stress reactions are lacking. To investigate the association of soldiers' predeployment emotional reactivity to 35% CO(2) challenge with several indices of subsequent war-zone stress symptoms assessed monthly while deployed in Iraq. Prospective cohort study of 158 soldiers with no history of deployment to a war zone were recruited from the Texas Combat Stress Risk Study between April 2, 2007, and August 28, 2009. Multilevel regression models were used to investigate the association between emotional reactivity to 35% CO(2) challenge (assessed before deployment) and soldiers' reported symptoms of general anxiety/stress, PTSD, and depression while deployed to Iraq. Growth curves of PTSD, depression, and general anxiety/stress symptoms showed a significant curvilinear relationship during the 16-month deployment period. War-zone stressors reported in theater were associated with symptoms of general anxiety/stress, PTSD, and depression. Consistent with the prediction, soldiers' emotional reactivity to a single inhalation of 35% CO(2)-enriched air before deployment significantly potentiated the effects of war-zone stressors on the subsequent development of PTSD symptoms and general anxiety/stress symptoms but not on the development of depression, even after accounting for the effects of trait anxiety and the presence of past or current Axis I mental disorders. Soldiers' emotional reactivity to a 35% CO(2) challenge may serve as a vulnerability

  12. Russia needs a strong counterpart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.; Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an interview with the head of OMV, Wolfgang Ruttenstorfer is published. There is extract from this interview: Q: There have been attempts to take over MOL for a quite long time. Do you think you can still succeed? Since the beginning we kept saying that this would not happen from one day to another. But it may take two to three years. But we are positive that it is justified. Q: Resistance from MOL and the Hungarian government is strong. We have tried to persuade the Hungarian government. We offered them a split company management. A part of the management would be in Budapest. We would locate the management of the largest division - the refinery, there. And of course only the best could be part of the management. We would not nominate people according to their nationality, it would not matter whether the person was Austrian, Hungarian or Slovak. We want a Central European company, not Hungarian, Romanian or Slovak company. Q: Would the transaction still be attractive if, because of pressure exercised by Brussels, you had to sell Slovnaft or your refinery in Szazhalobatta? We do not intend to sell any refineries. Q: Rumours are spreading that the Commission may ask you to sell a refinery? We do not want to speculate. Let us wait and see what happens. We do not want to sell refineries. Q: It is said that OMV is coordinating or at least consulting its attempts to acquire MOL with Gazprom. There are many rumours in Central Europe. But I can tell you this is not true. We are interested in this merger because we feel the increasing pressure exercised by Kazakhstan and Russia. We, of course, have a good relationship with Gazprom which we have had enjoyed for over forty years. As indeed Slovakia has. Q: A few weeks ago Austrian daily Wirtschaftsblatt published an article about Gazprom's interest in OMV shares. That is gossip that is more than ten years' old. Similarly to the rumours that Gazprom is a shareholder of MOL. There are no negotiations with Gazprom

  13. Morphometric analysis of population samples of soldier caste of Odontotermes obesus (Rambur (Isoptera, Termitidae, Macrotermitinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor, F.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study morphometric variations in Odontotermes obesus (Rambur, samples from nineteen nests were statistically analyzed for mean, standard deviation, standard error, coefficient of variability and confidence interval (95% and analysis of variance (Model II ANOVA, The mean values of the different population samples were compared with the student t-test, following the Minitab version and Sokal & Rohlf (1973. In the study of external characters, measurements form a very important component, particularly for identification of species. However, the reliability of the measurements depends on the extent of variability which the structures show within and between colonies. For each individual soldier, the following nine parameters were measured: i length of head; ii width of head at mandibles; iii width of head at the posterolateral ends of antennal carinae; iv maximum width of head; v length of left mandible; vi tooth of left mandible from tip; vii length of pronotum; viii width of pronotum; ix length of postmentum; and x width of postmentum.

  14. Effect of Parachute Jump in the Psychophysiological Response of Soldiers in Urban Combat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Molina, Joaquín; Robles-Pérez, José J; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente J

    2017-06-01

    The study of organic and psychological response during combat situations has been poorly reported despite its importance for soldiers training and specific instruction, so it was proposed as aim of the present investigation to analyze the effect of a tactical parachute simulated jump in psycho-physiological response of paratroopers' warfighters during an urban combat simulation. 19 male paratroopers (31.9 ± 6.2 year old; 173.6 ± 5.3 cm; 73.8 ± 8.3 Kg) of the Spanish Army were divided in two groups: parachute jump group (n:11) that conducted a simulated parachute jump and a urban combat maneuver and a non-parachute jump group (n:8) that only conducted an urban combat maneuver. We analyzed before and after the maneuver the rated perceived exertion, legs strength manifestation, blood lactate, cortical activation, heart rate variability, blood oxygen saturation and pressure, skin temperature, fine motor skills, and anxiety state. A tactical parachute simulated jump prior to an urban combat maneuver produce significantly (p jump situation in professional Army paratroopers. Independently of the parachute jump, an urban combat maneuver produces a significant increase in rated perceived exertion, blood lactate, heart rate, legs strength, sympathetic modulation and anxiety response as well as a significant decrease in blood oxygen saturation and parasympathetic modulation.

  15. Virtual stress testing of fracture stability in soldiers with severely comminuted tibial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petfield, Joseph L; Hayeck, Garry T; Kopperdahl, David L; Nesti, Leon J; Keaveny, Tony M; Hsu, Joseph R

    2017-04-01

    Virtual stress testing (VST) provides a non-invasive estimate of the strength of a healing bone through a biomechanical analysis of a patient's computed tomography (CT) scan. We asked whether VST could improve management of patients who had a tibia fracture treated with external fixation. In a retrospective case-control study of 65 soldier-patients who had tibia fractures treated with an external fixator, we performed VST utilizing CT scans acquired prior to fixator removal. The strength of the healing bone and the amount of tissue damage after application of an overload were computed for various virtual loading cases. Logistic regression identified computed outcomes with the strongest association to clinical events related to nonunion within 2 months after fixator removal. Clinical events (n = 9) were associated with a low tibial strength for compression loading (p fracture patients who can safely resume weight bearing. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:805-811, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Soldiers of the Military Police of Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Romário Teixeira Braga; D'Oliveira, Argemiro

    2014-07-01

    The mortality rate of men is generally higher than that of women, irrespective of the age group. Currently, a key concern for health care professionals is the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of individual risk factors for cardiovascular disease as well as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among men serving in the Military Police Corps of the state of Bahia, Brazil. This service employs mostly men, and they are known to experience high levels of occupational stress and professional victimization. We conducted a cross-sectional study among military police soldiers (n = 452) who were candidates for a military police training course in Bahia, Brazil. All candidates who attended the selection process were evaluated according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Panel III in order to assess the presence of medical disorders that could contribute to cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The authors identified a high prevalence of hypertension (55.76%), hypertriglyceridemia (50.85%), waist circumference of >102 cm (31.76%), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (30.46%), and impaired fasting glucose (28.15%) in our subjects. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38.54%. The authors suggest that measures should be taken to ensure that military policemen receive continued medical care, both in their professional capacity and in their personal circumstances, and that attention be focused on intervention programs. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Emergent runaway into an avoidance area in a swarm of soldier crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hisashi; Tomaru, Takenori; Nishiyama, Yuta; Moriyama, Toru; Niizato, Takayuki; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2014-01-01

    Emergent behavior that arises from a mass effect is one of the most striking aspects of collective animal groups. Investigating such behavior would be important in order to understand how individuals interact with their neighbors. Although there are many experiments that have used collective animals to investigate social learning or conflict between individuals and society such as that between a fish and a school, reports on mass effects are rare. In this study, we show that a swarm of soldier crabs could spontaneously enter a water pool, which are usually avoided, by forming densely populated part of a swarm at the edge of the water pool. Moreover, we show that the observed behavior can be explained by the model of collective behavior based on inherent noise that is individuals' different velocities in a directed group. Our results suggest that inherent noise, which is widely seen in collective animals, can contribute to formation and/or maintenance of a swarm and that the dense swarm can enter the pool by means of enhanced inherent noise.

  18. Emergent runaway into an avoidance area in a swarm of soldier crabs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Murakami

    Full Text Available Emergent behavior that arises from a mass effect is one of the most striking aspects of collective animal groups. Investigating such behavior would be important in order to understand how individuals interact with their neighbors. Although there are many experiments that have used collective animals to investigate social learning or conflict between individuals and society such as that between a fish and a school, reports on mass effects are rare. In this study, we show that a swarm of soldier crabs could spontaneously enter a water pool, which are usually avoided, by forming densely populated part of a swarm at the edge of the water pool. Moreover, we show that the observed behavior can be explained by the model of collective behavior based on inherent noise that is individuals' different velocities in a directed group. Our results suggest that inherent noise, which is widely seen in collective animals, can contribute to formation and/or maintenance of a swarm and that the dense swarm can enter the pool by means of enhanced inherent noise.

  19. Wearable technologies for soldier first responder assessment and remote monitoring (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen

    2017-05-01

    Embedded combat medical personnel require accurate and timely biometric data to ensure appropriate life saving measures. Injured warfighter's operating in remote environments require both assessment and monitoring often while still engaged with enemy forces. Small wearable devices that can be placed on injured personnel capable of collecting essential biometric data, including the capacity to remotely deliver collected data in real-time, would allow additional medical monitoring and triage that will greatly help the medic in the battlefield. These new capabilities will provide a force multiplier through remote assessment, increased survivability, and in freeing engaged warfighter's from direct monitoring thus improving combat effectiveness and increasing situational awareness. Key questions around what information does the medic require and how effective it can be relayed to support personnel are at their early stages of development. A low power biometric wearable device capable of reliable electrocardiogram (EKG) rhythm, temperature, pulse, and other vital data collection which can provide real-time remote monitoring are in development for the Soldier.

  20. Effects of Command and Control Vehicle (C2V) Operational Environment on Soldier Health and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; DeRoshia, Charles; Tauson, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to use NASA technology to assist the US Army in the assessment of motion sickness and performance of soldiers in the Command and Control Vehicle (C2V). Three different vehicle configurations were tested: oblique, (3 seats at a 20-degree angle from the direction of travel); perpendicular, (3 seats at a 90 degree angle); and 4-forward, (all seats faced forward). In all vehicles, the front seat faced forward. Sixteen men and eight women participated for 15 days: 2 days of classroom instruction; 12 days of field tests in the C2V, and 15 minutes of post-field test performance measures. Conditions for field tests were: an initial Park; four Moves (i.e., travel over a mixed terrain); and four Short-halts following movement. NASA task batteries, mood and symptom scales, and physiological data were collected during field tests. Motion sickness symptoms ranging from slight to severe were reported for all subjects. Conclusions were: (1) there was no difference between vehicle configurations; (2) there was a negative impact on crew performance and health when subjects attended to visual screens during vehicle movement; and (3) symptoms and performance degradation were not mitigated by intermittent short-halts.

  1. Determinants of compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis among French soldiers during missions in inter-tropical Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradines Bruno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effectiveness of malaria chemoprophylaxis is limited by the lack of compliance whose determinants are not well known. Methods The compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis has been estimated and analysed by validated questionnaires administered before and after the short-term missions (about four months in five tropical African countries of 2,093 French soldiers from 19 military companies involved in a prospective cohort study. "Correct compliance" was defined as "no missed doses" of daily drug intake during the entire mission and was analysed using multiple mixed-effect logistic regression model. Results The averaged prevalence rate of correct compliance was 46.2%, ranging from 9.6%to 76.6% according to the companies. Incorrect compliance was significantly associated with eveningness (p = 0.028, a medical history of clinical malaria (p Conclusions The identification of circumstances and profiles of persons at higher risk of lack of compliance would pave the way to specifically targeted strategies aimed to improve compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis and, therefore, its effectiveness.

  2. The nasus gland: a new gland in soldiers of Angularitermes (Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šobotník, Jan; Bourguignon, Thomas; Carrijo, Tiago F; Bordereau, Christian; Robert, Alain; Křížková, Barbora; Constantini, Joice P; Cancello, Eliana M

    2015-09-01

    Termites have developed many exocrine glands, generally dedicated to defence or communication. Although a few of these glands occur in all termite species, or represent synapomorphies of larger clades, others are morphological innovations of a single species, or a few related species. Here, we describe the nasus gland, a new gland occurring at the base of the nasus of Angularitermes soldiers. The nasus gland is composed of class 1, 2, and 3 secretory cells, a rare combination that is only shared by the sternal and tergal glands of some termites and cockroaches. The ultrastructural observations suggest that the secretion is produced by class 2 and 3 secretory cells, and released mostly by class 3 cells. The base of the nasus has a rough appearance due to numerous pits bearing openings of canals conducting the secretion from class 3 secretory cells to the exterior. We tentatively assign a defensive function to the nasus gland, although further research is needed to confirm this function. Although the gland is described only from species of Angularitermes, other genera of Nasutitermitinae also present a rough nasus base, suggesting the presence of a similar, possibly homologous, gland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Seismic Evidence for Possible Slab Melting from Strong Scattering Waves

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    Cheng-Horng Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Slab melting in young and hot subduction zones has been studied using geochemical observations and thermal modelling, but there are few data from seismic studies to confirm slab melting. Also the detailed geometry in the deep part of the melting slab is often ambiguous in that the intraslab earthquakes within the Wadati-Benioff zone are only limited to shallower depths. To improve our understanding of both the seismic features and geometry found in a young and hot subducted slab, I analyzed anomalous moonquake-like seismograms that were generated by an intermediate-depth earthquake recorded in central Japan. For this study, possible reflected (or scattered sources were examined using detailed analyses of particle motions and a grid search for travel-time differences between the direct and later P-waves. The results show that using strong seismic scattering, slab melting is likely occurring in the deeper, flexing part of the subducted Philippine Sea plate. Because the subducted Philippine Sea plate in central Japan is young and therefore hot, partial melting might have taken place to produce abundant melting spots in the subducted slab. Melting spots, identified as ¡§bright spots,¡¨ could efficiently reflect or scatter seismic energy and generate many later phases with large amplitudes.

  4. Effects of Combat Deployment on Anthropometrics and Physiological Status of U.S. Army Special Operations Forces Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Emily K; Taylor, Jonathan C; Means, Gary E; Williams, Kelly W; Murphy, Nancy E; Margolis, Lee M; Pasiakos, Stefan M; Lieberman, Harris R; McClung, James P

    2017-03-01

    U.S. Army Special Operations Forces (SOF) soldiers deploy frequently and conduct military operations through special warfare and surgical strike capabilities. Tasks required to execute these capabilities may induce physical and mental stress and have the potential to degrade soldier physiological status. No investigations have longitudinally characterized whether combat deployment alters anthropometrics or biochemical markers of physiological status in a SOF population of frequent deployers. Effects of modern combat deployment on longitudinal changes in anthropometrics and physiological status of elite U.S. Army SOF soldiers (n = 50) were assessed. Changes in measures of body composition, grip strength, physiological status, and health behaviors from baseline to postdeployment were determined with paired t test and McNemar's statistic. Baseline measures were obtained between 4 and 8 weeks before deployment. Deployment length was a uniform duration of time between 3 and 6 months (all soldiers completed the same length of deployment). Post hoc analyses determined change in body mass within quartiles of baseline body mass with paired t test and associations between change in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and change in body mass with correlation coefficient. The study was approved by the Human Use Review Committee at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts. In response to deployment, increases in lean mass (77.1 ± 7.6 to 77.8 ± 7.5 kg), maximum grip strength (57.9 ± 7.2 to 61.6 ± 8.8 kg), and conduct of aerobic (156 ± 106 to 250 ± 182 minutes/week) and strength training (190 ± 101 to 336 ± 251 minutes/week) exercise were observed (p < 0.05). Increases in serum SHBG (35.42 ± 10.68 to 38.77 ± 12.26 nmol/L) and decreases in serum cortisol (443.2 ± 79.3 to 381.9 ± 111.6 nmol/L) were also observed (p < 0.05). Body mass changes were dependent on baseline body mass. Soldiers in the lowest quartile of baseline body

  5. ADHD in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips ADHD in Young Children Use recommended treatment first Language: ... The recommended first treatment for young children with ADHD is underused. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends ...

  6. Bigger helpers in the ant Cataglyphis bombycina: increased worker polymorphism or novel soldier caste?

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    Mathieu Molet

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which development favors or constrains the evolution of new phenotypes are incompletely understood. Polyphenic species may benefit from developmental plasticity not only regarding ecological advantages, but also potential for evolutionary diversification. For instance, the repeated evolution of novel castes in ants may have been facilitated by the existence of alternative queen and worker castes and their respective developmental programs.Cataglyphis bombycina is exceptional in its genus because winged queens and size-polymorphic workers occur together with bigger individuals having saber-shaped mandibles. We measured seven body parts in more than 150 individuals to perform a morphometric analysis and assess the developmental origin of this novel phenotype.Adults with saber-shaped mandibles differ from both workers and queens regarding the size of most body parts. Their relative growth rates are identical to workers for some pairs of body parts, and identical to queens for other pairs of body parts; critical sizes differ in all cases.Big individuals are a third caste, i.e. soldiers, not major workers. Novel traits such as elongated mandibles are combined with a mix of queen and worker growth rates. We also reveal the existence of a dimorphism in the queen caste (microgynes and macrogynes. We discuss how novel phenotypes can evolve more readily in the context of an existing polyphenism. Both morphological traits and growth rules from existing queen and worker castes can be recombined, hence mosaic phenotypes are more likely to be viable. In C. bombycina, such a mosaic phenotype appears to function both for defense (saber-shaped mandibles and fat storage (big abdomen. Recycling of developmental programs may have contributed to the morphological diversity and ecological success of ants.

  7. Numerical Simulation by using Soldiers Pile of the Embankment on Semarang-Solo Highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanduk, M. S. S. S.; Maki, T. S.; Pangkey, T. U. Y.; Pandeiroth, Y. C.

    2018-02-01

    Semarang-Solo highway works section II Gedawang-Penggaron constitutes a labile area. It is thought to be effect of the existence of coat clay shale which have moulded. For the purpose of anticipating the embankment mass movement it is placed line bored pile and stringed up (soldiers pile). The objective of this research is to know the efficient use of soldier’s pile of the embankment on Semarang-Solo highway section II Gedawang-Penggaron pursuant based upon numerical simulation. The result of analysis depicts that original slope in a stabil state with horizontal displacement which equal to 0.06 m and safety factor (SF) which equal to 1.31. The strengthened embankment with bored pile is not effective to give am SF improvement at slope so that, at this phase, the slope cannot be slid to be safe enough from landslide namely with horizontal displacement which equal to 0.20 m and SF which equal to 1.09. The effect of traffic load horizontal displacement is which equal to 0.21 m with SF which equal to 1.00. The earthquake simulation results horizontal displacement which equal to 0.75 m with SF which equal to 1.00. Long variation of bored pile of phase II by neglecting bored pile phase III at the depth 35 m yields horizontal displacement which equal to 0.03 m and SF optimum which equal to 2.17. The variation of pile location by placing bored pile under embankment slope foot with distance from the location of bored pile of phase II which equal to 20 m without changing the profile of the existing bored pile creates the horizontal displacement which equals to 0.02 m with SF which equal to 2.29. The result of the horizontal displacement and SF of the two alternative is safer compared to the existing condition (SF>1.5).

  8. Childhood trauma, combat trauma, and substance use in National Guard and reserve soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Bonnie M; Hoopsick, Rachel A; Homish, D Lynn; Daws, Rachel C; Homish, Gregory G

    2018-02-27

    The goal of this work was to examine associations among childhood trauma, combat trauma, and substance use (alcohol problems, frequent heavy drinking [FHD], current cigarette smoking, and current/lifetime drug use) and the interaction effects of childhood trauma and combat exposure on those associations among National Guard/reserve soldiers. Participants (N = 248) completed an electronic survey asking questions about their military experiences, physical and mental health, and substance use. Childhood trauma and combat exposure were examined jointly in regression models, controlling for age, marital satisfaction, and number of deployments. Childhood trauma was associated with current drug use (trend level, odds ratio [OR] = 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97, 2.14; P = .072) in the main effect model; however, there was not a significant interaction with combat. Combat exposure had a significant interaction with childhood trauma on alcohol problems (b = -0.56, 95% CI: -1.12, -0.01; P = .048), FHD (b = -0.27, 95% CI: -0.47, -0.08; P = .007), and lifetime drug use (OR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.04, 3.04; P = .035). There were no associations with either of the trauma measures and current cigarette smoking. These results demonstrate that childhood and combat trauma have differential effects on alcohol use, such that combat trauma may not add to the effect on alcohol use in those with greater child maltreatment but may contribute to greater alcohol use among those with low child maltreatment. As expected, childhood and combat trauma had synergistic effects on lifetime drug use. Screening for multiple types of trauma prior to enlistment and/or deployment may help to identify at-risk individuals and allow time for early intervention to prevent future adverse outcomes.

  9. Performances of local poultry breed fed black soldier fly larvae reared on horse manure

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    Nassim Moula

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In poultry, feed based on maggots, like larvae of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens is an attractive option to substitute current ingredients which are expensive and often in direct or indirect competition with human food. Little information is currently available on the utility of these larvae in poultry feed, so goals of this study were to determine whether larvae could be reared on horse manure under traditional farming conditions and to evaluate the growth performances of a local poultry fed these larvae and the fatty acids profiles of their meat. After freezing and thawing, larvae were introduced in the feed of Ardennaise chickens between 30 and 80 days of age. Birds in the control group received a commercial standard feed, while those in the treatment group received the same commercial feed in which 8% was substituted with whole fresh larvae corresponding to 2% on a dry matter basis. Means ± standard errors of larval length and weight were 20.67 ± 2.21 mm and 0.14 ± 0.02 g, respectively. Mean larval percentages of dry matter and of substances extractable in diethyl ether were 24.6% and 23.1%, respectively. Larval fatty acids profiles were predominantly composed of lauric acid (28.1% and palmitic acid (22.0%. Least squares means of weekly weights of chicken, adjusted for the effects of sex, replication and initial weights, were significantly higher (P < 0.05 by 77.03 ± 53.37 g in larvae-fed than in control chickens. All other measurements were not statistically different between larvae-fed and control chicken, including fatty acid profiles, protein content and ω6/ω3 ratio. Keywords: Insect farming, Chicken, Local breed, Growth performance, Meat quality, Fatty acid profile

  10. The participation of the Spanish soldiers in the 18th century press

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    Manuel-Reyes GARCÍA HURTADO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The Spanish soldiers intervene in the 18th century, fundamentally in the second half, in a way determined in the Republic of Letters. With this study we attempt to suggest that authors from the army and the navy collaborated with 18th century publications in an assiduous or sporadic way, in particular since the last third of the century as well as to carry out an analysis of the themes that worried them and on which they wrote articles. We will obtain thus data about a direct intervention channel of the militia in a society that nothing has to do with the military phenomenon.

  11. Incidence and severity of maxillofacial injuries during the Second Lebanon War among Israeli soldiers and civilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Liran; Zadik, Yehuda; Peleg, Kobi; Bigman, Galya; Givon, Adi; Lin, Shaul

    2008-08-01

    To analyze the incidence and severity of maxillofacial injuries in the Second Lebanon War, that occurred during the summer of 2006, among Israeli soldiers and civilians. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients recorded in the Israel National Trauma Registry during the Second Lebanon War. Data refer to all general hospitals throughout the country. Data were analyzed according to the etiology of the injury, severity of trauma using the Injury Severity Score, trauma location, and duration of hospital stay. Cases with multiple injuries that included maxillofacial injuries were separated and further analyzed according to the above parameters. Patients with only dental injuries and superficial facial soft tissue lacerations were excluded because they were referred to the military dental clinics and not to general hospitals. Maxillofacial injuries were found in 36 (6.4%) of the 565 wounded. Patients with maxillofacial injuries ranged in age from 20 to 44 years (mean age, 25.5 +/- 5.7 years). Greater than 50% of the injuries required more than 3 hospitalization days. Mortality rate of the maxillofacial injured was 2.8%. Most of the maxillofacial injuries (33; 91.7%) were combined with other organ injuries; 9 (25%) patients also had dental injuries. In the Second Lebanon War, the incidence and severity of true maxillofacial injuries, without dental injuries alone, were relatively low compared with previous reports of other conflicts. However, because most injuries involved multiple organs, special attention is required when planning and providing emergency, as well as secondary and tertiary medical care to war wounded.

  12. Carbohydrases in the digestive system of the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamari, Mahboob; Hosseininaveh, Vahid; Darvishzadeh, Ali; Chougule, Nanasaheb P

    2014-04-01

    The spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris, is a generalist predator of insects and has been used in biological control. However, information on the digestion of food in this insect is lacking. Therefore, we have studied the digestive system in P. maculiventris, and further characterized carbohydrases in the digestive tract. The midgut of all developmental stages was composed of anterior, median, and posterior regions. The volumes of the anterior midgut decreased and the median midgut increased in older instars and adults, suggesting a more important role of the median midgut in food digestion. However, carbohydrase activities were predominant in the anterior midgut. In comparing the specific activity of carbohydrases, α-amylase activity was more in the salivary glands (with two distinct activity bands in zymograms), and glucosidase and galactosidase activities were more in the midgut. Salivary α-amylases were detected in the prey hemolymph, demonstrating the role of these enzymes in extra-oral digestion. However, the catalytic efficiency of midgut α-amylase activity was approximately twofold more than that of the salivary gland enzymes, and was more efficient in digesting soluble starch than glycogen. Midgut α-amylases were developmentally regulated, as one isoform was found in first instar compared to three isoforms in fifth instar nymphs. Starvation significantly affected carbohydrase activities in the midgut, and acarbose inhibited α-amylases from both the salivary glands and midgut in vitro and in vivo. The structural diversity and developmental regulation of carbohydrases in the digestive system of P. maculiventris demonstrate the importance of these enzymes in extra-oral and intra-tract digestion, and may explain the capability of the hemipteran to utilize diverse food sources. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dynamic changes of nutrient composition throughout the entire life cycle of black soldier fly.

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    Xiu Liu

    Full Text Available Black soldier fly (BSF larvae, Hermetia illucens L., develops on organic wastes, reducing ecological pollution and converting waste biomass into protein and fat rich insect biomass. BSF can replace increasingly expensive protein sources used in poultry, aquaculture and livestock compound diet formulation, such as fish meal and soybean meal, which holds the potential to alleviate future food and feed insecurity. The fate of nutritional spectra in BSF during its life cycle phases is still poorly understood. This study assessed metabolic changes in nutrition composition of BSF from egg to adult. A rapid increase of crude fat content was observed since the development of 4-14 days of larvae with its maximum level reaching 28.4% in dry mass, whereas the crude protein displayed a continuous decreasing trend in the same development phases with minimum level of 38% at larval phase (12 days and peak level of 46.2% at early pupa stage. A sharp drop in crude fat was noticed from early prepupae to late pupae (24.2%, 8.2% respectively. However crude protein shows its maximum value being 57.6% at postmortem adult stage with 21.6% fat level. In addition, fatty acids, amino acids, minerals and vitamins composition in different development stages of BSF were presented and compared. Findings from this study could provide podium to food and feed industry for framing a strategy for specific molecular nutritional component intake into the diets of humans, aquaculture and animals. It is also indicated that BSF is a possible insect which can be applied to combating the food scarcity of countries where micronutrient deficiency is prevalent. Moreover it contributes to advance exploring for developmental and metabolic biology of this edible insect.

  14. Energy cost and mechanical work of walking during load carriage in soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Jordane G; Peyrot, Nicolas; Castells, Josiane; Oullion, Roger; Messonnier, Laurent; Morin, Jean-Benoit

    2012-06-01

    In the military context, soldiers carry equipments of total mass often exceeding 30%-40% of their body mass (BM) and complexly distributed around their body (backpack, weapons, electronics, protections, etc.), which represents severe load carrying conditions. This study aimed to better understand the effects of load carriage on walking energetics and mechanics during military-type walking. Ten male infantrymen recently retired from the French Foreign Legion performed 3-min walking trials at a constant speed of 4 km·h(-1) on an instrumented treadmill, during which walking pattern spatiotemporal parameters, energy cost (C(W)), external mechanical work (W(ext)), and the work done by one leg against the other during the double-contact period (W(int,dc)) were specifically assessed. Three conditions were tested: (i) light sportswear (SP, reference condition considered as unloaded), (ii) battle equipment (BT, ∼22 kg, ∼27% of subjects' BM, corresponding to a military intermediate load), and (iii) road march equipment (RM, ∼38 kg, ∼46% of subjects' BM, corresponding to a military high load). Repeated-measures ANOVA showed that military equipment carriage significantly (i) altered the spatiotemporal pattern of walking (all P < 0.01), (ii) increased absolute gross and net CW (P < 0.0001), and (iii) increased both absolute and mass-relative W(ext) (P < 0.01) and W(int,dc) (P < 0.0001) but did not alter the inverted pendulum recovery or locomotor efficiency. Military equipments carriage induced significant changes in walking mechanics and energetics, but these effects appeared not greater than those reported with loads carried around the waist and close to the center of mass. This result was not expected because the latter has been hypothesized to be the optimal method of load carriage from a metabolic standpoint.

  15. Where Do Soldiers Really Come From? A Faculty Development Workshop on Veteran-Centered Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lypson, Monica L; Ross, Paula T; Zimmerman, Natalie; Goldrath, Kathryn E; Ravindranath, Divy

    2016-10-01

    Addressing the medical concerns of veterans in both civilian health care systems and the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system, where staff are familiar with issues of military reintegration, remains difficult but is increasingly important. In 2013, the authors developed and implemented a faculty development workshop for practicing clinicians using the documentary Where Soldiers Come From. The workshop included topics on unconscious bias, the service member trajectory, health care disparities, and strategies for overcoming barriers to treating veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury. The workshop engaged faculty in the following active-learning techniques: images in education; trigger video; critical thinking and reflective writing; think-pair-share; and large-group discussion. The workshop has been conducted at three locations with 46 health care professionals. Thirty-one of 37 (84%) participants who completed the workshop evaluation were VA employees. The evaluation results show 25/32 (78.1%) participants indicated the workshop activities changed their knowledge, attitudes, and/or skills; 22/34 (64.7%) stated they had a better understanding of how to develop a care plan for veterans; and 27/34 (79.4%) stated they gained a better understanding of how to prepare for issues around returning veterans. To address the issue of veteran-centered care education more broadly, the authors have developed a massive open online course for health professionals, using most of the content from this workshop, which will be offered in spring 2016. Another important next step will be to deliver this workshop to and collect evaluation data from non-VA providers.

  16. Influence of carrying heavy loads on soldiers' posture, movements and gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwells, Renee L; Birrell, Stewart A; Hooper, Robin H; Mansfield, Neil J

    2006-11-15

    Military personnel are required to carry heavy loads whilst marching; this load carriage represents a substantial component of training and combat. Studies in the literature mainly concentrate on physiological effects, with few biomechanical studies of military load carriage systems (LCS). This study examines changes in gait and posture caused by increasing load carriage in military LCS. The four conditions used during this study were control (including rifle, boots and helmet carriage, totalling 8 kg), webbing (weighing 8 kg), backpack (24 kg) and a light antitank weapon (LAW; 10 kg), resulting in an incremental increase in load carried from 8, 16, 40 to 50 kg. A total of 20 male soldiers were evaluated in the sagittal plane using a 3-D motion analysis system. Measurements of ankle, knee, femur, trunk and craniovertebral angles and spatiotemporal parameters were made during self-paced walking. Results showed spatiotemporal changes were unrelated to angular changes, perhaps a consequence of military training. Knee and femur ranges of motion (control, 21.1 degrees +/- 3.0 and 33.9 degrees +/- 7.1 respectively) increased (p < 0.05) with load (LAW, 25.5 degrees +/- 2.3 and 37.8 degrees +/- 1.5 respectively). The trunk flexed significantly further forward, confirming results from previous studies. In addition, the craniovertebral angle decreased (p < 0.001) indicating a more forward position of the head with load. It is concluded that the head functions in concert with the trunk to counterbalance load. The higher muscular tensions necessary to sustain these changes have been associated with injury, muscle strain and joint problems.

  17. PROBLEM OF LANGUAGE ADAPTATION OF THE RED ARMY SOLDIERS OF NON-RUSSIAN NATIONALITIES IN THE 1920-1930-s

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    А Ю Безугольный

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Under combat conditions, it is mutual understanding between a commander and a soldier by means of a simple language communication which becomes the cornerstone. The absence or lack of such communication may lead to excessive losses and hinder the execution of combat missions. The author for the fi rst time addresses the problem of mass conscription of soldiers from the Union and Autonomous republics of the USSR, who understood the spoken Russian speech very little or didn’t understand it at all. The author aims to fi nd out the degree of effi ciency of solving the problem of the Russian language in the ranks of the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army (RKKA, undertaken by the Soviet leadership in the prewar years.The author has found that in order to overcome this problem, there were taken actions in two directions. On the one hand, there was training of youth of pre-military age due to the introduction in 1938 of the mandatory teaching of the Russian language in national schools. On the other hand, there was training of recruits due to the introduction in 1939 of a three-month course for the soldiers of non-Russian nationalities. The work in these two directions failed to give the desired result in a short time due to the lack of teachers, unifi ed curricula, textbooks and books in dozens of languages of the USSR peoples. The author comes to the conclusion that the emergency measures taken by the government and the military command in the prewar years proved to be ineffective due to the complexity and large scale of the problem. In turn, the unresolved language issue lowered the level of com-bat readiness of the RKKA in the war.

  18. Benign joint hypermobility syndrome in soldiers; what is the effect of military training courses on associated joint instabilities?

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    Kamran Azma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypermobile joints are joints with beyond normal range of motion and may be associated with joint derangements. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS among soldiers and effect of training courses on related joint instabilities. Materials and Methods: In a prospective cohort study on 721 soldiers of Iran Army in Isfahan in 2013 the prevalence of joint hypermobility was obtained by using Beighton criteria. Soldiers divided in two groups of healthy and suffered based on their scores. The prevalence of ankle sprain, shoulder and temporomandibular joint (TMJ dislocations identified before beginning service by history-taking and reviewing paraclinical documents. After 3 months of military training, a recent occurrence of mentioned diseases was revaluated in two groups. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS-20 software using Independent-T and Chi-square tests. Results: The frequency of BJHS before military training was 29.4%. After passing military training period, the incidence of ankle sprain was significantly higher in suffered group achieving the minimum Beighton score (BS of 4 (4.3%, P = 0.03, 5 (5.5%, P = 0.005 and also 6 out of 9 (6.5%, P = 0.01. The incidence of TMJ dislocation was not significantly different based on a minimum score of 4, while it was higher in suffered group when considering the score of 5 (2.1% and 6 (2.6% for discrimination of two groups (P = 0.03. There was no significant difference between two groups in case of shoulder dislocation anyway. Conclusion: Military training can increase the incidence of ankle sprains and TMJ dislocations in hypermobility persons with higher BS in comparison with healthy people. Therefore, screening of joint hypermobility may be useful in identifying individuals at increased risk for joint instabilities.

  19. Expanding the knowledge on lignocellulolytic and redox enzymes of worker and soldier castes from the lower termite Coptotermes gestroi

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    João Paulo Lourenço Franco Cairo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Termites are considered one of the most efficient decomposers of lignocelluloses on Earth due to their ability to produce, along with its microbial symbionts, a repertoire of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes. Recently, a set of Pro-oxidant, Antioxidant, and Detoxification enzymes (PAD were also correlated with the metabolism of carbohydrates and lignin in termites. The lower termite Coptotermes gestroi is considered the main urban pest in Brazil, causing damage to wood constructions. Recently, analysis of the enzymatic repertoire of C. gestroi unveiled the presence of different CAZymes. Because the gene profile of CAZy/PAD enzymes endogenously synthesized by C. gestroi and also by their symbiotic protists remains unclear, the aim of this study was to explore the eukaryotic repertoire of these enzymes in worker and soldier castes of C. gestroi. Our findings showed that worker and soldier castes present similar repertoires of CAZy/PAD enzymes, and also confirmed that endo-glucanases (GH9 and beta-glucosidases (GH1 were the most important glycoside hydrolase families related to lignocellulose degradation in both castes. Classical cellulases such as exo-glucanases (GH7 and endo-glucanases (GH5 and GH45, as well as classical xylanases (GH10 and GH11, were found in both castes only taxonomically related to protists, highlighting the importance of symbiosis in C. gestroi. Moreover, our analysis revealed the presence of Auxiliary Activity enzyme families (AAs, which could be related to lignin modifications in termite digestomes. In conclusion, this report expanded the knowledge on genes and proteins related to CAZy/PAD enzymes from worker and soldier castes of lower termites, revealing new potential enzyme candidates for second-generation biofuel processes.

  20. Expanding the Knowledge on Lignocellulolytic and Redox Enzymes of Worker and Soldier Castes from the Lower Termite Coptotermes gestroi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Cairo, João P L; Carazzolle, Marcelo F; Leonardo, Flávia C; Mofatto, Luciana S; Brenelli, Lívia B; Gonçalves, Thiago A; Uchima, Cristiane A; Domingues, Romênia R; Alvarez, Thabata M; Tramontina, Robson; Vidal, Ramon O; Costa, Fernando F; Costa-Leonardo, Ana M; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Squina, Fabio M

    2016-01-01

    Termites are considered one of the most efficient decomposers of lignocelluloses on Earth due to their ability to produce, along with its microbial symbionts, a repertoire of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). Recently, a set of Pro-oxidant, Antioxidant, and Detoxification enzymes (PAD) were also correlated with the metabolism of carbohydrates and lignin in termites. The lower termite Coptotermes gestroi is considered the main urban pest in Brazil, causing damage to wood constructions. Recently, analysis of the enzymatic repertoire of C. gestroi unveiled the presence of different CAZymes. Because the gene profile of CAZy/PAD enzymes endogenously synthesized by C. gestroi and also by their symbiotic protists remains unclear, the aim of this study was to explore the eukaryotic repertoire of these enzymes in worker and soldier castes of C. gestroi . Our findings showed that worker and soldier castes present similar repertoires of CAZy/PAD enzymes, and also confirmed that endo-glucanases (GH9) and beta-glucosidases (GH1) were the most important glycoside hydrolase families related to lignocellulose degradation in both castes. Classical cellulases such as exo-glucanases (GH7) and endo-glucanases (GH5 and GH45), as well as classical xylanases (GH10 and GH11), were found in both castes only taxonomically related to protists, highlighting the importance of symbiosis in C. gestroi . Moreover, our analysis revealed the presence of Auxiliary Activity enzyme families (AAs), which could be related to lignin modifications in termite digestomes. In conclusion, this report expanded the knowledge on genes and proteins related to CAZy/PAD enzymes from worker and soldier castes of lower termites, revealing new potential enzyme candidates for second-generation biofuel processes.

  1. Postwar environment and long-term mental health problems in former child soldiers in Northern Uganda: the WAYS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy; Stochl, Jan; Ovuga, Emilio; Abbott, Rosemary; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Croudace, Tim J; Jones, Peter B

    2014-05-01

    War experiences (WE) and postwar environments (PWE) are associated with mental ill-health. The present study aims to investigate the pathways from WE and PWE to mental ill-health and to define opportunities for intervention through analysis of the war-affected youths study (WAYS) cohort study. WAYS is an ongoing study of a large cohort of former child soldiers being conducted in Uganda. Mental health problems, subjective WE and PWE contexts were assessed by local adaptations of internationally developed measures for use with former child soldiers at least 6 years after the end of the war. Structural equation modeling was used to test two mediation hypotheses: (1) the 'trauma model' in which WE directly influence long-term mental health and (2) the 'psychosocial path' in which WE influence long-term mental health through PWE stressors. WE were linked to depression/anxiety (β=0.15 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.30)) through PWE (accounting for 44% of the variance in the relationship between these variables) and to conduct problems (β=0.23 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.43); (accounting for 89% of the variance, ie, near complete mediation)). The direct relation between WE and depression/anxiety attenuated but remained statistically significant. For conduct problems, the direct relationship was no longer significant after accounting for PWE. PWE are a key determinant of continued mental health problems in former child soldiers. Interventions to reduce long-term mental problems should address both PWE stressors (psychosocial model) and specialised mental healthcare (trauma model) and consider both models of intervention as complementary.

  2. Background reduction in a young interferometer biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H. K P; Subramaniam, V.; Kanger, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated optical Young interferometer (IOYI) biosensors are among the most sensitive label-free biosensors. Detection limits are in the range of 20 fg/mm2. The applicability of these sensors is however strongly hampered by the large background that originates from both bulk refractive index

  3. Commentary Examination of young people's attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young people's attitude towards entrepreneurship contributes tremendously to the rapid increase in innovation. Income and social economic status of people also have strong effect on innovation because in developing countries, stronger payment ability and higher income level enables more people to spend more on a ...

  4. The influence of outdoor thermal environment on young Japanese females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Ishii, Jin; Kondo, Emi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relations......The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows...

  5. Use of analgesics in young adults as a predictor of health care utilization and pain prevalence: Israel defense forces experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Karina; Komargodski, Olga; Magnezi, Racheli; Lifshitz, Stanislav; Tzur, Dorit; Yavnai, Nirit; Ifergane, Gal

    2017-06-01

    Pain evaluation in large community studies is difficult. Analgesics can be a useful tool in estimating pain-related conditions in which analgesic use is highly regulated. In this study, we evaluated analgesics consumption patterns of regular Israel Defense Force soldiers. We have performed a historical cohort study of 665,137 young adults during active duty in 2002 to 2012. Analgesics were prescribed to 518,242 (78%) soldiers, mostly for musculoskeletal pain (69.3%), abdominal pain (12.7%), and headache (12.1%). Acute (1-14 days), subacute (15-90), and chronic (>90 days) analgesic use episodes were experienced by 396,987 (59.7%), 74,591 (11.2%), and 46,664 (7%) of the population. In a multivariate model, predictors for chronic analgesics use were as follows: low intelligence, service in a combat supporting unit, previous pain diagnosis, male sex, Israeli nativity, low socioeconomic status, and high body mass index. Low intelligence had the highest odds ratio for chronic analgesic consumption (2.1) compared with other predictors. Chronic analgesic use was associated with a significant increase in health care utilization cost per year (911$ per soldier vs 199$ for nonusers), increased sick leave days per year (7.09 vs 0.67 for nonusers), and higher dropout rate from combat units (25% vs 9.2% for nonusers). Chronic use of analgesics is common among young adults, and it is an important predictor for unsuccessful military service and high health care utilization costs. Further studies in other setups are indicated.

  6. A Randomized Clinical Trial of the Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality vs. Enhanced Care as Usual for Suicidal Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    upset about had resolved and therefore she saw no need for therapy. The Soldier stated that there was no reason for her to be on study either, as she was...NC Marines (N=23) Comtois 29 Palms (N=25) Luxton Madigan Army MC (N=185) Luxton VA Palo Alto (N=317) Luxton Navy MC San Diego (N=184...1985 (13.0) - 33 Variable Jobes Fort Stewart (N=154) Comtois Fort Bragg (N=143) Comtois NC Marines (N=23) Comtois 29 Palms (N=25

  7. Women in WAR and peace – reflections on gender and the role of female soldiers in MINUSMA, MALI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugegaard, Rikke

    Active involvement of women is key to sustainable and inclusive peace. Despite efforts to increase the deployment of female soldiers, the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Mali (MINUSMA) remains dominated by men. A focus on the operational relevance of gender integration and building...... on existing capacities in the mission will be small, yet realistic, steps forward. This paper discusses mechanisms within the mission that have been established to raise gender awareness, based on fieldwork conducted by me in MINUSMA in June 2016, together with post.doc Signe Cold-Ravnkilde and Peter Albrecht...

  8. Recruitment, soldiers and the experience of army life: compulsory military service in Peru and Colombia (1919-1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Camacho Arango

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The article studies different aspects of mandatory military service in Peru and Colombia from 1919 to 1933 including recruitment; the social, “racial”, and geographical origins of soldiers; and army life in both countries. Documents from military archives in the U.S. and France, as well as writings from Peruvian and Colombian commissioned and non-commissioned officers were the main sources used. The method is comparative and it shows clear features in common, including the scarcity of resources that affected all aspects of service.

  9. Rock in Rio: forever young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark of past festivals around the world. Thus, the musical expands the possibilities of growth for the brand.

  10. Should the United States Army Adapt New Conditions in Its HIV Policy to Allow Eligible HIV Positive Soldiers the Ability to Serve Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    2017b). HIV: Either of two retroviruses that infect and destroy helper T-cells of the immune system causing the marked reduction in their numbers that...2014a, 36). Since HIV-positive Soldiers do not pose a risk in non-combat locations and these HIV-positive Soldiers may have specific skill sets and...guidance to inform leadership will help mitigate this risk. Finally, the U.S. Army has made an investment in training its personnel and these skills

  11. A Serious Game for Massive Training and Assessment of French Soldiers Involved in Forward Combat Casualty Care (3D-SC1): Development and Deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Pierre; Mérat, Stéphane; Malgras, Brice; Petit, Ludovic; Queran, Xavier; Bay, Christian; Boutonnet, Mathieu; Jault, Patrick; Ausset, Sylvain; Auroy, Yves; Perez, Jean Paul; Tesnière, Antoine; Pons, François; Mignon, Alexandre

    2016-05-18

    The French Military Health Service has standardized its military prehospital care policy in a ''Sauvetage au Combat'' (SC) program (Forward Combat Casualty Care). A major part of the SC training program relies on simulations, which are challenging and costly when dealing with more than 80,000 soldiers. In 2014, the French Military Health Service decided to develop and deploy 3D-SC1, a serious game (SG) intended to train and assess soldiers managing the early steps of SC. The purpose of this paper is to describe the creation and production of 3D-SC1 and to present its deployment. A group of 10 experts and the Paris Descartes University Medical Simulation Department spin-off, Medusims, coproduced 3D-SC1. Medusims are virtual medical experiences using 3D real-time videogame technology (creation of an environment and avatars in different scenarios) designed for educational purposes (training and assessment) to simulate medical situations. These virtual situations have been created based on real cases and tested on mannequins by experts. Trainees are asked to manage specific situations according to best practices recommended by SC, and receive a score and a personalized feedback regarding their performance. The scenario simulated in the SG is an attack on a patrol of 3 soldiers with an improvised explosive device explosion as a result of which one soldier dies, one soldier is slightly stunned, and the third soldier experiences a leg amputation and other injuries. This scenario was first tested with mannequins in military simulation centers, before being transformed into a virtual 3D real-time scenario using a multi-support, multi-operating system platform, Unity. Processes of gamification and scoring were applied, with 2 levels of difficulty. A personalized debriefing was integrated at the end of the simulations. The design and production of the SG took 9 months. The deployment, performed in 3 months, has reached 84 of 96 (88%) French Army units, with a total of 818

  12. Poison exposures in young Israeli military personnel: a National Poison Center Data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavon, Ophir; Bentur, Yedidia

    2017-06-01

    To characterize poison exposures in young Israeli military personnel as reported to the national poison center. Retrospective poison center chart review over a 14-year period. Cases included were Israeli soldiers aged 18-21 years, the compulsory military service age required by the Israeli law. 1770 records of poison exposures in young military personnel were identified. Most exposed individuals involved males (n = 1268, 71.6%). Main routes of exposure were ingestion (n = 854, 48.3%), inhalation (n = 328, 18.6%) and ocular (n = 211, 11.9%). Accidents or misuse (n = 712, 40.2%) were the most frequently reported circumstances, followed by suicide attempts (370, 20.9%), and bites and stings (161, 9.1%). More than half of the cases involved chemicals (n = 939, 53.1%); hydrocarbons, gases and corrosives were the main causative agents. Pharmaceuticals (mainly analgesics) were involved in 519 (29.3%) cases, venomous animals (mainly scorpions, centipedes, and snakes) in 79 (4.5%). Clinical manifestations were reported in 666 (37.6%) cases, mostly gastrointestinal, neurologic, and respiratory. The vast majority of cases (1634, 92.3%) were asymptomatic or mildly affected; no fatalities were recorded. In 831 (46.9%) cases the clinical toxicologist recommended referral to an emergency department; ambulatory observation was recommended in 563 (31.8%) cases, and hospitalization in 86 (4.9%). Our data show that poison exposures among young soldiers involve mainly males, accidents, misuse and suicides, oral route and chemicals; most exposures were asymptomatic or with mild severity. Repeated evaluations of poison center data pertaining to military personnel is advised for identifying trends in poison exposure and characteristics in this particular population.

  13. Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2003-01-01

    We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv......) strong regularity of BPA. We also demonstrate NL-hardness of strong regularity problems for the normed subclasses of BPP and BPA. Bisimilarity problems of simple process algebras are introduced in a general framework of process rewrite systems, and a uniform description of the new techniques used...

  14. Work-Life Conflict among Young Academics: Antecedents and Gender Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorenkamp, Isabelle; Süß, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Aligning work and private life is a significant challenge for young academics because of demanding working conditions (e.g. high workload, low job security). It is particularly strong for young female academics due to growing family responsibilities. Our study aims to identify the factors influencing the work-life conflict of young academics and…

  15. Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)

  16. Using biofeedback while immersed in a stressful videogame increases the effectiveness of stress management skills in soldiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Bouchard

    Full Text Available This study assessed the efficacy of using visual and auditory biofeedback while immersed in a tridimensional videogame to practice a stress management skill (tactical breathing. All 41 participants were soldiers who had previously received basic stress management training and first aid training in combat. On the first day, they received a 15-minute refresher briefing and were randomly assigned to either: (a no additional stress management training (SMT for three days, or (b 30-minute sessions (one per day for three days of biofeedback-assisted SMT while immersed in a horror/first-person shooter game. The training was performed in a dark and enclosed environment using a 50-inch television with active stereoscopic display and loudspeakers. On the last day, all participants underwent a live simulated ambush with an improvised explosive device, where they had to provide first aid to a wounded soldier. Stress levels were measured with salivary cortisol collected when waking-up, before and after the live simulation. Stress was also measured with heart rate at baseline, during an apprehension phase, and during the live simulation. Repeated-measure ANOVAs and ANCOVAs confirmed that practicing SMT was effective in reducing stress. Results are discussed in terms of the advantages of the proposed program for military personnel and the need to practice SMT.

  17. Relationship between cognitive emotion regulation, social support, resilience and acute stress responses in Chinese soldiers: Exploring multiple mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wen-Peng; Pan, Yu; Zhang, Shui-Miao; Wei, Cun; Dong, Wei; Deng, Guang-Hui

    2017-10-01

    The current study aimed to explore the association of cognitive emotion regulation, social support, resilience and acute stress responses in Chinese soldiers and to understand the multiple mediation effects of social support and resilience on the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation and acute stress responses. A total of 1477 male soldiers completed mental scales, including the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire-Chinese version, the perceived social support scale, the Chinese version of the Connor-Davidson resilience scale, and the military acute stress scale. As hypothesized, physiological responses, psychological responses, and acute stress were associated with negative-focused cognitive emotion regulation, and negatively associated with positive-focused cognitive emotion regulation, social supports and resilience. Besides, positive-focused cognitive emotion regulation, social support, and resilience were significantly associated with one another, and negative-focused cognitive emotion regulation was negatively associated with social support. Regression analysis and bootstrap analysis showed that social support and resilience had partly mediating effects on negative strategies and acute stress, and fully mediating effects on positive strategies and acute stress. These results thus indicate that military acute stress is significantly associated with cognitive emotion regulation, social support, and resilience, and that social support and resilience have multiple mediation effects on the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation and acute stress responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [The psychology of being unaccounted for, based on the example of children of missing German soldiers from World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, Henning V; Klauer, Thomas; Freyberger, Harald J; Seidler, Günter H; Kuwert, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Despite today's extensive research on the psychosocial consequences of World War II, the group of wives and children whose husbands or fathers went "missing in action" during the Second World War, has yet to be studied systematically in Germany. The present review article shows the special role the wives, and in particular the children, of missing German soldiers played in society and discusses the impact of their loved ones being unaccounted has had on the mental health of this group. An overview of current research on the psychosocial status of the war generation is given following a short historical introduction to the theme. Subsequently, we discuss the legal and social situation of the families of missing German soldiers during the postwar decades. Finally, two psychological concepts drawn from the US research show that specific disorders, such as complicated grief or "boundary ambiguity," can occur in the relatives of missing persons and blur the line between hope and grief occurring as a result of ambiguous loss. The psychosocial impact of having a relative go missing has hardly been noticed in the German research tradition after World War II. Particularly in light of the age structure of those directly affected and the experiences of transgenerational transmission this neglected psychosocial research subject urgently needs further scientific investigation, inasmuch as the age of the family members still allows it.

  19. Using Biofeedback while Immersed in a Stressful Videogame Increases the Effectiveness of Stress Management Skills in Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Stéphane; Bernier, François; Boivin, Éric; Morin, Brian; Robillard, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of using visual and auditory biofeedback while immersed in a tridimensional videogame to practice a stress management skill (tactical breathing). All 41 participants were soldiers who had previously received basic stress management training and first aid training in combat. On the first day, they received a 15-minute refresher briefing and were randomly assigned to either: (a) no additional stress management training (SMT) for three days, or (b) 30-minute sessions (one per day for three days) of biofeedback-assisted SMT while immersed in a horror/first-person shooter game. The training was performed in a dark and enclosed environment using a 50-inch television with active stereoscopic display and loudspeakers. On the last day, all participants underwent a live simulated ambush with an improvised explosive device, where they had to provide first aid to a wounded soldier. Stress levels were measured with salivary cortisol collected when waking-up, before and after the live simulation. Stress was also measured with heart rate at baseline, during an apprehension phase, and during the live simulation. Repeated-measure ANOVAs and ANCOVAs confirmed that practicing SMT was effective in reducing stress. Results are discussed in terms of the advantages of the proposed program for military personnel and the need to practice SMT. PMID:22558370

  20. Posttraumatic growth, social acknowledgment as survivors, and sense of coherence in former German child soldiers of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstmeier, Simon; Kuwert, Philipp; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald J; Maercker, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    To examine posttraumatic growth (PTG) and its predictors social acknowledgment as survivors, sense of coherence (SOC), trauma severity, and further factors in former child soldiers more than 60 years after deployment. Cross-sectional. University-based geropsychiatric center in Germany. One hundred three former German child soldiers of World War II, mean age 78 years in which 96% experienced at least one war trauma. Subjects completed the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Social Acknowledgment Questionnaire (SAQ), and SOC Scale. Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed by the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Depression, anxiety, and somatization were assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Number of traumas, recognition by significant others, and general disapproval as facets of social acknowledgment as a survivor, and meaningfulness as a dimension of SOC correlated significantly with PTG. In a multiple hierarchical regression analysis, recognition as a survivor by significant others (SAQ) and meaningfulness (SOC) remained the only significant predictors of PTG. Social acknowledgment as a survivor by significant others and the belief that the world is meaningful are among the most important factors contributing to PTG. Further research should investigate whether treatments of PTSD in people who experienced war traumas recently or many years ago might benefit from a focus on the belief system and the role of family and social support.