WorldWideScience

Sample records for young planetary nebula

  1. HM Sagittae as a young planetary nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.; Purton, C.R.

    1979-01-01

    HM Sagittae is suggested to be a very young planetary nebula recently transformed from a red-giant star through continuous mass loss. The observational data for HM Sge have been analyzed in terms of the interacting stellar wind model of planetary nebula formation. The model is in accord with virtually all the spectral data available--radio, optical, and infrared--as well as with the remarkable brightening of HM Sge observed in 1975. In particular, all three gaseous components predicted by the model are observed in the optical spectrum. The density in the newly formed shell is found to be at least 5 x 10 7 cm -3 , a value considerably higher than that found by the conventional analysis, which assumes a single-component homogeneous nebula. The radio spectrum is dominated by free-free emission from the remnant red-giant wind. The infrared spectrum suggests the presence of two dust components, one consisting of silicate grains left over from the red-giant stage and the other of grains newly formed after the 1975 brightening. The low observed shell mass is consistent with the interacting stellar wind model but is not consistent with the conventional sudden-ejection model of planetary nebula formation

  2. Young planetary nebula with OH molecules - NGC 6302

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, H.E.; Phillips, J.A.; Terzian, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a sensitive survey of planetary nebulae in all four ground-state OH lines are reported. The results confirm that evolved planetary nebulas are not OH sources in general. However, one interesting object was not detected: an OH 1612 MHz maser in the young planetary nebula NGC 6302. This nebula may be in a brief evolutionary stage, similar to the young and compact planetary nebula Vy 2-2, where OH has already been detected. In addition, the results of further observations of NGC 6302 are reported, including VLA observations of the 1612 MHz line and continuum emission and detections of rotationally excited OH lines at 5-cm wavelength in absorption. 28 references

  3. Planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amnuehl', P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The history of planetary nebulae discovery and their origin and evolution studies is discussed in a popular way. The problem of planetary nebulae central star is considered. The connection between the white-draft star and the planetary nebulae formulation is shown. The experimental data available acknowledge the hypothesis of red giant - planetary nebula nucleus - white-draft star transition process. Masses of planetary nebulae white-draft stars and central stars are distributed practically similarly: the medium mass is close to 0.6Msub(Sun) (Msub(Sun) - is the mass of the Sun)

  4. Dust in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.

    1980-01-01

    A two-component dust model is suggested to explain the infrared emission from planetary nebulae. A cold dust component located in the extensive remnant of the red-giant envelope exterior to the visible nebula is responsible for the far-infrared emission. A ward dust component, which is condensed after the formation of the planetary nebula and confined within the ionized gas shell, emits most of the near- and mid-infrared radiation. The observations of NGC 7027 are shown to be consisten with such a model. The correlation of silicate emission in several planetary nebulae with an approximately +1 spectral index at low radio frequencies suggests that both the silicate and radio emissions originate from the remnant of the circumstellar envelope of th precursor star and are observable only while the planetary nebula is young. It is argued that oxygen-rich stars as well as carbon-rich stars can be progenitors of planetary nebulae

  5. Shaping of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balick, B.

    1987-01-01

    The phases of stellar evolution and the development of planetary nebulae are examined. The relation between planetary nebulae and red giants is studied. Spherical and nonspherical cases of shaping planetaries with stellar winds are described. CCD images of nebulae are analyzed, and it is determined that the shape of planetary nebulae depends on ionization levels. Consideration is given to calculating the distances of planetaries using radio images, and molecular hydrogen envelopes which support the wind-shaping model of planetary nebulae

  6. Probing Shocks of the Young Planetary Nebula NGC 7027

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montez, Rodolfo

    2013-09-01

    The rapid evolution of the planetary nebula NGC 7027 provides a rare glimpse at the evolution of the shocks. We propose a detailed spatial and spectroscopic study of the shock conditions in NGC 7027 that will enhance and bridge our understanding of the shocks seen in other planetary nebula. Comparison between the Cycle 1 observation and a new Cycle 15 observation will (i) confirm the presence of the two components in the extended X-ray emission, (ii) measure the changes (spatial and spectral) in the components, and, (iii) provide a valuable trove of tests and inputs for shock conditions and hydrodynamical simulations. We rely on the unprecedented spatial resolution and soft-sensitivity of Chandra.

  7. G25.5 + 0.2: a very young supernova remnant or a galactic planetary nebula?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.L.; Becker, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    G25.5 + 0.2, a radio source suggested by previous authors to be a very young galactic supernova remnant, is more likely to be a planetary nebula. Its IRAS colours and fluxes and its radio spectrum and morphology are all consistent with the properties of planetary nebulae; its radio flux and distance imply a large mass of ionized gas, which is expected from a Type I planetary nebula lying in the galactic plane. We suggest some definitive observations which should be able to determine whether this interesting object is a planetary nebula or a supernova remnant. (author)

  8. Proto-planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuckerman, B.

    1978-01-01

    A 'proto-planetary nebula' or a 'planetary nebula progenitor' is the term used to describe those objects that are losing mass at a rate >approximately 10 -5 Msolar masses/year (i.e. comparable to mass loss rates in planetary nebulae with ionized masses >approximately 0.2 Msolar masses) and which, it is believed, will become planetary nebulae themselves within 5 years. It is shown that most proto-planetary nebulae appear as very red objects although a few have been 'caught' near the middle of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. The precursors of these proto-planetaries are the general red giant population, more specifically probably Mira and semi-regular variables. (Auth.)end

  9. Dust in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    The author's review concentrates on theoretical aspects of dust in planetary nebulae (PN). He considers the questions: how much dust is there is PN; what is its composition; what effects does it have on the ionization structure, on the dynamics of the nebula. (Auth.)

  10. PC 11: Symbiotic star or planetary nebulae?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Moreno, A.; Moreno, H.; Cortes, G.

    1987-01-01

    PC 11 is an object listed in Perek and Kohoutek (1967) Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae as PK 331 -5 0 1. Some authors suggest that it is not a planetary nebula, but that it has some characteristics (though not all) of symbiotic stars. We have made photographic, spectrophotometric and spectroscopic observations of PC 11. The analysis of the results suggests that it is a young planetary nebula. (Author)

  11. New and misclassified planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohoutek, L.

    1978-01-01

    Since the 'Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae' 226 new objects have been classified as planetary nebulae. They are summarized in the form of designations, names, coordinates and the references to the discovery. Further 9 new objects have been added and called 'proto-planetary nebulae', but their status is still uncertain. Only 34 objects have been included in the present list of misclassified planetary nebulae although the number of doubtful cases is much larger. (Auth.)

  12. YOUNG PLANETARY NEBULAE: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING AND A NEW MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Villar, Gregory G.; Morris, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Using Hubble Space Telescope images of 119 young planetary nebulae (PNs), most of which have not previously been published, we have devised a comprehensive morphological classification system for these objects. This system generalizes a recently devised system for pre-planetary nebulae, which are the immediate progenitors of PNs. Unlike previous classification studies, we have focused primarily on young PNs rather than all PNs, because the former best show the influences or symmetries imposed on them by the dominant physical processes operating at the first and primary stage of the shaping process. Older PNs develop instabilities, interact with the ambient interstellar medium, and are subject to the passage of photoionization fronts, all of which obscure the underlying symmetries and geometries imposed early on. Our classification system is designed to suffer minimal prejudice regarding the underlying physical causes of the different shapes and structures seen in our PN sample, however, in many cases, physical causes are readily suggested by the geometry, along with the kinematics that have been measured in some systems. Secondary characteristics in our system, such as ansae, indicate the impact of a jet upon a slower-moving, prior wind; a waist is the signature of a strong equatorial concentration of matter, whether it be outflowing or in a bound Keplerian disk, and point symmetry indicates a secular trend, presumably precession, in the orientation of the central driver of a rapid, collimated outflow.

  13. Structure of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goad, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    Image-tube photographs of planetary nebulae taken through narrow-band interference filters are used to map the surface brightness of these nebulae in their most prominent emission lines. These observations are best understood in terms of a two-component model consisting of a tenuous diffuse nebular medium and a network of dense knots and filaments with neutral cores. The observations of the diffuse component indicate that the inner regions of these nebulae are hollow shells. This suggests that steady stellar winds are the dominant factor in determining the structure of the central regions of planetary nebulae. The observations of the filamentary components of NGC 40 and NGC 6720 show that the observed nebular features can result from the illumination of the inner edges of dense fragmentary neutral filaments by the central stars of these nebulae. From the analysis of the observations of the low-excitation lines in NGC 2392, it is concluded that the rate constant for the N + --H charge transfer reaction is less than 10 -12 cm 3 sec -1

  14. Circumnebular neutral hydrogen in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.R.; Gussie, G.T.; Pottasch, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    Centimeter line observations of six compact planetary nebulae are reported. Circumnebular atomic hydrogen absorption has been observed in NGC 6790, NGC 6886, IC 418, IC 5117, and BD +30 deg 3639, while H I was not observed to a high upper limit in NGC 6741. Hydrogen was also detected in emission from BD +30 deg 3639. The expansion velocities of the circumnebular envelopes are similar to the expansion velocities observed for the ionized nebula. The optical depth of circumnebular H I appears to decrease with increasing linear radius of the ionized nebulae, indicating that these nebulae are ionization bounded and that the amount of atomic hydrogen decreases as young nebulas evolve. 28 refs

  15. X-ray observations of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.; Tarafdar, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    The Einstein satellite was used to observe 19 planetary nebulae and X-ray emission was detected from four planetary nebulae. The EXOSAT satellite observed 12 planetary nebulae and five new sources were detected. An Einstein HRI observation shows that NGC 246 is a point source, implying that the X-rays are from the central star. Most of the detected planetary nebulae are old and the X-rays are observed during the later stage of planetary nebulae/central star evolution, when the nebula has dispersed sufficiently and/or when the central star gets old and the heavy elements in the atmosphere settle down due to gravitation. However in two cases where the central star is sufficiently luminous X-rays were observed, even though they were young nebulae; the X-radiation ionizes the nebula to a degree, to allow negligible absorption in the nebula. Temperature T x is obtained using X-ray flux and optical magnitude and assuming the spectrum is blackbody. T x agrees with Zanstra temperature obtained from optical Helium lines. (author)

  16. Can planetary nebulae rotate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinin, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the inclination of spectral lines observed in a number of planetary nebulae when the spectrograph slit is placed along the major axis, which is presently ascribed to nonuniform expansion of the shells, actually may be due to rotation of the nebulae about their minor axes, as Campbell and Moore have suggested in their reports. It is assumed that the rotation of the central star (or, if the core is a binary system, circular motions of gas along quasi-Keplerian orbits) serves as the source of the original rotation of a protoplanetary nebula. The mechanism providing for strengthening of the original rotation in the process of expansion of the shell is the tangential pressure of L/sub α/ radiation due to the anisotropic properties of the medium and radiation field. The dynamic effect produced by them is evidently greatest in the epoch when the optical depth of the nebula in the L/sub c/ continuum becomes on the order of unity in the course of its expansion

  17. Detection of C60 and C70 in a young planetary nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cami, Jan; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo; Peeters, Els; Malek, Sarah Elizabeth

    2010-09-03

    In recent decades, a number of molecules and diverse dust features have been identified by astronomical observations in various environments. Most of the dust that determines the physical and chemical characteristics of the interstellar medium is formed in the outflows of asymptotic giant branch stars and is further processed when these objects become planetary nebulae. We studied the environment of Tc 1, a peculiar planetary nebula whose infrared spectrum shows emission from cold and neutral C60 and C70. The two molecules amount to a few percent of the available cosmic carbon in this region. This finding indicates that if the conditions are right, fullerenes can and do form efficiently in space.

  18. From red giants to planetary nebulae: Asymmetries, dust, and polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate the development of aspherical planetary nebulae, polarimetry was obtained for a group of planetary nebulae and for objects that will evolve into planetary nebulae, i.e., red giants, late asymptotic giant branch (AGB) objects, proto-planetary nebulae, and young planetary nebulae. To study the dust around the objects in our sample, we also used data from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) mission. The youngest objects in our survey, red giants, had the hottest dust temperatures while planetary nebulae had the coolest. Most of the objects were intrinsically polarized, including the red giants. This indicated that the circumstellar dust shells of these objects were aspherical. Both carbon- and oxygen-rich objects could be intrinsically polarized. The intrinsic polarizations of a sample of our objects were modeled using an ellipsoidal circumstellar dust shell. The findings of this study suggest that the asphericities that lead to an aspherical planetary nebula originate when a red giant begins to undergo mass loss. The polarization and thus the asphericity as the star evolves, with both reaching a maximum during the proto-planetary nebula stage. The circumstellar dust shell will dissipate after the proto-planetary nebulae stage since no new material is being added. The polarization of planetary nebulae will thus be low. In the most evolved planetary nebulae, the dust has either been destroyed or dissipated into the interstellar medium. In these objects no polarization was observed

  19. UNUSUAL SHOCK-EXCITED OH MASER EMISSION IN A YOUNG PLANETARY NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Hai-Hua; Shen, Zhi-Qiang [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai, 200030 (China); Walsh, Andrew J. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth WA 6845 (Australia); Gómez, José F. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Imai, Hiroshi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Green, James A. [SKA Organisation, Jodrell Bank Observatory, Lower Withington, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK11 9DL (United Kingdom); Dawson, Joanne R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and MQ Research Centre in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Ellingsen, Simon P. [School of Physical Sciences, Private Bag 37, University of Tasmania, Hobart 7001, TAS (Australia); Breen, Shari L. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Jones, Paul A.; Cunningham, Maria R. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Gibson, Steven J., E-mail: haihua.qiao@curtin.edu.au [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, 1906 College Heights Blvd, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    We report on OH maser emission toward G336.644−0.695 (IRAS 16333−4807), which is a H{sub 2}O maser-emitting Planetary Nebula (PN). We have detected 1612, 1667, and 1720 MHz OH masers at two epochs using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, hereby confirming it as the seventh known case of an OH-maser-emitting PN. This is only the second known PN showing 1720 MHz OH masers after K 3−35 and the only evolved stellar object with 1720 MHz OH masers as the strongest transition. This PN is one of a group of very young PNe. The 1612 MHz and 1667 MHz masers are at a similar velocity to the 22 GHz H{sub 2}O masers, whereas the 1720 MHz masers show a variable spectrum, with several components spread over a higher velocity range (up to 36 km s{sup −1}). We also detect Zeeman splitting in the 1720 MHz transition at two epochs (with field strengths of ∼2 to ∼10 mG), which suggests the OH emission at 1720 MHz is formed in a magnetized environment. These 1720 MHz OH masers may trace short-lived equatorial ejections during the formation of the PN.

  20. Bipolar nebulae and type I planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, N.; Peimbert, M.

    1983-01-01

    It is suggested that the bipolar nature of PN of type I can be explained in terms of their relatively massive progenitors (Msub(i) 2.4 Msub(o)), that had to lose an appreciable fraction of their mass and angular momentum during their planetary nebulae stage. The following objects are discussed in relation with this suggestion: NGC 6302, NGC 2346, NGC 2440, CRL 618, Mz-3 and M2-9. It is found that CRL 618 is overbundant in N/O by a factor of 5-10 relative to the Orion Nebula. (author)

  1. Kinematics of galactic planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiosa, M.I.; Khromov, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    The classical method of determining the components of the solar motion relative to the centroid of the system of planetary nebulae with known radial velocities is investigated. It is shown that this method is insensitive to random errors in the radial velocities and that low accuracy in determining the coordinates of the solar apex and motion results from the insufficient number of planetaries with measured radial velocities. The planetary nebulae are found not to satisfy well the law of differential galactic rotation with circular orbits. This is attributed to the elongation of their galactic orbits. A method for obtaining the statistical parallax of planetary nebulae is considered, and the parallax calculated from the tau components of their proper motion is shown to be the most reliable

  2. Red giants as precursors of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renzini, A.

    1981-01-01

    It is generally accepted that Planetary Nebulae are produced by asymptotic giant-branch stars. Therefore, several properties of planetary nebulae are discussed in the framework of the current theory of stellar evolution. (Auth.)

  3. Number of planetary nebulae in our galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloin, D.; Cruz-Gonzalez, C.; Peimbert, M.

    1976-01-01

    It is found that the contribution to the ionization of the interstellar medium due to planetary nebulae is from one or two orders of magnitude smaller than that due to O stars. The mass return to the interstellar medium due to planetary nebulae is investigated, and the birth rate of white dwarfs and planetary nebulae are compared. Several arguments are given against the possibility that the infrared sources detected by Becklin and Neugebauer in the direction of the galactic center are planetary nebulae

  4. From red giants to planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.

    1982-01-01

    The transition from red giants to planetary nebulae is studied by comparing the spectral characteristics of red giant envelopes and planetary nebulae. Observational and theoretical evidence both suggest that remnants of red giant envelopes may still be present in planetary nebula systems and should have significant effects on their formation. The dynamical effects of the interaction of stellar winds from central stars of planetary nebulae with the remnant red giant envelopes are evaluated and the mechanism found to be capable of producing the observed masses and momenta of planetary nebulae. The observed mass-radii relation of planetary nebulae may also be best explained by the interacting winds model. The possibility that red giant mass loss, and therefore the production of planetary nebulae, is different between Population I and II systems is also discussed

  5. The Formation of a Planetary Nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpaz, Amos

    1991-01-01

    Proposes a scenario to describe the formation of a planetary nebula, a cloud of gas surrounding a very hot compact star. Describes the nature of a planetary nebula, the number observed to date in the Milky Way Galaxy, and the results of research on a specific nebula. (MDH)

  6. Evolution of planetary nebula nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of planetary nebula nuclei (PNNs) is examined with the aid of the most recent available stellar evolution calculations and new observations of these objects. Their expected distribution in the log L-log T plane is calculated based upon the stellar evolutionary models of Paczynski, Schoenberner and Iben, the initial mass function derived by Miller and Scalo, and various assumptions concerning mass loss during post-main sequence evolution. The distribution is found to be insensitive both to the assumed range of main-sequence progenitor mass and to reasonable variations in the age and the star forming history of the galactic disk. Rather, the distribution is determined by the strong dependence of the rate of stellar evolution upon core mass, the steepness of the initial mass function, and to a lesser extent the finite lifetime of an observable planetary nebula. The theoretical distributions are rather different than any of those inferred from earlier observations. Possible observational selection effects that may be responsible are examined, as well as the intrinsic uncertainties associated with the theoretical model predictions. An extensive photometric and smaller photographic survey of southern hemisphere planetary nebulae (PNs) is presented

  7. A search for photometric and spectroscopic evolutionary changes in the young planetary nebula Vy 2-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipova, V. P.; Burlak, M. A.; Esipov, V. F.; Ikonnikova, N. P.; Komissarova, G. V.

    2017-12-01

    The results of long-term photometric and spectroscopic observations of the young compact planetary nebula Vy 2-2 (PNG 045.4-02.7) are presented. The UBV photometry in 1990-2016 has revealed a slight brightness trend in the yearly averaged data, most pronounced in the V band. We have measured the relative fluxes of optical emission lines on the spectrograms taken with the 1.25-m telescope at the Southern Station of the SAI MSU in 1999-2016, estimated the absolute flux in the Hβ line to be F(H β) = (2.1 ± 0.4) × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1, and determined the interstellar extinction constant c(Hβ) = 1.8. The electron temperature and density in the nebula have been estimated from diagnostic line ratios: Te = (10-12) × 103 K and Ne ≥ 105 cm-3. To detect any possible evolutionary changes, we have compared the new observations with the archival data obtained over the entire history of spectroscopic observations of Vy 2-2. No significant changes in the relative intensities of the strongest emission lines and the integrated flux in the H β line exceeding the observational errors have been found. We have revealed a tendency for the intensity ratio F(λ4363)/F(λ4959) to decrease with time, which may be related to a decrease in the electron density in the nebula. Based on our photometric and spectroscopic data, we have estimated the luminosity of the central star of Vy 2-2, which corresponds to the evolutionary tracks for the most massive post-AGB stars of the O-rich sequence.

  8. Optical observations of southern planetary nebula candidates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeSteene, GC; Sahu, KC; Pottasch, [No Value

    1996-01-01

    We present H alpha+[NII] images and low resolution spectra of 16 IRAS-selected, southern planetary nebula candidates previously detected in the radio continuum. The H alpha+[NII] images are presented as finding charts. Contour plots are shown for the resolved planetary nebulae. From these images

  9. Luminosity function for planetary nebulae and the number of planetary nebulae in local group galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Identifications of 19 and 34 faint planetary nebulae have been made in the central regions of the SMC and LMC, respectively, using on-line/off-line filter photography at [O III] and Hα. The previously known brighter planetary nebulae in these fields, eight in both the SMC and the LMC, were also identified. On the basis of the ratio of the numbers of faint to bright planetary nebulae in these fields and the numbers of bright planetary nebulae in the surrounding fields, the total numbers of planetary nebulae in the SMC and LMC are estimated to be 285 +- 78 and 996 +- 253, respectively. Corrections have been applied to account for omissions due to crowding confusion in previous surveys, spatial and detectability incompleteness, and obscuration by dust.Equatorial coordinates and finding charts are presented for all the identified planetary nebulae. The coordinates have uncertainties smaller than 0.''6 relative to nearby bright stars, thereby allowing acquisition of the planetary nebulae by bling offsetting.Monochromatic fluxes are derived photographically and used to determine the luminosity function for Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae as faint as 6 mag below the brightest. The luminosity function is used to estimate the total numbers of planetary nebulae in eight Local Group galaxies in which only bright planetary nebulae have been identified. The dervied luminosity specific number of planetary nebulae per unit luminosity is nearly constant for all eight galaxies, having a value of 6.1 x 10 -7 planetary nebulae L -1 /sub sun/. The mass specific number, based on the three galaxies with well-determined masses, is 2.1 x 10 -7 planetary nebulae M -1 /sub sun/. With estimates for the luminosity and mass of our Galaxy, its total number of planetary nebulae is calculated to be 10,000 +- 4000, in support of the Cudworth distance scale

  10. Electron densities in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanghellini, L.; Kaler, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Electron densities for 146 planetary nebulae have been obtained for analyzing a large sample of forbidden lines by interpolating theoretical curves obtained from solutions of the five-level atoms using up-to-date collision strengths and transition probabilities. Electron temperatures were derived from forbidden N II and/or forbidden O III lines or were estimated from the He II 4686 A line strengths. The forbidden O II densities are generally lower than those from forbidden Cl III by an average factor of 0.65. For data sets in which forbidden O II and forbidden S II were observed in common, the forbidden O II values drop to 0.84 that of the forbidden S II, implying that the outermost parts of the nebulae might have elevated densities. The forbidden Cl II and forbidden Ar IV densities show the best correlation, especially where they have been obtained from common data sets. The data give results within 30 percent of one another, assuming homogeneous nebulae. 106 refs

  11. Planetary nebulae and the interstellar magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiligman, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Previous workers have found a statistical correlation between the projected directions of the interstellar magnetic field and the major axes of planetary nebulae. This result has been examined theoretically using a numerical hydromagnetic model of a cold plasma nebula expanding into a uniform vacuum magnetic field, with nebular gas accreting on the surface. It is found that magnetic pressure alone is probably not sufficient to shape most planetary nebulae to the observed degree. Phenomena are discussed which could amplify simple magnetic pressure, alter nebular morphology and account for the observed correlation. (author)

  12. Reconstruction and visualization of planetary nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnor, Marcus; Kindlmann, Gordon; Hansen, Charles; Duric, Neb

    2005-01-01

    From our terrestrially confined viewpoint, the actual three-dimensional shape of distant astronomical objects is, in general, very challenging to determine. For one class of astronomical objects, however, spatial structure can be recovered from conventional 2D images alone. So-called planetary nebulae (PNe) exhibit pronounced symmetry characteristics that come about due to fundamental physical processes. Making use of this symmetry constraint, we present a technique to automatically recover the axisymmetric structure of many planetary nebulae from photographs. With GPU-based volume rendering driving a nonlinear optimization, we estimate the nebula's local emission density as a function of its radial and axial coordinates and we recover the orientation of the nebula relative to Earth. The optimization refines the nebula model and its orientation by minimizing the differences between the rendered image and the original astronomical image. The resulting model allows creating realistic 3D visualizations of these nebulae, for example, for planetarium shows and other educational purposes. In addition, the recovered spatial distribution of the emissive gas can help astrophysicists gain deeper insight into the formation processes of planetary nebulae.

  13. Abundance determinations in HII regions and planetary nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Stasinska, Grazyna

    2002-01-01

    The methods of abundance determinations in HII regions and planetary nebulae are described, with emphasis on the underlying assumptions and inherent problems. Recent results on abundances in Galactic HII regions and in Galactic and extragalactic Planetary Nebulae are reviewed.

  14. Spatiokinematical models of five planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbadin, F.

    1984-01-01

    The [OOOI] and Hα expansion velocity fields in the planetary nebulae NGC6058 and 6804 and the [OIII], Hα and [NII] expansion velocity fields in NGC6309, 6751 and 6818, were obtained from high dispersion spectra. Spatiokinematical models of the nebulae were derived assuming an expansion velocity of the gas proportional to the distance from the central star and using the expansion velocity-radius correlation previously given. The observational parameters of the nebulae (radius, mass and expansion velocity) and of the exciting stars (temperature, radius and luminosity) closely fit the suggested evolutionary model for this class of objects. (author)

  15. Ultraviolet spectra of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.; Seaton, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Features observed in infrared spectra suggest that certain very low excitation (VLE) nebulae have low C/O abundance ratios (Cohen and Barlow 1980; Aitken and Roche 1982). Fluxes in the multiplets [O II] lambda 2470 and C II] lambda 2326 have been measured for the VLE nebula He He 2-131 = HD 138403 using IUE high-dispersion spectra. An analysis similar to that of Harrington et al. (1980) for IC 418 gives C/O = 0.3 for He 2-131, compared with C/O = 1.3 for IC 418 and 0.6 for the Sun. (author)

  16. Evolutionary sequence of models of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vil'koviskij, Eh.Ya.; Kondrat'eva, L.N.; Tambovtseva, L.V.

    1983-01-01

    The evolutionary sequences of model planetary nebulae of different masses have been calculated. The computed emission line intensities are compared with the observed ones by means of the parameter ''reduced size of the nebula'', Rsub(n). It is shown that the evolution tracks of Schonberner for the central stars are consistent with the observed data. Part of ionized mass Mi in any nebulae does not not exceed 0.3 b and in the average Msu(i) 3 years at actual values of radius Rsub(i) <0.025 ps. Then the luminosity growth slows down to the maximum temperature which central star reaches and decreases with sharp decrease of the star luminosity. At that, the radius of ionized zone of greater mass nebulae can even decrease, inspite of the constant expansion of the nebula. As a result nebulae of great masses having undergone the evolution can be included in the number of observed compact objects (Rsub(n) < 0.1 ps)

  17. 3He Abundances in Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Ramirez, Lizette

    2017-10-01

    Determination of the 3He isotope is important to many fields of astrophysics, including stellar evolution, chemical evolution, and cosmology. The isotope is produced in stars which evolve through the planetary nebula phase. Planetary nebulae are the final evolutionary phase of low- and intermediate-mass stars, where the extensive mass lost by the star on the asymptotic giant branch is ionised by the emerging white dwarf. This ejecta quickly disperses and merges with the surrounding ISM. 3He abundances in planetary nebulae have been derived from the hyperfine transition of the ionised 3He, 3He+, at the radio rest frequency 8.665 GHz. 3He abundances in PNe can help test models of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Many hours have been put into trying to detect this line, using telescopes like the Effelsberg 100m dish of the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) 140-foot telescope, the NRAO Very Large Array, the Arecibo antenna, the Green Bank Telescope, and only just recently, the Deep Space Station 63 antenna from the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex.

  18. Influence of stellar duplicity on the form of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnik, I.G.; Pilyugin, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    Formation of planetary nebulae's spatial structures is considered. Simple expression for angular distribution of density in planetary nebulae is obtained. Bipolar structures are formed effectively in binary systems in which the velocity of the expanding shell around the main star is smaller than the orbital velocity of the satellite. Masses of satellites lie in the range 0.1-0.4Msub(sun). Theoretical isophotal contour map for the model of the planetary nebula NGC 3587 is consistent with observational data. It is shown that central stars of planetary nebulae are usually binary systems

  19. of Planetary Nebulae III. NGC 6781

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo E. Schwarz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuing our series of papers on the three-dimensional (3D structures and accurate distances to Planetary Nebulae (PNe, we present our study of the planetary nebula NGC6781. For this object we construct a 3D photoionization model and, using the constraints provided by observational data from the literature we determine the detailed 3D structure of the nebula, the physical parameters of the ionizing source and the first precise distance. The procedure consists in simultaneously fitting all the observed emission line morphologies, integrated intensities and the two-dimensional (2D density map from the [SII] (sulfur II line ratios to the parameters generated by the model, and in an iterative way obtain the best fit for the central star parameters and the distance to NGC6781, obtaining values of 950±143 pc (parsec – astronomic distance unit and 385 LΘ (solar luminosity for the distance and luminosity of the central star respectively. Using theoretical evolutionary tracks of intermediate and low mass stars, we derive the mass of the central star of NGC6781 and its progenitor to be 0.60±0.03MΘ (solar mass and 1.5±0.5MΘ respectively.

  20. Planetary nebulae and the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    In addition to available published data on planetary nebulae (PN), some 40 objects largely concentrated towards the galactic center and anticenter regions were included. All were observed with the Lick 3(sup m) telescope and image tube scanner. Abundances of C, N, O, Ne, Cl, and Ar were determined by a procedure in which theoretical models were used to obtain ionization correction factors (ICF). Of the 106 PN, 66 are N-rich and 40 are N-poor. There appear to be no significant differences between the average compositions in the solar neighborhood and the average taken over the entire observable portion of the galaxy.

  1. The Chandra planetary nebula survey (CHANPLANS). II. X-ray emission from compact planetary nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, M.; Kastner, J. H. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Montez, R. Jr. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Frew, D. J.; De Marco, O.; Parker, Q. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Macquarie Research Centre for Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Jones, D. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Atacama, Copayapu 485, Copiapó (Chile); Miszalski, B. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory, 7935 (South Africa); Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Blackman, E.; Frank, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Chu, Y.-H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Guerrero, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, Granada, E-18008 (Spain); Lopez, J. A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 22860, Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico); Zijlstra, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bujarrabal, V. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Corradi, R. L. M. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nordhaus, J. [NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Fellow, Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); and others

    2014-10-20

    We present results from the most recent set of observations obtained as part of the Chandra X-ray observatory Planetary Nebula Survey (CHANPLANS), the first comprehensive X-ray survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood (i.e., within ∼1.5 kpc of the Sun). The survey is designed to place constraints on the frequency of appearance and range of X-ray spectral characteristics of X-ray-emitting PN central stars and the evolutionary timescales of wind-shock-heated bubbles within PNe. CHANPLANS began with a combined Cycle 12 and archive Chandra survey of 35 PNe. CHANPLANS continued via a Chandra Cycle 14 Large Program which targeted all (24) remaining known compact (R {sub neb} ≲ 0.4 pc), young PNe that lie within ∼1.5 kpc. Results from these Cycle 14 observations include first-time X-ray detections of hot bubbles within NGC 1501, 3918, 6153, and 6369, and point sources in HbDs 1, NGC 6337, and Sp 1. The addition of the Cycle 14 results brings the overall CHANPLANS diffuse X-ray detection rate to ∼27% and the point source detection rate to ∼36%. It has become clearer that diffuse X-ray emission is associated with young (≲ 5 × 10{sup 3} yr), and likewise compact (R {sub neb} ≲ 0.15 pc), PNe with closed structures and high central electron densities (n{sub e} ≳ 1000 cm{sup –3}), and is rarely associated with PNe that show H{sub 2} emission and/or pronounced butterfly structures. Hb 5 is one such exception of a PN with a butterfly structure that hosts diffuse X-ray emission. Additionally, two of the five new diffuse X-ray detections (NGC 1501 and NGC 6369) host [WR]-type central stars, supporting the hypothesis that PNe with central stars of [WR]-type are likely to display diffuse X-ray emission.

  2. A comparison of Hipparcos parallaxes with planetary nebulae spectroscopic distances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Acker, A

    1998-01-01

    The Hipparcos satellite has measured the parallax of a small sample of planetary nebulae. In this paper we consider the results for 3 planetary nebulae (PN) for which spectroscopic distances have also been determined from stellar gravities. These gravities in turn have been derived from profile

  3. The Planetary Nebula Spectrograph : The green light for galaxy kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, NG; Arnaboldi, M; Freeman, KC; Kuijken, K; Merrifield, MR; Romanowsky, AJ; Taylor, K; Capaccioli, M; Axelrod, T; Gilmozzi, R; Hart, J; Bloxham, G; Jones, D

    2002-01-01

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) are now well established as probes of galaxy dynamics and as standard candles in distance determinations. Motivated by the need to improve the efficiency of planetary nebulae searches and the speed with which their radial velocities are determined, a dedicated instrument-the

  4. Effects of mass and metallicity upon planetary nebula formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, K.A.; Purton, C.R.; Kwok, S.

    1983-01-01

    We construct a parameterized function which describes the possible dependence of planetary nebula formation upon metal abundance and stellar mass. Data on galaxies in the Local Group compared with predictions made from the parameterized function indicate that heavy element abundance is the principal agent influencing the formation of planetary nebulae; stars which are rich in heavy elements are the progenitors of planetary nebulae. Our analysis, when compared with the observations, argues for a modest degree of pre-enrichment in a few of the sample galaxies. The heavy element dependence of planetary nebula formation also accounts for the deficit of planetary nebula in the nuclei of NGC 221 and NGC 224, and in the bulge of our Galaxy

  5. The effects of mass and metallicity upon planetary nebula formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, K. A.; Purton, C. R.; Kwok, S.

    1983-05-01

    A parameterized function is constructed which describes the possible dependence of planetary nebula formation upon metal abundance and stellar mass. Data on galaxies in the Local Group compared with predictions made from the parameterized function indicate that heavy element abundance is the principal agent influencing the formation of planetary nebulae; stars which are rich in heavy elements are the progenitors of planetary nebulae. This analysis, when compared with the observations, argues for a modest degree of pre-enrichment in a few of the sample galaxies. The heavy element dependence of planetary nebula formation also accounts for the deficit of planetary nebulae in the nuclei of NGC 221 and NGC 224, and in the bulge of our Galaxy.

  6. Photoionization modelling of planetary nebulae - II. Galactic bulge nebulae, a comparison with literature results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, PAM; Van de Steene, GC

    1999-01-01

    We have constructed photoionization models of five galactic bulge planetary nebulae using our automatic method, which enables a fully self-consistent determination of the physical parameters of a planetary nebula. The models are constrained using the spectrum, the IRAS and radio fluxes and the

  7. Relation between radius and expansion velocity in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Y.H.; Kwitter, K.B.; Kaler, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    The expansion velocity-radius (R-V) relation for planetary nebulae is examined using the existing measurements of expansion velocities and recent calculations of radii. It is found that some of the previously alleged R-V relations for PN are not convincingly established. The scatter in the R-V plots may be due largely to stratification of ions in individual nebulae and to heterogeneity in the planetary nebula population. In addition, from new echelle/CCD observations of planetary nebulae, it is found that spatial information is essential in deriving the internal kinematic properties. Future investigations of R-V relations should be pursued separately for groups of planetaries with similar physical properties, and they should employ observations of appropriate low excitation lines in order to measure the expansion velocity at the surface of the nebula. 26 references

  8. Chemical enrichment in halo planetary nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Peimbert, S; Rayo, J F; Peimbert, M [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia

    1981-01-01

    Photoelectric spectrophotometry of emission lines in the 3400-7400 A region is presented for the planetary nebulae 108-76/sup 0/1(BB1). From these observations the relative abundances of H, He, C, N, O and Ne are derived. The abundances of the halo PN (BB1, H4-1 and K648) are compared to those predicted by stellar evolution theory under the assumption that the envelope has the chemical composition of the matter located between the H burning shell and the surface. The observed He/H and C/O values are higher than predicted which implies that halo PN contain matter from deeper layers than the H burning shell. Furthermore, the O/Ar, N/Ar and Ne/Ar values in halo PN are higher than in the solar neighbourhood, at least part of this enrichment is produced by the PN progenitors.

  9. Galactic planetary nebulae and evolution of their nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khromov, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    The galactic system of planetary nebulae is investigated using previously constructed distance scale and kinematics data. A strong effect of observational selection is established, which has the consequence that with increasing distance, ever brighter and younger objects are observed. More accurate determinations of the spatial and surface densities of the planetary nebulae system are obtained as well as a new estimate of their total number in the Galaxy, which is approximately 200,000. New estimates are also made of the masses of the nebulae, the absolute magnitudes of the nebulae and their nuclei, and other physical parameters of these objects. The spatial and kinematic characteristics of the planetary nebulae indicate that they are objects of the old type I population. It is possible that their remote ancestors are main sequence stars of the type B8-A5-F or as yet unidentified objects of the same galactic subsystem

  10. ISO Spectroscopy of Proto-Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this program was to determine the chemical properties of the dust shells around protoplanetary nebulae (PPNs) through a study of their short-wavelength (6-45 micron) infrared spectra. PPNs are evolved stars in transition from the asymptotic giant branch to the planetary nebula stages. Spectral features in the 10 to 20 gm region indicate the chemical nature (oxygen- or carbon-rich), and the strengths of the features relate to the physical properties of the shells. A few bright carbon-rich PPNs have been observed to show PAH features and an unidentified 21 micron emission feature. We used the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) to observe a sample of IRAS sources that have the expected properties of PPNs and for which we have accurate positions. Some of these have optical counterparts (proposal SWSPPN01) and some do not (SWSPPN02). We had previously observed these from the ground with near-infrared photometry and, for those with visible counterparts, visible photometry and spectroscopy, which we have combined with these new ISO data in the interpretation of the spectra. We have completed a study of the unidentified emission feature at 21 micron in eight sources. We find the shape of the feature to be the same in all of the sources, with no evidence of any substructure. The ratio of the emission peak to continuum ranges from 0.13 to 1.30. We have completed a study of seven PPNs and two other carbon-rich objects for which we had obtained ISO 2-45 micron observations. The unidentified emission features at 21 and 30 micron were detected in six sources, including four new detections of the 30 micron feature. This previously unresolved 30 micron feature was resolved and found to consist of a broad feature peaking at 27.2 micron (the "30 micron" feature) and a narrower feature peaking at 25.5 micron (the "26 micron" feature). This new 26 micron feature is detected in eight sources and is particularly strong in IRAS Z02229+6208 and 16594-4656. The unidentified

  11. The mysterious age invariance of the planetary nebula luminosity function bright cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesicki, K.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.

    2018-05-01

    Planetary nebulae mark the end of the active life of 90% of all stars. They trace the transition from a red giant to a degenerate white dwarf. Stellar models1,2 predicted that only stars above approximately twice the solar mass could form a bright nebula. But the ubiquitous presence of bright planetary nebulae in old stellar populations, such as elliptical galaxies, contradicts this: such high-mass stars are not present in old systems. The planetary nebula luminosity function, and especially its bright cut-off, is almost invariant between young spiral galaxies, with high-mass stars, and old elliptical galaxies, with only low-mass stars. Here, we show that new evolutionary tracks of low-mass stars are capable of explaining in a simple manner this decades-old mystery. The agreement between the observed luminosity function and computed stellar evolution validates the latest theoretical modelling. With these models, the planetary nebula luminosity function provides a powerful diagnostic to derive star formation histories of intermediate-age stars. The new models predict that the Sun at the end of its life will also form a planetary nebula, but it will be faint.

  12. Planetary Nebulae and How to Observe Them

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Astronomers' Observing Guides provide up-to-date information for amateur astronomers who want to know all about what is it they are observing. This is the basis of the first part of the book. The second part details observing techniques for practical astronomers, working with a range of different instruments. Planetary Nebulae and How to Observe Them is intended for amateur astronomers who want to concentrate on one of the most beautiful classes of astronomical objects in the sky. This book will help the observer to see these celestial phenomena using telescopes of various apertures. As a Sun-like star reaches the end of its life, its hydrogen fuel starts to run out. It collapses until helium nuclei begin nuclear fusion, whereupon the star begins to pulsate, each pulsation throwing off a layer of the star's atmosphere. Eventually the atmosphere has all been ejected as an expanding cloud of gas, the star's core is exposed and ultraviolet photons cause the shell of gas to glow brilliantly - that's planetary ...

  13. On planetary nebulae as sources of carbon dust: Infrared emission from planetary nebulae of the galactic halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinerstein, H.L.; Lester, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers examine here the characteristics of the infrared emission from the four planetary nebulae which are believed on the basis of their low overall metallicities to belong to the halo population. These nebulae are of particular interest because they are the most metal-poor ionized nebulae known in our Galaxy, and offer the opportunity to probe possible dependences of the dust properties on nebular composition. Researchers present fluxes extracted from co-addition of the IRAS data, as well as ground-based near infrared measurements. Each of the four halo objects, including the planetary nebula in the globular cluster M15, is detected in at least one infrared band. Researchers compare the estimated infrared excesses of these nebulae (IRE, the ratio of measured infrared power to the power available in the form of resonantly-trapped Lyman alpha photons) to those of disk planetary nebulae with similar densities but more normal abundances. Three of the halo planetaries have IRE values similar to those of the disk nebulae, despite the fact that their Fe- and Si-peak gas phase abundances are factors of 10 to 100 lower. However, these halo nebulae have normal or elevated C/H ratios, due to nuclear processing and mixing in their red giant progenitors. Unlike the other halo planetaries, DDDM1 is deficient in carbon as well as in the other light metals. This nebula has a substantially lower IRE than the other halo planetaries, and may be truly dust efficient. Researchers suggest that the deficiency is due to a lack of the raw material for producing carbon-based grains, and that the main bulk constituent of the dust in these planetary nebulae is carbon

  14. Chemical composition of planetary nebulae : Including ISO results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Beintema, DA; Salas, JB; Feibelman, WA; Henney, WJ; Franco, J; Martos, M; Pena, M

    2002-01-01

    The method of determining abundances using Infrared Space Observatory spectra is discussed. The results for seven planetary nebula are given. Using these data, a preliminary discussion of their evolution is given.

  15. Abundances of neon, sulfur, and argon in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, S.C.; Lacy, J.H.; Townes, C.H.; Geballe, T.R.; Baas, F.

    1981-01-01

    Infrared observations of [Ne II], [S IV], and [Ar III] are used with optical observations to discuss the abundances of Ne, S, and Ar in 18 planetary nebulae. In addition, infrared observations of 18 other nebulae are presented. The derived abundances of S and Ar are each slightly enhanced relative to previous studies

  16. Distribution of mass in the planetary system and solar nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenschilling, S J [Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. (USA). Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism

    1977-09-01

    A model 'solar nebula' is constructed by adding the solar complement of light elements to each planet, using recent models of planetary compositions. Uncertainties in this approach are estimated. The computed surface density varies approximately as rsup(-3/2). Mercury, Mars and the asteroid belt are anomalously low in mass, but processes exist which would preferentially remove matter from these regions. Planetary masses and compositions are generally consistent with a monotonic density distribution in the primordial solar nebula.

  17. Classification of ISO SWS 01 spectra of proto-planetary nebulae: a search for precursors of planetary nebulae with [WR] central stars

    OpenAIRE

    Szczerba, R.; Stasi{ń}ska, G.; Siódmiak, N.; Górny, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    We have analyzed ISO SWS 01 observations for 61 proto-planetary nebulae candidates and classified their spectra according to their dominant chemistry. On the basis of our classification and the more general classification of SWS 01 spectra by Kraemer et al. (2002) we discuss the connection between proto-planetary nebulae candidates and planetary nebulae, with emphasis on possible precursors of planetary nebulae with [WR] central stars.

  18. Broad Halpha Wing Formation in the Planetary Nebula IC 4997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee; Hyung

    2000-02-10

    The young and compact planetary nebula IC 4997 is known to exhibit very broad wings with a width exceeding 5000 km s-1 around Halpha. We propose that the broad wings are formed through Rayleigh-Raman scattering that involves atomic hydrogen, by which Lybeta photons with a velocity width of a few 102 km s-1 are converted to optical photons and fill the Halpha broad wing region. The conversion efficiency reaches 0.6 near the line center, where the scattering optical depth is much larger than 1, and rapidly decreases in the far wings. Assuming that close to the central star there exists an unresolved inner compact core of high density, nH approximately 109-1010 cm-3, we use the photoionization code "CLOUDY" to show that sufficient Lybeta photons for scattering are produced. Using a top-hat-incident profile for the Lybeta flux and a scattering region with a H i column density NHi=2x1020 cm-2 and a substantial covering factor, we perform a profile-fitting analysis in order to obtain a satisfactory fit to the observed flux. We briefly discuss the astrophysical implications of the Rayleigh-Raman processes in planetary nebulae and other emission objects.

  19. Distinguishing between symbiotic stars and planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iłkiewicz, K.; Mikołajewska, J.

    2017-10-01

    Context. The number of known symbiotic stars (SySt) is still significantly lower than their predicted population. One of the main problems in finding the total population of SySt is the fact that their spectrum can be confused with other objects, such as planetary nebulae (PNe) or dense H II regions. This problem is reinforced by the fact that in a significant fraction of established SySt the emission lines used to distinguish them from other objects are not present. Aims: We aim at finding new diagnostic diagrams that could help separate SySt from PNe. Additionally, we examine a known sample of extragalactic PNe for candidate SySt. Methods: We employed emission line fluxes of known SySt and PNe from the literature. Results: We found that among the forbidden lines in the optical region of spectrum, only the [O III] and [N II] lines can be used as a tool for distinguishing between SySt and PNe, which is consistent with the fact that they have the highest critical densities. The most useful diagnostic that we propose is based on He I lines, which are more common and stronger in SySt than forbidden lines. All these useful diagnostic diagrams are electron density indicators that better distinguish PNe and ionized symbiotic nebulae. Moreover, we found six new candidate SySt in the Large Magellanic Cloud and one in M 81. If confirmed, the candidate in M 81 would be the farthest known SySt thus far.

  20. From red giant to planetary nebula - Dust, asymmetry, and polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Jones, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    The polarization characteristics of stars in the stages of evolution from red giant to planetary nebula are investigated. Polarization is found to be a characteristic of the majority of these stars. The maximum observed polarization increases with age as the star evolves up the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) to the protoplanetary nebula phase, where the polarization reaches a maximum. The polarization then decreases as the star further evolves into a planetary nebula. These results indicate that aspherical mass loss is likely to be a continual feature of the late stages of stellar evolution, maintaining a clear continuity throughout the life of a star from the moment it first develops a measurable dust shell. The aspherical morphology seen in planetary nebulae has its origin in an intrinsic property of the star that is present at least as early as its arrival at the base of the AGB. 77 refs

  1. Statistical and physical study of one-sided planetary nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A.; El-Nawawy, M. S.; Pfleiderer, J.

    The authors have investigated the spatial orientation of one-sided planetary nebulae. Most of them if not all are interacting with the interstellar medium. Seventy percent of the nebulae in the sample have inclination angles larger than 45° to the Galactic plane and 30% of the inclination angles are less than 45°. Most of the selected objects are old, evolved planetary nebulae with large dimensions, and not far away from the Galactic plane. Seventy-five percent of the objects are within 160 pc from the Galactic plane. The enhanced concavity arc can be explained physically as a result of the 'planetary nebulae-interstellar matter' interaction. The authors discuss the possible effect of the interstellar magnetic field in the concavity regions.

  2. On the evolution of central stars of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahel, R.Z.

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of nuclei of planetary nebulae has been calculated from the end of the ejection stage that produces the nebulae to the white dwarf stage. The structure of the central star is in agreement with the general picture of Finzi (1973) about the mass ejection from the progenitors of planetary nebulae. It has been found that in order to obtain evolutionary track consistent with the Harman-Seaton track (O'Dell, 1968) one has to assume that the masses of the nuclei stars are less than approximately 0.7 solar masses. The calculated evolutionary time scale of the central stars of planetary nebulae is approximately 2 x 10 4 yr. This time scale is negatively correlated with the stellar mass: the heavier the stellar mass, the shorter the evolutionary time scale. (Auth.)

  3. Planetary nebulae: 20 years of Hubble inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balick, Bruce

    2012-08-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has served the critical roles of microscope and movie camera in the past 20 years of research on planetary nebulae (``PNe''). We have glimpsed the details of the evolving structures of neutral and ionized post-AGB objects, built ingenious heuristic models that mimic these structures, and constrained most of the relevant physical processes with careful observations and interpretation. We have searched for close physical binary stars with spatial resolution ~50 AU at 1 AU, located jets emerging from the nucleus at speeds up to 2000 km s-1 and matched newly discovered molecular and X-ray emission regions to physical substructures in order to better understand how stellar winds and ionizing radiation interact to form the lovely symmetries that are observed. Ultraviolet spectra of CNO in PNe help to uncover how stars process deep inside AGB stars with unstable nuclear burning zones. HST broadband imaging has been at the forefront of uncovering surprisingly complex wind morphologies produced at the tip of the AGB, and has led to an increasing realization of the potentially vital roles of close binary stars and emerging magnetic fields in shaping stellar winds.

  4. High-speed knots in the hourglass shaped planetary nebula Hubble 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaytet, N. M. H.; Rushton, A. P.; Lloyd, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a detailed kinematical analysis of the young compact hourglass-shaped planetary nebula Hb 12. We performed optical imaging and longslit spectroscopy of Hb 12 using the Manchester echelle spectrometer with the 2.1m San Pedro Martir telescope. We reveal, for the first time, the presence...

  5. A radio search for planetary nebulae near the galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacman, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Because of galactic center is a hostile environment, and because planetaries are weak radio emitters, it is not clear a priori that one expects to detect any planetary nebulae at all in the nuclear region of the Galaxy. Therefore the expected lifetime and flux density distribution of galactic center nebulae is considered. The principal observational results from the Westerbork data, and the results of some pilot observations with the Very Large Array, which were intended to distinguish planetaries from other radio sources on an individual basis are given. (Auth.)

  6. Theoretical investigation into the existence of molecules in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    Calculations of chemical kinetic equilibrium molecular abundances in the neutral regions of planetary nebulae are presented. The development of these abundances during the expansion of the nebula is calculated. The physical parameters in the neutral regions following the formation of the nebula by the ejection of the envelope of a long peiod variable star have been taken from available dynamical models. Similarly, the temperature and luminosity of the central star as a function of time have been taken from available theoretical calculations. The thermal equilibrium has been solved independently. The temperatures in the shell and later in the condensations which develop are in the range from 30 to 250 K. Number densities range from 10 7 for the youngest model calculated to 2 x 10 4 for neutral condensations in a 10,000 year old nebula. It is shown that, for a typical nebula containing 0.2 Msub solar, molecules are expected to be the dominant form for only a short period early in the expansion phase. Subsequently, the condensations are not sufficiently optically thick to permit the continued existence of a preponderance of molecules. The molecular abundances in the later models are similar to those in diffuse interstellar clouds. The expectation arising from those results is that little molecular material will be injected into the interstellar medium by planetary nebulae. There is, however, a remarkable resemblance between the conditions in the model calculated at very early stages of the expansion and conditions deduced from observations for proto-planetary nebulae

  7. Ultraviolet spectroscopy of planetary nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maran, S.P.; Aller, L.H.; Gull, T.R.; Stecher, T.P.

    1982-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of three high excitation planetary nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds (LMC P40, SMC N2, SMC N5) were obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer. The results are analyzed together with new visual wavelength spectrophotometry of LMC P40 and published data on SMC N2 and SMC N5 to investigate chemical composition and in particular to make the first reliable estimates of the carbon abundance in extragalactic planetary nebulae. Although carbon is at most only slightly less abundant in the LMC and SMC planetary nebulae than in galactic planetaries, it is almost 40 times more abundant in the SMC planetaries than in the SMC interstellar medium, and is about 6 times more abundant in the LMC planetary than in the LMC interstellar medium. According to our limited sample, the net result of carbon synthesis and convective dredgeup in the progenitors of planetary nebulae, as reflected in the nebular carbon abundance, is roughly the same in the Galaxy, the LMC, and the SMC

  8. Ultraviolet imaging of planetary nebulae with GALEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Luciana; Thilker, David

    2018-05-01

    Over four hundred Galactic Planetary Nebulae (PNe) have been imaged by GALEX in two ultraviolet (UV) bands, far-UV (FUV, 1344-1786 Å, λ _{eff}= 1528 Å) and near-NUV (NUV, 1771-2831 Å, λ _{eff} = 2271 Å). We present examples of extended PNe, for which UV spectroscopy is also available, to illustrate the variety in UV morphology and color, which reflects ionization conditions. The depth of the GALEX imaging varies from flux ≈ 0.4/5× 10 ^{-18} ergs cm^{-2} s^{-1} Å^{-1} \\square ^'' -1} (FUV/NUV) for exposures of the order of ˜ 100 seconds, typical of the survey with the largest area coverage, to ˜ 0.3/8.3× 10^{-19} ergs cm^{-2} s^{-1} Å^{-1} \\square ^'' -1} (FUV/NUV) for ˜ 1500 sec exposures, typical of the second largest survey (see Bianchi in Astrophys. Space Sci. 320:11, 2009; Bianchi et al. in Adv. Space Res. 53:900, 2014). GALEX broad-band FUV and NUV fluxes include nebular emission lines and in some cases nebular continuum emission. The sensitivity of the GALEX instrument and the low sky background, especially in FUV, enable detection and mapping of very faint ionization regions and fronts, including outermost wisps and bow shocks. The FUV-NUV color of the central star provides a good indication of its T_{eff}, because the GALEX FUV-NUV color is almost reddening-free for Milky Way type dust (Bianchi et al. in Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 230:24, 2017; Bianchi in Astrophys. Space Sci. 335:51, 2011, Bianchi in Astrophys. Space Sci. 354:103, 2014) and it is more sensitive to hot temperatures than optical colors.

  9. Asymmetric Planetary Nebulae VI: the conference summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, O.

    2014-04-01

    The Asymmetric Planetary Nebulae conference series, now in its sixth edition, aims to resolve the shaping mechanism of PN. Eighty percent of PN have non spherical shapes and during this conference the last nails in the coffin of single stars models for non spherical PN have been put. Binary theories abound but observational tests are lagging. The highlight of APN6 has been the arrival of ALMA which allowed us to measure magnetic fields on AGB stars systematically. AGB star halos, with their spiral patterns are now connected to PPN and PN halos. New models give us hope that binary parameters may be decoded from these images. In the post-AGB and pre-PN evolutionary phase the naked post-AGB stars present us with an increasingly curious puzzle as complexity is added to the phenomenologies of objects in transition between the AGB and the central star regimes. Binary central stars continue to be detected, including the first detection of longer period binaries, however a binary fraction is still at large. Hydro models of binary interactions still fail to give us results, if we make an exception for the wider types of binary interactions. More promise is shown by analytical considerations and models driven by simpler, 1D simulations such as those carried out with the code MESA. Large community efforts have given us more homogeneous datasets which will yield results for years to come. Examples are the ChanPlaN and HerPlaNe collaborations that have been working with the Chandra and Herschel space telescopes, respectively. Finally, the new kid in town is the intermediate-luminosity optical transient, a new class of events that may have contributed to forming several peculiar PN and pre-PN.

  10. Abundances of planetary nebula NGC 5315

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Beintema, DA; Salas, JB; Koornneef, J; Feibelman, WA

    2002-01-01

    The ISO and IUE spectra of the elliptical nebula NGC 5315 is presented. These spectra are combined with the spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of the nebulae is then calculated and compared to previous

  11. Morphology of bipolar planetary nebulae. I. Two-dimensional spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascoli, G.

    1990-01-01

    Two-dimensional spectrophotometric observations of bipolar planetary nebulae were performed by using a CCD detector mounted at the Cassegrain focus of either 1.54 m Danish Telescope or 2.2 m German Telescope at La Silla (ESO) in Chile. Emission lines have been selected with the help of narrow band-pass interference filters (Δλ∼ 10 - 20 A). Isophotal maps in various lines Hα, [NII] λ 6584, [OIII] λ 5007 and [SII] λλ 6717-6731 are presented. Particular attention has been given to scrutinize the symmetries inside a few bipolar planetary nebulae, in order to subsequently investigate their space structure

  12. Expansion patterns and parallaxes for planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönberner, D.; Balick, B.; Jacob, R.

    2018-02-01

    Aims: We aim to determine individual distances to a small number of rather round, quite regularly shaped planetary nebulae by combining their angular expansion in the plane of the sky with a spectroscopically measured expansion along the line of sight. Methods: We combined up to three epochs of Hubble Space Telescope imaging data and determined the angular proper motions of rim and shell edges and of other features. These results are combined with measured expansion speeds to determine individual distances by assuming that line of sight and sky-plane expansions are equal. We employed 1D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of nebular evolution to correct for the difference between the spectroscopically measured expansion velocities of rim and shell and of their respective shock fronts. Results: Rim and shell are two independently expanding entities, driven by different physical mechanisms, although their model-based expansion timescales are quite similar. We derive good individual distances for 15 objects, and the main results are as follows: (i) distances derived from rim and shell agree well; (ii) comparison with the statistical distances in the literature gives reasonable agreement; (iii) our distances disagree with those derived by spectroscopic methods; (iv) central-star "plateau" luminosities range from about 2000 L⊙ to well below 10 000 L⊙, with a mean value at about 5000 L⊙, in excellent agreement with other samples of known distance (Galactic bulge, Magellanic Clouds, and K648 in the globular cluster M 15); (v) the central-star mass range is rather restricted: from about 0.53 to about 0.56 M⊙, with a mean value of 0.55 M⊙. Conclusions: The expansion measurements of nebular rim and shell edges confirm the predictions of radiation-hydrodynamics simulations and offer a reliable method for the evaluation of distances to suited objects. Results of this paper are based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope in Cycle 16 (GO11122

  13. INFRARED STUDY OF FULLERENE PLANETARY NEBULAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Hernández, D. A.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Manchado, A.; Villaver, E.; García-Lario, P.; Stanghellini, L.; Shaw, R. A.; Cataldo, F.

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of 16 planetary nebulae (PNe) where fullerenes have been detected in their Spitzer Space Telescope spectra. This large sample of objects offers a unique opportunity to test conditions of fullerene formation and survival under different metallicity environments because we are analyzing five sources in our own Galaxy, four in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), and seven in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). Among the 16 PNe studied, we present the first detection of C 60 (and possibly also C 70 ) fullerenes in the PN M 1–60 as well as of the unusual ∼6.6, 9.8, and 20 μm features (attributed to possible planar C 24 ) in the PN K 3–54. Although selection effects in the original samples of PNe observed with Spitzer may play a potentially significant role in the statistics, we find that the detection rate of fullerenes in C-rich PNe increases with decreasing metallicity (∼5% in the Galaxy, ∼20% in the LMC, and ∼44% in the SMC) and we interpret this as a possible consequence of the limited dust processing occurring in Magellanic Cloud (MC) PNe. CLOUDY photoionization modeling matches the observed IR fluxes with central stars that display a rather narrow range in effective temperature (∼30,000-45,000 K), suggesting a common evolutionary status of the objects and similar fullerene formation conditions. Furthermore, the data suggest that fullerene PNe likely evolve from low-mass progenitors and are usually of low excitation. We do not find a metallicity dependence on the estimated fullerene abundances. The observed C 60 intensity ratios in the Galactic sources confirm our previous finding in the MCs that the fullerene emission is not excited by the UV radiation from the central star. CLOUDY models also show that line- and wind-blanketed model atmospheres can explain many of the observed [Ne III]/[Ne II] ratios using photoionization, suggesting that possibly the UV radiation from the central star, and not shocks, is triggering the decomposition

  14. PLANETARY NEBULAE IN FACE-ON SPIRAL GALAXIES. II. PLANETARY NEBULA SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Kimberly A.; Ciardullo, Robin

    2009-01-01

    As the second step in our investigation of the mass-to-light ratio of spiral disks, we present the results of a spectroscopic survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in five nearby, low-inclination galaxies: IC 342, M74 (NGC 628), M83 (NGC 5236), M94 (NGC 4736), and M101 (NGC 5457). Using 50 setups of the WIYN/Hydra and Blanco/Hydra spectrographs, and 25 observations with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope's Medium Resolution Spectrograph, we determine the radial velocities of 99, 102, 162, 127, and 48 PNe, respectively, to a precision better than 15 km s -1 . Although the main purpose of this data set is to facilitate dynamical mass measurements throughout the inner and outer disks of large spiral galaxies, our spectroscopy has other uses as well. Here, we co-add these spectra to show that, to first order, the [O III] and Balmer line ratios of PNe vary little over the top ∼1.5 mag of the PN luminosity function. The only obvious spectral change occurs with [N II], which increases in strength as one proceeds down the luminosity function. We also show that typical [O III]-bright planetaries have E(B - V) ∼ 0.2 of circumstellar extinction, and that this value is virtually independent of [O III] luminosity. We discuss the implications this has for understanding the population of PN progenitors.

  15. The central star of the Planetary Nebula NGC 6537

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    The fact that Space Telescope WFPC2 images of the planetary nebula NGC 6537 fail to show the central star is used to derive a limit to its magnitude: it is fainter than a magnitude of 22.4 in the visible. This is used to derive a lower limit to the temperature of the star. The Zanstra temperature is

  16. Modern techniques in galaxy kinematics : Results from planetary nebula spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanowsky, AJ; Douglas, NG; Kuijken, K; Arnaboldi, M; Gerssen, J; Merrifield, MR; Kwok, S; Dopita, M; Sutherland, R

    2003-01-01

    We have observed planetary nebulae (PNe) in several early-type galaxies using new techniques on 4- to 8-meter-class telescopes. We obtain the first large data sets (greater than or similar to 100 velocities each) of PN kinematics in galaxies at greater than or similar to 15 Mpc, and present some

  17. Probing AGB nucleosynthesis via accurate Planetary Nebula abundances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marigo, P; Bernard-Salas, J; Pottasch, S. R.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Wesselius, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    The elemental abundances of ten planetary nebulae, derived with high accuracy including ISO and IUE spectra, are analysed with the aid of synthetic evolutionary models for the TP-AGB phase. The accuracy on the observed abundances is essential in order to make a reliable comparison with the models.

  18. Formation of planetary nebulae with close binary nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livio, M; Salzman, J; Shaviv, G [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1979-07-01

    A model for the formation of planetary nebulae with a close binary as a nucleus is presented. The model is based on mass loss instability at L/sub 2/. The instability is demonstrated. The conditions on the mass loss are formulated and analysed. The observational consequence of the model is described briefly and its relation to symbiotic stars and cataclysmic binaries discussed.

  19. An IFU-view of Planetary Nebulae: Exploring NGC 6720 (Ring Nebula) with KCWI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Keri; Matuszewski, Matt; Hamden, Erika; Martin, Christopher; Neill, Don; Kyne, Gillian

    2018-01-01

    Studying the interaction between the ejected stellar material and interstellar clouds is important for understanding how stellar deaths influences the pollution of matter that will later form other stars. Planetary nebulae provide ideal laboratories to study such interactions. I will present on a case study of one close-by planetary nebula, the Ring Nebula (M 57, NGC 6720), to infer the abundances, temperatures, structures, and dynamics of important atomic and ionic species in two distinct regions of the nebula using a newly-commissioned integral field spectrograph (IFS) on Keck: the Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI). The advantage of an IFS over traditional filter-imaging techniques is the ability to simultaneously observe the spectrum of any given pixel in the imaging area, which provides crucial information about the dynamics of the observed region. This technique is powerful for diffuse or extended astrophysical objects, and I will demonstrate the different imaging and spectral modes of KCWI used to observe the Ring Nebula.KCWI observations of the Ring Nebula focused mainly on the innermost region of the nebula, with a little coverage of the Inner Ring. We also observed the length of the Ring in one set of observations, for which we will estimate the elemental abundances, temperatures, and dynamics of the region. KCWI observations also capture an inner arc and blob that have distinctly difference characteristics than the Ring itself and may be a direct observation of either the planetary nebula ramming into an interstellar cloud projected onto the sightline or a dense interstellar cloud being illuminated by the stellar continuum from the hot central white dwarf.

  20. A new planetary nebula in the outer reaches of the Galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viironen, K.; Mampaso, A.; L. M. Corradi, R.

    2011-01-01

    of a new planetary nebula towards the Anticentre direction, IPHASX J052531.19+281945.1 (PNG 178.1-04.0), is presented. The planetary nebula was discovered from the IPHAS survey. Long-slit follow-up spectroscopy was carried out to confirm its planetary nebula nature and to calculate its physical...... and chemical characteristics. The newly discovered planetary nebula turned out to be located at a very large galactocentric distance (D_GC=20.8+-3.8 kpc), larger than any previously known planetary nebula with measured abundances. Its relatively high oxygen abundance (12+log(O/H) = 8.36+-0.03) supports...

  1. SMC SMP 24: A newly radio-detected planetary nebula in the small Magellanic cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojičić I.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report a new radio-continuum detection of an extragalactic planetary nebula (PN: SMC SMP 24. We show the radio-continuum image of this PN and present the measured radio data. The newly reduced radio observations are consistent with the multi-wavelength data and derived parameters found in the literature. SMC SMP 24 appears to be a young and compact PN, optically thick at frequencies below 2 GHz.

  2. SMC SMP 24: A Newly Radio-Detected Planetary Nebula in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojicic, I. S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report a new radio-continuum detection of an extragalactic planetary nebula (PN: SMC~SMP~24. We show the radio-continuum image of this PN and present the measured radio data. The newly reduced radio observations are consistent with the multi-wavelength data and derived parameters found in the literature. SMC~SMP~24 appears to be a young and compact PN, optically thick at frequencies below 2~GHz.

  3. Binarity and the Abundance Discrepancy Problem in Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Romano L. M.; García-Rojas, Jorge; Jones, David; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    The discrepancy between abundances computed using optical recombination lines and collisionally excited lines is a major unresolved problem in nebular astrophysics. Here, we show that the largest abundance discrepancies are reached in planetary nebulae with close binary central stars. We illustrate this using deep spectroscopy of three nebulae with a post common-envelope (CE) binary star. Abell 46 and Ou 5 have O2+/H+ abundance discrepancy factors larger than 50, and as high as 300 in the inner regions of Abell 46. Abell 63 has a smaller discrepancy factor around 10, which is still above the typical values in ionized nebulae. Our spectroscopic analysis supports previous conclusions that, in addition to “standard” hot ({{T}e} ˜ 104 K) gas, there exists a colder ({{T}e} ˜ 103 K), ionized component that is highly enriched in heavy elements. These nebulae have low ionized masses, between 10-3 and 10-1 M⊙ depending on the adopted electron densities and temperatures. Since the much more massive red giant envelope is expected to be entirely ejected in the CE phase, the currently observed nebulae would be produced much later, during post-CE mass loss episodes when the envelope has already dispersed. These observations add constraints to the abundance discrepancy problem. We revise possible explanations. Some explanations are naturally linked to binarity such as, for instance, high-metallicity nova ejecta, but it is difficult at this stage to depict an evolutionary scenario consistent with all of the observed properties. We also introduce the hypothesis that these nebulae are the result of tidal destruction, accretion, and ejection of Jupiter-like planets.

  4. The Making of a Pre-Planetary Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    The gas expelled by dying stars gets twisted into intricate shapes and patterns as nebulae form. Now a team of researchers might have some answers about how this happens.Whats a Pre-Planetary Nebula?This H-R diagram for the globular cluster M5 shows where AGB stars lie: they are represented by blue markers here. The AGB is one of the final stages in a low- to intermediate-mass stars lifetime. [Lithopsian]When a low- to intermediate-mass star approaches the end of its lifetime, it moves onto the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) in the Herzsprung-Russell diagram. As the star exhausts its fuel here, it shrugs off its outer layers. These layers of gas then encase the stars core, which is not yet hot enough to ionize the gas and cause it to glow.Instead, during this time the gas is relatively cool and dark, faintly reflecting light from the star and emitting only very dim infrared emission of its own. At this stage, the gas represents a pre-planetary nebula. Only later when the stellar core contracts enough to heat up and emit ionizing radiation does the nebula begin to properly glow, at which point it qualifies as a full planetary nebula.Images of OH231 in optical light (top) and 12CO (bottom) taken from the literature. [See Balick et al. 2017 for full credit]Unexpected ShapesPre-planetary nebulae are a very short-lived evolutionary stage, so weve observed only a few hundred of them which has left many unanswered questions about these objects.One particular mystery is that of their shapes: if these nebulae are formed by stars expelling their outer layers, we would naively expect them to be simple spherical shells and yet we observe pre-planetary nebulae to have intricate shapes and patterns. How does the star create these asymmetric shapes? A team of scientists led by Bruce Balick (University of Washington, Seattle) has now used simulations to address this question.Injecting MassBalick and collaborators use 3D hydrodynamic simulations to model one particular pre-planetary

  5. NEUTRON-CAPTURE ELEMENT ABUNDANCES IN MAGELLANIC CLOUD PLANETARY NEBULAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashburn, A. L.; Sterling, N. C. [Department of Physics, University of West Georgia, 1601 Maple Street, Carrollton, GA 30118 (United States); Madonna, S. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Departamento Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Dinerstein, Harriet L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 2515 Speedway, C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Roederer, I. U. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Geballe, T. R., E-mail: awhite15@my.westga.edu, E-mail: nsterlin@westga.edu, E-mail: smadonna@iac.es, E-mail: harriet@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: iur@umich.edu, E-mail: tgeballe@gemini.edu [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We present near-infrared spectra of 10 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC), acquired with the FIRE and GNIRS spectrometers on the 6.5 m Baade and 8.1 m Gemini South Telescopes, respectively. We detect Se and/or Kr emission lines in eight of these objects, the first detections of n -capture elements in Magellanic Cloud PNe. Our abundance analysis shows large s -process enrichments of Kr (0.6–1.3 dex) in the six PNe in which it was detected, and Se is enriched by 0.5–0.9 dex in five objects. We also estimate upper limits to Rb and Cd abundances in these objects. Our abundance results for the LMC are consistent with the hypothesis that PNe with 2–3 M {sub ⊙} progenitors dominate the bright end of the PN luminosity function in young gas-rich galaxies. We find no significant correlations between s -process enrichments and other elemental abundances, central star temperature, or progenitor mass, though this is likely due to our small sample size. We determine S abundances from our spectra and find that [S/H] agrees with [Ar/H] to within 0.2 dex for most objects, but is lower than [O/H] by 0.2–0.4 dex in some PNe, possibly due to O enrichment via third dredge-up. Our results demonstrate that n -capture elements can be detected in PNe belonging to nearby galaxies with ground-based telescopes, allowing s -process enrichments to be studied in PN populations with well-determined distances.

  6. Planetary nebulae and their central stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaler, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    The present review is devoted primarily to galactic planetaries, while Ford (1983) provides an extensive review of the rapidly expanding study of the extragalactic type. Nebular parameters and observations are discussed, taking into account discovery, distance, motion, structure, spectrophotometry, and nebular properties. It is pointed out that post-AGB, or prewhite dwarf, stars are not as well known as their nebular progeny. Of the fundamental data regarding the central stars, the magnitudes are particularly important. They are used for both temperature and luminosity determinations. Attention is also given to temperatures and luminosities, and the characteristics of the spectra. Questions concerning the evolutionary process are also explored and aspects of observed distribution and evolution are considered. 259 references

  7. Spectrophotometry of Bowen resonance fluorescence lines in three planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, C. R.; Miller, Christopher O.

    1992-01-01

    The results are presented of a uniquely complete, carefully reduced set of observations of the O III Bowen fluorescence lines in the planetary nebulae NGC 6210, NGC 7027, and NGC 7662. A detailed comparison with the predictions of radiative excitation verify that some secondary lines are enhanced by selective population by the charge exchange mechanism involving O IV. Charge exchange is most important in NGC 6210, which is of significantly lower ionization than the other nebulae. In addition to the principal Bowen lines arising from Ly-alpha pumping of the O III O1 line, lines arising from pumping of the O3 line are also observed. Comparison of lines produced by O1 and O3 with the theoretical predictions of Neufeld indicate poor agreement; comparison with the theoretical predictions of Harrington show agreement with NGC 7027 and NGC 7662.

  8. Abundance in the planetary nebulae NGC 6537 and He2-111

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Beintema, DA; Feibelman, WA

    2000-01-01

    The ISO and IUE spectra of the bipolar planetary nebulae NGC 6537 and He2-111 are presented. These spectra are combined with the spectrum in the visual wavelength region from the nebulae to obtain a complete spectrum that is corrected for extinction. The chemical abundance of the nebulae is then

  9. Model atmospheres and parameters of central stars of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patriarchi, P.; Cerruti-sola, M.; Perinotto, M.

    1989-01-01

    Non-LTE hydrogen and helium model atmospheres have been obtained for temperatures and gravities relevant to the central stars of planetary nebulae. Low-resolution and high-resolution observations obtained by the IUE satellite have been used along with optical data to determine Zanstra temperatures of the central stars of NGC 1535, NGC 6210, NGC 7009, IC 418, and IC 4593. Comparison of the observed stellar continuum of these stars with theoretical results allowed further information on the stellar temperature to be derived. The final temperatures are used to calculate accurate stellar parameters. 62 refs

  10. On planetary nebulae and Wolf-Rayet stars in the galactic-centre field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    A UK Schmidt objective-prism plate of the Galactic-centre field has been examined. Of the 74 objects in the field which have been catalogued as planetary nebulae, only half appear correctly classified; the others include Be stars, symbiotic stars, and stars without emission lines. A further 19 planetary nebulae and two Wolf-Rayet stars have been discovered. (author)

  11. Characteristics of planetary nebulae and H II regions based on lambda = 1. 35 cm continuum measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braz, M A; Jardim, J O; Kaufmann, P [Universidade Mackenzie, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Radio-Astronomia et Astrofisica

    1975-11-01

    Physical parameters are derived and discussed for stronger H II regions and planetary nebulae for which continuum radio data at lambda = 1.35 cm was obtained. The study includes southern hemisphere planetary nebulae IC-418, NGC-6,302, NGC-6,369, and H II regions RCW-65, RCW-87, RCW-99, H 2-3 and H 2-6.

  12. Planetary nebulae and Wolf-Rayet stars in the galactic-centre field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D A [Anglo-Australian Observatory, Epping (Australia)

    1979-06-01

    A UK Schmidt objective-prism plate of the Galactic-centre field has been examined. Of the 74 objects in the field which have been catalogued as planetary nebulae, only half appear correctly classified; the others include Be stars, symbiotic stars, and stars without emission lines. A further 19 planetary nebulae and two Wolf-Rayet stars have been discovered.

  13. Radio synthesis observations of planetary nebulae. II. A search for sub-arcsecond structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balick, B.; Terzian, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of 11 planetary nebulae with spatial resolutions from 0''.2 to 2'' at 2695 and 8085 MHz failed to show any very bright structure smaller than about 2''. The observations are shown to be consistent with the present understanding of the temperatures and density distributions thought to typify most planetary nebulae

  14. Identification of faint central stars in extended, low-surface-brightness planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwitter, K.B.; Lydon, T.J.; Jacoby, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    As part of a larger program to study the properties of planetary nebula central stars, a search for faint central stars in extended, low-surface-brightness planetary nebulae using CCD imaging is performed. Of 25 target nebulae, central star candidates have been identified in 17, with certainties ranging from extremely probable to possible. Observed V values in the central star candidates extend to fainter than 23 mag. The identifications are presented along with the resulting photometric measurements. 24 references

  15. Ionization structure of planetary nebulae. Part 8: NGC 6826

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, T.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of emission-line intensities over the spectral range 1400 to 1700 A were made in seven positions in the planetary nebulae NCG 6826. The O(++) electron temperature varies little from 8900 K throughout the nebula; the Balmer continuum electron temperature averages 1500 K higher. The wavelength 4267 C II line intensities imply C(++) abundances that are systematically higher than those determined from the wavelength 1906, 1909 C III lines, but because of uncertainties in the intensities of the ultraviolet lines relative to the optical ones, this discrepancy is less conclusively demonstrated in NGC 6826 than in other planetaries in this series. Standard equations used to correct for the existence of elements in other than the optically observable ionization stages give results that are consistent and also in approximate agreement with abundances calculated using ultraviolet lines in the few cases where the relevant ultraviolet lines are measurable. The results of the logarithmic abundances differ somewhat from the recent study by Aller and Czyzak, in part because their measured electron temperatures are somewhat higher. The Ar, Ne, and, to some extent, O and S abundances appear to be somewhat low, suggesting that the progenitor to NGC 6826 like that to NGC 7662, may have formed out of somewhat metal-poor material

  16. The remarkably high excitation planetary nebula GC 6537.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, L H; Hung, S; Feibelman, W A

    1999-05-11

    NGC 6537 is an unusually high excitation point symmetric planetary nebula with a rich spectrum. Its kinematical structures are of special interest. We are here primarily concerned with the high resolution spectrum as revealed by the Hamilton echelle Spectrograph at Lick Observatory (resolution approximately 0.2 A) and supplemented by UV and near-UV data. These extensive data permit a determination of interstellar extinction, plasma diagnostics, and ionic concentrations. The photoionization models that have been used successfully for many planetary nebulae are not entirely satisfactory here. The plasma electron temperature of a photoionization model cannot much exceed 20,000 K, but plasma diagnostics show that regions emitting radiation of highly ionized atoms such as [NeIV] and [NeV] are much hotter, showing that shock excitation must be important, as suggested by the remarkable kinematics of this object. Hence, instead of employing a strict photoionization model, we are guided by the nebular diagnostics, which reveal how electron temperature varies with ionization potential and accommodates density effects. The predictions of the photoionization model may be useful in estimating ionization correction factor. In effect, we have estimated the chemical composition by using both photoionization and shock considerations.

  17. Version 2000 of the Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoutek, L.

    2001-11-01

    The ``Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae (Version 2000)'' appears in Abhandlungen aus der Hamburger Sternwarte, Band XII in the year 2001. It is a continuation of CGPN(1967) and contains 1510 objects classified as galactic PNe up to the end of 1999. The lists of possible pre-PNe and possible post-PNe are also given. The catalogue is restricted only to the data belonging to the location and identification of the objects. It gives identification charts of PNe discovered since 1965 (published in the supplements to CGPN) and those charts of objects discovered earlier, which have wrong or uncertain identification. The question ``what is a planetary nebula'' is discussed and the typical values of PNe and of their central stars are summarized. Short statistics about the discoveries of PNe are given. The catalogue is also available in the Centre de Données, Strasbourg and at Hamburg Observatory via internet. The Catalogue is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/378/843

  18. Proto-planetary nebulae. I. The extreme bipolar nebulae M2-9 and M1-91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodrich, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented on a long-slit optical spectroscopy measurements of the prototype bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 and the M1-91 bipolar nebula, performed in order to determine the nature of the morphology of the wings of these two nebulae. It is concluded that the overall bipolar morphologies of these nebulae might be due to the orbital motions of binaries, with the orbital angular momentum vector defining the axis of the nebula. Secondary symmetries in the nebulae, such as the point-symmetric knots in M1-91, could be due to other symmetries, such as the rotation axis of one of the individual stars or the polar axis of the accretion disk. 39 refs

  19. Emission lines of Mg2 and Ca2 in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Conditions of exciting resonance lines in the emission of ionized magnesium (lambda lambda 2796+2803 Mg2) and calcium (lambda lambda 3934+3968 Ca2) in planetary nebulae have been analyzed. It is shown that the allowed lines are excited with the same mechanism, as the forbidden lines, i.e. inelastic electron collisions, but not with common fluorescence. The emission line lambda 2800 Mg2 of enough force can be observed only in the spectra of planetary nebulae with mean excitation (IC 2149) as well as in the spectra of diffuse nebulae. The line must not be observed in high-excited planetary nebulae (NGC 7026, 7662). The absence of emission lines H and K Ca2 in planetary nebulae spectra results from the fact, that their expected intensity is by 3-4 orders less than the intensity of the line lambda 2800 Mg2 or Hsub(β) hydrogen

  20. The internal kinematics of the planetary nebula NGC 650/1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, K.

    1979-01-01

    Hα and [N II], lambda 6584 line profiles from the bright lobes of planetary nebula NGC 650/1 have been obtained. These emission lines show a very strong symmetrical triple-peak velocity structure, not observed previously to the author's knowledge in planetary nebulae. Models are tentatively proposed to explain both the velocity data and the nebula's optical appearance. The velocity splitting amounts to approximately 62 km/s and the rest frame of the nebula is found to have a heliocentric radial velocity of -19 +- 2 km/s. (author)

  1. The chemical composition of three planetary nebulae in the Magellanic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, R.J.; Killen, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Emission-line intensities in the planetary nebulae Henize 67 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and Henize 97 and 153 in the LMC along with the small SMC H II regions Henize 9, 61, and 81 were measured from photographic image-tube spectra taken with the 1.5 m telescope at Cerro Tololo. The relative abundances of H, He, N, O, Ne, S, and Ar in the nebulae were estimated and compared with the compositions of galactic planetary nebulae and previously studied H II regions in the Clouds. The results show that (1) the N/O ratios in the planetary nebulae are substantially higher than found in the H II regions of each Cloud; (2) He/H approx. = 0.18 in the SMC planetary nebula, but seems normal (approx.0.10) in the two LMC planetaries; and (3) the compositions of the three small SMC H II regions are similar to that of larger SMC H II regions studied previously. It is concluded that the N/H values in the shells of planetary nebulae may not depend on the metal content of the progenitor star as much as recent theoretical models suggest and that the N content of the gas in the Magellanic Clouds arises primarily from sources other than planetary nebulae

  2. SHAPING THE GLOWING EYE PLANETARY NEBULA, NGC 6751

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D. M.; Garcia-Diaz, Ma. T.; Lopez, J. A.; Steffen, W. G.; Richer, M. G.

    2010-01-01

    NGC 6751 is a highly structured multiple-shell planetary nebula (PN) with a bipolar outflow. In this work, we present a comprehensive set of spatially resolved, high spectral resolution, long-slit spectra and deep imaging from San Pedro Martir, Gemini, the Hα composite full sky survey and archive images from the Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer. This material allows us to identify all the main morphological components and study their detailed kinematics. We find a thick equatorial structure fragmented into multiple knots that enclose a fast expanding bubble with a filamentary surface structure. The knotty ring is surrounded by faint emission from a disk-like envelope. Lobes with embedded filaments form a bipolar outflow. The equatorial ring is tilted with respect to the line of sight and with respect to the bipolar outflow. A spherical halo surrounds the PN and there is material further out identified as a fragmented outer halo. This information is used to derive a three-dimensional morpho-kinematic model using the code SHAPE that closely replicates the observed image and long-slit spectra of the nebula, providing a fair representation of its complex structure. NGC 6751 is located close to the galactic plane and its large-scale surrounding environment is shown to be a gas-rich region. We find indications that the PN is interacting with the interstellar medium. Emission components from an extended nebulosity located a couple of arcminutes away from the nebula have radial velocities that are inconsistent with the rest of NGC 6751 and are confirmed as originating from the ambient material, not related to the PN, in agreement with a previous suggestion.

  3. International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite observations of seven high-excitation planetary nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, L H; Keyes, C D

    1980-03-01

    Observations of seven high-excitation planetary nebulae secured with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite were combined with extensive ground-based data to obtain electron densities, gas kinetic temperatures, and ionic concentrations. We then employed a network of theoretical model nebulae to estimate the factors by which observed ionic concentrations must be multiplied to obtain elemental abundances. Comparison with a large sample of nebulae for which extensive ground-based observations have been obtained shows nitrogen to be markedly enhanced in some of these objects. Possibly most, if not all, high-excitation nebulae evolve from stars that have higher masses than progenitors of nebulae of low-to-moderate excitation.

  4. Ionization structure of planetary nebulae. 4. NGC 6853

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, T.

    1983-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of emission line intensities were made in seven positions in the planetary nebula NGC 6853. For five of the positions, coverage is across the entire spectral range 1400A to 9600A. Standard equations used to correct for the existence of elements in other than the optically-observable ionization stages give results over a wide range of ionization that are generally consistent and in agreement with abundances calculated using ultraviolet lines. As in the previous studies in this series, the lambda 4267 CII line implies a c(2+) abundance that is higher than that determined from UV lines. Although this effect is much smaller than in NGC 6720 and NGC 7009, it is again largest nearest the central star, giving more evidence that the excitation mechanism for the lambda 4267 line is not understood

  5. Two-dimensional spectrophotometry of planetary nebulae by CCD imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, G.H.; Africano, J.L.; Quigley, R.J.; Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA)

    1987-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the electron temperature and density and the ionic abundances of O(+), O(2+), N(+), and S(+) have been derived from CCD images of the planetary nebulae NGC 40 and NGC 6826 taken in the important emission lines of forbidden O II, forbidden O III, H-beta, forbidden N II, and forbidden S II. The steps required in the derivation of the absolute fluxes, line, ratios, and ionic abundances are outlined and then discussed in greater detail. The results show that the CCD imaging technique for two-dimensional spectrophotometry can effectively compete with classical spectrophotometry, providing the added benefits of complete spatial coverage at seeing-disk spatial resolution. The multiplexing in the spatial dimension, however, results in a loss of spectral information, since only one emission line is observed at any one time. 37 references

  6. Discovery of new planetary nebulae in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drašković, D.; Reid, W. A.; Parker, Q. A.; Stupar, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present six new planetary nebulae (PNe) discovered in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) from deep UK Schmidt telescope (UKST) narrow band Ha and broad-band short- red “SR” continuum images and confirmed spectroscopically. These 6 preliminary discoveries provide a 6% increase to the previously known SMC PN population of ∼⃒100. Once spectroscopic follow-up of all our newly identified candidates is complete, we expect to increase the total number of known SMC PNe by up to 50%. This will permit a significant improvement to determination of the SMC PN luminosity function (PNLF) and enable further insights into the chemical evolution and kinematics of the SMC PN population. (paper)

  7. The Σ − D relation for planetary nebulae: Preliminary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the relation between radio surface brightness and diameter, so-called Σ − D relation, for planetary nebulae (PNe is presented: i the theoretical Σ − D relation for the evolution of bremsstrahlung surface brightness is derived; ii contrary to the results obtained earlier for the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR samples, our results show that the updated sample of Galactic PNe does not severely suffer from volume selection effect - Malmquist bias (same as for the extragalactic SNR samples and; iii we conclude that the empirical S − D relation for PNe derived in this paper is not useful for valid determination of distances for all observed PNe with unknown distances. .

  8. The radial velocities of planetary nebulae in NGC 3379

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardullo, Robin; Jacoby, George H.; Dejonghe, Herwig B.

    1993-09-01

    We present the results of a radial velocity survey of planetary nebulae (PNs) in the normal elliptical galaxy NGC 3379 performed with the Kitt Peak 4 m telescope and the NESSIE multifiber spectrograph. In two half-nights, we measured 29 PNs with projected galactocentric distances between 0.4 and 3.8 effective radii with an observational uncertainty of about 7 km/s. These data extend three times farther into the halo than any previous absorption-line velocity study. The velocity dispersion and photometric profile of the galaxy agrees extremely well with that expected from a constant mass-to-light ratio, isotropic orbit Jaffe model with M/L(B) about 7; the best-fitting anisotropic models from a quadratic programming algorithm also give M/L(B) about 7. The data are consistent with models that contain no dark matter within 3.5 effective radii of the galaxy's nucleus.

  9. Nebulae and interstellar matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) has investigated the IRAS source 1912+172. This source appears to be a young planetary nebula with a binary central star. During 1986 SAAO has also studied the following: hydrogen deficient planetary nebulae; high speed flows in HII regions, and the wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization. 2 figs

  10. Bi-Abundance Ionisation Structure of the Wolf-Rayet Planetary Nebula PB 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehkar, A.

    2018-01-01

    The planetary nebula PB 8 around a [WN/WC]-hybrid central star is one of planetary nebulae with moderate abundance discrepancy factors (ADFs 2-3), which could be an indication of a tiny fraction of metal-rich inclusions embedded in the nebula (bi-abundance). In this work, we have constructed photoionisation models to reproduce the optical and infrared observations of the planetary nebula PB 8 using a non-LTE stellar model atmosphere ionising source. A chemically homogeneous model initially used cannot predict the optical recombination lines. However, a bi-abundance model provides a better fit to most of the observed optical recombination lines from N and O ions. The metal-rich inclusions in the bi-abundance model occupy 5.6% of the total volume of the nebula, and are roughly 1.7 times cooler and denser than the mean values of the surrounding nebula. The N/H and O/H abundance ratios in the metal-rich inclusions are 1.0 and 1.7 dex larger than the diffuse warm nebula, respectively. To reproduce the Spitzer spectral energy distribution of PB 8, dust grains with a dust-to-gas ratio of 0.01 (by mass) were also included. It is found that the presence of metal-rich inclusions can explain the heavy element optical recombination lines, while a dual-dust chemistry with different grain species and discrete grain sizes likely produces the infrared continuum of this planetary nebula. This study demonstrates that the bi-abundance hypothesis, which was examined in a few planetary nebulae with large abundance discrepancies (ADFs > 10), could also be applied to those typical planetary nebulae with moderate abundance discrepancies.

  11. Infrared studies of galactic nebulae. IV - Continuum and line radiation from planetary nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, F. C.; Merrill, K. M.; Stein, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    Observations are reported of the detection of IR radiation from several planetary nebulae not previously known to be radiating at these wavelengths. Broad spectral bandwidth observations indicate that ir radiation in excess of that expected from atomic processes is a common phenomenon among these objects. Investigations with narrow spectral bandwidth show that in a few cases the energy in the 10.52-micron line is a significant fraction of the total energy observed in the broad-band measurements and in other cases a relatively small fraction of the total radiation. Other observations on two sources with narrow spectral bandwidth adjacent to the 10.52-micron line indicate that at these wavelengths a true continuum of radiation exists as well as lines. The results are discussed in relation to visual and radio-wavelength data.

  12. The Kinematics of the Permitted C ii λ 6578 Line in a Large Sample of Planetary Nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richer, Michael G.; Suárez, Genaro; López, José Alberto; García Díaz, María Teresa, E-mail: richer@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: gsuarez@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: jal@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: tere@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2017-03-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the C ii λ 6578 permitted line for 83 lines of sight in 76 planetary nebulae at high spectral resolution, most of them obtained with the Manchester Echelle Spectrograph on the 2.1 m telescope at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional on the Sierra San Pedro Mártir. We study the kinematics of the C ii λ 6578 permitted line with respect to other permitted and collisionally excited lines. Statistically, we find that the kinematics of the C ii λ 6578 line are not those expected if this line arises from the recombination of C{sup 2+} ions or the fluorescence of C{sup +} ions in ionization equilibrium in a chemically homogeneous nebular plasma, but instead its kinematics are those appropriate for a volume more internal than expected. The planetary nebulae in this sample have well-defined morphology and are restricted to a limited range in H α line widths (no large values) compared to their counterparts in the Milky Way bulge; both these features could be interpreted as the result of young nebular shells, an inference that is also supported by nebular modeling. Concerning the long-standing discrepancy between chemical abundances inferred from permitted and collisionally excited emission lines in photoionized nebulae, our results imply that multiple plasma components occur commonly in planetary nebulae.

  13. Dark-Matter Content of Early-Type Galaxies with Planetary Nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napolitano, N.R.; Romanowsky, A.J.; Coccato, L; Capaccioli, M.; Douglas, N.G.; Noordermeer, E.; Merrifield, M.R.; Kuijken, K.; Arnaboldi, M.; Gerhard, O.; Freeman, K.C.; De Lorenzi, F.; Das, P.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. We examine the dark matter properties of nearby early-type galaxies using plane- tary nebulae (PNe) as mass probes. We have designed a specialised instrument, the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph (PN.S) operating at the William Herschel telescope, with the purpose of measuring PN velocities

  14. ABOUT TEMPERATURE FIELDS AND CONDITIONS OF GASEOUS CONDENSATION OF NEBULAES IN THE PLANETARY VORTEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Klyuchinskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New exact solution of the spherically-axissymmetric Eiler's equations, called as plan­etary vortex, is applied to the problem of formation in planetary nebula germs of planets due to the condensation of gases in the areas of vortex instability which calls the rings of planetary vortex. It is shown that the vortex perturbations causes changes in preassure and temperature at which the gases of nebula condense themselves, forming the germs of the planets.

  15. Spatio-kinematic modelling: Testing the link between planetary nebulae and close binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, David; Tyndall, Amy A.; Huckvale, Leo; Prouse, Barnabas; Lloyd, Myfanwy

    2011-01-01

    It is widely believed that central star binarity plays an important role in the formation and evolution of aspherical planetary nebulae, however observational support for this hypothesis is lacking. Here, we present the most recent results of a continuing programme to model the morphologies of all planetary nebulae known to host a close binary central star. Initially, this programme allows us to compare the inclination of the nebular symmetry axis to that of the binary plane, testing the theo...

  16. The distribution of mass in the planetary system and solar nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenschilling, S.J.

    1977-01-01

    A model 'solar nebula' is constructed by adding the solar complement of light elements to each planet, using recent models of planetary compositions. Uncertainties in this approach are estimated. The computed surface density varies approximately as rsup(-3/2). Mercury, Mars and the asteroid belt are anomalously low in mass, but processes exist which would preferentially remove matter from these regions. Planetary masses and compositions are generally consistent with a monotonic density distribution in the primordial solar nebula. (Auth.)

  17. CRL 2688: A post-carbon-star object and probable planetary nebula progenitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuckerman, B.; Gilra, D.P.; Turner, B.E.; Morris, M.; Palmer, P.

    1976-01-01

    Millimeter-wavelength emission is observed toward CRL 2688 from H 12 CN, H 13 CN, CS, and HC 3 N. The similarity of this emission and that from the molecular envelope of the carbon star IRC+10216 establishes, beyond a reasonable doubt, that CRL 2688 is a post--carbon-star object. It appears probable that both of these objects will evolve into planetary nebulae. An evolutionary sequence leading from carbon stars to planetary nebulae is outlined

  18. Planetary nebulae: understanding the physical and chemical evolution of dying stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, R; Kerber, F

    1997-05-30

    Planetary nebulae are one of the few classes of celestial objects that are active in every part of the electromagnetic spectrum. These fluorescing and often dusty expanding gaseous envelopes were recently found to be quite complex in their dynamics and morphology, but refined theoretical models can account for these discoveries. Great progress was also made in understanding the mechanisms that shape the nebulae and the spectra of their central stars. In addition, applications for planetary nebulae have been worked out; for example, they have been used as standard candles for long-range distances and as tracers of the enigmatic dark matter.

  19. A second list of new planetary nebulae found on United Kingdom 1.2-m Schmidt telescope plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longmore, A.J.; Tritton, S.B.

    1980-01-01

    Positions, photographs and descriptions are given for 11 new planetary nebulae discovered on United Kingdom Schmidt plates. One of the planetary nebulae has the highest galactic latitude of any known planetary, and may be associated with a magnitude 9 G5 star. Near-infrared (J,H,K) magnitudes are given for the star. (author)

  20. Collisional effects in He I lines and helium abundances in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, R.E.S.

    1987-01-01

    Attention is drawn to new, 19-state quantal calculations for collisional excitation by electron impact in neutral helium. Recommended empirical formulae are given for the collisional contribution to HeI recombination lines such as λλ4471, 5876 A in gaseous nebulae. Collisional ionization of metastable (2 3 S) He I is significant for high-temperature nebulae. Collisional transfers provide significant cooling in nebulae with low heavy-element abundances. Revised mean He/H ratios for three large samples of planetary nebulae are given. (author)

  1. A 'FIREWORK' OF H2 KNOTS IN THE PLANETARY NEBULA NGC 7293 (THE HELIX NEBULA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, M.; Speck, A. K.; McHunu, B. M.; Tanaka, I.; Wright, N. J.; Viti, S.; Wesson, R.; Smith, M. D.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    We present a deep and wide field-of-view (4' x 7') image of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 7293 (the Helix Nebula) in the 2.12 μm H 2 v = 1 → 0 S(1) line. The excellent seeing (0.''4) at the Subaru Telescope, allows the details of cometary knots to be examined. The knots are found at distances of 2.'2-6.'4 from the central star (CS). At the inner edge and in the inner ring (up to 4.'5 from the CS), the knot often show a 'tadpole' shape, an elliptical head with a bright crescent inside and a long tail opposite to the CS. In detail, there are variations in the tadpole shapes, such as narrowing tails, widening tails, meandering tails, or multipeaks within a tail. In the outer ring (4.'5-6.'4 from the CS), the shapes are more fractured, and the tails do not collimate into a single direction. The transition in knot morphology from the inner edge to the outer ring is clearly seen. The number density of knots governs the H 2 surface brightness in the inner ring: H 2 exists only within the knots. Possible mechanisms which contribute to the shaping of the knots are discussed, including photoionization and streaming motions. A plausible interpretation of our images is that inner knots are being overrun by a faster wind, but that this has not (yet) reached the outer knots. Based on H 2 formation and destruction rates, H 2 gas can survive in knots from formation during the late asymptotic giant branch phase throughout the PN phase. These observations provide new constraints on the formation and evolution of knots, and on the physics of molecular gas embedded within ionized gas.

  2. A "Firework" of H2 Knots in the Planetary Nebula NGC 7293 (The Helix Nebula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, M.; Speck, A. K.; McHunu, B. M.; Tanaka, I.; Wright, N. J.; Smith, M. D.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Viti, S.; Wesson, R.

    2009-08-01

    We present a deep and wide field-of-view (4' × 7') image of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 7293 (the Helix Nebula) in the 2.12 μm H2 v = 1 → 0 S(1) line. The excellent seeing (0farcs4) at the Subaru Telescope, allows the details of cometary knots to be examined. The knots are found at distances of 2farcm2-6farcm4 from the central star (CS). At the inner edge and in the inner ring (up to 4farcm5 from the CS), the knot often show a "tadpole" shape, an elliptical head with a bright crescent inside and a long tail opposite to the CS. In detail, there are variations in the tadpole shapes, such as narrowing tails, widening tails, meandering tails, or multipeaks within a tail. In the outer ring (4farcm5-6farcm4 from the CS), the shapes are more fractured, and the tails do not collimate into a single direction. The transition in knot morphology from the inner edge to the outer ring is clearly seen. The number density of knots governs the H2 surface brightness in the inner ring: H2 exists only within the knots. Possible mechanisms which contribute to the shaping of the knots are discussed, including photoionization and streaming motions. A plausible interpretation of our images is that inner knots are being overrun by a faster wind, but that this has not (yet) reached the outer knots. Based on H2 formation and destruction rates, H2 gas can survive in knots from formation during the late asymptotic giant branch phase throughout the PN phase. These observations provide new constraints on the formation and evolution of knots, and on the physics of molecular gas embedded within ionized gas. Based on data taken with the Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (proposal ID S07B-054).

  3. Understanding Galactic planetary nebulae with precise/reliable nebular abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, D. A.; Ventura, P.; Delgado-Inglada, G.; Dell'Agli, F.; di Criscienzo, M.; Yagüe, A.

    2017-10-01

    We compare recent precise/reliable nebular abundances - as derived from high-quality optical spectra and the most recent ICFs - in a sample of Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) with nucleosynthesis predictions (HeCNOCl) from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) ATON models in the metallicity range Z ⊙/4 3.5 M⊙) solar/supersolar metallicity AGBs that experience hot bottom burning (HBB), but other formation channels in low-mass AGBs like extra mixing, stellar rotation, binary interaction, or He pre-enrichment cannot be disregarded until more accurate C/O ratios can be obtained. Two DC PNe show the imprint of advanced CNO processing and deep second dredge-up, suggesting progenitors masses close to the limit to evolve as core collapse supernovae (above 6 M⊙). Their actual C/O ratios, if confirmed, indicate contamination from the third dredge-up, rejecting the hypothesis that the chemical composition of such high-metallicity massive AGBs is modified exclusively by HBB.

  4. Do all Planetary Nebulae result from Common Envelopes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, O.; Moe, M.; Herwig, F.; Politano, M.

    2005-12-01

    The common envelope interaction is responsible for evolved close binaries. Some of these binaries reside in the middle of planetary nebulae (PN). Conventional wisdom has it that only about 10% of all PN contain close binary central stars. Recent observational results, however, strongly suggest that most or even all PN are in close binary systems. Interestingly, our population synthesis calculations predict that the number of post-common envelope PN is in agreement with the total number of PN in the Galaxy. On the other hand, if all stars (single and in binaries) with mass between ˜1-8 M⊙ eject a PN, there would be 10-20 times many more PN in the galaxy than observed. This theoretical result is in agreement with the observations in suggesting that binary interactions play a functional rather than marginal role in the creation of PN. FH acknowledges funds from the U.S. Dept. of Energy, under contract W-7405-ENG-36 to Los Alamos National Laboratory. MP gratefully acknowledges NSF grant AST-0328484 to Marquette University.

  5. Single rotating stars and the formation of bipolar planetary nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Segura, G. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico); Villaver, E. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Langer, N. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Yoon, S.-C. [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Manchado, A., E-mail: ggs@astrosen.unam.mx [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Via Láctea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-03-10

    We have computed new stellar evolution models that include the effects of rotation and magnetic torques under different hypotheses. The goal is to test whether a single star can sustain the rotational velocities needed in the envelope for magnetohydrodynamical(MHD) simulations to shape bipolar planetary nebulae (PNe) when high mass-loss rates take place. Stellar evolution models with main sequence masses of 2.5 and 5 M {sub ☉} and initial rotational velocities of 250 km s{sup –1} have been followed through the PNe formation phase. We find that stellar cores have to be spun down using magnetic torques in order to reproduce the rotation rates observed for white dwarfs. During the asymptotic giant branch phase and beyond, the magnetic braking of the core has a practically null effect on increasing the rotational velocity of the envelope since the stellar angular momentum is efficiently removed by the wind. We have also tested the best possible case scenarios in rather non-physical contexts to give enough angular momentum to the envelope. We find that we cannot get the envelope of a single star to rotate at the speeds needed for MHD simulations to form bipolar PNe. We conclude that single stellar rotators are unlikely to be the progenitors of bipolar PNe under the current MHD model paradigm.

  6. Dust and molecules in extra-galactic planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Domingo Aníbal

    2015-08-01

    Extra-galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) permit the study of dust and molecules in metallicity environments other than the Galaxy. Their known distances lower the number of free parameters in the observations vs. models comparison, providing strong constraints on the gas-phase and solid-state astrochemistry models. Observations of PNe in the Galaxy and other Local Group galaxies such as the Magellanic Clouds (MC) provide evidence that metallicity affects the production of dust as well as the formation of complex organic molecules and inorganic solid-state compounds in their circumstellar envelopes. In particular, the lower metallicity MC environments seem to be less favorable to dust production and the frequency of carbonaceous dust features and complex fullerene molecules is generally higher with decreasing metallicity. Here, I present an observational review of the dust and molecular content in extra-galactic PNe as compared to their higher metallicity Galactic counterparts. A special attention is given to the level of dust processing and the formation of complex organic molecules (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fullerenes, and graphene precursors) depending on metallicity.

  7. Central stars of planetary nebulae: New spectral classifications and catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, W. A.; Gamen, R.

    2011-02-01

    Context. There are more than 3000 confirmed and probable known Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe), but central star spectroscopic information is available for only 13% of them. Aims: We undertook a spectroscopic survey of central stars of PNe at low resolution and compiled a large list of central stars for which information was dispersed in the literature. Methods: We observed 45 PNs using the 2.15 m telescope at Casleo, Argentina. Results: We present a catalogue of 492 confirmed and probable CSPN and provide a preliminary spectral classification for 45 central star of PNe. This revises previous values of the proportion of CSPN with atmospheres poor in hydrogen in at least 30% of cases and provide statistical information that allows us to infer the origin of H-poor stars. Based on data collected at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina y Universidades Nacionales de La Plata, Córdoba y San Juan, Argentina.

  8. OH+ emission from cometary knots in planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, F. D.; Barlow, M. J.

    2018-05-01

    We model the molecular emission from cometary knots in planetary nebulae (PNe) using a combination of photoionization and photodissociation region (PDR) codes, for a range of central star properties and gas densities. Without the inclusion of ionizing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation, our models require central star temperatures T* to be near the upper limit of the range investigated in order to match observed H2 and OH+ surface brightnesses consistent with observations - with the addition of EUV flux, our models reproduce observed OH+ surface brightnesses for T* ≥ 100 kK. For T* non-detection of this molecule in PNe with such central star temperatures. Our predicted level of H2 emission is somewhat weaker than commonly observed in PNe, which may be resolved by the inclusion of shock heating or fluorescence due to UV photons. Some of our models also predict ArH+ and HeH+ rotational line emission above detection thresholds, despite neither molecule having been detected in PNe, although the inclusion of photodissociation by EUV photons, which is neglected by our models, would be expected to reduce their detectability.

  9. Hydrogen-deficient Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todt, H.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Hamann, W.-R.; Pena, M.; Graefener, G.; Buckley, D.; Crause, L.; Crawford, S. M.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Hettlage, C.; Hooper, E.; Husser, T.-O.; Kotze, P.; Loaring, N.; Nordsieck, K. H.; O'Donoghue, D.; Pickering, T.; Potter, S.; Romero-Colmenero, E.; Vaisanen, P.; Williams, T.; Wolf, M.

    2015-06-01

    A significant number of the central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNe) are hydrogen-deficient and are considered as the progenitors of H-deficient white dwarfs. Almost all of these H-deficient CSPNe show a chemical composition of helium, carbon, and oxygen. Most of them exhibit Wolf-Rayet-like emission line spectra and are therefore classified as of spectral type [WC]. In the last years, CSPNe of other Wolf-Rayet spectral subtypes have been identified, namely PB 8 (spectral type [WN/WC]), IC 4663 and Abell 48 (spectral type [WN]). We performed spectral analyses for a number of Wolf-Rayet type central stars of different evolutionary stages with the help of our Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) model code for expanding atmospheres to determine relevant stellar parameters. The results of our recent analyses will be presented in the context of stellar evolution and white dwarf formation. Especially the problems of a uniform evolutionary channel for [WC] stars as well as constraints to the formation of [WN] or [WN/WC] subtype stars will be addressed.

  10. Evolution of planetary nebulae. III. Position-velocity images of butterfly-type nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icke, V.; Preston, H.L.; Balick, B.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of the motions of the shells of the planetary nebulae NGC 2346, NGC 2371-2, NGC 2440, NGC 6058, NGC 6210, IC 1747, IC 5217, J-320, and M2-9 are presented. These are all 'butterfly' type PNs, and show evidence for bipolar shocks. The observations are interpreted in terms of a fast spherical wind, driven by the central star into a quasi-toroidal envelope deposited earlier by the star, during its slow-wind phase on the asymptotic giant branch. It is shown that this model, which is a straightforward extension of a mechanism previously invoked to account for elliptical PNs, reproduces the essential kinematic features of butterfly PNs. It is inferred that the envelopes of butterflies must have a considerable equator-to-pole density gradient, and it is suggested that the origin of this asphericity must be sought in an as yet unknown mechanism during the AGB, Mira, or OH/IR phases of late stellar evolution. 28 references

  11. THE EVOLUTION OF THE KINEMATICS OF NEBULAR SHELLS IN PLANETARY NEBULAE IN THE MILKY WAY BULGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richer, Michael G.; Lopez, Jose Alberto; Garcia-Diaz, Maria Teresa; Clark, David M.; Pereyra, Margarita; Diaz-Mendez, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    We study the line widths in the [O III]λ5007 and Hα lines for two groups of planetary nebulae in the Milky Way bulge based upon spectroscopy obtained at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional in the Sierra San Pedro Martir (OAN-SPM) using the Manchester Echelle Spectrograph. The first sample includes objects early in their evolution, having high Hβ luminosities, but [O III]λ5007/Hβ 0.5. These planetary nebulae represent evolutionary phases preceding and following those of the objects studied by Richer et al. in 2008. Our sample of planetary nebulae with weak [O III]λ5007 has a line width distribution similar to that of the expansion velocities of the envelopes of asymptotic giant branch stars and shifted to systematically lower values as compared to the less evolved objects studied by Richer et al. The sample with strong He II λ4686 has a line width distribution indistinguishable from that of the more evolved objects from Richer et al., but a distribution in angular size that is systematically larger and so they are clearly more evolved. These data and those of Richer et al. form a homogeneous sample from a single Galactic population of planetary nebulae, from the earliest evolutionary stages until the cessation of nuclear burning in the central star. They confirm the long-standing predictions of hydrodynamical models of planetary nebulae, where the kinematics of the nebular shell are driven by the evolution of the central star.

  12. Orbital decay and accretion for planetary or binary systems within a planetary nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K.H.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of the survival of a planet and low mass secondary orbiting a primary star that becomes a planetary nebula is studied. The values of the mass of primary used are 1.0, and 1.5, and 2.0 M/sub sun/ and the values for the planet's mass are 0.001 M/sub sun/ and 0.01 M/sub sun/. The mass of the secondary is 0.1 M/sub sun/. The evolution of the orbital elements and mass of the secondary due to accretion and drag forces in the common envelope are presented. The possible application of the results to V471 Tau, UU Sge, WZ Sge, and the sun-jupiter system are discussed

  13. Extended Structures of Planetary Nebulae Detected in H2 Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xuan; Zhang, Yong; Kwok, Sun; Hsia, Chih-Hao; Chau, Wayne; Ramos-Larios, Gerardo; Guerrero, Martín A.

    2018-06-01

    We present narrowband near-infrared images of a sample of 11 Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) obtained in the H2 2.122 μm and Brγ 2.166 μm emission lines and the K c 2.218 μm continuum. These images were collected with the Wide-field Infrared Camera on the 3.6 m Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT); their unprecedented depth and wide field of view allow us to find extended nebular structures in H2 emission in several PNe, some of these being the first detection. The nebular morphologies in H2 emission are studied in analogy with the optical images, and indication of stellar wind interactions is discussed. In particular, the complete structure of the highly asymmetric halo in NGC 6772 is witnessed in H2, which strongly suggests interaction with the interstellar medium. Our sample confirms the general correlation between H2 emission and the bipolarity of PNe. The knotty or filamentary fine structures of the H2 gas are resolved in the inner regions of several ring-like PNe, also confirming the previous argument that H2 emission mostly comes from knots or clumps embedded within fully ionized material at the equatorial regions. Moreover, the H2 image of the butterfly-shaped Sh 1-89, after removal of field stars, clearly reveals a tilted ring structure at the waist. These high-quality CFHT images justify follow-up detailed morphokinematic studies that are desired in order to deduce the true physical structures of a few PNe in the sample. Based on observations obtained with WIRCam, a joint project of CFHT, Taiwan, Korea, Canada, and France, at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  14. Dusty disks around central stars of planetary nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); De Marco, Orsola [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Nordhaus, Jason [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, and National Technical Institute for the Deaf, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Green, Joel [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Rauch, Thomas; Werner, Klaus [Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Eberhard Karls University, Sand 1, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Chu, You-Hua, E-mail: gclayton@fenway.phys.lsu.edu, E-mail: orsola@science.mq.edu.au, E-mail: nordhaus@astro.rit.edu, E-mail: joel@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: rauch@astro.uni-tuebingen.de, E-mail: werner@astro.uni-tuebingen.de, E-mail: chu@astro.uiuc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Only a few percent of cool, old white dwarfs (WDs) have infrared excesses interpreted as originating in small hot disks due to the infall and destruction of single asteroids that come within the star's Roche limit. Infrared excesses at 24 μm were also found to derive from the immediate vicinity of younger, hot WDs, most of which are still central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNe). The incidence of CSPNe with this excess is 18%. The Helix CSPN, with a 24 μm excess, has been suggested to have a disk formed from collisions of Kuiper belt-like objects (KBOs). In this paper, we have analyzed an additional sample of CSPNe to look for similar infrared excesses. These CSPNe are all members of the PG 1159 class and were chosen because their immediate progenitors are known to often have dusty environments consistent with large dusty disks. We find that, overall, PG 1159 stars do not present such disks more often than other CSPNe, although the statistics (five objects) are poor. We then consider the entire sample of CSPNe with infrared excesses and compare it to the infrared properties of old WDs, as well as cooler post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We conclude with the suggestion that the infrared properties of CSPNe more plausibly derive from AGB-formed disks rather than disks formed via the collision of KBOs, although the latter scenario cannot be ruled out. Finally, there seems to be an association between CSPNe with a 24 μm excess and confirmed or possible binarity of the central star.

  15. Abundances of the planetary nebula Hu 1-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Hyung, S; Aller, LH; Beintema, DA; Bernard-Salas, J; Feibelman, WA; Klockner, HR

    The ISO and IUE spectra of the "elliptical" nebula Hu 1-2 are presented. These spectra are combined with new, high resolution spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of the nebula is then calculated and compared to

  16. Abundances of planetary nebulae NGC 7662 and NGC 6741

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Beintema, DA; Salas, JB; Feibelman, WA

    2001-01-01

    The ISO and IUE spectra of the elliptical nebulae NGC7662 and NGC6741 are presented. These spectra are combined with the spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of the nebulae is then calculated and compared to previous

  17. Helium shell flashes and ionization of planetary nebulae. Pt. 2. FG Sge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylenda, R.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical models have been constructed to study time-dependent effects in the nebulae (He 1-5) associated with FG Sge. Two cases have been considered: recombination of an initially stationary nebula of moderate excitation (Case A), and nonequilibrium ionization (and subsequent recombination) of an initially neutral nebula by a thermal pulse in the central star (Case B). Comparison with the observed spectrum does not allow to distinguish definitely between both cases. There are slight indications that the present state of He 1-5 is better reproduced in Case B which is also preferable from the point of view of the present theoretical knowledge of observational appearances of helium shell flashes in planetary nebula nuclei. The nebula has a normal chemical composition. (author)

  18. Observations of the planetary nebula RWT 152 with OSIRIS/GTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, A.; Miranda, L. F.; Olguín, L.; Solano, E.; Ulla, A.

    2016-11-01

    RWT 152 is one of the few known planetary nebulae with an sdO central star. We present subarcsecond red tunable filter Hα imaging and intermediate-resolution, long-slit spectroscopy of RWT 152 obtained with OSIRIS/GTC (Optical System for Imaging and low-Intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy/Gran Telescopio Canarias) with the goal of analysing its properties. The Hα image reveals a bipolar nebula with a bright equatorial region and multiple bubbles in the main lobes. A faint circular halo surrounds the main nebula. The nebular spectra reveal a very low excitation nebula with weak emission lines from H+, He+ and double-ionized metals, and absence of emission lines from neutral and single-ionized metals, except for an extremely faint [N II] λ6584 emission line. These spectra may be explained if RWT 152 is a density-bounded planetary nebula. Low nebular chemical abundances of S, O, Ar, N and Ne are obtained in RWT 152, which, together with the derived high peculiar velocity (˜ 92-131 km s-1), indicate that this object is a halo planetary nebula. The available data are consistent with RWT 152 evolving from a low-mass progenitor (˜1 M⊙) formed in a metal-poor environment.

  19. A Study of Planetary Nebulae using the Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    A planetary nebula is formed following an intermediate-mass (1-8 solar M) star's evolution off of the main sequence; it undergoes a phase of mass loss whereby the stellar envelope is ejected and the core is converted into a white dwarf. Planetary nebulae often display complex morphologies such as waists or torii, rings, collimated jet-like outflows, and bipolar symmetry, but exactly how these features form is unclear. To study how the distribution of dust in the interstellar medium affects their morphology, we utilize the Faint Object InfraRed CAmera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) to obtain well-resolved images of four planetary nebulae--NGC 7027, NGC 6543, M2-9, and the Frosty Leo Nebula--at wavelengths where they radiate most of their energy. We retrieve mid infrared images at wavelengths ranging from 6.3 to 37.1 micron for each of our targets. IDL (Interactive Data Language) is used to perform basic analysis. We select M2-9 to investigate further; analyzing cross sections of the southern lobe reveals a slight limb brightening effect. Modeling the dust distribution within the lobes reveals that the thickness of the lobe walls is higher than anticipated, or rather than surrounding a vacuum surrounds a low density region of tenuous dust. Further analysis of this and other planetary nebulae is needed before drawing more specific conclusions.

  20. Role of ionization fronts in the colliding wind model of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, J.L. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A similarity transformation is used to study the expansion of a planetary nebula which is driven by a fast stellar wind as well as an expanding H II region. The undisturbed gas is taken to be the remnant of a slow, red giant wind. The present analysis improves upon Kwok, Purton, and FitzGerald's colliding wind model for the formation of planetary nebulae since it includes the dynamical influence of ionization fronts, and calculates the variation of velocity and density within the flow

  1. Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae in the SMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Luciana

    2004-01-01

    In FUSE cycle 3's program C056 we studied four Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae (CSPN) in the Small Magellanic Could. All FUSE observations have been successfully completed and have been reduced and analyzed. The observation of one object (SMP SMC 5) appeared to be off-target and no useful stellar flux was gathered. For another observation (SMP SMC 1) the voltage problems resulted in the loss of data from one of the SiC detectors, but we were still able to analyze the remaining data. The analysis and the results are summarized below. The FUSE data were reduced using the latest available version of the FUSE calibration pipeline (CALFUSE v2.4). The flux of these SMC post-AGB objects is at the threshold of FUSE S sensitivity, and the targets required many orbit-long exposures, each of which typically had low (target) count-rates. The background subtraction required special care during the reduction, and was done in a similar manner to our FUSE cycle 2 BOO1 objects. The resulting calibrated data from the different channels were compared in the overlapping regions for consistency. The final combined, extracted spectra of each target was then modeled to determine the stellar and nebular parameters. The FUSE spectra, combined with archival HST spectra, have been analyzed using stellar atmospheres codes such as TLUSTY and CMFGEN to derive photospheric and wind parameters of the central stars, and with ISM models to determine the amount and temperature of the surrounding atomic and molecular hydrogen. We have combined these results with those of our cycle 4 (D034) program (CSPN of the LMC) in Herald & Bianchi 2004a (paper in preparation, will be submitted to ApJ in June 2004). Two of the three SMC objects analyzed were found to have significantly lower stellar temperatures than had been predicted using nebular photoionization models, indicating either a hotter ionizing companion or the existence of strong shocks in the nebular environment. The analysis also revealed that

  2. Polarization due to dust scattering in the planetary nebula Cn1-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, H.C.

    1989-01-01

    The peculiar emission-line object Cn1-1 (=HDE330036=PK330+4 degrees 1), classified both as a symbiotic star and as a planetary nebula, was detected by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) as a strong source of far-infrared dust in the system. Bhatt and Mallik (1986) discussed the nature of the dust in Cn1-1 and argued that the object is a Type I protoplanetary nebula in a binary system. The argument presented here is that the polarization is intrinsic to Cn1-1 and is due to scattering by large (compared to interstellar) dust grains in the protoplanetary nebula that are asymmetrically distributed around the central star. The large degree of polarization (approximately 3 percent for the Cn1-1 distance of approximately 450 pc) with a large lambda(sub max) is naturally explained if it is caused by scattering by large dust grains in the Cn1-1 nebula. Since the H(sub alpha) line is also polarized at the same level and position angle as the continuum, the dust must be asymmetrically distributed around the central star. The morphology of the protoplanetary nebula in Cn1-1 may be bipolar. Thus, the polarization observations support the suggestion that Cn1-1 is a bipolar Type I planetary nebula

  3. Photometric investigation of possible binary occurrence in the central stars of seventeen planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, J.D. III.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive literature search was conducted for all possible bihary central stars in planetary nebulae. The results, which include all known and suspected visual, spectroscopic, and spectrum binaries, as well as all reported variable central stars, are presented in a series of tables. A photoelectric study was conducted in order to determine the status of short period (on the order of hours) variability of the central regions of seventeen planetary nebulae. Only the stellar appearing planetary nebula M1-2 (PK 133-8 0 1) was found to be variable. Its short (4.0002 hours) period suggests that it may be only the second eclipsing binary found among central stars to date. A method of concentric apertures was developed to determine the amount of light contributed by the central star vis-a-vis the nebula through a given aperture and filter. The procedure enabled UBV magnitudes and colors (and the errors) of central stars to be measured, including some in the sample of seventeen for which no previous values have been published. Mean nebular UBV magnitudes, surface brightnesses, and color indices were also found with the technique, and represent the first such published measurements. Various UBV two-parameter were constructed, revealing possible nebular/stellar sequences; a star-plus-nebula two-color diagram identifies three spectral classes of central stars, and two suspected binaries in the seventeen studied

  4. A detailed study of the structure of the nested planetary nebula, Hb 12, the Matryoshka nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D. M.; López, J. A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California, 22860 (Mexico); Edwards, M. L. [LBT Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Winge, C., E-mail: dmclark@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: jal@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: medwards@lbto.org, E-mail: cwinge@gemini.edu [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA Inc., Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2014-11-01

    We present near-IR, integral field spectroscopic observations of the planetary nebula (PN) Hb 12 using Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) on Gemini-North. Combining NIFS with the adaptive optics system Altair, we provide a detailed study of the core and inner structure of this PN. We focus the analysis in the prominent emission lines [Fe II] (1.6436 μm), He I (2.0585 μm), H{sub 2} (2.1214 μm), and Br{sub γ} (2.16553 μm). We find that the [Fe II] emission traces a tilted system of bipolar lobes, with the northern lobe being redshifted and the southern lobe blueshifted. The [Fe II] emission is very faint at the core and only present close to the systemic velocity. There is no H{sub 2} emission in the core, whereas the core is prominent in the He I and Br{sub γ} recombination lines. The H{sub 2} emission is concentrated in equatorial arcs of emission surrounding the core and expanding at ∼30 km s{sup –1}. These arcs are compared with Hubble Space Telescope images and shown to represent nested loops belonging to the inner sections of a much larger bipolar structure that replicates the inner one. The He I and Br{sub γ} emission from the core clearly show a cylindrical central cavity that seems to represent the inner walls of an equatorial density enhancement or torus. The torus is 0.''2 wide (≡200 AU radius at a distance of 2000 pc) and expanding at ≤30 km s{sup –1}. The eastern wall of the inner torus is consistently more intense than the western wall, which could indicate the presence of an off-center star, such as is observed in the similar hourglass PN, MyCn 18. A bipolar outflow is also detected in Br{sub γ} emerging within 0.''1 from the core at ∼ ± 40 km s{sup –1}.

  5. Dynamos in asymptotic-giant-branch stars as the origin of magnetic fields shaping planetary nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, E G; Frank, A; Markiel, J A; Thomas, J H; Van Horn, H M

    2001-01-25

    Planetary nebulae are thought to be formed when a slow wind from the progenitor giant star is overtaken by a subsequent fast wind generated as the star enters its white dwarf stage. A shock forms near the boundary between the winds, creating the relatively dense shell characteristic of a planetary nebula. A spherically symmetric wind will produce a spherically symmetric shell, yet over half of known planetary nebulae are not spherical; rather, they are elliptical or bipolar in shape. A magnetic field could launch and collimate a bipolar outflow, but the origin of such a field has hitherto been unclear, and some previous work has even suggested that a field could not be generated. Here we show that an asymptotic-giant-branch (AGB) star can indeed generate a strong magnetic field, having as its origin a dynamo at the interface between the rapidly rotating core and the more slowly rotating envelope of the star. The fields are strong enough to shape the bipolar outflows that produce the observed bipolar planetary nebulae. Magnetic braking of the stellar core during this process may also explain the puzzlingly slow rotation of most white dwarf stars.

  6. Chemical abundances and dust in planetary nebulae in the Galactic bulge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutenkunst, S.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Pottasch, S. R.; Sloan, G. C.; Houck, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    We present mid-infrared Spitzer spectra of 11 planetary nebulae in the Galactic bulge. We derive argon, neon, sulfur, and oxygen abundances for them using mainly infrared line fluxes combined with some optical line fluxes from the literature. Due to the high extinction toward the bulge, the infrared

  7. Planetary nebula velocities in the disc and bulge of M31

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halliday, C.; Carter, D.; Bridges, T. J.; Jackson, Z. C.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Quinn, D. P.; Evans, N. W.; Douglas, N. G.; Merrett, H. R.; Merrifield, M. R.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Kuijken, K.; Irwin, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    We present radial velocities for a sample of 723 planetary nebulae in the disc and bulge of M31, measured using the WYFFOS fibre spectrograph on the William Herschel Telescope. Velocities are determined using the [OIII] lambda 5007 emission line. Rotation and velocity dispersion are measured to a

  8. Abundances in planetary nebulae: NGC 1535, NGC 6629, He2-108, and Tc1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Surendiranath, R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    Context. Models have been made of stars of a given mass that produce planetary nebulae that usually begin on the AGB (although they may begin earlier) and run to the white dwarf stage. While these models cover the so-called dredge-up phases when nuclear reactions occur and the newly formed products

  9. Abundances in planetary nebulae near the galactic centre .1. Abundance determinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratag, MA; Pottasch, [No Value; Dennefeld, M; Menzies, J

    1997-01-01

    Abundance determinations of about 110 planetary nebulae, which are likely to be in the Galactic Bulge are presented. Plasma diagnostics have been performed by making use of the available forbidden line ratios combined with radio continuum measurements. Chemical abundances of He, O, N, Ne, S, Ar, and

  10. Abundances in planetary nebulae : NGC1535, NGC6629, He2-108, and Tc1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Surendiranath, R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    Context. Models have been made of stars of a given mass that produce planetary nebulae that usually begin on the AGB (although they may begin earlier) and run to the white dwarf stage. While these models cover the so-called dredge-up phases when nuclear reactions occur and the newly formed products

  11. Central star of NGC 1360: a spectroscopic binary within a planetary nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, R H; Niemela, V S [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1977-02-01

    CPD - 26/sup 0/389, a hot subdwarf at the centre of the planetary nebula NGC 1360, is shown to be a single-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of about 8 day. The primary (visible) component appears to be less massive than its companion, and the total stellar mass of the system is presumably below one solar mass.

  12. Model planetary nebulae: the effect of shadowed filaments on low ionization potential ion radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, A.

    1977-01-01

    Previous homogeneous model planetary nebulae calculations No. 4 have yielded emission strengths for low ionization potential No. 4 ions which are considerably lower than those observed. Several attempts were to correct this problem by the inclusion of optically thin condensations, the use of energy flux distributions from stellar model calculations instead of blackbody spectrum stars, and the inclusion of dust in the nebulae. The effect that shadowed filaments have on the ionization and thermal structure of model nebulae and the resultant line strengths are considered. These radial filaments are shielded from the direct stellar ionizing radiation by optically thick condensations in the nebula. Theoretical observational evidence exists for the presence of condensations and filaments. Since the only source of ionizing photons in the shadowed filaments is due to diffuse photons produced by recombination, ions of lower ionization potential are expected to exist there in greater numbers than those found in the rest of the nebula. This leads to increased line strengths from these ions and increases their values to match the observational values. It is shown that these line strengths in the filaments increase by over one to two orders of magnitude relative to values found in homogeneous models. This results in an increase of approximately one order of magnitude for these lines when contributions from both components of the nebula are considered. The parameters that determine the exact value of the increase are the radial location of the filaments in the nebula and the fraction of the nebular volume occupied by the filaments

  13. The Charge State of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons across a Reflection Nebula, an H II Region, and a Planetary Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2018-05-01

    Low-resolution Spitzer-IRS spectral map data of a reflection nebula (NGC 7023), H II region (M17), and planetary nebula (NGC 40), totaling 1417 spectra, are analyzed using the data and tools available through the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission is broken down into PAH charge and size subclass contributions using a database-fitting approach. The resulting charge breakdown results are combined with those derived using the traditional PAH band strength ratio approach, which interprets particular PAH band strength ratios as proxies for PAH charge. Here the 6.2/11.2 μm PAH band strength ratio is successfully calibrated against its database equivalent: the {n}PAH}+}/{n}PAH}0} ratio. In turn, this ratio is converted into the PAH ionization parameter, which relates it to the strength of the radiation field, gas temperature, and electron density. Population diagrams are used to derive the {{{H}}}2 density and temperature. The bifurcated plot of the 8.6 versus 11.2 μm PAH band strength for the northwest photo dissociation region in NGC 7023 is shown to be a robust diagnostic template for the {n}PAH}+}/{n}PAH}0} ratio in all three objects. Template spectra for the PAH charge and size subclasses are determined for each object and shown to favorably compare. Using the determined template spectra from NGC 7023 to fit the emission in all three objects yields, upon inspection of the Structure SIMilarity maps, satisfactory results. The choice of extinction curve proves to be critical. Concluding, the distinctly different astronomical environments of a reflection nebula, H II region, and planetary nebula are reflected in their PAH emission spectra.

  14. THE NUCLEUS OF THE PLANETARY NEBULA EGB 6 AS A POST-MIRA BINARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Howard E.; Ciardullo, Robin; Esplin, Taran L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hawley, Steven A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Liebert, James [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Munari, Ulisse, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu [INAF Astronomical Observatory of Padova, via dell’Osservatorio 8, I-36012 Asiago (VI) (Italy)

    2016-08-01

    EGB 6 is a faint, large, ancient planetary nebula (PN). Its central star, a hot DAOZ white dwarf (WD), is a prototype of a rare class of PN nuclei associated with dense, compact emission-line knots. The central star also shows excess fluxes in both the near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR). In a 2013 paper, we used Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) images to show that the compact nebula is a point-like source, located 0.″16 (∼118 AU) from the WD. We attributed the NIR excess to an M dwarf companion star, which appeared to coincide with the dense emission knot. We now present new ground-based NIR spectroscopy, showing that the companion is actually a much cooler source with a continuous spectrum, apparently a dust-enshrouded low-luminosity star. New HST images confirm common proper motion of the emission knot and red source with the WD. The I -band, NIR, and MIR fluxes are variable, possibly on timescales as short as days. We can fit the spectral energy distribution (SED) with four blackbodies (the WD, a ∼1850 K NIR component, and MIR dust at 385 and 175 K). Alternatively, we show that the NIR/MIR SED is very similar to that of Class 0/I young stellar objects. We suggest a scenario in which the EGB 6 nucleus is descended from a wide binary similar to the Mira system, in which a portion of the wind from an AGB star was captured into an accretion disk around a companion star; a remnant of this disk has survived to the present time and is surrounded by gas photoionized by UV radiation from the WD.

  15. The emerging planetary nebula CRL 618 and its unsettled central star(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Riera, A. [Departament de Física I Enginyeria Nuclear, EUETIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Comte d' Urgell 187, E-08036 Barcelona (Spain); Raga, A.; Velázquez, P. F. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 D.F. (Mexico); Kwitter, K. B., E-mail: balick@uw.edu, E-mail: angels.riera@upc.edu, E-mail: raga@nucleares.unam.mx, E-mail: pablo@nucleares.unam.mx, E-mail: kkwitter@williams.edu [Department of Astronomy, Williams College, Williamstown, MA 01267 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    We report deep long-slit emission-line spectra, the line flux ratios, and Doppler profile shapes of various bright optical lines. The low-ionization lines (primarily [N I], [O I], [S II], and [N II]) originate in shocked knots, as reported by many previous observers. Dust-scattered lines of higher ionization are seen throughout the lobes but do not peak in the knots. Our analysis of these line profiles and the readily discernible stellar continuum shows that (1) the central star is an active symbiotic (whose spectrum resembles the central stars of highly bipolar and young planetary nebulae such as M2-9 and Hen2-437) whose compact companion shows a WC8-type spectrum, (2) extended nebular lines of [O III] and He I originate in the heavily obscured nuclear H II region, and (3) the Balmer lines observed throughout the lobes are dominated by reflected Hα emission from the symbiotic star. Comparing our line ratios with those observed historically shows that (1) the [O III]/Hβ and He I/Hβ ratios have been steadily rising by large amounts throughout the nebula, (2) the Hα/Hβ ratio is steadily decreasing while Hγ/Hβ remains nearly constant, and (3) the low-ionization line ratios formed in the shocked knots have been in decline in different ways at various locations. We show that the first two of these results might be expected if the symbiotic central star has been active and if its bright Hα line has faded significantly in the past 20 years.

  16. THE NUCLEUS OF THE PLANETARY NEBULA EGB 6 AS A POST-MIRA BINARY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, Howard E.; Ciardullo, Robin; Esplin, Taran L.; Hawley, Steven A.; Liebert, James; Munari, Ulisse

    2016-01-01

    EGB 6 is a faint, large, ancient planetary nebula (PN). Its central star, a hot DAOZ white dwarf (WD), is a prototype of a rare class of PN nuclei associated with dense, compact emission-line knots. The central star also shows excess fluxes in both the near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR). In a 2013 paper, we used Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) images to show that the compact nebula is a point-like source, located 0.″16 (∼118 AU) from the WD. We attributed the NIR excess to an M dwarf companion star, which appeared to coincide with the dense emission knot. We now present new ground-based NIR spectroscopy, showing that the companion is actually a much cooler source with a continuous spectrum, apparently a dust-enshrouded low-luminosity star. New HST images confirm common proper motion of the emission knot and red source with the WD. The I -band, NIR, and MIR fluxes are variable, possibly on timescales as short as days. We can fit the spectral energy distribution (SED) with four blackbodies (the WD, a ∼1850 K NIR component, and MIR dust at 385 and 175 K). Alternatively, we show that the NIR/MIR SED is very similar to that of Class 0/I young stellar objects. We suggest a scenario in which the EGB 6 nucleus is descended from a wide binary similar to the Mira system, in which a portion of the wind from an AGB star was captured into an accretion disk around a companion star; a remnant of this disk has survived to the present time and is surrounded by gas photoionized by UV radiation from the WD.

  17. The ionization structure of planetary nebulae 10: NGC 2392. Semiannual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, T.

    1989-10-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of emission-line intensities over the spectral range 1400 to 7200 A were made in six positions in the planetary nebula NGC 2392. Standard equations used to correct for the existence of elements in other than the optically observable ionization stages give consistent results for the different positions that are in excellent agreement with abundances calculated using ultraviolet lines, and there is no evidence for any abundance gradient in the nebula. The logarithmic abundances agree well with determinations by Aller and Keyes

  18. The far-UV spectrum of the low-excitation planetary nebula HD 138403

    OpenAIRE

    Surdej, Jean; Heck, A.

    1982-01-01

    Two high-resolution far-UV spectra of the low-excitation planetary nebula HD 138403 are analyzed which were obtained with the IUE satellite over the wavelength range from 1170 to 2070 A. It is shown that the nebula's far-UV spectrum comprises a stellar continuum on which are superimposed a few emission lines, numerous interstellar absorption lines, and various types of P Cygni profiles. Evidence is examined for substantial mass loss from the central nucleus, with terminal velocities of the or...

  19. Ultraviolet observations of planetary nebulae NGC 6572, NGC 5315 and BD + 30/sup 0/ 3639

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Peimbert, S; Pena, M [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia

    1981-01-01

    We present IUE observations of three planetary nebulae. We have obtained the chemical composition of NGC 6572 to be log C = -3.60, log N = -3.67, log O = -3.27, and log Ne = -3.8. For NGC 5315 and BD + 30/sup 0/ 3639, the stellar WR contribution in the UV is very significant, and for these nebulae we are only able to derive the carbon abundance. We found log C = -3.01 and >-3.27, respectively.

  20. He 2-104 - A symbiotic proto-planetary nebula?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, H.E.; Aspin, C.; Lutz, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    CCD observations are presented for He 2-104, an object previously classified as both PN and symbiotic star, which show that this is in fact a protoplanetary nebula (PPN) with a dynamical age of about 800 yr. The presence of highly collimated jets, extending over 75 arcsec on the sky, combined with an energy distribution showing a hot as well as a cool component, indicates that He 2-104 is a binary PPN. Since the primary is probably a Mira with a 400-d period (as reported by Whitelock, 1988), it is proposed that the system is a symbiotic PPN. 16 refs

  1. Absolute spectrophotometry of the IC 2149, 4593, and NGC 6210 planetary nebulae in near infrared region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskova, R.I.

    1976-01-01

    The absolute monochromatic energy flux (in ergs.cm -2 sec -1 ) was determined for the emission lines of the planetary nebulae IC2149, 4593 and NGC 6210 in the spectral interval lambda 6300-11000 A. The interstellar extinction Asub(β)=1.sup(m)3; O.sup(m)4; O.sup(m)6, accordingly, was estimated by using spectral lines HI of the Paschen and Balmer series. The energy distribution (in ergsxcm -2 xsec -1 1A -1 ) was found in summary continuous spectrum in the interval lambda 4000-10000 A. The attempt was made to separate the continuum of the nucleus and the nebula. The theoretical nebula continuous spectrum was calculated from lambda 3000 A to the radio range. The continuum, calibrated by menas of the flat part of the radiospectrum, linked well enough with the optical spectrum calculated here

  2. Photoionization modeling of Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae. I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopita, M. A.; Meatheringham, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    The results of self-consistent photoionization modeling of 38 Magellanic Cloud PNe are presented and used to construct an H-R diagram for the central stars and to obtain both the nebular chemical abundances and the physical parameters of the nebulae. T(eff)s derived from nebular excitation analysis are in agreement with temperatures derived by the classical Zanstra method. There is a linear correlation between log T(eff) and the excitation class. The majority of the central stars in the sample with optically thick nebulae have masses between 0.55 and 0.7 solar mass and are observed during their hydrogen-burning excursion toward high temperatures. Optically thin objects are found scattered throughout the H-R diagram, but tend to have a somewhat smaller mean mass. Type I PN are found to have high core masses and to lie on the descending branch of the evolutionary tracks. The nebular mass of the optically thick objects is closely related to the nebular radius, and PN with nebular masses over one solar are observed.

  3. The population of planetary nebulae near the Galactic Centre: chemical abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollá, M.; Cavichia, O.; Costa, R. D. D.; Maciel, W. J.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we report physical parameters and abundances derived for a sample of 15 high extinction planetary nebulae located in the inner 2° of the Galactic bulge, based on low dispersion spectroscopy secured at the SOAR telescope using the Goodman spectrograph. The new data allow us to extend our database including older, weaker objects that are at the faint end of the planetary nebulae luminosity function. The data provide chemical compositions for PNe located in this region of the bulge to explore the chemical enrichment history of the central region of the Galactic bulge. The results show that the abundances of our sample are skewed to higher metallicities than previous data in the outer regions of the bulge. This can indicate a faster chemical enrichment taking place at the Galactic centre.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae (Kohoutek, 2001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohoutek, L.

    2001-05-01

    The "Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae (Version 2000)" appears in Abhandlungen aus der Hamburger Sternwarte, Band XII in the year 2001. It is a continuation of CGPN(1967) and contains 1510 objects classified as galactic PNe up to the end of 1999. The lists of possible pre-PNe and possible post-PNe are also given. The catalogue is restricted only to the data belonging to the location and identification of the objects. It gives identification charts of PNe discovered since 1965 (published in the supplements to CGPN) and those charts of objects discovered earlier, which have wrong or uncertain identification. The question "what is a planetary nebula" is discussed and the typical values of PNe and of their central stars are summarized. Short statistics about the discoveries of PNe are given. The catalogue is also available in the Centre de Donnees, Strasbourg and at Hamburg Observatory via internet. (15 data files).

  5. Abundances in Planetary Nebulae: an Autopsy of Low and Intermediate Mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, James Francis

    In this work we report on the results of synthetic thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch models (TP-AGB) and compare the results to the abundance ratios in a sample of planetary nebulae. We use updated the input parameters for mass-loss, the stellar luminosity, and dredge-up. We calculated models with masses between 0.8 solar masses and 8 solar masses. We also calculated models with (Fe/H) between -2.5 and 0.3. The effect of the first, second, and third dredge-up as well as hot-bottom burning are reported on. The analysis of a sample of Galactic bulge and disk planetary nebulae is also reported on.

  6. Mass distribution and evolutionary scheme for central stars of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heap, S.R.; Augensen, H.J.; Widener Univ., Chester, PA)

    1987-01-01

    IUE data and a distance measuring method that considered central stars in optically thick nebulae were used to examine mass distributions of planetary nebulae. Other data such as spectral type, spatial and kinematic characteristics, etc., were studied to derive relationships between population type and mass distribution. A central star mass range of at least 0.55 solar mass was obtained. Stars with masses of at least 0.64 solar mass, concentrated in the galactic disk, originated from 1.5 solar mass stars. Low mass nuclei originated in old disk or halo populations and evolved from 1.0 solar mass objects. A mass-loss parameter value of 1/3 was calculated for red giants, implying that white dwarfs evolve from stars of under 5 solar masses. Mass distributions around planetary nuclei were concluded to follow patterns associated with the individual mass. 75 references

  7. New DSH planetary nebulae and candidates from optical and infrared surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberger, Matthias; Jacoby, George H; Alves, Filipe; Patchick, Dana; Parker, Quentin A; Bojicic, Ivan; Frew, David J; Acker, Agnes; Eigenthaler, Paul; Harmer, Dianne; Reid, Warren; Schedler, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    To date, the planetary nebula (PN) survey of the Deep Sky Hunters collaboration has led to the detection of more than 250 previously unknown candidate planetary nebulae (PNe). About 60% of them were found during the past two years and are expected to be true, likely or possible PNe because careful vetting has already thrown out more doubtful objects. The majority of the new PN candidates are located within the boundaries of the SHS and IPHAS Ha surveys and were discovered by combining MIR data from the WideField Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) with optical data from the IPHAS, SHS and DSS surveys, and UV data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer(GALEX). (paper)

  8. Pregalactic helium abundance and abundance gradients across our galaxy from planetary nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Odorico, S; Peimbert, M [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Instituto de Astronomia; Sabbadin, F [Padua Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Astronomia

    1976-03-01

    From the observations of planetary nebulae by Peimbert and Torres-Peimbert we have studied the radial gradients across our galaxy of the helium, oxygen and nitrogen abundance relative to hydrogen. The increase of the oxygen to hydrogen abundance ratio from a radial distance to the galactic center of 14 to 8 kpc is about a factor of 3 while that of the nitrogen to hydrogen ratio is about twice as large. By adopting oxygen as representative of the heavy elements it is found that the helium enrichment is coupled to the heavy metal enrichment by ..delta..Y/..delta..Zapproximately2.9 in close agreement with the value derived from H II regions. The pregalactic N(He)/N(H) value derived from planetary nebulae is 0.073+-0.008 also in agreement with the value derived from H II regions.

  9. The spectrum of HM Sagittae: a planetary nebula excited by a Wolf--Rayet star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.W.; Feibelman, W.A.; Hobbs, R.W.; Mccracken, C.W.

    1977-10-01

    Image tube spectrograms of HM Sagittae were obtained. More than 70 emission lines, including several broad emission features, were identified. An analysis of the spectra indicates that HM Sagittae is a planetary nebula excited by a Wolf-Rayet star. The most conspicuous Wolf-Rayet feature is that attributed to a blend of C III at 4650 A and He II at 4686 A

  10. On the distance scale of planetary nebulae and white dwarf birth rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidemann, V.

    1977-01-01

    Arguments are presented which favor an increase of the distance scale of planetary nebulae by 30% compared to the Seaton-Webster scale. The consequences for evolutionary tracks, PN and white dwarf relations, and birth rates are discussed. It is concluded that opposite to Smith jr. (1976) underestimated, and that the proposed change in distance scale of PN brings white dwarf and PN birth rates into almost complete agreement. (orig.) [de

  11. (C III lambda 1909/Si III lambda 1892) ratio as a diagnostic for planetary nebulae and symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feibelman, W.A.; Aller, L.H.; California Univ., Los Angeles)

    1987-01-01

    Suitable IUE archival material on planetary nebulae has been examined to determine the log R /F(lambda 1909 C III)/F(lambda 1892 Si III)/ as a discriminant for distinguishing planetary nebulae from symbiotic stars and related objects. The mean value of log R for 73 galactic planetaries is 1.4, while that of extragalactic planetaries appears to be slightly lower, and that for symbiotics is 0.3. The lower value of log R for symbiotics is easily understood as a consequence of their higher densities. A plot of log R versus N-epsilon indicates that 80 percent of the planetaries fall into the range of log R between 1.2 and 1.8, but some of the peculiar and bipolar nebulae fall below log R = 1.2. The corresponding N(C++)/N(Si++) ionic ratio varies over a large range. 53 references

  12. Imaging the Elusive H-poor Gas in the High adf Planetary Nebula NGC 6778

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rojas, Jorge; Corradi, Romano L. M.; Monteiro, Hektor; Jones, David; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    We present the first direct image of the high-metallicity gas component in a planetary nebula (NGC 6778), taken with the OSIRIS Blue Tunable Filter centered on the O II λ4649+50 Å optical recombination lines (ORLs) at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. We show that the emission of these faint O II ORLs is concentrated in the central parts of the planetary nebula and is not spatially coincident either with emission coming from the bright [O III] λ5007 Å collisionally excited line (CEL) or the bright Hα recombination line. From monochromatic emission line maps taken with VIMOS at the 8.2 m Very Large Telescope, we find that the spatial distribution of the emission from the auroral [O III] λ4363 line resembles that of the O II ORLs but differs from nebular [O III] λ5007 CEL distribution, implying a temperature gradient inside the planetary nebula. The centrally peaked distribution of the O II emission and the differences with the [O III] and H I emission profiles are consistent with the presence of an H-poor gas whose origin may be linked to the binarity of the central star. However, determination of the spatial distribution of the ORLs and CELs in other PNe and a comparison of their dynamics are needed to further constrain the geometry and ejection mechanism of the metal-rich (H-poor) component and hence, understand the origin of the abundance discrepancy problem in PNe.

  13. IMAGING THE ELUSIVE H-POOR GAS IN THE HIGH adf PLANETARY NEBULA NGC 6778

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Rojas, Jorge; Corradi, Romano L. M.; Jones, David; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Monteiro, Hektor [Instituto de Física e Química, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Av. BPS 1303-Pinheirinho, 37500-903, Itajubá (Brazil)

    2016-06-20

    We present the first direct image of the high-metallicity gas component in a planetary nebula (NGC 6778), taken with the OSIRIS Blue Tunable Filter centered on the O ii λ 4649+50 Å optical recombination lines (ORLs) at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. We show that the emission of these faint O ii ORLs is concentrated in the central parts of the planetary nebula and is not spatially coincident either with emission coming from the bright [O iii] λ 5007 Å collisionally excited line (CEL) or the bright H α recombination line. From monochromatic emission line maps taken with VIMOS at the 8.2 m Very Large Telescope, we find that the spatial distribution of the emission from the auroral [O iii] λ 4363 line resembles that of the O ii ORLs but differs from nebular [O iii] λ 5007 CEL distribution, implying a temperature gradient inside the planetary nebula. The centrally peaked distribution of the O ii emission and the differences with the [O iii] and H i emission profiles are consistent with the presence of an H-poor gas whose origin may be linked to the binarity of the central star. However, determination of the spatial distribution of the ORLs and CELs in other PNe and a comparison of their dynamics are needed to further constrain the geometry and ejection mechanism of the metal-rich (H-poor) component and hence, understand the origin of the abundance discrepancy problem in PNe.

  14. The planetary nebula IPHASXJ211420.0+434136 (Ou5): insights into common-envelope dynamical and chemical evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Corradi, R. L. M.; Rodriguez-Gil, P.; Jones, D.; Garcia-Rojas, J.; Mampaso, A.; Garcia-Alvarez, D.; Pursimo, T.; Eenmäe, T.; Liimets, T.; Miszalski, B.

    2014-01-01

    While analysing the images of the IPHAS H$\\alpha$ survey, we noticed that the central star of the candidate planetary nebula IPHASXJ211420.0+434136 (also named Ou5) was clearly variable. This is generally considered as an indication of binarity. To confirm it, we performed a photometric monitoring of the central star, and obtained images and spectra of the nebula. The nebular spectrum confirms that IPHASXJ211420.0+434136 is a planetary nebula of moderately high excitation. It has a remarkable...

  15. Registration of H2O and SiO masers in the Calabash Nebula to confirm the planetary nebula paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, R.; Rioja, M.; Bujarrabal, V.; Kim, J.; Cho, S. H.; Choi, Y. K.; Youngjoo, Y.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the astrometric registration of very long baseline interferometry images of the SiO and H2O masers in OH 231.8+4.2, the iconic proto-planetary nebula also known as the Calabash nebula, using the Korean VLBI Network and source frequency phase referencing. This, for the first time, robustly confirms the alignment of the SiO masers, close to the asymptotic giant branch star, driving the bilobe structure with the water masers in the outflow. We are able to trace the bulk motions for the H2O masers over the last few decades to be 19 km s-1 and deduce that the age of this expansion stage is 38 ± 2 yr. The combination of this result with the distance allows a full 3D reconstruction and confirms that the H2O masers lie on and expand along the known large-scale symmetry axis and that the outflow is only a few decades old, so mass loss is almost certainly ongoing. Therefore, we conclude that the SiO emission marks the stellar core of the nebular, the H2O emission traces the expansion, and there must be multiple epochs of ejection to drive the macro-scale structure.

  16. A spectroscopic and photometric study of the planetary nebulae Kn 61 and Pa 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Díaz, Ma. T.; González-Buitrago, D.; López, J. A.; Zharikov, S.; Tovmassian, G. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Km 103 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Borisov, N.; Valyavin, G., E-mail: tere@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: dgonzalez@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: jal@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: zhar@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: gag@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: borisov@sao.ru, E-mail: gvalyavin@gmail.com [Special Astrophysical Observatory of the RAS, 369167, Nizhny Arkhyz, Karachaevo-Cherkesia (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-01

    We present the first morpho-kinematical analysis of the planetary nebulae Kn 61 and Pa 5 and explore the nature of their central stars. Our analysis is based on high-resolution and medium-resolution spectroscopic observations, deep narrow-band imaging, and integral photometry. This material allows us to identify the morphological components and study their kinematics. The direct images and spectra indicate an absence of the characteristic [N II] and [S II] emission lines in both nebulae. The nebular spectrum of Kn 61 suggests a hydrogen deficient planetary nebula and the stellar spectrum of the central star reveals a hydrogen-deficient PG 1159-type star. The [O III] position velocity diagram reveals that Kn 61 is a closed, empty, spherical shell with a thin border and a filamentary surface expanding at 67.6 km s{sup –1} and the shell is currently not expanding isotropically. We derived a kinematic age of ∼1.6 × 10{sup 4} yr for an assumed distance of 4 kpc. A photometric period of ∼5.7(±0.4) days has been detected for Kn 61, indicating the presence of a possible binary system at its core. A possible link between filamentary spherical shells and PG 1159-type stars is noted. The morphology of Pa 5 is dominated by an equatorial toroid and faint polar extensions. The equatorial region of this planetary nebula is expanding at 45.2 km s{sup –1}. The stellar spectrum corresponds to a very hot star and is dominated by a steep blue rising continuum and He II, Balmer, and Ca II photospheric lines.

  17. A spectroscopic and photometric study of the planetary nebulae Kn 61 and Pa 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Díaz, Ma. T.; González-Buitrago, D.; López, J. A.; Zharikov, S.; Tovmassian, G.; Borisov, N.; Valyavin, G.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first morpho-kinematical analysis of the planetary nebulae Kn 61 and Pa 5 and explore the nature of their central stars. Our analysis is based on high-resolution and medium-resolution spectroscopic observations, deep narrow-band imaging, and integral photometry. This material allows us to identify the morphological components and study their kinematics. The direct images and spectra indicate an absence of the characteristic [N II] and [S II] emission lines in both nebulae. The nebular spectrum of Kn 61 suggests a hydrogen deficient planetary nebula and the stellar spectrum of the central star reveals a hydrogen-deficient PG 1159-type star. The [O III] position velocity diagram reveals that Kn 61 is a closed, empty, spherical shell with a thin border and a filamentary surface expanding at 67.6 km s –1 and the shell is currently not expanding isotropically. We derived a kinematic age of ∼1.6 × 10 4 yr for an assumed distance of 4 kpc. A photometric period of ∼5.7(±0.4) days has been detected for Kn 61, indicating the presence of a possible binary system at its core. A possible link between filamentary spherical shells and PG 1159-type stars is noted. The morphology of Pa 5 is dominated by an equatorial toroid and faint polar extensions. The equatorial region of this planetary nebula is expanding at 45.2 km s –1 . The stellar spectrum corresponds to a very hot star and is dominated by a steep blue rising continuum and He II, Balmer, and Ca II photospheric lines.

  18. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SNAPSHOT SEARCH FOR PLANETARY NEBULAE IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS OF THE LOCAL GROUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Howard E., E-mail: heb11@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Single stars in ancient globular clusters (GCs) are believed incapable of producing planetary nebulae (PNs), because their post-asymptotic-giant-branch evolutionary timescales are slower than the dissipation timescales for PNs. Nevertheless, four PNs are known in Galactic GCs. Their existence likely requires more exotic evolutionary channels, including stellar mergers and common-envelope binary interactions. I carried out a snapshot imaging search with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for PNs in bright Local Group GCs outside the Milky Way. I used a filter covering the 5007 Å nebular emission line of [O iii], and another one in the nearby continuum, to image 66 GCs. Inclusion of archival HST frames brought the total number of extragalactic GCs imaged at 5007 Å to 75, whose total luminosity slightly exceeds that of the entire Galactic GC system. I found no convincing PNs in these clusters, aside from one PN in a young M31 cluster misclassified as a GC, and two PNs at such large angular separations from an M31 GC that membership is doubtful. In a ground-based spectroscopic survey of 274 old GCs in M31, Jacoby et al. found three candidate PNs. My HST images of one of them suggest that the [O iii] emission actually arises from ambient interstellar medium rather than a PN; for the other two candidates, there are broadband archival UV HST images that show bright, blue point sources that are probably the PNs. In a literature search, I also identified five further PN candidates lying near old GCs in M31, for which follow-up observations are necessary to confirm their membership. The rates of incidence of PNs are similar, and small but nonzero, throughout the GCs of the Local Group.

  19. A compact planetary nebula around the hot white dwarf EGB 6/PG 0950 + 139

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebert, J.; Green, R.; Bond, H.E.; Holberg, J.B.; Wesemael, F. (Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA) Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories, Pasadena, CA (USA) Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA) Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (USA) Arizona Univ., Tucson (USA) Montreal Universite, Montreal (Canada))

    1989-11-01

    The remarkable central star (0950 + 139), a very hot DA/DAO white dwarf, of the planetary nebula EGB 6 is described. Follow-up observations relevant to the analyses of both the nebula and the stellar photosphere are presented. Three kinds of scenarios are discussed to account for the existence of this peculiar nebula, but none appears very promising. The first consideration is that the nebula was ejected from the white dwarf as a discret event. This hypothesis is heavily constrained by the nebular size, density, and expansion rate; by the low luminosity and radius of the star; and by the absence of evidence for variation in density-sensitive forbidden lines from 1978 to 1987. No plausible mechanism can cause the observed amount of mass to be lost directly from a white dwarf in a steady or sporadic wind, at outflow velocities orders of magnitude below the escape velocity. Final consideration is given to the possibility that the gas is lost from a close companion star, but there is no evidence that this is a close binary system. 45 refs.

  20. A compact planetary nebula around the hot white dwarf EGB 6/PG 0950 + 139

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, James; Green, Richard; Bond, Howard E.; Holberg, J. B.; Wesemael, F.

    1989-01-01

    The remarkable central star (0950 + 139), a very hot DA/DAO white dwarf, of the planetary nebula EGB 6 is described. Follow-up observations relevant to the analyses of both the nebula and the stellar photosphere are presented. Three kinds of scenarios are discussed to account for the existence of this peculiar nebula, but none appears very promising. The first consideration is that the nebula was ejected from the white dwarf as a discret event. This hypothesis is heavily constrained by the nebular size, density, and expansion rate; by the low luminosity and radius of the star; and by the absence of evidence for variation in density-sensitive forbidden lines from 1978 to 1987. No plausible mechanism can cause the observed amount of mass to be lost directly from a white dwarf in a steady or sporadic wind, at outflow velocities orders of magnitude below the escape velocity. Final consideration is given to the possibility that the gas is lost from a close companion star, but there is no evidence that this is a close binary system.

  1. A compact planetary nebula around the hot white dwarf EGB 6/PG 0950 + 139

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, J.; Green, R.; Bond, H.E.; Holberg, J.B.; Wesemael, F.

    1989-01-01

    The remarkable central star (0950 + 139), a very hot DA/DAO white dwarf, of the planetary nebula EGB 6 is described. Follow-up observations relevant to the analyses of both the nebula and the stellar photosphere are presented. Three kinds of scenarios are discussed to account for the existence of this peculiar nebula, but none appears very promising. The first consideration is that the nebula was ejected from the white dwarf as a discret event. This hypothesis is heavily constrained by the nebular size, density, and expansion rate; by the low luminosity and radius of the star; and by the absence of evidence for variation in density-sensitive forbidden lines from 1978 to 1987. No plausible mechanism can cause the observed amount of mass to be lost directly from a white dwarf in a steady or sporadic wind, at outflow velocities orders of magnitude below the escape velocity. Final consideration is given to the possibility that the gas is lost from a close companion star, but there is no evidence that this is a close binary system. 45 refs

  2. A Model for the Dynamical and Ionization Structure of Planetary Nebula IC 418

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ghanbari

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available   The interacting two winds model and a spherical density distribution function are introduced to study the dynamical and ionization structure of the planetary nebula IC 418. A fast wind with a mechanical luminousity  2/34×1034erg.s-1 of interacts with a super wind with a mass-loss rate of  2×10-5M(°yr-1 and  a velocity of 10 , and produces a dense and luminous medium.   In this model, the expansion velocities of OI and HI lines are predicted to be 11 and 10.5kms-1 , respectively. The calculated dynamical time-scale 1033yr for the nebula is in good agreement with the evolution time of the central star after the interaction of the two winds. Our calculations give a luminosity  0.05M(°of for the central star

  3. A D'-type symbiotic binary in the planetary nebula SMP LMC 88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iłkiewicz, Krystian; Mikołajewska, Joanna; Miszalski, Brent; Kozłowski, Szymon; Udalski, Andrzej

    2018-05-01

    SMP LMC 88 is one of the planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We identify in its spectrum Raman scattered O VI lines at 6825 and 7083 Å. This unambiguously classifies the central object of the nebula as a symbiotic star (SySt). We identified the cold component to be a K-type giant, making this the first D'-type (yellow) SySt discovered outside the Galaxy. The photometric variability in SMP LMC 88 resembles the orbital variability of Galactic D'-type SySt with its low amplitude and sinusoidal light-curve shape. The SySt classification is also supported by the He I diagnostic diagram.

  4. Nebular and auroral emission lines of [Cl III] in the optical spectra of planetary nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, F P; Aller, L H; Ramsbottom, C A; Bell, K L; Crawford, F L; Hyung, S

    2000-04-25

    Electron impact excitation rates in Cl III, recently determined with the R-matrix code, are used to calculate electron temperature (T(e)) and density (N(e)) emission line ratios involving both the nebular (5517.7, 5537.9 A) and auroral (8433.9, 8480.9, 8500.0 A) transitions. A comparison of these results with observational data for a sample of planetary nebulae, obtained with the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph on the 3-m Shane Telescope, reveals that the R(1) = I(5518 A)/I(5538 A) intensity ratio provides estimates of N(e) in excellent agreement with the values derived from other line ratios in the echelle spectra. This agreement indicates that R(1) is a reliable density diagnostic for planetary nebulae, and it also provides observational support for the accuracy of the atomic data adopted in the line ratio calculations. However the [Cl iii] 8433.9 A line is found to be frequently blended with a weak telluric emission feature, although in those instances when the [Cl iii] intensity may be reliably measured, it provides accurate determinations of T(e) when ratioed against the sum of the 5518 and 5538 A line fluxes. Similarly, the 8500.0 A line, previously believed to be free of contamination by the Earth's atmosphere, is also shown to be generally blended with a weak telluric emission feature. The [Cl iii] transition at 8480.9 A is found to be blended with the He i 8480.7 A line, except in planetary nebulae that show a relatively weak He i spectrum, where it also provides reliable estimates of T(e) when ratioed against the nebular lines. Finally, the diagnostic potential of the near-UV [Cl iii] lines at 3344 and 3354 A is briefly discussed.

  5. Evolutionary calculations for planetary nebula nuclei with continuing mass loss and realistic starting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, D.J.; Wood, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Evolutionary calculations for nuclei of planetary nebulae are described. They were made using assumptions regarding mass of the NPN, phase in the He shell flash cycle at which the NPN leaves the AGB, and time variation of the mass loss rate. Comparison of the evolutionary tracks with the observational Harman-Seaton sequence indicates that some recently published NPN luminosities may be too low by a factor of three. Comparison of the calculated timescales with the observed properties of NPN and of white dwarfs provides marginal evidence for the PN ejection being initiated by the helium shell flash itself

  6. Common Envelope Evolution: Implications for Post-AGB Stars and Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhaus, J.

    2017-10-01

    Common envelopes (CE) are of broad interest as they represent one method by which binaries with initially long-period orbits of a few years can be converted into short-period orbits of a few hours. Despite their importance, the brief lifetimes of CE phases make them difficult to directly observe. Nevertheless, CE interactions are potentially common, can produce a diverse array of nebular shapes, and can accommodate current post-AGB and planetary nebula outflow constraints. Here, I discuss ongoing theoretical and computational work on CEs and speculate on what lies ahead for determining accurate outcomes of this elusive phase of evolution.

  7. DISCOVERY OF COLLIMATED BIPOLAR OUTFLOWS IN THE PLANETARY NEBULA TH 2-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danehkar, A., E-mail: ashkbiz.danehkar@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2015-12-10

    We present a comprehensive set of spatially resolved, integral field spectroscopic mapping of the Wolf–Rayet planetary nebula Th 2-A, obtained using the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3-m telescope. Velocity-resolved Hα channel maps with a resolution of 20 km s{sup −1} allow us to identify different kinematic components within the nebula. This information is used to develop a three-dimensional morpho-kinematic model of the nebula using the interactive kinematic modeling tool shape. These results suggest that Th 2-A has a thick toroidal shell with an expansion velocity of 40 ± 10 km s{sup −1}, and a thin prolate ellipsoid with collimated bipolar outflows toward its axis reaching velocities in the range of 70–110 km s{sup −1}, with respect to the central star. The relationship between its morpho-kinematic structure and peculiar [WO]-type stellar characteristics deserves further investigation.

  8. Morphology of the bipolar planetary nebula NGC 2346 from emission line profile studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anandarao, B G; Banerjee, D P.K.; Desai, J N; Jain, S K; Mallik, D C.V.

    1988-11-01

    High resolution observations of H..cap alpha.. 6563 A, (O III) 5007 A and (N II) 6583 A emission lines in the bipolar planetary nebula NGC 2346 are presented. Expansion velocities (V/sub exp/) of 8 +- 1 km s/sup -1/ in the :O III: line and 11 +- 1 km s/sup -1/ in the :N II: line are observed in the central region. An expansion velocity of 7.5 +- 1.0 km s/sup -1/ in the (O III) line is observed in a position 10 arcsec away from the centre, in the NE lobe of the nebula. From the widths of the H..cap alpha.. and (N II) lines, an ion temperature of T=10 650 +- 2950 K and a turbulent velocity V/sub T/ = 16 +- 2 km s/sup -1/ are derived. Using the detailed radial velocity mapping done by a previous author, a morphological model for the nebula is presented.

  9. A DETAILED SPATIOKINEMATIC MODEL OF THE CONICAL OUTFLOW OF THE MULTIPOLAR PLANETARY NEBULA NGC 7026

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D. M.; López, J. A.; Steffen, W.; Richer, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    We present extensive, long-slit, high-resolution coverage of the complex planetary nebula (PN) NGC 7026. We acquired 10 spectra using the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer at San Pedro Martir Observatory in Baja California, Mexico, and each shows exquisite detail, revealing the intricate structure of this object. Incorporating these spectra into the three-dimensional visualization and kinematic program SHAPE and using Hubble Space Telescope images of NGC 7026, we have produced a detailed structural and kinematic model of this PN. NGC 7026 exhibits remarkable symmetry consisting of three lobe pairs and four sets of knots, all symmetrical about the nucleus and displaying a conical outflow. Comparing the three-dimensional structure of this nebula to recent XMM-Newton X-ray observations, we investigate the extended X-ray emission in relation to the nebular structure. We find that the X-ray emission, while confined to the closed, northern lobes of this PN, shows an abrupt termination in the middle of the southeast lobe, which our long slit data show to be open. This is where the shocked fast wind seems to be escaping the interior of the nebula and the X-ray emission rapidly cools in this region.

  10. The double-degenerate, super-Chandrasekhar nucleus of the planetary nebula Henize 2-428.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander-García, M; Rodríguez-Gil, P; Corradi, R L M; Jones, D; Miszalski, B; Boffin, H M J; Rubio-Díez, M M; Kotze, M M

    2015-03-05

    The planetary nebula stage is the ultimate fate of stars with masses one to eight times that of the Sun (M(⊙)). The origin of their complex morphologies is poorly understood, although several mechanisms involving binary interaction have been proposed. In close binary systems, the orbital separation is short enough for the primary star to overfill its Roche lobe as the star expands during the asymptotic giant branch phase. The excess gas eventually forms a common envelope surrounding both stars. Drag forces then result in the envelope being ejected into a bipolar planetary nebula whose equator is coincident with the orbital plane of the system. Systems in which both stars have ejected their envelopes and are evolving towards the white dwarf stage are said to be double degenerate. Here we report that Henize 2-428 has a double-degenerate core with a combined mass of ∼1.76M(⊙), which is above the Chandrasekhar limit (the maximum mass of a stable white dwarf) of 1.4M(⊙). This, together with its short orbital period (4.2 hours), suggests that the system should merge in 700 million years, triggering a type Ia supernova event. This supports the hypothesis of the double-degenerate, super-Chandrasekhar evolutionary pathway for the formation of type Ia supernovae.

  11. Discovery of a [WO] central star in the planetary nebula Th 2-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, W. A.; Gamen, R.; Díaz, R. J.; Niemela, V. S.

    2008-09-01

    Context: About 2500 planetary nebulae are known in our Galaxy but only 224 have central stars with reported spectral types in the Strasbourg-ESO Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae (Acker et al. 1992; Acker et al. 1996). Aims: We have started an observational program aiming to increase the number of PN central stars with spectral classification. Methods: By means of spectroscopy and high resolution imaging, we identify the position and true nature of the central star. We carried out low resolution spectroscopic observations at CASLEO telescope, complemented with medium resolution spectroscopy performed at Gemini South and Magellan telescopes. Results: As a first outcome of this survey, we present for the first time the spectra of the central star of the PN Th 2-A. These spectra show emission lines of ionized C and O, typical in Wolf-Rayet stars. Conclusions: We identify the position of that central star, which is not the brightest one of the visual central pair. We classify it as of type [WO 3]pec, which is consistent with the high excitation and dynamical age of the nebula. Based on data collected at (i) the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina y Universidades Nacionales de La Plata, Córdoba y San Juan, Argentina; (ii) the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; (iii) the 8 m Gemini South Telescope, Chile.

  12. BUBBLES AND KNOTS IN THE KINEMATICAL STRUCTURE OF THE BIPOLAR PLANETARY NEBULA NGC 2818

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Roberto, E-mail: vazquez@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Km 103 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, BC (Mexico)

    2012-06-01

    High-resolution Hubble Space Telescope archive imaging and high-dispersion spectroscopy are used to study the complex morphological and kinematical structure of the planetary nebula, NGC 2818. We analyze narrowband H{alpha}, [O III], [N II], [S II], and He II images, addressing important morphological features. Ground-based long-slit echelle spectra were obtained crossing NGC 2818 at five different positions to precisely determine kinematical features in the structure of the nebula. A distance of 2.5 kpc was used to determine physical scales. Constructing models to fit the data with modern computational tools, we find NGC 2818 is composed of (1) a non-uniform bipolar structure with a semimajor axis of 0.92 pc (75''), possibly deformed by the stellar wind, (2) a 0.17 pc (14'') diameter central region, which is potentially the remnant of an equatorial enhancement, and (3) a great number of cometary knots. These knots are preferentially located inside a radius of 0.24 pc (20'') around the central star. The major axis of the main structure is oriented at i {approx_equal} 60 Degree-Sign with respect to the line of sight and at P.A. = +89 Degree-Sign on the plane of the sky. Expansion velocities of this nebula are V{sub pol} = 105 km s{sup -1} and V{sub eq} = 20 km s{sup -1}, which lead to our estimate of the kinematical age of {tau}{sub k} {approx_equal} 8400 {+-} 3400 yr (assuming homologous expansion). Our observations do not support the idea that high-velocity collimated ejections are responsible for the formation of microstructures inside the nebula. We determine the systemic velocity of NGC 2818 to be V{sub HEL} = +26 {+-} 2 km s{sup -1}.

  13. YOUNG STARLESS CORES EMBEDDED IN THE MAGNETICALLY DOMINATED PIPE NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frau, P.; Girart, J. M.; Alves, F. O.; Beltran, M. T.; Morata, O.; Masque, J. M.; Busquet, G.; Sanchez-Monge, A.; Estalella, R.; Franco, G. A. P.

    2010-01-01

    The Pipe Nebula is a massive, nearby dark molecular cloud with a low star formation efficiency which makes it a good laboratory in which to study the very early stages of the star formation process. The Pipe Nebula is largely filamentary and appears to be threaded by a uniform magnetic field at scales of a few parsecs, perpendicular to its main axis. The field is only locally perturbed in a few regions, such as the only active cluster-forming core B59. The aim of this study is to investigate primordial conditions in low-mass pre-stellar cores and how they relate to the local magnetic field in the cloud. We used the IRAM 30 m telescope to carry out a continuum and molecular survey at 3 and 1 mm of early- and late-time molecules toward four selected starless cores inside the Pipe Nebula. We found that the dust continuum emission maps trace the densest regions better than previous Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) extinction maps, while 2MASS extinction maps trace the diffuse gas better. The properties of the cores derived from dust emission show average radii of ∼0.09 pc, densities of ∼1.3x10 5 cm -3 , and core masses of ∼2.5 M sun . Our results confirm that the Pipe Nebula starless cores studied are in a very early evolutionary stage and present a very young chemistry with different properties that allow us to propose an evolutionary sequence. All of the cores present early-time molecular emission with CS detections in the whole sample. Two of them, cores 40 and 109, present strong late-time molecular emission. There seems to be a correlation between the chemical evolutionary stage of the cores and the local magnetic properties that suggests that the evolution of the cores is ruled by a local competition between the magnetic energy and other mechanisms, such as turbulence.

  14. IRAS 06562-0337, The Ironclad Nebula: A New Young Star Cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, D.R.; Hoard, D.W.; Rodgers, B.

    1998-01-01

    IRAS 06562-0337 has been the recent subject of a classic debate: is it a proto endash planetary nebula or a young stellar object? We present the first 2 μm image of IRAS 06562-0337, which reveals an extended diffuse nebula containing approximately 70 stars inside a 30 double-prime radius around a bright, possibly resolved, central object. The derived stellar luminosity function is consistent with that expected from a single coeval population, and the brightness of the nebulosity is consistent with the predicted flux of unresolved low-mass stars. The stars and nebulosity are spatially coincident with strong CO line emission. We therefore identify IRAS 06562-0337 as a new young star cluster embedded in its placental molecular cloud. The central object is likely a Herbig Be star, M ∼ 20 M circle-dot , which may be seen in reflection. We present medium-resolution high signal-to-noise ratio 1997 epoch optical spectra of the central object. Comparison with previously published spectra shows new evidence for time-variable permitted and forbidden line emission, including Si ii, Fe ii, [Fe ii], and [O i]. We suggest that the origin is a dynamic stellar wind in the extended stratified atmosphere of the massive central star in IRAS 06562-0337. copyright copyright 1998. The American Astronomical Society

  15. A spectroscopic atlas of post-AGB stars and planetary nebulae selected from the IRAS point source catalogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez, O.; Garcia-Lario, P.; Manchado, A.; Manteiga, M.; Ulla, A.; Pottasch, S. R.

    2006-01-01

    Aims. We study the optical spectral properties of a sample of stars showing far infrared colours similar to those of well-known planetary nebulae. The large majority of them were unidentified sources or poorly known in the literature at the time when this spectroscopic survey started, some 15 years

  16. The offset dependent behavior of narrow optical emission features in the Red Rectangle proto-planetary nebula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wehres, N.; Linnartz, H.; Van Winckel, H.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    Context. The Red Rectangle proto-planetary nebula provides a unique laboratory to study the physical conditions and chemical processes in stellar outflows. Snapshots of the ongoing chemical evolution are obtained by monitoring spectra as function of the offset from the central star. Aims. The focus

  17. Gas Dynamics in Planetary Nebulae: From Macro-structures to FLIERs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinotto, Mario

    2000-10-01

    Purpose of this paper is to clarify how Planetary Nebulae (PNe) are very interesting laboratories to study cosmic gas dynamics. I first recall the history of PNe which are generated from low and intermediate mass stars through successive mass loss processes starting in the Reg Giant phase of evolution and continuing also after the termination of the pulsed AGB phase, where most of the nebular mass is believed to be ejected. The correponding stellar winds are the ingredients of the nebula. Their initial properties and subsequent mutual interactions, under the action of the evolving stellar radiation field, are responsible for the properties of the nebula. The observed structures of PNe are considered in detail. Larger scale macroscopic structures (MACS) are examined separately from quite smaller scale microscopic structures (MICS). The formation of MACS, at least in cases of round to moderately elliptical PNe, is shown to be reasonably well understood in terms of existing hydrodynamical models. Considering the kinematical behaviour, MICS can be separated into FLIERs (Fast Low Ionization Emitting Regions) and SLOWERs (slowly moving). Attention is focussed on FLIERs and on the proposed mechanisms to interpret them. Recent observations with the Hubble Space Telescope have provided us with a wealth of detailed (subarcsec) information on the nebular structures. The inner structure of FLIERs is here illustrated to consist of substructures of various shapes with an high degree of individually from object to object, also within the same PN. These new data call for deeper thoretical efforts to solve the problems of cosmic gas dynamics, posed by their observed properties. An ample account is given of the most relevant original works, in an effort to allow the non specialist reader to quickly become acquainted with the status of art in the various aspects of the subject.

  18. DETECTION OF THE CENTRAL STAR OF THE PLANETARY NEBULA NGC 6302

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szyszka, C.; Walsh, J. R.; Zijlstra, Albert A.; Tsamis, Y. G.

    2009-01-01

    NGC 6302 is one of the highest ionization planetary nebulae (PNe) known and shows emission from species with ionization potential > 300 eV. The temperature of the central star must be > 200,000 K to photoionize the nebula, and has been suggested to be up to ∼400,000 K. On account of the dense dust and molecular disk, the central star has not convincingly been directly imaged until now. NGC 6302 was imaged in six narrowband filters by Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the Servicing Mission 4 Early Release Observations. The central star is directly detected for the first time, and is situated at the nebula center on the foreground side of the tilted equatorial disk. The magnitudes of the central star have been reliably measured in two filters (F469N and F673N). Assuming a hot blackbody, the reddening has been measured from the (4688-6766 A) color and a value of c = 3.1, A v = 6.6 mag determined. A G-K main-sequence binary companion can be excluded. The position of the star on the H-R diagram suggests a fairly massive PN central star of about 0.64 M sun close to the white dwarf cooling track. A fit to the evolutionary tracks for (T, L, t) = (200,000 K, 2000 L sun , 2200 yr), where t is the nebular age, is obtained; however, the luminosity and temperature remain uncertain. The model tracks predict that the star is rapidly evolving, and fading at a rate of almost 1% per year. Future observations could test this prediction.

  19. Determination of hyperfine-induced transition rates from observations of a planetary nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brage, Tomas; Judge, Philip G; Proffitt, Charles R

    2002-12-31

    Observations of the planetary nebula NGC3918 made with the STIS instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope reveal the first unambiguous detection of a hyperfine-induced transition 2s2p 3P(o)(0)-->2s2 1S0 in the berylliumlike emission line spectrum of N IV at 1487.89 A. A nebular model allows us to confirm a transition rate of 4x10(-4) sec(-1)+/-33% for this line. The measurement represents the first independent confirmation of the transition rate of hyperfine-induced lines in low ionization stages, and it provides support for the techniques used to compute these transitions for the determination of very low densities and isotope ratios.

  20. Imaging the elusive H-poor gas in planetary nebulae with large abundance discrepancy factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rojas, Jorge; Corradi, Romano L. M.; Boffin, Henri M. J.; Monteiro, Hektor; Jones, David; Wesson, Roger; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo

    2017-10-01

    The discrepancy between abundances computed using optical recombination lines (ORLs) and collisionally excited lines (CELs) is a major, unresolved problem with significant implications for the determination of chemical abundances throughout the Universe. In planetary nebulae (PNe), the most common explanation for the discrepancy is that two different gas phases coexist: a hot component with standard metallicity, and a much colder plasma enhanced in heavy elements. This dual nature is not predicted by mass loss theories, and direct observational support for it is still weak. In this work, we present our recent findings that demonstrate that the largest abundance discrepancies are associated with close binary central stars. OSIRIS-GTC tunable filter imaging of the faint O ii ORLs and MUSE-VLT deep 2D spectrophotometry confirm that O ii ORL emission is more centrally concentrated than that of [Oiii] CELs and, therefore, that the abundance discrepancy may be closely linked to binary evolution.

  1. Optical Spectra of Radio Planetary Nebulae in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne, J. L.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results from spectral observations of four (4 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. These were made using the Radcliffe 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland, South Africa. These radio PNe were originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA surveys of the SMC at 1.42 and 2.37~GHz, and were further confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3 cm (4arcsec/2arcsec. Optical PNe and radio candidates are within 2arcsec and may represent a sub-population of selected radio bright objects. Nebular ionized masses of these objects may be 2.6~$M_odot$ or greater, supporting the existence of PNe progenitor central stars with masses up to 8 $M_odot$.

  2. Optical spectra of radio planetary nebulae in the small Magellanic cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results from spectral observations of four (4 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. These were made using the Radcliffe 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland, South Africa. These radio PNe were originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA surveys of the SMC at 1.42 and 2.37 GHz, and were further confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3 cm (400 /200 . Optical PNe and radio candidates are within 200 and may represent a sub- population of selected radio bright objects. Nebular ionized masses of these objects may be 2.6 Mo or greater, supporting the existence of PNe progenitor central stars with masses up to 8 Mo.

  3. Extinction of planetary nebulae and the turbulent structure of the galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.; Milne, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    Fluctuations in the extinction of planetary nebulae provide strong support for the concept of a turbulent interstellar medium. We have analyzed theoretically the mean extinction and its variance as a function of height, z, above the galactic plane. The mean increases monotonically, and exponentially, to a saturation level. The variance increases as z 2 for small z and has damped oscillations for intermediate z, before levelling off at large z. The observed mean extinction and the observed variance are found to be in excellent agreement with these theoretical deductions. The spatial scale of the mean extinction is estimated to be 100 pc; the oscillation scale of the variance and the damping scale of the oscillations are estimated to be about 200 +- 100 pc. The rms level of density fluctuations in the absorbing material causing the extinction is about equal to the mean value

  4. HASH: the Hong Kong/AAO/Strasbourg Hα planetary nebula database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Quentin A; Bojičić, Ivan S; Frew, David J

    2016-01-01

    By incorporating our major recent discoveries with re-measured and verified contents of existing catalogues we provide, for the first time, an accessible, reliable, on-line SQL database for essential, up-to date information for all known Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe). We have attempted to: i) reliably remove PN mimics/false ID's that have biased previous studies and ii) provide accurate positions, sizes, morphologies, multi-wavelength imagery and spectroscopy. We also provide a link to CDS/Vizier for the archival history of each object and other valuable links to external data. With the HASH interface, users can sift, select, browse, collate, investigate, download and visualise the entire currently known Galactic PNe diversity. HASH provides the community with the most complete and reliable data with which to undertake new science. (paper)

  5. New planetary nebulae in the outskirts of the Andromeda Galaxy discovered with the Guoshoujing Telescope (LAMOST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Haibo; Liu Xiaowei; Huo Zhiying; Zhang Huihua; Zhang Huawei; Zhao Yongheng; Chen Jianjun; Bai Zhongrui; Zhang Haotong; Yan Hongliang; Ren Juanjuan; Sun Shiwei; GarcIa-Benito, Ruben; Xiang Maosheng; Zhang Yong; Li Yeping; Lu Qishuai; Wang You; Ni Jijun; Wang Hai

    2010-01-01

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) are good tracers of the stellar populations, chemical composition and dynamics of their host galaxies. This paper reports the discovery of new PNe in the outskirts of the Andromeda Galaxy (M 31) with the Guoshoujing Telescope (GSJT, formerly named the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope-LAMOST) during its early commissioning phase. In total, 36 candidates selected from SDSS photometry are confirmed in terms of their PN nature, including 17 new discoveries and another 19 previously known emission line objects. Their positions, spectra, radial velocities and m 5007 magnitudes are presented. We discuss the potential for detecting more PNe in M31 with GSJT's multi-object spectroscopy and the related applications in studies of the dynamics and chemistry of M 31 and its assemblage history. (editor's recommendation)

  6. Interpretation of two compact planetary nebulae, IC 4997 and NGC 6572, with aid of theoretical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyung, S; Aller, L H

    1993-01-15

    Observations of two dense compact planetary nebulae secured with the Hamilton Echelle spectrograph at Lick Observatory combined with previously published UV spectra secured with the International Ultraviolet Explorer enable us to probe the electron densities and temperatures (plasma diagnostics) and ionic concentrations in these objects. The diagnostic diagrams show that no homogenous model will work for these nebulae. NGC 6572 may consist of an inner torordal ring of density 25,000 atoms/cm3 and an outer conical shell of density 10,000 atoms/cm3. The simplest model of IC 4997 suggests a thick inner shell with a density of about 107 atoms/cm3 and an outer envelope of density 10,000 atoms/cm3. The abundances of all elements heavier than He appear to be less than the solar values in NGC 6572, whereas He, C, N, and O may be more abundant in IC 4997 than in the sun. IC 4997 presents puzzling problems.

  7. PLANETARY NEBULAE DETECTED IN THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE GLIMPSE II LEGACY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Sun Kwok

    2009-01-01

    We report the result of a search for the infrared counterparts of 37 planetary nebulae (PNs) and PN candidates in the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire II (GLIMPSE II) survey. The photometry and images of these PNs at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm, taken through the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS), are presented. Most of these nebulae are very red and compact in the IRAC bands, and are found to be bright and extended in the 24 μm band. The infrared morphology of these objects are compared with Hα images of the Macquarie-AAO-Strasbourg (MASH) and MASH II PNs. The implications for morphological difference in different wavelengths are discussed. The IRAC data allow us to differentiate between PNs and H II regions and be able to reject non-PNs from the optical catalog (e.g., PNG 352.1 - 00.0). Spectral energy distributions are constructed by combing the IRAC and MIPS data with existing near-, mid-, and far-IR photometry measurements. The anomalous colors of some objects allow us to infer the presence of aromatic emission bands. These multi-wavelength data provide useful insights into the nature of different nebular components contributing to the infrared emission of PNs.

  8. ELECTRON TEMPERATURES OF PLANETARY NEBULAE DETERMINED FROM THE He I DISCONTINUITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Nakashima, J.; Kwok, S.; Yuan, H.-B.; Liu, X.-W.; Hua, C.-T.

    2009-01-01

    We have used the He I discontinuities at 3421 A to determine the electron temperatures, designated T e (He I), for a sample of five Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe). We compared T e (He I) with the electron temperatures derived from the hydrogen Balmer jump at 3646 A, designated T e (H I), and found that T e (He I) are generally lower than T e (H I). There are two possible interpretations, (1) the presence of substantial He 2+ zone, or (2) the presence of hydrogen-deficient cold clumps within diffuse nebulae. A series of photoionization models were constructed to test the two scenarios. We found that the observed T e (He I)/T e (H I) discrepancies are beyond the predictions of chemically homogeneous models. Our modeling shows that the presence of a small amount of hydrogen-deficient inclusions seems to be able to reproduce the observed intensities of He I discontinuities. We stress the value of He I discontinuities in investigating nebular physical conditions. Albeit with some observational and technical limitations, He I discontinuities should be considered in future modeling work.

  9. FAST, LOW-IONIZATION EMISSION REGIONS OF THE PLANETARY NEBULA M2-42

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danehkar, A.; Parker, Q. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Steffen, W., E-mail: ashkbiz.danehkar@cfa.harvard.edu [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, C.P.22860, Ensenada (Mexico)

    2016-02-15

    Spatially resolved observations of the planetary nebula M2-42 (PN G008.2−04.8) obtained with the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3 m telescope have revealed the remarkable features of bipolar collimated jets emerging from its main structure. Velocity-resolved channel maps derived from the [N ii] λ6584 emission line disentangle different morphological components of the nebula. This information is used to develop a three-dimensional morpho-kinematic model, which consists of an equatorial dense torus and a pair of asymmetric bipolar outflows. The expansion velocity of about 20 km s{sup −1} is measured from the spectrum integrated over the main shell. However, the deprojected velocities of the jets are found to be in the range of 80–160 km s{sup −1} with respect to the nebular center. It is found that the mean density of the collimated outflows, 595 ± 125 cm{sup −3}, is five times lower than that of the main shell, 3150 cm{sup −3}, whereas their singly ionized nitrogen and sulfur abundances are about three times higher than those determined from the dense shell. The results indicate that the features of the collimated jets are typical of fast, low-ionization emission regions.

  10. Ages of evolved low mass stars: Central stars of planetary nebulae and white dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa R.D.D.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed several methods to estimate the ages of central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN, which are based either on observed nebular properties or on data from the stars themselves. Our goal is to derive the age distribution of these stars and compare the results with empirical distributions for CSPN and white dwarfs. We have initially developed three methods based on nebular abundances, using (i an age-metallicity relation which is also a function of the galactocentric distance; (ii an age-metallicity relation obtained for the galactic disk, and (iii the central star masses derived from the observed nitrogen abundances. In this work we present two new, more accurate methods, which are based on kinematic properties: (I in this method, the expected rotation velocities of the nebulae around the galactic centre at their galactocentric distances are compared with the predicted values for the galactic rotation curve, and the differences are attributed to the different ages of the evolved stars; (II we determine directly the U, V, W, velocity components of the stars, as well as the velocity dispersions, and use the dispersion-age relation by the Geneva-Copenhagen survey. These methods were applied to two large samples of galactic CSPN. We conclude that most CSPN in the galactic disk have ages under 5 Gyr, and that the age distribution is peaked around 1 to 3 Gyr.

  11. The 12C/13C Isotopic Ratio in Planetary Nebulae as Deduced from IUE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskey, C. L.; Feibelman, W. A.; Bruhweiler, F. C.

    2000-05-01

    The relative abundances of C, N, and O and the isotopic ratio of 12C/13C represent tracers of nucleosynthesis in intermediate stars with main-sequence masses between 0.6 and 8.0 solar masses in our Galaxy. Determining these abundances and the isotopic 12C/13C ratio in planetary nebulae (PNe) represent perhaps the best means to discern exactly how the ISM is enriched by CNO stellar nucleosynthesis. Walsh et al. (1996) and Clegg et al. (1997), using the Hubble Space Telescope, have derived the isotopic 12C/13C abundance ratio in the galactic carbon-rich PN, NGC 3918, and placed marginal constraints on it for the Magellanic PNe, N2 (SMC) and N122 (LMC). This was done using the well-known 12C 3P-1S (J=1-0 and J=2-0) transitions of C+2 at 1906.68 Angstroms and 1908.77 Angstroms and a J=0-0 transition at 1909.6 Angstroms, which is strictly forbidden in 12C. The finite nuclear spin of 13C (I=1/2) permits a corresponding F=1/2-1/2 electric dipole transition not seen in 12C. Since the 1909.6 Angstroms line is well separated from the other two 12C transitions, it provides an important means of determining 12C/13C in planetary nebulae. We have just completed a search of archival International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) high-dispersion spectra of approximately three dozen PNe, and derived 12C/13C ratios of 39 and 23 for the galactic PNe, NGC 2440 and NGC 6302, respectively. These are values much lower than the solar value of 89. In the other objects, the limited S/N of the IUE data indicate 12C/13C ratio upper limits much higher than 50. The implications of these results and their pertinence to stellar evolution are discussed.

  12. New Identifications of the CCH Radical in Planetary Nebulae: A Connection to C60?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, D. R.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    New detections of CCH have been made toward nine planetary nebulae (PNe), including K4-47, K3-58, K3-17, M3-28, and M4-14. Measurements of the N = 1 → 0 and N = 3 → 2 transitions of this radical near 87 and 262 GHz were carried out using the new 12 m and the Sub-Millimeter Telescope (SMT) of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). The presence of fine and/or hyperfine structure in the spectra aided in the identification. CCH was not observed in two PNe which are sources of C60. The planetary nebulae with positive detections represent a wide range of ages and morphologies, and all had previously been observed in HCN and HNC. Column densities for CCH in the PNe, determined from radiative transfer modeling, were N tot(CCH) ˜ 0.2-3.3 × 1015 cm-2, corresponding to fractional abundances with respect to H2 of f ˜ 0.2-47 × 10-7. The abundance of CCH was found to not vary significantly with kinematic age across a time span of ˜10,000 years, in contrast to predictions of chemical models. CCH appears to be a fairly common constituent of PNe that are carbon-rich, and its distribution may anti-correlate with that of C60. These results suggest that CCH may be a product of C60 photodestruction, which is known to create C2 units. The molecule may subsequently survive the PN stage and populate diffuse clouds. The distinct, double-horned line profiles for CCH observed in K3-45 and M3-28 indicate the possible presence of a bipolar flow oriented at least partially toward the line of sight.

  13. Angular diameters of Magellanic Cloud plantary nebulae. I. Speckle interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, P.R.; Bessell, M.S.; Dopita, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Speckle interferometric angular diameters of Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae are presented. The mass of ionized gas in each nebula has been derived from the angular diameter and published H-beta line fluxes; the derives masses range from less than 0.006 to more than 0.19 solar mass. The planetary nebulae observed were the brightest in the Magellanic Clouds; consequently, they are all relatively small, young, bright, and dense. They are almost certainly only partially ionized, so that the masses derived for the ionized parts of the nebula are lower limits to the total nebula mass. The properties of the Magellanic Cloud nebulae are compared with those of planetary nebulae at the galactic center. 27 references

  14. Rocky Planetary Debris Around Young WDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensicke, B.

    2014-04-01

    The vast majority of all known planet host stars, including the Sun, will eventually evolve into red giants and finally end their lives as white dwarfs: extremely dense Earth-sized stellar embers. Only close-in planets will be devoured during the red-giant phase. In the solar system, Mars, the asteroid belt, and all the giant planets will escape evaporation, and the same is true for many of the known exo-planets. It is hence certain that a significant fraction of the known white dwarfs were once host stars to planets, and it is very likely that many of them still have remnants of planetary systems. The detection of metals in the atmospheres of white dwarfs is the unmistakable signpost of such evolved planetary systems. The strong surface gravity of white dwarfs causes metals to sink out of the atmosphere on time-scales much shorter than their cooling ages, leading unavoidably to pristine H/He atmospheres. Therefore any metals detected in the atmosphere of a white dwarf imply recent or ongoing accretion of planetary debris. In fact, planetary debris is also detected as circumstellar dust and gas around a number of white dwarfs. These debris disks are formed from the tidal disruption of asteroids or Kuiper belt-like objects, stirred up by left-over planets, and are subsequently accreted onto the white dwarf, imprinting their abundance pattern into its atmosphere. Determining the photospheric abundances of debris-polluted white dwarfs is hence entirely analogue to the use of meteorites, "rocks that fell from the sky", for measuring the abundances of planetary material in the solar system. I will briefly review this new field of exo-planet science, and then focus on the results of a large, unbiased COS snapshot survey of relatively young ( 20-100Myr) white dwarfs that we carried out in Cycle 18/19. * At least 30% of all white dwarfs in our sample are accreting planetary debris, and that fraction may be as high as 50%. * In most cases where debris pollution is detected

  15. Circumstellar Gas in Young Planetary Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, A.

    Circumstellar (CS) disks orbiting young stars fall into two categories: primordial disks, composed of unprocessed interstellar dust and gas, and debris disks, produced by the destruction of solid planetary bodies. In the first class, the most abundant gas is H_2; in the second, it appears that the H_2 gas has disappeared, possibly through incorporation into gas giant planets. The lifetime of H_2 gas in a CS disk is therefore of great importance, as it dictates the timescale for the formation of giant planets. FUSE observations of H_2 in CS disk systems have shown that FUV absorption spectroscopy may sensitively probe for small amounts of gas along the line of sight to the star. Most importantly, the FUSE non-detection of H_2 gas in the Beta Pictoris disk suggests that the primordial gas lifetime is less than about 12 Myr, and that gas giant planets must form very quickly. However, this suggestion is based on one system, and needs to be tested in additional systems with a range of ages, especially since there are indications that age is not the only factor in the evolution of a CS disk. We propose for FUSE observations of 3 additional debris disk systems, Fomalhaut, HD3003, and HD2884. Fomalhaut is an intermediate age debris disk, one of the Fabulous Four CS disks first discovered in 1984. The other two disks are younger, with ages similar to that of Beta Pic. All three stars are brighter in the FUV than Beta Pic, permitting us to sensitively probe for traces of H_2 gas. We will also measure the amount of secondary atomic gas produced from planetary bodies in these disks, in an effort to understand the entire evolution of CS gas in young planetary systems.

  16. THE YOUNG INTERSTELLAR BUBBLE WITHIN THE ROSETTE NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhweiler, F. C.; Bourdin, M. O.; Freire Ferrero, R.; Gull, T. R.

    2010-01-01

    We use high-resolution International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) data and the interstellar (IS) features of highly ionized Si IV and C IV seen toward the young, bright OB stars of NGC 2244 in the core of the Rosette Nebula to study the physics of young IS bubbles. Two discrete velocity components in Si IV and C IV are seen toward stars in the 6.2 pc radius central cavity, while only a single velocity component is seen toward those stars in the surrounding H II region, at the perimeter and external to this cavity. The central region shows characteristics of a very young, windblown bubble. The shell around the central hot cavity is expanding at 56 km s -1 with respect to the embedded OB stars, while the surrounding H II region of the Rosette is expanding at ∼13 km s -1 . Even though these stars are quite young (∼2-4 Myr), both the radius and expansion velocity of the 6.2 pc inner shell point to a far younger age; t age ∼ 6.4 x 10 4 years. These results represent a strong contradiction to theory and present modeling, where much larger bubbles are predicted around individual O stars and O associations. Specifically, the results for this small bubble and its deduced age extend the 'missing wind luminosity problem' to young evolving bubbles. These results indicate that OB star winds mix the surrounding H II regions and the wind kinetic energy is converted to turbulence and radiated away in the dense H II regions. These winds do not form hot, adiabatically expanding cavities. True IS bubbles appear only to form at later evolutionary times, perhaps triggered by increased mass loss rates or discrete ejection events. Means for rectifying discrepancies between theory and observations are discussed.

  17. Abundance Analysis of 17 Planetary Nebulae from High-Resolution Optical Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrard, Cameroun G.; Sterling, Nicholas C.; Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Madonna, Simone; Mashburn, Amanda

    2017-06-01

    We present an abundance analysis of 17 planetary nebulae (PNe) observed with the 2D-coudé echelle spectrograph on the 2.7-m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory. The spectra cover the wavelength range 3600--10,400 Å at a resolution R = 36,700, and are the first high-resolution optical spectra for many objects in our sample. The number of emission lines detected in individual nebulae range from ~125 to over 600. We derive temperatures, densities, and abundances from collisionally-excited lines using the PyNeb package (Luridiana et al. 2015, A&A, 573, A42) and the ionization correction factor scheme of Delgado-Inglada et al. (2014, MNRAS, 440, 536). The abundances of light elements agree with previous estimates for most of the PNe. Several objects exhibit emission lines of refractory elements such as K and Fe, and neutron-capture elements that can be enriched by the s-process. We find that K and Fe are depleted relative to solar by ~0.3--0.7~dex and 1-2 dex, respectively, and find evidence for s-process enrichments in 10 objects. Several objects in our sample exhibit C, N, and O recombination lines that are useful for abundance determinations. These transitions are used to compute abundance discrepancy factors (ADFs), the ratio of ionic abundances derived from permitted lines to those from collisionally-excited transitions. We explore relations among depletion factors, ADFs, s-process enrichment factors, and other nebular stellar and nebular properties. We acknowledge support from NSF awards AST-901432 and AST-0708429.

  18. Identification of Near-infrared [Se iii] and [Kr vi] Emission Lines in Planetary Nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, N. C.; Mashburn, A. L. [Department of Physics, University of West Georgia, 1601 Maple Street, Carrollton, GA 30118 (United States); Madonna, S.; García-Rojas, J.; Luridiana, V. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Butler, K. [Institut für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Morisset, C. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 20164, 04510 (Mexico); Roederer, I. U., E-mail: nsterlin@westga.edu, E-mail: awhite15@my.westga.edu, E-mail: vale@iaa.es, E-mail: smadonna@iac.es, E-mail: jogarcia@iac.es, E-mail: butler@usm.uni-muenchen.de, E-mail: chris.morisset@gmail.com, E-mail: iur@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    We identify [Se iii] 1.0994 μ m in the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 5315 and [Kr vi] 1.2330 μ m in three PNe from spectra obtained with the Folded-Port InfraRed Echellette (FIRE) spectrometer on the 6.5 m Baade Telescope. Se and Kr are the two most widely detected neutron-capture elements in astrophysical nebulae, and can be enriched by s -process nucleosynthesis in PN progenitor stars. The detection of [Se iii] 1.0994 μ m is particularly valuable when paired with observations of [Se iv] 2.2864 μ m, as it can be used to improve the accuracy of nebular Se abundance determinations, and allows Se ionization correction factor (ICF) schemes to be empirically tested for the first time. We present new effective collision strength calculations for Se{sup 2+} and Kr{sup 5+}, which we use to compute ionic abundances. In NGC 5315, we find that the Se abundance computed from Se{sup 3+}/H{sup +} is lower than that determined with ICFs that incorporate Se{sup 2+}/H{sup +}. We compute new Kr ICFs that take Kr{sup 5+}/H{sup +} into account, by fitting correlations found in grids of Cloudy models between Kr ionic fractions and those of more abundant elements, and use these to derive Kr abundances in four PNe. Observations of [Se iii] and [Kr vi] in a larger sample of PNe, with a range of excitation levels, are needed to rigorously test the ICF prescriptions for Se and our new Kr ICFs.

  19. Spectrophotometry near the atmospheric cutoff of the strongest Bowen resonance fluorescence lines of O III in two planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, C. R.; Opal, Chet B.

    1989-01-01

    Spectrophotometric results are presented for the stronger, well-resolved Bowen O III resonance fluorescence emission lines in the planetary nebulae 7027 and NGC 7662 down to and including the intrinsically strong line at 3133 A. These data are combined with results from the IUE atlas of spectra and similar results for the longer wavelength lines by Likkel and Aller (1986) to give the first full coverage of the Bowen lines. Good agreement is found with fluorescence theory for the primary cascade lines, except for the Likkel and Aller results. The efficiency of conversion of the exciting He II Ly-alpha into O III lines is determined, and values comparable to other planetary nebulae are found.

  20. Faint planetary nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds - central star properties and nebular abundances for the Jacoby sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.B.C.; Liebert, J.; Boroson, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    Forty-four of the LMC and SMC planetary nebulae contained in Jacoby's (1980) sample are studied. Spectrophotometric observations were used to infer the Stoy temperatures, luminosities, and radii of the central stars. For objects in which forbidden O III electron temperatures could be determined, the nebular abundances of He, N, O, and Ne were calculated and compared with values for giant H II regions for the relevant host galaxy. When the present abundance results were compared with previously published results for planetary nebulae in the LMC, SMC, and the Galaxy, a strong correlation was found for O/H versus Ne/H and strong anticorrelations were found for O/H versus forbidden O III temperature, and N/O versus O/H. 69 refs

  1. High-resolution 8-13 micron imaging of the planetary nebulae BD + 30 deg 3639 and NGC 6572

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, J.L.; Hoffmann, W.F.; Deutsch, L.K.; Fazio, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    High-resolution midinfrared images of the planetary nebulae BD + 30 deg 3639 and NGC 6572 are presented at 8.3, 8.7, 9.8, 11.2, and 12.4 microns. Analysis of the maps of BD + 30 deg 3639 supports a model in which the infrared emission originates from two spatially distinct components, one which is responsible for the continuum radiation at 8-12 microns and the other which produces the emission-line features. The NGC 6572 images provides evidence for a previously undetected 11.2 micron UIR emission feature. Comparison with radio continuum maps indicates that the distribution of dust is similar to the distribution of ionized gas in each nebula. Various models of source morphology are also investigated. The planetary nebulae DB + 30 deg 3639 and NGC 6572 can be modeled by an optically thin cylinder or a prolate ellipsoid with enhanced equatorial emission. These models reproduce well the general features of the nebula, such as the bipolar lobes of emission and the ring structure. 67 refs

  2. SALT reveals the barium central star of the planetary nebula Hen 2-39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszalski, B.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Jones, D.; Karakas, A. I.; Köppen, J.; Tyndall, A. A.; Mohamed, S. S.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Santander-García, M.

    2013-12-01

    Classical barium stars are binary systems which consist of a late-type giant enriched in carbon and slow neutron capture (s-process) elements and an evolved white dwarf (WD) that is invisible at optical wavelengths. The youngest observed barium stars are surrounded by planetary nebulae (PNe), ejected soon after the wind accretion of polluted material when the WD was in its preceding asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. Such systems are rare but powerful laboratories for studying AGB nucleosynthesis as we can measure the chemical abundances of both the polluted star and the nebula ejected by the polluter. Here, we present evidence for a barium star in the PN Hen 2-39 (PN G283.8-04.2) as one of only a few known systems. The polluted giant is very similar to that found in WeBo 1 (PN G135.6+01.0). It is a cool (Teff = 4250 ± 150 K) giant enhanced in carbon ([C/H] = 0.42 ± 0.02 dex) and barium ([Ba/Fe] = 1.50 ± 0.25 dex). A spectral type of C-R3 C24 nominally places Hen 2-39 amongst the peculiar early R-type carbon stars; however, the barium enhancement and likely binary status mean that it is more likely to be a barium star with similar properties, rather than a true member of this class. An AGB star model of initial mass 1.8 M⊙ and a relatively large carbon pocket size can reproduce the observed abundances well, provided mass is transferred in a highly conservative way from the AGB star to the polluted star (e.g. wind Roche lobe overflow). It also shows signs of chromospheric activity and photometric variability with a possible rotation period of ˜5.5 d likely induced by wind accretion. The nebula exhibits an apparent ring morphology in keeping with the other PNe around barium stars (WeBo 1 and A 70) and shows a high degree of ionization implying the presence of an invisible hot pre-WD companion that will require confirmation with UV observations. In contrast to A 70, the nebular chemical abundance pattern is consistent with non-Type I PNe, in keeping with the

  3. SULFUR- AND SILICON-BEARING MOLECULES IN PLANETARY NEBULAE: THE CASE OF M2-48

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J. L.; Ziurys, L. M., E-mail: lziurys@email.arizona.edu [Department of Chemistry, The University of Arizona, P.O. Box 210041, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    Molecular-line observations of the bipolar planetary nebula (PN) M2-48 have been conducted using the Sub-Millimeter Telescope and the 12 m antenna of the Arizona Radio Observatory at 1, 2, and 3 mm. M2-48 is estimated to be ∼4800 yr old, midway through the PN evolutionary track. SiO and SO{sub 2} were detected in this source—the first identification of either molecule in a PN. CN, HCN, HNC, CS, SO, HCO{sup +}, N{sub 2}H{sup +}, and several {sup 13}C isotopologues such as {sup 13}CN, H{sup 13}CN, and H{sup 13}CO{sup +} were also observed toward this object. A radiative transfer analysis of multiple SiO transitions indicates a gas kinetic temperature of T {sub K} ∼ 55 K and a density of n(H{sub 2}) ∼ 9 × 10{sup 5} cm{sup –3} in M2-48, in agreement with previous CS and CO modeling. After CO, CN, and SO were found to be the most prevalent molecules in this nebula, with fractional abundances, relative to H{sub 2}, of f ∼ 3.8 × 10{sup –7} and 2.4 × 10{sup –7}, respectively. SO{sub 2} and HCN are also abundant, with f ∼ 1.2 × 10{sup –7}, indicating an [SO]/[SO{sub 2}] ratio of ∼2. Relatively high ion abundances were measured in M2-48 as well, with f ∼ 10{sup –7} for both HCO{sup +} and N{sub 2}H{sup +}. An [HCN]/[HNC] ratio of ∼2 was determined, as typically observed in other PNe, independent of age. The high abundances of SO and SO{sub 2}, along with the presence of SiO with f ∼ 2.9 × 10{sup –8}, suggest O/C > 1 in this source; furthermore, the prevalence of CN and N{sub 2}H{sup +} indicates nitrogen enrichment. The {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratio of ∼3 in the nebula was also established. These factors indicate hot-bottom burning occurred in the progenitor star of M2-48, suggesting an initial mass > 4 M {sub ☉}.

  4. A Speculation into the Origin of Neutral Globules In Planetary Nebulae: Could the Helix's Comets Really Be Comets?

    OpenAIRE

    Gussie, Grant

    1995-01-01

    A novel explanation for the origin of the cometary globules within NGC 7293 (the "Helix" planetary nebula) is examined; that these globules originate as massive cometary bodies at large astrocentric radii. The mass of such hypothetical cometary bodies would have to be several orders of magnitude larger than any such bodies observed in our solar system in order to supply the observed mass of neutral gas. It is however shown that comets at "outer Oort cloud" like distances are likely to survive...

  5. Model-Atmosphere Spectra of Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae - Access via the Virtual Observatory Service TheoSSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Reindl, N.

    2014-04-01

    In the framework of the Virtual Observatory (VO), the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory GAVO project provides easy access to theoretical spectral energy distributions (SEDs) within the registered GAVO service TheoSSA (http://dc.g-vo.org/theossa). TheoSSA is based on the well established Tübingen NLTE Model-Atmosphere Package (TMAP) for hot, compact stars. This includes central stars of planetary nebulae. We show examples of TheoSSA in operation.

  6. Discovery of Low-ionization Envelopes in the Planetary Nebula NGC 5189: Spatially-resolved Diagnostics from HST Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehkar, Ashkbiz; Karovska, Margarita; Maksym, Walter Peter; Montez, Rodolfo

    2018-01-01

    The planetary nebula NGC 5189 shows one of the most spectacular morphological structures among planetary nebulae with [WR]-type central stars. Using high-angular resolution HST/WFC3 imaging, we discovered inner, low-ionization structures within a region of 0.3 parsec × 0.2 parsec around the central binary system. We used Hα, [O III], and [S II] emission line images to construct line-ratio diagnostic maps, which allowed us to spatially resolve two distinct low-ionization envelopes within the inner, ionized gaseous environment, extending over a distance of 0.15 pc from the central binary. Both the low-ionization envelopes appear to be expanding along a NE to SW symmetric axis. The SW envelope appears smaller than its NE counterpart. Our diagnostic maps show that highly-ionized gas surrounds these low-ionization envelopes, which also include filamentary and clumpy structures. These envelopes could be a result of a powerful outburst from the central interacting binary, when one of the companions (now a [WR] star) was in its AGB evolutionary stage, with a strong mass-loss generating dense circumstellar shells. Dense material ejected from the progenitor AGB star is likely heated up as it propagates along a symmetric axis into the previously expelled low-density material. Our new diagnostic methodology is a powerful tool for high-angular resolution mapping of low-ionization structures in other planetary nebulae with complex structures possibly caused by past outbursts from their progenitors.

  7. Episodic mass loss from the hydrogen-deficient central star of the planetary nebula Longmore 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Howard E., E-mail: heb11@psu.edu [Current address: Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A spectacular transient mass-loss episode from the extremely hot, hydrogen-deficient central star of the planetary nebula (PN) Longmore 4 (Lo 4) was discovered in 1992 by Werner et al. During that event, the star temporarily changed from its normal PG 1159 spectrum to that of an emission-line low-luminosity early-type Wolf-Rayet [WCE] star. After a few days, Lo 4 reverted to its normal, predominantly absorption-line PG 1159 type. To determine whether such events recur, and if so how often, I monitored the optical spectrum of Lo 4 from early 2003 to early 2012. Out of 81 spectra taken at random dates, 4 of them revealed mass-loss outbursts similar to that seen in 1992. This indicates that the episodes recur approximately every 100 days (if the recurrence rate has been approximately constant and the duration of a typical episode is ∼5 days), and that the star is in a high-mass-loss state about 5% of the time. Since the enhanced stellar wind is hydrogen-deficient, it arises from the photosphere and is unlikely to be related to phenomena such as a binary or planetary companion or infalling dust. I speculate on plausible mechanisms for these unique outbursts, including the possibility that they are related to the non-radial GW Vir-type pulsations exhibited by Lo 4. The central star of the PN NGC 246 has stellar parameters similar to those of Lo 4, and it is also a GW Vir-type pulsator with similar pulsation periods. I obtained 167 spectra of NGC 246 between 2003 and 2011, but no mass ejections were found.

  8. The binary fraction of planetary nebula central stars - III. the promise of VPHAS+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Helen; Zijlstra, Albert; De Marco, Orsola; Frew, David J.; Drew, Janet E.; Corradi, Romano L. M.; Eislöffel, Jochen; Parker, Quentin A.

    2018-04-01

    The majority of planetary nebulae (PNe) are not spherical, and current single-star models cannot adequately explain all the morphologies we observe. This has led to the Binary Hypothesis, which states that PNe are preferentially formed by binary systems. This hypothesis can be corroborated or disproved by comparing the estimated binary fraction of all PNe central stars (CS) to that of the supposed progenitor population. One way to quantify the rate of CS binarity is to detect near infrared excess indicative of a low-mass main-sequence companion. In this paper, a sample of known PNe within data release 2 of the ongoing VPHAS+ is investigated. We give details of the method used to calibrate VPHAS+ photometry, and present the expected colours of CS and main-sequence stars within the survey. Objects were scrutinized to remove PN mimics from our sample and identify true CS. Within our final sample of seven CS, six had previously either not been identified or confirmed. We detected an i-band excess indicative of a low-mass companion star in three CS, including one known binary, leading us to conclude that VPHAS+ provides the precise photometry required for the IR excess method presented here, and will likely improve as the survey completes and the calibration process finalized. Given the promising results from this trial sample, the entire VPHAS+ catalogue should be used to study PNe and extend the IR excess-tested CS sample.

  9. Mid-infrared imaging of the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 from SOFIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, M. W.; Sahai, R.; Davis, J.; Livingston, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91107 (United States); Lykou, F. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Vienna, Turkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180, Vienna (Austria); DE Buizer, J. [USRA SOFIA Science Center, M/S 211-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Division of Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Keller, L. [Department of Physics, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Adams, J.; Gull, G.; Henderson, C.; Herter, T.; Schoenwald, J., E-mail: Michael.W.Werner@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We have imaged the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 using SOFIA's FORCAST instrument in six wavelength bands between 6.6 and 37.1 μm. A bright central point source, unresolved with SOFIA's ∼4''-5'' beam, is seen at each wavelength, and the extended bipolar lobes are clearly seen at 19.7 μm and beyond. The photometry between 10 and 25 μm is well fit by the emission predicted from a stratified disk seen at large inclination, as has been proposed for this source by Lykou et al. and by Smith and Gehrz. The principal new results in this paper relate to the distribution and properties of the dust that emits the infrared radiation. In particular, a considerable fraction of this material is spread uniformly through the lobes, although the dust density does increase at the sharp outer edge seen in higher resolution optical images of M2-9. The dust grain population in the lobes shows that small (<0.1 μm) and large (>1 μm) particles appear to be present in roughly equal amounts by mass. We suggest that collisional processing within the bipolar outflow plays an important role in establishing the particle size distribution.

  10. Mid-infrared imaging of the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 from SOFIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, M. W.; Sahai, R.; Davis, J.; Livingston, J.; Lykou, F.; DE Buizer, J.; Morris, M. R.; Keller, L.; Adams, J.; Gull, G.; Henderson, C.; Herter, T.; Schoenwald, J.

    2014-01-01

    We have imaged the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 using SOFIA's FORCAST instrument in six wavelength bands between 6.6 and 37.1 μm. A bright central point source, unresolved with SOFIA's ∼4''-5'' beam, is seen at each wavelength, and the extended bipolar lobes are clearly seen at 19.7 μm and beyond. The photometry between 10 and 25 μm is well fit by the emission predicted from a stratified disk seen at large inclination, as has been proposed for this source by Lykou et al. and by Smith and Gehrz. The principal new results in this paper relate to the distribution and properties of the dust that emits the infrared radiation. In particular, a considerable fraction of this material is spread uniformly through the lobes, although the dust density does increase at the sharp outer edge seen in higher resolution optical images of M2-9. The dust grain population in the lobes shows that small (<0.1 μm) and large (>1 μm) particles appear to be present in roughly equal amounts by mass. We suggest that collisional processing within the bipolar outflow plays an important role in establishing the particle size distribution.

  11. Automatic Derivation of Statistical Data Analysis Algorithms: Planetary Nebulae and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Bernd; Hajian, Arsen; Knuth, Kevin; Schumann, Johann

    2004-04-01

    AUTOBAYES is a fully automatic program synthesis system for the data analysis domain. Its input is a declarative problem description in form of a statistical model; its output is documented and optimized C/C++ code. The synthesis process relies on the combination of three key techniques. Bayesian networks are used as a compact internal representation mechanism which enables problem decompositions and guides the algorithm derivation. Program schemas are used as independently composable building blocks for the algorithm construction; they can encapsulate advanced algorithms and data structures. A symbolic-algebraic system is used to find closed-form solutions for problems and emerging subproblems. In this paper, we describe the application of AUTOBAYES to the analysis of planetary nebulae images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. We explain the system architecture, and present in detail the automatic derivation of the scientists' original analysis as well as a refined analysis using clustering models. This study demonstrates that AUTOBAYES is now mature enough so that it can be applied to realistic scientific data analysis tasks.

  12. Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury. IX. A photometric survey of planetary nebulae in M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veyette, Mark J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Balick, Bruce; Fouesneau, Morgan [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Girardi, Léo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova—INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Gordon, Karl D.; Kalirai, Jason [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Rosenfield, Philip [Department of Physics and Astronomy G. Galilei, University of Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Seth, Anil C., E-mail: mveyette@uw.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    We search the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys and Wide Field Camera 3 broadband imaging data from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey to identify detections of cataloged planetary nebulae (PNs). Of the 711 PNs currently in the literature within the PHAT footprint, we find 467 detected in the broadband. For these 467, we are able to refine their astrometric accuracy from ∼0.''3 to 0.''05. Using the resolution of the HST, we are able to show that 152 objects currently in the catalogs are definitively not PNs, and we show that 32 objects thought to be extended in ground-based images are actually point-like and therefore good PN candidates. We also find one PN candidate that is marginally resolved. If this is a PN, it is up to 0.7 pc in diameter. With our new photometric data, we develop a method of measuring the level of excitation in individual PNs by comparing broadband and narrowband imaging and describe the effects of excitation on a PN's photometric signature. Using the photometric properties of the known PNs in the PHAT catalogs, we search for more PNs, but do not find any new candidates, suggesting that ground-based emission-line surveys are complete in the PHAT footprint to F475W ≅ 24.

  13. The central star candidate of the planetary nebula Sh2-71: photometric and spectroscopic variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Močnik, T.; Lloyd, M.; Pollacco, D.; Street, R. A.

    2015-07-01

    We present the analysis of several newly obtained and archived photometric and spectroscopic data sets of the intriguing and yet poorly understood 13.5 mag central star candidate of the bipolar planetary nebula Sh2-71. Photometric observations confirmed the previously determined quasi-sinusoidal light curve with a period of 68 d and also indicated periodic sharp brightness dips, possibly eclipses, with a period of 17.2 d. In addition, the comparison between U and V light curves revealed that the 68 d brightness variations are accompanied by a variable reddening effect of ΔE(U - V) = 0.38. Spectroscopic data sets demonstrated pronounced variations in spectral profiles of Balmer, helium and singly ionized metal lines and indicated that these variations occur on a time-scale of a few days. The most accurate verification to date revealed that spectral variability is not correlated with the 68 d brightness variations. The mean radial velocity of the observed star was measured to be ˜26 km s-1 with an amplitude of ±40 km s-1. The spectral type was determined to be B8V through spectral comparison with synthetic and standard spectra. The newly proposed model for the central star candidate is a Be binary with a misaligned precessing disc.

  14. Optical spectra of radio planetary nebulae in the large Magellanic Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present 11 spectra from 12 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC. Originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA LMC surveys at 1.4, 4.8 and 8.64 GHz and confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3 cm (4' /2' , these complement data recently presented for candidate radio PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. Their spectra were obtained using the Radcliff 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland (South Africa. All of the optical PNe and radio candidates are within 2' and may represent a population of selected radio bright sample only. Nebular ionized masses of these objects are estimated to be as high as 1.8 Mfi, supporting the idea that massive PNe progenitor central stars lose much of their mass in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB phase or prior. We also identify a sub-population (33% of radio PNe candidates with prominent ionized iron emission lines.

  15. Optical Spectra of Radio Planetary Nebulae in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We present 11 spectra from 12 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC. Originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA LMC surveys at 1.4, 4.8 and 8.64~GHz and confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3~cm (4arcsec/2arcsec, these complement data recently presented for candidate radio PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. Their spectra were obtained using the Radcliffe 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland (South Africa. All of the optical PNe and radio candidates are within 2arcsec and may represent a population of selected radio bright sample only. Nebular ionized masses of these objects are estimated to be as high as 1.8~$M_odot$, supporting the idea that massive PNe progenitor central stars lose much of their mass in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB phase or prior. We also identify a sub-population (33\\% of radio PNe candidates with prominent ionized iron emission lines.

  16. M2-9 - a planetary nebula with an eruptive nucleus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balick, B.

    1989-01-01

    M2-9 is a striking bipolar, or butterfly, planetary nebula (PN) whose nuclear spectrum is uncharacteristic of PN nuclei. Narrow lines ranging in ionization from O I, Fe II, forbidden Fe II, and Si II through forbidden O III are observed in the stellar spectrum. The H-alpha emission line has wings extending nearly 11,000 km/s at the base, and there is a deep self-absorption feature near the H-alpha line peak at the same velocity as nebular gas observed in one of the two bipolar lobes. The spectrum of M2-9's nucleus is more similar to the slow nova RR Tel, some symbiotic stars, and Seyfert (type 1.9) galactic nuclei than the central stars of most other PNs. Although its morphology, size, and nebular spectrum share many similarities with other PNs, M2-9 may not share a common evolutionary history with that class of objects. 31 references

  17. INFRARED TWO-COLOR DIAGRAMS FOR AGB STARS, POST-AGB STARS, AND PLANETARY NEBULAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Kyung-Won, E-mail: kwsuh@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju-City, 362-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-01

    We present various infrared two-color diagrams (2CDs) for asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, post-AGB stars, and Planetary Nebulae (PNe) and investigate possible evolutionary tracks. We use catalogs from the available literature for the sample of 4903 AGB stars (3373 O-rich; 1168 C-rich; 362 S-type), 660 post-AGB stars (326 post-AGB; 334 pre-PN), and 1510 PNe in our Galaxy. For each object in the catalog, we cross-identify the IRAS, AKARI, Midcourse Space Experiment, and 2MASS counterparts. The IR 2CDs can provide useful information about the structure and evolution of the dust envelopes as well as the central stars. To find possible evolutionary tracks from AGB stars to PNe on the 2CDs, we investigate spectral evolution of post-AGB stars by making simple but reasonable assumptions on the evolution of the central star and dust shell. We perform radiative transfer model calculations for the detached dust shells around evolving central stars in the post-AGB phase. We find that the theoretical dust shell model tracks using dust opacity functions of amorphous silicate and amorphous carbon roughly coincide with the densely populated observed points of AGB stars, post-AGB stars, and PNe on various IR 2CDs. Even though some discrepancies are inevitable, the end points of the theoretical post-AGB model tracks generally converge in the region of the observed points of PNe on most 2CDs.

  18. Central stars of planetary nebulae. II. New OB-type and emission-line stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, W. A.; Gamen, R.

    2011-07-01

    Context. There are more than 3000 confirmed and probably known Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe), but central star spectroscopic information is available for only 13% of them. Aims: We have undertaken a spectroscopic survey of the central stars in PNe to identify their spectral types. Methods: We performed spectroscopic observations at low resolution with the 2-m telescope at CASLEO, Argentina. Results: We present the spectra of 46 central stars of PNe, most of them are OB-type and emission-line stars. Based on data collected at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina y Universidades Nacionales de La Plata, Córdoba y San Juan, Argentina.The reduced spectra (FITS files) are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/531/A172

  19. Abell 48 - a rare WN-type central star of a planetary nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todt, H.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Hamann, W.-R.; Buckley, D.; Crause, L.; Crawford, S. M.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Hettlage, C.; Hooper, E.; Husser, T.-O.; Kotze, P.; Loaring, N.; Nordsieck, K. H.; O'Donoghue, D.; Pickering, T.; Potter, S.; Romero-Colmenero, E.; Vaisanen, P.; Williams, T.; Wolf, M.

    2013-04-01

    A considerable fraction of the central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNe) are hydrogen-deficient. Almost all of these H-deficient central stars (CSs) display spectra with strong carbon and helium lines. Most of them exhibit emission-line spectra resembling those of massive WC stars. Therefore these stars are classed as CSPNe of spectral type [WC]. Recently, quantitative spectral analysis of two emission-line CSs, PB 8 and IC 4663, revealed that these stars do not belong to the [WC] class. Instead PB 8 has been classified as [WN/WC] type and IC 4663 as [WN] type. In this work we report the spectroscopic identification of another rare [WN] star, the CS of Abell 48. We performed a spectral analysis of Abell 48 with the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) models for expanding atmospheres. We find that the expanding atmosphere of Abell 48 is mainly composed of helium (85 per cent by mass), hydrogen (10 per cent) and nitrogen (5 per cent). The residual hydrogen and the enhanced nitrogen abundance make this object different from the other [WN] star IC 4663. We discuss the possible origin of this atmospheric composition.

  20. A Treasure Trove of Molecules: Uncovering the Molecular Content of Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Deborah Rose; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2016-06-01

    We have undertaken a systematic study of the molecular content of planetary nebulae (PNe) using the facilities of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). A search for HCN and HCO+ in seventeen PNe in which CO had previously been detected has been carried out. The J=1→0 and J=3→2 transitions of both molecules were searched for using the ARO 12-M Telescope and ARO Sub-Millimeter Telescope respectively. At least one transition of either molecule was detected in thirteen sources. Assuming a kinetic temperature of 20 K, the abundances of these two molecule, relative to H2, were determined to be f(HCN) ~ 0.1 - 9.1 × 10-7 and f(HCO+) ~ 0.04 - 7.4 × 10-7. The abundances of both species were found to remain relatively constant with nebular age, in contrast to predictions of chemical models. A subset of eleven of these PNe were subsequently searched for the J=1→0 and J=3→2 transitions of CCH and HNC. HNC was detected in ten sources, resulting in HCN/HNC ratios of ~2-6, while CCH has been detected in eight. The most current results for the abundances of both molecules will be reported. The correlation of CCH and C60 will also be presented. Establishing molecular abundances in PNe is vital to our understanding of their environments as well as the nature of their ejecta, which populate the interstellar medium (ISM).

  1. MULTIPLE FAST MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN THE PRE-PLANETARY NEBULA CRL 618

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Huang, Po-Sheng [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Sahai, Raghvendra [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Sánchez Contreras, Carmen [Astrobiology Center (CSIC-INTA), ESAC Campus, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Tay, Jeremy Jian Hao [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2013-11-01

    CRL 618 is a well-studied pre-planetary nebula. It has multiple highly collimated optical lobes, fast molecular outflows along the optical lobes, and an extended molecular envelope that consists of a dense torus in the equator and a tenuous round halo. Here we present our observations of this source in CO J = 3-2 and HCN J = 4-3 obtained with the Submillimeter Array at up to ∼0.''3 resolutions. We spatially resolve the fast molecular outflow region previously detected in CO near the central star and find it to be composed of multiple outflows that have similar dynamical ages and are oriented along the different optical lobes. We also detect fast molecular outflows further away from the central star near the tips of the extended optical lobes and a pair of equatorial outflows inside the dense torus. We find that two episodes of bullet ejections in different directions are needed, one producing the fast molecular outflows near the central star and one producing the fast molecular outflows near the tips of the extended optical lobes. One possibility to launch these bullets is a magneto-rotational explosion of the stellar envelope.

  2. Planetary Nebulae and their parent stellar populations. Tracing the mass assembly of M87 and Intracluster light in the Virgo cluster core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaboldi, Magda; Longobardi, Alessia; Gerhard, Ortwin

    2016-08-01

    The diffuse extended outer regions of galaxies are hard to study because they are faint, with typical surface brightness of 1% of the dark night sky. We can tackle this problem by using resolved star tracers which remain visible at large distances from the galaxy centers. This article describes the use of Planetary Nebulae as tracers and the calibration of their properties as indicators of the star formation history, mean age and metallicity of the parent stars in the Milky Way and Local Group galaxies. We then report on the results from a deep, extended, planetary nebulae survey in a 0.5 deg2 region centered on the brightest cluster galaxy NGC 4486 (M87) in the Virgo cluster core, carried out with SuprimeCam@Subaru and FLAMES-GIRAFFE@VLT. Two planetary nebulae populations are identified out to 150 kpc distance from the center of M87. One population is associated with the M87 halo and the second one with the intracluster light in the Virgo cluster core. They have different line-of-sight velocity and spatial distributions, as well as different planetary nebulae specific frequencies and luminosity functions. The intracluster planetary nebulae in the surveyed region correspond to a luminosity of four times the luminosity of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The M87 halo planetary nebulae trace an older, more metal-rich, parent stellar population. A substructure detected in the projected phase-space of the line-of-sight velocity vs. major axis distance for the M87 halo planetary nebulae provides evidence for the recent accretion event of a satellite galaxy with luminosity twice that of M33. The satellite stars were tidally stripped about 1 Gyr ago, and reached apocenter at a major axis distance of 60-90 kpc from the center of M87. The M87 halo is still growing significantly at the distances where the substructure is detected.

  3. THE DOUBLE-DEGENERATE NUCLEUS OF THE PLANETARY NEBULA TS 01: A CLOSE BINARY EVOLUTION SHOWCASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovmassian, Gagik; Richer, Michael G.; Yungelson, Lev; Rauch, Thomas; Suleimanov, Valery; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Stasinska, Grazyna; Tomsick, John; Wilms, Joern; Morisset, Christophe; Pena, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of SBS 1150+599A, a close binary star hosted by the planetary nebula PN G135.9+55.9 (TS 01). The nebula, located in the Galactic halo, is the most oxygen-poor known to date and is the only one known to harbor a double degenerate core. We present XMM-Newton observations of this object, which allowed the detection of the previously invisible component of the binary core, whose existence was inferred so far only from radial velocity (RV) and photometric variations. The parameters of the binary system were deduced from a wealth of information via three independent routes using the spectral energy distribution (from the infrared to X-rays), the light and RV curves, and a detailed model atmosphere fitting of the stellar absorption features of the optical/UV component. We find that the cool component must have a mass of 0.54 ± 0.2 M sun , an average effective temperature, T eff , of 58,000 ± 3000 K, a mean radius of 0.43 ± 0.3 R sun , a gravity, log g = 5.0 ± 0.3, and that it nearly fills its Roche lobe. Its surface elemental abundances are found to be: 12 + log He/H = 10.95 ± 0.04 dex, 12 + log C/H = 7.20 ± 0.3 dex, 12 + log N/H eff = 160-180 kK, a luminosity of about ∼10 4 L sun and a radius slightly larger than that of a white dwarf. It is probably bloated and heated as a result of intense accretion and nuclear burning on its surface in the past. The total mass of the binary system is very close to the Chandrasekhar limit. This makes TS 01 one of the best Type Ia supernova progenitor candidates. We propose two possible scenarios for the evolution of the system up to its present stage.

  4. THE CHANDRA X-RAY SURVEY OF PLANETARY NEBULAE (CHANPLANS): PROBING BINARITY, MAGNETIC FIELDS, AND WIND COLLISIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastner, J. H.; Montez, R. Jr.; Rapson, V. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Frew, D. J.; De Marco, O.; Parker, Q. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Macquarie Research Centre for Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Miszalski, B. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory, 7935 (South Africa); Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 183-900, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Blackman, E.; Frank, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Chu, Y.-H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, Champagne-Urbana, IL (United States); Guerrero, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Astronomia, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, Granada 18008 (Spain); Lopez, J. A. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 22860, Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico); Zijlstra, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Behar, E. [Department of Physics, Technion (Israel); Bujarrabal, V. [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Apartado 112, E-28803, Alcala de Henares (Spain); Corradi, R. L. M. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Nordhaus, J. [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Sandin, C., E-mail: jhk@cis.rit.edu, E-mail: soker@physics.technion.ac.il, E-mail: eva.villaver@uam.es [Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); and others

    2012-08-15

    We present an overview of the initial results from the Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (CHANPLANS), the first systematic (volume-limited) Chandra X-Ray Observatory survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood. The first phase of CHANPLANS targeted 21 mostly high-excitation PNe within {approx}1.5 kpc of Earth, yielding four detections of diffuse X-ray emission and nine detections of X-ray-luminous point sources at the central stars (CSPNe) of these objects. Combining these results with those obtained from Chandra archival data for all (14) other PNe within {approx}1.5 kpc that have been observed to date, we find an overall X-ray detection rate of {approx}70% for the 35 sample objects. Roughly 50% of the PNe observed by Chandra harbor X-ray-luminous CSPNe, while soft, diffuse X-ray emission tracing shocks-in most cases, 'hot bubbles'-formed by energetic wind collisions is detected in {approx}30%; five objects display both diffuse and point-like emission components. The presence (or absence) of X-ray sources appears correlated with PN density structure, in that molecule-poor, elliptical nebulae are more likely to display X-ray emission (either point-like or diffuse) than molecule-rich, bipolar, or Ring-like nebulae. All but one of the point-like CSPNe X-ray sources display X-ray spectra that are harder than expected from hot ({approx}100 kK) central stars emitting as simple blackbodies; the lone apparent exception is the central star of the Dumbbell nebula, NGC 6853. These hard X-ray excesses may suggest a high frequency of binary companions to CSPNe. Other potential explanations include self-shocking winds or PN mass fallback. Most PNe detected as diffuse X-ray sources are elliptical nebulae that display a nested shell/halo structure and bright ansae; the diffuse X-ray emission regions are confined within inner, sharp-rimmed shells. All sample PNe that display diffuse X-ray emission have inner shell dynamical ages {approx}< 5 Multiplication

  5. A New Radio Spectral Line Survey of Planetary Nebulae: Exploring Radiatively Driven Heating and Chemistry of Molecular Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublitz, Jesse

    Planetary nebulae contain shells of cold gas and dust whose heating and chemistry is likely driven by UV and X-ray emission from their central stars and from wind-collision-generated shocks. We present the results of a survey of molecular line emissions in the 88 - 235 GHz range from nine nearby (Radioastronomie Millimetrique. Rotational transitions of nine molecules, including the well-studied CO isotopologues and chemically important trace species, were observed and the results compared with and augmented by previous studies of molecular gas in PNe. Lines of the molecules HCO+, HNC, HCN, and CN, which were detected in most objects, represent new detections for five planetary nebulae in our study. Flux ratios were analyzed to identify correlations between the central star and/or nebular ultraviolet/X-ray luminosities and the molecular chemistries of the nebulae. Analysis reveals the apparent dependence of the HNC/HCN line ratio on PN central star UV luminosity. There exists no such clear correlation between PN X-rays and various diagnostics of PN molecular chemistry. The correlation between HNC/HCN ratio and central star UV luminosity hints at the potential of molecular emission line studies of PNe for improving our understanding of the role that high-energy radiation plays in the heating and chemistry of photodissociation regions.

  6. Planetary nebulae search in the outskirts of M33: looking for the farthest candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galera Rosillo, Rebeca; Corradi, Romano L. M.; Mampaso Recio, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    The nearby disc galaxy M33 is one of the best laboratories for testing chemical evolution models in galaxies and for understanding disc formation mechanisms. In this galaxy, planetary nebulae (PNe) were previously extensively studied only within a galactocentric radius of 8 kpc.In the framework of a broad study of the population of PNe in Local Group disc galaxies, we present the results of a deep narrow-band imaging of the outer regions of M33, performed using the Wide Field Camera at the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT).The INT images were obtained in the narrow-band filters selecting the [OIII] 5007 Å and Hα 6563 Å lines, plus broad-band filters SDSS g and i. A photometric catalog of around 150000 sources covering a total area of 5 square degrees, and extending out to 2 deg (30 kpc at the adopted distance of 840 kpc) from the centre of the galaxy is presented.PNe candidates are selected in the [OIII]-g vs Hα-r colour-colour diagram as bright emitters in the narrowband filters. A number of candidates with similar colours to those of known PNe, and with an apparent [OIII] magnitude > 21 have been selected for future follow-up. Three of these have been already spectroscopically confirmed at the William Herschel Telescope (WHT).Our survey will improve the knowledge of the PNe population in the outskirts of M33, constraining the properties of its metal-poor halo and of the extended disc substructures that have been proposed to be related to a relatively recent interaction with M31.

  7. Pushing the limits: detecting H2 emission from faint bipolar planetary nebulae in the IPHAS sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Larios, G.; Guerrero, M. A.; Sabin, L.; Santamaría, E.

    2017-09-01

    We have obtained deep narrowband images in the near-infrared H2 λ2.122 μm emission line for a sample of 15 faint Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric H α Survey (IPHAS) bipolar planetary nebulae (PNe) to search for molecular material. H2 emission is found in most of them (14 out of 15), mostly associated with rings at their equatorial regions and with their bipolar lobes. These detections add to the high occurrence of H2 emission among bipolar PNe reported in previous works, resulting from the large reservoir of molecular material in these sources and the suitable excitation conditions for H2 emission. The correlation between detailed bipolar morphology and H2 luminosity is also confirmed: bipolar PNe with broad equatorial rings (R-BPNe) have almost no continuum emission, are H2 brighter and have larger H2/Br γ line ratio than bipolar PNe with pinched equatorial waists (W-BPNe). The origin of this dichotomy is unclear. The larger size and age of R-BPNe are consistent with shock excitation of H2, whereas ultraviolet pumping is most likely the excitation mechanism in the smaller and younger W-BPNe, which would explain their lower H2 luminosity. Although both types of bipolar PNe seem to proceed from the same progenitor population, this does not imply that R-BPNe descend from W-BPNe. Otherwise, we note that some of the H2-weak bipolar PNe harbor post-common envelope binary systems and symbiotic stars. Finally, we suggest that the long-living H2 emission from R-BPNe arises from a discrete distribution of compact knots embedded within the ionized gas at the equatorial region.

  8. ROTATING STARS AND THE FORMATION OF BIPOLAR PLANETARY NEBULAE. II. TIDAL SPIN-UP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Segura, G. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860, Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico); Villaver, E. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Manchado, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Via Láctea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Langer, N. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Yoon, S.-C., E-mail: ggs@astrosen.unam.mx [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-01

    We present new binary stellar evolution models that include the effects of tidal forces, rotation, and magnetic torques with the goal of testing planetary nebulae (PNs) shaping via binary interaction. We explore whether tidal interaction with a companion can spin-up the asymptotic giant brach (AGB) envelope. To do so, we have selected binary systems with main-sequence masses of 2.5 M {sub ⊙} and 0.8 M {sub ⊙} and evolve them allowing initial separations of 5, 6, 7, and 8 au. The binary stellar evolution models have been computed all the way to the PNs formation phase or until Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) is reached, whatever happens first. We show that with initial separations of 7 and 8 au, the binary avoids entering into RLOF, and the AGB star reaches moderate rotational velocities at the surface (∼3.5 and ∼2 km s{sup −1}, respectively) during the inter-pulse phases, but after the thermal pulses it drops to a final rotational velocity of only ∼0.03 km s{sup −1}. For the closest binary separations explored, 5 and 6 au, the AGB star reaches rotational velocities of ∼6 and ∼4 km s{sup −1}, respectively, when the RLOF is initiated. We conclude that the detached binary models that avoid entering the RLOF phase during the AGB will not shape bipolar PNs, since the acquired angular momentum is lost via the wind during the last two thermal pulses. This study rules out tidal spin-up in non-contact binaries as a sufficient condition to form bipolar PNs.

  9. Total number of planetary nebulae in different galaxies and the PN distance scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimbert, M.

    1990-12-01

    RESUMEN A partir de una muestra de quince galaxias se encuentra que la tasa de natalidad de nebulosas planetarias por unidad de luminosidad, , disminuye al aumentar la luminosidad y al aumentar (B - V)0. Se discuten posibles explicaciones para estos resultados. Se estima el valor de para la Galaxia y a partir de el se encuentra que el numero total de nebulosas planetarias en nuestra galaxia con R de 7200 j 1800. El valor galactico de implica que la mayorfa de las estrellas de masa intermedia pasa por la etapa de nebulosa planetaria. El valor galactico de , la tasa de mortalidad estelar por unidad de luminosidad y la tasa de natalidad de enanas blancas favorecen escalas de distancias largas para nebulosas planetarias, como la de Cudworth (1974) y la de Mallik y Peimbert (1988). ABSTRACT From a sample of fifteen galaxies it is found that the birth rate of PN per unit luminosity, , decreases with increasing luminosity and with increasing (B - V)0 possible reasons for these relationships are discussed. The value for the Galaxy is estimated and, from it, a total number of PN of 7200 # 1800 wid R < 0.64 pc is obtained. The galactic value implies that most of the intermediate mass stars go through the PN stage. The galactic value, the stellar death rate per unit luminosity and the white dwarf birth rate are in favor of long distance scales to PN like those of Cudworth (1974) and Mallik and (1988). Key wonis: NEBULAE.PLANETARY - STARS-EVOLUTION - STARS-SThLIAR STA. S

  10. A deep narrowband survey for planetary nebulae at the outskirts of M 33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galera-Rosillo, R.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Mampaso, A.

    2018-04-01

    Context. Planetary nebulae (PNe) are excellent tracers of stellar populations with low surface brightness, and therefore provide a powerful method to detect and explore the rich system of substructures discovered around the main spiral galaxies of the local group. Aim. We searched the outskirts of the local group spiral galaxy M 33 (the Triangulum) for PNe to gain new insights into the extended stellar substructure on the northern side of the disc and to study the existence of a faint classical halo. Methods: The search is based on wide field imaging covering a 4.5 square degree area out to a maximum projected distance of about 40 kpc from the centre of the galaxy. The PN candidates are detected by the combination of images obtained in narrowband filters selecting the [OIII]λ5007 Å and Hα + [NII] nebular lines and in the continuum g' and r' broadband filters. Results: Inside the bright optical disc of M 33, eight new PN candidates were identified, three of which were spectroscopically confirmed. No PN candidates were found outside the limits of the disc. Fourteen additional sources showing [OIII] excess were also discovered. Conclusions: The absence of bright PN candidates in the area outside the galaxy disc covered by this survey sets an upper limit to the luminosity of the underlying population of 1.6 × 107 L⊙, suggesting the lack of a massive classical halo, which is in agreement with the results obtained using the red giant branch population. Based on observations made with the Isaac Newton Telescope and service observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  11. Planetary Nebulae in the Solar Neighbourhood: Statistics, Distance Scale and Luminosity Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, David J.

    2008-07-01

    An accurate census of the nearest planetary nebulae (PNe) is needed for calculations of the total number, space density, scale height, and birth rate of PNe in the Galaxy, to understand the dynamics of an evolving nebula and its relationship to the cooling history of the central star, and also to provide an unbiased sample to investigate the frequency of binary central stars and their role in the formation and shaping of these objects. This study presents the most refined volume-limited survey of PNe known to date. Integrated H-alpha fluxes for over 400 mostly evolved PNe are presented, based primarily on data from the Southern H-alpha Sky Survey Atlas (SHASSA) and the Virginia Tech Spectral-Line Survey (VTSS). Aperture photometry on the digital images was performed to extract H-alpha+[NII] fluxes. The [NII] contribution was then de-convolved using literature data, new data from slit spectra, or spectrophotometric data from the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) also obtained as part of this project. Comparison with previous work shows that the flux scale presented here has no significant zero-point error. The H-alpha fluxes are used to determine new Zanstra temperatures for those PNe with accurate central star photometry, calculating surface-brightness distances for each PN in the sample, and in conjunction with accurate [OIII] fluxes, new absolute PN magnitudes for delineating the faint end of the PN luminosity function. A spectroscopic survey of a range of MASH PNe is also presented. New emission-line intensities for 60 PNe are given, including a preliminary discussion of the chemical abundances of this sample. New distances have been determined for a large number of PNe, by either critically examining the literature, or by deriving new extinction and kinematic distances where suitable. For all PNe not amenable to these approaches, distances were estimated from a new H-alpha surface brightness-radius (SB-r) relation. The Hα SB-r relation covers >6 dex in SB, and

  12. Abundances of Planetary Nebulae IC 418, IC 2165 and NGC 5882

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Bernard-Salas, J; Beintema, DA; Feibelman, WA

    The ISO and IUE spectra of the elliptical nebulae NGC 5882, IC 418 and IC 2165 are presented. These spectra are combined with the spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of the nebulae is then calculated and compared to

  13. Chemistry in the final stages of stellar evolution: Millimeter and submillimeter observations of supergiants and planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessica Louise

    High mass loss rates in evolved stars make them the major contributors to recycling processed material back into the interstellar medium. This mass loss creates large circumstellar shells, rich in molecular material. This dissertation presents millimeter and submillimeter studies of the end stages of low mass and high mass stars in order to probe their molecular content in more detail. In low mass stars, the molecular material is carried on into the planetary nebula (PN) stage. Observations of CS, HCO+, and CO in planetary nebulae (PNe) of various post-asymptotic giant branch ages have shown that molecular abundances in these objects do not significantly vary with age, as previously thought. More detailed observations of the slightly oxygen-rich PN NGC 6537 resulted in the detection of CN, HCN, HNC, CCH, CS, SO, H 2CO, HCO+ and N2H+, as well as numerous 13C isotopologues. Observations of the middle-aged PN M2-48 showed the presence of CN, HCN, HNC, CS, SO, SO2, SiO, HCO+, N2H+, and several 13C isotopologues. These observations represent the first detections of CS, SO, SO2, and SiO in any planetary nebula. The implications of these observations are discussed. A 1 mm spectral survey of the supergiant star NML Cygni has been carried out with the Arizona Radio Observatory Submillimeter Telescope resulting in the observation of 102 emission features arising from 17 different molecules and 4 unidentified features. The line profiles observed in this circumstellar shell are asymmetric and vary between different molecules, akin to what has been seen in another supergiant, VY Canis Majoris. The non-LTE radiative transfer code ESCAPADE has been used to model molecular abundances in the various asymmetric outflows of VY Canis Majoris, showing just how chemically and kinematically complex these supergiant circumstellar envelopes really are.

  14. Suzaku Reveals Helium-burning Products in the X-Ray-emitting Planetary Nebula BD +30 3639

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashima, M.; Kokubun, M.; Makishima, K.; Kotoku, J.; Murakami, H.; Matsushita, K.; Hayashida, K.; Arnaud, K.; Hamaguchi, K.; Matsumoto, H.

    2006-08-01

    BD +30 3639, the brightest planetary nebula at X-ray energies, was observed with Suzaku, an X-ray observatory launched on 2005 July 10. Using the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer, the K lines from C VI, O VII, and O VIII were resolved for the first time, and the C/O, N/O, and Ne/O abundance ratios were determined. The C/O and Ne/O abundance ratios exceed the solar value by factors of at least 30 and 5, respectively. These results indicate that the X-rays are emitted mainly by helium-shell-burning products.

  15. New high (> or =6M/sub sun/) upper mass limit for planetary nebula formation, and a new high lower mass bound for carbon detonation supernova models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchman, Y.; Sack, N.; Barkat, Z.

    1978-01-01

    Envelope ejection leading to a planetary nebula has been recently shown to occur as the terminal point of the Mira stage. The ejection is due to a diverging pulsational instability, not to a dynamical one. It is found that in this case (and for Population I, mixing length=1 pressure scale height) the upper mass limit for formation of planetary nebulae is at least 6 M/sub sun/. It thus follows that the lower mass limit for realization of carbon detonation model configurations is also at last 6 M/sub sun/

  16. FARADAY ROTATION IN THE TAIL OF THE PLANETARY NEBULA DeHt 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransom, R. R.; Kothes, R.; Wolleben, M.; Landecker, T. L.

    2010-01-01

    We present 1420 MHz polarization images of a 5 0 x 5 0 region around the planetary nebula (PN) DeHt 5. The images reveal narrow Faraday-rotation structures on the visible disk of DeHt 5, as well as two wider, tail-like, structures 'behind' DeHt 5. Though DeHt 5 is an old PN known to be interacting with the interstellar medium (ISM), a tail has not previously been identified for this object. The innermost tail is ∼3 pc long and runs away from the northeast edge of DeHt 5 in a direction roughly opposite that of the sky-projected space velocity of the white dwarf central star, WD 2218+706. We believe this tail to be the signature of ionized material ram-pressure stripped and deposited downstream during a >74,000 yr interaction between DeHt 5 and the ISM. We estimate the rotation measure (RM) through the inner tail to be -15 ± 5 rad m -2 , and, using a realistic estimate for the line-of-sight component of the ISM magnetic field around DeHt 5, derive an electron density in the inner tail of n e = 3.6 ± 1.8 cm -3 . Assuming the material is fully ionized, we estimate a total mass in the inner tail of 0.68 ± 0.33 M sun and predict that 0.49 ± 0.33 M sun was added during the PN-ISM interaction. The outermost tail consists of a series of three roughly circular components, which have a collective length of ∼11.0 pc. This tail is less conspicuous than the inner tail and may be the signature of the earlier interaction between the WD 2218+706 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) progenitor and the ISM. The results for the inner and outer tails are consistent with hydrodynamic simulations and may have implications for the PN missing-mass problem as well as for models which describe the impact of the deaths of intermediate-mass stars on the ISM.

  17. The planetary nebulae population in the nuclear regions of M31: the SAURON view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorello, Nicola; Sarzi, Marc; Cappellari, Michele; Emsellem, Eric; Mamon, Gary A.; Bacon, Roland; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. Tim

    2013-04-01

    The study of extragalactic planetary nebulae (PNe) in the optical regions of galaxies, where the properties of their stellar population can be best characterized, is a promising ground to better understand the late evolution of stars across different galactic environments. Following a first study of the central regions of M32 that illustrated the power of integral field spectroscopy (IFS) in detecting and measuring the [O III] λ5007 emission of PNe against a strong stellar background, we turn to the very nuclear PN population of M31, within ˜80 pc of its centre. We show that PNe can also be found in the presence of emission from diffuse gas, as commonly observed in early-type galaxies and in the bulge of spirals, and further illustrate the excellent sensitivity of IFS in detecting extragalactic PNe through a comparison with narrow-band images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. Contrary to the case of the central regions of M32, the nuclear PNe population of M31 is only marginally consistent with the generally adopted form of the PNe luminosity function (PNLF). In particular, this is due to a lack of PNe with absolute magnitude M5007 brighter than -3, which would only result from a rather unfortunate draw from such a model PNLF. The nuclear stellar population of M31 is quite different from that of the central regions of M32, which is characterized in particular by a larger metallicity and a remarkable ultraviolet (UV) upturn. We suggest that the observed lack of bright PNe in the nuclear regions of M31 is due to a horizontal-branch population that is more tilted towards less massive and hotter He-burning stars, so that its progeny consists mostly of UV-bright stars that fail to climb back up the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and only a few, if any, bright PNe powered by central post-AGB stars. These results are also consistent with recent reports on a dearth of bright post-AGB stars towards the nucleus of M31, and lend further support to the idea that the

  18. Gaseous nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Gaseous nebulae are large, tenuous clouds of ionized gas that are associated with hot stars and that emit visible light because of the energy that they receive from the ultraviolet radiation of the stars. Examples include H II regions, planetary nebulae, and nova/supernova remnants. The emphasis is on the physical processes that occur in gaseous nebulae as opposed to a study of the objects themselves. The introduction discusses thermodynamic vs. steady-state equilibrium and excitation conditions in a dilute radiation field. Subsequent sections take up important atomic processes in gaseous nebulae (particle--particle collision rates, radiative interaction rates, cross sections), the ionization equilibrium (sizes of H II regions, ionization of the heavier elements), kinetic temperature and energy balance (heating of the electrons, cooling of the electrons), and the spectra of gaseous nebulae (line fluxes in nebulae). 7 figures, 5 tables

  19. A Study of the 3.3 and 3.4 μm Emission Features in Proto-Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Geballe, T. R.; Kwok, Sun

    2007-06-01

    Medium-resolution spectra have been obtained of seven carbon-rich proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs) and one young planetary nebula from 3.2 to 3.8 μm, an interval containing the prominent hydrocarbon CH stretches at 3.3 and 3.4 μm due to aromatic and aliphatic structures, respectively. The 3.3 μm feature is newly identified in IRAS 23304+6147, 22223+4327, and 06530-0213 and is confirmed in Z02229+6208. Three of the PPNs emit in the 3.4 μm feature, two of these being new identifications, IRAS 20000+3239 and 01005+7910, with two others showing possible detections. The 3.3 and 3.4 μm emission features in IRAS 22272+5435 are seen in the nebula offset from the star but not at the position of the central star, consistent with the 2003 results of Goto et al. A similar distribution is seen for the 3.3 μm feature in IRAS 22223+4327. All of the PPNs except IRAS 22272+5435 show Class A 3 μm emission features. These observations, when combined with those of the approximately equal number of other carbon-rich PPNs previously observed, demonstrate that there are large differences in the 3 μm emission bands, even for PPNs with central stars of similar spectral type, and thus that the behavior of the bands does not depend solely on spectral type. We also investigated other possible correlations to help explain these differences. These differences do not depend on the C/O value, since the Class B sources fall within the C/O range found for Class A. All of these 3.3 μm sources also show C2 absorption and 21 μm emission features, except IRAS 01005+7910, which is the hottest source at B0. This research is based on observations made at the W. M. Keck Observatory by Gemini staff, supported by the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., on behalf of the international Gemini partnership of Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. The W. M. Keck Observatory is

  20. A DETAILED MORPHO-KINEMATIC MODEL OF THE ESKIMO, NGC 2392: A UNIFYING VIEW WITH THE CAT'S EYE AND SATURN PLANETARY NEBULAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Díaz, Ma. T.; López, J. A.; Steffen, W.; Richer, M. G.

    2012-01-01

    The three-dimensional and kinematic structure of the Eskimo nebula, NGC 2392, has been notoriously difficult to interpret in detail given its complex morphology, multiple kinematic components and its nearly pole-on orientation along the line of sight. We present a comprehensive, spatially resolved, high-resolution, long-slit spectroscopic mapping of the Eskimo planetary nebula. The data consist of 21 spatially resolved, long-slit echelle spectra tightly spaced over the Eskimo and along its bipolar jets. This data set allows us to construct a velocity-resolved [N II] channel map of the nebula with a resolution of 10 km s –1 that disentangles its different kinematic components. The spectroscopic information is combined with Hubble Space Telescope images to construct a detailed three-dimensional morpho-kinematic model of the Eskimo using the code SHAPE. With this model we demonstrate that the Eskimo is a close analog to the Saturn and the Cat's Eye nebulae, but rotated 90° to the line of sight. Furthermore, we show that the main characteristics of our model apply to the general properties of the group of elliptical planetary nebulae with ansae or FLIERS, once the orientation is considered. We conclude that this kind of nebula belongs to a class with a complex common evolutionary sequence of events.

  1. Automatic Generation of Algorithms for the Statistical Analysis of Planetary Nebulae Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    which use numerical approximations even in cases where closed-form solutions exist. AutoBayes is implemented in Prolog and comprises approximately 75.000 lines of code. In this paper, we take one typical scientific data analysis problem-analyzing planetary nebulae images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope-and show how AutoBayes can be used to automate the implementation of the necessary anal- ysis programs. We initially follow the analysis described by Knuth and Hajian [KHO2] and use AutoBayes to derive code for the published models. We show the details of the code derivation process, including the symbolic computations and automatic integration of library procedures, and compare the results of the automatically generated and manually implemented code. We then go beyond the original analysis and use AutoBayes to derive code for a simple image segmentation procedure based on a mixture model which can be used to automate a manual preproceesing step. Finally, we combine the original approach with the simple segmentation which yields a more detailed analysis. This also demonstrates that AutoBayes makes it easy to combine different aspects of data analysis.

  2. Mapping Excitation in the Inner Regions of the Planetary Nebula NGC 5189 Using HST WFC3 Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehkar, Ashkbiz; Karovska, Margarita; Maksym, W. Peter; Montez, Rodolfo, Jr.

    2018-01-01

    The planetary nebula (PN) NGC 5189 around a Wolf–Rayet [WO] central star demonstrates one of the most remarkable complex morphologies among PNe with many multiscale structures, showing evidence of multiple outbursts from an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) progenitor. In this study, we use multiwavelength Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 observations to study the morphology of the inner 0.3 pc × 0.2 pc region surrounding the central binary that appears to be a relic of a more recent outburst of the progenitor AGB star. We applied diagnostic diagrams based on emission-line ratios of Hα λ6563, [O III] λ5007, and [S II] λ λ 6716,6731 images to identify the location and morphology of low-ionization structures within the inner nebula. We distinguished two inner, low-ionization envelopes from the ionized gas, within a radius of 55 arcsec (∼0.15 pc) extending from the central star: a large envelope expanding toward the northeast, and its smaller counterpart envelope in the opposite direction toward the southwest of the nebula. These low-ionization envelopes are surrounded by a highly ionized gaseous environment. We believe that these low-ionization expanding envelopes are a result of a powerful outburst from the post-AGB star that created shocked wind regions as they propagate through the previously expelled material along a symmetric axis. Our diagnostic mapping using high-angular resolution line-emission imaging can provide a novel approach to detection of low-ionization regions in other PNe, especially those showing a complex multiscale morphology.

  3. Emission Line Galaxies Behind the Planetary Nebula IC 5148: Potential for a Serendipity Survey with Archival Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimeswenger, S.; Barria, D.; Kausch, W.; Goldman, D. S.

    2018-04-01

    During the start of a survey program using FORS2 long slit spectroscopy on planetary nebulae (PN) and their haloes, we serendipitously discovered six background emission line galaxies (ELG) with redshifts of z = 0.2057, 0.3137, 0.37281, 0.4939, 0.7424 and 0.8668. Thus they clearly do not belong to a common cluster structure. We derived the major physical properties of the targets. Since the used long slit covers a sky area of only 570 arcsec2 (= 4.3×10-5 square degrees), we discuss further potential of serendipitous discoveries in archival data, beside the deep systematic work of the ongoing and upcoming big surveys. We conclude that archival data provide a decent potential for extending the overall data on ELGs without any selection bias.

  4. The photometric and radial velocity variations of the central star of the planetary nebula 1C 418

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, R.H.; Verga, A.D.; Kriner, A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper brings spectrographic (1979-82) and photometric (January 1983) observations of the central star of the planetary nebula IC 418. We include an improved description of the stellar spectrum. We have found a variable photospheric velocity field, which would imply a fluctuating mass outflow, probably mixed with orbital motion in a close binary system with a period of about 0.2 days. We have also found light variations, on a time scale of one or two hours, with an amplitude of 0.1 mag, which do not appear to be periodic. Our observations are not yet sufficient to rule out definetely the existence of non-radial pulsations; further observations are suggested. (author)

  5. EXPANSION OF HYDROGEN-POOR KNOTS IN THE BORN-AGAIN PLANETARY NEBULAE A30 AND A78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, X.; Guerrero, M. A.; Marquez-Lugo, R. A.; Toalá, J. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Arthur, S. J. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia, 58090 Morelia (Mexico); Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Blair, W. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hamann, W.-R.; Oskinova, L. M.; Todt, H., E-mail: fangx@iaa.es [Institute for Physics and Astronomy, Universität Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2014-12-20

    We analyze the expansion of hydrogen-poor knots and filaments in the born-again planetary nebulae A30 and A78 based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images obtained almost 20 yr apart. The proper motion of these features generally increases with distance to the central star, but the fractional expansion decreases, i.e., the expansion is not homologous. As a result, there is not a unique expansion age, which is estimated to be 610-950 yr for A30 and 600-1140 yr for A78. The knots and filaments have experienced complex dynamical processes: the current fast stellar wind is mass loaded by the material ablated from the inner knots; the ablated material is then swept up until it shocks the inner edges of the outer, hydrogen-rich nebula. The angular expansion of the outer filaments shows a clear dependence on position angle, indicating that the interaction of the stellar wind with the innermost knots channels the wind along preferred directions. The apparent angular expansion of the innermost knots seems to be dominated by the rocket effect of evaporating gas and by the propagation of the ionization front inside them. Radiation-hydrodynamical simulations show that a single ejection of material followed by a rapid onset of the stellar wind and ionizing flux can reproduce the variety of clumps and filaments at different distances from the central star found in A30 and A78.

  6. Exploring Sulfur & Argon Abundances in Planetary Nebulae as Metallicity- Indicator Surrogates for Iron in the Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwitter, Karen B.; Henry, Richard C.

    1999-02-01

    Our primary motivation for studying S and Ar distributions in planetary nebulae (PNe) across the Galactic disk is to explore the possibility of a surrogacy between (S+Ar)/O and Fe/O for use as a metallicity indicator in the interstellar medium. The chemical history of the Galaxy is usually studied through O and Fe distributions among objects of different ages. Historically, though, Fe and O have not been measured in the same systems: Fe is easily seen in stars but hard to detect in nebulae; the reverse is true for O. We know that S and Ar abundances are not affected by PN progenitor evolution, and we therefore seek to exploit both their unaltered abundances and ease of detectability in PNe to explore their surrogacy for Fe. If proven valid, this surrogacy carries broad and important ramifications for bridging the gap between stellar and interstellar abundances in the Galaxy, and potentially beyond. Observed S/O and Ar/O gradients will also provide constraints on theoretical stellar yields of S and Ar, since they can be compared with chemical evolution models (which incorporate theoretically-predicted stellar yields, an initial mass function, and rates of star formation and infall) to help place constraints on model parameters.

  7. Where are the Binaries? Results of a Long-term Search for Radial Velocity Binaries in Proto-planetary Nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Lu, Wenxian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383 (United States); Steene, Griet Van de [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Astronomy and Astrophysics, Ringlaan 3, Brussels (Belgium); Winckel, Hans Van [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, K.U. Leuven University, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Sperauskas, Julius [Vilnius University Observatory, Ciurlionio 29 Vilnius 2009 (Lithuania); Bohlender, David, E-mail: bruce.hrivnak@valpo.edu, E-mail: wen.lu@valpo.edu, E-mail: g.vandesteene@oma.be, E-mail: Hans.VanWinckel@ster.kuleuven.be, E-mail: julius.sperauskas@ff.vu.lt, E-mail: David.Bohlender@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2017-09-10

    We present the results of an expanded, long-term radial velocity search (25 years) for evidence of binarity in a sample of seven bright proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe). The goal is to investigate the widely held view that the bipolar or point-symmetric shapes of planetary nebulae (PNe) and PPNe are due to binary interactions. Observations from three observatories were combined from 2007 to 2015 to search for variations on the order of a few years and then combined with earlier observations from 1991 to 1995 to search for variations on the order of decades. All seven show velocity variations due to periodic pulsation in the range of 35–135 days. However, in only one PPN, IRAS 22272+5435, did we find even marginal evidence for multi-year variations that might be due to a binary companion. This object shows marginally significant evidence of a two-year period of low semi-amplitude, which could be due to a low-mass companion, and it also displays some evidence of a much longer period of >30 years. The absence of evidence in the other six objects for long-period radial velocity variations due to a binary companion sets significant constraints on the properties of any undetected binary companions: they must be of low mass, ≤0.2 M {sub ⊙}, or long period, >30 years. Thus the present observations do not provide direct support for the binary hypothesis to explain the shapes of PNe and PPNe and severely constrains the properties of any such undetected companions.

  8. Theory of extended stellar atmospheres. II. A grid of static spherical models for O stars and planetary nebula nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunasz, P.B.; Hummer, D.G.; Mihalas, D.

    1975-01-01

    Spherical static non-LTE model atmospheres are presented for stars with M/M/sub sun/=30 and 60 at various points on their evolutionary tracks, and for some nuclei of planetary nebulae at two points of a modified Harman-Seaton sequence. The method of Mihalas and Hummer was employed, which uses a parametrized radiation force multiplier to simulate the force of radiation arising from the entire line spectrum. However, in the present work the density structure computed in the LTE models was held fixed in the calculation of the corresponding non-LTE models; in addition, the opacity of an ''average light ion'' was taken into account. The temperatures for the non-LTE models are generally lower, at a given depth, than for the corresponding LTE models when T/sub eff/<45,000 K, while the situation is reversed at higher temperatures. The continuous energy distributions are generally flattened by extension. The Lyman jump is in emission for extended models of massive stars, but never for the models of nuclei of planetary nebulae (this is primarily a temperature effect). The Balmer jumps are always in absorption. The Lyman lines are in emission, and the Balmer lines in absorption; He ii lambda4686 comes into emission in the most extended models without hydrogen line pumping, showing that it is an indicator of atmospheric extension. Very severe limb darkening is found for extended models, which have apparent angular sized significantly smaller than expected from the geometrical size of the star. Extensive tables are given of monochromatic magnitudes, continuum jumps and gradients, Stomgren-system colors, monochromatic extensions, and the profiles and equivalent widths of the hydrogen lines for all models, and of the He ii lines for some of the 60 M/sub X/ models

  9. Long-period variables in the Magellanic Clouds: Supergiants, AGB stars, supernova precursors, planetary nebula precursors, and enrichment of the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, P.; Bessell, M.S.; Fox, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    Infrared JHK magnitudes and low-dispersion red spectra have been obtained for 90 long-period variables (LPVs) in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds. The LPVs fall into two distinct groups, core helium (or carbon) burning supergiants and stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). The supergiants have small pulsation amplitudes in K ( or approx. =5 M/sub sun/ produce supernovae while less massive stars produce planetary nebulae with nebula masses from approx.0.1--2.1 M/sub sun/. The coreburning red supergiants appear highly overluminous for their pulsation mass, indicating that they have lost up to half their mass since the main-sequence phase

  10. ON THE NONTHERMAL κ-DISTRIBUTED ELECTRONS IN PLANETARY NEBULAE AND H ii REGIONS: THE κ INDEX AND ITS CORRELATIONS WITH OTHER NEBULAR PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yong [Space Astronomy Laboratory, Faculty of Science, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xiao-Wei, E-mail: zhangy96@hku.hk [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-01-20

    Recently, a suspicion arose that the free electrons in planetary nebulae (PNs) and H ii regions might have nonthermal energy distributions. In this scenario, a κ index is introduced to characterize the electron energy distributions, with smaller κ values indicating larger deviations from Maxwell–Boltzmann distributions. Assuming that this is the case, we determine the κ values for a sample of PNs and H ii regions by comparing the intensities of [O iii] collisionally excited lines and the hydrogen Balmer jump. We find the average κ indices of PNs and H ii regions to be 27 and 32, respectively. Correlations between the resultant κ values and various physical properties of the nebulae are examined to explore the potential origin of nonthermal electrons in photoionized gaseous nebulae. However, no positive result is obtained. Thus, the current analysis does not lend support to the idea that κ-distributed electrons are present in PNs and H ii regions.

  11. The Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS): A Comprehensive Dusty Photoionization Model of NGC6781.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Ueta, Toshiya; van Hoof, Peter A M; Sahai, Raghvendra; Aleman, Isabel; Zijlstra, Albert A; Chu, You-Hua; Villaver, Eva; Leal-Ferreira, Marcelo L; Kastner, Joel; Szczerba, Ryszard; Exter, Katrina M

    2017-08-01

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 6781 to investigate the physical conditions of each of its ionized, atomic, and molecular gas and dust components and the object's evolution, based on panchromatic observational data ranging from UV to radio. Empirical nebular elemental abundances, compared with theoretical predictions via nucleosynthesis models of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, indicate that the progenitor is a solar-metallicity, 2.25-3.0 M ⊙ initial-mass star. We derive the best-fit distance of 0.46 kpc by fitting the stellar luminosity (as a function of the distance and effective temperature of the central star) with the adopted post-AGB evolutionary tracks. Our excitation energy diagram analysis indicates high-excitation temperatures in the photodissociation region (PDR) beyond the ionized part of the nebula, suggesting extra heating by shock interactions between the slow AGB wind and the fast PN wind. Through iterative fitting using the Cloudy code with empirically derived constraints, we find the best-fit dusty photoionization model of the object that would inclusively reproduce all of the adopted panchromatic observational data. The estimated total gas mass (0.41 M ⊙ ) corresponds to the mass ejected during the last AGB thermal pulse event predicted for a 2.5 M ⊙ initial-mass star. A significant fraction of the total mass (about 70%) is found to exist in the PDR, demonstrating the critical importance of the PDR in PNe that are generally recognized as the hallmark of ionized/H + regions.

  12. Masses of the Planetary Nebula Central Stars in the Galactic Globular Cluster System from HST Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacoby, George H. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Marco, Orsola De [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Davies, James [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore MD 21218 (United States); Lotarevich, I. [American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Harrington, J. Patrick [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Lanz, Thierry, E-mail: gjacoby@lowell.edu, E-mail: orsola.demarco@mq.edu.au, E-mail: jdavies@stsci.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: jph@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: thierry.lanz@oca.eu [Laboratoire Lagrange, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, F-06304 Nice (France)

    2017-02-10

    The globular cluster (GC) system of our Galaxy contains four planetary nebulae (PNe): K 648 (or Ps 1) in M15, IRAS 18333-2357 in M22, JaFu 1 in Pal 6, and JaFu 2 in NGC 6441. Because single-star evolution at the low stellar mass of present-epoch GCs was considered incapable of producing visible PNe, their origin presented a puzzle. We imaged the PN JaFu 1 with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to obtain photometry of its central star (CS) and high-resolution morphological information. We imaged IRAS 18333-2357 with better depth and resolution, and we analyzed its archival HST spectra to constrain its CS temperature and luminosity. All PNe in Galactic GCs now have quality HST data, allowing us to improve CS mass estimates. We find reasonably consistent masses between 0.53 and 0.58 M {sub ⊙} for all four objects, though estimates vary when adopting different stellar evolutionary calculations. The CS mass of IRAS 18333-2357, though, depends strongly on its temperature, which remains elusive due to reddening uncertainties. For all four objects, we consider their CS and nebula masses, their morphologies, and other incongruities to assess the likelihood that these objects formed from binary stars. Although generally limited by uncertainties (∼0.02 M {sub ⊙}) in post-AGB tracks and core mass versus luminosity relations, the high-mass CS in K 648 indicates a binary origin. The CS of JaFu 1 exhibits compact, bright [O iii] and H α emission, like EGB 6, suggesting a binary companion or disk. Evidence is weaker for a binary origin of JaFu 2.

  13. The interaction of the halo around the butterfly planetary nebula NGC 650-1 with the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Larios, G.; Guerrero, M. A.; Nigoche-Netro, A.; Olguín, L.; Gómez-Muñoz, M. A.; Sabin, L.; Vázquez, R.; Akras, S.; Ramírez Vélez, J. C.; Chávez, M.

    2018-03-01

    With its bright and wide equatorial waist seen almost edge-on (`the butterfly body') and the faint and broad bipolar extensions (`the butterfly wings'), NGC 650-1 is the archetypical example of bipolar planetary nebula (PN) with butterfly morphology. We present here deep high-resolution broad- and narrow-band optical images that expose the rich and intricate fine structure of this bipolar PN, with small-scale bubble-like features and collimated outflows. A SHAPE spatio-kinematic model indicates that NGC 650-1 has a broad central torus with an inclination angle of 75° with respect to the line of sight, whereas that of the bipolar lobes, which are clearly seen in the position-velocity maps, is 85°. Large field of view deep images show, for first time, an arc-like diffuse envelope in low- and high-excitation emission lines located up to 180 arcsec towards the east-south-east of the central star, well outside the main nebula. This morphological component is confirmed by Spitzer MIPS and WISE infrared imaging, as well as by long-slit low- and high-dispersion optical spectroscopic observations. Hubble Space Telescope images of NGC 650-1 obtained at two different epochs ˜14 yr apart reveal the proper motion of the central star along this direction. We propose that this motion of the star through the interstellar medium compresses the remnant material of a slow asymptotic giant branch wind, producing this bow-shock-like feature.

  14. DISCOVERY OF RUBIDIUM, CADMIUM, AND GERMANIUM EMISSION LINES IN THE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRA OF PLANETARY NEBULAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, N. C. [Department of Physics, University of West Georgia, 1601 Maple Street, Carrollton, GA 30118 (United States); Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Kaplan, Kyle F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 2515 Speedway, C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Bautista, Manuel A., E-mail: nsterlin@westga.edu, E-mail: harriet@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: kfkaplan@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: manuel.bautista@wmich.edu [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We identify [Rb iv] 1.5973 and [Cd iv] 1.7204 μm emission lines in high-resolution (R = 40,000) near-infrared spectra of the planetary nebulae (PNe) NGC 7027 and IC 5117, obtained with the Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) on the 2.7 m telescope at McDonald Observatory. We also identify [Ge vi] 2.1930 μm in NGC 7027. Alternate identifications for these features are ruled out based on the absence of other multiplet members and/or transitions with the same upper levels. Ge, Rb, and Cd can be enriched in PNe by s-process nucleosynthesis during the asymptotic giant branch stage of evolution. To determine ionic abundances, we calculate [Rb iv] collision strengths and use approximations for those of [Cd iv] and [Ge vi]. Our identification of [Rb iv] 1.5973 μm is supported by the agreement between Rb{sup 3+}/H{sup +} abundances found from this line and the 5759.55 Å feature in NGC 7027. Elemental Rb, Cd, and Ge abundances are derived with ionization corrections based on similarities in ionization potential ranges between the detected ions and O and Ne ionization states. Our analysis indicates abundances 2–4 times solar for Rb and Cd in both nebulae. Ge is subsolar in NGC 7027, but its abundance is uncertain due to the large and uncertain ionization correction. The general consistency of the measured relative s-process enrichments with predictions from models appropriate for these PNe (2.0–2.5 M{sub ⊙}, [Fe/H] = −0.37) demonstrates the potential of using PN compositions to test s-process nucleosynthesis models.

  15. Spectral Characteristics of Young Stars Associated with the Sh2-296 Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Beatriz; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane

    Aiming to contribute to the understanding of star formation and evolution in the Canis Major (CMa R1) Molecular Clouds Complex, we analyze the spectral characteristics of a population of young stars associated with the arc-shaped nebula Sh2-296. Our XMM/Newton observations detected 109 X-ray sources in the region and optical spectroscopy was performed with Gemini telescope for 85 optical counterparts. We identified and characterized 51 objects that present features typically found in young objects, such as Hα emission and strong absorption on the Li I line.

  16. Physical Properties of the Very Young PN Hen3-1357 (Stingray Nebula) Based on Multiwavelength Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Masaaki [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU. No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Parthasarathy, M. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II B lock Koramangala, Bangalore 560034, Karnataka (India); Tajitsu, A. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 N Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Hubrig, S., E-mail: otsuka@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP) An der Sternwarte 12, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2017-03-20

    We carried out a detailed analysis of the interesting and important very young planetary nebula (PN) Hen3-1357 (Stingray Nebula) based on a unique data set of optical to far-IR spectra and photometric images. We calculated the abundances of nine elements using collisionally excited lines (CELs) and recombination lines (RLs). The RL C/O ratio indicates that this PN is O-rich, which is also supported by the detection of the broad 9/18 μ m bands from amorphous silicate grains. The observed elemental abundances can be explained by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) nucleosynthesis models for initially 1–1.5 M {sub ⊙} stars with Z = 0.008. The Ne overabundance might be due to the enhancement of {sup 22}Ne isotope in the He-rich intershell. Using the spectrum of the central star synthesized by Tlusty as the ionization/heating source of the PN, we constructed the self-consistent photoionization model with Cloudy to the observed quantities and derived the gas and dust masses, dust-to-gas mass ratio, and core mass of the central star. About 80% of the total dust mass is from warm–cold dust component beyond ionization front. Comparison with other Galactic PNe indicates that Hen3-1357 is an ordinary amorphous silicate-rich and O-rich gas PN. Among other studied PNe, IC4846 shows many similarities in properties of the PN to Hen3-1357, although their post-AGB evolution is quite different from each other. Further monitoring of observations and comparisons with other PNe such as IC4846 are necessary to understand the evolution of Hen3-1357.

  17. BINARY CENTRAL STARS OF PLANETARY NEBULAE DISCOVERED THROUGH PHOTOMETRIC VARIABILITY. IV. THE CENTRAL STARS OF HaTr 4 AND Hf 2-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillwig, Todd C.; Schaub, S. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Frew, David J. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Bodman, Eva H. L., E-mail: todd.hillwig@valpo.edu [Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy (SARA) (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We explore the photometrically variable central stars of the planetary nebulae HaTr 4 and Hf 2-2. Both have been classified as close binary star systems previously based on their light curves alone. Here, we present additional arguments and data confirming the identification of both as close binaries with an irradiated cool companion to the hot central star. We include updated light curves, orbital periods, and preliminary binary modeling for both systems. We also identify for the first time the central star of HaTr 4 as an eclipsing binary. Neither system has been well studied in the past, but we utilize the small amount of existing data to limit possible binary parameters, including system inclination. These parameters are then compared to nebular parameters to further our knowledge of the relationship between binary central stars of planetary nebulae and nebular shaping and ejection.

  18. (F)UV Spectral Analysis of Hot, Hydrogen-Rich Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, M.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.

    2010-11-01

    Metal abundances of CSPNe are not well known although they provide important constraints on AGB nucleosynthesis. We aim to determine metal abundances of two hot, hydrogen-rich CSPNe (namely of A35 and NGC3587, the latter also known as M97 or the Owl Nebula) and to derive Teff and log g precisely from high-resolution, high-S/N (far-) ultraviolet observations obtained with FUSE and HST/STIS. For this purpose, we utilize NLTE model atmospheres calculated with TMAP, the Tübingen Model Atmosphere Package. Due to strong line absorption of the ISM, simultaneous modeling of interstellar features has become a standard tool in our analyses. We present preliminary results, demonstrating the importance of combining stellar and interstellar models, in order to clearly identify and measure the strengths of strategic photospheric lines.

  19. Central Star Properties and C-N-O Abundances in Eight Galactic Planetary Nebulae from New HST/STIS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Richard B. C.; Balick, Bruce; Dufour, Reginald J.; Kwitter, Karen B.; Shaw, Richard A.; Corradi, Romano

    2015-01-01

    We present detailed photoionization models of eight Galactic planetary nebulae (IC2165, IC3568, NGC2440, NGC3242, NGC5315, NGC5882, NGC7662, & PB6) based on recently obtained HST STIS spectra. Our interim goal is to infer Teff, luminosity, and current and progenitor masses for each central star, while the ultimate goal is to constrain published stellar evolution models which predict nebular CNO abundances. The models were produced by using the code CLOUDY to match closely the measured line strengths derived from high-quality HST STIS spectra (see poster by Dufour et al., this session) extending in wavelength from 1150-10270 Angstroms. The models assumed a blackbody SED. Variable input parameters included Teff, a radially constant nebular density, a filling factor, and elemental abundances. For the eight PNs we found a birth mass range of 1.5-2.9 Msun, a range in log(L/Lsun) of 3.10-3.88, and a Teff range of 51-150k K. Finally, we compare CNO abundances of the eight successful models with PN abundances of these same elements that are predicted by published stellar evolution models. We gratefully acknowledge generous support from NASA through grants related to the Cycle 19 program GO12600.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and molecular hydrogen in oxygen-rich planetary nebulae: the case of NGC 6720.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N L J; Pilleri, P; Berné, O; Cernicharo, J; Joblin, C

    2016-02-11

    Evolved stars are primary sources for the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dust grains. Their circumstellar chemistry is usually designated as either oxygen-rich or carbon-rich, although dual-dust chemistry objects, whose infrared spectra reveal both silicate- and carbon-dust features, are also known. The exact origin and nature of this dual-dust chemistry is not yet understood. Spitzer -IRS mid-infrared spectroscopic imaging of the nearby, oxygen-rich planetary nebula NGC 6720 reveals the presence of the 11.3 μ m aromatic (PAH) emission band. It is attributed to emission from neutral PAHs, since no band is observed in the 7-8 μ m range. The spatial distribution of PAHs is found to closely follow that of the warm clumpy molecular hydrogen emission. Emission from both neutral PAHs and warm H 2 is likely to arise from photo-dissociation regions associated with dense knots that are located within the main ring. The presence of PAHs together with the previously derived high abundance of free carbon (relative to CO) suggest that the local conditions in an oxygen-rich environment can also become conducive to in-situ formation of large carbonaceous molecules, such as PAHs, via a bottom-up chemical pathway. In this scenario, the same stellar source can enrich the interstellar medium with both oxygen-rich dust and large carbonaceous molecules.

  1. Globular clusters and planetary nebulae kinematics and X-ray emission in the early-type galaxy NGC 5128

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samurović S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimates of the mass of the galaxy NGC 5128 based on the different mass tracers, globular clusters (GCs and planetary nebulae (PNe, are presented. These estimates are compared with the estimate based on the X-ray methodology and it is found that the results for the mass (and mass-to-light ratio for all three approaches are in very good agreement interior to 25 arcmin; beyond 25 arcmin the X-rays predict the mass which is too high with respect to the one found using GCs and PNe. Some possible explanations for this discrepancy were discussed. The Jeans equation is also solved and its predictions for the velocity dispersion are then compared with the observed values, which extend to ~8 effective radii in the case of the GCs and ~15 effective radii in the case of the PNe. It is found that interior to ~25 arcmin (~5 effective radii dark matter does not dominate because the total mass-to-light ratio in the B band in solar units is less than 10. Based on the GCs and PNe beyond ~25 arcmin the total mass-to-light ratio increases to ~14 (at ~80 arcmin which indicates the existence of dark matter in the outer regions of NGC 5128.

  2. The Fornax Cluster VLT Spectroscopic Survey II - Planetary Nebulae kinematics within 200 kpc of the cluster core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiniello, C.; Napolitano, N. R.; Arnaboldi, M.; Tortora, C.; Coccato, L.; Capaccioli, M.; Gerhard, O.; Iodice, E.; Spavone, M.; Cantiello, M.; Peletier, R.; Paolillo, M.; Schipani, P.

    2018-06-01

    We present the largest and most spatially extended planetary nebulae (PNe) catalogue ever obtained for the Fornax cluster. We measured velocities of 1452 PNe out to 200 kpc in the cluster core using a counter-dispersed slitless spectroscopic technique with data from FORS2 on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). With such an extended spatial coverage, we can study separately the stellar haloes of some of the cluster main galaxies and the intracluster light. In this second paper of the Fornax Cluster VLT Spectroscopic Survey, we identify and classify the emission-line sources, describe the method to select PNe, and calculate their coordinates and velocities from the dispersed slitless images. From the PN 2D velocity map, we identify stellar streams that are possibly tracing the gravitational interaction of NGC 1399 with NGC 1404 and NGC 1387. We also present the velocity dispersion profile out to ˜200 kpc radii, which shows signatures of a superposition of the bright central galaxy and the cluster potential, with the latter clearly dominating the regions outside R ˜ 1000 arcsec (˜100 kpc).

  3. AN EXTREME HIGH-VELOCITY BIPOLAR OUTFLOW IN THE PRE-PLANETARY NEBULA IRAS 08005-2356

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 183-900, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Patel, N. A., E-mail: raghvendra.sahai@jpl.nasa.gov [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We report interferometric mapping of the bipolar pre-planetary nebula IRAS 08005-2356 (I 08005) with an angular resolution of ∼1″–5″, using the Submillimeter Array, in the {sup 12}CO J = 2–1, 3–2, {sup 13}CO J = 2–1, and SiO J = 5–4 (v = 0) lines. Single-dish observations, using the SMT 10 m, were made in these lines as well as in the CO J = 4–3 and SiO J = 6–5 (v = 0) lines. The line profiles are very broad, showing the presence of a massive (>0.1 M{sub ⊙}), extreme high velocity outflow (V ∼ 200 km s{sup −1}) directed along the nebular symmetry axis derived from the Hubble Space Telescope imaging of this object. The outflow's scalar momentum far exceeds that available from radiation pressure of the central post-AGB star, and it may be launched from an accretion disk around a main-sequence companion. We provide indirect evidence for such a disk from its previously published, broad Hα emission profile, which we propose results from Lyβ emission generated in the disk followed by Raman-scattering in the innermost regions of a fast, neutral wind.

  4. X-Ray Outburst from Young Star in McNeil's Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Observations with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory captured an X-ray outburst from a young star, revealing a probable scenario for the intermittent brightening of the recently discovered McNeil's Nebula. It appears the interaction between the young star's magnetic field and an orbiting disk of gas can cause dramatic, episodic increases in the light from the star and disk, illuminating the surrounding gas. "The story of McNeil's Nebula is a wonderful example of the importance of serendipity in science," said Joel Kastner of the Rochester Institute of Technology in Rochester, New York, lead author of a paper in the July 22 issue of Nature describing the X-ray results. "Visible-light images were made of this region several months before Jay McNeil made his discovery, so it could be determined approximately when and by how much the star flared up to produce McNeil's Nebula." The small nebula, which lies in the constellation Orion about 1300 light years from Earth, was discovered with a 3-inch telescope by McNeil, an amateur astronomer from Paducah, Kentucky, in January 2004. In November 2002, a team led by Ted Simon of the Institute for Astronomy in Hawaii had observed the star-rich region with Chandra in search of young, X-ray emitting stars, and had detected several objects. Optical and infrared astronomers had, as part of independent surveys, also observed the region about a year later, in 2003. After the announcement of McNeil's discovery, optical, infrared and X-ray astronomers rushed to observe the region again. They found that a young star buried in the nebula had flared up, and was illuminating the nebula. This star was coincident with one of the X-ray sources discovered earlier by Simon. Chandra observations obtained by Kastner's group just after the optical outburst showed that the source had brightened fifty-fold in X-rays when compared to Simon's earlier observation. The visible-light eruption provides evidence that the cause of the X-ray outburst is the

  5. A Survey for hot Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae I. Methods and First Results

    OpenAIRE

    Kanarek, Graham C.; Shara, Michael M.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Zurek, David; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of initial spectrographic followup with the Very Large Telescope (UT3, Melipal) for $K_s \\ge 14$ Galactic plane CIV emission-line candidates in the near-infrared (NIR). These 7 faint stars all display prominent HeI and CIV emission lines characteristic of a carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet star. They have NIR colours which are much too blue to be those of distant, classical WR stars. The magnitudes and colours are compatible with those expected for central stars of planetary nebu...

  6. A new look inside planetary nebula LoTr 5: a long-period binary with hints of a possible third component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, A.; Lillo-Box, J.; Vučković, M.; Van Winckel, H.; Jones, D.; Montesinos, B.; Zorotovic, M.; Miranda, L. F.

    2018-05-01

    LoTr 5 is a planetary nebula with an unusual long-period binary central star. As far as we know, the pair consists of a rapidly rotating G-type star and a hot star, which is responsible for the ionization of the nebula. The rotation period of the G-type star is 5.95 d and the orbital period of the binary is now known to be ˜2700 d, one of the longest in central star of planetary nebulae. The spectrum of the G central star shows a complex H α double-peaked profile which varies with very short time-scales, also reported in other central stars of planetary nebulae and whose origin is still unknown. We present new radial velocity observations of the central star which allow us to confirm the orbital period for the long-period binary and discuss the possibility of a third component in the system at ˜129 d to the G star. This is complemented with the analysis of archival light curves from Super Wide Angle Search for Planets, All Sky Automated Survey, and Optical Monitoring Camera. From the spectral fitting of the G-type star, we obtain an effective temperature of Teff = 5410 ± 250 K and surface gravity of log g = 2.7 ± 0.5, consistent with both giant and subgiant stars. We also present a detailed analysis of the H α double-peaked profile and conclude that it does not present correlation with the rotation period and that the presence of an accretion disc via Roche lobe overflow is unlikely.

  7. Millimeter observations of CS, HCO{sup +}, and CO toward five planetary nebulae: following molecular abundances with nebular age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J. L.; Ziurys, L. M. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Arizona, P.O. Box 210041, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Cox, E. G., E-mail: lziurys@email.arizona.edu [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, Arizona Radio Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    Millimeter and sub-millimeter observations of CO, CS, and HCO{sup +} have been conducted toward five planetary nebulae (PNe: K4-47, NGC 6537 (Red Spider), M2-48, NGC 6720 (Ring), and NGC 6853 (Dumbbell)), spanning an age range of 900-10,000 yr, using the Sub-Millimeter Telescope and the 12 m antenna of the Arizona Radio Observatory. The J = 5 → 4, J = 3 → 2, and J = 2 → 1 transitions of CS at 245, 147, and 98 GHz, as well as the J = 3 → 2 and J = 1 → 0 lines of HCO{sup +} at 268 and 89 GHz, were detected toward each source. At least three rotational transitions of CO have also been observed, including the J = 6 → 5 and J = 4 → 3 lines at 691 and 461 GHz. CS had not been definitively identified previously in PNe, and new detections of HCO{sup +} were made in four of the five nebulae. From a radiative transfer analysis of the CO and CS data, kinetic temperatures of T {sub K} ∼ 10-80 K and gas densities of n(H{sub 2}) ∼ 0.1-1 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup –3} were determined for the molecular material in these sources. Column densities for CO, CS, and HCO{sup +} were N {sub tot} ∼ 0.2-5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup –2}, N {sub tot} ∼ 0.4-9 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup –2}, and N {sub tot} ∼ 0.3-5 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup –2}, respectively, with fractional abundances, relative to H{sub 2}, of f ∼ 0.4-2 × 10{sup –4}, f ∼ 1-4 × 10{sup –8}, and f ∼ 1 × 10{sup –8}, with the exception of M2-48, which had f(HCO{sup +}) ∼ 10{sup –7}. Overall, the molecular abundances do not significantly vary over a duration of 10,000 yr, in contrast to predictions of chemical models. The abundances reflect the remnant asymptotic giant branch shell material, coupled with photochemistry in the early PN phase. These observations also suggest that PNe eject substantial amounts of molecular material into the diffuse interstellar medium.

  8. New Measurements of s-Process Enrichments in Planetary Nebulae from High-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Karakas, Amanda; Sterling, Nicholas C.; Kaplan, Kyle

    2017-06-01

    We present preliminary results from a high-spectral resolution survey of near-infrared emission lines of neutron-capture elements in planetary nebulae using the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer, IGRINS (Park et al. 2014, SPIE. 9147, 1), which spans the H- and K-bands at spectral resolving power R ≈ 45,000. Both the [Kr III] and [Se IV] lines identified by Dinerstein (2001, ApJL, 550, L223) are seen in nearly all of an initial sample of ≈ 15 nebulae, with improved accuracy over earlier studies based on lower-resolution data (Sterling & Dinerstein 2008, ApJS, 174, 158; Sterling, Porter, & Dinerstein 2015, ApJS, 218, 25). Several new detections of the [Rb IV], [Cd IV], and [Ge VI] lines identified by Sterling et al. (2016, ApJL, 819, 9), as well as a [Br V] line, were made. About half the objects in this sample descend from stars with [Fe/H] = -0.7 ± 0.2 dex, while the remainder have -0.3 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ 0. We compare the measured enhancements of Se, Kr, Rb, and Cd with predictions of their production by slow-neutron captures (the s-process) during the AGB from theoretical evolutionary models for the corresponding metallicities and various initial masses. New nucleosynthesis calculations were carried out for [Fe/H] = -0.7 for initial masses between 1.1 and 3 M⊙ using the Monash stellar evolution and post-processing codes described in Karakas & Lugaro (2016, ApJ, 825, 26), which provides the nucleosynthesis predictions for the metal-rich end of our sample. The Monash models predict enrichments larger by factors of two or more than those from FRUITY (Cristallo et al. 2015, ApJS, 219, 40) and NuGRID (Pignatari et al. 2016, ApJS, 225, 24) models for the same masses and metallicities. We find that the Monash models are in substantially better agreement than the others with the abundances derived from the IGRINS observations.This work is based on data taken at the McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS was developed with support from

  9. Planck intermediate results XVIII. The millimetre and sub-millimetre emission from planetary nebulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, J.-F.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.

    2015-01-01

    : ionized gas, traced by the free-free emission at cm-mm waves; and thermal dust, traced by the millimetre and far-IR emission. In particular, the amount of ionized gas and dust has been derived here. Such quantities have also been estimated for the very young PN CRL? 618, where the strong variability...

  10. Galactic planetary nebulae with precise nebular abundances as a tool to understand the evolution of asymptotic giant branch stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, D. A.; Ventura, P.; Delgado-Inglada, G.; Dell'Agli, F.; Di Criscienzo, M.; Yagüe, A.

    2016-09-01

    We present nucleosynthesis predictions (HeCNOCl) from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) models, with diffusive overshooting from all the convective borders, in the metallicity range Z⊙/4 nebular abundances in a sample of Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) that is divided among double-dust chemistry (DC) and oxygen-dust chemistry (OC) according to the infrared dust features. Unlike the similar subsample of Galactic carbon-dust chemistry PNe recently analysed by us, here the individual abundance errors, the higher metallicity spread, and the uncertain dust types/subtypes in some PNe do not allow a clear determination of the AGB progenitor masses (and formation epochs) for both PNe samples; the comparison is thus more focused on a object-by-object basis. The lowest metallicity OC PNe evolve from low-mass (˜1 M⊙) O-rich AGBs, while the higher metallicity ones (all with uncertain dust classifications) display a chemical pattern similar to the DC PNe. In agreement with recent literature, the DC PNe mostly descend from high-mass (M ≥ 3.5 M⊙) solar/supersolar metallicity AGBs that experience hot bottom burning (HBB), but other formation channels in low-mass AGBs like extra mixing, stellar rotation, binary interaction, or He pre-enrichment cannot be disregarded until more accurate C/O ratios would be obtained. Two objects among the DC PNe show the imprint of advanced CNO processing and deep second dredge-up, suggesting progenitors masses close to the limit to evolve as core collapse supernovae (above 6M⊙). Their actual C/O ratio, if confirmed, indicate contamination from the third dredge-up, rejecting the hypothesis that the chemical composition of such high-metallicity massive AGBs is modified exclusively by HBB.

  11. A SOFIA FORCAST Grism Study of the Mineralogy of Dust in the Winds of Proto-planetary Nebulae: RV Tauri Stars and SRd Variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arneson, R. A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Woodward, C. E.; Shenoy, D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 106 Pleasant Street S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Helton, L. A. [USRA-SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Evans, A. [Astrophysics Group, Lennard Jones Laboratory, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Keller, L. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 264 Center for Natural Sciences, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Hinkle, K. H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Jura, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lebzelter, T. [Institute for Astrophysics (IfA), University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Lisse, C. M. [Solar System Exploration Branch, Space Department, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Rushton, M. T. [Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy, Str. Cutitul de Argint 5, Bucharest, 040557 (Romania); Mizrachi, J., E-mail: arneson@astro.umn.edu [Biomedical Engineering Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We present a SOFIA FORCAST grism spectroscopic survey to examine the mineralogy of the circumstellar dust in a sample of post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) yellow supergiants that are believed to be the precursors of planetary nebulae. Our mineralogical model of each star indicates the presence of both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich dust species—contrary to simple dredge-up models—with a majority of the dust in the form of amorphous carbon and graphite. The oxygen-rich dust is primarily in the form of amorphous silicates. The spectra do not exhibit any prominent crystalline silicate emission features. For most of the systems, our analysis suggests that the grains are relatively large and have undergone significant processing, supporting the hypothesis that the dust is confined to a Keplerian disk and that we are viewing the heavily processed, central regions of the disk from a nearly face-on orientation. These results help to determine the physical properties of the post-AGB circumstellar environment and to constrain models of post-AGB mass loss and planetary nebula formation.

  12. The filamentary nebulae S 188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosado, M.; Kwitter, K.B.

    1982-01-01

    The crescent shaped nebula S 188 is identified as a planetary nebula (PN) of Peimbert's Type I on the basis of its observed nebula spectrum. New FP interferometric work allows to determine the systemic motion of this nebula. The derived kinematical distance exceeds Cudworth's distance estimate supporting the idea that Peimbert's Type I PNs have larger ejected masses than typical PNs. A discussion about the origin of its non-spherical shape is also given. (author)

  13. Origin of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roxburgh, I.W.

    1978-01-01

    The author firsly examines the theory of stellar evolution in order to see what it has to say about the internal structure and evolution of stars from the main sequence to the giant phase. Uncertainties in these calculations are then highlighted. Various proposed theories are considered and commented on. Finally, the problem of binary stars is discussed. (U.M.G.)

  14. Chemical Abundances of Planetary Nebulae in the Substructures of M31. II. The Extended Sample and a Comparison Study with the Outer-disk Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xuan; García-Benito, Rubén; Guerrero, Martín A.; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xiaowei; Morisset, Christophe; Karakas, Amanda I.; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo M.; Yuan, Haibo; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    We report deep spectroscopy of 10 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) using the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). Our targets reside in different regions of M31, including halo streams and the dwarf satellite M32, and kinematically deviate from the extended disk. The temperature-sensitive [O III] λ4363 line is observed in all PNe. For four PNe, the GTC spectra extend beyond 1 μm, enabling the explicit detection of the [S III] λ6312 and λλ9069, 9531 lines and thus determination of the [S III] temperature. Abundance ratios are derived and generally consistent with AGB model predictions. Our PNe probably all evolved from low-mass (Palma. The observations presented in this paper are associated with GTC programs #GTC66-16A and #GTC25-16B.

  15. Models of the Mass-ejection Histories of Pre-planetary Nebulae. II. The Formation of Minkowski’s Butterfly and its Proboscis in M2–9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balick, Bruce; Frank, Adam; Liu, Baowei; Corradi, Romano

    2018-02-01

    M2–9, or the “Minkowski’s Butterfly,” is one of the most iconic outflow sources from an evolved star. In this paper we present a hydrodynamic model of M2–9 in which the nebula is formed and shaped by a steady, low-density (“light”), mildly collimated “spray” of gas injected at 200 km s‑1 that interacts with a far denser, intrinsically simple pre-existing AGB wind that has slowly formed all of the complex features within M2–9’s lobes (including the knot pairs N3/S3 and N4/S4 at their respective leading edges, and the radial gradient of Doppler shifts within 20″ of the nucleus). We emphasize that the knot pairs are not ejected from the star but formed in situ. In addition, the observed radial speed of the knots is only indirectly related to the speed of the gas injected by the star. The model allows us to probe the early history of the wind geometry and lobe formation. We also formulate a new estimate of the nebular distance D = 1.3 kpc. The physical mechanism that accounts for the linear radial speed gradient in M2–9 applies generally to many other pre-planetary nebulae whose hollow lobes exhibit similar gradients along their edges.

  16. The chemical composition of TS 01, the most oxygen-deficient planetary nebula. AGB nucleosynthesis in a metal-poor binary star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasińska, G.; Morisset, C.; Tovmassian, G.; Rauch, T.; Richer, M. G.; Peña, M.; Szczerba, R.; Decressin, T.; Charbonnel, C.; Yungelson, L.; Napiwotzki, R.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Jamet, L.

    2010-02-01

    The planetary nebula TS 01 (also called PN G 135.9+55.9 or SBS 1150+599A) with its record-holding low oxygen abundance and its double degenerate close binary core (period 3.9 h) is an exceptional object located in the Galactic halo. We have secured observational data in a complete wavelength range to pin down the abundances of half a dozen elements in the nebula. The abundances are obtained via detailed photoionization modelling which takes into account all the observational constraints (including geometry and aperture effects) using the pseudo-3D photoionization code Cloudy_3D. The spectral energy distribution of the ionizing radiation is taken from appropriate model atmospheres. Incidentally we find from the new observational constraints that both stellar components contribute to the ionization: the “cool” one provides the bulk of hydrogen ionization, while the “hot” one is responsible for the presence of the most highly charged ions, which explains why previous attempts to model the nebula experienced difficulties. The nebular abundances of C, N, O, and Ne are found to be 1/3.5, 1/4.2, 1/70, and 1/11 of the solar value respectively, with uncertainties of a factor 2. Thus the extreme O deficiency of this object is confirmed. The abundances of S and Ar are less than 1/30 of solar. The abundance of He relative to H is 0.089 ± 0.009. Standard models of stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis cannot explain the abundance pattern observed in the nebula. To obtain an extreme oxygen deficiency in a star whose progenitor has an initial mass of about 1 M⊙ requires an additional mixing process, which can be induced by stellar rotation and/or by the presence of the close companion. We have computed a stellar model with an initial mass of 1 M⊙, appropriate metallicity, and initial rotation of 100 km s-1, and find that rotation greatly improves the agreement between the predicted and observed abundances. Based on observations obtained at the Canada

  17. YOUNG STARLESS CORES EMBEDDED IN THE MAGNETICALLY DOMINATED PIPE NEBULA. II. EXTENDED DATA SET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frau, P.; Girart, J. M.; Padovani, M.; Beltrán, M. T.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Busquet, G.; Morata, O.; Masqué, J. M.; Estalella, R.; Alves, F. O.; Franco, G. A. P.

    2012-01-01

    The Pipe nebula is a massive, nearby, filamentary dark molecular cloud with a low star formation efficiency threaded by a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to its main axis. It harbors more than a hundred, mostly quiescent, very chemically young starless cores. The cloud is therefore a good laboratory to study the earliest stages of the star formation process. We aim to investigate the primordial conditions and the relation among physical, chemical, and magnetic properties in the evolution of low-mass starless cores. We used the IRAM 30 m telescope to map the 1.2 mm dust continuum emission of five new starless cores, which are in good agreement with previous visual extinction maps. For the sample of nine cores, which includes the four cores studied in a previous work, we derived an A V to N H 2 factor of (1.27 ± 0.12) × 10 –21 mag cm 2 and a background visual extinction of ∼6.7 mag possibly arising from the cloud material. We derived an average core diameter of ∼0.08 pc, density of ∼10 5 cm –3 , and mass of ∼1.7 M ☉ . Several trends seem to exist related to increasing core density: (1) the diameter seems to shrink, (2) the mass seems to increase, and (3) the chemistry tends to be richer. No correlation is found between the direction of the surrounding diffuse medium magnetic field and the projected orientation of the cores, suggesting that large-scale magnetic fields seem to play a secondary role in shaping the cores. We also used the IRAM 30 m telescope to extend the previous molecular survey at 1 and 3 mm of early- and late-time molecules toward the same five new Pipe nebula starless cores, and analyzed the normalized intensities of the detected molecular transitions. We confirmed the chemical differentiation toward the sample and increased the number of molecular transitions of the 'diffuse' (e.g., the 'ubiquitous' CO, C 2 H, and CS), 'oxo-sulfurated' (e.g., SO and CH 3 OH), and 'deuterated' (e.g., N 2 H + , CN, and HCN) starless core groups

  18. THE ABUNDANCES OF LIGHT NEUTRON-CAPTURE ELEMENTS IN PLANETARY NEBULAE. III. THE IMPACT OF NEW ATOMIC DATA ON NEBULAR SELENIUM AND KRYPTON ABUNDANCE DETERMINATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, N. C. [Department of Physics, University of West Georgia, 1601 Maple Street, Carrollton, GA 30118 (United States); Porter, R. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Simulational Physics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Dinerstein, Harriet L., E-mail: nsterlin@westga.edu, E-mail: ryanlporter@gmail.com, E-mail: harriet@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 2515 Speedway, C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States)

    2015-06-22

    The detection of neutron(n)-capture elements in several planetary nebulae (PNe) has provided a new means of investigating s-process nucleosynthesis in low-mass stars. However, a lack of atomic data has inhibited accurate trans-iron element abundance determinations in astrophysical nebulae. Recently, photoionization (PI) and recombination data were determined for Se and Kr, the two most widely detected n-capture elements in nebular spectra. We have incorporated these new data into the photoionization code Cloudy. To test the atomic data, numerical models were computed for 15 PNe that exhibit emission lines from multiple Kr ions. We found systematic discrepancies between the predicted and observed emission lines that are most likely caused by inaccurate PI and recombination data. These discrepancies were removed by adjusting the Kr{sup +}–Kr{sup 3+} PI cross sections within their cited uncertainties and the dielectronic recombination rate coefficients by slightly larger amounts. From grids of models spanning the physical conditions encountered in PNe, we derive new, broadly applicable ionization correction factor (ICF) formulae for calculating Se and Kr elemental abundances. The ICFs were applied to our previous survey of near-infrared [Kr iii] and [Se iv] emission lines in 120 PNe. The revised Se and Kr abundances are 0.1–0.3 dex lower than former estimates, with average values of [Se/(O, Ar)] = 0.12 ± 0.27 and [Kr/(O, Ar)] = 0.82 ± 0.29, but correlations previously found between their abundances and other nebular and stellar properties are unaffected. We also find a tendency for high-velocity PNe that can be associated with the Galactic thick disk to exhibit larger s-process enrichments than low-velocity PNe belonging to the thin-disk population.

  19. YOUNG STARLESS CORES EMBEDDED IN THE MAGNETICALLY DOMINATED PIPE NEBULA. II. EXTENDED DATA SET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frau, P.; Girart, J. M.; Padovani, M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C-5p, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Beltran, M. T.; Sanchez-Monge, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Busquet, G. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Morata, O. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Masque, J. M.; Estalella, R. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (IEEC-UB), Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); Alves, F. O. [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Franco, G. A. P. [Departamento de Fisica-ICEx-UFMG, Caixa Postal 702, 30.123-970, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2012-11-01

    The Pipe nebula is a massive, nearby, filamentary dark molecular cloud with a low star formation efficiency threaded by a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to its main axis. It harbors more than a hundred, mostly quiescent, very chemically young starless cores. The cloud is therefore a good laboratory to study the earliest stages of the star formation process. We aim to investigate the primordial conditions and the relation among physical, chemical, and magnetic properties in the evolution of low-mass starless cores. We used the IRAM 30 m telescope to map the 1.2 mm dust continuum emission of five new starless cores, which are in good agreement with previous visual extinction maps. For the sample of nine cores, which includes the four cores studied in a previous work, we derived an A {sub V} to N{sub H{sub 2}} factor of (1.27 {+-} 0.12) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -21} mag cm{sup 2} and a background visual extinction of {approx}6.7 mag possibly arising from the cloud material. We derived an average core diameter of {approx}0.08 pc, density of {approx}10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}, and mass of {approx}1.7 M {sub Sun }. Several trends seem to exist related to increasing core density: (1) the diameter seems to shrink, (2) the mass seems to increase, and (3) the chemistry tends to be richer. No correlation is found between the direction of the surrounding diffuse medium magnetic field and the projected orientation of the cores, suggesting that large-scale magnetic fields seem to play a secondary role in shaping the cores. We also used the IRAM 30 m telescope to extend the previous molecular survey at 1 and 3 mm of early- and late-time molecules toward the same five new Pipe nebula starless cores, and analyzed the normalized intensities of the detected molecular transitions. We confirmed the chemical differentiation toward the sample and increased the number of molecular transitions of the 'diffuse' (e.g., the 'ubiquitous' CO, C{sub 2}H, and CS), &apos

  20. ASTROMETRY WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE: TRIGONOMETRIC PARALLAXES OF PLANETARY NEBULA NUCLEI NGC 6853, NGC 7293, ABELL 31, AND DeHt 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Harrison, Thomas E.; Harris, Hugh C.; Nelan, Edmund; Bond, Howard E.; Patterson, Richard J.; Ciardullo, Robin

    2009-01-01

    We present absolute parallaxes and relative proper motions for the central stars of the planetary nebulae NGC 6853 (The Dumbbell), NGC 7293 (The Helix), Abell 31, and DeHt 5. This paper details our reduction and analysis using DeHt 5 as an example. We obtain these planetary nebula nuclei (PNNi) parallaxes with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensors FGS 1r and FGS 3, white-light interferometers on the Hubble Space Telescope. Proper motions, spectral classifications and VJHKT 2 M and DDO51 photometry of the stars comprising the astrometric reference frames provide spectrophotometric estimates of reference star absolute parallaxes. Introducing these into our model as observations with error, we determine absolute parallaxes for each PNN. Weighted averaging with previous independent parallax measurements yields an average parallax precision, σ π /π = 5%. Derived distances are: d NGC6853 = 405 +28 -25 pc, d NGC7293 = 216 +14 -12 pc, d Abell31 = 621 +91 -70 pc, and d DeHt5 = 345 +19 -17 pc. These PNNi distances are all smaller than previously derived from spectroscopic analyses of the central stars. To obtain absolute magnitudes from these distances requires estimates of interstellar extinction. We average extinction measurements culled from the literature, from reddening based on PNNi intrinsic colors derived from model SEDs, and an assumption that each PNN experiences the same rate of extinction as a function of distance as do the reference stars nearest (in angular separation) to each central star. We also apply Lutz-Kelker bias corrections. The absolute magnitudes and effective temperatures permit estimates of PNNi radii through both the Stefan-Boltzmann relation and Eddington fluxes. Comparing absolute magnitudes with post-AGB models provides mass estimates. Masses cluster around 0.57 M odot , close to the peak of the white dwarf mass distribution. Adding a few more PNNi with well-determined distances and masses, we compare all the PNNi with cooler white

  1. A New Radio Spectral Line Survey of Planetary Nebulae: Exploring Radiatively-driven Heating and Chemistry of Molecular Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublitz, Jesse; Kastner, Joel H.; Santander-García, Miguel; Montez, Rodolfo; Alcolea, Javier; Balick, Bruce; Bujarrabal, Valentín

    2018-01-01

    We report the results of a survey of mm-wave molecular line emission from nine nearby (Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM) 30 m telescope. Our sample comprises molecule-rich PNe spanning a wide range of central star UV luminosities as well as central star and nebular X-ray emission properties. Nine molecular line frequencies were chosen to investigate the molecular chemistry of these nebulae. New detections of one or more of five molecules -- the molecular mass tracer 13CO and the chemically important trace species HCO+, CN, HCN, and HNC -- were made in at least one PN. We present analysis of emission line flux ratios that are potential diagnostics of the influence that ultraviolet and X-ray radiation have on the chemistry of residual molecular gas in PNe.

  2. ALMA Observations of the Water Fountain Pre-Planetary Nebula IRAS 16342-3814: High-Velocity Bipolar Jets and an Expanding Torus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R; Vlemmings, W H T; Gledhill, T; Sánchez Contreras, C; Lagadec, E; Nyman, L-Å; Quintana-Lacaci, G

    2017-01-20

    We have mapped 12 CO J=3-2 and other molecular lines from the "water-fountain" bipolar pre-planetary nebula (PPN) IRAS 16342-3814 with [Formula: see text] resolution using ALMA. We find (i) two very high-speed knotty, jet-like molecular outflows, (ii) a central high-density (> few × 10 6 cm -3 ), expanding torus of diameter 1300 AU, and (iii) the circumstellar envelope of the progenitor AGB, generated by a sudden, very large increase in the mass-loss rate to > 3.5 × 10 -4 M ⊙ yr -1 in the past ~455 yr. Strong continuum emission at 0.89 mm from a central source (690 mJy), if due to thermally-emitting dust, implies a substantial mass (0.017 M ⊙ ) of very large (~mm-sized) grains. The measured expansion ages of the above structural components imply that the torus (age~160 yr) and the younger high-velocity outflow (age~110 yr) were formed soon after the sharp increase in the AGB mass-loss rate. Assuming a binary model for the jets in IRAS 16342, the high momentum rate for the dominant jet-outflow in IRAS 16342 implies a high minimum accretion rate, ruling out standard Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton wind accretion and wind Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) models with white-dwarf or main-sequence companions. Most likely, enhanced RLOF from the primary or accretion modes operating within common envelope evolution are needed.

  3. SERENDIPITOUS DETECTION OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE HOT BORN-AGAIN CENTRAL STAR OF THE PLANETARY NEBULA K 1-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montez, Rodolfo Jr. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Kastner, Joel H., E-mail: rodolfo.montez.jr@gmail.com, E-mail: jhk@cis.rit.edu [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2013-03-20

    We report the serendipitous detection of point-like X-ray emission from the hot, PG1159-type central star of the planetary nebula (CSPN) K 1-16 by the XMM-Newton and Chandra X-Ray Observatories. The CSPN lies superimposed on a galaxy cluster that includes an X-ray-bright quasar, but we have successfully isolated the CSPN X-ray emission from the strong diffuse background contributed by the quasar and intracluster gas. We have modeled the XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray data, taking advantage of the contrasting detection efficiencies of the two observatories to better constrain the low-energy spectral response of Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer. We find that the CSPN X-ray spectrum is well characterized by the combination of a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmosphere with T{sub *} {approx} 135 kK and a carbon-rich, optically thin thermal plasma with T{sub X} {approx} 1 MK. These results for X-ray emission from the K 1-16 CSPN, combined with those obtained for other PG1159-type objects, lend support to the 'born-again' scenario for Wolf-Rayet and PG1159 CSPNe, wherein a late helium shell flash dredges up carbon-rich intershell material and ejects this material into the circumstellar environment.

  4. New results form HST on fast, colimated outflows in dying stars - the primary mechanism for shaping planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Contreras, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly describe the results from imaging surveys of young PNe and PPNe with HST, and then present new results from detailed kinematic studies of several prominent objects which support our hypothesis for shaping PNe.

  5. An X-ray outburst from the rapidly accreting young star that illuminates McNeil's nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, J H; Richmond, M; Grosso, N; Weintraub, D A; Simon, T; Frank, A; Hamaguchi, K; Ozawa, H; Henden, A

    2004-07-22

    Young, low-mass stars are luminous X-ray sources whose powerful X-ray flares may exert a profound influence over the process of planet formation. The origin of the X-ray emission is uncertain. Although many (or perhaps most) recently formed, low-mass stars emit X-rays as a consequence of solar-like coronal activity, it has also been suggested that X-ray emission may be a direct result of mass accretion onto the forming star. Here we report X-ray imaging spectroscopy observations which reveal a factor approximately 50 increase in the X-ray flux from a young star that is at present undergoing a spectacular optical/infrared outburst (this star illuminates McNeil's nebula). The outburst seems to be due to the sudden onset of a phase of rapid accretion. The coincidence of a surge in X-ray brightness with the optical/infrared eruption demonstrates that strongly enhanced high-energy emission from young stars can occur as a consequence of high accretion rates. We suggest that such accretion-enhanced X-ray emission from erupting young stars may be short-lived, because intense star-disk magnetospheric interactions are quenched rapidly by the subsequent flood of new material onto the star.

  6. GTC/CanariCam Mid-IR Imaging of the Fullerene-rich Planetary Nebula IC 418: Searching for the Spatial Distribution of Fullerene-like Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Luis, J. J.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Manchado, A.; García-Lario, P.; Villaver, E.; García-Segura, G.

    2018-03-01

    We present seeing-limited narrow-band mid-IR GTC/CanariCam images of the spatially extended fullerene-containing planetary nebula (PN) IC 418. The narrow-band images cover the C60 fullerene band at 17.4 μm, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon like (PAH-like) feature at 11.3 μm, the broad 9–13 μm feature, and their adjacent continua at 9.8 and 20.5 μm. We study the relative spatial distribution of these complex species, all detected in the Spitzer and Infrared Space Observatory spectra of IC 418, with the aim of getting observational constraints to the formation process of fullerenes in H-rich circumstellar environments. A similar ring-like extended structure is seen in all narrow-band filters, except in the dust continuum emission at 9.8 μm, which peaks closer to the central star. The continuum-subtracted images display a clear ring-like extended structure for the carrier of the broad 9–13 μm emission, while the spatial distribution of the (PAH-like) 11.3 μm emission is not so well defined. Interestingly, a residual C60 17.4 μm emission (at about 4σ from the sky background) is seen when subtracting the dust continuum emission at 20.5 μm. This residual C60 emission, if real, might have several interpretations, the most exciting being perhaps that other fullerene-based species like hydrogenated fullerenes with very low H-content may contribute to the observed 17.4 μm emission. We conclude that higher sensitivity mid-IR images and spatially resolved spectroscopic observations (especially in the Q-band) are necessary to get some clues about fullerene formation in PNe.

  7. On the production of He, C, and N by low- and intermediate-mass stars: a comparison of observed and model-predicted planetary nebula abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R. B. C.; Stephenson, B. G.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Kwitter, K. B.; Balick, B.

    2018-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to make a direct comparison between the measured and model-predicted abundances of He, C, and N in a sample of 35 well-observed Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe). All observations, data reductions, and abundance determinations were performed in house to ensure maximum homogeneity. Progenitor star masses (M ≤ 4 M⊙) were inferred using two published sets of post-asymptotic giant branch model tracks and L and Teff values. We conclude the following: (1) the mean values of N/O across the progenitor mass range exceeds the solar value, indicating significant N enrichment in the majority of our objects; (2) the onset of hot bottom burning appears to begin around 2 M⊙, i.e. lower than ∼5 M⊙ implied by theory; (3) most of our objects show a clear He enrichment, as expected from dredge-up episodes; (4) the average sample C/O value is 1.23, consistent with the effects of third dredge up; and (5) model grids used to compare to observations successfully span the distribution over metallicity space of all C/O and many He/H data points but mostly fail to do so in the case of N/O. The evident enrichment of N in PN and the general discrepancy between the observed and model-predicted N/O abundance ratios signal the need for extra mixing as an effect of rotation and/or thermohaline mixing in the models. The unexpectedly high N enrichment that is implied here for low-mass stars, if confirmed, will likely impact our conclusions about the source of N in the Universe.

  8. BINARY CENTRAL STARS OF PLANETARY NEBULAE DISCOVERED THROUGH PHOTOMETRIC VARIABILITY. II. MODELING THE CENTRAL STARS OF NGC 6026 AND NGC 6337

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillwig, Todd C.; Bond, Howard E.; Afsar, Melike; De Marco, Orsola

    2010-01-01

    Close-binary central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNe) provide an opportunity to explore the evolution of PNe, their shaping, and the evolution of binary systems undergoing a common-envelope phase. Here, we present the results of time-resolved photometry of the binary central stars (CSs) of the PNe NGC 6026 and NGC 6337 as well as time-resolved spectroscopy of the CS of NGC 6026. The results of a period analysis give an orbital period of 0.528086(4) days for NGC 6026 and a photometric period of 0.1734742(5) days for NGC 6337. In the case of NGC 6337, it appears that the photometric period reflects the orbital period and that the variability is the result of the irradiated hemisphere of a cool companion. The inclination of the thin PN ring is nearly face-on. Our modeled inclination range for the close central binary includes nearly face-on alignments and provides evidence for a direct binary-nebular shaping connection. For NGC 6026, however, the radial-velocity curve shows that the orbital period is twice the photometric period. In this case, the photometric variability is due to an ellipsoidal effect in which the CS nearly fills its Roche lobe and the companion is most likely a hot white dwarf. NGC 6026 then is the third PN with a confirmed central binary where the companion is compact. Based on the data and modeling using a Wilson-Devinney code, we discuss the physical parameters of the two systems and how they relate to the known sample of close-binary CSs, which comprise 15%-20% of all PNe.

  9. Confirmation and characterization of young planetary companions hidden in the HST NICMOS archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, Laurent

    2013-10-01

    We propose to conduct WFC3 high contrast observations of six faint planetary candidates orbiting young {1 to 100 Myrs} stars identified in archival HST NICMOS coronagraphic data as part of our team's program AR-12652. Such rare objects are of the utmost importance to comparative exo-planetology as their physical properties reflect the initial conditions of still poorly constrained planetary formation mechanisms. Moreover directly imaged systems are precious artifacts in the expanding exo-planetary treasure trove as they are readily available for spectroscopic characterization. Our statistical analysis, which combines population synthesis models and empirical inspections of the entire NICMOS field of view for all sources observed in coronaraphic mode, almost guarantees that one of these six faint candidates is associated with its putative host star. We will conduct our observation in four near infrared filter, F125W, F160W to establish the baseline luminosity of our candidates and in F127M and F139M in order to probe the depth their water absorption features, characteristic of substellar /exo-planetary like atmospheres. Because of the youth of our targets, this program, which only requires a modest 12 HST orbits, will almost certainly identify and image a young or adolescent exo-planet.

  10. CO-SPATIAL LONG-SLIT UV/OPTICAL SPECTRA OF TEN GALACTIC PLANETARY NEBULAE WITH HST/STIS. II. NEBULAR MODELS, CENTRAL STAR PROPERTIES, AND He+CNO SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R. B. C.; Miller, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Dufour, R. J. [Department of Space Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Kwitter, K. B. [Department of Astronomy, Williams College, Williamstown, MA 01267 (United States); Shaw, R. A. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Buell, J. F. [SUNY College of Technology at Alfred, Alfred, NY 14843 (United States); Corradi, R. L. M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-11-10

    The goal of the present study is twofold. First, we employ new HST/STIS spectra and photoionization modeling techniques to determine the progenitor masses of eight planetary nebulae (IC 2165, IC 3568, NGC 2440, NGC 3242, NGC 5315, NGC 5882, NGC 7662, and PB 6). Second, for the first time we are able to compare each object’s observed nebular abundances of helium, carbon, and nitrogen with abundance predictions of these same elements by a stellar model that is consistent with each object’s progenitor mass. Important results include the following: (1) the mass range of our objects’ central stars matches well with the mass distribution of other central stars of planetary nebulae and white dwarfs; (2) He/H is above solar in all of our objects, in most cases likely due to the predicted effects of first dredge-up; (3) most of our objects show negligible C enrichment, probably because their low masses preclude third dredge-up; (4) C/O versus O/H for our objects appears to be inversely correlated, which is perhaps consistent with the conclusion of theorists that the extent of atmospheric carbon enrichment from first dredge-up is sensitive to a parameter whose value increases as metallicity declines; (5) stellar model predictions of nebular C and N enrichment are consistent with observed abundances for progenitor star masses ≤1.5 M{sub ⊙}. Finally, we present the first published photoionization models of NGC 5315 and NGC 5882.

  11. Ultraviolet spectra of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, J.P.; Seaton, M.J.; Adams, S.; Lutz, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed study of NGC 7662 is based on UV results obtained from 15 IUE spectra and on observations of other workers at optical, IR and radio wavelengths. Improved techniques are used to extract IUE data for an extended source. Relative fluxes in the different apertures which have been used are obtained using the brightness contours of Coleman, Reay and Worswick. There is close agreement between the reddening deduced from the ratios He II (lambda 1640)/(lambda 4686) and (radio)/(Hβ) and the nebular continuum emission observed with the IUE large slots agrees closely with that predicted using absolute radio and Hβ fluxes. The fluxes in nebular emission lines observed with the small slots are smaller than expected from brightness distributions; it is concluded that, for an extended source, the small slots have aperture transmission factors of 0.85 for SWP and 0.46 for LWR. The central star is fainter than has been previously supposed (by more than two magnitudes). The blackbody He II Zanstra temperature of 113 000 K is consistent with the UV colour temperature. Previous work on colour temperatures of central stars is discussed critically. Two models are discussed. (author)

  12. Extreme Radio Flares and Associated X-Ray Variability from Young Stellar Objects in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbrich, Jan [Centre for Astrophysics Research, School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Reid, Mark J.; Wolk, Scott J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Menten, Karl M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Rivilla, Victor M. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); Rau, Urvashi; Chandler, Claire J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Young stellar objects are known to exhibit strong radio variability on timescales of weeks to months, and a few reports have documented extreme radio flares with at least an order of magnitude change in flux density on timescales of hours to days. However, there have been few constraints on the occurrence rate of such radio flares or on the correlation with pre-main sequence X-ray flares, although such correlations are known for the Sun and nearby active stars. Here we report simultaneous deep VLA radio and Chandra X-ray observations of the Orion Nebula Cluster, targeting hundreds of sources to look for the occurrence rate of extreme radio variability and potential correlation with the most extreme X-ray variability. We identify 13 radio sources with extreme radio variability, with some showing an order of magnitude change in flux density in less than 30 minutes. All of these sources show X-ray emission and variability, but we find clear correlations with extreme radio flaring only on timescales <1 hr. Strong X-ray variability does not predict the extreme radio sources and vice versa. Radio flares thus provide us with a new perspective on high-energy processes in YSOs and the irradiation of their protoplanetary disks. Finally, our results highlight implications for interferometric imaging of sources violating the constant-sky assumption.

  13. The VISTA Carina Nebula Survey. II. Spatial distribution of the infrared-excess-selected young stellar population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, P.; Preibisch, T.; Ratzka, T.; Roccatagliata, V.; Petr-Gotzens, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    We performed a deep wide-field (6.76 sq. deg) near-infrared survey with the VISTA telescope that covers the entire extent of the Carina nebula complex (CNC). The point-source catalog created from these data contains around four million individual objects down to masses of 0.1 M⊙. We present a statistical study of the large-scale spatial distribution and an investigation of the clustering properties of infrared-excesses objects, which are used to trace disk-bearing young stellar objects (YSOs). A selection based on a near-infrared (J-H) versus (H-Ks) color-color diagram shows an almost uniform distribution over the entire observed area. We interpret this as a result of the very high degree of background contamination that arises from the Carina Nebula's location close to the Galactic plane. Complementing the VISTA near-infrared catalog with Spitzer IRAC mid-infrared photometry improves the situation of the background contamination considerably. We find that a (J-H) versus (Ks- [4.5]) color-color diagram is well suited to tracing the population of YSO-candidates (cYSOs) by their infrared excess. We identify 8781 sources with strong infrared excess, which we consider as cYSOs. This sample is used to investigate the spatial distribution of the cYSOs with a nearest-neighbor analysis. The surface density distribution of cYSOs agrees well with the shape of the clouds as seen in our Herschel far-infrared survey. The strong decline in the surface density of excess sources outside the area of the clouds supports the hypothesis that our excess-selected sample consists predominantly of cYSOs with a low level of background contamination. This analysis allows us to identify 14 groups of cYSOs outside the central area.Our results suggest that the total population of cYSOs in the CNC comprises about 164 000 objects, with a substantial fraction (~35%) located in the northern, still not well studied parts. Our cluster analysis suggests that roughly half of the cYSOs constitute a

  14. Discovery of a wide planetary-mass companion to the young M3 star GU PSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, Marie-Eve; Artigau, Étienne; Malo, Lison; Albert, Loïc; Doyon, René; Lafrenière, David; Gagné, Jonathan; Boucher, Anne [Département de physique and Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic, Université de Montréal, Montréal H3C 3J7 (Canada); Saumon, Didier [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Morley, Caroline V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Allard, France; Homeier, Derek [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, UMR 5574 CNRS, Université de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Beichman, Charles A.; Gelino, Christopher R., E-mail: naud@astro.umontreal.ca [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We present the discovery of a comoving planetary-mass companion ∼42'' (∼2000 AU) from a young M3 star, GU Psc, a likely member of the young AB Doradus Moving Group (ABDMG). The companion was first identified via its distinctively red i – z color (>3.5) through a survey made with Gemini-S/GMOS. Follow-up Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/WIRCam near-infrared (NIR) imaging, Gemini-N/GNIRS NIR spectroscopy and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry indicate a spectral type of T3.5 ± 1 and reveal signs of low gravity which we attribute to youth. Keck/Adaptive Optics NIR observations did not resolve the companion as a binary. A comparison with atmosphere models indicates T {sub eff} = 1000-1100 K and log g = 4.5-5.0. Based on evolution models, this temperature corresponds to a mass of 9-13 M {sub Jup} for the age of ABDMG (70-130 Myr). The relatively well-constrained age of this companion and its very large angular separation to its host star will allow its thorough characterization and will make it a valuable comparison for planetary-mass companions that will be uncovered by forthcoming planet-finder instruments such as Gemini Planet Imager and SPHERE 9.

  15. A YOUNG PLANETARY-MASS OBJECT IN THE ρ OPH CLOUD CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, Kenneth A.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Plavchan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of a young planetary-mass brown dwarf in the ρ Oph cloud core. The object was identified as such with the aid of a 1.5-2.4 μm low-resolution spectrum obtained using the NIRC instrument on the Keck I telescope. Based on the COND model, the observed spectrum is consistent with a reddened (A V ∼ 15-16) brown dwarf whose effective temperature is in the range 1200-1800 K. For an assumed age of 1 Myr, comparison with isochrones further constrains the temperature to ∼1400 K and suggests a mass of ∼2-3 Jupiter masses. The inferred temperature is suggestive of an early T spectral type, which is supported by spectral morphology consistent with weak methane absorption. Based on its inferred distance (∼100 pc) and the presence of overlying visual absorption, it is very likely to be a ρ Oph cluster member. In addition, given the estimated spectral type, it may be the youngest and least massive T dwarf found so far. Its existence suggests that the initial mass function for the ρ Oph star-forming region extends well into the planetary-mass regime.

  16. Observing nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book enables anyone with suitable instruments to undertake an examination of nebulae and see or photograph them in detail. Nebulae, ethereal clouds of gas and dust, are among the most beautiful objects to view in the night sky. These star-forming regions are a common target for observers and photographers. Griffiths describes many of the brightest and best nebulae and includes some challenges for the more experienced observer. Readers learn the many interesting astrophysical properties of these clouds, which are an important subject of study in astronomy and astrobiology. Non-mathematical in approach, the text is easily accessible to anyone with an interest in the subject. A special feature is the inclusion of an observational guide to 70 objects personally observed or imaged by the author. The guide also includes photographs of each object for ease of identification along with their celestial coordinates, magnitudes and other pertinent information. Observing Nebulae provides a ready resource to allow an...

  17. SHORT- AND LONG-TERM RADIO VARIABILITY OF YOUNG STARS IN THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER AND MOLECULAR CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivilla, V. M.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Chandler, C. J.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Forbrich, J.

    2015-01-01

    We have used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to carry out multi-epoch radio continuum monitoring of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and the background Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC; 3 epochs at Q band and 11 epochs at Ka band). Our new observations reveal the presence of 19 radio sources, mainly concentrated in the Trapezium Cluster and the Orion Hot Core (OHC) regions. With the exception of the Becklin–Neugebauer object and source C (which we identify here as dust emission associated with a proplyd) the sources all show radio variability between the different epochs. We have found tentative evidence of variability in the emission from the massive object related to source I. Our observations also confirm radio flux density variations of a factor >2 on timescales of hours to days in five sources. One of these flaring sources, OHC-E, has been detected for the first time. We conclude that the radio emission can be attributed to two different components: (i) highly variable (flaring) non-thermal radio gyrosynchrotron emission produced by electrons accelerated in the magnetospheres of pre-main-sequence low-mass stars and (ii) thermal emission due to free–free radiation from ionized gas and/or heated dust around embedded massive objects and proplyds. Combining our sample with other radio monitoring at 8.3 GHz and the X-ray catalog provided by Chandra, we have studied the properties of the entire sample of radio/X-ray stars in the ONC/OMC region (51 sources). We have found several hints of a relation between the X-ray activity and the mechanisms responsible for (at least some fraction of) the radio emission. We have estimated a radio flaring rate of ∼0.14 flares day −1 in the dense stellar cluster embedded in the OHC region. This suggests that radio flares are more common events during the first stages of stellar evolution than previously thought. The advent of improved sensitivity with the new VLA and ALMA will dramatically increase the number of stars in

  18. X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE YOUNG PULSAR J1357—6429 AND ITS PULSAR WIND NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chulhoon; Pavlov, George G.; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Shibanov, Yurii A.

    2012-01-01

    We observed the young pulsar J1357—6429 with the Chandra and XMM-Newton observatories. The pulsar spectrum fits well a combination of an absorbed power-law model (Γ = 1.7 ± 0.6) and a blackbody model (kT = 140 +60 –40 eV, R ∼ 2 km at the distance of 2.5 kpc). Strong pulsations with pulsed fraction of 42% ± 5%, apparently associated with the thermal component, were detected in 0.3-1.1 keV. Surprisingly, the pulsed fraction at higher energies, 1.1-10 keV, appears to be smaller, 23% ± 4%. The small emitting area of the thermal component either corresponds to a hotter fraction of the neutron star surface or indicates inapplicability of the simplistic blackbody description. The X-ray images also reveal a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) with complex, asymmetric morphology comprised of a brighter, compact PWN surrounded by the fainter, much more extended PWN whose spectral slopes are Γ = 1.3 ± 0.3 and Γ = 1.7 ± 0.2, respectively. The extended PWN with the observed flux of ∼7.5 × 10 –13 erg s –1 cm –2 is a factor of 10 more luminous then the compact PWN. The pulsar and its PWN are located close to the center of the extended TeV source HESS J1356-645, which strongly suggests that the very high energy emission is powered by electrons injected by the pulsar long ago. The X-ray to TeV flux ratio, ∼0.1, is similar to those of other relic PWNe. We found no other viable candidates to power the TeV source. A region of diffuse radio emission, offset from the pulsar toward the center of the TeV source, could be synchrotron emission from the same relic PWN rather than from the supernova remnant.

  19. A study of the compact nebulae VV 8 and M3-27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.F.

    1975-01-01

    New photometric observations of the lines and continuum in the compact nebulae VV 8 and M3-27 are presented. The data for VV 8 are very similar to those obtained by O'Dell nearly 10 years ago. Both nebulae have high electron densities and are self-absorbed in Hα. Parameters describing the physical conditions are estimated using the observed Balmer and O iii line strengths. By comparing the observations with suitable models for young planetary nebulae, the abundances of helium, oxygen, and neon are shown to be normal. The N ii lines are stronger than predicted. The continuum in M3-27 is shown to be in good agreement with theory, while the continuum in VV 8 in the visible and infrared is much brighter than predicted. The similarity between the line spectra and inferred properties of the nebulae suggests that the optical continuum in VV 8 is unrelated to the nebula, and may come from a late-type companion in a binary. Serious difficulties remain, however, concerning the absolute magnitude and color of the companion in the binary model. Some implications of Zipoy's shell star model are also examined

  20. The Young L Dwarf 2MASS J11193254-1137466 Is a Planetary-mass Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, William M. J.; Liu, Michael C.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Magnier, Eugene A.

    2017-07-01

    We have discovered that the extremely red, low-gravity L7 dwarf 2MASS J11193254-1137466 is a 0.″14 (3.6 au) binary using Keck laser guide star adaptive optics imaging. 2MASS J11193254-1137466 has previously been identified as a likely member of the TW Hydrae Association (TWA). Using our updated photometric distance and proper motion, a kinematic analysis based on the BANYAN II model gives an 82% probability of TWA membership. At TWA’s 10 ± 3 Myr age and using hot-start evolutionary models, 2MASS J11193254-1137466AB is a pair of {3.7}-0.9+1.2 {M}{Jup} brown dwarfs, making it the lowest-mass binary discovered to date. We estimate an orbital period of {90}-50+80 years. One component is marginally brighter in K band but fainter in J band, making this a probable flux-reversal binary, the first discovered with such a young age. We also imaged the spectrally similar TWA L7 dwarf WISEA J114724.10-204021.3 with Keck and found no sign of binarity. Our evolutionary model-derived {T}{eff} estimate for WISEA J114724.10-204021.3 is ≈230 K higher than for 2MASS J11193254-1137466AB, at odds with the spectral similarity of the two objects. This discrepancy suggests that WISEA J114724.10-204021.3 may actually be a tight binary with masses and temperatures very similar to 2MASS J11193254-1137466AB, or further supporting the idea that near-infrared spectra of young ultracool dwarfs are shaped by factors other than temperature and gravity. 2MASS J11193254-1137466AB will be an essential benchmark for testing evolutionary and atmospheric models in the young planetary-mass regime.

  1. Astrophysics of gaseous nebulae and active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterbrock, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    A graduate-level text and reference book on gaseous nebulae and the emission regions in Seyfert galaxies, quasars, and other types of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is presented. The topics discussed include: photoionization equilibrium, thermal equilibrium, calculation of emitted spectrum, comparison of theory with observations, internal dynamics of gaseous nebulae, interstellar dust, regions in the galactic context, planetary nebulae, nova and supernova remnants, diagnostics and physics of AGN, observational results on AGN

  2. CLOSE STELLAR ENCOUNTERS IN YOUNG, SUBSTRUCTURED, DISSOLVING STAR CLUSTERS: STATISTICS AND EFFECTS ON PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.

  3. CLOSE STELLAR ENCOUNTERS IN YOUNG, SUBSTRUCTURED, DISSOLVING STAR CLUSTERS: STATISTICS AND EFFECTS ON PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R., E-mail: krumholz@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.

  4. Close Stellar Encounters in Young, Substructured, Dissolving Star Clusters: Statistics and Effects on Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2013-06-01

    Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.

  5. Starlight excitation of permitted lines in gaseous nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandi, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    The weak heavy element permitted lines observed in the spectra of gaseous nebula have, with only a few exceptions, been thought to be excited only by recombination. The accuracy of this assumption for individual lines in nebula spectra is investigated in detail via model nebula calculations. First, approximations and techniques of calculation are considered for the three possible excitation mechanisms: recombination, resonance fluorescence by the starlight continuum, and resonance fluorescence by other nebular emission lines. Next, the permitted lines of O I as observed in gaseous nebulae are discussed. Thirdly, it is shown that varying combinations of recombination, resonance fluorescence by starlight, and resonance fluorescence by other nebula lines can successfully account for the observed strengths in the Orion Nebula of lines of the following ions: C II, N I, N II, N III, O II, Ne II, Si II, Si III, and S III. A similar analysis is performed for the lines in the spectra of the planetary nebulae NGC7662 and NGC7027, and, with some exceptions, satisfactory agreement between the observed and predicted line strengths is found. Finally, observations of the far red spectra of the Orion Nebula, the planetary nebulae NGC3242, NGC6210, NGC2392, IC3568, IC4997, NGC7027, and MGC7662, and the reflection nebulae IC431 and NGC2068 are reported

  6. Ghost Head Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Looking like a colorful holiday card, a new image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals a vibrant green and red nebula far from Earth. The image of NGC 2080, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is available online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . Images like this help astronomers investigate star formation in nebulas. NGC 2080, nicknamed 'The Ghost Head Nebula,' is one of a chain of star-forming regions lying south of the 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud. 30 Doradus is the largest star-forming complex in the local group of galaxies. This 'enhanced color' picture is composed of three narrow-band-filter images obtained by Hubble on March 28, 2000. The red and blue light come from regions of hydrogen gas heated by nearby stars. The green light on the left comes from glowing oxygen. The energy to illuminate the green light is supplied by a powerful stellar wind, a stream of high-speed particles coming from a massive star just outside the image. The central white region is a combination of all three emissions and indicates a core of hot, massive stars in this star-formation region. Intense emission from these stars has carved a bowl-shaped cavity in surrounding gas. In the white region, the two bright areas (the 'eyes of the ghost') - named A1 (left) and A2 (right) -- are very hot, glowing 'blobs' of hydrogen and oxygen. The bubble in A1 is produced by the hot, intense radiation and powerful stellar wind from one massive star. A2 contains more dust and several hidden, massive stars. The massive stars in A1 and A2 must have formed within the last 10,000 years, since their natal gas shrouds are not yet disrupted by the powerful radiation of the newborn stars. The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The

  7. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Origin of Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session titled Origin of Planetary Systems" included the following reports:Convective Cooling of Protoplanetary Disks and Rapid Giant Planet Formation; When Push Comes to Shove: Gap-opening, Disk Clearing and the In Situ Formation of Giant Planets; Late Injection of Radionuclides into Solar Nebula Analogs in Orion; Growth of Dust Particles and Accumulation of Centimeter-sized Objects in the Vicinity of a Pressure enhanced Region of a Solar Nebula; Fast, Repeatable Clumping of Solid Particles in Microgravity ; Chondrule Formation by Current Sheets in Protoplanetary Disks; Radial Migration of Phyllosilicates in the Solar Nebula; Accretion of the Outer Planets: Oligarchy or Monarchy?; Resonant Capture of Irregular Satellites by a Protoplanet ; On the Final Mass of Giant Planets ; Predicting the Atmospheric Composition of Extrasolar Giant Planets; Overturn of Unstably Stratified Fluids: Implications for the Early Evolution of Planetary Mantles; and The Evolution of an Impact-generated Partially-vaporized Circumplanetary Disk.

  8. FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS AND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF YOUNG AND FIELD AGE OBJECTS WITH MASSES SPANNING THE STELLAR TO PLANETARY REGIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Rice, Emily L. [Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, 2800 Victory Blvd, Staten Island, NY 10314 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline; Cruz, Kelle L. [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Van Gordon, Mollie M. [Department of Geography, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Looper, Dagny L. [Tisch School of the Arts, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2015-09-10

    We combine optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared spectra and photometry to construct expanded spectral energy distributions for 145 field age (>500 Myr) and 53 young (lower age estimate <500 Myr) ultracool dwarfs (M6-T9). This range of spectral types includes very low mass stars, brown dwarfs, and planetary mass objects, providing fundamental parameters across both the hydrogen and deuterium burning minimum masses for the largest sample assembled to date. A subsample of 29 objects have well constrained ages as probable members of a nearby young moving group. We use 182 parallaxes and 16 kinematic distances to determine precise bolometric luminosities (L{sub bol}) and radius estimates from evolutionary models give semi-empirical effective temperatures (T{sub eff}) for the full range of young and field age late-M, L, and T dwarfs. We construct age-sensitive relationships of luminosity, temperature, and absolute magnitude as functions of spectral type and absolute magnitude to disentangle the effects of degenerate physical parameters such as T{sub eff}, surface gravity, and clouds on spectral morphology. We report bolometric corrections in J for both field age and young objects and find differences of up to a magnitude for late-L dwarfs. Our correction in Ks shows a larger dispersion but not necessarily a different relationship for young and field age sequences. We also characterize the NIR–MIR reddening of low gravity L dwarfs and identify a systematically cooler T{sub eff} of up to 300 K from field age objects of the same spectral type and 400 K cooler from field age objects of the same M{sub H} magnitude.

  9. Complex molecules in the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despois D.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the delivery to the early Earth of extraterrestrial molecules, we have studied complex molecular species toward the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula. This nebula is rich in molecules as well as in nascent stars and planetary systems. We focus here on HCOOCH3, CH3OCH3 and deuterated methanol. Upper limits on species of prebiotic interest like glycine were also obtained.

  10. Abundances and morphology in planetary nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Kastner, JH; Soker, N; Rappaport, SA

    2000-01-01

    The abundances of 16 well studied have been determined. New ISO measurements have been combined with optical and ultraviolet data from the literature, in an attempt to obtain accurate values. Only He, O, C, N, Ne, Ar, and S are considered. High values of N/O are sometimes, but not always, found in

  11. Abundances in planetary nebulae : Including ISO results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Beintema, DA; Sales, JB; Feibelman, WA; Kwok, S; Dopita, M; Sutherland, R

    2003-01-01

    The far infrared nebular spectrum provides a valuable complement to the observed lines in other spectral regions. There are several reasons for this, the most important being the large increase in the number of ions observed, and the fact that the abundances found from these lines are relatively

  12. Planetary Nebulae with H2 Emission

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Rosado; Lorena Arias

    2003-01-01

    Hacemos una revisión de la emisión en hidrogeno molecular (H2) de las nebulosas planetarias (NPs). Vemos como esta emisión se encuentra asociada a objetos de forma bipolar. Describimos los niveles de energía de la molécula de hidrogeno, los principales mecanismos para poblarlos (choques y fluorescencia) y las formas en que se puede discriminar que mecanismo opera. Proponemos que la cinemática del H2 también puede ser usada para discriminar el mecanismo de excitación de sus líneas de emisión. ...

  13. [Fe II] 1.64 μm FEATURES OF JETS AND OUTFLOWS FROM YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE CARINA NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinn, Jong-Ho; Lee, Jae-Joon; Chun, Moo-Young; Lyo, A.-Ran; Moon, Dae-Sik; Kyeong, Jaemann; Park, Byeong-Gon [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daeduk-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Pyo, Tae-Soo [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohōkū Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Lee, Ho-Gyu [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Koo, Bon-Chul; Lee, Yong-Hyun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanangno, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Hwankyung; Hur, Hyeonoh, E-mail: jhshinn@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Sejong University, 98 Kunja-dong, Kwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    We present [Fe II] 1.64 μm imaging observations for jets and outflows from young stellar objects (YSOs) over the northern part (∼24' × 45') of the Carina Nebula, a massive star-forming region. The observations were performed with IRIS2 of the Anglo-Australian Telescope and the seeing was ∼1.''5 ± 0.''5. Eleven jet and outflow features are detected at eight different regions and are termed ionized Fe objects (IFOs). One Herbig-Haro candidate that was missed in Hubble Space Telescope Hα observations is newly identified as HHc-16, referring to our [Fe II] images. IFOs have knotty or longish shapes, and the detection rate of IFOs against previously identified YSOs is 1.4%, which should be treated as a lower limit. Four IFOs show anti-correlated peak intensities in [Fe II] and Hα, where the ratio I([Fe II])/I(Hα) is higher for longish IFOs than for knotty IFOs. We estimate the outflow mass loss rate from the [Fe II] flux using two different methods. The jet-driving objects are identified for three IFOs (IFO-2, -4, and -7) for which we study the relations between the outflow mass loss rate and the YSO physical parameters from the radiative transfer model fitting. The ratios of the outflow mass loss rate over the disk accretion rate for IFO-4 and -7 are consistent with the previously reported values (10{sup –2}-10{sup +1}), while the ratio is higher for IFO-2. This excess may result from underestimating the disk accretion rate. The jet-driving objects are likely to be low- or intermediate-mass stars. Other YSO physical parameters, such as luminosity and age, show reasonable relations or trends.

  14. Time-dependent simulations of disk-embedded planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stökl, A.; Dorfi, E. A.

    2014-03-01

    At the early stages of evolution of planetary systems, young Earth-like planets still embedded in the protoplanetary disk accumulate disk gas gravitationally into planetary atmospheres. The established way to study such atmospheres are hydrostatic models, even though in many cases the assumption of stationarity is unlikely to be fulfilled. Furthermore, such models rely on the specification of a planetary luminosity, attributed to a continuous, highly uncertain accretion of planetesimals onto the surface of the solid core. We present for the first time time-dependent, dynamic simulations of the accretion of nebula gas into an atmosphere around a proto-planet and the evolution of such embedded atmospheres while integrating the thermal energy budget of the solid core. The spherical symmetric models computed with the TAPIR-Code (short for The adaptive, implicit RHD-Code) range from the surface of the rocky core up to the Hill radius where the surrounding protoplanetary disk provides the boundary conditions. The TAPIR-Code includes the hydrodynamics equations, gray radiative transport and convective energy transport. The results indicate that diskembedded planetary atmospheres evolve along comparatively simple outlines and in particular settle, dependent on the mass of the solid core, at characteristic surface temperatures and planetary luminosities, quite independent on numerical parameters and initial conditions. For sufficiently massive cores, this evolution ultimately also leads to runaway accretion and the formation of a gas planet.

  15. The Crab Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitton, S.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, as follows: A.D.1054, a star explodes (historical account of observations of the supernova of which the Crab Nebula is the remnant); the telescope takes over (discovery and subsequent observation of the Crab Nebula); the message of the fiery remnant (detailed structure and its interpretation); the invisible nebula (electromagnetic radiation from the Crab Nebula and its interpretation); a beacon in the night (the discovery of pulsars, with special reference to the pulsar in the Crab Nebula; observation and theory); the strange world of a neutron star (theory, prediction and observation); magnetic fields and energy flow from the pulsar (stellar magnetosphere; luminosity of the nebula); how does the pulsar pulse (observation; models to explain beaming); outburst and aftermath (types of supernovae and their evolution; nucleosynthesis); supernovae and their remnants (account of observations since early records); the Crab Nebula and modern astronomy. (U.K.)

  16. 2MASS J11151597+1937266: A Young, Dusty, Isolated, Planetary-mass Object with a Potential Wide Stellar Companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theissen, Christopher A.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin K.; Gagné, Jonathan; Schmidt, Sarah J.; West, Andrew A.

    2018-01-01

    We present 2MASS J11151597+1937266, a recently identified low-surface-gravity L dwarf, classified as an L2γ based on Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical spectroscopy. We confirm this spectral type with near-infrared spectroscopy, which provides further evidence that 2MASS J11151597+1937266 is a low-surface-gravity L dwarf. This object also shows significant excess mid-infrared flux, indicative of circumstellar material; and its strong Hα emission (EWHα = 560 ± 82 Å) is an indicator of enhanced magnetic activity or weak accretion. Comparison of its spectral energy distribution to model photospheres yields an effective temperature of {1724}-38+184 {{K}}. We also provide a revised distance estimate of 37 ± 6 pc using a spectral type–luminosity relationship for low-surface-gravity objects. The three-dimensional galactic velocities and positions of 2MASS J11151597+1937266 do not match any known young association or moving group. Assuming a probable age in the range of 5–45 Myr, the model-dependent estimated mass of this object is between 7 and 21 M Jup, making it a potentially isolated planetary-mass object. We also identify a candidate co-moving, young stellar companion, 2MASS J11131089+2110086.

  17. Three-Dimensional Adaptive Mesh Refinement Simulations of Point-Symmetric Nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkhorst, E.-J.; Icke, V.; Mellema, G.; Meixner, M.; Kastner, J.H.; Balick, B.; Soker, N.

    2004-01-01

    Previous analytical and numerical work shows that the generalized interacting stellar winds model can explain the observed bipolar shapes of planetary nebulae very well. However, many circumstellar nebulae have a multipolar or point-symmetric shape. With two-dimensional calculations, Icke showed

  18. Spectroscopic confirmation of young planetary-mass companions on wide orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, Brendan P. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Liu, Michael C.; Mann, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kraus, Adam L., E-mail: bpbowler@caltech.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We present moderate-resolution (R ∼ 4000-5000) near-infrared integral field spectroscopy of the young (1-5 Myr) 6-14 M {sub Jup} companions ROXs 42B b and FW Tau b obtained with Keck/OSIRIS and Gemini-North/NIFS. The spectrum of ROXs 42B b exhibits clear signs of low surface gravity common to young L dwarfs, confirming its extreme youth, cool temperature, and low mass. Overall, it closely resembles the free-floating 4-7 M {sub Jup} L-type Taurus member 2MASS J04373705+2331080. The companion to FW Tau AB is more enigmatic. Our optical and near-infrared spectra show strong evidence of outflow activity and disk accretion in the form of line emission from [S II], [O I], Hα, Ca II, [Fe II], Paβ, and H{sub 2}. The molecular hydrogen emission is spatially resolved as a single lobe that stretches ≈0.''1 (15 AU). Although the extended emission is not kinematically resolved in our data, its morphology resembles shock-excited H{sub 2} jets primarily seen in young Class 0 and Class I sources. The near-infrared continuum of FW Tau b is mostly flat and lacks the deep absorption features expected for a cool, late-type object. This may be a result of accretion-induced veiling, especially in light of its strong and sustained Hα emission (EW(Hα) ≳ 290 Å). Alternatively, FW Tau b may be a slightly warmer (M5-M8) accreting low-mass star or brown dwarf (0.03-0.15 M {sub ☉}) with an edge-on disk. Regardless, its young evolutionary stage is in stark contrast to its Class III host FW Tau AB, indicating a more rapid disk clearing timescale for the host binary system than for its wide companion. Finally, we present near-infrared spectra of the young (∼2-10 Myr) low-mass (12-15 M {sub Jup}) companions GSC 6214-210 B and SR 12 C and find they best resemble low-gravity M9.5 and M9 substellar templates.

  19. Is the Young Star RZ Piscium Consuming Its Own (Planetary) Offspring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzi, K. M.; Kastner, J. H.; Melis, C.; Zuckerman, B.; Pilachowski, C.; Gingerich, L.; Knapp, T.

    2018-01-01

    The erratically variable star RZ Piscium (RZ Psc) displays extreme optical dropout events and strikingly large excess infrared emission. To ascertain the evolutionary status of this intriguing star, we obtained observations of RZ Psc with the European Space Agency’s X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton), as well as high-resolution optical spectroscopy with the Hamilton Echelle on the Lick Shane 3 m telescope and with HIRES on the Keck I 10 m telescope. The optical spectroscopy data demonstrate that RZ Psc is a pre-main sequence star with an effective temperature of 5600 ± 75 K and log g of 4.35 ± 0.10. The ratio of X-ray to bolometric luminosity, {log}{L}X/{L}{bol}, lies in the range ‑3.7 to ‑3.2, consistent with ratios typical of young, solar-mass stars, thereby providing strong support for the young star status of RZ Psc. The Li absorption line strength of RZ Psc suggests an age in the range 30–50 Myr, which in turn implies that RZ Psc lies at a distance of ∼170 pc. Adopting this estimated distance, we find the Galactic space velocity of RZ Psc to be similar to the space velocities of stars in young moving groups near the Sun. Optical spectral features indicative of activity and/or circumstellar material are present in our spectra over multiple epochs, which provide evidence for the presence of a significant mass of circumstellar gas associated with RZ Psc. We suggest that the destruction of one or more massive orbiting bodies has recently occurred within 1 au of the star, and we are viewing the aftermath of such an event along the plane of the orbiting debris.

  20. A PHOTOMETRICALLY AND MORPHOLOGICALLY VARIABLE INFRARED NEBULA IN L483

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connelley, Michael S.; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Fuller, Gary A.

    2009-01-01

    We present narrow and broad K-band observations of the Class 0/I source IRAS 18148-0440 that span 17 years. The infrared nebula associated with this protostar in the L483 dark cloud is both morphologically and photometrically variable on a timescale of only a few months. This nebula appears to be an infrared analog to other well known optically visible variable nebulae associated with young stars, such as Hubble's Variable Nebula. Along with Cepheus A, this is one of the first large variable nebulae to be found that is only visible in the infrared. The variability of this nebula is most likely due to changing illumination of the cloud rather than any motion of the structure in the nebula. Both morphological and photometric changes are observed on a timescale only a few times longer than the light crossing time of the nebula, suggesting very rapid intrinsic changes in the illumination of the nebula. Our narrowband observations also found that H 2 knots are found nearly twice as far to the east of the source as to its west, and that H 2 emission extends farther east of the source than the previously known CO outflow.

  1. Roberts 22: a bipolar nebula with OH emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.A.; Hyland, A.R.; Caswell, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Roberts 22 is a bipolar reflection nebula illuminated by a hidden A2 Ie star. Most of its energy is radiated at infrared wavelengths. It also shows strong OH maser emission (OH 284.18 - 0.79) on the 1612 and 1665 MHz transitions, generally similar to the masers associated with M stars having infrared excesses. But the system contains no late-type star. This remarkable assemblage of attributes makes Roberts 22 unique; however, it is probably a key member of the newly-recognized population of bipolar nebulae. From an analysis of the properties of Roberts 22 some published interpretations of other bipolar nebulae are questioned, in particular the derivation of spectral types for their underlying stars by the assumption of photo-ionization of the gas, and their evolutionary description as proto-planetary nebulae. (author)

  2. Spectrophotometry of ring nebulae around Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwitter, K.B.

    1979-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of four ring nebulae surrounding population I Wolf-Rayet (WN) stars have been obtained, and four additional filamentary nebulae in order to determine the physical conditions and chemical abundances in these objects. It was concluded that the ring nebulae are enriched in nitrogen and helium as a result of contamination of the ambient interstellar medium by the helium- and nitrogen-rich wind from the central Wolf-Rayet star. Of the additional nebulae studied, two were found to be Peimbert Type I planetary nebulae, overabundant in nitrogen and helium due to mixing of CNO processed material into the parent envelope prior to ejection. One of the remaining objects, a shell around an Oef star, is found to have normal abundances; the other, a small H II region around an early Be star, also exhibits normal abundances. It was attempted to interpret the ring nebulae and the Oef shell as interstellar bubbles, according to recent theory; it met with varying degrees of success. For two of the ring nebulae, the fraction of nebular mass contributed by the central star can be estimated from published stellar abundances. It was found that in these two cases, the stellar wind has provided less than 10% of the observed nebular mass

  3. PSYM-WIDE: A Survey for Large-separation Planetary-mass Companions to Late Spectral Type Members of Young Moving Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naud, Marie-Eve; Artigau, Étienne; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Gagné, Jonathan; Lafrenière, David; Wolf, Christian; Magnier, Eugene A.

    2017-09-01

    We present the results of a direct imaging survey for very large separation (>100 au), low-mass companions around 95 nearby young K5-L5 stars and brown dwarfs. They are high-likelihood candidates or confirmed members of the young (≲150 Myr) β Pictoris and AB Doradus moving groups (ABDMG) and the TW Hya, Tucana-Horologium, Columba, Carina, and Argus associations. Images in I\\prime and z\\prime filters were obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Gemini South to search for companions down to an apparent magnitude of z\\prime ˜ 22-24 at separations ≳20″ from the targets and in the remainder of the wide 5.‧5 × 5.‧5 GMOS field of view. This allowed us to probe the most distant region where planetary-mass companions could be gravitationally bound to the targets. This region was left largely unstudied by past high-contrast imaging surveys, which probed much closer-in separations. This survey led to the discovery of a planetary-mass (9-13 {M}{Jup}) companion at 2000 au from the M3V star GU Psc, a highly probable member of ABDMG. No other substellar companions were identified. These results allowed us to constrain the frequency of distant planetary-mass companions (5-13 {M}{Jup}) to {0.84}-0.66+6.73% (95% confidence) at semimajor axes between 500 and 5000 au around young K5-L5 stars and brown dwarfs. This is consistent with other studies suggesting that gravitationally bound planetary-mass companions at wide separations from low-mass stars are relatively rare.

  4. Charge transfer in astrophysical nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Charge transfer has become a standard ingredient in models of ionized nebulae, supernovae remnants and active galactic nuclei. Charge transfer rate coefficients and the physics of ionized nebulae are considered. Charge transfer is applied to the ionization structure and line emission of ionized nebulae. Photoionized nebulae observations are used to test theoretical predictions of charge transfer rates. (author)

  5. Wolf-Rayet nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, You-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of nebulae around Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in the 1960s, it has been established that WR stars are massive stars at advanced evolutionary stages and that their surrounding nebulae result from the interactions between the stellar mass loss and the ambient interstellar medium. Surveys of WR nebulae have been made in the Galaxy, Magellanic Clouds, and other nearby galaxies in the Local Group. Some WR nebulae exhibit He II λ4686 line emission, indicating stellar effective temperatures of 90 — 100 x 10 3 K. The shocked fast stellar winds from WR nebulae have been detected in soft X-rays, but theoretical models have not been able to reproduce the observed X-ray spectral properties. Elemental abundances of WR nebulae consisting of synthesized stellar material can constrain stellar evolution models, but high-dispersion spectra are needed to kinematically separate the expanding shell of a WR nebula and the background interstellar medium for accurate abundance analyses. (paper)

  6. A Shocking Solar Nebula?

    OpenAIRE

    Liffman, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that shock waves in the solar nebula formed the high temperature materials observed in meteorites and comets. It is shown that the temperatures at the inner rim of the solar nebula could have been high enough over a sufficient length of time to produce chondrules, CAIs, refractory dust grains and other high-temperature materials observed in comets and meteorites. The solar bipolar jet flow may have produced an enrichment of 16O in the solar nebula over time and the chond...

  7. Induced massive star formation in the trifid nebula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernicharo; Lefloch; Cox; Cesarsky; Esteban; Yusef-Zadeh; Mendez; Acosta-Pulido; Garcia Lopez RJ; Heras

    1998-10-16

    The Trifid nebula is a young (10(5) years) galactic HII region where several protostellar sources have been detected with the infrared space observatory. The sources are massive (17 to 60 solar masses) and are associated with molecular gas condensations at the edges or inside the nebula. They appear to be in an early evolutionary stage and may represent the most recent generation of stars in the Trifid. These sources range from dense, apparently still inactive cores to more evolved sources, undergoing violent mass ejection episodes, including a source that powers an optical jet. These observations suggest that the protostellar sources may have evolved by induced star formation in the Trifid nebula.

  8. A 'variable' stellar object in a variable blue nebula V-V 1-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, N.K.; Gilra, D.P.

    1981-01-01

    V-V 1-7 is supposed to be one of the few planetary nebulae with Ao central stars and was included in the planetary-nebula catalogue as PK 235 + 1 0 1. The nebula was seen on the blue Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS) print but not on the red print; as a result it was thought that it might be a reflection nebula. However, the symmetry of the nebula around the central star (HD 62001), and also the ultraviolet photometric variability of this central star led others to suggest that the nebula might be a nova shell. Subsequently it was found that the nebula V-V 1-7 has disappeared. It is not seen on any direct plate known to us except the POSS blue plate. In this paper the disappearance is reported (along with the nebula) of a stellar object, which appears within the 'nebular shell' of V-V 1-7 on the POSS blue plate, but not on the red plate. (author)

  9. The Nature of the Stingray Nebula from Radio Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Smith, Lisa; Hardwick, Jennifer A.; De Marco, Orsola; Parthasarathy, Mudumba; Gonidakis, Ioannis; Akhter, Shaila; Cunningham, Maria; Green, James A.

    2018-06-01

    We have analysed the full suite of Australia Telescope Compact Array data for the Stingray planetary nebula. Data were taken in the 4- to 23-GHz range of radio frequencies between 1991 and 2016. The radio flux density of the nebula generally declined during that period, but between 2013 and 2016 it shows signs of halting that decline. We produced the first spatially resolved radio images of the Stingray nebula from data taken in 2005. A ring structure, which appears to be associated with the ring seen in HST images, was visible. In addition, we found a narrow extension to the radio emission towards the eastern and western edges of the nebula. We derived the emission measure of the nebula - this decreased between 1992 and 2011, suggesting that the nebula is undergoing recombination. The radio spectral index is broadly consistent with a free-free emission mechanism, however a single data point hints that a steeper spectral index has possibly emerged since 2013, which could indicate the presence of synchrotron emission. If a non-thermal component component has emerged, such as one associated with a region that is launching a jet or outflow, we predict that it would intensify in the years to come.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope Image of Omega Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This sturning image, taken by the newly installed Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is an image of the center of the Omega Nebula. It is a hotbed of newly born stars wrapped in colorful blankets of glowing gas and cradled in an enormous cold, dark hydrogen cloud. The region of nebula shown in this photograph is about 3,500 times wider than our solar system. The nebula, also called M17 and the Swan Nebula, resides 5,500 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. The Swan Nebula is illuminated by ultraviolet radiation from young, massive stars, located just beyond the upper-right corner of the image. The powerful radiation from these stars evaporates and erodes the dense cloud of cold gas within which the stars formed. The blistered walls of the hollow cloud shine primarily in the blue, green, and red light emitted by excited atoms of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. Particularly striking is the rose-like feature, seen to the right of center, which glows in the red light emitted by hydrogen and sulfur. As the infant stars evaporate the surrounding cloud, they expose dense pockets of gas that may contain developing stars. One isolated pocket is seen at the center of the brightest region of the nebula. Other dense pockets of gas have formed the remarkable feature jutting inward from the left edge of the image. The color image is constructed from four separate images taken in these filters: blue, near infrared, hydrogen alpha, and doubly ionized oxygen. Credit: NASA, H. Ford (JHU), G. Illingworth (USCS/LO), M. Clampin (STScI), G. Hartig (STScI), the ACS Science Team, and ESA.

  11. Models for the structure and origin of bipolar nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.

    1981-01-01

    The appearance of bipolar nebulae-symmetric reflection nebulae centered on evolved, mass-losing stars-can most simply be accounted for in terms of an axisymmetric distribution of outflowing dust in which the dust is concentrated towards an equatorial plane and declines monotonically with latitude above that plane. The symmetrically placed ''horns'' that can be seen radiating out of some bipolar nebulae, notably GL 2688, are a natural consequence of such a dust distribution if, at some latitude, the radial optical depth to starlight falls rapidly below unity. Several models of bipolar nebulae are presented. These structural models for bipolar nebulae lead in turn to an investigation of how such a geometry might arise. Although nonradial pulsation, rotationally forced mass ejection by a single star, and mass loss from a common envelope binary are all considered, the most attractive origin for bipolar nebulae is a binary star system in which the primary is evolving up the red giant branch to the point at which its radius approaches its tidal radius. If this occurs before corotation of the primary with the secondary's orbit can be achieved, then matter from the primary's enveloped can be gravitationally ejected from the system by the secondary, the ejected material being concentrated toward the system's equatorial plane. Numerical models of this phenomenon show that gravitational ejection from an asynchronous binary system easily leads to terminal outflow velocities in the observed range (20--50 km s -1 ), and that the rate of mass loss and the time scale over which the mass ejection takes place are consistent with observations if the particle density in the outer layers of the primary's atmosphere from which the material is extracted is in the range 10 14 --10 15 cm -3 . If this hypothesis is applicable, bipolar nebulae will probably become planetary nebulae, as previously suggested on observational grounds

  12. A Tactile Carina Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Noreen A.; Mutchler, M.

    2010-01-01

    Astronomy was once considered a science restricted to fully sighted participants. But in the past two decades, accessible books with large print/Braille and touchable pictures have brought astronomy and space science to the hands and mind's eye of students, regardless of their visual ability. A new universally-designed tactile image featuring the Hubble mosaic of the Carina Nebula is being presented at this conference. The original dataset was obtained with Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) hydrogen-alpha filter in 2005. It became an instant icon after being infused with additional color information from ground-based CTIO data, and released as Hubble's 17th anniversary image. Our tactile Carina Nebula promotes multi-mode learning about the entire life-cycle of stars, which is dramatically illustrated in this Hubble mosaic. When combined with descriptive text in print and Braille, the visual and tactile components seamlessly reach both sighted and blind populations. Specific touchable features of the tactile image identify the shapes and orientations of objects in the Carina Nebula that include star-forming regions, jets, pillars, dark and light globules, star clusters, shocks/bubbles, the Keyhole Nebula, and stellar death (Eta Carinae). Visit our poster paper to touch the Carina Nebula!

  13. The Orion Nebula: The Jewel in the Sword

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    -Res - JPEG: 2273 x 2784 pix - 976k] Caption : PR Photo 03d/01 shows a small section of the observational data (in one infrared spectral band only, here reproduced in B/W) on which PR Photo 03a/01 is based. The field is centred on one of the famous Orion silhouette disks (Orion 114-426) (it is located approximately halfway between the centre and the right edge of PR Photo 03c/01 ). The dusty disk itself is seen edge-on as a dark streak against the background emission of the Orion Nebula, while the bright fuzzy patches on either side betray the presence of the embedded parent star that illuminates tenuous collections of dust above its north and south poles to create these small reflection nebulae. Recent HST studies suggest that the very young Orion 114-426 disk - that is thirty times bigger than our present-day Solar System - may already be showing signs of forming its own proto-planetary system. Technical information about this photo is available below. It is even possible to see disks of dust and gas surrounding a few of the young stars, as silhouettes in projection against the bright background of the nebula. Many of these disks are very small and usually only seen on images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) [2]. However, under the best seeing conditions on Paranal, the sharpness of VLT images at infrared wavelengths approaches that of the HST in this spectral band, revealing some of these disks, as shown in PR Photo 03d/01 . Indeed, the theoretical image sharpness of the 8.2-m VLT is more than three times better than that of the 2.4-m HST. Thus, the VLT will soon yield images of small regions with even higher resolution by means of the High-Resolution Near-Infrared Camera (CONICA) and the Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS) that will compensate the smearing effect introduced by the turbulence in the atmosphere. Later on, extremely sharp images will be obtained when all four VLT telescopes are combined to form the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI

  14. Abundance of carbon and magnesium in the Orion nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perinotto, M.; Patriarchi, P.

    1980-01-01

    The Orion nebula has been observed in two positions with IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) in the low-resolution mode (approx.7 A) and in the spectral range 1150--3200 A. Emission lines of C II], C III], [O II], and He I have been measured and used to determine what is probably the first reliable abundance of carbon in H II regions. The logarithmic total abundance of carbon is found to be 8.4 close to the solar value. In contrast with the situation in the planetary nebula of similar excitation, IC 418, where the resonance Mg II lambda2800 line is observed to be relatively strong, in the Orion nebula the lambda2800 line is not detectable. an upper limit for the magnesium abundance of the order of 10 times smaller than in the Sun is suggested

  15. Modelling pulsar wind nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    In view of the current and forthcoming observational data on pulsar wind nebulae, this book offers an assessment of the theoretical state of the art of modelling them. The expert authors also review the observational status of the field and provide an outlook for future developments. During the last few years, significant progress on the study of pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) has been attained both from a theoretical and an observational perspective, perhaps focusing on the closest, more energetic, and best studied nebula: the Crab, which appears in the cover. Now, the number of TeV detected PWNe is similar to the number of characterized nebulae observed at other frequencies over decades of observations. And in just a few years, the Cherenkov Telescope Array will increase this number to several hundreds, actually providing an essentially complete account of TeV emitting PWNe in the Galaxy. At the other end of the multi-frequency spectrum, the SKA and its pathfinder instruments, will reveal thousands of new pulsa...

  16. Non-planetary Science from Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, M.; Rabe, K.; Daniels, K.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary science is naturally focussed on the issues of the origin and history of solar systems, especially our own. The implications of an early turbulent history of our solar system reach into many areas including the origin of Earth's oceans, of ores in the Earth's crust and possibly the seeding of life. There are however other areas of science that stand to be developed greatly by planetary missions, primarily to small solar system bodies. The physics of granular materials has been well-studied in Earth's gravity, but lacks a general theory. Because of the compacting effects of gravity, some experiments desired for testing these theories remain impossible on Earth. Studying the behavior of a micro-gravity rubble pile -- such as many asteroids are believed to be -- could provide a new route towards exploring general principles of granular physics. These same studies would also prove valuable for planning missions to sample these same bodies, as techniques for anchoring and deep sampling are difficult to plan in the absence of such knowledge. In materials physics, first-principles total-energy calculations for compounds of a given stoichiometry have identified metastable, or even stable, structures distinct from known structures obtained by synthesis under laboratory conditions. The conditions in the proto-planetary nebula, in the slowly cooling cores of planetesimals, and in the high speed collisions of planetesimals and their derivatives, are all conditions that cannot be achieved in the laboratory. Large samples from comets and asteroids offer the chance to find crystals with these as-yet unobserved structures as well as more exotic materials. Some of these could have unusual properties important for materials science. Meteorites give us a glimpse of these exotic materials, several dozen of which are known that are unique to meteorites. But samples retrieved directly from small bodies in space will not have been affected by atmospheric entry, warmth or

  17. Planetary Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  18. Planetary Protection: X-ray Super-Flares Aid Formation of "Solar Systems"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory imply that X-ray super-flares torched the young Solar System. Such flares likely affected the planet-forming disk around the early Sun, and may have enhanced the survival chances of Earth. By focusing on the Orion Nebula almost continuously for 13 days, a team of scientists used Chandra to obtain the deepest X-ray observation ever taken of this or any star cluster. The Orion Nebula is the nearest rich stellar nursery, located just 1,500 light years away. These data provide an unparalleled view of 1400 young stars, 30 of which are prototypes of the early Sun. The scientists discovered that these young suns erupt in enormous flares that dwarf - in energy, size, and frequency -- anything seen from the Sun today. Illustration of Large Flares Illustration of Large Flares "We don't have a time machine to see how the young Sun behaved, but the next best thing is to observe Sun-like stars in Orion," said Scott Wolk of Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. "We are getting a unique look at stars between one and 10 million years old - a time when planets form." A key result is that the more violent stars produce flares that are a hundred times as energetic as the more docile ones. This difference may specifically affect the fate of planets that are relatively small and rocky, like the Earth. "Big X-ray flares could lead to planetary systems like ours where Earth is a safe distance from the Sun," said Eric Feigelson of Penn State University in University Park, and principal investigator for the international Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project. "Stars with smaller flares, on the other hand, might end up with Earth-like planets plummeting into the star." Animation of X-ray Flares from a Young Sun Animation of X-ray Flares from a "Young Sun" According to recent theoretical work, X-ray flares can create turbulence when they strike planet-forming disks, and this affects the position of rocky planets as they

  19. Physics and chemistry of the solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunine, J I

    1997-06-01

    The solar system is thought to have begun in a flattened disk of gas and dust referred to traditionally as the solar nebula. Such a construct seems to be a natural product of the collapse of dense parts of giant molecular clouds, the vast star-forming regions that pepper the Milky Way and other galaxies. Gravitational, magnetic and thermal forces within the solar nebula forced a gradual evolution of mass toward the center (where the sun formed) and angular momentum (borne by a small fraction of the mass) toward the outer more distant regions of the disk. This evolution was accompanied by heating and a strong temperature contrast from the hot, inner regions to the cold, more remote parts of the disk. The resulting chemistry in the disk determined the initial distribution of organic matter in the planets; most of the reduced carbon species, in condensed form, were located beyond the asteroid belt (the 'outer' solar system). The Earth could have received much of its inventory of pre-biological material from comets and other icy fragments of the process of planetary formation in the outer solar system.

  20. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2012-01-01

    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  1. Planetary magnetospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, T.W.; Michel, F.C.

    1975-01-01

    Recent planetary probes have resulted in the realization of the generality of magnetospheric interactions between the solar wind and the planets. The three categories of planetary magnetospheres are discussed: intrinsic slowly rotating magnetospheres, intrinsic rapidly rotating magnetospheres, and induced magnetospheres. (BJG)

  2. Electrodynamic coupling between pulsars and surrounding nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrowolny, M [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Frascati (Italy). Lab. per il Plasma nello Spazio; L' Aquila Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Fisica); Ferrari, A [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Inst. of Astronomy; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Turin Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Fisica)

    1976-02-01

    In this work a study is presented of collective plasma processes by which pulsars can energetically support young supernova remnants. We show that many of the observed features of the Crab Nebula can be adequately interpreted in terms of a parametric interaction between the low-frequency electromagnetic wave emitted by the pulsar in the oblique rotator model and a relativistic wind of charged particle leaking from the pulsar's inner magnetosphere. In particular we show that there is a relativistic parametric resonant coupling of the strong wave with electrostatic and electromagnetic modes.

  3. Gas capture and rare gas retention by accreting planets in the solar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, H.; Nakazawa, K.; Hayashi, C.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper, the physico-chemical effects of the nebula gas on the planets are reviewed from a standpoint of planetary formation in the solar nebula. The proto-Earth growing in the nebula was surrounded by a primordial atmosphere with a solar chemical composition and solar isotopic composition. When the mass of the proto-Earth was greater than 0.3 times the present Earth mass, the surface was molten because of the blanketing effect of the atmosphere. Therefore, the primordial rare gases contained in the primordial atmosphere dissolved into the molten Earth material without fractionation and in particular the dissolved neon is expected to be conserved in the present Earth material. Hence, if dissolved neon with a solar isotopic ratio is discovered in the Earth material, it will indicate that the Earth was formed in the nebula and that the dissolved rare gases were one of the sources which degassed to form the present atmosphere. (author)

  4. Review of solar nebula models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.A.; Morfill, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    The major changes that have occurred in thinking about protosolar nebula models are discussed. The concept favored by astrophysicists for the last decade, that of a viscous accretion-disk nebula, is examined. The properties of recent accretion-disk models that are most relevant to chondrite-forming processes are noted. 27 references

  5. He I lambda 584 in quasars and gaseous nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferland, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    The He I Lα lambda 584 transfer problem for gaseous nebulae is investigated. Realistic photo-ionization models of quasar clouds and planetary nebulae are combined with the Monte Carlo line transfer technique to determine both the efficiency of destruction of lambda 584 by photo-ionization of hydrogen and the mean number of scatterings undergone before destruction. It is found that large fractions (approximately > 90 per cent) of the lambda 584 photons are destroyed before escaping in all cases considered. Nonetheless, the He I lambda lambda 584, 626 doublet should be present in high redshift quasars with an observed equivalent width of approximately 1 A. Detection of this doublet would provide the only clear indication of the presence or absence of a low density narrow line region for objects in which optical forbidden lines have been redshifted beyond the optical window. The strength of the He I 2 1 S-2 1 P 2.0 μm line is predicted to be approximately 4 times stronger than is actually observed in the planetary nebulae NGC 7027. This suggests that dust is embedded in the ionized gas and causes additional destruction of lambda 584. Finally, the calculations show that photo-ionization model calculations can safely assume nearly complete on-the-spot destruction of lambda 584. The common assumption that the He I singlets are formed in case B conditions is examined in an appendix. (author)

  6. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE COLDEST PLACE IN THE UNIVERSE: THE BOOMERANG NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahai, R.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Huggins, P. J.; Nyman, L.-Å.; Gonidakis, I.

    2013-01-01

    The Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known object in the universe, and an extreme member of the class of pre-planetary nebulae, objects which represent a short-lived transitional phase between the asymptotic giant branch and planetary nebula evolutionary stages. Previous single-dish CO (J = 1-0) observations (with a 45'' beam) showed that the high-speed outflow in this object has cooled to a temperature significantly below the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. Here we report the first observations of the Boomerang Nebula with ALMA in the CO J = 2-1 and J = 1-0 lines to resolve the structure of this ultra-cold nebula. We find a central hourglass-shaped nebula surrounded by a patchy, but roughly round, cold high-velocity outflow. We compare the ALMA data with visible-light images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope and confirm that the limb-brightened bipolar lobes seen in these data represent hollow cavities with dense walls of molecular gas and dust producing both the molecular-emission-line and scattered-light structures seen at millimeter and visible wavelengths. The large diffuse biconical shape of the nebula seen in the visible wavelength range is likely due to preferential illumination of the cold, high-velocity outflow. We find a compact source of millimeter-wave continuum in the nebular waist—these data, together with sensitive upper limits on the radio continuum using observations with ATCA, indicate the presence of a substantial mass of very large (millimeter-sized) grains in the waist of the nebula. Another unanticipated result is the detection of CO emission regions beyond the ultra-cold region which indicate the re-warming of the cold gas, most likely due to photoelectric grain heating

  7. ALMA Observations of the Coldest Place in the Universe: The Boomerang Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Huggins, P. J.; Nyman, L.-Å.; Gonidakis, I.

    2013-11-01

    The Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known object in the universe, and an extreme member of the class of pre-planetary nebulae, objects which represent a short-lived transitional phase between the asymptotic giant branch and planetary nebula evolutionary stages. Previous single-dish CO (J = 1-0) observations (with a 45'' beam) showed that the high-speed outflow in this object has cooled to a temperature significantly below the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. Here we report the first observations of the Boomerang Nebula with ALMA in the CO J = 2-1 and J = 1-0 lines to resolve the structure of this ultra-cold nebula. We find a central hourglass-shaped nebula surrounded by a patchy, but roughly round, cold high-velocity outflow. We compare the ALMA data with visible-light images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope and confirm that the limb-brightened bipolar lobes seen in these data represent hollow cavities with dense walls of molecular gas and dust producing both the molecular-emission-line and scattered-light structures seen at millimeter and visible wavelengths. The large diffuse biconical shape of the nebula seen in the visible wavelength range is likely due to preferential illumination of the cold, high-velocity outflow. We find a compact source of millimeter-wave continuum in the nebular waist—these data, together with sensitive upper limits on the radio continuum using observations with ATCA, indicate the presence of a substantial mass of very large (millimeter-sized) grains in the waist of the nebula. Another unanticipated result is the detection of CO emission regions beyond the ultra-cold region which indicate the re-warming of the cold gas, most likely due to photoelectric grain heating.

  8. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE COLDEST PLACE IN THE UNIVERSE: THE BOOMERANG NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Vlemmings, W. H. T. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden); Huggins, P. J. [Physics Department, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Nyman, L.-Å. [Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO), Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago de Chile (Chile); Gonidakis, I., E-mail: raghvendra.sahai@jpl.nasa.gov [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, Marsfield NSW 2122 (Australia)

    2013-11-10

    The Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known object in the universe, and an extreme member of the class of pre-planetary nebulae, objects which represent a short-lived transitional phase between the asymptotic giant branch and planetary nebula evolutionary stages. Previous single-dish CO (J = 1-0) observations (with a 45'' beam) showed that the high-speed outflow in this object has cooled to a temperature significantly below the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. Here we report the first observations of the Boomerang Nebula with ALMA in the CO J = 2-1 and J = 1-0 lines to resolve the structure of this ultra-cold nebula. We find a central hourglass-shaped nebula surrounded by a patchy, but roughly round, cold high-velocity outflow. We compare the ALMA data with visible-light images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope and confirm that the limb-brightened bipolar lobes seen in these data represent hollow cavities with dense walls of molecular gas and dust producing both the molecular-emission-line and scattered-light structures seen at millimeter and visible wavelengths. The large diffuse biconical shape of the nebula seen in the visible wavelength range is likely due to preferential illumination of the cold, high-velocity outflow. We find a compact source of millimeter-wave continuum in the nebular waist—these data, together with sensitive upper limits on the radio continuum using observations with ATCA, indicate the presence of a substantial mass of very large (millimeter-sized) grains in the waist of the nebula. Another unanticipated result is the detection of CO emission regions beyond the ultra-cold region which indicate the re-warming of the cold gas, most likely due to photoelectric grain heating.

  9. Structure of the solar nebula, growth and decay of magnetic fields and effects of magnetic and turbulent viscosities on the nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Chushiro

    1982-01-01

    First, distributions of surface densities of dust materials and gases in a preplanetary solar nebula, which give a good fit to the distribution of the planetary mass, are presented and the over-all structure of this nebula, which is in thermal and gravitational equilibrium, is studied. Second, in order to see magnetic effect on the structure, electric conductivity of a gas ionized by cosmic rays and radioactivities contained in dust grains is estimated for each region of the nebula and, then, the growth and decay of seed magnetic fields, which are due to differential rotation of the nebula and to the Joule dissipation, respectively, are calculated. The results indicate that, in regions of the terrestrial planets, magnetic fields decay much faster than they grow and magnetic effects can be ignored, except for the outermost layers of very low density. This is not the case for regions of Uranus and Neptune where magnetic fields can be amplified to considerable extents. Third, the transport of angular momentum due to magnetic and mechanical turbulent viscosities and the resultant redistribution of surface density in the nebula are investigated. The results show that the density redistribution occurs, in general, in a direction to attain a distribution of surface density which has nearly the same ν-dependence as that obtained from the present distribution of the planetary mass. This redistribution seems to be possible if it occurs at a formation stage of the nebula where the presence of large viscosities is expected. Finally, a comment is given on the initial condition of a collapsing interstellar cloud from which the solar nebula is formed at the end of the collapse. (author)

  10. Escape and fractionation of volatiles and noble gases: from Mars-sized planetary embryos to growing protoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odert, Petra; Lammer, Helmut; Erkaev, Nikolai V.; Nikolaou, Athanasia; Lichtenegger, Herbert I. M.; Johnstone, Colin P.; Kislyakova, Kristina G.; Leitzinger, Martin; Tosi, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Planetary embryos form larger planetary objects via collisions. Such Moon- to Mars-sized bodies can have magma oceans. During the solidification of their magma oceans planetary embryos may therefore degas significant amounts of their volatiles, forming H2O/CO2 dominated steam atmospheres. Such atmospheres may escape efficiently due to the low gravity of these objects and the high EUV emission of the young host star. Planets forming from such building blocks could therefore be drier than expected. We model the energy-limited outflow of hydrogen which is able to drag along heavier species such as O and CO2. We take into account different stellar EUV evolution tracks to investigate the loss of steam atmospheres from Mars-sized planetary embryos at different orbital distances. We find that the estimated envelopes are typically lost within a few to a few tens of Myr. Moreover, we address the influence on protoplanet evolution using Venus as an example. We investigate different early evolution scenarios and constrain realistic cases by comparing modeled noble gas isotope ratios with presently observed ones. We are able to reproduce current ratios by assuming either a pure steam atmosphere or a mixture with accreted hydrogen from the protoplanetary nebula. Despite being able to find solutions for different parameter combinations, our results favor a low-activity Sun with possibly a small amount of residual H from the protoplanetary nebula. In other cases too much CO2 is lost during evolution, which is inconsistent with Venus' present atmosphere. A critical issue is likely the time at which the initial steam atmosphere is outgassed.

  11. SEARCHING FOR SCATTERERS: HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING OF YOUNG STARS HOSTING WIDE-SEPARATION PLANETARY-MASS COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Marta L.; Mawet, Dimitri [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bowler, Brendan P.; Kraus, Adam L. [McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hinkley, Sasha [University of Exeter, Physics Department, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Nielsen, Eric L.; Blunt, Sarah C. [SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2016-08-20

    We have conducted an angular differential imaging survey with NIRC2 at Keck in search of close-in substellar companions to a sample of seven systems with confirmed planetary-mass companions (PMCs) on wide orbits (>50 au). These wide-separation PMCs pose significant challenges to all three possible formation mechanisms: core accretion plus scattering, disk instability, and turbulent fragmentation. We explore the possibility that these companions formed closer in and were scattered out to their present-day locations by searching for other massive bodies at smaller separations. The typical sensitivity for this survey is Δ K ∼ 12.5 at 1″. We identify eight candidate companions, whose masses would reach as low as one Jupiter mass if gravitationally bound. From our multi-epoch astrometry we determine that seven of these are conclusively background objects, while the eighth near DH Tau is ambiguous and requires additional monitoring. We rule out the presence of >7 M {sub Jup} bodies in these systems down to 15–50 au that could be responsible for scattering. This result combined with the totality of evidence suggests that dynamical scattering is unlikely to have produced this population of PMCs. We detect orbital motion from the companions ROXs 42B b and ROXs 12 b, and from this determine 95% upper limits on the companions’ eccentricities of 0.58 and 0.83 respectively. Finally, we find that the 95% upper limit on the occurrence rate of additional planets with masses between 5 and 15 M {sub Jup} outside of 40 au in systems with PMCs is 54%.

  12. SEARCHING FOR SCATTERERS: HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING OF YOUNG STARS HOSTING WIDE-SEPARATION PLANETARY-MASS COMPANIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, Marta L.; Mawet, Dimitri; Bowler, Brendan P.; Kraus, Adam L.; Knutson, Heather A.; Hinkley, Sasha; Nielsen, Eric L.; Blunt, Sarah C.

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted an angular differential imaging survey with NIRC2 at Keck in search of close-in substellar companions to a sample of seven systems with confirmed planetary-mass companions (PMCs) on wide orbits (>50 au). These wide-separation PMCs pose significant challenges to all three possible formation mechanisms: core accretion plus scattering, disk instability, and turbulent fragmentation. We explore the possibility that these companions formed closer in and were scattered out to their present-day locations by searching for other massive bodies at smaller separations. The typical sensitivity for this survey is Δ K ∼ 12.5 at 1″. We identify eight candidate companions, whose masses would reach as low as one Jupiter mass if gravitationally bound. From our multi-epoch astrometry we determine that seven of these are conclusively background objects, while the eighth near DH Tau is ambiguous and requires additional monitoring. We rule out the presence of >7 M Jup bodies in these systems down to 15–50 au that could be responsible for scattering. This result combined with the totality of evidence suggests that dynamical scattering is unlikely to have produced this population of PMCs. We detect orbital motion from the companions ROXs 42B b and ROXs 12 b, and from this determine 95% upper limits on the companions’ eccentricities of 0.58 and 0.83 respectively. Finally, we find that the 95% upper limit on the occurrence rate of additional planets with masses between 5 and 15 M Jup outside of 40 au in systems with PMCs is 54%.

  13. Infrared nebula in the Chamaeleon T association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, R.D.; Henize, K.G.

    1983-01-01

    Data are tabulated for seven nebulae in the Chamaeleon T association. Three, which are large and clearly related to illuminating stars, appear to be typical reflection nebulae. Three are small wisps attached to stars and are probably cometary-type reflection nebulae. The remaining nebula is a triangular wisp having an unusually red spectral energy distribution and showing no illuminating star on visual wavelength photographs. The western tip of this nebula coincides closely with the position of a recently reported infrared source. The nebula is probably one lobe of a bipolar nebula

  14. The discovery of a highly polarized bipolar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolstencroft, R.D.; Scarrott, S.M.; Menzies, J.

    1989-01-01

    During a search for the optical counterparts of IRAS sources whose flux peaks at 25 microns, a small faint bipolar nebula was discovered in Monoceros at the position of IRAS 07131-0147. The CCD images display the object's considerable structure. The central star seems relatively free of closeby nebulosity: the two lobes have a bow-tie structure with those parts nearest to the star consisting of series of small knots. The outer parts of the lobes seem to be made up of filaments streaming away from knots. On the basis of its optical spectrum, the central star was classified as a M5-6 giant. In the IRAS color classification scheme of Van der Veen and Habing (1988), the central star is VIb which indicates that there are distinct hot and cold components of circumstellar dust and that the mass loss process may have temporarily abated. Therefore, it is proposed that the object is in the post main sequence stage of evolution and is a protoplanetary nebulae. Young protoplanetary nebulae have totally obscured central stars illuminating reflective lobes whereas older ones such as M2-9 have lobes seen in emission from gas ionized by the central hot star which is clearly visible. Since the central object of IRAS07131-0147 is a relatively unobscured late type star and the lobes are seen only by reflection, it is suggested that this nebula is a protoplanetary nebula in an evolutionary stage intermediate between that of CRL2688 and M2-9

  15. Planetary Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.

    2007-01-01

    The chapter on Planetary Magnetism by Connerney describes the magnetic fields of the planets, from Mercury to Neptune, including the large satellites (Moon, Ganymede) that have or once had active dynamos. The chapter describes the spacecraft missions and observations that, along with select remote observations, form the basis of our knowledge of planetary magnetic fields. Connerney describes the methods of analysis used to characterize planetary magnetic fields, and the models used to represent the main field (due to dynamo action in the planet's interior) and/or remnant magnetic fields locked in the planet's crust, where appropriate. These observations provide valuable insights into dynamo generation of magnetic fields, the structure and composition of planetary interiors, and the evolution of planets.

  16. Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    4 Abstract Planetary defense against asteroids should be a major concern for every government in the world . Millions of asteroids and...helps make Planetary Defense viable because defending the Earth against asteroids benefits from all the above technologies. So if our planet security...information about their physical characteristics so we can employ the right strategies. It is a crucial difference if asteroids are made up of metal

  17. The optical + infrared L dwarf spectral sequence of young planetary-mass objects in the Upper Scorpius association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodieu, N.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Peña Ramírez, K.

    2018-01-01

    We present the results of photometric and spectroscopic follow-ups of the lowest mass member candidates in the nearest OB association, Upper Scorpius (∼5-10 Myr; 145 ± 17 pc), with the Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC) and European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT). We confirm the membership of the large majority (>80 per cent) of candidates originally selected photometrically and astrometrically based on their spectroscopic features, weak equivalent widths of gravity-sensitive doublets and radial velocities. Confirmed members follow a sequence over a wide magnitude range (J = 17.0-19.3 mag) in several colour-magnitude diagrams with optical, near- and mid-infrared photometry and have near-infrared spectral types in the L1-L7 interval with likely masses below 15 Jupiter masses. We find that optical spectral types tend to be earlier than near-infrared spectral types by a few subclasses for spectral types later than M9. We investigate the behaviour of spectral indices, defined in the literature as a function of spectral type and gravity, by comparison with values reported in the literature for young and old dwarfs. We also derive effective temperatures in the 1900-1600 K range from fits of synthetic model-atmosphere spectra to the observed photometry, but we caution that the procedure carries large uncertainties. We determine bolometric corrections for young L dwarfs with ages of ∼5-10 Myr (Upper Sco association) and find them to be similar in the J band but larger by 0.1-0.4 mag in the K band with respect to field L dwarfs. Finally, we discover two faint young L dwarfs, Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) J1607-2146 (L4.5) and VISTA J1611-2215 (L5), that have Hα emission and possible flux excesses at 4.5 μm, pointing to the presence of accretion from a disc on to the central objects of mass below ∼15MJup at an age of 5-10 Myr.

  18. A BUTTERFLY-SHAPED 'PAPILLON' NEBULA YIELDS SECRETS OF MASSIVE STAR BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA Hubble Space Telescope view of a turbulent cauldron of starbirth, called N159, taking place 170,000 light-years away in our satellite galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Torrential stellar winds from hot newborn massive stars within the nebula sculpt ridges, arcs, and filaments in the vast cloud, which is over 150 light-years across. A rare type of compact ionized 'blob' is resolved for the first time to be a butterfly-shaped or 'Papillon' (French for 'butterfly') nebula, buried in the center of the maelstrom of glowing gases and dark dust. The unprecedented details of the structure of the Papillon, itself less than 2 light-years in size (about 2 arcseconds in the sky), are seen in the inset. A possible explanation of this bipolar shape is the outflow of gas from massive stars (over 10 times the mass of our sun) hidden in the central absorption zone. Such stars are so hot that their radiation pressure halts the infall of gas and directs it away from the stars in two opposite directions. Presumably, a dense equatorial disk formed by matter still trying to fall in onto the stars focuses the outstreaming matter into the bipolar directions. This observation is part of a search for young massive stars in the LMC. Rare are the cases where we can see massive stars so early after their birth. The red in this true-color image is from the emission of hydrogen and the yellow from high excitation ionized oxygen. The picture was taken on September 5, 1998 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The Hubble observations of the Papillon nebula were conducted by the European astronomers Mohammad Heydari-Malayeri (Paris Observatory, France) and co-investigators Michael Rosa (Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility, European Southern Observatory, Germany), Vassilis Charmandaris (Paris Observatory), Lise Deharveng (Marseille Observatory, France), and Hans Zinnecker (Astrophysical Institute, Potsdam, Germany). Their work is submitted for publication in the European

  19. Close-binary central stars of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, H.E.; Grauer, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Recent observations of PN central stars identified as binary systems are reviewed. The theoretical significance of binary central stars is discussed, and the characteristics of UU Sge, V 477 Lyr, MT Ser, LSS 2018, VW Pyx, and the central star of HFG 1 are briefly summarized. All of these binaries are shown to have periods less than 1 day, and it is estimated that about 10 percent of all binary central stars are close binaries. 27 references

  20. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: Planetary Nebulae as Green Galactic Citizens

    OpenAIRE

    Kwitter, K. B.; Henry, R. B. C.

    2011-01-01

    We review gas-phase abundances in PNe and describe their dual utility as archives of original progenitor metallicity via the alpha elements, as well as sources of processed material from nucleosynthesis during the star's evolution, i.e., C, N, and s-process elements. We describe the analysis of PN spectra to derive abundances and discuss the discrepancies that arise from different choices at each step. Abundance results for the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds from various groups of investigat...

  1. Planetary Magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.T.

    1980-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft have now probed the magnetic fields of all the terrestrial planets, the moon, Jupiter, and Saturn. These measurements reveal that dynamos are active in at least four of the planets, Mercury, the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn but that Venus and Mars appear to have at most only very weak planetary magnetic fields. The moon may have once possessed an internal dynamo, for the surface rocks are magnetized. The large satellites of the outer solar system are candidates for dynamo action in addition to the large planets themselves. Of these satellites the one most likely to generate its own internal magnetic field is Io

  2. Newly Discovered Silicate Features in the Spectra of Young Warm Debris Disks: Probing Terrestrial Regions of Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballering, N.; Rieke, G.

    2014-03-01

    Terrestrial planets form by the collisional accretion of planetesimals during the first 100 Myr of a system’s lifetime. For most systems, the terrestrial regions are too near their host star to be directly seen with high-contrast imaging (e.g. with HST, MagAO, or LBTI) and too warm to be imaged with submillimeter interferometers (e.g. ALMA). Mid-infrared excess spectra—originating from the thermal emission of the circumstellar dust leftover from these collisions—remain the best data to constrain the properties of the debris in these regions. The spectra of most debris disks are featureless, taking the shape of (modified) blackbodies. Determining the properties of debris disks with featureless spectra is complicated by a degeneracy between the grain size and location (large grains near the star and small grains farther from the star may be indistinguishable). Debris disk spectra that exhibit solid state emission features allow for a more accurate determination of the dust size and location (e.g. Chen et al. 2006; Olofsson et al. 2012). Such features probe small, warm dust grains in the inner regions of these systems where terrestrial planet formation may be proceeding (Lisse et al. 2009). We report here a successful search for such features. We identified our targets with a preliminary search for signs of emission features in the Spitzer IRS spectra of a number of young early type stars known to harbor warm debris disks. We fit to each target a physically-motivated model spectrum consisting of the sum of the stellar photosphere (modeled as a blackbody) and thermal emission from two dust belts. Each belt was defined by 6 parameters: the inner and outer orbital radii (rin and rout), the index of the radial surface density power law (rexp), the minimum and maximum grain sizes (amin and amax), and the index of the grain size distribution power law (aexp). aexp was fixed to -3.65 and amax was fixed to 1000 μm for all models; all other parameters were allowed to

  3. Planetary Geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various topics related to planetary geomorphology, including: research techniques; such geomorphic processes as impact, volcanic, degradational, eolian, and hillslope/mass movement processes; and channels and valleys. Indicates that the subject should be taught as a series of scientific questions rather than scientific results of…

  4. The Toby Jug nebula (IC 2220): a bipolar and biconical nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, H.G.; King, D.J.; Scarrott, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    An optical linear polarization map of IC 2220, the nebula surrounding the cool red giant HD 65750, is presented. The nebula appears to be bipolar and biconical in structure. The mass of the nebula is estimated to be 0.01 solar mass and is consistent with the nebula being formed from the current mass loss stage of the central star. (author)

  5. GBT, VLA Team Up to Produce New Image of Orion Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    , both the individual images from each telescope as well as the combined image were produced using the AIPS++ (Astronomical Information Processing System) software, developed, in part, by NRAO. The observers worked with Tim Cornwell, NRAO's Associate Director for Data Management, to develop the techniques used to combine the images. The Orion Nebula, easily visible in amateur telescopes, is a giant cloud of gas some 1,500 light-years away in which new stars are forming. The GBT-VLA radio image, Shepherd said, shows new details that will allow scientists to better understand how ionized gas near the young, hot stars at the nebula's center flows outward toward the edge of the nebula. The ability to produce combined GBT-VLA images also may revise scientists' understanding of other objects. For example, says NRAO Director Paul Vanden Bout, "Astronomers have seen many pockets of ionized Hydrogen gas in star-forming clouds with the VLA that are thought to be ultra-compact. It may be that they are, in fact, larger than thought and, using the GBT in addition to the VLA will show us the true picture." The importance of this observing technique lies in its ability to greatly improve the fidelity of images. "By fidelity we mean how closely the image actually reflects reality. We now have a powerful new tool for improving the fidelity of our images when we look at objects that are close enough to appear relatively large in the sky but which also contain fine detail within the larger structure," Shepherd said. "This will have a big impact on a number of research areas such as star formation in our Galaxy, planetary nebulae, supernova remnants, as well as dynamics and star formation in near-by galaxies," she added. The new technique also paves the way for effective use of the Expanded VLA, which will incorporate state-of-the-art electronics and digital equipment to replace now-aging technologies dating from the VLA's construction in the 1970s. In addition, the new capabilities can be

  6. The Trifid Nebula: Stellar Sibling Rivalry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    A zoom into the Trifid Nebula starts with ground-based observations and ends with a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image. Another HST image shows star formation in the nebula and the video concludes with a ground-based image of the Trifid Nebula.

  7. Contraction of the solar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawal, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of Roche limit is applied to the Laplacian theory of the origin of the solar system to study the contraction of a spherical gas cloud (solar nebula). In the process of contraction of the solar nebula, it is assumed that the phenomenon of supersonic turbulent convection is operative and brings about the halt at various stages of contraction. It is found that the radius of the contracting solar nebula follows the Titius-Bode law. The consequences of the relation are also discussed. The aim is to attempt to explain, on the basis of the concept of Roche limit, the distribution of planets in the solar system and try to understand the physics underlying it. (Auth.)

  8. Discovery of a Circumstellar Disk in the Lagoon Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Circumstellar disks of gas and dust play a crucial role in the formation of stars and planets. Until now, high-resolution images of such disks around young stars within the Orion Nebula obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) constituted the most direct proof of their existence. Now, another circumstellar disk has been detected around a star in the Lagoon Nebula - also known as Messier 8 (M8) , a giant complex of interstellar gas and dust with many young stars in the southern constellation of Sagittarius and four times more distant than the Orion Nebula. The observations were carried out by an international team of scientists led by Bringfried Stecklum (Thüringer Landessternwarte, Tautenburg, Germany) [1] who used telescopes located at the ESO La Silla observatory and also observations from the HST archive. These new results are paving the road towards exciting research programmes on star formation which will become possible with the ESO Very Large Telescope. The harsh environment of circumstellar disks The existence of circumstellar disks has been inferred from indirect measurements of young stellar objects, such as the spectral energy distribution, the analysis of the profiles of individual spectral lines and measurements of the polarisation of the emitted light [2]. Impressive images of such disks in the Orion Nebula, known as proplyds (PROto-PLanetarY DiskS), have been obtained by the HST during the recent years. They have confirmed the interpretation of previous ground-based emission-line observations and mapping by radio telescopes. Moreover, they demonstrated that those disks which are located close to hot and massive stars are subject to heating caused by the intense radiation from these stars. Subsequently, the disks evaporate releasing neutral gas which streams off. During this process, shock fronts (regions with increased density) with tails of ionised gas result at a certain distance between the disk and the hot star. These objects appear on

  9. The detection and study of pre-planetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, A. I.; Beckwith, S. V. W.

    1994-01-01

    A variety of evidence suggests that at least 50% of low-mass stars are surrounded by disks of the gas and dust similar to the nebula that surrounded the Sun before the formation of the planets. The properties of these disks may bear strongly on the way in which planetary systems form and evolve. As a result of major instrumental developments over the last decade, it is now possible to detect and study the circumstellar environments of the very young, solar-type stars in some detail, and to compare the results with theoretical models of the early solar system. For example, millimeter-wave aperture synthesis imaging provides a direct means of studying in detail the morphology, temperature and density distributions, velocity field and chemical constituents in the outer disks, while high resolution, near infrared spectroscopy probes the inner, warmer parts; the emergence of gaps in the disks, possibly reflecting the formation of planets, may be reflected in the variation of their dust continuum emission with wavelength. We review progress to date and discuss likely directions for future research.

  10. Planetary Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  11. Planetary engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  12. Planetary engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  13. Probing the Molecular Outflows of the Coldest Known Object in the Universe: The Boomerang Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Vlemmings, W.; Nyman, L. A.; Huggins, P.

    2012-05-01

    The Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known object in the Universe, and an extreme member of the class of Pre-Planetary Nebulae, objects which represent a short-lived transitional phase between the AGB and Planetary Nebula evolutionary stages. The Boomerang's estimated prodigious mass-loss rate (0.001 solar masses/year) and low-luminosity (300 Lsun) lack an explanation in terms of current paradigms for dusty mass-loss and standard evolutionary theory of intermediate-mass stars. Single-dish CO J=1-0 observations (with a 45 arcsec beam) show that the high-speed outflow in this object has cooled to a temperature significantly below the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We report on our high-resolution ALMA mapping of the CO lines in this ultra-cold nebula to determine the origin of these extreme conditions and robustly confirm current estimates of the fundamental physical properties of its ultra-cold outflow.

  14. Formation of planetary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahic, A.

    1982-01-01

    It seemed appropriate to devote the 1980 School to the origin of the solar system and more particularly to the formation of planetary systems (dynamic accretion processes, small bodies, planetary rings, etc...) and to the physics and chemistry of planetary interiors, surface and atmospheres (physical and chemical constraints associated with their formation). This Summer School enabled both young researchers and hard-nosed scientists, gathered together in idyllic surroundings, to hold numerous discussions, to lay the foundations for future cooperation, to acquire an excellent basic understanding, and to make many useful contacts. This volume reflects the lectures and presentations that were delivered in this Summer School setting. It is aimed at both advanced students and research workers wishing to specialize in planetology. Every effort has been made to give an overview of the basic knowledge required in order to gain a better understanding of the origin of the solar system. Each article has been revised by one or two referees whom I would like to thank for their assistance. Between the end of the School in August 1980 and the publication of this volume in 1982, the Voyager probes have returned a wealth of useful information. Some preliminary results have been included for completeness

  15. Escape and fractionation of volatiles and noble gases from Mars-sized planetary embryos and growing protoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odert, P.; Lammer, H.; Erkaev, N. V.; Nikolaou, A.; Lichtenegger, H. I. M.; Johnstone, C. P.; Kislyakova, K. G.; Leitzinger, M.; Tosi, N.

    2018-06-01

    Planetary embryos form protoplanets via mutual collisions, which can lead to the development of magma oceans. During their solidification, significant amounts of the mantles' volatile contents may be outgassed. The resulting H2O/CO2 dominated steam atmospheres may be lost efficiently via hydrodynamic escape due to the low gravity of these Moon- to Mars-sized objects and the high stellar EUV luminosities of the young host stars. Protoplanets forming from such degassed building blocks after nebula dissipation could therefore be drier than previously expected. We model the outgassing and subsequent hydrodynamic escape of steam atmospheres from such embryos. The efficient outflow of H drags along heavier species like O, CO2, and noble gases. The full range of possible EUV evolution tracks of a young solar-mass star is taken into account to investigate the atmospheric escape from Mars-sized planetary embryos at different orbital distances. The estimated envelopes are typically lost within a few to a few tens of Myr. Furthermore, we study the influence on protoplanetary evolution, exemplified by Venus. In particular, we investigate different early evolution scenarios and constrain realistic cases by comparing modeled noble gas isotope ratios with present observations. Isotope ratios of Ne and Ar can be reproduced, starting from solar values, under hydrodynamic escape conditions. Solutions can be found for different solar EUV histories, as well as assumptions about the initial atmosphere, assuming either a pure steam atmosphere or a mixture with accreted hydrogen from the protoplanetary nebula. Our results generally favor an early accretion scenario with a small amount of residual hydrogen from the protoplanetary nebula and a low-activity Sun, because in other cases too much CO2 is lost during evolution, which is inconsistent with Venus' present atmosphere. Important issues are likely the time at which the initial steam atmosphere is outgassed and/or the amount of CO2

  16. WR stars with ring nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that most of usually apparently single nitrogen WR stars with ring emission nebulae around them (WN + Neb) are a probable product of the evolution of a massive close binary with initial masses of components exceeding approximately 20 solar masses. (Auth.)

  17. The Helix Nebula Viewed in HCO+: Large-scale Mapping of the J = 1 → 0 Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, N. R.; Zack, L. N.; Woolf, N. J.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2013-11-01

    The J = 1 → 0 transition of HCO+ at 89 GHz has been mapped across the Helix Nebula (NGC 7293) with 70'' spatial resolution (1.68 km s-1 velocity resolution) using the Arizona Radio Observatory 12 m telescope. This work is the first large-scale mapping project of a dense gas tracer (n(H2) ~ 105 cm-3) in old planetary nebulae. Observations of over 200 positions encompassing the classical optical image were conducted with a 3σ noise level of ~20 mK. HCO+ was detected at most positions, often exhibiting multiple velocity components indicative of complex kinematic structures in dense gas. The HCO+ spectra suggest that the Helix is composed of a bipolar, barrel-like structure with red- and blue-shifted halves, symmetric with respect to the central star and oriented ~10° east from the line of sight. A second bipolar, higher velocity outflow exists as well, situated along the direction of the Helix "plumes." The column density of HCO+ across the Helix is N tot ~ 1.5 × 1010-5.0 × 1011 cm-2, with an average value N ave ~ 1 × 1011 cm-2, corresponding to an abundance, relative to H2, of f ~ 1.4 × 10-8. This value is similar to that observed in young PN, and contradicts chemical models, which predict that the abundance of HCO+ decreases with nebular age. This study indicates that polyatomic molecules readily survive the ultraviolet field of the central white dwarf, and can be useful in tracing nebular morphology in the very late stages of stellar evolution.

  18. SYNCHROTRON HEATING BY A FAST RADIO BURST IN A SELF-ABSORBED SYNCHROTRON NEBULA AND ITS OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Dai, Zi-Gao; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are mysterious transient sources. If extragalactic, as suggested by their relative large dispersion measures, their brightness temperatures must be extremely high. Some FRB models (e.g., young pulsar model, magnetar giant flare model, or supra-massive neutron star collapse model) suggest that they may be associated with a synchrotron nebula. Here we study a synchrotron-heating process by an FRB in a self-absorbed synchrotron nebula. If the FRB frequency is below the synchrotron self-absorption frequency of the nebula, electrons in the nebula would absorb FRB photons, leading to a harder electron spectrum and enhanced self-absorbed synchrotron emission. In the meantime, the FRB flux is absorbed by the nebula electrons. We calculate the spectra of FRB-heated synchrotron nebulae, and show that the nebula spectra would show a significant hump in several decades near the self-absorption frequency. Identifying such a spectral feature would reveal an embedded FRB in a synchrotron nebula

  19. SYNCHROTRON HEATING BY A FAST RADIO BURST IN A SELF-ABSORBED SYNCHROTRON NEBULA AND ITS OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Dai, Zi-Gao [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are mysterious transient sources. If extragalactic, as suggested by their relative large dispersion measures, their brightness temperatures must be extremely high. Some FRB models (e.g., young pulsar model, magnetar giant flare model, or supra-massive neutron star collapse model) suggest that they may be associated with a synchrotron nebula. Here we study a synchrotron-heating process by an FRB in a self-absorbed synchrotron nebula. If the FRB frequency is below the synchrotron self-absorption frequency of the nebula, electrons in the nebula would absorb FRB photons, leading to a harder electron spectrum and enhanced self-absorbed synchrotron emission. In the meantime, the FRB flux is absorbed by the nebula electrons. We calculate the spectra of FRB-heated synchrotron nebulae, and show that the nebula spectra would show a significant hump in several decades near the self-absorption frequency. Identifying such a spectral feature would reveal an embedded FRB in a synchrotron nebula.

  20. Gamma-ray flares from the Crab Nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Cannon, A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Çelik, Ö; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Luca, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashi, K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Horan, D; Itoh, R; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, T J; Khangulyan, D; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lee, S-H; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marelli, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Naumann-Godo, M; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Romani, R W; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Schalk, T L; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Wang, P; Wood, K S; Yang, Z; Ziegler, M

    2011-02-11

    A young and energetic pulsar powers the well-known Crab Nebula. Here, we describe two separate gamma-ray (photon energy greater than 100 mega-electron volts) flares from this source detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The first flare occurred in February 2009 and lasted approximately 16 days. The second flare was detected in September 2010 and lasted approximately 4 days. During these outbursts, the gamma-ray flux from the nebula increased by factors of four and six, respectively. The brevity of the flares implies that the gamma rays were emitted via synchrotron radiation from peta-electron-volt (10(15) electron volts) electrons in a region smaller than 1.4 × 10(-2) parsecs. These are the highest-energy particles that can be associated with a discrete astronomical source, and they pose challenges to particle acceleration theory.

  1. Gamma-ray flares from the Crab nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A.A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J.M.; Grenier, I.A.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Tibaldo, L.

    2011-01-01

    A young and energetic pulsar powers the well-known Crab Nebula. Here, we describe two separate gamma-ray (photon energy greater than 100 mega-electron volts) flares from this source detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The first flare occurred in February 2009 and lasted approximately 16 days. The second flare was detected in September 2010 and lasted approximately 4 days. During these outbursts, the gamma-ray flux from the nebula increased by factors of four and six, respectively. The brevity of the flares implies that the gamma rays were emitted via synchrotron radiation from peta-electron-volt (10 15 electron volts) electrons in a region smaller than 1.4 * 10 -2 parsecs. These are the highest-energy particles that can be associated with a discrete astronomical source, and they pose challenges to particle acceleration theory. (authors)

  2. Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, James F.

    1997-01-01

    This grant was entitled 'Planetary Habitability' and the work performed under it related to elucidating the conditions that lead to habitable, i.e. Earth-like, planets. Below are listed publications for the past two and a half years that came out of this work. The main thrusts of the research involved: (1) showing under what conditions atmospheric O2 and O3 can be considered as evidence for life on a planet's surface; (2) determining whether CH4 may have played a role in warming early Mars; (3) studying the effect of varying UV levels on Earth-like planets around different types of stars to see whether this would pose a threat to habitability; and (4) studying the effect of chaotic obliquity variations on planetary climates and determining whether planets that experienced such variations might still be habitable. Several of these topics involve ongoing research that has been carried out under a new grant number, but which continues to be funded by NASA's Exobiology program.

  3. Planetary geology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasselt, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date interdisciplinary geoscience-focused overview of solid solar system bodies and their evolution, based on the comparative description of processes acting on them. Planetary research today is a strongly multidisciplinary endeavor with efforts coming from engineering and natural sciences. Key focal areas of study are the solid surfaces found in our Solar System. Some have a direct interaction with the interplanetary medium and others have dynamic atmospheres. In any of those cases, the geological records of those surfaces (and sub-surfaces) are key to understanding the Solar System as a whole: its evolution and the planetary perspective of our own planet. This book has a modular structure and is divided into 4 sections comprising 15 chapters in total. Each section builds upon the previous one but is also self-standing. The sections are:  Methods and tools Processes and Sources  Integration and Geological Syntheses Frontiers The latter covers the far-reaching broad topics of exo...

  4. Planetary Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, P. D.

    2001-11-01

    A revolution in the studies in planetary rings studies occurred in the period 1977--1981, with the serendipitous discovery of the narrow, dark rings of Uranus, the first Voyager images of the tenuous jovian ring system, and the many spectacular images returned during the twin Voyager flybys of Saturn. In subsequent years, ground-based stellar occultations, HST observations, and the Voyager flybys of Uranus (1986) and Neptune (1989), as well as a handful of Galileo images, provided much additional information. Along with the completely unsuspected wealth of detail these observations revealed came an unwelcome problem: are the rings ancient or are we privileged to live at a special time in history? The answer to this still-vexing question may lie in the complex gravitational interactions recent studies have revealed between the rings and their retinues of attendant satellites. Among the four known ring systems, we see elegant examples of Lindblad and corotation resonances (first invoked in the context of galactic disks), electromagnetic resonances, spiral density waves and bending waves, narrow ringlets which exhibit internal modes due to collective instabilities, sharp-edged gaps maintained via tidal torques from embedded moonlets, and tenuous dust belts created by meteoroid impact onto parent bodies. Perhaps most puzzling is Saturn's multi-stranded, clumpy F ring, which continues to defy a simple explanation 20 years after it was first glimpsed in grainy images taken by Pioneer 11. Voyager and HST images reveal a complex, probably chaotic, dynamical interaction between unseen parent bodies within this ring and its two shepherd satellites, Pandora and Prometheus. The work described here reflects contributions by Joe Burns, Jeff Cuzzi, Luke Dones, Dick French, Peter Goldreich, Colleen McGhee, Carolyn Porco, Mark Showalter, and Bruno Sicardy, as well as those of the author. This research has been supported by NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics program and the

  5. THE VARIABLE REFLECTION NEBULA CEPHEUS A EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodapp, Klaus W.; Bressert, Eli

    2009-01-01

    We report K'-band imaging observations of the reflection nebula associated with Cepheus A East covering the time interval from 1990 to 2004. Over this time the reflection nebula shows variations of flux distribution, which we interpret as the effect of inhomogeneous and varying extinction in the light path from the illuminating source HW2 to the reflection nebula. The obscuring material is located within typical distances of ∼ 10 AU from the illuminating source.

  6. The western Veil nebula (Image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenny, M.

    2009-12-01

    The western Veil nebula in Cygnus. 15-part mosaic by Mike Glenny, Gloucestershire, taken over several months mostly in the autumn of 2008. 200mm LX90/f10 autoguided, Meade UHC filter, 0.3xFR/FF, Canon 20Da DSLR. Exposures each typically 10x360 secs at ISO1600, processed in Registax4, PixInsight (for flat field correction) & Photoshop CS.

  7. He II Raman Scattered Line by Neutral Hydrogen in the Bipolar Platenary Nebula M2-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Won Lee

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In the spectrum of the young bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 obtained from the 1.5 m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, we detected the He~II feature at 6545 Å that are proposed to be formed via Raman scattering by atomic hydrogen. However, in the same spectrum, the He~II emission lines at 6527 Å and 6560 Å are absent, which implies that the He~II emission region is hidden from our line of sight and that the H~I scattering region is pretty much extended not to be obscured entirely. We performed photoionization computations to estimate the physical size of the He~II emission line region to be 1016 cm, from which the location and dimension of the obscuring circumstellar region are inferred and the temperature of the central star must exceed 105 K. The angular size of the circumstellar region responsible for the obscuration of the He~II emission region is ~ 1'' with the assumption of the distance 01 kpc to M2-9, which is consistent with the recent image of M2-9 obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope.

  8. A CANDIDATE PLANETARY-MASS OBJECT WITH A PHOTOEVAPORATING DISK IN ORION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Min; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Apai, Dániel [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Pascucci, Ilaria [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Manara, Carlo Felice [Scientific Support Office, Directorate of Science, European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2016-12-20

    In this work, we report the discovery of a candidate planetary-mass object with a photoevaporating protoplanetary disk, Proplyd 133-353, which is near the massive star θ {sup 1} Ori C at the center of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). The object was known to have extended emission pointing away from θ {sup 1} Ori C, indicating ongoing external photoevaporation. Our near-infrared spectroscopic data and the location on the H–R diagram suggest that the central source of Proplyd 133-353 is substellar (∼M9.5) and has a mass probably less than 13 Jupiter mass and an age younger than 0.5 Myr. Proplyd 133-353 shows a similar ratio of X-ray luminosity to stellar luminosity to other young stars in the ONC with a similar stellar luminosity and has a similar proper motion to the mean one of confirmed ONC members. We propose that Proplyd 133-353 formed in a very low-mass dusty cloud or an evaporating gas globule near θ {sup 1} Ori C as a second generation of star formation, which can explain both its young age and the presence of its disk.

  9. Planetesimal Sizes and Mars Formation in the Magnetized Solar Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Morishima, Ryuji

    2017-10-01

    The Hf-W chronology inferred from Martian meteorites suggests that Mars should be a stranded planetary embryo formed within a very short (about 2 Myr) accretion timescale. Previous studies show that such rapid growth can be realized when small (nebular evolution. Under this circumstance, impact velocity of planetesimals can be very high due to nebular density fluctuations caused by turbulence, and hence collisions between small planetesimals can become destructive, rather than mergers. Here, we investigate how Mars formed in the magnetized solar nebula, focusing on MHD turbulence. We demonstrate what mass of planetesimals can contribute to Mars formation and what value of the nebular mass is needed to satisfy the rapid accretion timescale. We therefore derive a more realistic condition of the solar nebula under which Mars formation took place. While this study is based on the standard picture of runaway and oligarchic growth, we also discuss other formation mechanisms in order to compare how our results would be consistent with the properties of the solar system. These mechanisms are a hypothesis that Mars formed from a narrow ring of planetesimals, and the pebble accretion scenario.

  10. Pulsating stars in the region of Carina Nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steslicki, Marek [Astronomical Institute, University of Wroclaw (Poland)], E-mail: steslicki@astro.uni.wroc.p1

    2008-10-15

    We present the results of a search for pulsating stars in the region of Carina Nebula which includes three very young open clusters: Trumpler 14, 15 and 16. The search was made with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope in La Silla (Chile). In total, about 16,000 stars have been analyzed using classical Fourier techniques. We found over 20 pulsating {delta}-Scuti type stars in this region. Most of them are probable members of open clusters at the pre-main sequence evolutionary stage.

  11. Plerions and pulsar-powered nebulae

    OpenAIRE

    Gaensler, Bryan

    2000-01-01

    In this brief review, I discuss recent developments in the study of pulsar-powered nebulae ("plerions"). The large volume of data which has been acquired in recent years reveals a diverse range of observational properties, demonstrating how differing environmental and pulsar properties manifest themselves in the resulting nebulae.

  12. A Smoking Gun in the Carina Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael F.; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Townsley, Leisa; Broos, Patrick; Gruendl, Robert; Vaidya, Kaushar; White, Stephen M.; Petre, Rob; Chu, You-Hua

    2009-01-01

    The Carina Nebula is one of thc youngest, most active sites of massive star formation in our Galaxy. In this nebula, we have discovered a bright X-ray source that has persisted for approx.30 years. The soft X-ray spectrum. consistent with kT approx.130 eV blackbody radiation with mild extinction, and no counterpart in the near- and mid-infrared wavelengths indicate that it is a, approx. 10(exp 6)-year-old neutron star housed in the Carina Nebula. Current star formation theory does not suggest that the progenitor of the neutron star and massive stars in the Carina Nebula, in particular (eta)Car, are coeval. This result demonstrates that the Carina Nebula experienced at least two major episodes of massive star formation. The neutron star would be responsible for remnants of high energy activity seen in multiple wavelengths.

  13. A SMOKING GUN IN THE CARINA NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael F.; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Townsley, Leisa; Broos, Patrick; Gruendl, Robert; Vaidya, Kaushar; Chu, You-Hua; White, Stephen M.; Strohmayer, Tod; Petre, Rob

    2009-01-01

    The Carina Nebula is one of the youngest, most active sites of massive star formation in our Galaxy. In this nebula, we have discovered a bright X-ray source that has persisted for ∼30 years. The soft X-ray spectrum, consistent with kT ∼ 128 eV blackbody radiation with mild extinction, and no counterpart in the near- and mid-infrared wavelengths indicates that it is a ∼10 6 year old neutron star housed in the Carina Nebula. Current star formation theory does not suggest that the progenitors of the neutron star and massive stars in the Carina Nebula, in particular η Car, are coeval. This result suggests that the Carina Nebula experienced at least two major episodes of massive star formation. The neutron star may be responsible for remnants of high-energy activity seen in multiple wavelengths.

  14. The Extended X-ray Nebula of PSR J1420-6048

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Etten, Adam; Romani, Roger W.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-19

    The vicinity of the unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1420-6038 has undergone extensive study in the search for counterparts, revealing the energetic young pulsar PSR J1420-6048 and its surrounding wind nebula as a likely candidate for at least part of the emission from this bright and extended gamma-ray source. We report on new Suzaku observations of PSR J1420-6048, along with analysis of archival XMM Newton data. The low background of Suzaku permits mapping of the extended X-ray nebula, indicating a tail stretching {approx} 8 minutes north of the pulsar. The X-ray data, along with archival radio and VHE data, hint at a pulsar birthsite to the North, and yield insights into its evolution and the properties of the ambient medium. We further explore such properties by modeling the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the extended nebula.

  15. Spectral analysis of the Crab Pulsar and Nebula with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loparco, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Crab Pulsar is a relatively young neutron star. The Pulsar is the central star in the Crab Nebula, a remnant of the supernova SN 1054, which was observed on Earth in the year 1054. The Crab Pulsar has been extensively observed in the gamma-ray energy band by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the main instrument onboard the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope, during its first months of data taking. The LAT data have been used to reconstruct the fluxes and the energy spectra of the pulsed gamma-ray component and of the gamma-rays from the Nebula. The results on the pulsed component are in good agreement with the previous measurement from EGRET, while the results on the Nebula are consistent with the observations from Earth based telescopes.

  16. Characterizing Protoplanetary Disks in a Young Binary in Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jonas; Hughes, A. Meredith; Mann, Rita; Flaherty, Kevin; Di Francesco, James; Williams, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Planetary systems form in circumstellar disks of gas and dust surrounding young stars. One open question in the study of planet formation involves understanding how different environments affect the properties of the disks and planets they generate. Understanding the properties of disks in high-mass star forming regions (SFRs) is critical since most stars - probably including our Sun - form in those regions. By comparing the disks in high-mass SFRs to those in better-studied low-mass SFRs we can learn about the role environment plays in planet formation. Here we present 0.5" resolution observations of the young two-disk binary system V2434 Ori in the Orion Nebula from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in molecular line tracers of CO(3-2), HCN(4-3), HCO+(4-3) and CS(7-6). We model each disk’s mass, radius, temperature structure, and molecular abundances, by creating synthetic images using an LTE ray-tracing code and comparing simulated observations with the ALMA data in the visibility domain. We then compare our results to a previous study of molecular line emission from a single Orion proplyd, modeled using similar methods, and to previously characterized disks in low-mass SFRs to investigate the role of environment in disk chemistry and planetary system formation.

  17. NIF Discovery Science Eagle Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jave; Martinez, David; Pound, Marc; Heeter, Robert; Casner, Alexis; Villette, Bruno; Mancini, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    The University of Maryland and and LLNL are investigating the origin and dynamics of the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula and similar parsec-scale structures at the boundaries of HII regions in molecular hydrogen clouds. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Discovery Science program Eagle Nebula has performed NIF shots to study models of pillar formation. The shots feature a new long-duration x-ray source, in which multiple hohlraums mimicking a cluster of stars are driven with UV light in series for 10 to 15 ns each to create a 30 to 60 ns output x-ray pulse. The source generates deeply nonlinear hydrodynamics in the Eagle science package, a structure of dense plastic and foam mocking up a molecular cloud containing a dense core. Omega EP and NIF shots have validated the source concept, showing that earlier hohlraums do not compromise later ones by preheat or by ejecting ablated plumes that deflect later beams. The NIF shots generated radiographs of shadowing-model pillars, and also showed evidence that cometary structures can be generated. The velocity and column density profiles of the NIF shadowing and cometary pillars have been compared with observations of the Eagle Pillars made at the millimeter-wave BIMA and CARMA observatories. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Organic synthesis via irradiation and warming of ice grains in the solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, Fred J; Sandford, Scott A

    2012-04-27

    Complex organic compounds, including many important to life on Earth, are commonly found in meteoritic and cometary samples, though their origins remain a mystery. We examined whether such molecules could be produced within the solar nebula by tracking the dynamical evolution of ice grains in the nebula and recording the environments to which they were exposed. We found that icy grains originating in the outer disk, where temperatures were less than 30 kelvin, experienced ultraviolet irradiation exposures and thermal warming similar to that which has been shown to produce complex organics in laboratory experiments. These results imply that organic compounds are natural by-products of protoplanetary disk evolution and should be important ingredients in the formation of all planetary systems, including our own.

  19. Organic Synthesis via Irradiation and Warming of Ice Grains in the Solar Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, Fred J.; Sanford, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Complex organic compounds, including many important to life on Earth, are commonly found in meteoritic and cometary samples, though their origins remain a mystery. We examined whether such molecules could be produced within the solar nebula by tracking the dynamical evolution of ice grains in the nebula and recording the environments they were exposed to. We found that icy grains originating in the outer disk, where temperatures were less than 30 K, experienced UV irradiation exposures and thermal warming similar to that which has been shown to produce complex organics in laboratory experiments. These results imply that organic compounds are natural byproducts of protoplanetary disk evolution and should be important ingredients in the formation of all planetary systems, including our own.

  20. Processing NASA Earth Science Data on Nebula Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aijun; Pham, Long; Kempler, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Three applications were successfully migrated to Nebula, including S4PM, AIRS L1/L2 algorithms, and Giovanni MAPSS. Nebula has some advantages compared with local machines (e.g. performance, cost, scalability, bundling, etc.). Nebula still faces some challenges (e.g. stability, object storage, networking, etc.). Migrating applications to Nebula is feasible but time consuming. Lessons learned from our Nebula experience will benefit future Cloud Computing efforts at GES DISC.

  1. Planetary Data System (PDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Planetary Data System (PDS) is an archive of data products from NASA planetary missions, which is sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. We actively...

  2. Modelling the structure and kinematics of the Firework nebula: The nature of the GK Persei nova shell and its jet-like feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, E.; Redman, M. P.; Boumis, P.; Akras, S.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: The shaping mechanisms of old nova remnants are probes for several important and unexplained processes, such as dust formation and the structure of evolved star nebulae. To gain a more complete understanding of the dynamics of the GK Per (1901) remnant, an examination of symmetry of the nova shell is explored, followed by a kinematical analysis of the previously detected jet-like feature in the context of the surrounding fossil planetary nebula. Methods: Faint-object high-resolution echelle spectroscopic observations and imaging were undertaken covering the knots which comprise the nova shell and the surrounding nebulosity. New imaging from the Aristarchos telescope in Greece and long-slit spectra from the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer instrument at the San Pedro Mártir observatory in Mexico were obtained, supplemented with archival observations from several other optical telescopes. Position-velocity arrays are produced of the shell, and also individual knots, and are then used for morpho-kinematic modelling with the shape code. The overall structure of the old knotty nova shell of GK Per and the planetary nebula in which it is embedded is then analysed. Results: Evidence is found for the interaction of knots with each other and with a wind component, most likely the periodic fast wind emanating from the central binary system. We find that a cylindrical shell with a lower velocity polar structure gives the best model fit to the spectroscopy and imaging. We show in this work that the previously seen jet-like feature is of low velocity. Conclusions: The individual knots have irregular tail shapes; we propose here that they emanate from episodic winds from ongoing dwarf nova outbursts by the central system. The nova shell is cylindrical, not spherical, and the symmetry axis relates to the inclination of the central binary system. Furthermore, the cylinder axis is aligned with the long axis of the bipolar planetary nebula in which it is embedded. Thus, the

  3. Nebulae and how to observe them

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Steven

    2007-01-01

    This "Astronomers' Observing Guides" are designed for practical amateur astronomers who not only want to observe, but want to know the details of exactly what they are looking at. Nebulae are the places where the stars are born. For amateur astronomers, the many different kinds of nebulae vary from "easy" targets that can be seen with modest equipment under mediocre skies, to "challenging" objects that require experienced observers, large telescopes and excellent seeing. The concept of the book - and of the series - is to present an up-to-date detailed description and categorisation (part one); and then (part two) to consider how best to successfully observe and record the large range of astronomical objects that fall under the general heading of "nebulae". "Nebulae, and How to Observe Them" is a mine of information for all levels of amateur observers, from the beginner to the experienced.

  4. Hot relativistic winds and the Crab nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, F.S.; Kennel, C.F.

    1981-01-01

    Efforts are reviewed to construct a self-consistent model of pulsar magnetospheres that links the particle source near the pulsar to the outflowing relativistic wind and couples the wind to the surrounding nebula. (Auth.)

  5. The Boomerang Nebula: a highly polarized bipolar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, K.N.R.; Scarrott, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    An optical linear polarization map of a bipolar nebula is presented. Polarizations of approximately 60 per cent are observed in the optically thin lobes. The map leads to a geometry of the object consisting of a central star with an equatorial disc of dust and optically thin lobes illuminated by the central star. The grains in the disc are aligned. The object is a protoplanetary nebula. (author)

  6. Is gas in the Orion nebula depleted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, S.; Guidi, I.

    1978-01-01

    Depletion of heavy elements has been recognized to be important in the understanding of the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. This problem is also relevant to the study of H II regions. In this paper the gaseous depletion in the physical conditions of the Orion nebula is investigated. The authors reach the conclusion that very probably no depletion of heavy elements, due to sticking on dust grains, took place during the lifetime of the Orion nebula. (Auth.)

  7. The Crab Nebula flaring activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montani, G., E-mail: giovanni.montani@frascati.enea.it [ENEA – C.R, UTFUS-MAG, via Enrico Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Sapienza”, p.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Bernardini, M.G. [INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy)

    2014-12-12

    The discovery made by AGILE and Fermi of a short time scale flaring activity in the gamma-ray energy emission of the Crab Nebula is a puzzling and unexpected feature, challenging particle acceleration theory. In the present work we propose the shock-induced magnetic reconnection as a viable mechanism to explain the Crab flares. We postulate that the emitting region is located at ∼10{sup 15} cm from the central pulsar, well inside the termination shock, which is exactly the emitting region size as estimated by the overall duration of the phenomenon ∼1 day. We find that this location corresponds to the radial distance at which the shock-induced magnetic reconnection process is able to accelerate the electrons up to a Lorentz factor ∼10{sup 9}, as required by the spectral fit of the observed Crab flare spectrum. The main merit of the present analysis is to highlight the relation between the observational constraints to the flare emission and the radius at which the reconnection can trigger the required Lorentz factor. We also discuss different scenarios that can induce the reconnection. We conclude that the existence of a plasma instability affecting the wind itself as the Weibel instability is the privileged scenario in our framework.

  8. Emission lines of [K V] in the optical spectra of gaseous nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Francis P; Aller, Lawrence H; Espey, Brian R; Exter, Katrina M; Hyung, Siek; Keenan, Michael T C; Pollacco, Don L; Ryans, Robert S I

    2002-04-02

    Recent R-matrix calculations of electron impact excitation rates in K v are used to derive the nebular emission line ratio R = I(4122.6 A)/I(4163.3 A) as a function of electron density (N(e)). This ratio is found to be very sensitive to changes in N(e) over the density range 10(3) to 10(6) cm(-3), but does not vary significantly with electron temperature, and hence in principle should provide an excellent optical N(e) diagnostic for the high-excitation zones of nebulae. The observed value of R for the planetary nebula NGC 7027, measured from a spectrum obtained with the Hamilton Echelle spectrograph on the 3-m Shane Telescope, implies a density in excellent agreement with that derived from [Ne iv], formed in the same region of the nebula as [K v]. This observation provides observational support for the accuracy of the theoretical [K v] line ratios, and hence the atomic data on which they are based. However, the analysis of a high-resolution spectrum of the symbiotic star RR Telescopii, obtained with the University College London Echelle Spectrograph on the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope, reveals that the [K v] 4122.6 A line in this object is badly blended with Fe ii 4122.6 A. Hence, the [K v] diagnostic may not be used for astrophysical sources that show a strong Fe ii emission line spectrum.

  9. The simplest models of the reflection nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voshchinnikov, N.V.

    1977-01-01

    Some models of the reflection nebulue have been considered. The (U-B), (B-V) and (V-R) colors and the U, B, V and R polarization have been calculated for a model of a reflection nebula associated with a large dust cloud. For the cases in which the illuminating star is far from the surface of the cloud, the form of the nebula has been considered to be spherical. If the star is close to the surface of the cloud, a part of the nebura boundary has been considered to be flat. Single scattering within the homogeneous nebula has been assumed. All the calculations use the scattering by spheres as given by the Mie's theory. The effect of variations of chemical composition and size distribution function of the grains and the position of the illuminating star has been examined. Comparison of the theoretical results with the observations of the Merope nebula shows that the dirty ice grains with the refraction index m=1.30-0.02i and size parameter asub(o)=0.5μ represent satisfactorily the observation if the star is embedded 0.7 pc behind the front surface of the nebula

  10. Properties of interstellar dust in reflection nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellgren, K.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of interstellar dust in reflection nebulae are the closest analog in the interstellar medium to studies of cometary dust in our solar system. The presence of a bright star near the reflection nebula dust provides the opportunity to study both the reflection and emission characteristics of interstellar dust. At 0.1 to 1 micrometer, the reflection nebula emission is due to starlight scattered by dust. The albedo and scattering phase function of the dust is determined from observations of the scattered light. At 50 to 200 micrometers, thermal emission from the dust in equilibrium with the stellar radiation field is observed. The derived dust temperature determines the relative values of the absorption coefficient of the dust at wavelengths where the stellar energy is absorbed and at far infrared wavelengths where the absorbed energy is reradiated. These emission mechanisms directly relate to those seen in the near and mid infrared spectra of comets. In a reflection nebula the dust is observed at much larger distances from the star than in our solar system, so that the equilibrium dust temperature is 50 K rather than 300 K. Thus, in reflection nebulae, thermal emission from dust is emitted at 50 to 200 micrometer

  11. Lunar occultation observations of the Crab Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, F.P.

    1977-01-01

    Three lunar of occultations of the Crab Nebula were observed, two at 114 MHz and one at 26.3 MHz, during the 1974 series of events. The higher frequency observations were deconvolved of diffraction effects to yield four strip integrated brightness profiles of the Nebula, with an effective resolution of 30 arc-seconds. These four profiles were Fourier inverted and cleaned of sidelobe structure to synthesize a two-dimensional map of the Nebula. At 114 MHz, the Nebula is composed of a broad envelope of emission which contains several smaller sources. The attenuation of the low radio frequency radiation by the thermal hydrogen in the filaments is considered as a possible mechanism to explain these new data. The 26.3 MHz observations indicate the presence of a bright, localized source containing greater than 80% of the flux of the Nebula. The position of the source is confined by the data to a narrow strip centered at the pulsar position. Both sets of data are compared with past occultation observations

  12. Ring nebulae associated with Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Y.-H.

    1982-01-01

    Using strict selection criteria, the author and colleagues have searched for ring nebulae associated with Wolf-Rayet stars in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. 15 WR ring nebulae are identified in the Galaxy, 9 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, and none in the small Magellanic Cloud. The morphology and kinematics of these 24 nebulae have subsequently been observed to study their nature. These nebulae and their references are listed and a correlation between spectral and nebular types is presented. (Auth.)

  13. Theoretical, observational, and isotopic estimates of the lifetime of the solar nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podosek, Frank A.; Cassen, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of isotopic data for meteorites which suggest that the protostellar nebula existed and was involved in making planetary materials for some 10(exp 7) yr or more. Many cosmochemists, however, advocate alternative interpretations of such data in order to comply with a perceived constraint, from theoretical considerations, that the nebula existed only for a much shorter time, usually stated as less than or equal to 10(exp 6) yr. In this paper, we review evidence relevant to solar nebula duration which is available through three different disciplines: theoretical modeling of star formation, isotopic data from meteorites, and astronomical observations of T Tauri stars. Theoretical models based on observations of present star-forming regions indicate that stars like the Sun form by dynamical gravitational collapse of dense cores of cold molcular clouds in the interstellar clouds in the interstellar medium. The collapse to a star and disk occurs rapidly, on a time scale of the order 10(exp 5) yr. Disks evolve by dissipating energy while redistributing angular momentum, but it is difficult to predict the rate of evolution, particularly for low mass (compared to the star) disks which nonetheless still contain enough material to account for the observed planetary system. There is no compelling evidence, from available theories of disk structure and evolution, that the solar nebula must have evolved rapidly and could not have persisted for more than 1 Ma. In considering chronoloically relevant isotopic data for meteorites, we focus on three methodologies: absolute ages by U-Pb/Pb-Pb, and relative ages by short-lived radionuclides (especially Al-26) and by evolution of Sr-87/Sr-86. Two kinds of meteoritic materials-refractory inclusions such as CAIs and differential meteorites (eucrites and augrites) -- appear to have experienced potentially dateable nebular events. In both cases, the most straightforward interpretations of the available data indicate

  14. THE NATURE AND FREQUENCY OF OUTFLOWS FROM STARS IN THE CENTRAL ORION NEBULA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Dell, C. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Box 1807-B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Ferland, G. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Henney, W. J. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Peimbert, M. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo, Postal 70-264, 04510 México D. F., México (Mexico); García-Díaz, Ma. T. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km 103 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B.C., México (Mexico); Rubin, Robert H., E-mail: cr.odell@vanderbilt.edu [NASA/Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Recent Hubble Space Telescope images have allowed the determination with unprecedented accuracy of motions and changes of shocks within the inner Orion Nebula. These originate from collimated outflows from very young stars, some within the ionized portion of the nebula and others within the host molecular cloud. We have doubled the number of Herbig–Haro objects known within the inner Orion Nebula. We find that the best-known Herbig–Haro shocks originate from relatively few stars, with the optically visible X-ray source COUP 666 driving many of them. While some isolated shocks are driven by single collimated outflows, many groups of shocks are the result of a single stellar source having jets oriented in multiple directions at similar times. This explains the feature that shocks aligned in opposite directions in the plane of the sky are usually blueshifted because the redshifted outflows pass into the optically thick photon-dominated region behind the nebula. There are two regions from which optical outflows originate for which there are no candidate sources in the SIMBAD database.

  15. THE NATURE AND FREQUENCY OF OUTFLOWS FROM STARS IN THE CENTRAL ORION NEBULA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Dell, C. R.; Ferland, G. J.; Henney, W. J.; Peimbert, M.; García-Díaz, Ma. T.; Rubin, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent Hubble Space Telescope images have allowed the determination with unprecedented accuracy of motions and changes of shocks within the inner Orion Nebula. These originate from collimated outflows from very young stars, some within the ionized portion of the nebula and others within the host molecular cloud. We have doubled the number of Herbig–Haro objects known within the inner Orion Nebula. We find that the best-known Herbig–Haro shocks originate from relatively few stars, with the optically visible X-ray source COUP 666 driving many of them. While some isolated shocks are driven by single collimated outflows, many groups of shocks are the result of a single stellar source having jets oriented in multiple directions at similar times. This explains the feature that shocks aligned in opposite directions in the plane of the sky are usually blueshifted because the redshifted outflows pass into the optically thick photon-dominated region behind the nebula. There are two regions from which optical outflows originate for which there are no candidate sources in the SIMBAD database

  16. Monitoring the Crab Nebula with LOFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    From 2008-2010, the Crab Nebula was found to decline by 7% in the 15-50 keV band, consistently in Fermi GBM, INTEGRAL IBIS, SPI, and JEMX, RXTE PCA, and Swift BAT. From 2001-2010, the 15-50 keV flux from the Crab Nebula typically varied by about 3.5% per year. Analysis of RXTE PCA data suggests possible spectral variations correlated with the flux variations. I will present estimates of the LOFT sensitivity to these variations. Prior to 2001 and since 2010, the observed flux variations have been much smaller. Monitoring the Crab with the LOFT WFM and LAD will provide precise measurements of flux variations in the Crab Nebula if it undergoes a similarly active episode.

  17. Infrared reflection nebulae in Orion Molecular Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, Y.; Werner, M.W.; Capps, R.; Lester, D.; Hawaii Univ., Honolulu; Texas Univ., Austin)

    1986-01-01

    New observations of Orion Molecular Cloud 2 have been made from 1 to 100 microns using the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. An extensive program of polarimetry, photometry, and spectrophotometry has shown that the extended emission regions associated with two of the previously known near-infrared sources, IRS 1 and IRS 4, are infrared reflection nebulae, and that the compact sources IRS 1 and IRS 4 are the main luminosity sources in the cloud. The constraints from the far-infrared observations and an analysis of the scattered light from the IRS 1 nebula show that OMC-2/IRS 1 can be characterized by L of 500 solar luminosities or less and T of roughly 1000 K. The near-infrared albedo of the grains in the IRS 1 nebula is greater than 0.08. 27 references

  18. Mass loss from the proto-sun: Formation and evolution of the solar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, B.M.P.

    1984-01-01

    We consider the formation and evolution of the solar nebula in the light of observations of T Tauri stars, oxygen-isotopic anomalies in meteorites, and the mass and angular momentum distribution in the present solar system. It is argued that the solar nebula formed from the mass lost by the proto-Sun. The outflow of initially partially ionized material in the presence of a strong proto-solar magnetic field would lead to the transfer of angular momentum from the central Sun to the outflowing matter. This explains the present angular momentum distribution between the Sun and the planetary system. When the outflowing matter cooled sufficiently, to less than 2000 K, approx. l0 12 cm from the Sun, the material would neutralize, and the magnetic field would then decouple from the outflowing matter. Further motion would be governed by the gravitational field of the proto-Sun, the gas pressure, and the centrifugal force. When these forces balance, the radial flow would stop, and a rotating solar nebula would form. Chemical condensation would occur in the outflowing matter when suitable pressure-temperature conditions would develop. The condensation of the refractory mineral Al 2 O 3 would start at a distance of approx.2 x l0 12 cm from the Sun, where the pressure would be approx. 3 x l0 8 atm, and temperature approx. l450 K. The condensation sequence of other lower temperature minerals would follow this. All the refractory minerals and iron would condense within the orbit of the planet Mercury. All the volatiles would condense before the outflowing matter crossed the asteroid region. The grains would move to the outer part of the nebula along with the outflowing gas

  19. THE SHAPING EFFECT OF COLLIMATED FAST OUTFLOWS IN THE EGG NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh-V-Trung; Lim, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    We present high angular resolution observations of the HC 3 N J = 5-4 line from the Egg nebula, which is the archetype of proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs). We find that the HC 3 N emission in the approaching and receding portion of the envelope traces a clumpy hollow shell, similar to that seen in normal carbon-rich envelopes. Near the systemic velocity, the hollow shell is fragmented into several large blobs or arcs with missing portions correspond spatially to locations of previously reported high-velocity outflows in the Egg nebula. This provides direct evidence for the disruption of the slowly expanding envelope ejected during the AGB phase by the collimated fast outflows initiated during the transition to the PPN phase. From modeling the HC 3 N distribution, we could reproduce qualitatively the spatial kinematics of the HC 3 N J = 5-4 emission using a HC 3 N shell with two pairs of cavities cleared by the collimated high-velocity outflows along the polar direction and in the equatorial plane. We infer a relatively high abundance of HC 3 N/H 2 ∼ 3 x 10 -6 for an estimated mass-loss rate of 3 x 10 -5 M sun yr -1 in the HC 3 N shell. The high abundance of HC 3 N and the presence of some weaker J = 5-4 emission in the vicinity of the central post-AGB star suggest an unusually efficient formation of this molecule in the Egg nebula.

  20. Outflows, dusty cores, and a burst of star formation in the North America and Pelican nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bally, John [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Ginsburg, Adam [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Probst, Ron [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Reipurth, Bo [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stringfellow, Guy S., E-mail: John.Bally@colorado.edu, E-mail: aginsburg@eso.org, E-mail: probst@noao.edu, E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: yshirley@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: Guy.Stringfellow@colorado.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present observations of near-infrared 2.12 μm molecular hydrogen outflows emerging from 1.1 mm dust continuum clumps in the North America and Pelican Nebula (NAP) complex selected from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). Hundreds of individual shocks powered by over 50 outflows from young stars are identified, indicating that the dusty molecular clumps surrounding the NGC 7000/IC 5070/W80 H II region are among the most active sites of ongoing star formation in the solar vicinity. A spectacular X-shaped outflow, MHO 3400, emerges from a young star system embedded in a dense clump more than a parsec from the ionization front associated with the Pelican Nebula (IC 5070). Suspected to be a binary, the source drives a pair of outflows with orientations differing by 80°. Each flow exhibits S-shaped symmetry and multiple shocks indicating a pulsed and precessing jet. The 'Gulf of Mexico', located south of the North America Nebula (NGC 7000), contains a dense cluster of molecular hydrogen objects (MHOs), Herbig-Haro (HH) objects, and over 300 young stellar objects (YSOs), indicating a recent burst of star formation. The largest outflow detected thus far in the North America and Pelican Nebula complex, the 1.6 parsec long MHO 3417 flow, emerges from a 500 M {sub ☉} BGPS clump and may be powered by a forming massive star. Several prominent outflows such as MHO 3427 appear to be powered by highly embedded YSOs only visible at λ > 70 μm. An 'activity index' formed by dividing the number of shocks by the mass of the cloud containing their source stars is used to estimate the relative evolutionary states of Bolocam clumps. Outflows can be used as indicators of the evolutionary state of clumps detected in millimeter and submillimeter dust continuum surveys.

  1. A nebula of gases from Io surrounding Jupiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimigis, Stamatios M; Mitchell, Donald G; Hamilton, Douglas C; Dandouras, Jannis; Armstrong, Thomas P; Bolton, Scott J; Cheng, Andrew F; Gloeckler, George; Hsieh, K C; Keath, Edwin P; Krupp, Norbert; Lagg, Andreas; Lanzerotti, Louis J; Livi, Stefano; Mauk, Barry H; McEntire, Richard W; Roelof, Edmond C; Wilken, Berend; Williams, Donald J

    2002-02-28

    Several planetary missions have reported the presence of substantial numbers of energetic ions and electrons surrounding Jupiter; relativistic electrons are observable up to several astronomical units (au) from the planet. A population of energetic (>30[?]keV) neutral particles also has been reported, but the instrumentation was not able to determine the mass or charge state of the particles, which were subsequently labelled energetic neutral atoms. Although images showing the presence of the trace element sodium were obtained, the source and identity of the neutral atoms---and their overall significance relative to the loss of charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere---were unknown. Here we report the discovery by the Cassini spacecraft of a fast (>103[?]km[?]s-1) and hot magnetospheric neutral wind extending more than 0.5[?]au from Jupiter, and the presence of energetic neutral atoms (both hot and cold) that have been accelerated by the electric field in the solar wind. We suggest that these atoms originate in volcanic gases from Io, undergo significant evolution through various electromagnetic interactions, escape Jupiter's magnetosphere and then populate the environment around the planet. Thus a 'nebula' is created that extends outwards over hundreds of jovian radii.

  2. Spitzer Light Curves of the Young, Planetary-mass TW Hya Members 2MASS J11193254–1137466AB and WISEA J114724.10–204021.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin K.; Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.

    2018-06-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope time-series photometry at 3.6 and 4.5 μm of 2MASS J11193254‑1137466AB and WISEA J114724.10‑204021.3, two planetary-mass, late-type (∼L7) brown dwarf members of the ∼10 Myr old TW Hya Association. These observations were taken in order to investigate whether or not a tentative trend of increasing variability amplitude with decreasing surface gravity seen for L3–L5.5 dwarfs extends to later-L spectral types and to explore the angular momentum evolution of low-mass objects. We examine each light curve for variability and find a rotation period of 19.39+0.33 ‑0.28 hr and semi-amplitudes of 0.798+0.081 ‑0.083% at 3.6 μm and 1.108+0.093 ‑0.094% at 4.5 μm for WISEA J114724.10‑204021.3. For 2MASS J11193254‑1137466AB, we find a single period of 3.02+0.04 ‑0.03 hr with semi-amplitudes of 0.230+0.036 ‑0.035% at 3.6 μm and 0.453 ± 0.037% at 4.5 μm, which we find is possibly due to the rotation of one component of the binary. Combining our results with 12 other late-type L dwarfs observed with Spitzer from the literature, we find no significant differences between the 3.6 μm amplitudes of low surface gravity and field gravity late-type L brown dwarfs at Spitzer wavelengths, and find tentative evidence (75% confidence) of higher amplitude variability at 4.5 μm for young, late-type Ls. We also find a median rotation period of young brown dwarfs (10–300 Myr) of ∼10 hr, more than twice the value of the median rotation period of field-age brown dwarfs (∼4 hr), a clear signature of brown dwarf rotational evolution.

  3. Fermi-LAT Constraints on the Pulsar Wind Nebula Nature of HESS J1857+026

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, R.; Grondin, M.-H.; VanEtten, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Bogdanov, S.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kaspi, V. M.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Camilo, F.; Casandjian, J. M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Since its launch, the Fermi satellite has firmly identified 5 pulsar wind nebulae plus a large number of candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. HESS J1857+026 is a spatially extended gamma-ray source detected by H.E.S.S. and classified as a possible pulsar wind nebula candidate powered by PSR J1856+0245. Aims. We search for -ray pulsations from PSR J1856+0245 and explore the characteristics of its associated pulsar wind nebula. Methods. Using a rotational ephemeris obtained from the Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank Observatory at 1.5 GHz, we phase.fold 36 months of gamma-ray data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard Fermi. We also perform a complete gamma-ray spectral and morphological analysis. Results. No pulsation was detected from PSR J1856+0245. However, significant emission is detected at a position coincident with the TeV source HESS J1857+026. The gamma-ray spectrum is well described by a simple power law with a spectral index of Gamma = 1.53 +/- 0.11(sub stat) +/- 0.55(sub syst) and an energy flux of G(0.1 C100 GeV) = (2.71 +/- 0.52(sub stat) +/- 1.51(sub syst) X 10(exp -11) ergs/ sq cm/s. This implies a gamma.ray efficiency of approx 5 %, assuming a distance of 9 kpc, the gamma-ray luminosity of L(sub gamma) (sub PWN) (0.1 C100 GeV) = (2.5 +/- 0.5(sub stat) +/- 1.5(sub syst)) X 10(exp 35)(d/(9kpc))(exp 2) ergs/s and E-dot = 4.6 X 10(exp 36) erg /s, in the range expected for pulsar wind nebulae. Detailed multi-wavelength modeling provides new constraints on its pulsar wind nebula nature.

  4. Theoretical emission line ratios for [Fe III] and [Fe VII] applicable to the optical and infrared spectra of gaseous nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, F P; Aller, L H; Ryans, R S; Hyung, S

    2001-08-14

    Recent calculations of electron impact excitation rates and Einstein A-coefficients for transitions among the 3d(6) levels of Fe III and among the 3d(2) levels of Fe VII are used to derive theoretical emission line ratios applicable to the optical and infrared spectra of gaseous nebulae. Results for [Fe III] are generated for electron temperatures T(e) = 7,000-20,000 K and densities N(e) = 10(2)-10(8) cm(-3), whereas those for [Fe VII] are provided for T(e) = 10,000-30,000 K and N(e) = 10(2)-10(8) cm(-3). The theoretical line ratios are significantly different in some instances from earlier calculations and resolve discrepancies between theory and observation found for the planetary nebulae IC 4997 and NGC 7027.

  5. DISCOVERY OF A HALO AROUND THE HELIX NEBULA NGC 7293 IN THE WISE ALL-SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Hsia, Chih-Hao; Kwok, Sun

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of an extended halo (∼40' in diameter) around the planetary nebula NGC 7293 (the Helix Nebula) observed in the 12 μm band from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer all-sky survey. The mid-infrared halo has an axisymmetric structure with a sharp boundary to the northeast and a more diffuse boundary to the southwest, suggesting an interaction between the stellar wind and the interstellar medium (ISM). The symmetry axis of the halo is well aligned with that of a northeast arc, suggesting that the two structures are physically associated. We have attempted to fit the observed geometry with a model of a moving steady-state stellar wind interacting with the ISM. Possible combinations of the ISM density and the stellar velocity are derived from these fittings. The discrepancies between the model and the observations suggest that the stellar mass loss has a more complicated history, including possible time and angle dependences.

  6. Turbulent Magnetic Relaxation in Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zrake, Jonathan [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Arons, Jonathan [Astronomy Department and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California, Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We present a model for magnetic energy dissipation in a pulsar wind nebula. A better understanding of this process is required to assess the likelihood that certain astrophysical transients may be powered by the spin-down of a “millisecond magnetar.” Examples include superluminous supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and anticipated electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave detections of binary neutron star coalescence. Our model leverages recent progress in the theory of turbulent magnetic relaxation to specify a dissipative closure of the stationary magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind equations, yielding predictions of the magnetic energy dissipation rate throughout the nebula. Synchrotron losses are self-consistently treated. To demonstrate the model’s efficacy, we show that it can reproduce many features of the Crab Nebula, including its expansion speed, radiative efficiency, peak photon energy, and mean magnetic field strength. Unlike ideal MHD models of the Crab (which lead to the so-called σ -problem), our model accounts for the transition from ultra to weakly magnetized plasma flow and for the associated heating of relativistic electrons. We discuss how the predicted heating rates may be utilized to improve upon models of particle transport and acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae. We also discuss implications for the Crab Nebula’s γ -ray flares, and point out potential modifications to models of astrophysical transients invoking the spin-down of a millisecond magnetar.

  7. Turbulent Magnetic Relaxation in Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrake, Jonathan; Arons, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    We present a model for magnetic energy dissipation in a pulsar wind nebula. A better understanding of this process is required to assess the likelihood that certain astrophysical transients may be powered by the spin-down of a “millisecond magnetar.” Examples include superluminous supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and anticipated electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave detections of binary neutron star coalescence. Our model leverages recent progress in the theory of turbulent magnetic relaxation to specify a dissipative closure of the stationary magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind equations, yielding predictions of the magnetic energy dissipation rate throughout the nebula. Synchrotron losses are self-consistently treated. To demonstrate the model’s efficacy, we show that it can reproduce many features of the Crab Nebula, including its expansion speed, radiative efficiency, peak photon energy, and mean magnetic field strength. Unlike ideal MHD models of the Crab (which lead to the so-called σ-problem), our model accounts for the transition from ultra to weakly magnetized plasma flow and for the associated heating of relativistic electrons. We discuss how the predicted heating rates may be utilized to improve upon models of particle transport and acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae. We also discuss implications for the Crab Nebula’s γ-ray flares, and point out potential modifications to models of astrophysical transients invoking the spin-down of a millisecond magnetar.

  8. Large proper motions in the Orion nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudworth, K.M.; Stone, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Several nebular features, as well as one faint star, with large proper motions were identified within the Orion nebula. The measured proper motions correspond to tangential velocities of up to approximately 70 km sec -1 . One new probable variable star was also found

  9. INTERNAL PROPER MOTIONS IN THE ESKIMO NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Díaz, Ma. T.; Gutiérrez, L.; Steffen, W.; López, J. A.; Beckman, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of internal proper motions at more than 500 positions of NGC 2392, the Eskimo Nebula, based on images acquired with WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope at two epochs separated by 7.695 yr. Comparisons of the two observations clearly show the expansion of the nebula. We measured the amplitude and direction of the motion of local structures in the nebula by determining their relative shift during that interval. In order to assess the potential uncertainties in the determination of proper motions in this object, in general, the measurements were performed using two different methods, used previously in the literature. We compare the results from the two methods, and to perform the scientific analysis of the results we choose one, the cross-correlation method, because it is more reliable. We go on to perform a ''criss-cross'' mapping analysis on the proper motion vectors, which helps in the interpretation of the velocity pattern. By combining our results of the proper motions with radial velocity measurements obtained from high resolution spectroscopic observations, and employing an existing 3D model, we estimate the distance to the nebula to be 1.3 kpc

  10. INTERNAL PROPER MOTIONS IN THE ESKIMO NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Díaz, Ma. T.; Gutiérrez, L.; Steffen, W.; López, J. A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km 103 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Beckman, J., E-mail: tere@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: leonel@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: wsteffen@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: jal@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: jeb@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-01-10

    We present measurements of internal proper motions at more than 500 positions of NGC 2392, the Eskimo Nebula, based on images acquired with WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope at two epochs separated by 7.695 yr. Comparisons of the two observations clearly show the expansion of the nebula. We measured the amplitude and direction of the motion of local structures in the nebula by determining their relative shift during that interval. In order to assess the potential uncertainties in the determination of proper motions in this object, in general, the measurements were performed using two different methods, used previously in the literature. We compare the results from the two methods, and to perform the scientific analysis of the results we choose one, the cross-correlation method, because it is more reliable. We go on to perform a ''criss-cross'' mapping analysis on the proper motion vectors, which helps in the interpretation of the velocity pattern. By combining our results of the proper motions with radial velocity measurements obtained from high resolution spectroscopic observations, and employing an existing 3D model, we estimate the distance to the nebula to be 1.3 kpc.

  11. A new bipolar nebula in Centaurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, G.; Glass, I.S.

    1979-01-01

    A new bipolar or butterfly-shaped nebula has been discovered and shown to have an infrared excess. The spectra of the central object and wings are of similar type, around G0. No emission lines are apparent. The infrared excess appears to be due to thermal emission from dust. (U.K.)

  12. THE EXTREMELY RED, YOUNG L DWARF PSO J318.5338–22.8603: A FREE-FLOATING PLANETARY-MASS ANALOG TO DIRECTLY IMAGED YOUNG GAS-GIANT PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Kotson, Michael C.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Deacon, Niall R. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Allers, Katelyn N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 (United States); Dupuy, Trent J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Draper, P. W.; Price, P. A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Metcalfe, N. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-10

    We have discovered using Pan-STARRS1 an extremely red late-L dwarf, which has (J – K){sub MKO} = 2.78 and (J – K){sub 2MASS} = 2.84, making it the reddest known field dwarf and second only to 2MASS J1207–39b among substellar companions. Near-IR spectroscopy shows a spectral type of L7 ± 1 and reveals a triangular H-band continuum and weak alkali (K I and Na I) lines, hallmarks of low surface gravity. Near-IR astrometry from the Hawaii Infrared Parallax Program gives a distance of 24.6 ± 1.4 pc and indicates a much fainter J-band absolute magnitude than field L dwarfs. The position and kinematics of PSO J318.5–22 point to membership in the β Pic moving group. Evolutionary models give a temperature of 1160{sup +30}{sub -40} K and a mass of 6.5{sup +1.3}{sub -1.0} M {sub Jup}, making PSO J318.5–22 one of the lowest mass free-floating objects in the solar neighborhood. This object adds to the growing list of low-gravity field L dwarfs and is the first to be strongly deficient in methane relative to its estimated temperature. Comparing their spectra suggests that young L dwarfs with similar ages and temperatures can have different spectral signatures of youth. For the two objects with well constrained ages (PSO J318.5–22 and 2MASS J0355+11), we find their temperatures are ≈400 K cooler than field objects of similar spectral type but their luminosities are similar, i.e., these young L dwarfs are very red and unusually cool but not 'underluminous'. Altogether, PSO J318.5–22 is the first free-floating object with the colors, magnitudes, spectrum, luminosity, and mass that overlap the young dusty planets around HR 8799 and 2MASS J1207–39.

  13. Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Planetary nomenclature, like terrestrial nomenclature, is used to uniquely identify a feature on the surface of a planet or satellite so that the feature can be...

  14. Gamma-rays and neutrinos from the pulsar wind nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarek, W.; Bartosik, M.

    2005-01-01

    We construct the time-dependent radiation model for the pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), assuming that leptons are accelerated in resonant scattering with heavy nuclei, which are injected into the nebula by the pulsar. The equilibrium spectra of these particles inside the nebula are calculated taking into account their radiation and adiabatic energy losses. The spectra of γ-rays produced by these particles are compared with the observations of the PWNe emitting TeV γ-rays and predictions are made for the expected γ-ray fluxes from other PWNe. Expected neutrino fluxes and neutrino event rates in a 1 km 2 neutrino detector from these nebulae are also calculated. It is concluded that only the Crab Nebula can produce a detectable neutrino event rate in the 1 km 2 neutrino detector. Other PWNe can emit TeV γ-rays on the level of a few percent of that observed from the Crab Nebula

  15. FACT. Energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temme, Fabian; Einecke, Sabrina; Buss, Jens [TU Dortmund, Experimental Physics 5, Otto-Hahn-Str.4, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope is the first Imaging Air Cherenkov Telescope which uses silicon photon detectors (G-APDs aka SiPM) as photo sensors. With more than four years of operation, FACT proved an application of SiPMs is suitable for the field of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy. Due to the stable flux at TeV energies, the Crab Nebula is handled as a ''standard candle'' in Cherenkov astronomy. The analysis of its energy spectrum and comparison with other experiments, allows to evaluate the performance of FACT. A modern analysis chain, based on data stream handling and multivariate analysis methods was developed in close cooperation with the department of computer science at the TU Dortmund. In this talk, this analysis chain and its application are presented. Further to this, results, including the energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula, measured with FACT, are shown.

  16. Planetary mass function and planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominik, M.

    2011-02-01

    With planets orbiting stars, a planetary mass function should not be seen as a low-mass extension of the stellar mass function, but a proper formalism needs to take care of the fact that the statistical properties of planet populations are linked to the properties of their respective host stars. This can be accounted for by describing planet populations by means of a differential planetary mass-radius-orbit function, which together with the fraction of stars with given properties that are orbited by planets and the stellar mass function allows the derivation of all statistics for any considered sample. These fundamental functions provide a framework for comparing statistics that result from different observing techniques and campaigns which all have their very specific selection procedures and detection efficiencies. Moreover, recent results both from gravitational microlensing campaigns and radial-velocity surveys of stars indicate that planets tend to cluster in systems rather than being the lonely child of their respective parent star. While planetary multiplicity in an observed system becomes obvious with the detection of several planets, its quantitative assessment however comes with the challenge to exclude the presence of further planets. Current exoplanet samples begin to give us first hints at the population statistics, whereas pictures of planet parameter space in its full complexity call for samples that are 2-4 orders of magnitude larger. In order to derive meaningful statistics, however, planet detection campaigns need to be designed in such a way that well-defined fully deterministic target selection, monitoring and detection criteria are applied. The probabilistic nature of gravitational microlensing makes this technique an illustrative example of all the encountered challenges and uncertainties.

  17. Nebulae at keratoconus--the result after excimer laser removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerholm, P; Fitzsimmons, T; Ohman, L; Orndahl, M

    1993-12-01

    Ten patients underwent excimer laser ablation due to nebula formation at keratoconus. The nebulae interfered significantly with contact lens fit or wearing time. The mean follow-up time in these patients was 16.5 months. Following surgery all patients could be successfully fitted with a contact lens and thereby obtain good visual acuity. Furthermore, contact lens wearing time was 8 hours or more in all cases. In 2 patients the nebulae recurred but were successfully retreated.

  18. Nebula observations. Catalogues and archive of photoplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyapnikov, A. A.; Smirnova, M. A.; Elizarova, N. V.

    2017-12-01

    A process of data systematization based on "Academician G.A. Shajn's Plan" for studying the Galaxy structure related to nebula observations is considered. The creation of digital versions of catalogues of observations and publications is described, as well as their presentation in HTML, VOTable and AJS formats and basic principles of work in the interactive application of International Virtual Observatory the Aladin Sky Atlas.

  19. Multiband observations of the Crab Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krassilchtchikov, A M; Bykov, A M; Castelletti, G M; Dubner, G M; Kargaltsev, O Yu; Pavlov, G G

    2017-01-01

    Results of simultaneous imaging of the Crab Nebula in the radio (JVLA), optical ( HST ), and X-ray ( Chandra ) bands are presented. The images show a variety of small-scale structures, including wisps mainly located to the north-west of the pulsar and knots forming a ring-like structure associated with the termination shock of the pulsar wind. The locations of the structures in different bands do not coincide with each other. (paper)

  20. Environmental impact study of Orion Nebula dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardelli, J.A.; Clayton, G.C.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, new high-quality extinction curves are presented for Theta-1 Ori A, C, and D, and Theta-2 Ori A and B, over the wavelength range 3300-6000 A. These are coupled with near-infrared and ultraviolet data to produce extinction curves from 0.12 to 3.5 microns. The Orion Nebula region is interesting in that most of the known processes of dust-grain growth, processing, and destruction may be operating nearly simultaneously in close proximity to one another. Each of these processes is considered with respect to the observed extinction curves and environmental conditions in the Orion Nebula and its associated molecular cloud. Plausible grain populations are fit to the observed extinction curves. A good fit to the average Theta Ori extinction curve can be obtained with: (1) a combination of larger than normal silicate grains produced through coagulation and accretion; (2) evaporation of volatile mantles; and (3) a reduction in the column density of small (smaller than 0.01 micron) grains responsible for the bump and far-ultraviolet extinction through differential acceleration due to radiation pressure and possible evaporation. It seems plausible to explain the observed peculiar extinction in the Orion Nebula simply by environmental effects on otherwise normal grains. 59 references

  1. Where does the huge orbital a.m. of solar and exoplanets come from? Evidence in both arenas that they get it during during nebula-borne construction, the property of new insight on the physics of gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmaston, M. F.

    2013-09-01

    The present solar planetary system is replete with dynamical constraints on how it was built, and further constraint is provided by accumulating exoplanet observations. In this regard, the most securely determined and far-reaching dynamical constraint of all - the high orbital angular momenta of the planets, relative to solar rotation - has been recognized for nearly a century [1-5], but has proven to be the very elusive to explain within the currently prevailing variants of the Kant-Laplace solar nebula paradigm. One of the most recent, the 'Nice' model, see [6], lacks systematic treatment of the prograde directions of planetary spins and satellite orbits. My purpose here is to underline the significance of these and other failures by working through the various planetary system features at issue, and then to outline a possible way ahead. The mean specific orbital angular momentum (a.m.) of the solar planetary materials is ~1.3x105 times the rotational a.m. of solar material. Individual planetary a.m. arises from the prevailing Keplerian velocity pattern; the question is how they got there. Sparse exoplanet data on central-body rotation show no sign that the star's rotation is anywhere near fast enough to remove this huge disparity of a.m. So we seek to resolve this problem by recognizing that nebular action during planet formation was the only agent available for such 'partition' of a.m. Such action, by whatever means, requires completion of planetary growth within the period of nebular presence, so that their growth materials also be equipped with the appropriate a.m. This limitation accords with two constraints from meteorites:- accretion onto asteroids continued until ~4563Ma (but no later), and relationships between very shortlife isotopes require that they were imported very soon (1Ma?) after their production in a stellar explosion [7]. So the >50Ma timescales of the Nice model, to provide for orbit migration in the presence of much other material, seem to

  2. Interstellar and Solar Nebula Materials in Cometary Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Scott; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Keller, Lindsay; Nguyen, Ann; Clemett, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory studies of cometary dust collected in the stratosphere and returned from comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Stardust spacecraft have revealed ancient interstellar grains and molecular cloud organic matter that record a range of astrophysical processes and the first steps of planetary formation. Presolar materials are rarer meteorites owing to high temperature processing in the solar nebula and hydrothermal alteration on their asteroidal parent bodies. The greater preservation of presolar materials in comets is attributed to their low accretion temperatures and limited planetary processing. Yet, comets also contain a large complement of high temperature materials from the inner Solar System. Owing to the limited and biased sampling of comets to date, the proportions of interstellar and Solar System materials within them remains highly uncertain. Interstellar materials are identified by coordinated isotopic, mineralogical, and chemical measurements at the scale of individual grains. Chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) that likely derive from comets are made up of 0.1 - 10 micron-sized silicates, Fe-Ni-sulfides, oxides, and other phases bound by organic material. As much as 1% of the silicates are interstellar grains that have exotic isotopic compositions imparted by nucleosynthetic processes in their parent stars. Crystalline silicates in CP IDPs dominantly have normal isotopic compositions and probably formed in the Solar System. 81P samples include isotopically normal refractory minerals that resemble Ca-Al rich inclusions and chondrules common in meteorites. The origins of sub-micron amorphous silicates in IDPs are not certain, but at least a few % of them are interstellar grains. The remainder have isotopic compositions consistent with Solar System origins and elemental compositions that are inconsistent with interstellar grain properties, thus favoring formation in the solar nebula [4]. The organic component in comets and primitive

  3. A SPITZER CENSUS OF STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN THE PIPE NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbrich, Jan; Lada, Charles J.; Muench, August A.; Alves, Joao; Lombardi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The Pipe Nebula, a large nearby molecular cloud, lacks obvious signposts of star formation in all but one of more than 130 dust extinction cores that have been identified within it. In order to quantitatively determine the current level of star formation activity in the Pipe Nebula, we analyzed 13 deg 2 of sensitive mid-infrared maps of the entire cloud, obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer at wavelengths of 24 μm and 70 μm, to search for candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in the high-extinction regions. We argue that our search is complete for class I and typical class II YSOs with luminosities of L bol ∼ 0.2 L sun and greater. We find only 18 candidate YSOs in the high-extinction regions of the entire Pipe cloud. Twelve of these sources are previously known members of a small cluster associated with Barnard 59, the largest and most massive dense core in the cloud. With only six candidate class I and class II YSOs detected toward extinction cores outside of this cluster, our findings emphatically confirm the notion of an extremely low level of star formation activity in the Pipe Nebula. The resulting star formation efficiency for the entire cloud mass is only ∼0.06%.

  4. A PROTOSOLAR NEBULA ORIGIN FOR THE ICES AGGLOMERATED BY COMET 67P/CHURYUMOV–GERASIMENKO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousis, O.; Vernazza, P. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Lunine, J. I. [Center For Radiophysics And Space Research, Space Sciences Building Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Luspay-Kuti, A.; Hässig, M.; Waite, J. H. [Department of Space Research, Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Guillot, T. [Laboratoire J.-L. Lagrange, Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice (France); Marty, B. [CRPG-CNRS, Nancy-Université, 15 rue Notre Dame des Pauvres, F-54501 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Ali-Dib, M. [Université de Franche-Comté, Institut UTINAM, CNRS/INSU, UMR 6213, Besançon Cedex (France); Wurz, P.; Altwegg, K.; Bieler, A.; Rubin, M., E-mail: olivier.mousis@lam.fr [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-03-10

    The nature of the icy material accreted by comets during their formation in the outer regions of the protosolar nebula (PSN) is a major open question in planetary science. Some scenarios of comet formation predict that these bodies agglomerated from crystalline ices condensed in the PSN. Concurrently, alternative scenarios suggest that comets accreted amorphous ice originating from the interstellar cloud or from the very distant regions of the PSN. On the basis of existing laboratory and modeling data, we find that the N{sub 2}/CO and Ar/CO ratios measured in the coma of the Jupiter-family comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko by the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis instrument on board the European Space Agency’s Rosetta spacecraft match those predicted for gases trapped in clathrates. If these measurements are representative of the bulk N{sub 2}/CO and Ar/CO ratios in 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, it implies that the ices accreted by the comet formed in the nebula and do not originate from the interstellar medium, supporting the idea that the building blocks of outer solar system bodies have been formed from clathrates and possibly from pure crystalline ices. Moreover, because 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko is impoverished in Ar and N{sub 2}, the volatile enrichments observed in Jupiter’s atmosphere cannot be explained solely via the accretion of building blocks with similar compositions and require an additional delivery source. A potential source may be the accretion of gas from the nebula that has been progressively enriched in heavy elements due to photoevaporation.

  5. Oxygen isotope variations at the margin of a CAI records circulation within the solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Justin I; Hutcheon, Ian D; Simon, Steven B; Matzel, Jennifer E P; Ramon, Erick C; Weber, Peter K; Grossman, Lawrence; DePaolo, Donald J

    2011-03-04

    Micrometer-scale analyses of a calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) and the characteristic mineral bands mantling the CAI reveal that the outer parts of this primitive object have a large range of oxygen isotope compositions. The variations are systematic; the relative abundance of (16)O first decreases toward the CAI margin, approaching a planetary-like isotopic composition, then shifts to extremely (16)O-rich compositions through the surrounding rim. The variability implies that CAIs probably formed from several oxygen reservoirs. The observations support early and short-lived fluctuations of the environment in which CAIs formed, either because of transport of the CAIs themselves to distinct regions of the solar nebula or because of varying gas composition near the proto-Sun.

  6. A virtual observatory for photoionized nebulae: the Mexican Million Models database (3MdB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, C.; Delgado-Inglada, G.; Flores-Fajardo, N.

    2015-04-01

    Photoionization models obtained with numerical codes are widely used to study the physics of the interstellar medium (planetary nebulae, HII regions, etc). Grids of models are performed to understand the effects of the different parameters used to describe the regions on the observables (mainly emission line intensities). Most of the time, only a small part of the computed results of such grids are published, and they are sometimes hard to obtain in a user-friendly format. We present here the Mexican Million Models dataBase (3MdB), an effort to resolve both of these issues in the form of a database of photoionization models, easily accessible through the MySQL protocol, and containing a lot of useful outputs from the models, such as the intensities of 178 emission lines, the ionic fractions of all the ions, etc. Some examples of the use of the 3MdB are also presented.

  7. Iron 60 Evidence for Early Injection and Efficient Mixing of Stellar Debris in the Protosolar Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauphas, N.; Sacarabany, A.; Davis, A. M.; Pourmand, A.; Cook, D. L.; Froehlich, C.; Wadhwa, M.; Rauscher, T.; Gallino, R.

    2008-01-01

    Among extinct radioactivities present in meteorites, 60 Fe (t 1/2 = 1.49 Myr) plays a key role as a high-resolution chronometer, a heat source in planetesimals, and a fingerprint of the astrophysical setting of solar system formation. A critical issue with 60 Fe is that it could have been heterogeneously distributed in the protoplanetary disk, calling into question the efficiency of mixing in the solar nebula or the timing of 60 Fe injection relative to planetesimal formation. If this were the case, one would expect meteorites that did not incorporate 60 Fe (either because of late injection or incomplete mixing) to show 60 Ni deficits (from lack of 60 Fe decay) and collateral effects on other neutron-rich isotopes of Fe and Ni (coproduced with 60 Fe in core-collapse supernovae and AGB stars). Here, we show that measured iron meteorites and chondrites have Fe and Ni isotopic compositions identical to Earth. This demonstrates that 60 Fe must have been injected into the protosolar nebula and mixed to less than 10% heterogeneity before formation of planetary bodies.

  8. Forming H-shaped and barrel-shaped nebulae with interacting jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Muhammad; Bear, Ealeal; Soker, Noam

    2018-04-01

    We conduct three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of two opposite jets with large opening angles launched from a binary stellar system into a previously ejected shell and show that the interaction can form barrel-like and H-like shapes in the descendant nebula. Such features are observed in planetary nebulae (PNe) and supernova remnants. Under our assumption, the dense shell is formed by a short instability phase of the giant star as it interacts with a stellar companion, and the jets are then launched by the companion as it accretes mass through an accretion disc from the giant star. We find that the H-shaped and barrel-shaped morphological features that the jets form evolve with time, and that there are complicated flow patterns, such as vortices, instabilities, and caps moving ahead along the symmetry axis. We compare our numerical results with images of 12 PNe, and show that jet-shell interaction that we simulate can account for the barrel-like or H-like morphologies that are observed in these PNe.

  9. Nebular dust and extinction in ionized nebulae i.. the Balmer decrement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Many astronomical objects contain plasma with internal or surrounding dust. The extinction of H II regions can be determined from the H#betta#/Hα flux ratio, and also from the H#betta#/radio fluxes. The two determinations almost always disagree by large factors (typically, approx.3), with the (H#betta#/Hα) extinction being smaller. This is shown to be a consequence of the albedo of dust at Hα being smaller than that of H#betta#, so that the destruction of Hα by dust is larger than for constant albedo. If the difference in albedo is ignored, one interprets the lower Hα flux as being caused by a small optical depth in dust. Simple models for the geometry of the dust and emitting gas are discussed: spherical models with dust mixed with the ionized gas, and also a slab of absorbing dust overlying the nebula. The two geometries give similar results for the Balmer decrements, so geometry does not strongly enter the final results. The conclusion that albedo (Hα) 8000 A). Recommendations for dereddening emission-line objects are presented and should be applicable to planetary nebulae, active galactic nuclei, or quasi-stellar objects as well as to H II regions

  10. The planetary scientist's companion

    CERN Document Server

    Lodders, Katharina

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive and practical book of facts and data about the Sun, planets, asteroids, comets, meteorites, the Kuiper belt and Centaur objects in our solar system. Also covered are properties of nearby stars, the interstellar medium, and extra-solar planetary systems.

  11. Planets around pulsars - Implications for planetary formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenheimer, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Data on planets around pulsars are summarized, and different models intended to explain the formation mechanism are described. Both theoretical and observational evidence suggest that very special circumstances are required for the formation of planetary systems around pulsars, namely, the prior presence of a millisecond pulsar with a close binary companion, probably a low mass main-sequence star. It is concluded that the discovery of two planets around PSR 1257+12 is important for better understanding the problems of dynamics and stellar evolution. The process of planetary formation should be learned through intensive studies of the properties of disks near young objects and application of techniques for detection of planets around main-sequence solar-type stars.

  12. An x-ray nebula associated with the millisecond pulsar B1957+20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappers, B W; Gaensler, B M; Kaspi, V M; van der Klis, M; Lewin, W H G

    2003-02-28

    We have detected an x-ray nebula around the binary millisecond pulsar B1957+20. A narrow tail, corresponding to the shocked pulsar wind, is seen interior to the known Halpha bow shock and proves the long-held assumption that the rotational energy of millisecond pulsars is dissipated through relativistic winds. Unresolved x-ray emission likely represents the shock where the winds of the pulsar and its companion collide. This emission indicates that the efficiency with which relativistic particles are accelerated in the postshock flow is similar to that for young pulsars, despite the shock proximity and much weaker surface magnetic field of this millisecond pulsar.

  13. Outward transport of high-temperature materials around the midplane of the solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, Fred J

    2007-10-26

    The Stardust samples collected from Comet 81P/Wild 2 indicate that large-scale mixing occurred in the solar nebula, carrying materials from the hot inner regions to cooler environments far from the Sun. Similar transport has been inferred from telescopic observations of protoplanetary disks around young stars. Models for protoplanetary disks, however, have difficulty explaining the observed levels of transport. Here I report the results of a new two-dimensional model that shows that outward transport of high-temperature materials in protoplanetary disks is a natural outcome of disk formation and evolution. This outward transport occurs around the midplane of the disk.

  14. Hitomi X-ray Observation of the Pulsar Wind Nebula G21.5$-$0.9

    OpenAIRE

    Hitomi Collaboration; Aharonian, Felix; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Akimoto, Fumie; Allen, Steven W.; Angelini, Lorella; Audard, Marc; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Axelsson, Magnus; Bamba, Aya; Bautz, Marshall W.; Blandford, Roger; Brenneman, Laura W.; Brown, Gregory V.; Bulbul, Esra

    2018-01-01

    We present results from the Hitomi X-ray observation of a young composite-type supernova remnant (SNR) G21.5$-$0.9, whose emission is dominated by the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) contribution. The X-ray spectra in the 0.8-80 keV range obtained with the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS), Soft X-ray Imager (SXI) and Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) show a significant break in the continuum as previously found with the NuSTAR observation. After taking into account all known emissions from the SNR other than the...

  15. Starlight excitation of permitted lines in the Orion Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandi, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    From an idealized model of the Orion Nebula and from an analysis of line ratios it is shown that direct starlight excitation of the permitted O I line dominates over recombination and Lyman line fluorescence. The line strengths predicted by this mechanism agree reasonably well with those observed in the Orion Nebula. The application of direct starlight excitation to other ions is also discussed

  16. PLANETARY CONSTRUCTION ZONES IN OCCULTATION: DISCOVERY OF AN EXTRASOLAR RING SYSTEM TRANSITING A YOUNG SUN-LIKE STAR AND FUTURE PROSPECTS FOR DETECTING ECLIPSES BY CIRCUMSECONDARY AND CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamajek, Eric E.; Quillen, Alice C.; Pecaut, Mark J.; Moolekamp, Fred; Scott, Erin L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States); Kenworthy, Matthew A. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Cameron, Andrew Collier; Parley, Neil R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    The large relative sizes of circumstellar and circumplanetary disks imply that they might be seen in eclipse in stellar light curves. We estimate that a survey of {approx}10{sup 4} young ({approx}10 million year old) post-accretion pre-main-sequence stars monitored for {approx}10 years should yield at least a few deep eclipses from circumplanetary disks and disks surrounding low-mass companion stars. We present photometric and spectroscopic data for a pre-main-sequence K5 star (1SWASP J140747.93-394542.6 = ASAS J140748-3945.7), a newly discovered {approx}0.9 M{sub Sun} member of the {approx}16 Myr old Upper Centaurus-Lupus subgroup of Sco-Cen at a kinematic distance of 128 {+-} 13 pc. This star exhibited a remarkably long, deep, and complex eclipse event centered on 2007 April 29 (as discovered in Super Wide Angle Search for Planets (SuperWASP) photometry, and with portions of the dimming confirmed by All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) data). At least five multi-day dimming events of >0.5 mag are identified, with a >3.3 mag deep eclipse bracketed by two pairs of {approx}1 mag eclipses symmetrically occurring {+-}12 days and {+-}26 days before and after. Hence, significant dimming of the star was taking place on and off over at least a {approx}54 day period in 2007, and a strong >1 mag dimming event occurring over a {approx}12 day span. We place a firm lower limit on the period of 850 days (i.e., the orbital radius of the eclipser must be >1.7 AU and orbital velocity must be <22 km s{sup -1}). The shape of the light curve is similar to the lopsided eclipses of the Be star EE Cep. We suspect that this new star is being eclipsed by a low-mass object orbited by a dense inner disk, further girded by at least three dusty rings of optical depths near unity. Between these rings are at least two annuli of near-zero optical depth (i.e., gaps), possibly cleared out by planets or moons, depending on the nature of the secondary. For possible periods in the range 2.33-200 yr, the

  17. The Search for Binaries in Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars: Do Binary Companions Shape the Nebulae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce J. Hrivnak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Binary companions are often invoked to explain the axial and point symmetry seen in the majority of planetary nebulae and proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs. To explore this hypothesis, we have undertaken a long-term (20 year study of light and velocity variations in PPNs. From the photometric study of 24 PPNs, we find that all vary in brightness, and from a subset of 12 carbon-rich PPNs of F-G spectral type we find periods of 35-155 days, with the cooler having the longer periods. The variations are seen to be due to pulsation; no photometric evidence for binarity is seen. A radial velocity study of a sub-sample of seven of the brightest of these shows that they all vary with the pulsation periods. Only one shows evidence of a longer-term variation that we tentatively identify as being due to a binary companion. We conclude that the present evidence for the binary nature of these PPNs is meager and that any undetected companions of these PPNs must be of low mass ( 30 years.

  18. Evidence for Reduced, Carbon-rich Regions in the Solar Nebula from an Unusual Cometary Dust Particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Gregorio, Bradley T.; Stroud, Rhonda M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 6366, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Nittler, Larry R. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Kilcoyne, A. L. David, E-mail: bradley.degregorio@nrl.navy.mil [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 7R0222, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    Geochemical indicators in meteorites imply that most formed under relatively oxidizing conditions. However, some planetary materials, such as the enstatite chondrites, aubrite achondrites, and Mercury, were produced in reduced nebular environments. Because of large-scale radial nebular mixing, comets and other Kuiper Belt objects likely contain some primitive material related to these reduced planetary bodies. Here, we describe an unusual assemblage in a dust particle from comet 81P/Wild 2 captured in silica aerogel by the NASA Stardust spacecraft. The bulk of this ∼20 μ m particle is comprised of an aggregate of nanoparticulate Cr-rich magnetite, containing opaque sub-domains composed of poorly graphitized carbon (PGC). The PGC forms conformal shells around tiny 5–15 nm core grains of Fe carbide. The C, N, and O isotopic compositions of these components are identical within errors to terrestrial standards, indicating a formation inside the solar system. Magnetite compositions are consistent with oxidation of reduced metal, similar to that seen in enstatite chondrites. Similarly, the core–shell structure of the carbide + PGC inclusions suggests a formation via FTT reactions on the surface of metal or carbide grains in warm, reduced regions of the solar nebula. Together, the nanoscale assemblage in the cometary particle is most consistent with the alteration of primary solids condensed from a C-rich, reduced nebular gas. The nanoparticulate components in the cometary particle provide the first direct evidence from comets of reduced, carbon-rich regions that were present in the solar nebula.

  19. Aerodynamics of solid bodies in the solar nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenschilling, S J [Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. (USA). Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism

    1977-07-01

    On a centrally condensed solar nebula, the pressure gradient in the gas causes the nebula to rotate more slowly than the free orbital velocity. Drag forces cause the orbits of solid bodies to decay. Their motions have been investigated analytically and numerically for all applicable drag laws. The maximum radial velocity developed is independent of the drag law, and insensitive to the nebular mass. Results are presented for a variety of model nebulae. Radial velocities depend strongly on particle size, reaching values of the order of 10/sup 4/ cm/s for metre-sized objects. Possible consequences include: mixing of solid matter with the solar nebula on short timescales, collisions leading to rapid accumulation of planetesimals, fractionation of bodies by size or density, and production of regions of anomalous composition in the solar nebula.

  20. A large bubble around the Crab Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Roger W.; Reach, William T.; Koo, Bon Chul; Heiles, Carl

    1990-01-01

    IRAS and 21 cm observations of the interstellar medium around the Crab nebula show evidence of a large bubble surrounded by a partial shell. If located at the canonical 2 kpc distance of the Crab pulsar, the shell is estimated to have a radius of about 90 pc and to contain about 50,000 solar masses of swept-up gas. The way in which interior conditions of this bubble can have important implications for observations of the Crab are described, and the fashion in which presupernova evolution of the pulsar progenitor has affected its local environment is described.

  1. ELEMENT MASSES IN THE CRAB NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibley, Adam R.; Katz, Andrea M.; Satterfield, Timothy J.; Vanderveer, Steven J.; MacAlpine, Gordon M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Trinity University, San Antonio, TX 78212 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Using our previously published element abundance or mass-fraction distributions in the Crab Nebula, we derived actual mass distributions and estimates for overall nebular masses of hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur. As with the previous work, computations were carried out for photoionization models involving constant hydrogen density and also constant nuclear density. In addition, employing new flux measurements for [Ni ii]  λ 7378, along with combined photoionization models and analytic computations, a nickel abundance distribution was mapped and a nebular stable nickel mass estimate was derived.

  2. Orion infrared nebula/molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuckerman, B.; Palmer, P.

    1975-01-01

    Observational and theoretical studies of the Orion Nebula and the associated molecular clouds have greatly increased our understanding of this and other regions in which star formation is taking place. Fundamental questions remain unanswered; and in this Letter we address three of them: (1) the chemical composition of the molecular cloud, (2) its internal motions, and (3) the role of magnetic fields in its evolution. We show that the gas phase chemistry and internal motions in one part of the cloud are distinctly different from those in the rest of the cloud, and two recent estimates of the magnetic field strengths are very uncertain. (auth)

  3. Annual review of earth and planetary sciences. Volume 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.; Albee, A.L.; Stehli, F.G.

    1988-01-01

    Various papers on earth and planetary science topics are presented. The subjects addressed include: role and status of earth science field work; phase relations of prealuminous granitic rocks and their petrogenetic implications; chondritic meteorites and the solar nebula; volcanic winters; mass wasting on continental margins; earthquake ground motions; ore deposits as guides to geologic history of the earth; geology of high-level nuclear waste disposal; and tectonic evolution of the Caribbean. Also discussed are: the earth's rotation; the geophysics of a restless caldera (Long Valley, California); observations of cometary nuclei; geology of Venus; seismic stratigraphy; in situ-produced cosmogenic isotopes in terrestrial rocks; time variations of the earth's magnetic field; deep slabs, geochemical heterogeneity, and the large-scale structure of mantle convection; early proterozoic assembly and growth of Laurentia; concepts and methods of high-resolution event stratigraphy

  4. BD-22deg3467, a DAO-type Star Exciting the Nebula Abell 35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, M.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Koppen, J.; Kruk, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    to the white dwarf state. This would explain why it is not surrounded by a planetary nebula. However, the star, ionizes the ambient interstellar matter, mimicking a planetary nebula.

  5. The signatures of the parental cluster on field planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Maxwell Xu; Portegies Zwart, Simon; van Elteren, Arjen

    2018-03-01

    Due to the high stellar densities in young clusters, planetary systems formed in these environments are likely to have experienced perturbations from encounters with other stars. We carry out direct N-body simulations of multiplanet systems in star clusters to study the combined effects of stellar encounters and internal planetary dynamics. These planetary systems eventually become part of the Galactic field population as the parental cluster dissolves, which is where most presently known exoplanets are observed. We show that perturbations induced by stellar encounters lead to distinct signatures in the field planetary systems, most prominently, the excited orbital inclinations and eccentricities. Planetary systems that form within the cluster's half-mass radius are more prone to such perturbations. The orbital elements are most strongly excited in the outermost orbit, but the effect propagates to the entire planetary system through secular evolution. Planet ejections may occur long after a stellar encounter. The surviving planets in these reduced systems tend to have, on average, higher inclinations and larger eccentricities compared to systems that were perturbed less strongly. As soon as the parental star cluster dissolves, external perturbations stop affecting the escaped planetary systems, and further evolution proceeds on a relaxation time-scale. The outer regions of these ejected planetary systems tend to relax so slowly that their state carries the memory of their last strong encounter in the star cluster. Regardless of the stellar density, we observe a robust anticorrelation between multiplicity and mean inclination/eccentricity. We speculate that the `Kepler dichotomy' observed in field planetary systems is a natural consequence of their early evolution in the parental cluster.

  6. The Temperature and Density from Permitted O II Lines in the Planetary Nebula NGC 7009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, M. G., Guillén Tavera, J. E., Arrieta, A., Torres-Peimbert, S.

    2017-11-01

    We present spatially- and velocity-resolved spectroscopy of NGC 7009 acquired with the UVES spectrograph at the VLT UT2/Kueyen. We use these data to determine the electron temperature and density structure based upon O II lines. We find a strong gradient in the electron temperature. It agrees with the electron temperature determined from collisionally-excited lines in part of the nebular volume, but also differs by more than 6,000 K in other parts of the nebular volume. This result supports the hypothesis that NGC 7009 contains two plasma components, one of which emits collisionally-excited lines and the other that does not. We are able to determine only a lower limit to the electron density of 10^4 cm^{-3} from the O II lines, which is higher than derived from collisionally-excited lines. We are unable to determine whether the two plasma components are in pressure equilibrium from our data, but there exist temperature and density combinations that allow this equilibrium for temperatures between 600 K and 6,000 K.

  7. Automatic Derivation of Statistical Data Analysis Algorithms: Planetary Nebulae and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Bernd; Knuth, Kevin; Hajian, Arsen; Schumann, Johann

    2004-01-01

    AUTOBAYES is a fully automatic program synthesis system for the data analysis domain. Its input is a declarative problem description in form of a statistical model; its output is documented and optimized C/C++ code. The synthesis process relies on the combination of three key techniques. Bayesian networks are used as a compact internal representation mechanism which enables problem decompositions and guides the algorithm derivation. Program schemas are used as independently composable buildin...

  8. The UV (IUE) spectrum of the planetary nebula PC 11 (HD 149427)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parthasarathy, M; Garcia-Lario, P; Pottasch, [No Value; de Martino, D; Surendiranath, R

    The UV spectrum of PC 11 is found to show variations in the strength of the O III] 1666 Angstrom, N III] 1750 Angstrom and C III] 1909 Angstrom emission lines. The detection of continuum emission in the wavelength interval 2650 Angstrom to 3200 Angstrom indicates that the central star of PC 11 has

  9. The ISO spectrum of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 - II. Nebular abundances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Beintema, DA

    The ISO spectrum of NGC 6302 is used, in conjunction with the visible and ultraviolet spectrum, to determine the nebular composition. In addition to being considerably more accurate than previous determinations, the abundances of many more elements (and ions) can be found. A discussion of the

  10. Infrared Imaging and Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy of (mostly) type I Planetary Nebulae II

    OpenAIRE

    J. Bohigas

    2003-01-01

    Se presentan datos espectroscópicos, imágenes en las principales líneas ópticas de emisión e imágenes infrarrojas para descubrir la presencia de hidrógeno molecular, de 14 nebulosas planetarias (NPs). Once de estas satisfacen los dos criterios que definen a las NPs de tipo I (ricas en helio con un alto cociente N/O). Todas son clasificadas como bipolares, aunque dos de ellas (A 24 y M3-5) pudieran ser bipolares vistas de frente o elípticas. Hidrógeno molecular chocado está pres...

  11. Ultraviolet spectrum of the planetary nebulae NGC 7662 observations and models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, M; Torres-Peimbert, S [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia

    1981-01-01

    We present IUE observations of emission lines in the spectrum of NGC 7662 in the 1150-3300 A range. Combining these observations with optical data obtained by other authors, we derive the chemical composition for this object. We obtain log C = -3.07, log N = -3.73, log O = -3.09 and log Ne = -3.70. We compute models of ionization structure and thermal balance to compare with the observed data.

  12. Spectral analysis of the binary nucleus of the planetary nebula Hen 2-428 - first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Nicolle L.; Reindl, Nicole; Barstow, Martin A.; Casewell, Sarah L.; Geier, Stephan; Bertolami, Marcelo M. Miller; Taubenberger, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    Identifying progenitor systems for the double-degenerate scenario is crucial to check the reliability of type Ia supernovae as cosmological standard candles. Santander-Garcia et al. (2015) claimed that Hen 2-428 has a doubledegenerate core whose combined mass significantly exceeds the Chandrasekhar limit. Together with the short orbital period (4.2 hours), the authors concluded that the system should merge within a Hubble time triggering a type Ia supernova event. Garcia-Berro et al. (2016) explored alternative scenarios to explain the observational evidence, as the high mass conclusion is highly unlikely within predictions from stellar evolution theory. They conclude that the evidence supporting the supernova progenitor status of the system is premature. Here we present the first quantitative spectral analysis of Hen 2-428which allows us to derive the effective temperatures, surface gravities and helium abundance of the two CSPNe based on state-of-the-art, non-LTE model atmospheres. These results provide constrains for further studies of this particularly interesting system.

  13. A HST/WFC3 Search for Substellar Companions in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strampelli, Giovanni Maria; Aguilar, Jonathan; Aparicio, Antonio; Piotto, Giampaolo; Pueyo, Laurent; Robberto, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    We present new results relative to the population of substellar binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster. We reprocessed HST/WFC3 data using an analysis technique developed to detect close companions in the wings of the stellar PSFs, based on the PyKLIP implementation of the KLIP PSF subtraction algorithm. Starting from a sample of ~1200 stars selected over the range J=11-15 mag, we were able to uncover ~80 candidate companions in the magnitude range J=16-23 mag. We use the presence of the 1.4 micron H2O absorption feature in the companion photosphere to discriminate 32 bona-fide substellar candidates from a population of reddened background objects. We derive an estimate of the companion mass assuming a 2Myr isochrone and the reddening of their primary. With 8 stellar companions, 19 brown dwarfs and 5 planetary mass objects, our study provide us with an unbiased sample of companions at the low-mass end of the IMF, probing the transition from binary to planetary systems.

  14. X-ray Emission from the Guitar Nebula

    OpenAIRE

    Romani, Roger W.; Cordes, James M.; Yadigaroglu, I. -A.

    1997-01-01

    We have detected weak soft X-ray emission from the Pulsar Wind Nebula trailing the high velocity star PSR 2224+65 (the `Guitar Nebula'). This X-ray flux gives evidence of \\gamma~10^7 eV particles in the pulsar wind and constrains the properties of the post-shock flow. The X-ray emission is most easily understood if the shocked pulsar wind is partly confined in the nebula and if magnetic fields in this zone can grow to near equipartition values.

  15. X-Ray Emission from the Guitar Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Roger W.; Cordes, James M.; Yadigaroglu, I.-A.

    1997-01-01

    We have detected weak soft X-ray emission from the pulsar wind nebula trailing the high-velocity star PSR 2224+65 (the "Guitar Nebula"). This X-ray flux gives evidence of gamma approximately 10(exp 7) eV particles in the pulsar wind and constrains the properties of the postshock flow. The X-ray emission is most easily understood if the shocked pulsar wind is partly confined in the nebula and if magnetic fields in this zone can grow to near-equipartition values.

  16. An investigation of the Carina Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kate J.

    2000-10-01

    It is well known that the radiation fields and stellar winds of massive stars can drastically affect the physical conditions, structure and chemistry of the giant molecular cloud (GMC) from which they formed. It is also thought that massive stars are at least partly responsible for triggering further star formation within a GMC. The details of this interaction, however, are not well understood and additional detailed study of massive star-forming regions is needed. This study has focused on a multi-wavelength investigation of the Carina Nebula. This is a spectacular massive star-forming region that contains two of the most massive star clusters in our galaxy, Trumpler 14 and Trumpler 16, and one of the most massive stars known -- η Car. The goal of this study has been to obtain information on the molecular gas, ionized gas and photodissociation regions (PDRs) from a collection of instruments which have the highest angular resolution and sensitivity available to date. The Mopra Telescope and the Swedish-ESO Submillimeter Telescope (SEST) were used to obtain a series of molecular line observations of the GMC between 150 and 230 GHz. Observations of H110α recombination-line emission at 4.874 GHz and the related continuum emission were obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array and used to study the ionized gas associated with the two HII regions, Car I and Car II. H2 1--0 S(1) (2.12 microns) and Brγ (2.16 microns) observations using the University of New South Wales Infrared Fabry-Perot (UNSWIRF) and 3.29 micron narrow-band observations obtained with the SPIREX/Abu thermal infrared camera were used to study the PDRs on the surface of molecular clumps in the Keyhole region, a dark optical feature in the vicinity of η Car. The results of these observations provide detailed information on the excitation conditions, kinematics and morphology of regions within the HII region/molecular cloud complex of the Carina Nebula. In addition, the results confirm that

  17. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  18. Topics in planetary plasmaspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.K.

    1977-01-01

    Contributions to the understanding of two distinct kinds of planetary plasmaspheres: namely the earth-type characterized by an ionospheric source and a convection limited radial extent, and the Jupiter-type characterized by a satellite source and a radial extent determined by flux tube interchange motions. In both cases the central question is the geometry of the plasma distribution in the magnetosphere as it is determined by the appropriate production and loss mechanisms. The contributions contained herein concern the explication and clarification of these production and loss mechanisms

  19. Planetary submillimeter spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    The aim is to develop a comprehensive observational and analytical program to study solar system physics and meterology by measuring molecular lines in the millimeter and submillimeter spectra of planets and comets. A primary objective is to conduct observations with new JPL and Caltech submillimeter receivers at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. A secondary objective is to continue to monitor the time variable planetary phenomena (e.g., Jupiter and Uranus) at centimeter wavelength using the NASA antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN).

  20. A symmetric bipolar nebula around MWC 922.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, P G; Lloyd, J P

    2007-04-13

    We report regular and symmetric structure around dust-enshrouded Be star MWC 922 obtained with infrared imaging. Biconical lobes that appear nearly square in aspect, forming this "Red Square" nebula, are crossed by a series of rungs that terminate in bright knots or "vortices," and an equatorial dark band crossing the core delimits twin hyperbolic arcs. The intricate yet cleanly constructed forms that comprise the skeleton of the object argue for minimal perturbation from global turbulent or chaotic effects. We also report the presence of a linear comb structure, which may arise from optically projected shadows of a periodic feature in the inner regions, such as corrugations in the rim of a circumstellar disk. The sequence of nested polar rings draws comparison with the triple-ring system seen around the only naked-eye supernova in recent history: SN1987A.