Strukcinskiene, B; Andersson, R; Janson, S
This paper considers the suicide mortality trends from 1990-2009 in young people aged 15 to 19 years in Lithuania. Suicide and injury mortality data, plus mortality data from all causes, were used to compare the trend lines. Suicide mortality rate in young people aged 15-19 years and in all population showed a rising trend from 1990, and then a decreasing trend from 2002 year. This trend was significant exclusively in boys. When comparing suicide deaths as a percentage of injury deaths and of all deaths in the age group 15-19 years, rising trends for boys were evident, whilst in girls, there was no evidence of change. In Lithuania, from early 1990s, the frequency of suicide increased amongst adults and young people aged 15-19 years. After 2002, a decrease in deaths by suicide was observed both for the whole population and for young people aged 15-19 years. The rise and fall was obvious for boys. The reasons for different trends may have been influenced by the political and socioeconomic instability in the 1990-2002 period, and the socioeconomic stability, together with active preventive measures, from 2002. Although the consumption of modern Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) increased during the same time, suicide mortality was again high during the economic crisis in 2008-2009. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.
Ligneau-Herve, Catherine; Mullet, Etienne
Perspective-taking judgments among young adults, middle-aged, and elderly people were examined. In 1 condition, participants were instructed to judge the likelihood of acceptance of a painkiller as a function of 3 cues: severity of the condition, potential side effects, and level of trust in the health care provider. In the other condition,…
Full Text Available Introduction. Old age is a natural, individual and inherent part of life, conditioned by numerous factors. Its advent is often surprising, so it is worth to prepare for it. Poland is one of the aging countries, where the proportion of older people is increasing and life expectancy is on the rise. Aim. Determining the expectations of youth in relation to old age in terms of sociodemographic factors. Materials and methods. The study was conducted in 2016 in Sanok among 360 respondents (120 students and 120 gymnasium students and 120 high school students. Diagnostic survey and survey technique were used. The research tool was the author's questionnaire survey. Statistical tests used were: the V Kramer, Chi-square and Phi tests. The significance level of p <0.05 was assumed. Results. More than half of the youth surveyed thought of their old age. A significant percentage declared that they were afraid of old age and the fear was more often expressed by women. Young people in their old age are most afraid of diseases. Main expectations regarding old age in the opinion of young people are the maintenance of health and the ability to fulfill dreams. A significant percentage of respondents indicated that in the old age they would have an excess of free time. Only about one-third of young people indicated that they had been preparing for retirement all their lives. Half of the respondents declared that when they would get older they would like te continue education. Conclusions. A conscious entry into the old age stage favors the acceptance of inevitable changes and adaptations to this period of life. This process should begin at the stage of lifelong learning.
Parkinson, Kathryn N; Dickinson, Heather O; Arnaud, Catherine
To determine the prevalence and associations of self- and parent-reported pain in young people with cerebral palsy (CP).......To determine the prevalence and associations of self- and parent-reported pain in young people with cerebral palsy (CP)....
Archer, Louise; DeWitt, Jennifer; Wong, Billy
Young people's aspirations remain an enduring focus of education policy interest and concern. Drawing on data from an ongoing five-year study of young people's science and career aspirations (age 10-14), this paper asks what do young people aspire to at age 12/13, and what influences these aspirations? It outlines the main aspirations and sources…
Full Text Available The last decade is characterized by a sharp decrease in psychosomatic health of young people of military age and growth of level of cardiovascular pathology. It is promoted by social and economic transfor¬mations in the country, growth of a psychoemotional pressure, decrease in level of the material income of the population, food of non-full value, alcoholism and drug addiction, health system destruction. The special place in the structure of cardiovascular pathology of young men of military age is occupied by the prolapse of the mitral valve (PMV. In health system PMV is considered as pathology of young able-bodied age and most often is not treated as pathology in general, until cardiac violations (violations of heart rhythm and conductivity, clinically significant mitral regurgitation, etc. develop. This position is unacceptable relative to recruits, whose daily activity is entailed with influence of a complex of extreme factors of the military and professional environment. In specific conditions of military service (a strict regulation of mode of work and rest, high degree of a physical and psychoemotional pressure, elements of hypovitaminosis, etc., possibilities of adaptation of the young man with PMV are significantly complicated. Any minor changes of the environment can gain critical importance, lead to exhaustion of reserve potential of an organism, decompensation of bodies and systems responsible for adaptation. In the absence of a significant arrhythmic syndrome and/or signs of cardiac insufficiency, recruits with pathology of cardiovascular system (CCC, as a rule, are admitted fit for military service. However level of functional condition of an organism of this category of persons does not allow them to fulfill official duties in full measure. They lag behind in the program of educational battle training, differ in lowered ability to work, absence of motivation in performance of the official duties, constant complaints on a health
Lambe, Catherine I.; Hoare, Karen J.
Skin infections are a major cause of preventable hospitalization, with young people being particularly susceptible. Community-associated methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (CA-MRSA) infection typically presents as skin infection. CA-MRSA infection rates have increased rapidly in the past decade. Exploration of literature…
Sleskova, M.; Salonna, F.; Madarasova-Geckova, A.; van Dijk, J.P.; Groothoff, J.W.
This study examines the health status of young people in Slovakia. Six subjective health indicators (self-rated health, long-standing illness, vitality, mental health, long-term well-being over the last year and occurrence of health complaints during the previous month) were used to assess the
Kang, Melissa; Robards, Fiona; Sanci, Lena; Steinbeck, Katharine; Jan, Stephen; Hawke, Catherine; Kong, Marlene; Usherwood, Tim
The integration of digital technology into everyday lives of young people has become widespread. It is not known whether and how technology influences barriers and facilitators to healthcare, and whether and how young people navigate between face-to-face and virtual healthcare. To provide new knowledge essential to policy and practice, we designed a study that would explore health system access and navigation in the digital age. The study objectives are to: (1) describe experiences of young people accessing and navigating the health system in New South Wales (NSW), Australia; (2) identify barriers and facilitators to healthcare for young people and how these vary between groups; (3) describe health system inefficiencies, particularly for young people who are marginalised; (4) provide policy-relevant knowledge translation of the research data. This mixed methods study has four parts, including: (1) a cross-sectional survey of young people (12-24 years) residing in NSW, Australia; (2) a longitudinal, qualitative study of a subsample of marginalised young people (defined as young people who: identify as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander; are experiencing homelessness; identify as sexuality and/or gender diverse; are of refugee or vulnerable migrant background; and/or live in rural or remote NSW); (3) interviews with professionals; (4) a knowledge translation forum. Ethics approvals were sought and granted. Data collection commenced in March 2016 and will continue until June 2017. This study will gather practice and policy-relevant intelligence about contemporary experiences of young people and health services, with a unique focus on five different groups of marginalised young people, documenting their experiences over time. Access 3 will explore navigation around all levels of the health system, determine whether digital technology is integrated into this, and if so how, and will translate findings into policy-relevant recommendations. © Article author(s) (or
Drug abuse is a serious public health problem. It affects almost every community and family in some way. Drug abuse in children and teenagers may pose a ... of young people may be more susceptible to drug abuse and addiction than adult brains. Abused drugs ...
Full Text Available Online interaction through the use of social networking sites (SNS continues to be a significant component of the socialization of young people today, yet little research exists toward linking various relational forms to prevalent and much-studied online risks cross-nationally. This article provides a link between relational dynamics and online risks identified in previous research toward a new perspective on how social tie strength is related to experiences of hate victimization and harassment online. The analysis is based on survey data of Finnish ( n = 555, American ( n = 1033, German ( n = 978, and British ( n = 999 young people aged 15–30 years. Variables, including age, gender, main activity, SNS use, quantity, and extent of online and offline social networks including social tie strength and online community identification, were analyzed toward finding their associations with online hate victimization and harassment. Results showed that experiences of hate victimization and harassment were similar cross-nationally and that those who were personally harassed online also reported high SNS activity. Furthermore, no association was found between social network size and negative experiences. Notable cross-national differences were also detected in the results. Findings emphasize the importance of understanding variables fostering online risks for young people while providing a new perspective on what aspects of social life may help negate negative effects online.
López-Basave, Horacio Noé; Morales-Vásquez, Flavia; Ruiz-Molina, Juan Manuel; Ñamendys-Silva, Silvio A; Vela-Sarmiento, Itzel; Ruan, Javier Melchor; Rosciano, Alejandro E Padilla; Calderillo-Ruiz, German; Díaz-Romero, Consuelo; Herrera-Gómez, Angel; Meneses-García, Abelardo A
Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease with nonspecific early symptoms. Its incidence and prognosis in young patients has shown considerable variability. Our objective was to retrospectively study patients from our institution aged <30 years with gastric carcinoma. The study was undertaken to describe the experience of gastric cancer in this population, and to demonstrate its specific clinical and pathological characteristics. We reviewed the cases of histologically confirmed gastric cancer between 1985 and 2006 at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología of Mexico (INCan); emphasis in our review was placed on clinical presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic intervention, pathology, and the results. Thirty cases of gastric carcinoma were reviewed. The patients’ median age was 27 years (range, 18–30 years) and the male:female ratio was 1:1. Gastric cancer exhibits different behavior in patients aged, 30 years, but delay in diagnosis and the tumor’s behavior appear to be the most important factors in prognosis of the disease
Shan-Ju Lin Chang
Full Text Available “Reading on the Internet” or digital reading has been a controversial issue in recent years as more and more young adults spent more time on Internet, and engaged in reading activities which may differ from the traditional conception of reading. More importantly, some observe that digital reading seems to have negative impacts on students’ reading capabilities at the individual level and citizens’ literacy at the national level. How can we understand the phenomenon of reading in a digital age? Online activities are facilitating or hindering the development of reading capabilities of young adults? What do we mean when we evaluate the reading capabilities in a digital age? This paper explores the pros and cons of reading on the Internet or digital reading, the technological, social and economic forces that influence those viewpoints, and discusses the findings of some empirical studies. The implications from this study for educational policy makers and educators conclude this paper. [Article content in Chinese; Extended abstract in English
Harris, C; Straker, L; Pollock, C
Young people are exposed to a range of information technologies (IT) in different environments, including home and school, however the factors influencing IT use at home and school are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate young people's computer exposure patterns at home and school, and related factors such as age, gender and the types of IT used. 1351 children in Years 1, 6, 9 and 11 from 10 schools in metropolitan Western Australia were surveyed. Most children had access to computers at home and school, with computer exposures comparable to TV, reading and writing. Total computer exposure was greater at home than school, and increased with age. Computer activities varied with age and gender and became more social with increased age, at the same time parental involvement reduced. Bedroom computer use was found to result in higher exposure patterns. High use of home and school computers were associated with each other. Associations varied depending on the type of IT exposure measure (frequency, mean weekly hours, usual and longest duration). The frequency and duration of children's computer exposure were associated with a complex interplay of the environment of use, the participant's age and gender and other IT activities.
Joanna Siminska; Weronika Bukowska; Dorota Ratuszek–Sadowska; Krystyna Nowacka; Wojciech Hagner
Lower limb faults are one of the most common defects in school-age children and are now a problem in our society. Currently there is a trend towards low physical activity among children. Most young people prefer to spend time sitting down without taking physical activity or limiting it to the minimum. This results in lowering muscle tone, weight gain - manifesting as being overweight or obese. School children often complain of spinal pain as well as lower back pain. We have many disadvantages...
Siminska, Joanna; Bukowska, Weronika; Ratuszek–Sadowska, Dorota; Nowacka, Krystyna; Hagner, Wojciech
Siminska Joanna, Bukowska Weronika, Ratuszek–Sadowska Dorota, Nowacka Krystyna, Hagner Wojciech. FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF KNOCK-KNEED AND BOW-LEGGED KNEES FOR CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE IN SCHOOL AGE. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(6):317-322. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.814970 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4545 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric eval...
Do, Mai; Figueroa, Maria Elena; Lawrence Kincaid, D
Knowing one's serostatus is critical in the HIV prevention, care and treatment continuum. This study examines the impact of communication programs on HIV testing in South Africa. Data came from 2204 young men and women aged 16-24 who reported to be sexually active in a population based survey. Structural equation modeling was used to test the directions and causal pathways between communication program exposure, HIV testing discussion, and having a test in the last 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate probit regressions provided evidence of exogeneity of communication exposure and the two HIV-related outcomes. One in three sampled individuals had been tested in the last 12 months. Communication program exposure only had an indirect effect on getting tested by encouraging young people to talk about testing. The study suggests that communication programs may create an environment that supports open HIV-related discussions and may have a long-term impact on behavior change.
The circumstances of those who are, or have been, in the care system may augment concern about their use of mobile phones and the internet, but little is specifically known about such use. Presenting findings from an exploratory study which investigated the experiences and views of six care leavers and four looked after children, this paper considers their social contact via mobile phones and the internet. Exploration of the study data is located alongside wider empirical findings around internet use and critical consideration of theoretical insights from the work of Bauman, Castells and LaMendola. Participants' reported use of digital media was not substantially different to that of their peer group: their core virtual networks had significant overlap with their core offline networks and social contact via digital media could provide welcome, if limited and individualised, social support. The most prominent difficulty arising from the use of these media was forms of verbal abuse by those known to the young people offline. While the centrality of digital technology within young people's lives influenced the way they communicated, underlying issues within their social relationships reflected greater similarity with a pre-digital age than has sometimes been suggested.
Monshat, Kaveh; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne; Burns, Jane; Herrman, Helen
Mindfulness training (MT) has been shown to lead to significant improvements in psychological distress and emotion regulation skills. The Internet has many advantages as a medium for building emotional skills in young people. The aim of this study was to involve young people in designing an online MT programme. A draft programme was initially designed based on a review of the literature and an established face-to-face programme for medical students. Twenty young people were then recruited through online advertising and 13 (age 16-26) interviewed. They were asked to comment on how useful, easy to use and enjoyable they found the proposed programme and how the draft version and its planned evaluation strategy could be improved. Interviewee responses were independently processed by two of the authors within a qualitative thematic analysis paradigm. The results showed that young people were eager to engage with the design of this health promotion programme and provided valuable input. All interviewees believed that young people would find the programme desirable. They provided a variety of suggestions about how training structure and content could be improved, how best it could be evaluated and how young people could be encouraged to engage with and complete the programme. It thus appears that online MT is a feasible mental health promotion strategy for young people and that it can be evaluated in a controlled trial. The result of this consultation process was the Mindful Awareness Training and Education (MATE) programme, which has been detailed.
Full Text Available Lower limb faults are one of the most common defects in school-age children and are now a problem in our society. Currently there is a trend towards low physical activity among children. Most young people prefer to spend time sitting down without taking physical activity or limiting it to the minimum. This results in lowering muscle tone, weight gain - manifesting as being overweight or obese. School children often complain of spinal pain as well as lower back pain. We have many disadvantages in the lower limb - but the most common are the knee and the knee. These defects require a comprehensive, individual physiotherapeutic procedure that will help correct the defect. Applied rehabilitation affects the strength of the muscle, contributes to correcting the defect of the lower limb as well as reduces the occurring pain.
Shanahan, Patrick; Elliott, David
The Australian Government established the Office for Youth (the Office) in September 2008 in an effort to engage with the young people of Australia. The Office will work with other government agencies to help young people reach their full potential; make effective transitions to adulthood as they continue to learn, start work, make decisions that…
Original title: Young people and sexual orientation The Netherlands Institute for Social Research ¦ SCP carries out regular research on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals. In this report, the focus is on young people in the Netherlands. The report addresses two issues:
... STD 101 in a Box Home Script for Sex in the City Video STD Clinical Slides STD Clinical Slides STD Picture ... include: line graphs by year; pie charts for sex; bar charts by state and country; bar charts for age, race/ethnicity, and transmission ... Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file ...
Robards, Fiona; Kang, Melissa; Usherwood, Tim; Sanci, Lena
This systematic review examines how marginalized young people access and engage with health services and navigate health-care systems in high-income countries. Medline, CINAHL, PsychInfo, The University of Sydney Library database, and Google Scholar were searched to identify qualitative and quantitative original research, published from 2006 to 2017, that focused on selected definitions of marginalized young people (12 to 24 years), their parents/carers, and/or health professionals working with these populations. A thematic synthesis was undertaken identifying themes across and between groups on barriers and/or facilitators to access, engagement, and/or navigation of health-care systems. Of 1,796 articles identified, 68 studies in the final selection focused on marginalized young people who were homeless (n = 20), living in rural areas (n = 14), of refugee background (n = 11), gender and/or sexuality diverse (n = 11), indigenous (n = 4), low income (n = 4), young offenders (n = 2), or living with a disability (n = 2). Studies were from the United States, Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, New Zealand, and Portugal, including 44 qualitative, 16 quantitative, and 8 mixed-method study types. Sample sizes ranged from 3 to 1,388. Eight themes were identified relating to ability to recognize and understand health issues; service knowledge and attitudes toward help seeking; structural barriers; professionals' knowledge, skills, attitudes; service environments and structures; ability to navigate the health system; youth participation; and technology opportunities. Marginalized young people experience barriers in addition to those common to all young people. Future studies should consider the role of technology in access, engagement, and health system navigation, and the impact of intersectionality between marginalized groups. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Наталья Николаевна Климкович
Full Text Available We spent multivariate analysis of clinical and laboratory parameters for the prediction of de-novo myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS patients aged 18-60 years. The results of clinical application of prognostic systems in MDS show that there is a large variability within individual risk groups, especially at low-risk MDS. So now hematologists conduct research aimed at identifying additional adverse risk MDS. This is done so that patients with low-risk MDS embodiments and unfavorable prognosis could benefit from early therapeutic intervention, and not only be clinician monitored until disease progression. We found that additional adverse risk factors for the development of MDS are the expression of CD95 in bone marrow ≤40 % and FLT3≥60 %. The expression level of CD95 in bone marrow cells≤40 % and FLT3≥60 % can be considered as a prognostic marker progression of MDS and time start specific therapy
Young people are more and more inactive, which has numerous well-known negative effects on their health. Several studies indicate that inactive lifestyle disposes people to sit in front of the television, which increases aggression and decreases the willingness of reading. There is also a strong link between inactivity and an increase of body mass, deterioration of anthropometric parameters, and deviant behaviour. The aim of the study was to find out, on the basis of two cross-sectional surveys, the changes occurred within eight years in the free-time activity of Hungarian young people aged between 15 and 19 years. Data obtained from two surveys conducted by the National Institute for Family and Social Policy, Hungary in 2000 and 2008 including 1780 and 2018 young people, respectively, were analysed and compared. The number of young people regularly involved in sport activity increased significantly, while their media-consumption failed to decrease. Physically active young people are more health-conscious, but regular sporting activity did not expel smoking, which was associated with a sedentary lifestyle and television watching. These data reveal new responses of a new generation; watching television still takes the largest part of their free time activity, but use of computers, and participation in social activities are not necessarily increase sedentary lifestyle and deviant habits. Internet has positive effects on the regularity of their physical activity.
Laureati, M.; Morin-Audebrand, L.; Pagliarini, E.; Sulmont-Rosse, C.; Köster, E.P.; Mojet, J.
The present study compared incidental learning and food memory in children, young adults and elderly people for three sensory modalities (taste, texture and aroma). The relation of gender and liker-status (i.e. how much we like a product) with food memory was also investigated. Participants received
Full Text Available The increasing number of young people participating in adult education programmes has, in the recent years, raised the question of transfer from regular education system to labour market where a large proportion of young people remain socially marginalized and isolated. Young people in adult education are a special target group; in order to plan educational programmes properly, we need to be familiar with their specific characteristics. The article, on the level of a statistical data outline and its paradoxes, introduces the category of young people in adult education as an impact of system factors, and defines related problems in the register, which - for more thorough understanding - dictates sociologically and anthropologically directed analytical approach. The first effect of this, not solely pedagogical view, is presented in the second part of the article, where Mrgole proposes an analysis of educational needs definition and its dangerous consequences in original planning of educational programmes. The concluding part takes a wider perspective and treats the factors of early school-leaving of young people, taking into consideration direct experience in experimental educational programmes for the young. The article ends with an outline of basic elements which the planners of andragogical educational programmes intended for young people should consider in their planning to achieve effective curricula.
Laureati, M; Morin-Audebrand, L; Pagliarini, E; Sulmont-Rossé, C; Köster, E P; Mojet, J
The present study compared incidental learning and food memory in children, young adults and elderly people for three sensory modalities (taste, texture and aroma). The relation of gender and liker-status (i.e. how much we like a product) with food memory was also investigated. Participants received a complete meal including a custard dessert used as target under incidental learning conditions. 24h later, participants were confronted with a series of samples consisting of the target and slightly modified versions of the target (distractors) and were unexpectedly asked to perform an "absolute memory" ("Did you eat this sample yesterday?") and a "relative memory" test ("Is the present sample less/equal/more pleasant than the one you ate yesterday?"). Participants also performed a hedonic and a discrimination test. Memory for the custard was poor and did not depend on age, but it was related to gender, and to how much participants liked the product. Females and high-likers outperformed males and low-likers in the absolute memory task, but they were not better in discriminating the products on both the hedonic and the perceptual dimension. Results also showed that, contrary to common belief, not all sensory aspects that can be discriminated in perception and in liking, are equally well remembered.
Sørensen, Bo Wagner; Madsen, Diana Højlund
The report is based on group interviews with 33 young people with ethnic minority backgrounds. They have been asked about their educational and vocational wishes and also touch on a number of issues such as family, gender equality, discrimination and integration.......The report is based on group interviews with 33 young people with ethnic minority backgrounds. They have been asked about their educational and vocational wishes and also touch on a number of issues such as family, gender equality, discrimination and integration....
Riiser, Nina Milling
Socio economic conditions in Uganda causes the youth to be caught between childhood and adulthood. They are young people moving towards adulthood, with no option of becoming independent. How does volunteering affect the youth and why does the youth volunteer? Does the youth get closer to adulthood by volunteering and what di they gain? Socio economic conditions in Uganda causes the youth to be caught between childhood and adulthood. They are young people moving towards adulthood, with no o...
Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).
This factsheet provides information about young people from ethnic minorities in Britain. In spring 1997, 48% of the ethnic minority population of Britain was under 24 years of age, in comparison with 31% of the White population. Twenty-two percent of the ethnic minority population was of compulsory school age, compared with 14% of the White…
Full Text Available The paper shows the relevance of the problem associated with the diagnosis and treatment of stroke in young patients aged 15-45 years. It considers the major causes of acute cerebrovascular accidents in young people, including pregnant women. Diseases, such patent foramen ovale, mitral valve prolapse, infective endocarditis, and postpartum cardiomyopathy, are described in detail. The basic principles of the diagnosis and therapy of ischemic stroke at a young age are given. The mainstay of therapy for acute ischemic stroke is stated to include two procedures: reperfusion and neuronal protection.
Scott Elizabeth M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing suicidal behaviour is a major public health goal. Expanding access to care has been identified as a key strategy. In Australia, a national network of primary-care based services (headspace has been established for young people with mental ill-health. This study determines the socio-demographic, psychopathological and illness-stage correlates of suicidal ideation in young persons attending headspace services. Methods Suicidal ideation was recorded using the specific suicide item of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS in a cohort of subjects aged 12-30 years (N = 494 attending headspace services. Results Of the 494 young persons assessed, 32% (158/494 had a positive response to any level of the HDRS suicide item, consisting of 16% (77/494 reporting that life was not worth living and a further 16% (81/494 reported thoughts of death or suicidal ideation. Young women (19%; 94/494 were more likely to report any positive response as compared with young men (13%; 64/494 [χ2(2,494 = 13.6, p 2(1,347 = 0.0, p = 0.87. However, more serious levels of suicidal ideation were more common in those with depressive disorders or later stages of illness. In multivariate analyses, the major predictors of the degree of suicidal ideation were increasing levels of clinician-rated depressive symptoms (beta = 0.595, p Conclusions Feelings that life is not worth living, thoughts of death or suicidal ideation are common in young people seeking mental health care. These at-risk cognitions are evident before many of these individuals develop severe or persistent mental disorders. Thoughts of death or suicidal ideation may well need to be a primary intervention target in these young people.
Morrell, S L; Taylor, R J; Kerr, C B
Morrell, Taylor and Kerr, from the University of Sydney's Department of Public Health, review the evidence of an association between unemployment and psychological and physical ill-health in young people aged 15-24 years. Aggregate data show youth unemployment and youth suicide to be strongly associated. Youth unemployment is also associated with psychological symptoms, such as depression and loss of confidence. Effects on physical health have been less extensively studies; however, there is some evidence for an association with raised blood pressure. Finally, the prevalence of lifestyle risk factors (cannabis use and, less consistently, tobacco and alcohol consumption) is higher in unemployed compared with employed young people.
Willis, Leigh A; Kachur, Rachel; Castellanos, Ted J; Nichols, Kristen; Mendoza, Maria C B; Gaul, Zaneta J; Spikes, Pilgrim; Gamayo, Ashley C; Durham, Marcus D; LaPlace, Lisa; Straw, Julie; Staatz, Colleen; Buge, Hadiza; Hogben, Matthew; Robinson, Susan; Brooks, John; Sutton, Madeline Y
In the United States, young people (ages 15-24 years) are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), due at least in part to inadequate or incorrect HIV/STD-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions (KABI). Comic book narratives are a proven method of HIV/STD prevention communication to strengthen KABI for HIV/STD prevention. Motion comics, a new type of comic media, are an engaging and low-cost means of narrative storytelling. The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot six-episode HIV/STD-focused motion comic series to improve HIV/STD-related KABI among young people. We assessed change in HIV/STD knowledge, HIV stigma, condom attitudes, HIV/STD testing attitudes, and behavioral intentions among 138 participants in 15 focus groups immediately before and after viewing the motion comic series. We used paired t-tests and indicators of overall improvement to assess differences between surveys. We found a significant decrease in HIV stigma (p comic intervention improved HIV/STD-related KABI of young adult viewers by reducing HIV stigma and increasing behavioral intentions to engage in safer sex. Our results demonstrate the promise of this novel intervention and support its use to deliver health messages to young people.
Kramer, Jessica M; Helfrich, Christine; Levin, Melissa; Hwang, I-Ting; Samuel, Preethy S; Carrellas, Ann; Schwartz, Ariel E; Goeva, Aleksandrina; Kolaczyk, Eric D
Project TEAM (Teens making Environment and Activity Modifications) teaches transition-age young people with developmental disabilities, including those with co-occurring intellectual or cognitive disabilities, to identify and resolve environmental barriers to participation. We examined its effects on young people's attainment of participation goals, knowledge, problem-solving, self-determination, and self-efficacy. We used a quasi-experimental, repeated measures design (initial, outcome, 6-week follow-up) with two groups: (1) Project TEAM (28 males, 19 females; mean age 17y 6mo); and (2) goal-setting comparison (21 males, 14 females; mean age 17y 6mo). A matched convenience sample was recruited in two US states. Attainment of participation goals and goal attainment scaling (GAS) T scores were compared at outcome. Differences between groups for all other outcomes were analyzed using linear mixed effects models. At outcome, Project TEAM participants demonstrated greater knowledge (estimated mean difference: 1.82; confidence interval [CI]: 0.90, 2.74) and ability to apply knowledge during participation (GAS: t=4.21; CI: 5.21, 14.57) compared to goal-setting. While both groups achieved significant improvements in knowledge, problem-solving, and self-determination, increases in parent reported self-determination remained at 6-week follow-up only for Project TEAM (estimated mean difference: 4.65; CI: 1.32, 7.98). Significantly more Project TEAM participants attained their participation goals by follow-up (Project TEAM=97.6%, goal-setting=77.1%, p=0.009). Both approaches support attainment of participation goals. Although inconclusive, Project TEAM may uniquely support young people with developmental disabilities to act in a self-determined manner and apply an environmental problem-solving approach over time. Individualized goal-setting, alone or during Project TEAM (Teens making Environment and Activity Modifications) appears to support attainment of participation
Sallah, Momodou; Howson, Carlton
This is an important collection, integrating research with messages for practitioners in an area where there has as yet been insufficient material published. This book also formed the focal point for a major international conference in the Summer of 2006. As well as jointly editing the publication, the author contributed a chapter to it. Bringing together this work's different dimensions and perspectives, this book seeks to challenge both the accepted status quo of Black young people s neg...
Leggett, Maggie; Sykes, Kathy
There can be multiple benefits of scientists engaging with young people, including motivation and inspiration for all involved. But there are risks, particularly if scientists do not consider the interests and needs of young people or listen to what they have to say. We argue that "dialogue" between scientists, young people and teachers…
Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris
To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain…
Miftari, Florian; Salihu, Hazir; Selimi, Musa
Miftari Florian, Salihu Hazir, Selimi Musa. Presentation of valid correlations in some morphological variables and basic and specific motor skills in young people aged 13-14 years engaged in basketball. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2018;8(5):95-101. eISNN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1242579 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/5250 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education pa...
Kroman, S L; Roos, Ewa M.; Bennell, K L
To systematically appraise the evidence on measurement properties of performance-based outcome measures to assess physical function in young and middle-aged people known to be at high risk of hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA).......To systematically appraise the evidence on measurement properties of performance-based outcome measures to assess physical function in young and middle-aged people known to be at high risk of hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA)....
Moor, Stephanie; Crowe, Marie; Luty, Sue; Carter, Janet; Joyce, Peter R
The age of the first episode of illness in Bipolar Disorder has been shown to be an important predictor of outcome with early onset, particularly onset before puberty, associated with greater comorbidity, a poorer quality of life and greatest impairment in functioning. Baseline data from a psychotherapy study was used to examine the prevalence of other comorbid psychiatric conditions and the impact of onset at an early age on both self harming behaviour and suicide attempts in young people with Bipolar Disorder. This study of 100 adolescents and young adults (aged 15-36 years) with Bipolar Disorder showed that comorbid conditions were very common, even at the start of their bipolar illness. Comorbidity increased as the age of onset decreased with very early onset (self harmed and attempted suicide with high lethal intent. Self harming behaviour was predicted by having a lifetime diagnoses of Borderline Personality Disorder and Panic Disorder along with an early age of onset of Bipolar Disorder. In contrast, previous suicide attempts were predicted by greater comorbidity and not by very early (<13 years) age of onset. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The article explores the issue of motivation in policy and practice. The argument is that the folk high schools and the tradition of liberal education offer a learning environment where a number of psychological needs are satisfied among the young people leading to a motivation for learning whereas...... policy is based primarily on controlling forms of regulation counterproductive to the political objective of making 95% of a youth cohort complete upper secondary education. Liberal education may in other words be a case of good practice worth emulating in youth education policy....
Wallmyr, Gudrun; Welin, Catharina
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of and attitudes among young people toward pornography and their sources of information about sexuality. Eight hundred and seventy-six young people ages 15-25 years (555 females and 321 males) who visited a youth center in Sweden for a period of 1 year answered a questionnaire about their use of…
Upcoming statutory UK government guidance for keeping children safe in education reflects the use of social media, which is one of the most common activities undertaken by young people. This study explores how and why young people are using social networking sites (SNS) and whether there are age or gender differences. A key feature of the study…
Two stereotypical sexual interactions co-exist: experimental sex, taking place unprepared, ... of the same age, and transactional sex, occurring after negotiation between older ... Young people have little capacity to manage their vulnerability in these ... vulnerability, young people, sexuality and reproductive health, Rwanda.
Hemmingsson, H; Bolic-Baric, V; Lidström, H
The United Nations' position is that digital access is a matter involving equality between groups of people, the securing of democratic rights, and equal opportunities for all citizens. This study investigates digital equality in school and leisure between young people with and without disabilities. A cross-sectional design with group comparisons was applied. Participants were young people (10-18 years of age) with disabilities (n=389) and a reference group in about the same ages. Data were collected by a survey focusing on access to and engagement in ICT activities in school and during leisure time. The results demonstrated young people with disabilities had restricted participation in computer use in educational activities, in comparison to young people in general. During leisure time young people with disabilities had a leading position compared to the reference group with respect to internet use in a variety of activities. Beneficial environmental conditions at home (and the reverse in schools) are discussed as parts of the explanation for the differing engagement levels at home and in school, and among young people with disabilities and young people in general. Schools need to prioritise use of ICT by young people with disabilities.
Hoeppner, Bettina B; Hoeppner, Susanne S; Kelly, John F
Research has shown that participation in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) confers significant recovery benefit to adults suffering from alcohol use disorder (AUD). Concerns persist, however, that AA may not work as well for younger adults, who tend to have shorter addiction histories, different social circumstances, and less spiritual/religious interest than adults. Secondary data analysis of Project MATCH, using a prospective, moderated multiple mediation analysis to test and compare six previously identified mechanisms of change in younger adults (n=266) vs. adults aged 30+ (n=1460). Nine clinical sites within the United States. Treatment-seeking adults (n=1726) suffering from AUD who participated in 12 weeks of outpatient treatment and completed follow-ups at 3-, 9- and 15-months. AA attendance during treatment; mediators at 9 months; and outcomes [percentage of days abstinent (PDA) and drinks per drinking day (DDD)] at 15 months. AA attendance was associated with improved drinking outcomes in both younger adults (PDA: F(1, 247)=8.55, p<0.01; DDD: F(1, 247)=15.93, p<0.01) and adults aged 30+ (PDA: F(1, 1311)=86.58, p<0.01; DDD: F(1, 1311)=11.96, p<0.01). Only two of the six hypothesized pathways (i.e., decreases in pro-drinking social networks, self-efficacy in social situations) appeared to work in younger adults. Unidentified mechanisms of behavior change that are mobilized by AA participation appear to be at work in young people. Once identified, these mechanisms may shed new light on how exactly AA confers similar benefits for young people and, more broadly, may enhance our understanding of recovery-related change for young adults that could yield novel intervention targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brander, Birgitte Gade
Research questions: How do the young students relate to their community? How do young students position themselves as agents in their own lives and in the places they live – which discourse is used?......Research questions: How do the young students relate to their community? How do young students position themselves as agents in their own lives and in the places they live – which discourse is used?...
Willis, Leigh A; Kachur, Rachel; Castellanos, Ted J; Spikes, Pilgrim; Gaul, Zaneta J; Gamayo, Ashley C; Durham, Marcus; Jones, Sandra; Nichols, Kristen; Han Barthelemy, Solange; LaPlace, Lisa; Staatz, Colleen; Hogben, Matthew; Robinson, Susan; Brooks, John T; Sutton, Madeline Y
Young people (15-24 years) in the United States are disproportionately affected by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Shortfalls in HIV/STD-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions (KABI) likely contribute to this discrepancy. In this report we describe our experience developing a novel means of health communication combining entertainment-education theory and recent technological advances to create a HIV/STD-focused "motion comic." We also report the audience satisfaction and acceptance of the intervention. We used the Health Belief Model (HBM), entertainment-education (EE) principles, and the Sabido Method (SM) and conducted three rounds of focus groups to develop a 38-minute HIV/STD focused motion comic for young people between the ages 15 and 24 years. Participants indicated that motion comics were an acceptable method of delivering HIV/STD prevention messages. They also expressed satisfaction with motion comics plot, story settings, the tone of humor, and drama. Our results suggest that motion comics are a viable new method of delivering health communication messages about HIV/STD and other public health issues, and warrant further development and broader evaluation.
Mozgot, V. G.
Data from a longitudinal survey of the musical tastes of young people distinguish five basic vectors of its development: an orientation toward the Western paradigm; young people's unlimited amount of time spent in the consumption of music; the indiscriminate nature of their music interests; the influence that a person's membership in a particular…
Full Text Available The study describes communication of young people with the emphasis on its content dedicated to corporeality and determines a content-based classification of topics from a normative perspective: what topics are regular, intimate, or tabooed; participants; and gender differences. The study is divided into parts, which thematically describe: starting points, research, sample; communication content and topics; participants in communication; gender differences; factors of communication and the language of communication. The study is elaborated on the basis of information coming from professional literature and field research conducted by semi-structured interviews with university students and university educated people – 15 women and 15 men in age 22–28 (year of birth 1987–1993 coming from an urban environment in Slovakia.
Young people have a particular attitude on the questions about environment and energy, and also about technology. Several inquiries show that young people are more aware of environmental questions than their elders. Their anxiety is bigger against pollution than the average of French people and it seems that they are more attentive to dangers for the planet: it is the sign of a broader opening on the world. Young people are ready to adhere to a group or association for environment and have sympathy for ecologists; they have hostility against nuclear energy. Age and education level have to be specified to complicate the question. This contribution gives some elements about the opinion of young people between 15-25 years old on environment, technology and nuclear energy in France. (N.C.)
Young people's attitude towards entrepreneurship contributes tremendously to the rapid increase in innovation. Income and social economic status of people also have strong effect on innovation because in developing countries, stronger payment ability and higher income level enables more people to spend more on a ...
Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt
This chapter demonstrates how both treatment and punishment is part of controlling young people involved in crime in the Danish welfare state. Lately there has been an increase in the use of confinement in young offenders institutions and thus a turn towards stricter punishments for crime. However......, treatment aiming at rehabilitation is still an integrated part of the system and the organization of the young offenders institutions. For the young people subjected to control both treatment and punishment are regarded as effective means of risk-control but there are also limitations and unintended results...
Moore, Graham F.; Littlecott, Hannah J.; Evans, Rhiannon; Murphy, Simon; Hewitt, Gillian; Fletcher, Adam
Health inequalities emerge during childhood and youth, before widening in adulthood. Theorising, testing and interrupting the mechanisms through which inequalities are perpetuated and sustained is vital. Schools are viewed as settings through which inequality in young people's health may be addressed, but few studies examine the social processes…
Hughes, Mary; Savage, Eileen; Andrews, Tom
The aim of this study was to develop an explanatory theory on the lives of young people with asthma, issues affecting them and the impact of asthma on their day-to-day lives. Accommodating Interruptions is a theory that explains young people's concerns about living with asthma. Although national and international asthma management guidelines exist, it is accepted that the symptom control of asthma among the young people population is poor. This study was undertaken using Classic Grounded Theory. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and clinic consultations with young people aged 11-16 years who had asthma for over 1 year. Data were also collected from participant diaries. Constant comparative analysis, theoretical coding and memo writing were used to develop the substantive theory. The theory explains how young people resolve their main concern of being restricted by Accommodating Interruptions in their lives. They do this by assimilating behaviours in balance finding, moderating influence, fitting in and assuming control minimising the effects of asthma on their everyday lives. The theory of Accommodating Interruptions explains young people's asthma management behaviours in a new way. It allows us to understand how and why young people behave the way they do because they want to participate and be included in everyday activities, events and relationships. The theory adds to the body of knowledge on how young people with asthma live their day-to-day lives and it challenges some existing viewpoints in the literature regarding their behaviours. The findings have implications for developing services to support young people in a more meaningful way as they accommodate the interruptions associated with asthma in their lives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jung, Hae Jung; Ju, Hwang Young; Hyun, Myung Chul; Lee, Sang Bum
Purpose The aim of the present study was to evaluate the characteristics of electrophysiologic studies (EPS) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) performed in subjects aged less than 30 years with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, particularly pediatric patients under 18 years of age, based on our experience. Methods Two hundred and one consecutive patients with WPW syndrome were recruited and divided to 3 groups according to age: group 1, 6 to 17 years; group 2, 18 to 29 years; and group 3, 30 to 60 years. The clinical, electrophysiological, and therapeutic data for these patients were evaluated by a retrospective medical record review. Results A total of 73 (36%) of these patients were syndrome. Therefore, when EPS and RFA are performed in children and adolescence with WPW syndrome, we recommend that these characteristics be considered. PMID:22323907
Hae Jung Jung
Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of the present study was to evaluate the characteristics of electrophysiologic studies (EPS and radiofrequency ablation (RFA performed in subjects aged less than 30 years with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome, particularly pediatric patients under 18 years of age, based on our experience. Methods : Two hundred and one consecutive patients with WPW syndrome were recruited and divided to 3 groups according to age: group 1, 6 to 17 years; group 2, 18 to 29 years; and group 3, 30 to 60 years. The clinical, electrophysiological, and therapeutic data for these patients were evaluated by a retrospective medical record review. Results : A total of 73 (36% of these patients were <30 years of age. Although there were more males than females in group 2 (male:female, 31:11, there was no sex difference in group 1 (male:female, 16:15. Left accessory pathway was detected less frequently in group 1 (32%, 10/31 than in group 2 (57%, 24/42 and group 3 (63%, 81/128 (P=0.023 and P=0.002, respectively. Conclusion : The present study describes several different electrophysiological characteristics in children and adolescents with WPW syndrome. Therefore, when EPS and RFA are performed in children and adolescence with WPW syndrome, we recommend that these characteristics be considered.
Holdridge, Barbara, Ed.
This illustrated collection of poetic excerpts from the plays and sonnets of William Shakespeare is designed to be read and appreciated by young people. The 39 excerpts in the collection follow the "7 ages of man" pattern from childhood to old age. The collection's introduction by the famous Shakespearean scholar, A.L. Rowse, recounts…
This study analyses what motivates older people to attend "day centres" in Malta and what they believe that they derive from young people who carry out their placements at these day "centres" These young people, who are aged 16-17, attend a vocational college in Malta and are studying health and social care. The study is based…
Eklund, Hanna; Findon, James; Cadman, Tim; Hayward, Hannah; Murphy, Declan; Asherson, Philip; Glaser, Karen; Xenitidis, Kiriakos
This study used the Camberwell Assessment of Need for adults with Developmental and Intellectual Disabilities (CANDID) to examine the social, physical health and mental health needs of 168 young people (aged 14-24 years) with neurodevelopmental disorders and compared young person and parent ratings of need. Agreement was poor in 21 out of 25…
This paper examines how young people's friendships influence safer sexual practices. Through a thematic discourse analysis, interviews with Sydney-based young people (aged 18-25 years) and Australian-based sexual health websites for young people are considered. Interview data illustrate how friendships can support young people's sexual experiences, concerns and safeties beyond the practice of 'safe sex' (condom use). This is evident in friends' practices of sex and relationship advice, open dialogue, trust and sharing experiential knowledge, as well as friend-based sex. Meanwhile, friendship discourse from selected Australian sexual health websites fails to engage with the support offered by friendship, or its value to a sexual health agenda. Foucault's account of friendship as a space of self-invention is considered in light of these data, along with his argument that friendship poses a threat to formal systems of knowing and regulating sex. Whether sexual or not, many close friendships are sexually intimate given the knowledge, support and influence these offer to one's sexual practices and relations. This paper argues that greater attention to friendship among sexual health promoters and researchers would improve professional engagements with young people's contemporary sexual cultures, and better inform their attempts to engage young people through social media.
Thomas, N E; Cooper, S M; Baker, J S; Graham, M R; Davies, B
The aim of this unique study was to consider the relationship between folate and vitamin B(12) on homocyst(e)ine (Hcy) concentration in an apparently healthy cohort of Welsh young people. A cohort of 179, 12-13 year olds (88 boys and 91 girls) were measured for Hcy, folate, vitamin B(12), adiposity, and dietary habits. Boys had significantly higher waist circumference and folate concentration than girls. Folate was negatively associated with Hcy in both sexes, whereas vitamin B(12) was negatively associated with Hcy in boys only. Adiposity was not associated with Hcy. Folate was an independent predictor of Hcy in both sexes, whilst vitamin B(12) was an independent determinant of Hcy in boys only. Familial history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors was identified in 69% of the children with elevated Hcy (> or = 8.5 mumol.L(-1)). Young people might be encouraged to increase their folate intake through diet, particularly by increasing their consumption of leafy vegetables and fruit. Further research is necessary to determine the exact contribution of genetics and diet on Hcy levels in young people, and whether Hcy levels during childhood and adolescence might influence future CVD risk.
Grace Elisabeth Spencer
Full Text Available Drawing upon current socio-cultural understandings of risk, this study highlights the disjunction between the expert risk discourses that permeate official public health policy and practice, and young people’s own perspectives on health and risk. Data were collected from young people aged 14-16 years through the use of group and individual interviews in a school and community youth centre setting. Findings from this study question the saliency of expert-defined health-related risks to young people’s everyday lives. Young people in this study saw health as closely linked to ‘being happy’. Friendships and a sense of personal achievement were particularly important to participants’ health and well-being. When accounting for their participation in health-related practices identified as ‘risky’ in government policy – such as smoking, alcohol and substance use – young people emphasised the levels of pressure they experienced. Sources of pressure included arguments and bullying, school work, and negative stereotypes of young people in general. These areas indicated young people’s concerns that reach beyond the official prescriptions permeating current health policy.
Gonca Karayagiz Muslu
Full Text Available Computers have occupied increasingly central roles in childrens world with the advance of technology. They have proved to be an ideal companion for children in developing and developed countries who spend most of their time at school or home with computers. As a measure of development and modernization, technology has made peoples lives easier and contributed positively to social well-being so far while it has also brought about some problems and threats stemming from irresponsible use of Internet. Unmonitored use of Internet may cause damages in childrens and young peoples physical, psychological, social and cognitive development. It seems imperative to assure that children and young people can benefit from computers and Internet resources effectively and productively while measures for appropriate and safe use of Internet are to be taken into serious consideration. Therefore, the government offices and institutions should lay stress upon the issue; education professionals and parents should be well-informed and regularly updated; and finally children and young people should be educated and monitored to achieve a better and efficient use of Internet. In this paper, has been mentioned to negative effect of internet usage on physical, psychosocial and cognitive health of children and young people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 445-450
Sudden death in young people: Heart problems often blamed Sudden death in young people is rare, but those at ... causes and treatments. By Mayo Clinic Staff Sudden death in people younger than 35, often due to ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse by young people is an important public health issue, and has led to the development of a range of prevention interventions. Evidence concerning the most effective approaches to intervention design and implementation is limited. Parental involvement in school-based interventions is important, but many programmes fail to recruit large numbers of parents. This paper reports findings from an exploratory evaluation of a new alcohol misuse prevention programme - Kids, Adults Together (KAT, which comprised a classroom component, engagement with parents through a fun evening for families with children aged 9-11 years, and a DVD. The evaluation aimed to establish the programme's theoretical basis, explore implementation processes and acceptability, and identify plausible precursors of the intended long-term outcomes. Methods Documentary analysis and interviews with key personnel examined the programme's development. Classroom preparation and KAT family events in two schools were observed. Focus groups with children, and interviews with parents who attended KAT family events were held immediately after programme delivery, and again after three months. Interviews with head teachers and with teachers who delivered the classroom preparation were conducted. Follow-up interviews with programme personnel were undertaken. Questionnaires were sent to parents of all children involved in classroom preparation. Results KAT achieved high levels of acceptability and involvement among both children and parents. Main perceived impacts of the programme were increased pro-social communication within families (including discussions about harmful parental alcohol consumption, heightened knowledge and awareness of the effects of alcohol consumption and key legal and health issues, and changes in parental drinking behaviours. Conclusions KAT demonstrated promise as a prevention intervention, primarily through its impact on knowledge and
Prusik, Katarzyna; Prusik, Krzysztof; Bartik, Pavol; Dix, Barbara; Szewczyk, Piotr; Zukow, Walery
Abstract The problem of low levels of physical activity of youth is very current, both in Poland and in Europe. This phenomenon is largely due to the adverse effects of development of society. Poland belongs to the group of countries in which the problem of non-communicable diseases (of civilization) only begins to be distributed. Aim of this study is to assess the level of awareness of recreation and tourism, students aged 16-18 years, studying at High School No. III in Torun, and th...
The aim of this study is to explore the determinants of the educational expectations of young people in disadvantaged urban areas in three large cities in Sweden. In addition to the conventional predictors such as parental resources (economic and cultural capital) and demographic characteristics (such as age, gender, immigration background), this…
Roberts-Collins, Cara; Mahoney-Davies, Gerwyn; Russell, Ailsa; Booth, Anne; Loades, Maria
Young people with autism spectrum disorder experience high levels of emotional problems, including anxiety and depression. Adapted cognitive behavioural therapy is recommended for such difficulties. However, no evidence suggests whether emotion awareness is important in treatment outcome for young people on the autism spectrum. This study aimed to investigate the potential differences in emotion awareness between (1) young people on the autism spectrum and typically developing youth and (2) young people on the autism spectrum with and without experience of cognitive behavioural therapy. Three groups (aged 11-20 years) participated: (1) typically developing young people ( n = 56); (2) young people on the autism spectrum with no experience of cognitive behavioural therapy ( n = 23); and (3) young people on the autism spectrum who had attended cognitive behavioural therapy ( n = 33). All participants completed the Emotion Awareness Questionnaire-30 item version. Young people on the autism spectrum differed significantly from typically developing young people on the emotional awareness measure. Young people on the autism spectrum who had attended cognitive behavioural therapy scored significantly lower on the Differentiating Emotions subscale, and significantly higher on the Attending to Others' Emotions subscale, compared to young people on the autism spectrum who had not attended cognitive behavioural therapy. This study highlights the importance of psycho-educational components of cognitive behavioural therapy when adapting for young people on the autism spectrum.
Gerking, Shelby; Khaddaria, Raman
Using the Annenberg Perception of Tobacco Risk Survey 2, this paper finds that perceived risk deters smoking among persons aged 14-22 years who think that it is relatively difficult to quit smoking and that onset of deleterious health effects occurs relatively quickly. Perceived health risk, however, does not affect the smoking status of young people who hold the opposite beliefs. These results are consistent with predictions of rational addiction models and suggest that young people, who view smoking as more addictive and health effects as more immediate, may have greater incentive to consider long-term health effects in their decision to smoke. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Providing the evidence-base to establish whether mindfulness for young people is beneficial is undoubtedly more challenging than it has been for adults. First of all there are the practical difficulties in training teachers to deliver mindfulness well. Yet this is what needs to be done; teachers with the class management and pedagogical expertise…
Walker, Shelley; Sanci, Lena; Temple-Smith, Meredith
Young people's "sexting"--defined by the "Macquarie Dictionary Online" (2010) as the sending and receiving of sexually explicit images via mobile phones--has become a focus of much media reporting; however, research regarding the phenomenon is in its infancy. This paper reports on the first phase of a study to understand this activity more…
Nielsen, Stine Frydendal; Ottesen, Laila; Thing, Lone Friis
regarding physical activity. 469 students participated in the survey. It is carried out through the online program SurveyXact. The data is processed in SPSS, and subsequently discussed. The primary results reveal that spare time jobs have a large impact on young people’s participation in physical activity......; Shame has an immense influence on the girls’ participation in physical activity; The offers regarding physical activity, provided by the school, appeal more to the boys and the students who are already physically active. Consequently, the students express a wish to have more influence on physical...... of young people today. This means that participation in physical activity cannot be discussed independently, but must always be viewed within the context of the lives of young people today....
Zvereva M. V.
Full Text Available The article presents analyze the phenomenon of procrastination and indirect manifestations of aggression in young people in normal health and mental disorders. Procrastination - a frequent phenomenon among young people, for this category the term “academic procrastination”; the high level of the various manifestations of aggression can also accompany adolescents in health and disease. The purpose of research is analysis of the relationship of procrastination and manifestations of aggression in health and mental disorders in adolescence. A complex of methods of psychological diagnosis, which included: questionnaire “Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students” (PASS, Solomon & Rothblum, 1984 Rosenzweig Frustration Test, Wagners Hand Test. We studied two samples of subjects 18-25 years: a control group of healthy young people (boys and girls - 61 people, the experimental group - young people of both sexes who had mental disorders (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, affective disorders bipolar disorder, personality disorder – 57. The results indicate the presence of the specific nature of components procrastination and indirect aggression manifestations of different levels at a young age for mental pathology
Milburn, Norweeta G; Batterham, Philip; Ayala, George; Rice, Eric; Solorio, Rosa; Desmond, Kate; Lord, Lynwood; Iribarren, Javier; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
We examined the associations among perceived discrimination, racial/ethnic identification, and emotional distress in newly homeless adolescents. We assessed a sample of newly homeless adolescents (n=254) in Los Angeles, California, with measures of perceived discrimination and racial/ethnic identification. We assessed emotional distress using the Brief Symptom Inventory and used multivariate linear regression modeling to gauge the impact of discrimination and racial identity on emotional distress. Controlling for race and immigration status, gender, and age, young people with a greater sense of ethnic identification experienced less emotional distress. Young people with a history of racial/ethnic discrimination experienced more emotional distress. Intervention programs that contextualize discrimination and enhance racial/ethnic identification and pride among homeless young people are needed.
Full Text Available Over the last three decades, topics relating to young peoples leisure time have become increasingly more present in academic literature. Among the numerous studies that delve into this subject, results point towards a relationship between the way teenagers spend their leisure time and their gender. In this study we wanted to answer the question if gender differences were evident in the way secondary school students in Serbia spent their leisure time. This problem was not looked into in more detail among secondary school students in Serbia. We conducted a survey on a sample of 922 secondary school teenagers from the 1st to 4th grade(ages 15–19 from nine Serbian towns. Research in this field commonly uses the rating scale. In this paper we have constructed an instrument that represents a methodological innovation in approaching a particular set of problems. It was a questionnaire. The task was to name all the activities they participated in, and the time frame in which the activities took place, over the course of one weekday and the Saturday of the previous week. The activities which best differentiate these two groups of surveyed teenagers are: sports, studying, computer use, spending time at friends’ homes and grooming. We did not discover differences in participating in creative activities while foreign studies show that such activities are more typical for girls.
Across Europe children's nurses today face many challenges, including rising childhood obesity, the soaring incidence of issues with the mental health of children and young people, the effects of social media, child maltreatment and the impact of poverty, war and conflict on children and families. There are opportunities for children's nurses to undertake new roles and to influence both policy and practice to improve the health outcomes of children and young people, and thereby the future health of the population.
The protection of young people from troubling and disturbing onlinecontent is rightly a high policy priority in Western nations. However, ‘the child’ is increasingly being defined as anyone below the age of majority: 18 in most nations. The significant age and maturity differences between primary school children and teenagers are recognised in most cinema classification schemes but less nuanced in terms of regulated online content. While there is considerable evidence that younger children be...
There has been an unprecedented reduction in the number of young people in prison; however, questions remain about the appropriateness and effectiveness of custody, given the high prevalence of health needs, self-inflected deaths while in custody and high reoffending rates. Articles relating to the health needs of young people, aged 10-17 years in prison in England and Wales were sourced through PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge, plus additional key reports were included if deemed relevant. Young people in prison have much higher rates of multiple and complex health problems compared with young people in the general population. However, many of their health-care needs are unrecognized and unmet. There is an urgent need for up-to-date and robust prevalence data of all health needs across the age ranges in England and Wales. Research has neglected physical health and neurodevelopmental disorders and the quality of research for females and Black and Minority Ethnic group's requires improvement. There is a dearth of high-quality evaluations of health interventions with robust and sensitive short- and long-term outcome measures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available It is a growing phenomenon that young people use mobile information and communication technologies during their nightlife. This article offers an empirical examination of how young people's nightlife is shaped by engagement with the mobile phone application WhatsApp. Drawing on Sara Ahmed's phenomenological concept of orientation, I examine how WhatsApp extends young people's nightlife and how young people become orientated therein. On the one hand, I show that nightlife acquires new boundaries and fixities that encourage young people to direct their attention towards missing social relations and absent nightlife places. On the other hand, I find that young people create new perceptions of how to inhabit and spend leisure time and space. I argue that digital technologies reorientate young people, which I suggest offers novel means of addressing young people's contemporary nightlife practices, places, spaces, and social relations.
Einfeld, Stewart L.; Piccinin, Andrea M.; Mackinnon, Andrew; Hofer, Scott M.; Taffe, John; Gray, Kylie M.; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Hoffman, Lesa R.; Parmenter, Trevor; Tonge, Bruce J.
Context Comorbid severe mental health problems complicating intellectual disability are a common and costly public health problem. Although these problems are known to begin in early childhood, little is known of how they evolve over time or whether they continue into adulthood. Objective To study the course of psychopathology in a representative population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. Design, Setting, and Participants The participants of the Australian Child to Adult Development Study, an epidemiological cohort of 578 children and adolescents recruited in 1991 from health, education, and family agencies that provided services to children with intellectual disability aged 5 to 19.5 years in 6 rural and urban census regions in Australia, were followed up for 14 years with 4 time waves of data collection. Data were obtained from 507 participants, with 84% of wave 1 (1991-1992) participants being followed up at wave 4 (2002-2003). Main Outcome Measures The Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC), a validated measure of psychopathology in young people with intellectual disability, completed by parents or other caregivers. Changes over time in the Total Behaviour Problem Score and 5 subscale scores of the DBC scores were modeled using growth curve analysis. Results High initial levels of behavioral and emotional disturbance decreased only slowly over time, remaining high into young adulthood, declining by 1.05 per year on the DBC Total Behaviour Problem Score. Overall severity of psychopathology was similar across mild to severe ranges of intellectual disability (with mean Total Behaviour Problem Scores of approximately 44). Psychopathology decreased more in boys than girls over time (boys starting with scores 2.61 points higher at baseline and ending with scores 2.57 points lower at wave 4), and more so in participants with mild intellectual disability compared with those with severe or profound intellectual disability who diverged from
Monks, Helen; Cardoso, Patricia; Papageorgiou, Alana; Carolan, Catherine; Costello, Leesa; Thomas, Laura
Social media is a central component in the lives of many young people, and provides innovative potential to conduct research among this population. Ethical issues around online research have been subject to much debate, yet young people have seldom been consulted to provide a youth perspective and voice. Eight (8) focus groups involving 48 Grade 9 Western Australian secondary school students aged 13-14 years were held in 2012, to investigate how young people perceive the feasibility and accep...
Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, 2011
An August 2010 Harris Interactive[R] survey, commissioned by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, posed questions about entrepreneurship to 5,077 U.S. young people ages eight to twenty-four. The results show that business ownership continues to capture the imaginations of America's youth, particularly for those who know a successful entrepreneur…
Sorbring, Emma; Hallberg, Jonas; Bohlin, Margareta; Skoog, Therése
Parental attitudes towards young people's sexuality in traditional (i.e. non-online media) settings have been associated with young people's sexual activities. In this study, we explored the association between key parent and youth characteristics and parental attitudes towards young people's online sexual activities. We also examined the…
Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Kyttälä, Minna
This study investigated Finnish young people's experiences of supportive housing. Supportive housing is an after-care programme that should support the transition from foster care to independent adulthood. It is directed mainly at young people who have been taken into foster care by social workers. The sample consisted of 39 young people (23…
Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on social and demographic factors of Ukr health literacy, health culture, young adults, concepts of health and healthy lifestyle, motivations, forms of communication, learning methods ainian youth money attitudes. The aim of the research is to identify dependency between money attitudes of the young people and such social and demographic characteristics as sex, age, education, place of residence, place of employment, employment position and level of income. The research required application of survey and questionnaire methods as well as statistical methods of results processing.
Davoren, M.P.; Cronin, M; Perry, I.J.
information from studies that produced types of alcohol consumption among young people. Method Quantitative and qualitative literature investigating the different types of drinkers among young people [aged 12–24 years], published in peer reviewed journals, were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review...... In total, 13 studies were eligible for inclusion: 11 quantitative, one qualitative and one mixed methods. Six classes of drinkers were formed within this typology. Abstainers reported no alcohol consumption. Light drinkers reported drinking small amounts of alcohol infrequently. In comparison, social......Background Currently, alcohol consumption levels are significantly higher among younger age groups. However, previous research has noted the diversity of motivations and patterns. These patterns of drinking have yet to be synthesised into a typology. The aim of the current study was to synthesise...
Le Prevost, Marthe; Arenas-Pinto, Alejandro; Melvin, Diane; Parrott, Francesca; Foster, Caroline; Ford, Deborah; Evangeli, Michael; Winston, Alan; Sturgeon, Kate; Rowson, Katie; Gibb, Diana M; Judd, Ali
Adolescents with perinatal HIV (PHIV) may be at higher risk of anxiety and depression than HIV negative young people. We investigated prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms in 283 PHIV and 96 HIV-affected (HIV-negative) young people in England recruited into the Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV (AALPHI) cohort. We used Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores and linear regression investigated predictors of higher (worse) scores.115 (41%) and 29 (30%) PHIV and HIV-affected young people were male, median age was 16 [interquartile range 15,18] and 16 [14,18] years and 241 (85%) and 71 (74%) were black African, respectively. There were no differences in anxiety and depression scores between PHIV and HIV-affected participants. Predictors of higher anxiety scores were a higher number of carers in childhood, speaking a language other than English at home, lower self-esteem, ever thinking life was not worth living and lower social functioning. Predictors of higher depression scores were male sex, death of one/both parents, school exclusion, lower self-esteem and lower social functioning. In conclusion, HIV status was not associated with anxiety or depression scores, but findings highlight the need to identify and support young people at higher risk of anxiety and depression..
Groups of young idea people come to eat, drink, and talk about new ideas that old idea people are working on to change the world for the better. The ideas may fix our body and mind, make our lives easier or harder, and more. The young idea people lead, learn, listen and act, so they can become old idea people. The young idea people scare the old idea people because their ideas are different. And, sometimes, the young idea people have new ideas that the old idea people have not thought about. When this happens it makes the old idea people happy and better at their work. The old idea people get to go places and share their ideas around the world. They make good money and have fun lives. They write about their work and can be well known, or not. The young idea people learn from the old idea people how they can be like them. Together the young and old idea people build things and talk about crazy ideas that may come to be. Sometimes the old idea people talk too much and don't listen. They use big words that can be hard to understand. But, the young idea people help them learn to use known words so everyone learns. We know the young idea people learn and grow from this act and they grow happier about their life. We also know that the old idea people get happy that the young idea people are so bright.
Mooney, Ann; Statham, J.; Storey, P.
This small-scale descriptive study was commissioned by the Children and Young People's Public Health team within the Department of Health, in partnership with Offender Health, in order to inform preparation and implementation of an Offender Health Strategy document for children and young people. The overall aim was to review what is currently known about healthcare for children and young people in the secure estate, covering all three types of settings (Young Offender Institution, Secure Trai...
This study investigates where certificate I and II qualifications lead young people aged 15-24 years in terms of employment and further study. A prime motivation for young people undertaking these qualifications is to facilitate transition into the labour market. These qualifications are aimed at developing basic vocational skills or preparatory…
The purpose of this paper was to conduct a scan of the current state of the evidence regarding what works in helping disconnected young people, defined as the population of young people ages 16 to 24 who are not connected to work or school. The following four main research questions were investigated: (1) What local, state, and federal policies…
Selwyn, Neil; Powell, Eryl
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to investigate how young people are using school-based sources of sex and relationships education (SRE) to obtain information and advice. Design/methodology/approach: The paper shows how anonymous self-completion questionnaires were administered to young people aged between 12 and 19 years in three secondary…
Oduro, Georgina Yaa; Otsin, Mercy
This paper examines Ghanaian young people's perceptions of the determinants of HIV- and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination, and how these perceptions may influence the de-stigmatisation process. Drawing on findings from an in-depth, multi-method qualitative study involving 104 school and street young people aged between 14 and 19 years, the…
Since assuming power in May 2010, the UK's Coalition government has devoted considerable energy to formulating its policies with respect to young people. Evidence of this can be found in "Positive for youth: a new approach to cross-government policy for young people aged 13-19", a policy text that outlines a wide range of measures to be…
National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012
The Australian education and training system offers a range of options for young people. This publication provides a summary of the statistics relating to young people aged 15 to 19 years who participated in an education and training activity during 2011. Information on participation is presented for VET in Schools students, school students,…
Hamilton, David J.; Taylor, Brian J.; Killick, Campbell; Bickerstaff, David
Self-harming and suicide amongst adolescents are reported to be increasing in Europe and internationally. For young people in state care, this aspect of mental well-being is of particular concern. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence of suicidal ideation and behaviour amongst young people (age 16-21 years) leaving state care in one…
O'Neil, Stephanie; Coulton, Simon; Deluca, Paolo; Deverill, Mark; Drummond, Colin; Gilvarry, Eilish; Graybill, Erin; Harle, Christine; Howel, Denise; Kaner, Eileen; McArdle, Paul; McColl, Elaine; McGovern, Ruth; Speed, Chris; Stamp, Elaine; Tate, Les; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy
Whilst the overall proportion of young people drinking alcohol in the United Kingdom has decreased in recent years, those who do drink appear to drink a larger amount, and more frequently. Early and heavy drinking by younger adolescents is a significant public health problem linked to intellectual impairment, increased risk of injuries, mental health issues, unprotected or regretted sexual experience, violence, and sometimes accidental death, which leads to high social and economic costs. This feasibility pilot trial aims to explore the feasibility of delivering brief alcohol intervention in a school setting with adolescents aged 14 and 15 and to examine the acceptability of study measures to school staff, young people and parents. Seven schools across one geographical area in the North East of England will be recruited. Schools will be randomly allocated to one of three conditions: provision of an advice leaflet (control condition, n = 2 schools); a 30-minute brief interactive session, which combines structured advice and motivational interviewing techniques delivered by the school learning mentor (level 1 condition, n = 2 schools); and a 60-minute session involving family members delivered by the school learning mentor (level 2 condition, n = 3 schools). Participants will be year 10 school pupils (aged 14 and 15) who screen positively on a single alcohol screening question and who consent to take part in the trial. Year 10 pupils in all seven schools will be followed up at 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcome measures include the ten-question Alcohol-Use Disorders Identification Test. The EQ-5D-Y and a modified short service use questionnaire will inform the health and social resource costs for any future economic evaluation.Young people recruited into the trial will also complete a 28-day timeline follow back questionnaire at 12-month follow-up. A qualitative evaluation (with young people, school staff, learning mentors, and parents) will examine
In recent years, education and family policy in the UK has sought to incorporate the views of children and young people through an active participation agenda, in the fulfilment of children's rights under the obligations of the UN Convention for the Rights of the Child. Drawing on empirical evidence, this paper suggests that this aspiration is…
Full Text Available We present a study of subjective life quality in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers. The study sample comprised 62 women aged 14 to 18 years. The experimental study group consisted of 30 students of grades VIII-XI of Secondary School of home-based learning № 1673 "Support". The control group included 32 student of grades VIII-XI of School № 1222 with in-depth study of the German language. The methods used were: Medical Outcomes Study 36 Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36, M. Kuhn test "Who am I" (M. Kuhn, T. McPartland; modification by T.V. Rumjantseva, Method and diagnosis of health, activity and mood, projective technique "Picture of the actual self" and "Picture of the desired self" with questions. We formulated conclusions about the features of the subjective assessment of the quality of life in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers.
The study explore risk factors associated with the onset of suicidal behavior in young people aged 15 to 24. The study survey possible risk factors and protective factors in order to evaluate if altering the conditions of children’s upbringing, structural factors, geographical segregation......, or individual resource deficits could reduce their suicidal behavior (first time suicide attempts and completed suicides). These issues are being examined using data gathered during a 10-year longitudinal study of two births cohorts of more than 145,000 young people born in 1966 or 1980. In the Nordic welfare...... model it is an ambition to level-out inequalities and give children the same opportunities despite parental income or educational resources. The paper focuses on suicidal behavior as an extreme indicator of individual disadvantage and social disintegration in order to disentangle groups of risk factors...
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to analyze patterns of online usage of Romanian teenagers aged 9–16 years old, and to define the main online user types among them. We outlined user types taking into consideration differences of individual online media repertoires. The premise of the study is that Romanian young people are not omogeneus regarding their online media repertoires, but we can identify several user types among them. We looked for individual and social factors which influence patterns of online use of Romanian young people. We base our study on the analysis conducted on the empirical data of the EU Kids Online II (2010 project regarding Romanian youth
Mannie, Z N; Williams, C; Browning, M; Cowen, P J
Major depression is associated with abnormalities in reward processing at neural and behavioural levels. Neural abnormalities in reward have been described in young people at familial risk of depression but behavioural changes in reward-based decision making have been less studied in this group. We studied 63 young people (mean age 18.9 years) with a parent with a diagnosis of major depression but who had never been depressed themselves, that is with a positive family history of depression (the FH+ group). Participants performed the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT), which provides several measures of decision making including deliberation time, quality of decision making, risk taking, risk adjustment and delay aversion. A control group of 49 age- and gender-matched young people with no history of mood disorder in a first-degree relative undertook the same task. Both FH+ participants and controls had low and equivalent scores on anxiety and depression self-rating scales. Compared to controls, the FH+ participants showed overall lower risk taking, although like controls they made more risky choices as the odds of a favourable outcome increased. No other measures of decision making differed between the two groups. Young people at increased familial risk of depression have altered risk taking that is not accounted for by current affective symptomatology. Lowered risk taking might represent an impairment in reward seeking, which is one of several changes in reward-based behaviours seen in acutely depressed patients; however, our findings suggest that decreased reward seeking could be part of a risk endophenotype for depression.
Надежда Павловна Белоусова
As a result of the study, the average BDNF level was exceeded by more than 20 % in young people compared with representatives of the middle-aged group. In young people, the decline in cognitive functions correlates with an increase in the level of BDNF, which, on the one hand, can be explained both by higher regenerative abilities of the young organism and as a prerequisite for explaining the pathogenetic aspects of the initial manifestations of cognitive deficits.
In these accounts, the voices of young people have been largely absent. Although ... in eastern Congo from September to December 2009 as part of the author's doctoral ..... More rarely, young Congolese recognised the contribution made by ...
... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails E-Cigarettes and Young People: A Public Health Concern Language: ... young adults you know about the dangers of e-cigarette use. E-cigarettes, devices that typically deliver nicotine, ...
Juul, Tilde Mette; Lundby, Astrid Arbjerg
’ decision making competences, but also to an guide the students towards certain educations that is seen to fit the society’s future need for work force, especially vocational education and science education. Despite these initiatives increasing number of students choose to go to gymnasium – and less......In Denmark there is significant political attention towards leading young people faster through the education system. Through new policies and benefit structures the government aims to reduce the number of gap years in the transition between general upper secondary education (‘gymnasium......’) and higher education. At the same time a political reform has made it more difficult to take on leave, switch education and do work experience during the studies. Simultaneously there is increasing attention on student guidance on all educational levels. The aim is on one hand to improve the students...
Wong, Donna Shy Yun
This thesis investigates how sport is employed in the new media age as mediated sport goes through the liminal phase of new media. Set against the contextual background of recurrent ‘moral panics’ that accompanied each new wave of media innovation, this study aimed to chart young people’s involvement in sport via the use of new media technology. The thesis concentrated on three research issues: access to, uses of, and the displacement effect of new media. Four major forms of ne...
Morgan, Sue; Soanes, Louise
Nursing Adolescents and Young Adults (AYA) with cancer is a relatively new specialty, with much work having been undertaken across Europe. As this evolving specialty develops, nurses are required to develop networks, learn from each other and help to shape services across countries. Describing the cancer journey, this paper looks at the literature and, merging it with over 20years of experience, describes 'what is different' about looking after this group of young people. Looking at the specific issues about caring for AYA, including those issues that are pertinent in this age range: i.e. education/employment, fertility, body image, peers, family relationships, it discusses the development of specific services for this cohort of patients; one that is centred around the young person and their friends and families. Taking into account the need to develop multidisciplinary teams, it also highlights the needs of nurses who work in these teams, the education, skills and attributes needed to develop gold standard services for these challenging young people. The further development of nursing networks internationally is urged in order to share practice and expertise, nurture teams and bring the AYA with cancer into sharp focus. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. All rights reserved.
Prescott, Julie; Gray, Nicola J; Smith, Felicity J; McDonagh, Janet E
The development of services that are responsive to the needs of users is a health policy priority. Finding ways of engaging young people in research to gain insights into their particular experiences, perspectives, and needs is vital but challenging. These data are critical to improving services in ways that meet the needs of young people. Our aim was to evaluate Web-based blogging as a viable method for understanding the daily experiences and condition management strategies of young people with juvenile arthritis. To meet the objectives of the study, a qualitative approach was required to gather information on the experiences and perspectives of young people regarding the management of their condition and its daily impact. In collaboration with a group of young people with arthritis, a custom website was developed. This website provided the opportunity for young people (aged 11-19) with arthritis from a United Kingdom pediatric hospital to contribute blogs. It was designed so that young people were free to write about whatever was important to them, but the site also included some structure and prompts to facilitate the writing of blogs. Qualitative analytical procedures were employed, supported by NVivo software. Engagement in the study by young people was variable in terms of their participation rates, frequency of website visits, and the length of their blogs. Young people used the site in different ways, some responding to the website categories and prompts that the team created, while others used it as a diary to record their experiences and thoughts. In line with principles of qualitative inquiry, the data collection was participant-led. Young people were in control of what, how much, and how often they wrote. However, some young people expressed difficulty regarding knowing what they should blog about. For a number of reasons, discussed here, the blogs may also not be fully reflective of experiences and perspectives of the participants. However, the data
Whitehouse, William P; Agrawal, Shakti
Headache is very common in children and young people. The correct advice and treatment requires consideration of a wide differential diagnosis between primary and secondary headaches, and also of the different types of primary headache. The International Classification of Headache Disorders gives useful descriptions and diagnostic criteria that are especially useful for primary headaches. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Clinical Guideline 150 provides evidence-based recommendations on treatments for adults and young people from age 12 years. However, the same principles can be applied to younger children when a specific diagnosis can be made. Key recommendations from the NICE Quality Standards include, establishing a precise diagnosis if possible, avoiding, diagnosing and treating medication overuse headache, and combining a triptan with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug or paracetamol as the first-line acute/rescue treatment for migraine with or without aura. Although rare in children and young people, it is important to diagnose new daily persistent headache, as it responds poorly or not at all to medication; and paroxysmal hemicrania as it responds very well to indomethacin but not to other commonly used analgesics. When faced with difficulties in reaching a precise diagnosis or in finding effective therapies, further advice should be sought from a children's headache clinic or specialist. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Chanen, Andrew M
Although borderline personality disorder (BPD) usually has its onset in young people, its diagnosis and treatment is often delayed. The past 2 decades have seen a rapid increase in evidence establishing that BPD can be diagnosed before 18 years of age and that BPD in young people is both continuous with BPD in adults and more notable for its similarities than for any differences. This knowledge has led to the first wave of controlled treatment trials, which have established that early intervention through appropriate BPD diagnosis and treatment leads to clinically meaningful improvements for patients. However, there is still much work to do in terms of treatment development and innovation and overcoming challenges to successful translation of evidence into practice. To advance early intervention for BPD, access to evidence-based treatments needs to improve, the variety of available treatments (including novel pharmacotherapies) needs to increase, treatments need to be matched to individual development and to the phase and stage of disorder, and workforce development strategies need to update knowledge, culture, and practice in relation to BPD in young people. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet; Sandberg, Jonas; Hanson, Ulf; Tydén, Tanja
Pornography is one of the most sought-after topics on the Internet, and is easily available for anyone, including children and adolescents. At youth centres, nurse-midwives have noticed that young people have different kinds of questions about sexual practices compared with a few years ago. The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of thoughts and reflections about pornography consumption, and its possible influence on sexual practices, among young women and men. The staff at a youth centre in a city in central Sweden asked the visitors if they had seen pornography and if they wanted to be interviewed about their experiences. Ten young women and eight men, aged 16-23 years, participated. In-depth interviews were performed and open-ended questions about pornography and sexuality were posed. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed according to grounded theory. The core category 'Living with the current sexual norm' depicted how pornography created sexual expectations and demands, for instance, to perform certain sexual acts. The informants expressed contradictory feelings towards pornography and felt that sexuality was separated from intimacy. A moral attitude was described and examples of stereotypic gender roles were given. To deal with the current sexual norm, informants had different individual handling strategies and attitudes to pornography, namely liberal, normalization, distance, feminist or conservative. Limitations of this study were the small sample size and that results from a qualitative research study cannot be generalized. The results contribute to an understanding of how pornographic material can influence young peoples' thoughts, reflections and sexual behaviour. This indicates the importance, for personnel at youth centres and schools, to discuss sexual behaviour and how sexuality is portrayed in pornographic material with young people.
This paper analyses the relationship between young people's time use and maternal employment in the United Kingdom (UK). Two dimensions of young people's time use are important for understanding the impact of maternal employment. The first of these is family context. This concerns the time young people are near their parents or not. The second relates to young people's activity patterns. Combining information from both dimensions is necessary to provide a comprehensive overview of the impact of maternal employment on young people's time use. The paper demonstrates that young people's time use is associated with maternal employment both in terms of activity patterns and family context. Young people with employed mothers spend more time alone with a father, and more time with neither parent. More specifically, young people with mothers employed full time (FT) spend significantly more time watching TV than those whose mothers are not employed, especially when they are not near any parents. There is a negative association between FT maternal employment and the time young people spend in achievement-related activities, concentrated in time when alone with a mother. Unlike time in leisure activities or time watching TV, time in achievement-related activities when in the presence of a father does not increase to compensate for the loss in time spent in achievement-related activities when alone with a mother.
This paper describes a framework for a multi-disciplinary collaboration to investigate the role of technology for improving young Australians' mental health and wellbeing. The poor mental health of young Australians poses a significant challenge to Australia's future. Half of all Australians will experience a mental health difficulty in their lifetime and 75% of mental illness has its onset before age 25. Cross-sectoral collaboration is critical for meeting this challenge. In order to establish a world-first multi-partner collaboration, leading researchers and institutes, commercial, non-profit and end-user organization and young people were identified and invited to participate. Together we have developed an international research framework that explores the role of technologies in young people's lives, their potential and how this can be harnessed to address challenges facing young people. This research framework will: (i) conduct empirical research that tests the utility of technology across mental health promotion, prevention, early intervention and treatment and, (ii) translate existing and new knowledge into products and services that help create a generation of safe, happy, healthy and resilient young people. Research undertaken by the Collaboration will be the most comprehensive investigation of technologies' potential to improve the wellbeing of young people ever conducted, leading to significant benefits for Australian young people and their mental health.
Background: Unintended pregnancy, abortion and STI, including HIV are common sexual and reproductive health problems among young people in Kenya and Zambia. Yet, the reproductive health services are underutilised. Nurses and midwives are key providers in the promotion young people s sexual and reproductive health in Kenya and Zambia. Aim: The overall aim was to describe and explore young people s sexual and reproductive health needs and experiences and to describe health ...
Notes a chasm between cultural and occupational aspirations (for self-realization) and the existing job market. Suggests the opening of a new sector of people work, e.g. services for the very young and very old, urban and community task forces, political participation groups, agencies for intergroup conflict resolution, etc. (JT)
Drawing on an ethnographic case study of young people's (aged 18-29) use of emergency contraceptives (ECs) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, this article highlights areas of disconnect between how reproductive health experts envision EC use and local meanings ascribed to ECs by young people. ECs - designed by reproductive health experts to be used only in case of emergency - were preferred by study participants over other contraceptive methods because of their ease of use, discreetness, perceived minimal side effects on beauty and future fertility, and usefulness in navigating reproductive intentions. The findings point to features that young people find desirable when it comes to contraceptive methods and suggest that common assumptions of reproductive health experts about young people's contraceptive practices need to be reconsidered, namely: 1) that young people can plan for prevention of unwanted pregnancy by buying a contraceptive method in advance; 2) that existing contraceptive technologies are appropriate for young people; 3) that young people prefer to use modern contraceptive methods; and 4) that young people in premarital relationships aim to prevent unplanned pregnancy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Godia, Pamela M; Olenja, Joyce M; Hofman, Jan J; van den Broek, Nynke
Addressing the Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) needs of young people remains a big challenge. This study explored experiences and perceptions of young people in Kenya aged 10-24 with regard to their SRH needs and whether these are met by the available healthcare services. 18 focus group discussions and 39 in-depth interviews were conducted at health care facilities and youth centres across selected urban and rural settings in Kenya. All interviews were tape recorded and transcribed. Data was analysed using the thematic framework approach. Young people's perceptions are not uniform and show variation between boys and girls as well as for type of service delivery. Girls seeking antenatal care and family planning services at health facilities characterise the available services as good and staff as helpful. However, boys perceive services at health facilities as designed for women and children, and therefore feel uncomfortable seeking services. At youth centres, young people value the non-health benefits including availability of recreational facilities, prevention of idleness, building of confidence, improving interpersonal communication skills, vocational training and facilitation of career progression. Providing young people with SRH information and services through the existing healthcare system, presents an opportunity that should be further optimised. Providing recreational activities via youth centres is reported by young people themselves to not lead to increased uptake of SRH healthcare services. There is need for more research to evaluate how perceived non-health benefits young people do gain from youth centres could lead to improved SRH of young people.
Donoghue, Christopher; Bonillas, Consuelo; Moreno, Jeniffer; Cardoza, Omara; Cheung, Melissa
Sexual and reproductive health indicators for young people in the USA have improved in recent decades, but teenage pregnancies remain high, and large differences between Whites and non-Whites persist in teenage births, abortions, and the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Prior research shows that young people are receptive to…
Little contemporary research has examined young people's experiences of violence and homelessness in detail within the Australian context. This article draws upon qualitative research with 33 homeless youth in Melbourne and seeks to enhance understanding of the impact of violence on young people. It argues that everyday experiences of violence…
Beneker, T.; Sanders, R.; Tani, S.; Taylor, L.
Urban environments form the setting of everyday life for most Western young people. This article explores visual representations of cities made by young people in a range of environments within four countries. The findings inform a larger study on urban geographies within geography education. We
Frørup, Anna Kathrine; Jensen, Niels Rosendal
how young people's (living in a socially disadvantaged area) possibilities, aspirations and demands are raised, strengthened, transformed or put aside and in what way they feel participating within different local programmes.......how young people's (living in a socially disadvantaged area) possibilities, aspirations and demands are raised, strengthened, transformed or put aside and in what way they feel participating within different local programmes....
This article presents the key findings of a recent study investigating young people's knowledge and understanding of Jesus and demonstrates how young people today appear to be experiencing the same difficulties when engaging with the figure of Jesus in the religious education classroom as they did almost 40 years ago. It concludes by suggesting…
Mallett, Shelley; Rosenthal, Doreen; Keys, Deborah
Young people who experience homelessness, in Australia and in other western contexts (US, Canada, England), are widely perceived to use and abuse alcohol and drugs. The available research indicates that homeless young people use all drug types, whether injected or otherwise, more frequently than their home-based peers. Debate exists in the…
to talk about their psychological distress. ... impact of this group of young people who presented to Kings ... and social assessment of young people following a serious physical assault as ... pediatric liaison Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS). ... highlights various factors that may be at work leading to the.
The article deals with the formation of the social biographies of young people through the interplay of structure and agency. The aim is to provide a grounded typology of patterns of young people's agency within the process of shaping social biographies. The structural context addressed in the article consists of family resources and habitus. The…
Rean, A. A.
Despite the fact that the family is extremely significant in the system of values of young people (in Russia), the number of divorces is increasing in this population group. Our analysis of this contradiction establishes that young people need to be specially prepared for family life. The paper presents the results of a large empirical study…
This paper asks, what more can we think in relation to debates around young people's use of mobile phones at school? Rather than attempting to answer the question of whether mobile phones are "good" or "bad" for young people, this paper recasts the debate's ontological underpinnings. To do this feminist appropriations of the…
Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013
Too many young people leave education (including vocational education) too soon. Yet early leavers are at greater risk of long-term unemployment, poverty and crime, and now cost the European economy 1.25% of GDP. This brief report looks at the reasons why young people leave and what could be done to end this trend. Considerations for policy-makers…
Gur'ianova, M. P.
Research on rural youth in Russia shows that keeping qualified and ambitious young people in the rural economy will require creating conditions for young people to exercise initiative in the rural economy and diminishing the gap in quality of life between rural and urban environments. Only in this way can the pessimism of rural youth be overcome.
Measurement properties of performance-based outcome measures to assess physical function in young and middle-aged people known to be at high risk of hip and/or knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review.
Kroman, S L; Roos, E M; Bennell, K L; Hinman, R S; Dobson, F
To systematically appraise the evidence on measurement properties of performance-based outcome measures to assess physical function in young and middle-aged people known to be at high risk of hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA). Electronic searches were performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus and SPORTDiscus in May 2013. Two reviewers independently rated the measurement properties using the 4-point COSMIN checklist. Best evidence synthesis was made using COSMIN quality, consistency and direction of findings and sample size. Twenty of 2736 papers were eligible for inclusion and 24 different performance-based outcome measures knee or obese populations were evaluated. No tests related to hip populations were included. Twenty-five measurement properties including reliability (nine studies), construct validity (hypothesis testing) (nine studies), measurement error (three studies), structural validity (two studies), interpretability (one study) and responsiveness (one study) were evaluated. A positive rating was given to 12.5% (30/240) of all possible measurement ratings. Tests were grouped into two categories based on the population characteristics. The one-legged hop for distance, followed by the 6-m timed hop and cross over hop for distance were the best-rated tests for the knee-injured population. Whereas the 6-min walk test was the only included test for the obese population. This review highlights the many gaps in knowledge about the measurement properties of performance-based outcome measures for young and middle-aged people known to be at high risk of hip and/or knee OA. There is a need for consensus on which outcome measures should be used and/or combined when assessing physical function in this population. Further good quality research is required. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rigby, Emma; Starbuck, Lindsay
Young people from marginalised groups can be excluded from health services because of reduced access, increased stigma and health inequalities. In addition, the stress associated with discrimination and stigma can have serious effects on individual health. This article explores how stigma affects young people's access to services and how health professionals can improve their practice and support for marginalised young people to achieve the best possible health outcomes. A better understanding of local populations of young people and their needs is key to improving services and support. Working in partnership with voluntary and community sector organisations is also important. In addition, improvements can be made by promoting better communication with young people and providing extra support to help them follow treatment plans. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Fox, Fiona E; Morris, Marianne; Rumsey, Nichola
Although online focus groups are emerging as a worthwhile methodological approach for qualitative researchers, reporting has been constrained in several ways. The majority of studies report asynchronous groups, whereas others employ synchronous exchanges, the efficacy of which with young people has seldom been explored. Considering the popularity of the Internet as a communication tool for young people, this missed opportunity is surprising. Based on a series of synchronous online focus groups with young people, the authors explore why this approach might be an effective way of engaging young people with appearance-related concerns in research. In this article, they discuss the process of hosting and moderating synchronous online focus groups, highlighting some of the ethical, pragmatic, and personal challenges that might face researchers using this method. Through a reflexive approach, they intend to inform and encourage qualitative researchers to consider alternative ways of engaging young people in research.
Gardner, SM; Komesaroff, P; Fensham, R
Dance classes in urban settings may have a role in health-promotion programmes seeking to increase physical activity amongst young people. However, little is so far known about the motivations, experiences or health outcomes of those participating in dance classes. This qualitative study of young people attending recreational dance classes addressed motivations, the nature of the class experience, and implications for health and well-being. Data show that young dance participants' experiences...
I. B. Bovina
Full Text Available We discuss the first phase results of a research project dedicated to study of suicide representations in youth. In the framework of structural approach to social representations, we study features of structure and content of social representations of suiciders in two groups of young people (the criterion for group allocation was their acquaintance with people who has suicide attempts. Our sample (N = 106 consisted of representatives of several youth groups (students and working youths with specialized secondary, higher or incomplete higher education, aged 18 to 35 years (M = 23,48 years, SD = 4,36 years: 67 women and 39 men. The 1st group includes respondents personally acquainted with suicide attempters (44 respondents, the 2nd group – respondents without such experience. The subject of research were common representations of suiciders. We tested assumptions about the specificity of protective functions of social representations, as well as consistency of representations in the two groups of respondents.
Van Hees, R.P.J.; Naldini, S.
Age and ageing can be felt as negative occurrences. For monuments however, old age is traditionally considered to be a positive quality. Without a certain age the nomination of monument hardly applies. Ageing can be seen as the work of time, which has always been valued: ageing was sometimes even
Whilst data on statutory homelessness is well recorded in the UK, there is a lack of data on informal homelessness (such as ‘sofa surfing’) and rough sleeping, other than that which relies on partial information and street counts. This paper presents findings from a recent online survey of young people and helps to fill this gap. It found that rates of sofa surfing and rough sleeping among young people were much higher than previously thought. Twenty-six percent of young people (aged 16–25) h...
Moore, Elizabeth; Indig, Devon; Haysom, Leigh
Despite being at high risk, little is known about traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) among incarcerated young people. This study aims to describe the prevalence of TBI among incarcerated young people and assess the association with mental health, substance use, and offending behaviors. The 2009 NSW Young People in Custody Health Survey was conducted in 9 juvenile detention centers. A total of 361 young people agreed to participate, representing 80% of all incarcerated young people. Young people were asked if they ever had a head injury where they became unconscious or "blacked-out." The survey used the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders for Children to assess for psychiatric disorders, the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and the Severity of Dependence Scale to measure problematic substance use. The sample comprised 88% man, 48% Aboriginal, with an average age of 17 years. One-third (32%) of young people reported ever experiencing a TBI, and 13% reported multiple TBIs. The majority (92%) of "most serious" TBIs were defined as mild, and the most common cause was an assault (62% woman, 34% man). Young people who reported a history of TBI (compared with those reporting no TBI) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with a mental health disorder, psychological distress, a history of bullying, problematic substance use, participation in fights, and offending behaviors. Reporting multiple (>2) TBIs conferred a higher risk of psychological disorders and problematic substance use. Incarcerated young people have high rates of TBI. Enhanced detection of TBI among incarcerated young people will assist clinicians in addressing the associated psychosocial sequelae.
Fergie, Gillian; Hunt, Kate; Hilton, Shona
The growth of the Internet as an information source about health, particularly amongst young people, is well established. The aim of this study was to explore young people's perceptions and experiences of engaging with health-related online content, particularly through social media websites. Between February and July 2011 nine focus groups were facilitated across Scotland with young people aged between 14 and 18 years. Health-related user-generated content seems to be appreciated by young people as a useful, if not always trustworthy, source of accounts of other people's experiences. The reliability and quality of both user-generated content and official factual content about health appear to be concerns for young people, and they employ specialised strategies for negotiating both areas of the online environment. Young people's engagement with health online is a dynamic area for research. Their perceptions and experiences of health-related content seem based on their wider familiarity with the online environment and, as the online environment develops, so too do young people's strategies and conventions for accessing it.
George, Varghese K.; de Armas, Lesley R.; Pahwa, Rajendra; Sanchez, Celeste M.; Pallin, Maria Fernanda; Pan, Li; Cotugno, Nicola; Dickinson, Gordon; Rodriguez, Allan; Fischl, Margaret; Alcaide, Maria; Gonzalez, Louis; Palma, Paolo; Pahwa, Savita
Combination antiretroviral therapies (cART) can lead to normal life expectancy in HIV-infected persons, and people aged >50 yrs represent the fastest growing HIV group. Although HIV and aging are independently associated with impaired humoral immunity, immune status in people aging with HIV is relatively unexplored. In this study influenza vaccination was used to probe age associated perturbations in the B cell compartment of HIV-negative “healthy controls” (HC) and virologically controlled HIV-infected participants on cART (HIV) (n=124), grouped by age as young (<40 yrs), middle-aged (40-59yrs) or old (≥60 yrs). H1N1 antibody response at d21 post-vaccination correlated inversely with age in both HC and HIV. Immunophenotyping of cryopreserved PBMC demonstrated increased frequencies of double negative B cells and decreased plasmablasts in old compared to young HC. Remarkably, young HIV were different from young HC but similar to old HC in B cell phenotype, influenza specific spontaneous (d7) or memory (d21) antibody secreting cells. We conclude that B cell immune senescence is a prominent phenomenon in young HIV in comparison to young HC, but distinctions between old HIV and old HC are less evident though both groups manifest age-associated B cell dysfunction. PMID:28448963
Rinaldi, Stefano; Pallikkuth, Suresh; George, Varghese K; de Armas, Lesley R; Pahwa, Rajendra; Sanchez, Celeste M; Pallin, Maria Fernanda; Pan, Li; Cotugno, Nicola; Dickinson, Gordon; Rodriguez, Allan; Fischl, Margaret; Alcaide, Maria; Gonzalez, Louis; Palma, Paolo; Pahwa, Savita
Combination antiretroviral therapies (cART)can lead to normal life expectancy in HIV-infected persons, and people aged >50 yrs represent the fastest growing HIV group. Although HIV and aging are independently associated with impaired humoral immunity, immune status in people aging with HIV is relatively unexplored. In this study influenza vaccination was used to probe age associated perturbations in the B cell compartment of HIV-negative "healthy controls" (HC) and virologically controlled HIV-infected participants on cART (HIV) (n=124), grouped by age as young (aged (40-59yrs) or old ( > 60 yrs). H1N1 antibody response at d21 post-vaccination correlated inversely with age in both HC and HIV. Immunophenotyping of cryopreserved PBMC demonstrated increased frequencies of double negative B cells and decreased plasmablasts in old compared to young HC. Remarkably, young HIV were different from young HC but similar to old HC in B cell phenotype, influenza specific spontaneous (d7) or memory (d21) antibody secreting cells. We conclude that B cell immune senescence is a prominent phenomenon in young HIV in comparison to young HC, but distinctions between old HIV and old HC are less evident though both groups manifest age-associated B cell dysfunction.
Scott, Emma; Dale, Jeremy; Russell, Rachel; Wolke, Dieter
Childhood bullying is a major risk factor for health, education and social relationships, with effects persisting into adulthood. It affects half of all children at some point, with 10-14 % experiencing bullying that lasts for years. With the advent of cyberbullying, it can happen at all times and places. There have been calls for GPs to take a more active role in identifying and supporting young people who are being bullied. This paper explores young people's and parents' opinions about whether general practice should be involved in identifying and supporting young people who are being bullied. Two hundred six young people (85.9 % female, mean ± sd age 16.2 ± 3.2 years) and 44 parents were recruited through established bullying charity websites and their social media channels to complete an online questionnaire comprising multiple-choice questions and unlimited narrative responses. Questionnaire responses were analysed by age and gender using descriptive statistics. A descriptive analysis of the narrative responses was undertaken and key themes identified. Young people (90.8 %) and parents (88.7 %) thought it was important for GPs to be better able to recognise and help young people who are being bullied. Most recognised the link between bullying and health. The doctor's independence was seen as advantageous. Young people preferred completing a screening questionnaire to disclose experience of being bullied than being asked directly. They expressed concerns about how questions would be asked and whether information would be shared with parents/guardians. Parents were supportive of the use of a screening questionnaire, and most expected their child's disclosure to be shared with them. Young people and parents recruited through anti-bullying websites and social media would welcome greater GP involvement in identifying and supporting young people who are being bullied and their families, provided it is offered in a caring, compassionate and
Conway, Sally; Meyer, Donald
In the USA and UK, at least one in ten children and young people have special health, developmental and mental health concerns. Most of these people have typically developing brothers and sisters. As the people who, over the course of their lifetimes together, will be most involved with their siblings with special needs, it is important that…
Come Yélian Adohinzin, Clétus; Meda, Nicolas; Anicet Ouédraogo, Georges; Gaston Belem, Adrien Marie; Sombié, Issiaka; Berthé, Abdramane; Bakwin Kandala, Ngianga; Damienne Avimadjenon, Georgette; Fond-Harmant, Laurence
Introduction: Despite health education efforts, young people are still faced with major health problems. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding HIV prevention and unwanted pregnancy among young people in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Methods: Based on two-level sampling, representing 94,947 households in the Bobo-Dioulasso municipality, 573 young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years were interviewed. This data collection was conducted from September 2014 to January 2015 in the three districts of the municipality. A questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitudes of young people. Results: The interviewees had a poor knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention and contraception Very few young people (9%) had complete knowledge about the modes of transmission and 5% had no knowledge. Persistent misperceptions about the effectiveness of condoms (25%) and contraception (32%) did not prevent some young people from using them (79% used condoms and 46% used contraceptives). Knowledge and attitudes of young people regarding HIV and contraception varied according to age, sex, education level and type of parental supervision. Conclusion: A significant proportion of young people still has incomplete knowledge about HIV/AIDS and contraception. Actions designed to reinforce the knowledge of young people are of paramount importance. The capacities of parents and healthcare providers also need to be reinforced to improve the quality of relationship with young people.
Sowden, A; Arblaster, L; Stead, L
Decisions to smoke are made within a broad social context. Community interventions use co-ordinated, widespread, multi-component programmes to try and influence behaviour. To determine the effectiveness of community interventions in preventing the uptake of smoking in young people. The Tobacco Addiction group specialised register, Medline and other health, psychology and public policy electronic databases were searched, the bibliographies of identified studies were checked and contact was made with content area specialists. Searches were updated in September 2002. Randomised and non randomised controlled trials that assessed the effectiveness of multi-component community interventions compared to no intervention or to single component or school-based programmes only. Reported outcomes had to include smoking behaviour in young people under the age of 25 years. Information relating to the characteristics and the content of community interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the study was extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second. Studies were combined using qualitative narrative synthesis. Seventeen studies were included in the review, 46 studies did not meet all of the inclusion criteria. All studies used a controlled trial design, with six using random allocation of schools or communities. Of thirteen studies which compared community interventions to no intervention controls, two, which were part of cardiovascular disease prevention programmes, reported lower smoking prevalence. Of three studies comparing community interventions to school-based programmes only, one found differences in reported smoking prevalence. One study reported a lower rate of increase in prevalence in a community receiving a multi-component intervention compared to a community exposed to a mass media campaign alone. One study reported a significant difference in smoking prevalence between a group receiving a media, school and homework intervention compared to a group
Pound, Pandora; Langford, Rebecca; Campbell, Rona
Although sex and relationship education (SRE) represents a key strand in policies to safeguard young people and improve their sexual health, it currently lacks statutory status, government guidance is outdated and a third of UK schools has poor-quality SRE. We aimed to investigate whether current provision meets young people's needs. Synthesis of qualitative studies of young people's views of their school-based SRE. Eligible studies originated from the UK, Ireland, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Japan, Iran, Brazil and Sweden. Studies of students aged 4-19 in full-time education, young adults ≤19 (not necessarily in full-time education) or adults ≤25 if recalling their experiences of school-based SRE. -69 publications were identified, with 55 remaining after quality appraisal (representing 48 studies). The synthesis found that although sex is a potent and potentially embarrassing topic, schools appear reluctant to acknowledge this and attempt to teach SRE in the same way as other subjects. Young people report feeling vulnerable in SRE, with young men anxious to conceal sexual ignorance and young women risking sexual harassment if they participate. Schools appear to have difficulty accepting that some young people are sexually active, leading to SRE that is out of touch with many young people's lives. Young people report that SRE can be negative, gendered and heterosexist. They expressed dislike of their own teachers delivering SRE due to blurred boundaries, lack of anonymity, embarrassment and poor training. SRE should be 'sex-positive' and delivered by experts who maintain clear boundaries with students. Schools should acknowledge that sex is a special subject with unique challenges, as well as the fact and range of young people's sexual activity, otherwise young people will continue to disengage from SRE and opportunities for safeguarding and improving their sexual health will be reduced. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission
Walker, Shelley; Temple-Smith, Meredith; Higgs, Peter; Sanci, Lena
Background Young people's exposure to pornography has increased, as has the violent and sexist nature of mainstream porn. Contemporary content means young people are exposed to violent porn whether they like it or not, and it is no longer a question of whether they will be exposed, but rather when. Using purposive sampling, 33 in-depth interviews were conducted with young people aged 15-20 years in 2010-11, to explore the phenomenon of sexting. During initial interviews, participants raised the topic of pornography exposure as a secondary, unexpected finding. Discussions highlighted an important link between sexting and pornography. The inductive nature of the research meant this new and important area of inquiry was able to be explored. Data was thematically coded and analysed using a grounded theory approach. Findings highlight that many young people are exposed to porn both intentionally and unintentionally. Furthermore, they are concerned about gendered norms that reinforce men's power and subordination over women. A link between porn exposure, young men's sexual expectations and young women's pressure to conform to what is being viewed, has been exposed. Results are significant given this is one of few recent qualitative Australian studies to explore the issue of pornography exposure from the perspective of young people. Important implications for educators, parents and health providers have been revealed, including the need to create opportunities for young people to challenge the messages expressed in porn, and for their views to be heard in academic and public debate.
Gee, James Paul
In the digital age, young people's most powerful learning opportunities often occur online, in experiences and environments created by people working outside of the K-12 school system. In a sense, the internet has given new life to an older, less formal approach to education, in which individuals seek out and learn from others who share their…
Søbjerg, Lene Mosegaard; Sørensen, Mette Marie Boje
Self-stigmatisation is a serious hindrance of recovery among people with a mental disorder. In a mixed methods study among young people aged 15-30 years old with a mental disorder who volunteer as ambassadors with ONE OF US, the issue of stigmatisation and self-stigmatisation has been studied...
Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy
Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…
Lucia Maria LOTREAN
Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to assess the behaviors with risk for road traffic injuries among Romanian young people. Material and Method: Self-administered questionnaires were completed by the study sample consisting of 1598 junior high school students, senior high school students and university students aged 11-24 years from both urban and rural areas of two counties (Cluj and Hunedora of Romania. Results: The results show that around 80% of the junior high school students and more than 90% of the senior high school students and university students who go by bike do not wear helmets or use them rarely when they are cycling. Seatbelts are used more frequently than the helmets, but still more than one third of the junior high school students and senior high school students and a quarter of the university students do not use seatbelts or use them rarely. In the month previous the survey around one quarter of the students travelled in a car whose driver used alcohol before driving. Moreover, 15% of the university students who drove recognized that, at least once during their life, they did this after they used alcohol. Conclusions: The results indicate that comprehensive actions must be developed in order to prevent road traffic injuries among Romanian young people. They must include educational programs for youngsters and parents as well as adoption and enforcement of legislative measures and technical actions, which promote road safety.
Wallace, Jonathan; Mulvenna, Maurice D.; Martin, Suzanne; Stephens, Sharon; Burns, William
Ageing population trends, rising healthcare costs and social and digital inclusion are all factors in the background to the problem of older adults interacting with technology. Approaches to address "physical accessibility" and "access to technology" issues, as well as training for existing systems are evident, yet a usability issue still prevails. The primary aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of the research and literature and discuss the differing contexts in which older people and people with dementia interact with computerised systems and their associated issues.
Thaíse Campos Mondin
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of anxiety disorders and associated factors in young adults. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based study of individuals between the ages of 18 and 24 years randomly selected from 89 census-based sectors to ensure an adequate sample size. Household selection within the sectors was performed according to a systematic sampling process. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. The final sample comprised 1,560 young adults. Results: Of the participants who were diagnosed with anxiety disorders, 12.3% had agoraphobia, 9.7% had generalised anxiety disorder, 4.0% had social phobia, 3.3% had obsessive-compulsive disorder, 2.5% had panic disorder, and 2.1% had post-traumatic stress disorder; only 23.8% had received any previous treatment. Anxiety disorders were associated with sex, socioeconomic status, psychiatric problems in parents, alcohol abuse, and tobacco use. Conclusions: The identification of factors associated with anxiety disorders in young people enables us to develop intervention strategies. Anxiety disorders are not only highly prevalent but are also associated with significant functional impairment, significant reductions in quality of life, lower productivity, and higher rates of comorbidities.
Kalachikova, O. N.
Research on reproductive preferences of young people in Russia shows that their attitudes regarding the number of children they may have differs by gender and by urban-rural origins. (Contains 4 tables, 1 figure, and 1 note.)
A total of 10 focus groups were conducted to investigate the role of fear appeals ... Young people were shown a series of images (mostly posters) with ... locally conceived rather than ones developed by large-scale donor-funded campaigns.
Frørup, Anna Kathrine; Jensen, Niels Rosendal
how young people's (living in a socially disadvantaged area) possibilities, aspirations and demands are raised, strengthened, transformed or put aside and in what way they feel participating within different local programmes....
Full Text Available Study-research deals with younger students of both sexes aged 13-14, who, besides attending classes of physical education and sports, also practice in basketball schools in the city of Pristina. The experiment contains a total of 7 morphological variables, while four tests of basic motion skills and seven variables are from specific motion skills. In this study, the verification and analysis of the correlation of morphological characteristics and basic and situational motor skills in both groups of both sexes (boys and girls were treated. Based on the results obtained between several variables, valid correlations with high coefficients are presented, whereas among the variables are presented correlations with optimal values. The experimentation in question includes the number of 80 entities of both sexes; the group of 40 boys and the other group consisting of 40 girls who have undergone the tests for this study-experiment.
G. A. Novikova
Full Text Available In the article the approach to identification of factors influencing beer consumption by young people. Describes the author’s methodology, identifying biological, social, psychological, pedagogical and economic risk factors of development of beer dependence in young people. The data obtained using the proposed methodology can be used to identify risk groups according to the dependent behavior and planning of preventive measures.
Full Text Available Social workers, working with young people ought to be aware of the values, needs and problems of contemporary young people. Therefore, it is necessary to develop study programmes of Social Work that would reflect the current situation of modern youth and be oriented towards effective techniques for working with young people. The most common methods described in the literature are counseling, supervision, case management, self-reflection. The article highlights the method of social intervention, which objectively and fully assesses the problem situation and establishes the connections and relationships between the young man and his relatives, friends or authorities. This method helps to enable young people to solve their own problems. The aim of the research is to analyze the application features of the social intervention model when working with young people. The objectives are to discuss the activities of youth organizations in the field of social 99SOCIALINIO TINKLO INTERVENCIJOS MODELIO TAIKYMAS DIRBANT SU JAUNIMU work; to highlight the methods of social workers‘ practice; to investigate the application of social intervention model, enabling young people to solve their own problems. The methods applied include comparative analysis of scientific literature, monitoring, social intervention model. The survey revealed that when social workers enable young people to solve their own problems, a model of social intervention allows to evaluate not only the relationships of close people or family members, but also highlights the roles of youth organizations or social workers and their positive effect on the customer‘s actions. Thus, when applying the method of social intervention, social workers play an important role, as well as their professional knowledge and skills to establish the connection with the client are extremely important in order to promote the client‘s reflection.
Grisham, Jessica R; Williams, Alishia D
IMPORTANCE Suicidal behavior has increased since the onset of the global recession, a trend that may have long-term health and social implications. OBJECTIVE To test whether suicide attempts among young people signal increased risk for later poor health and social functioning above and beyond a preexisting psychiatric disorder. DESIGN We followed up a cohort of young people and assessed multiple aspects of their health and social functioning as they approached midlife. Outcomes among individu...
Graffigna, Guendalina; Olson, Kärin
The ongoing epidemic of HIV/AIDS in Western societies (in particular in North America), where most of the population knows about the disease and how it is transmitted, suggests that providing information is not enough to change unsafe conduct. More complex psychosocial processes, mainly still unexplored, seem to underlie the translation of health knowledge about the disease and the infection into safe practices. In this article we explore the discourse of young people in Alberta about HIV/AIDS and discuss ways in which this information might be used to shape preventive strategies. We conducted eight focus groups with young people 18 to 25 years of age living in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, and analyzed the data using psychosocial discourse analysis. The results confirm the role of young people's interpersonal exchanges in determining HIV/AIDS preventive conduct and show the importance of social discourses about HIV/AIDS in mediating the impact of preventive campaigns on young people's attitudes and beliefs.
Harakeh, Z.; van Nijnatten, C.H.C.J.
Background: Peers exert influence not to smoke but little is yet known on how this affects young people's behavior and cognitions. Objectives: This experimental study investigates the impact of two types of peer influence not to smoke on the verbalized attitudes and responses of daily-smoking young
Macedo, Alexandre Casimiro de; Cunha, José Evandro; Yaochite, Juliana Navarro Ueda; Tavares, Clodis Maria; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi
Considering that the main route of Mycobacterium leprae transmission is the upper respiratory tract, detection of salivary antibodies can be a useful tool for diagnosing early infection. The study aimed to analyze salivary anti-PGL-1 IgA and IgM antibodies in 169 children aged 4-16 years old, who lived nearby or inside the house of multibacillary or paucibacillary leprosy patients in two endemic cities in Alagoas State - Brazil. Salivary anti-PGL-1 antibodies were quantified by modified ELISA method. The frequency of contact and clinical form of the index case were significantly associated with salivary antibody levels. High frequency of IgM positivity strongly suggests active transmission of M. leprae in these communities. We suggest in the present work that salivary anti-PGL IgA and IgM are important biomarkers to be used for identifying communities with probable active transmission of M. leprae. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose: Body composition evaluation of youth aged 17-18 of a different physical activity with the help of bioelectric impedance method. Material and Methods: 18 boys practicing swimming and 19 boys not practicing it took part in the study, making up a control group. Height, weight, BMI, lean body mass, the content of fat and water, Rohr factor were evaluated. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney test has been used to evaluate the differences in the range of the tissue components between the two groups. Results: Statistically significant differences were found on the p<0,05 level in % fat content. Mean body weight in experimental group was 71.5 kg, while in control group it was 69.4 kg. Minimum and maximum weight in group of swimming-practicing persons was: 56.6-92.2 kg. Increased body weight in the group of swimmers can result from greater amount of active tissue in this group compared with persons of low physical activity. Proportionally, it amounted to 64.3 kg and 61.3 kg. In the tested groups, minimal and maximal values of amount of active tissue proportionately amounted to: 54.1-78 and 49.5-72,3 kg. Conclusions: Physical activity modifies body composition. Active lifestyle is one of the methods for prevention of overweight and obesity.
Full Text Available Purpose: Body composition evaluation of youth aged 17-18 of a different physical activity with the help of bioelectric impedance method. Material and Methods: 18 boys practicing swimming and 19 boys not practicing it took part in the study, making up a control group. Height, weight, BMI, lean body mass, the content of fat and water, Rohr factor were evaluated. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney test has been used to evaluate the differences in the range of the tissue components between the two groups. Results: Statistically significant differences were found on the p<0,05 level in % fat content. Mean body weight in experimental group was 71.5 kg, while in control group it was 69.4 kg. Minimum and maximum weight in group of swimming-practicing persons was: 56.6-92.2 kg. Increased body weight in the group of swimmers can result from greater amount of active tissue in this group compared with persons of low physical activity. Proportionally, it amounted to 64.3 kg and 61.3 kg. In the tested groups, minimal and maximal values of amount of active tissue proportionately amounted to: 54.1-78 and 49.5-72,3 kg. Conclusions: Physical activity modifies body composition. Active lifestyle is one of the methods for prevention of overweight and obesity.
Gibson, Sigrid; Boyd, Alison
Added sugars are often viewed as 'empty calories', negatively impacting micronutrient intakes, yet reviews consider the evidence inconclusive. This study aimed to quantify associations between dietary added sugars (as a percentage of energy) and micronutrient intake and biochemical status in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey. Using data from 1688 British children aged 4-18 years who completed 7 d weighed dietary records in 1997, micronutrient intakes were examined across quintiles of added sugars. After excluding low energy reporters, mean dietary intakes of most nutrients exceeded the reference nutrient intake, except for zinc. Compared with quintile 1 (9% added sugars), high consumers in quintile 5 (23% added sugars) had micronutrient intakes ranging from 24% lower to 6% higher (mean 14% lower). Zinc intakes in quintile 1 v. quintile 5 averaged 93% v. 78% of reference nutrient intake; magnesium 114% v. 94%; iron 115% v. 100%; and vitamin A 111% v. 92%, respectively. Plasma levels of magnesium, zinc and carotenoids did not vary across quintiles, but weak negative correlations were observed with serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. Plasma selenium was inversely correlated with added sugars (r -0.17; P < 0.0001) but there was no association with glutathione peroxidase. The impact of added sugars on micronutrient intakes appears modest overall but may have relevance for children consuming inadequate amounts of nutrient-rich foods coupled with a diet high in added sugars (approximately 23%). Further work is needed to explore the impact of different sources of added sugars and to refine assessments of inadequate intakes and status.
Franck, Linda S; Noble, Genevieve
Use of the internet to provide health information to young people is a relatively recent development. Few studies have explored young people's views on how they use internet health websites. This study investigated the navigation, design and content preferences of young people using the Children First for Health (CFfH) website. Young people from five secondary schools completed an internet site navigation exercise, website evaluation questionnaire and participated in informal discussions. Of the participants, 45 percent visited the website section aimed at older adolescents within their first two clicks, regardless of their age. There were conflicting preferences for design and strong preference for gender-specific information on topics such as appearance, relationships, fitness and sexual health. The findings indicate the importance of gaining young people's views to ensure that health information websites meet the needs of their intended audience. Cooperation from schools can facilitate the process of gaining young people's views on internet website navigation, design and content.
Van Cauwenberge, Anna
This dissertation started off with the observation that attention for news among young people decreases. More precisely, previous survey studies outlined a triple shift in the current young generation’s use of news: from more to less news, from offline to online news, and from professional to non-professional news sources. Underlying these three trends, was the finding that news does not constitute a substantial part of the daily routines of young people. This finding is disturbing given news...
In recent years, there has been increasing concern over rising levels of alcohol and cannabis use among young people. This paper reports findings from a qualitative investigation of young people's cannabis-related beliefs and behaviour. Fifty-nine boys and girls aged 13 to 15 years were interviewed, mostly in self-selected friendship pairs, in six…
Clark, Christina; Dugdale, George
Writing is an important issue in the UK today. While children's and young people's writing standards steadily improved until 2006, levels have not increased in recent years. Writing is much more than just an educational issue--it is an essential skill that allows people to participate fully in today's society and to contribute to the economy.…
Blackmore, Amanda Marie; Bear, Natasha; Blair, Eve; Langdon, Katherine; Moshovis, Lisa; Steer, Kellie; Wilson, Andrew C
To determine the early predictors of respiratory hospital admissions in young people with cerebral palsy (CP). A 3-year prospective cohort study using linked data. Children and young people with CP, aged 1 to 26 years. Self-reported and carer-reported respiratory symptoms were linked to respiratory hospital admissions (as defined by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision codes) during the following 3 years. 482 participants (including 289 males) were recruited. They were aged 1 to 26 years (mean 10 years, 10 months; SD 5 years, 11 months) at the commencement of the study, and represented all Gross Motor Function Classification Scale (GMFCS) levels. During the 3-year period, 55 (11.4%) participants had a total of 186 respiratory hospital admissions, and spent a total of 1475 days in hospital. Statistically significant risk factors for subsequent respiratory hospital admissions over 3 years in univariate analyses were GMFCS level V, at least one respiratory hospital admission in the year preceding the survey, oropharyngeal dysphagia, seizures, frequent respiratory symptoms, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, at least two courses of antibiotics in the year preceding the survey, mealtime respiratory symptoms and nightly snoring. Most risk factors for respiratory hospital admissions are potentially modifiable. Early identification of oropharyngeal dysphagia and the management of seizures may help prevent serious respiratory illness. One respiratory hospital admission should trigger further evaluation and management to prevent subsequent respiratory illness. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Allard, Amanda; Fellowes, Andrew; Shilling, Valerie; Janssens, Astrid; Beresford, Bryony; Morris, Christopher
Objectives To identify key health outcomes, beyond morbidity and mortality, regarded as important in children and young people with neurodisability, and their parents. Design Qualitative research incorporating a thematic analysis of the data supported by the Framework Approach; the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provided a theoretical foundation. Setting The study was conducted in community settings. Participants Participants were 54 children and young people with neurodisability: 50 participated in focus groups, and 4 in interviews; 53 parents participated: 47 in focus groups and 6 in interviews. Children/young people and parents were recruited through different networks, and were not related. Results Children/young people and parents viewed health outcomes as inter-related. Achievement in some outcomes appeared valued to the extent that it enabled or supported more valued domains of health. Health outcomes prioritised by both young people and parents were: communication, mobility, pain, self-care, temperament, interpersonal relationships and interactions, community and social life, emotional well-being and gaining independence/future aspirations. Parents also highlighted their child's sleep, behaviour and/or safety. Conclusions Those responsible for health services for children/young people with neurodisability should take account of the aspects of health identified by families. The aspects of health identified in this study provide a basis for selecting appropriate health indicators and outcome measures. PMID:24747792
The CERN Student Club (CSC) is the official club for the community of young people at CERN. In addition to organizing regular activities for its members, the club serves as a platform for young people to come together and meet people from other backgrounds. On 11 and 12 April, the network for young people from the European Space Agency (YoungESA) organized an excursion to CERN, in which more than 30 young researchers participated. The CERN Student Club was happy to host several activities for the members of the two communities. Some of the participants in the first meeting of the ESA-CERN student clubs. “One of the most amazing things about being a young researcher is the boundless opportunities for meeting people from all around the world, whether for the exchange of research ideas or for social purposes”, says Yi Ling Hwong, a member of the CMS experiment and Vice-president of the CERN Student Club. “In a place like CERN such occasions are abundant but t...
McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim; Marabong, Nikka; Miu, David; Fethney, Judith
Comorbid physical health conditions, commonly associated with mental illness, contribute to increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy. The trajectory to poorer health begins with the onset of mental illness. For young people with mental illness, health risk behaviours and poor physical health can progress to adulthood with long-term detrimental impacts. Using a cross-sectional survey design, self-reported health risk behaviours were gathered from 56 young (16-25 years) Australians who had been hospitalised for mental illness and taking psychotropic medication. Smoking, alcohol use, minimal physical activity, and lack of primary health care were evident. While these behaviours are typical of many young people, those with mental illness have substantially increased vulnerability to poor health and reduced life expectancy. Priority needs to be given to targeted health promotion strategies for young people with mental illness to modify their risky long-term health behaviours and improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. Nurses in mental health settings play a vital role in promoting young peoples' well-being and preventing poorer physical health outcomes. Implementation of a cardiometabolic health nurse role in inpatient settings for young people with mental illness could facilitate prevention and early intervention for health risk behaviours.
Woolfson, R; Woolfson, L; Mooney, L; Bryce, D
This exploratory study used mixed methods to investigate young people's preferences in the delivery of mental health education and to investigate possible age and gender differences. Information was gathered about the delivery of mental health education in three secondary schools. Nine pupil focus groups were carried out to identify key themes which were then further developed and administered through questionnaires to a larger sample of 773 pupils. Gender and age differences were found in young people's preferences about who should deliver mental health education, and what, when, where and how this should be delivered. Mental health education should reflect the needs of young people. Age and gender preferences should be considered when designing these programmes.
... 2012;102(8):1516-26. National Institute on Aging. HIV, AIDS, and older people . Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 2016. Accessed September 14, 2017. Lindau ST, Schumm LP, Laumann EO, Levinson W, O’Muircheartaigh CA, Waite LJ. A study of sexuality and health among older adults in the United ...
Stenner, Paul; McFarquhar, Tara; Bowling, Ann
Following a critical overview of the active ageing concept, a thematic decomposition of 42 transcribed interviews with British people aged 72 years and over indicates that active ageing is understood in relation to physical, cognitive, psychological and social factors, but that these co-exist in complex combinations. The notion of activity in active ageing is grasped in relation to an active/passive distinction which emphasizes the enhancement or diminishment of concrete powers of activity. A 'challenge and response' framework is suggested for future research on active ageing.
Marsh, Louise; Dawson, Anna; McGee, Rob
This study sought to examine young New Zealand smokers' access to social supplies of cigarettes. A qualitative investigation using 10 focus groups with 66 current young smokers, aged between 15 and 17 years, was conducted throughout New Zealand, between October and December 2011. Transcripts from the focus groups were analysed using NVivo to code the data, from which common themes and critical issues were identified. Family was one of the main sources of tobacco for the young smokers in this study and parents were the leading source, often purchasing tobacco for their children to smoke. Sharing tobacco within groups of friends was also very common. Additional methods were used when young smokers were desperate, including stealing, 'butt scabbing' and asking strangers. Both family and social networks continue to support smoking and supply tobacco to young people. While these networks operate, young people will continue to smoke, despite increased regulations on commercial sales to minors. Restrictions on commercial sales of tobacco to minors are increasing; however, many young people use multiple sources of tobacco, including social sources. It is likely that young people will increasingly use these social sources in the future. Interventions other than purchase restrictions are important for reducing minors' access to tobacco. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.
Francis, Jacinta; Martin, Karen; Costa, Beth; Christian, Hayley; Kaur, Simmi; Harray, Amelia; Barblett, Ann; Oddy, Wendy Hazel; Ambrosini, Gina; Allen, Karina; Trapp, Gina
To determine young people's knowledge of energy drinks (EDs), factors influencing ED consumption, and intervention strategies to decrease ED consumption in young people. Eight group interviews with young people (aged 12-25 years). Community groups and secondary schools in Perth, Western Australia. Forty-one young people, 41% of whom were male and 73% of whom consumed EDs. Factors influencing ED consumption and intervention strategies informed by young people to reduce ED consumption. Two researchers conducted a qualitative content analysis on the data using NVivo software. Facilitators of ED consumption included enhanced energy, pleasant taste, low cost, peer pressure, easy availability, and ED promotions. Barriers included negative health effects, unpleasant taste, high cost, and parents' disapproval. Strategies to reduce ED consumption included ED restrictions, changing ED packaging, increasing ED prices, reducing visibility in retail outlets, and research and education. Because many countries allow the sale of EDs to people aged consumption. In addition to more research and education, these strategies included policy changes targeting ED sales, packaging, price, and visibility. Future research might examine the feasibility of implementing such interventions. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hjern, Anders; Brendler-Lindqvist, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise
to be of real use in this decision. Unclear guidelines and arbitrary practices may lead to alarming shortcomings in the protection of this high-risk group of children and adolescents in Europe. Medical participation, as well as non-participation, in these dubious decisions raises a number of ethical questions....... CONCLUSION: To improve care for young asylum seekers with undetermined age, we suggest better legal procedures for the determination of age and a more flexible approach to chronological age....
Anderson, R. K.
Alliance for Climate Education educates young people on the science of climate change and empowers them to take action. Since 2009, ACE has educated over two million students and trained more than 4,000 young leaders. The ACE Action Fellowship is a yearlong training program that gives young people the knowledge, skills and confidence to be strong climate leaders. Here, we present the results of the first year of evaluation of the Fellowship program in the 2014-15 school year. Sixty high school students completed matched surveys before and after completing the program. Students were evaluated on skills learned, actions taken, confidence gained, civic engagement, and plans to continue action on climate in the future. Results show that the Fellowship increases young people's confidence: 52% of Fellows report an increase in confidence in leading a group of peers on a climate-related campaign. Fellows also gained leadership skills. More than half of Fellows say they improved in the areas of recruitment, interpersonal communication skills, campaign planning, and public speaking. 50% of Fellows reported an increase in their likelihood of seeking elected office when of age. The Fellowship positively influences young people's intent to study a climate, energy or sustainability-related field. 63% of Fellows identify as people of color. Notably, despite entering the Fellowship with significantly lower self-ratings than white students in experience and skill sets, young people of color reported greater improvement in the areas of public speaking (25% improvement vs. 6% improvement) and petitioning (27% improvement vs. 1% improvement). These results show that the ACE Fellowship gives young people tangible skills and confidence that puts them on a path of climate leadership. Further evaluation will be done to expand the dataset, but early indications show that these young people are poised to make valuable contributions and bring a much needed diverse youth perspective to the
McCarthy, Ona; Carswell, Kenneth; Murray, Elizabeth; Free, Caroline; Stevenson, Fiona; Bailey, Julia V
Sexual health education in the United Kingdom is of variable quality, typically focusing on the biological aspects of sex rather than on communication, relationships, and sexual pleasure. The Internet offers a unique opportunity to provide sexual health education to young people, since they can be difficult to engage but frequently use the Internet as a health information resource. To explore through qualitative research young people's views on what elements of a sexual health website would be appealing and engaging, and their views on the content, design, and interactive features of the Sexunzipped intervention website. We recruited 67 young people aged 16-22 years in London, UK. We held 21 focus groups and 6 one-to-one interviews to establish sexual health priorities, views on website look and feel, and what features of a sexual heath website would attract and engage them. Two researchers facilitated the focus groups, using a semistructured topic guide to lead the discussions and asking open questions to elicit a range of views. The discussions and interviews were audio recorded and detailed notes were made on key topics from the audio recording. Young people's views influenced design templates for the content and interactive features of Sexunzipped. Young people particularly wanted straightforward information on sexual pleasure, sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy, how to communicate with partners, how to develop skills in giving pleasure, and emotions involved in sex and relationships. Focus group participants wanted social interaction with other young people online and wanted to see themselves reflected in some way such as through images or videos. While it is challenging to meet all of young people's technological and design requirements, consultation with the target audience is valuable and necessary in developing an online sexual health intervention. Young people are willing to talk about sensitive issues, enjoy the discussions, and can offer key
We conducted a scoping review of evidence on digital interventions for sexual health promotion for young people aged 13 to 24 years in the UK, defining sexual health in holistic terms, to include physical, emotional, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality. Interactive digital interventions (IDI are defined as digital media programmes that provide sexual health information and tailored decision support, behaviour-change support, and/or emotional support for sexual health issues. We conducted a thorough review of literature to locate and synthesise available evidence on digital interventions for sexual health spanning the last ten years, integrating the findings with the views of key informants (young people, parents, and experts in digital media/sexual health. Results and conclusions There were few studies that assess the factors related to successful implementation of sexual health promotion IDIs. Potential barriers and facilitators to implementation of IDI should be addressed at the very beginning of an intervention development process. Engaging with sexual health promotion interventions online allows private and convenient access as well as potentially reaching populations who engage less frequently with mainstream services. However, it is difficult to ensure that users will find the intervention, or engage for long enough for them to be effective. The reach of online IDI could be enhanced by linking sexual health promotion interventions with existing digital systems such as STI self-test websites, or with trusted branded websites or popular social networking sites. Offering interventions in static settings such as the clinic or classroom encourages engagement and enables interventions to be delivered with fidelity but potentially at the expense of the privacy and convenience offered by online interventions. Using the knowledge of local staff is vital for both successful intervention development and successful implementation. An effective
Full Text Available Jane Burns, Emma Birrell Young and Well Cooperative Research Centre, Abbotsford, VIC, Australia Abstract: International studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness, and the fundamental contribution it make to the overall disease burden, is greatest in children and young people. Despite this high burden, adolescents and young adults are the least likely population group to seek help or to access professional care for mental health problems. This issue is particularly problematic given that untreated, or poorly treated, mental disorders are associated with both short- and long-term functional impairment, including poorer education and employment opportunities, potential comorbidity, including drug and alcohol problems, and a greater risk for antisocial behavior, including violence and aggression. This cycle of poor mental health creates a significant burden for the young person, their family and friends, and society as a whole. Australia is enviably positioned to substantially enhance the well-being of young people, to improve their engagement with mental health services, and – ultimately – to improve mental health. High prevalence but potentially debilitating disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are targeted by the specialized youth mental health service, headspace: the National Youth Mental Health Foundation and a series of Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centres, will provide early intervention specialist services for low prevalence, complex illnesses. Online services, such as ReachOut.com by Inspire Foundation, Youthbeyondblue, Kids Helpline, and Lifeline Australia, and evidence-based online interventions, such as MoodGYM, are also freely available, yet a major challenge still exists in ensuring that young people receive effective evidence-based care at the right time. This article describes Australian innovation in shaping a comprehensive youth mental health system, which is informed by an evidence
Hansen, I. V., Ed.
This book is an anthology of unedited verse and prose written by 14- and 15-year-old students. The book is intended for teachers in training, for their tutors, and for all teachers of English. The verses are classified as undirected and directed poems about nature, places, war, the Egyptian Tomb, up and back again, and people. The prose is…
Neely, Eva; Walton, Mat; Stephens, Christine
Food practices are embedded in everyday life and social relationships. In youth nutrition promotion little attention is awarded to this centrality of food practices, yet it may play a pivotal role for young people's overall health and wellbeing beyond the calories food provides. Limited research is available explicitly investigating how food practices affect social relationships. The aim of this synthesis was therefore to find out how young people use everyday food practices to build, strengthen, and negotiate their social relationships. Using a thematic synthesis approach, we analysed 26 qualitative studies exploring young people's food practices. Eight themes provided insight into the ways food practices affected social relationships: caring, talking, sharing, integrating, trusting, reciprocating, negotiating, and belonging. The results showed that young people use food actively to foster connections, show their agency, and manage relationships. This synthesis provides insight into the settings of significance for young people where more research could explore the use of food in everyday life as important for their social relationships. A focus on social relationships could broaden the scope of nutrition interventions to promote health in physical and psychosocial dimensions. Areas for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mturi, Akim J; Hennink, Monique M
This study aimed to identify the views of young people, parents and teachers concerning sex education in Lesotho. It was conducted at a time when the national government was considering the introduction of Population and Family Life Education, which includes sex education, into the national school curriculum. Forty-six focus group discussions were held with young people (10), parents (30) and teachers (6) to identify current sources of sex education and views of the proposed introduction of school-based sex education in Lesotho. Findings show the limited and problematic sources of sex education for adolescents in Lesotho. They also highlight broad support for the introduction of sex education in the national school curriculum among young people, parents and teachers. Of key importance for the development of a sex education curriculum is the balance between providing young people with information and developing their skills in sexual empowerment and negotiating sexual pressure. The use of pupil-centred interactive pedagogies was seen as essential. Teachers, however, highlighted the need for training in the delivery of sex education, which includes instruction on course materials, teaching methodologies and developing sensitivity to teaching sexual issues to young people.
Chang, Vivian Y; Termini, Christina M; Chute, John P
The hematopoietic system declines with age, resulting in decreased hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal capacity, myeloid skewing, and immune cell depletion. Aging of the hematopoietic system is associated with an increased incidence of myeloid malignancies and a decline in adaptive immunity. Therefore, strategies to rejuvenate the hematopoietic system have important clinical implications. In this issue of the JCI, Poulos and colleagues demonstrate that infusions of bone marrow (BM) endothelial cells (ECs) from young mice promoted HSC self-renewal and restored immune cell content in aged mice. Additionally, delivery of young BM ECs along with HSCs following total body irradiation improved HSC engraftment and enhanced survival. These results suggest an important role for BM endothelial cells (ECs) in regulating hematopoietic aging and support further research to identify the rejuvenating factors elaborated by BM ECs that restore HSC function and the immune repertoire in aged mice.
Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to explore factors which influence city destination choice among young people in Serbia. In order to achieve this we conducted a survey consisting of 20 different items influencing the choice of city destination. Afterwards the principal component exploratory factor analysis (EFA was carried out in order to extract factors. T-test and ANOVA test were also used to determine if there is a difference between different gender and age groups in terms of which factors influence their choice of a city destination. The results indicate four motivating factors extracted by factor analysis, from which Good hospitality and restaurant service seems to be the major motivating factor. The results also show that respondents belonging to the age group of under 25 give more importance to Information and promotion as well as to Good hospitality and restaurant service than those belonging to older age groups. The same two factors are also more important to females than males.
Quinlan, J F; Duke, D; Eustace, S
Bertolotti's syndrome is characterised by anomalous enlargement of the transverse process(es) of the most caudal lumbar vertebra which may articulate or fuse with the sacrum or ilium and cause isolated L4/5 disc disease. We analysed the elective MR scans of the lumbosacral spine of 769 consecutive patients with low back pain taken between July 2003 and November 2004. Of these 568 showed disc degeneration. Bertolotti's syndrome was present in 35 patients with a mean age of 32.7 years (15 to 60). This was a younger age than that of patients with multiple disc degeneration, single-level disease and isolated disc degeneration at the L4/5 level (p Bertolotti's syndrome in our study was 4.6% (35 of 769). It was present in 11.4% (20 patients) of the under-30 age group. Our findings suggest that Bertolotti's syndrome must form part of a list of differential diagnoses in the investigation of low back pain in young people.
Tanabe, Kai; Masuda, Kazumi; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Matsuda, Mitsuo; Hirayama, Aki; Nagase, Shoji; Kono, Ichiro; Kuno, Shinya
The effects of age and daily physical activity (PA) on antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress remains unclear, especially among advanced age population. Thus the present study evaluated antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress status, taking into account age and PA in healthy middle-aged and elderly people (45-92 years, n=436; 166 males and 270 females). The advanced age subjects were classified in groups according to their age. Data collected from young male subjects (18-26 years, n=36) ...
Tumwesigye Nazarius M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unintended pregnancies lead to unsafe abortions, which are a leading cause of preventable maternal mortality among young women in Uganda. There is a discrepancy between the desire to prevent pregnancy and actual contraceptive use. Health care providers' perspectives on factors influencing contraceptive use and service provision to young people aged 15-24 in two rural districts in Uganda were explored. Methods Semi-structured questionnaires were used for face- to-face interviews with 102 providers of contraceptive service at public, private not-for-profit, and private for-profit health facilities in two rural districts in Uganda. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the analysis of data. Results Providers identified service delivery, provider-focused, structural, and client-specific factors that influence contraceptive use among young people. Contraceptive use and provision to young people were constrained by sporadic contraceptive stocks, poor service organization, and the limited number of trained personnel, high costs, and unfriendly service. Most providers were not competent enough to provide long-acting methods. There were significant differences in providers' self-rated competence by facility type; private for-profit providers' competence was limited for most contraceptives. Providers had misconceptions about contraceptives, they had negative attitudes towards the provision of contraceptives to young people, and they imposed non-evidence-based age restrictions and consent requirements. Thus, most providers were not prepared or were hesitant to give young people contraceptives. Short-acting methods were, however, considered acceptable for young married women and those with children. Conclusion Provider, client, and health system factors restricted contraceptive provision and use for young people. Their contraceptive use prospects are dependent on provider behavior and health system improvements.
Computers and information technology are fast becoming a part of young people's everyday life. However, there remains a difference between the majority who can use computers and the minority who are computer scientists or professionals. Drawing on 32 semi-structured interviews with digitally skilled young people (aged 13-19), we explore their views and aspirations in computing, with a focus on the identities and discourses that these youngsters articulate in relation to this field. Our findings suggest that, even among digitally skilled young people, traditional identities of computing as people who are clever but antisocial still prevail, which can be unattractive for youths, especially girls. Digitally skilled youths identify with computing in different ways and for different reasons. Most enjoy doing computing but few aspired to being a computer person. Implications of our findings for computing education are discussed especially the continued need to broaden identities in computing, even for the digitally skilled.
Brus, Anne Birgitte
In this paper I examine computer game addiction as a social phenomenon, analyzing the consequences of using the term in order to express a concern about high frequency consumption or even a problematic usage of computer games. I argue that while it is obviously very important to take seriously...... these concerns about young people ‘at risk’, there is a gap between the phenomenon as a suggested psychiatric diagnosis and young people’s reflections on the matter. Following the work of Goffman and Becker, computer game addiction is not necessarily something negative in the eyes of the player and other young...... people. It is shown that the classification can be a positive element in young people’s identity work. On the other hand, a high consumption of computer games is also considered as ‘culturally unacceptable’. From this perspective, computer game addiction becomes a question of how to construct...
Hanley, Terry; Ujhelyi, Katalin
Background The Internet has the potential to help young people by reducing the stigma associated with mental health and enabling young people to access services and professionals which they may not otherwise access. Online support can empower young people, help them develop new online friendships, share personal experiences, communicate with others who understand, provide information and emotional support, and most importantly help them feel less alone and normalize their experiences in the world. Objective The aim of the research was to gain an understanding of how young people use an online forum for emotional and mental health issues. Specifically, the project examined what young people discuss and how they seek support on the forum (objective 1). Furthermore, it looked at how the young service users responded to posts to gain an understanding of how young people provided each other with peer-to-peer support (objective 2). Methods Kooth is an online counseling service for young people aged 11-25 years and experiencing emotional and mental health problems. It is based in the United Kingdom and provides support that is anonymous, confidential, and free at the point of delivery. Kooth provided the researchers with all the online forum posts between a 2-year period, which resulted in a dataset of 622 initial posts and 3657 initial posts with responses. Thematic analysis was employed to elicit key themes from the dataset. Results The findings support the literature that online forums provide young people with both informational and emotional support around a wide array of topics. The findings from this large dataset also reveal that this informational or emotional support can be viewed as directive or nondirective. The nondirective approach refers to when young people provide others with support by sharing their own experiences. These posts do not include explicit advice to act in a particular way, but the sharing process is hoped to be of use to the poster. The
Prescott, Julie; Hanley, Terry; Ujhelyi, Katalin
The Internet has the potential to help young people by reducing the stigma associated with mental health and enabling young people to access services and professionals which they may not otherwise access. Online support can empower young people, help them develop new online friendships, share personal experiences, communicate with others who understand, provide information and emotional support, and most importantly help them feel less alone and normalize their experiences in the world. The aim of the research was to gain an understanding of how young people use an online forum for emotional and mental health issues. Specifically, the project examined what young people discuss and how they seek support on the forum (objective 1). Furthermore, it looked at how the young service users responded to posts to gain an understanding of how young people provided each other with peer-to-peer support (objective 2). Kooth is an online counseling service for young people aged 11-25 years and experiencing emotional and mental health problems. It is based in the United Kingdom and provides support that is anonymous, confidential, and free at the point of delivery. Kooth provided the researchers with all the online forum posts between a 2-year period, which resulted in a dataset of 622 initial posts and 3657 initial posts with responses. Thematic analysis was employed to elicit key themes from the dataset. The findings support the literature that online forums provide young people with both informational and emotional support around a wide array of topics. The findings from this large dataset also reveal that this informational or emotional support can be viewed as directive or nondirective. The nondirective approach refers to when young people provide others with support by sharing their own experiences. These posts do not include explicit advice to act in a particular way, but the sharing process is hoped to be of use to the poster. The directive approach, in contrast, involves
Barnes, Grace M.; Welte, John W.; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O.
Objective: Gambling and alcohol use were compared for college and noncollege young adults in the US population. Participants: Participants were 1,000 respondents aged 18 to 21. Methods: Data were analyzed from a representative household sample of US young people aged 14 to 21 years old. Telephone interviews were conducted between August 2005 and…
Jones, Alasdair; Steinbach, Rebecca; Roberts, Helen; Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith
Much recent public health research has emphasised the health impacts for young people of 'active travel' modes, typically defined as walking and cycling. Less research has focused on public transport modes. Drawing on qualitative data, we examine the links between bus travel and wellbeing in London, where young people currently have free bus travel. Our findings indicate that bus travel can be both a physically and socially active experience for young people. We suggest a more nuanced understanding of 'active travel' is now needed, alongside greater attention to urban public transport networks as key sites that impact on important determinants of wellbeing such as independent mobility and social inclusion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Young people face the risk of unemployment in a labor market characterized by a drift towards precarious employment (Kalleberg, 2013). Building on poststructuralist theory this study documents how young unemployed people’s understanding of unemployment is affected by neoliberal discourses, also...... reflected in the technologies applied by the institutions in the employment area. As a result, responsibility for unemployment is increasingly placed on the individual and self-blame is promoted as the predominant explanation. This qualitative study consists of a combination of field observations made...... people experience their situation and position themselves in regards to this normative encouragement to blame themselves. Personal branding and networking are identified as strategies enforced by the employment system and can be viewed as technologies of the self encouraging young people to commodify...
Тамара Василівна Говорун
Full Text Available Social and psychological factors of the appearance of young people of the "risk" group, the best practices of their resocialization have been determined. Children of vulnerable categories from young age have predispositions for acquiring properties and antisocial behavior caused by everyday stress in family life, conflict situations in school interaction. Youth is marked by lag in education, substance abuse, criminal acts, variance of exploitation. Psychocorrectional programs activate subjectivity of undergrads in anger management skills, education and communication
Pham, Dang Dung
The thesis explores the underlying motivations behind young Vietnamese consumers’ choice to shop luxury fashion products on the internet and the factors influencing their choice of online stores. The target of the research are young Vietnamese people living in Vietnam aged between 20 and 29. The research was built around the theory of online retail attributes, luxury fashion online consumer behavior, and luxury fashion online marketing and examined different motivations and online store’s...
Foley, Kitty-Rose; Girdler, Sonya; Downs, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Bourke, Jenny; Lennox, Nick; Einfeld, Stewart; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Parmenter, Trevor R; Leonard, Helen
To explore relationships between family quality of life, day occupations and activities of daily living (ADL) of young persons with Down syndrome. Data were collected from 150 families with a young person with Down syndrome aged 16-30 years participating in the Down syndrome "Needs Opinions Wishes" database. Data described the young person's characteristics (including functional abilities, behaviour and day occupations) and family characteristics (including income, family and community supports and quality of life). Compared to families of young people attending open employment, families of young people participating in sheltered employment tended to report poorer family quality of life, after adjusting for personal characteristics, behaviour and income (coeff -6.78, 95 % CI -14.38, 0.81). Family supports reduced this relationship (coeff -6.00, 95 % CI -12.76, 0.76). Families of young people with greater functioning in ADL reported better family quality of life regardless of personal and environmental factors (coeff 0.45, 95 % CI 0.05, 0.85) and inclusion of family factors such as family supports reduced this association (coeff 0.29, 95 % CI -0.10, 0.67). Participation of young people with Down syndrome in open employment may positively influence family quality of life. Services that facilitate functioning in ADL and assist the families in accessing suitable family supports have the potential to positively influence family quality of life.
Stanley, Nicky; Barter, Christine; Wood, Marsha; Aghtaie, Nadia; Larkins, Cath; Lanau, Alba; Överlien, Carolina
New technology has made pornography increasingly accessible to young people, and a growing evidence base has identified a relationship between viewing pornography and violent or abusive behavior in young men. This article reports findings from a large survey of 4,564 young people aged 14 to 17 in five European countries which illuminate the relationship between regular viewing of online pornography, sexual coercion and abuse and the sending and receiving of sexual images and messages, known as "sexting." In addition to the survey, which was completed in schools, 91 interviews were undertaken with young people who had direct experience of interpersonal violence and abuse in their own relationships. Rates for regularly viewing online pornography were very much higher among boys and most had chosen to watch pornography. Boys' perpetration of sexual coercion and abuse was significantly associated with regular viewing of online pornography. Viewing online pornography was also associated with a significantly increased probability of having sent sexual images/messages for boys in nearly all countries. In addition, boys who regularly watched online pornography were significantly more likely to hold negative gender attitudes. The qualitative interviews illustrated that, although sexting is normalized and perceived positively by most young people, it has the potential to reproduce sexist features of pornography such as control and humiliation. Sex and relationships education should aim to promote a critical understanding of pornography among young people that recognizes its abusive and gendered values. © The Author(s) 2016.
Abstract\\ud Online Social Networking Sites (SNS) are a ubiquitous platform for communication and have been considered as one of the most significant changes to how young people interact today. Whilst SNS bring many opportunities, they have also been used as a tool for harassment and abuse online. The term ‘cyberbullying’, is most widely used to describe this phenomenon. A growing body of research demonstrates that cyberbullying has the potential to detrimentally impact young people’s wellbein...
Young-Southward, Genevieve; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Philo, Christopher
Transition to adulthood may have negative consequences for health and wellbeing in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), but this aspect of transition has received little investigation. This qualitative study aimed to explore the transition experiences of individuals with ID from their own perspectives, and from that of their parents, in order to identify health or wellbeing implications of transition. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 young people with mild, moderate and severe ID aged 16-27 years and with 23 parents of young people with mild, moderate, severe and profound ID aged 16-26 years. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis, deploying both emic and etic coding categories. This study provides direct insights into the issues on health and wellbeing that young people with ID and their parents find important during transition. The primary health implication of transition centred on mental health and wellbeing; young people experienced heightened anxiety during transition, and themes identified as contributing to anxiety included: a lack of meaningful activity following school exit; inadequate support during transition; and difficulties associated with 'growing up'. Problem behaviours and obesity were also implicated. The transition from school needs to be better supported in order to ease anxiety for young people during this difficult period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wright, Daniel B; Stroud, Joanne N
Previous research has reported that young adults are better at eyewitness face recognition than are older adults. However, these studies have used young adults as culprits and fillers. We explore how the relative ages of the witness and the culprit influence eyewitness accuracy in 2 experiments. In the first experiment, young (18-25 years old) and older (35-55 years old) adults each saw 4 crime videos. In 2 the culprit was a young adult and in 2 the culprit was an older adult. Participants were more accurate at identifying the culprit when viewing culprit present lineups comprising people of their own age: an "own age bias" analogous to the own race bias. In the 2nd experiment, using a similar procedure, young (18-33 years old) and older (40-55 years old) adults viewed both culprit present and culprit absent lineups. The results of the first experiment were replicated for the culprit present lineups. However, no own age bias was found for the culprit absent lineups. Implications for police procedures dealing with cross-generation identifications are discussed.
Ion, Rebecca; Cropper, Jenny; Walters, Hazel
The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines recommended young people who currently have one cochlear implant be offered assessment for a second, sequential implant, due to the reported improvements in sound localization and speech perception in noise. The possibility and benefits of group information and counselling assessments were considered. Previous research has shown advantages of group sessions involving young people and their families and such groups which also allow young people opportunity to discuss their concerns separately to their parents/guardians are found to be 'hugely important'. Such research highlights the importance of involving children in decision-making processes. Families considering a sequential cochlear implant were invited to a group information/counselling session, which included time for parents and children to meet separately. Fourteen groups were held with approximately four to five families in each session, totalling 62 patients. The sessions were facilitated by the multi-disciplinary team, with a particular psychological focus in the young people's session. Feedback from families has demonstrated positive support for this format. Questionnaire feedback, to which nine families responded, indicated that seven preferred the group session to an individual session and all approved of separate groups for the child and parents/guardians. Overall the group format and psychological focus were well received in this typically surgical setting and emphasized the importance of involving the young person in the decision-making process. This positive feedback also opens up the opportunity to use a group format in other assessment processes.
Chatkin, J M; Barreto, S M; Fonseca, N A; Gutiérrez, C A; Sears, M R
Mortality from asthma increased and is now declining in some countries, but little is known about these trends in South America. We aimed to assess trends in mortality from asthma in southern Brazil in children and young adults. Death certificates of 425 people in the state of Rio Grande do Sul aged between 5 and 39 years in whom asthma was reported to be the underlying cause of death during the period 1970 to 1992 were reviewed. Population data were available in 10-year age groups. Testing for trends in mortality rates was conducted using linear and log-linear regression procedures. Asthma mortality rates in the age groups 5 to 19 and 20 to 39 years ranged between 0.04 and 0.39/100,000 and 0.28 to 0.75/100,000, respectively, and were nonuniformly distributed over the study period. The mean annual increase in rate in 5- to 19-year olds was +0.01 (95% CI 0.003 to 0.016), an average annual percentage increase of +6.8% (95% CI 3% to 11%), with a total increase of 352% between 1970 and 1992. This increase was not due to a shift in labeling from bronchitis to asthma. In the 20 to 39-year age group, asthma and bronchitis mortality rates showed no trend to increase or decrease. Asthma mortality in southern Brazil is low, but rose significantly between 1970 and 1992 in the 5 to 19-year age group. This trend differs from that found in other states of Brazil and several other Latin American countries. Reasons for this difference remain unclear.
Full Text Available The uses of modern information technologies given about features are systematized in practice of physical education of students. Perspective directions of the use of computer technologies are considered in physical education of student young people. In a student environment the insufficient level of knowledges is felt on the indicated theme. There is a requirement in the receipt of the proper information on forming valued orientations which determine the healthy way of life of young people. The computer informative systems are the attractive source of popularization and propaganda of healthy way of life.
Full Text Available This article describes the Driving Cultures research, the cultural importance of the car and the psychological approaches central to research in the field of road safety and investigations of the over–representation of young people in crashes. The aim of the article is to outline driving as a cultural practice drawing on the experiences of young people as described in focus groups in order to show how cultural research can contribute to a social concern such as traffic injury and death.
This literature review aimed to determine the risk factors being used to identify children and young people who are at increased risk of engaging in self-harm and suicidal behaviour, so that optimal care can be provided for this patient group in children's medical ward settings. The two main themes that emerged were mental and neurodevelopmental disorders, and external factors. Management strategies to aid healthcare professionals in caring for this patient group were also identified. The review concludes by highlighting the need to provide healthcare professionals with continuing education about the mental health problems of children and young people, including risk factors and management strategies.
Tarrant, Mark; Khan, Sammyh S; Qin, Qi
We examined the effects of making salient different norm referents on young people's dietary orientation. Participants were exposed to a referent who was either of similar age to themselves or older before reporting their normative beliefs, attitudes and intentions concerning dietary behavior. As predicted, exposure to the older referent was associated with stronger perceptions that eating five portions of fruit and vegetables each day was normative. Compared to those exposed to the same-age referent, participants exposed to the older referent reported more positive attitudes towards eating "five-a-day" and stronger intentions to do so over the coming week. Referent salience was also associated with a behavioral outcome, with those participants exposed to the older referent more likely to take a piece of fruit upon completion of the study (OR: 4.97, 95% CI: 1.39-17.82). The implications of these findings for norms-based interventions for changing dietary behavior are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Analytical concepts such as 'bounded consumption' or 'controlled loss of control' have been applied to characterise contemporary youth intoxication. This article argues that this kind of cultural diagnosis benefits from being related to a focus on differences in social class. It is shown that in ......Analytical concepts such as 'bounded consumption' or 'controlled loss of control' have been applied to characterise contemporary youth intoxication. This article argues that this kind of cultural diagnosis benefits from being related to a focus on differences in social class. It is shown...... people to construct social class-related identities: mainstream youngsters continually confirm their taken-for-granted normality, and mainstream breakers resist the mainstream hegemonic (school) culture which usually defies them. In conclusion, bounded consumption, corresponding with contemporary ideals...
Pile, Victoria; Robinson, Sally; Roberts, Elystan; Topor, Marta; Hedderly, Tammy; Lau, Jennifer Y F
Depression is common in Tourette syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorders (TS/CTD) and contributes to significant impairment. The specificity of autobiographical memories is implicated in an individual's sense of self and their daily functioning but also in the onset and development of depression in the general population. Here, we examined whether memory specificity is reduced in young people with TS/CTD, relative to control participants, and whether memory specificity is associated with depression. Thirty young people with TS/CTD (14 females; age: x̅ = 11.31; SD = 1.66; 87% White British) and twenty-six (12 females; age: x̅ = 11.23; SD = 2.43; 77% White British) control participants completed the study. Participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Task, which asks participants to respond with a specific memory to cue words, and a questionnaire measure of depressive symptoms. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, IQ and depressive symptomatology. Young people with TS/CTD had less specific autobiographical memories than their peers (p < 0.001, r = 0.49). Across both groups, increased memory specificity for positive cue words was associated with reduced depressive symptomatology (p < 0.001, R 2 = 0.51). Our findings indicate that autobiographical memory in young people with TS is characterised by a lack of specificity and, as with neurotypical peers, reduced memory specificity for positive words is associated with depressive symptoms. Autobiographical memory specificity could be an important factor in understanding mood symptoms that characterise young people with TS/CTD and may be an important cognitive target to reduce the development of depression in young people with TS/CTD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.
Objectives: This descriptive summary of the literature provides an overview of the available studies (published before October 2006) on sociodemographic, psychosocial, and other correlates of risk and protective behaviors for hearing loss in young people aged 12 to 25 years. Methods: Publications
Demirok, Mukaddes; Ozdamli, Fezile; Hursen, Cigdem; Ozcinar, Zehra; Kutguner, Muge; Uzunboylu, Huseyin
Playing computer games is a routine activity for most young people today. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of time spent playing computer games, the violence of the game, and self-reported anger of students in North Cyprus. Four hundred participants between the ages of 15-18 completed the State-Trait Anger and the Anger…
This report presents the results of an Australian survey investigating the issues raised by unemployment in society, using extensive quotations from the respondents. In 1983 an open-ended questionnaire was sent to a group of about 10,000 young people (aged 18-22) in Australia to determine their opinions about unemployment and the future and to…
Laakso, Lauri; Telama, Risto; Nupponen, Heimo; Rimpela, Arja; Pere, Lasse
The decline in physical activity among young people has been discussed in the media during recent decades, although the scientific evidence for this has been scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate trends over 30 years in leisure time physical activity of Finnish boys and girls aged 12, 14, 16 and 18 years from 1977 to 2007. The data were…
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the differences in life skills of young people with and without disability in chronological age from 18-35 year-old in Tuzla Canton. The respondents sample consists of two sub-samples. First sub-sample contains 50 young people with disability, chronological age from 18-35 of both genders. Second sub-sample contained 50 young people without disability, chronological age from 18- 35 of both genders. Research data were analysed using method of parametric and non-parametric statistics. Frequencies, percentages and measures of central tendency have been calculated (arithmetic mean and standard deviation. P-values have been used for examining the difference between variables and variance analysis has been used for examining the importance of differences. The results show that there is a significant statistical difference between young people with and without disabilities in the of life skills assessed: job retention skills, skills to cope in danger. Based on the results obtained, it is recommended to start the program and training in early age which will make life easier to disabled persons and their families.
Filges, Trine; Rasmussen, Pernille; Andersen, Ditte
The main objectives of this review are to evaluate the current evidence on the effects of MDFT on drug abuse reduction for young people (aged 11-21 years) in treatment for non-opioid drug abuse, and if possible to examine moderators of drug abuse reduction effects, specifically analysing whether...
Hickey, Christopher; Kelly, Peter; Cormack, Sue; Harrison, Lyn; Lindsay, Jo
This paper examines data from a research project that investigated the cultural drivers of drinking in 14-24 year-old Australians, funded by Drinkwise Australia and the Department of Health and Ageing. At the same time that we were working on this project a moral panic about young people, risk and binge drinking had once more energised public…
Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce
This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…
Conclusions: CRC is not uncommon among Egyptian patients subjected to colonoscopy. There are relatively higher CRC rates in patients under 40 years of age than reported in the West. This has implications relating to future epidemiological trends in Egypt. Physicians must have a greater awareness of the potential for CRC in young people in the Middle East.
Lewit, E M; Hyland, A; Kerrebrock, N; Cummings, K M
To examine the effect of cigarette taxes, limits on public smoking, laws regulating access to tobacco by young people, and exposure to pro-tobacco and anti-tobacco messages on smoking participation and the intention to smoke among ninth-grade students (aged 13-16). Two cross-sectional, school-based surveys (total of 15432 responses) of ninth-grade students conducted in 21 North American communities in 1990 and 1992 in conjunction with the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation. A ninth-grader was classified as a smoker if he or she reported smoking a whole cigarette on at least one of the 30 days preceding the survey. Among non-smokers, a positive intention to smoke was attributed to those who claimed they probably or definitely would be smoking within a year. Both smoking participation and the intent to smoke were related to differences in cigarette prices, with estimated price elasticities of -0.87 and -0.95, respectively. Boys were far more sensitive to price than girls with respect to smoking participation (elasticities of -1.51 and -0.32, respectively); however, the effect of price on the intent to smoke was similar for boys and girls. Policies limiting minors' access to tobacco (a minimum purchase age of 18 years, a ban on cigarette vending machines, and a ban on giving away free samples of tobacco products) were associated with reductions in participation and intention to smoke. Exposure to tobacco education in school was associated with decreased participation and intention to smoke. Policies that prohibited smoking in public places and in schools were not significantly related to the smoking patterns of ninth-graders. Frequency of exposure to pro-tobacco advertisements was marginally associated with increased participation and intention to smoke; paradoxically, frequency of exposure to anti-tobacco advertisements was correlated with an increased likelihood of smoking. Policies limiting access to tobacco by young people, increasing education
Full Text Available Young people, the most common consumers of media content, bear out the view that media shapes people’s lives. Therefore we must not underestimate the effect media exerts on young people’s values and behavioral patterns. Television is the medium which draws children and young people for the greatest part of their free time. Regardless whether television programs are described as positive or negative, whether they abound with stereotypes or not, it is important that young people develop a critical attitude towards them so that they may resist different forms of media manipulation. The paper discusses how stereotypes are generated and used by media and the manners in which stereotypical concepts affect young people’s attitudes. It highlights the importance of the development of media literacy which implies a critical attitude towards media images and discourses, the development of criteria for the selection and evaluation of information broadcast by media, the development of skills in interpreting and understanding stereotypical concepts and familiarity with alternative forms of media culture. The paper draws special attention to the issue of media education. The conclusion is that schools should offer media literacy as part of their curriculum and in it possible solutions to the problems discussed. .
Tyrrell, RL; Greenhalgh, F; Hodgson, S; Wills, WJ; Mathers, JC; Adamson, AJ; Lake, AA
We aimed to identify and characterize the food environments from which young people obtain food and to explore associations between the type of food environment and food intakes.Young people (n = 86, mean age 17 years; combined data of two sequential pilot studies (collected in 2008-09) and a study conducted in 2011-12) recorded in 4-day self-complete food diaries what food they consumed and where food was sourced. Nutrient, fruit and vegetable intake was calculated according to the source of...
Milnes, Linda; Kendal, Sarah
Latif et al’s (2017) paper is a valuable addition to knowledge in this field. It highlights the need to improve the education of registered children’s nurses in the care of children and young people (CYP) with physical health problems related to self-harm.
Some of the world's best children's book artists got together to help Amnesty International celebrate the Universal Declaration of Human Rights' 60th anniversary in "We Are All Born Free," one of the 42 titles recommended by the fourth annual United States Board on Books for Young People's (USBBY) Outstanding International Books…
Phoenix, Ann; Pattman, Rob; Croghan, Rosaleen; Griffin, Christine
Gender inequalities in schools have implications for life chances, emotional well-being and educational policies and practices, but are apparently resistant to change. This paper employs Judith Butler's conceptualisation of performativity in a study of young people and consumption to provide insights into gendered inequities. It argues that how…
Ayre, Patrick; Barrett, David
Examines some reasons for the failure to protect young people in England and Wales from sexual abuse inherent in prostitution. Identifies characteristics of the child protection system which fit poorly for work with these youth. Argues that lasting improvement of these children's well-being depends on the creation of "joined-up,"…
New York State Dept. of Labor, Albany.
This booklet provides advice to young people seeking their first jobs on how to avoid the pitfalls that have caused others to lose jobs or fail to be hired. Topics discussed in short, one-page sections include appearance, attitude and behavior, ignorance of labor market facts, misrepresentation, sensitivity about a physical defect, unrealistic…
This ethnography, completed by the classroom teacher in a publicly funded secondary school in Mississauga, Canada, explores issues of conflict and sabotage that affected a devising project with suburban young people. The processes of devising generated ethnographic data that included a play script and videotaped rehearsals and performances. As…
Shay, Marnee; Heck, Deborah
This article will discuss some of the findings from a qualitative research project that explored the connections between alternative education and Indigenous learners. This study investigated how flexi school leaders reported they were supporting Indigenous young people to remain engaged in education. The results of the survey provide demographic…
Cherednichenko, G. A.
The dynamism of social processes, the development of technologies, and the modernization of industrial production require raising the education and qualifications of blue-collar workers, particularly working young people. This accounts for the focus on problems of that group's formation, their integration into society, their acquisition and…
van den Beemt, Antoine; Akkerman, Sanne; Simons, Robert-Jan
Young people's increasing use of interactive media has led to assertions about possible consequences for education. Rather than following assertions, we argue for theory-driven empirical research as a basis for education renewal. First, we review the existing empirical research, concluding that there is almost no theory-driven research available.…
This paper discusses the origin of museum, its brief history in Nigeria , its meaning, types, need for museums and the relationship between museums and libraries. It specifically addresses the issue of young people and museum which is the heritage of their pride. The paper also discusses factors/problems which may ...
The paper concludes that, though there are a number of sources through which young people may be receiving sexual health information, the majority of them are not satisfied with the quality of information they get from many of such sources. Key words: Parents, health workers, teachers, students, sexuality education, rural ...
This article revisits debates about inclusive education from the perspective of the "Keeping Connected" project, a qualitative longitudinal research project focusing on young people with health-related disrupted experiences of schooling. Drawing on findings from this project, three main arguments are advanced and illustrated in relation…
Rasmussen, Mary Lou; Sanjakdar, Fida; Allen, Louisa; Quinlivan, Kathleen; Bromdal, Annette
Young people may face conflicting and confusing messages about what it means to respond well in relation to homophobia and transphobia. Consequently, we ask--What might it mean to respond well to homophobia and transphobia? This strategy, inspired by Anika Thiem and Judith Butler, is recognition of the ambivalent conditions which structure…
This article highlights the lack of human rights recognition for arguably one of the most vulnerable groups in our society, children and young people in the care of the state. Currently under New Zealand legislation and policy frameworks these children do not have their rights upheld, as per New Zealand's obligations under the United Nations…
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present results of research related to preferences of young people (students on the milk market. The paper focuses on aspects connected with milk consumption, as well as the process of choice – preferred type, package, brand and place of purchase.
I B Bovina
Full Text Available In the course of the theory of social studies of the conceptions of health and illness among young people these conceptions undergo a research analysis. The comparison of the actual results with the results of the similar study conducted in 2002 allows us to talk about the dynamics of these conceptions.
Ackers, Melanie Jane
The topic of cyberbullying is raising international debate and concern. Through the development and dissemination of a questionnaire 12 student researchers were supported in surveying 325 UK students across Years 7, 8 and 9 to gain further knowledge of this area, in relation to children and young people. Results were analysed and comparisons made…
Mar 3, 2013 ... There is limited literature on the transition of young people living with ... (iv) transfer to other health centres, (v) perceived sense of stigma, ... survival among vertically HIV-infected children is increasing. ... was held to assess the participants' attitudes ... doctors in the adult clinic now view me like an old man.
Grisham, Jessica R; Williams, Alishia D
IMPORTANCE Suicidal behavior has increased since the onset of the global recession, a trend that may have long-term health and social implications. OBJECTIVE To test whether suicide attempts among young people signal increased risk for later poor health and social functioning above and beyond a
Full Text Available Young people in the new century find themselves having to define their existential choices within a social landscape that is strongly characterized by the acceleration of change. Contemporary time seems to erase temporal continuity and the notion of the life-plan as developed in first modernity. The article analyses how this process impacts the biographical constructs of young people and how the changing experience of time affects the transition to adulthood and the spread of new values. The hypothesis is that the positive relation among life-plan, biographical time, and identity encounters difficulties when the future is shortened. Planning capacity is compromised and life-projects depend more on subjective factors than on completion of the canonical life-stages marked by institutional times-frames. As a result, young people “navigate by sight”, dealing with uncertainty, rather than following pre-established routes. But the redefinition of the relationship between identity and social time does not only consist in a growing focus on the present; it also implies a reconstruction of the relationship with the future. In a nutshell, a significant part of the “new youth” seems to possess sufficient capacities to be able to govern the dynamics of the high-speed society in which young people find themselves living.
Lyubov’ Borisovna Osipova
Full Text Available Modern reality is the world of formation of various life prospects of a young person. The relevance of the topic depends, firstly, on insufficient sociological research into the mechanism of formation and realization of life strategies of modern youth; and, secondly, on the need to substantiate the sociological concept of youth life strategies in terms of professional self-determination with regard to its social and group characteristics. In this context, young people as the most active social group are of great interest to the authors who consider them a research target. Due to the transitivity of a social status and the incomplete processes of social maturity formation young people need a targeted design of their future. The sociological analysis of the issue involves a clarification of the concept of “life strategy” at the conceptual level (A.A. Volokitin, S.N. Ikonnikova, E.I. Golovakha, Yu.A. Zubok, V.T. Lisovsky, M.N. Rutkevich, G.V. Leonidova, K.A. Ustinova, etc.. The article presents the author’s definition of “life strategies”, which is a dynamic system of perspective individual orientation aimed at designing one’s life in the future. At the same time the results of the author’s sociological research are presented, including a standardized interview, questionnaires, which provide an opportunity to form an idea about the living choices of young people living in Yugra. The declining influence of social institutions and the emerging opportunities for developing their life prospects on their own challenges young people to select their life targets and ways of their implementation independently. The article justifies the necessity of intensified activation of new forms of young students’ management when planning their life trajectory. Life strategies disclose its content in specific life situations associated with choice. The key choice is the career choice of young people which directly depends on the socio
Shelton, Katherine H.; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.; Los, Férenc J.
Understanding mental health issues faced by young homeless persons is instrumental to the development of successful targeted interventions. No systematic review of recent published literature on psychopathology in this group has been completed. We conducted a systematic review of published research examining the prevalence of psychiatric problems among young homeless people. We examined the temporal relationship between homelessness and psychopathology. We collated 46 articles according to the PRISMA Statement. All studies that used a full psychiatric assessment consistently reported a prevalence of any psychiatric disorder from 48% to 98%. Although there was a lack of longitudinal studies of the temporal relationship between psychiatric disorders and homelessness, findings suggested a reciprocal link. Supporting young people at risk for homelessness could reduce homelessness incidence and improve mental health. PMID:23597340
Makarenko, M. V.
A high percentage of prevalence of inflammatory periodontal diseases in young age causes urgency of treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissue in young age. Therefore, the research purpose was to investigate the hygienic condition and identification of the main risk factors for gingivitis in patients aged 18-30 years. 286 people aged from 18 to 30 years were observed in the study. To assess hygienic condition of the oral cavity and to determine the thickness of pl...
Brown, Adrienne; Yung, Alison; Cosgrave, Elizabeth; Killackey, Eóin; Buckby, Joe; Stanford, Carrie; Godfrey, Katherine; McGorry, Patrick
Young people may place themselves and others at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and/or the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through engaging in unprotected sex. Mental health problems may play an important role in sex-related risk behaviour. The current research was an investigation of depressed mood and condom use in a help-seeking sample of young people in Melbourne, Australia. The sample comprised 76 sexually active young people aged 15-24 years who were referred to ORYGEN Youth Health, a public mental health service in Melbourne, Australia. Controlling for demographic characteristics and substance use, multivariate logistic regression examined depressed mood as a predictor of condom use at last sexual intercourse. Half of the sample reported condom use the last time they had sexual intercourse. Depressed mood, female gender and unemployment increased the likelihood that participants engaged in unprotected sex. A high proportion of young people, particularly those who are depressed, are failing to protect themselves from STI/HIV. Mental health services working with young people have the opportunity to implement initiatives aimed at reducing risk of STI/HIV infection.
Sykes, Susie; O'Sullivan, Karin
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the accessibility of, and advice provided by, sexual health and advice services for young people in Croydon, UK using a 'mystery shopper' approach. Nineteen young people aged 13-21 years were trained as mystery shoppers. The group developed a set of standards, based in part on existing guidelines of best practice, that should be met when working with young people. The group accessed local sexual health services in pairs posing as genuine patients. Using one of four scenarios, the mystery shoppers assessed the service they received against the predefined standards. The main access difficulties occurred in the reception area. Confidentiality was a major concern and was frequently not explained. The advice and information received was generally clearly given and with an appropriate level of detail. Additional training and support needs to be offered to receptionists. Confidentiality policies and statements need to be more effectively communicated.
Kloep, M; Hendry, L B; Ingebrigtsen, J E; Glendinning, A; Espnes, G A
The paper studies young people's reported drinking behaviors and their views on various social aspects of alcohol, utilizing a sample of over 4000 rural adolescents aged 11.8-16.5 years in Norway, Scotland and Sweden. The methodology employed includes a common questionnaire and a range of varying qualitative approaches (essays and focus group interviews). The various venues and drinking contexts used by young people, their motives for drinking, and their 'learning' experiences with alcohol are described. Beyond nationality, the most powerful predictors of 'high' drinking are 'involvement with friends' and 'participation in commercial leisure'. The predictors for 'low' drinking are 'involvement in activities with parents' and 'parental concerns about drinking'. Results show that Scottish teenagers drink most, Norwegians least and no differences in the predictor variables are found that can explain this. Results are discussed in relation to social and cultural differences, and illustrated by quotations from rural young people in Scotland and Sweden.
Godfrey, Cath; Devine-Wright, Hannah; Taylor, Joe
Involvement in positive leisure activities is a key way for young people to develop resilience and social and emotional skills. This paper outlines the evaluation of a six-week surfing intervention, the Wave Project, which aimed to boost wellbeing and confidence among 84 young people aged eight to 18, all of whom faced mental health issues or social exclusion. The intervention resulted in a significant and sustained increase in wellbeing. One year later, 70% of clients regularly attend a surf club and many have become trained as session volunteers. Parents and referrers noticed an increase in positive attitude and better communication, as well as improved self-management and behaviour at both home and school It is concluded that the Wave Project provides a demonstrable and cost-effective way to deliver mental health care, mentoring and social integration of young people. Further service evaluation of accessibility and long-term outcomes is also recommended.
Undie, Chi-Chi; Crichton, Joanna; Zulu, Eliya
This paper explores how young people in Malawi conceptualize sex and sexual relations through an analysis of their personal narratives about these phenomena. Eleven focus group discussions were conducted with 114 youth aged 14-19 years. Participants were asked to describe behaviors, attitudes, and motivations to reduce unplanned pregnancies and the spread of HIV/AIDS, with appropriate probes to illuminate their sexual world-views. The various metaphors that emanated from the discussions suggest that young people in this study take a utilitarian approach to sex, and conceive it as a natural and routine activity of which pleasure and passion are essential components. Future research and prevention efforts (around sexuality education in particular) would do well to incorporate adolescents' language in programming as this can enhance understanding of the world of young people as well as the effectiveness of interventions addressing problems related to early sexual behavior.
Pedro Paulo Sammarco Antunes
Full Text Available This study is aimed to understand transgender aging context in Brazil. Normal and abnormal were especially created by biological sciences. For being considered deviants, transgender people are not seen as human beings. They end up living in violent environments. Their life expectancy is low. Many of them do not believe to reach old age. They face a lot of prejudice and death threat. Those who get to what we call old age are considered survivals. This investigation was able to show satisfactorily their demands and needs. To be considered visible, they have to count on public policies to give them existence since their childhood. That way, we believe they will reach what we call old age with respect and dignity, already assured by the Universal Human Rights.
Gordon, Gill; Mwale, Vincent
The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is funding thousands of community-based organisations, international NGOs and government services in high HIV prevalence countries to persuade young people to abstain from sex until marriage (Abstinence, Behaviour Change, Youth--ABY). This paper describes how this strategy is being implemented in Zambia, and community responses to it. It is derived from published information and observations and discussions in the Eastern Province in 2005-2006. A few NGOs have challenged the strategy, but many took the funds and are paying large numbers of peer educators to promote abstinence only. Messages are rife that condoms have holes or don't work sufficiently well to make them worth using. Condom promotion materials have been replaced. Service providers refuse to give condoms to young people. Young people who had attended sexuality and life skills programmes that gave them accurate information are rejecting inaccurate messages and demanding condoms. Without this education, however, inaccurate messages will spread quickly. It is not possible to promote condoms only for high risk people without stigmatising both the people and condoms, and it also jeopardises promoting condom use for contraception. Everything possible must be done to reduce negative messages about condoms. Everyone involved in HIV/AIDS needs to reflect on their own work in relation to this new climate and ensure that all prevention options are widely available, correct information is given and condoms are available for everyone who needs them.
Taylor, Rachel M; Aslam, Natasha; Lea, Sarah; Whelan, Jeremy S; Fern, Lorna A
To maximize retention of participants in a longitudinal cohort study, we sought to understand young peoples' views about barriers and facilitators to continuing study participation. Ten young people with a previous cancer diagnosis aged 15-24 participated in a 1 day workshop. The workshop used participatory methodology consisting of three exercises as follows: role play/scene setting; force field analysis of research participation in small groups; and focus group discussion. A final prioritization exercise was administered individually after the workshop. Twenty-four barriers to maintaining participation were summarized in five themes as follows: life commitments; concerns specific to the study; emotional barriers; practical barriers; and other reasons. The top 3 specific barriers were as follows: not a priority/other things are more important; too time consuming; and forgetting/memory. The top 3 facilitators for participation were as follows: wishing to help other young people; giving back to the cancer community; and honoring an initial commitment to participation. The top 3 suggested solutions to encourage continued participation were as follows: reminder text message or email before each survey to check preferred method of delivery; breaking up the online survey into modules to make completion less overwhelming; and consolidation of study information in one location. Involving young people in designing a retention strategy for young people with cancer has informed the BRIGHTLIGHT retention strategy. Patient and public involvement is imperative for successful research but measuring impact is challenging. The success of implementing the changes to optimize retention was shown in the increase in retention in Wave 3 from 30% to final participation of 58%.
Friis, Karina; Østergaard, Jeanette; Reese, Sidsel; Lasgaard, Mathias
Previous studies indicate that young people who have positive attitudes towards illicit drugs are more inclined to experiment with them. The first aim of our study was to identify the sociodemographic and risk behaviour characteristics of young people (16-24 years) with positive attitudes towards illicit drug use. The second aim was to identify the characteristics of young people with positive attitudes towards illicit drugs among those who had never tried drugs, those who had tried cannabis but no other illicit drugs, and those who regularly used cannabis and/or had tried other illicit drugs. The analysis was based on a population-based survey from 2013 ( N = 3812). Multiple logistic regression was used to analyse the association between sociodemographic and risk behaviour characteristics and positive attitudes towards illicit drugs. Young men had twice the odds of having positive attitudes towards illicit drug use compared with young women (AOR = 2.1). Also, young age, being single, being employed, smoking tobacco, practising unprotected sex, and experimental cannabis use were associated with positive attitudes towards illicit drug use. Finally, use of cannabis at least 10 times during the previous year and/or use of other illicit drugs had the strongest association with positive attitudes to illicit drug use (AOR = 6.0). Young people who have positive attitudes towards illicit drug use are characterized by a broad range of risky behaviours. These findings may help to identify young people at risk of initiating illicit drug use and thereby support the development and implementation of prevention programmes.
It has been well documented that young people are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual activity. Appropriate understanding of safe sex, sexual practices, and related behaviors must recognize the importance of socioeconomic and cultural factors in prevention efforts related to HIV and other sexual transmitted infections (STIs). To examine and summarize the opportunities and challenges of sexual health services among young people in Nepal. Review of literature--assessing knowledge, attitudes, and understanding of sex, sexual health, and related sexual risk behaviors, among young people (15-24), in line with the current sociocultural and health service practices. Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Science, Cochrane database, and Google were searched. Similarly, documents published at the WHO, United Nations Population Fund, United Nations Development Program, and at national/local level--Ministry of Health, National Center for AIDS, and STD Control were also assessed to access the relevant reports and articles. Published and gray articles were also reviewed. This study contends growing expansion of communication and transportation networks, urbanization, and urban in-migration is creating a different sociocultural environment, which is conducive to more social interactions between young girls and boys in Nepal. Rising age at marriage opens a window of opportunity for premarital and unsafe sexual activity among young people and this creates risks of unwanted pregnancy, STIs/HIV and AIDS. Socioeconomic, demographic, and cultural factors have been identified as encouraging factors for risk-taking behaviors among young people. Understanding safer sex and responsible sexual/reproductive behavior is important. Effective and appropriate interventions on sexual and reproductive health education directed at young people and the whole family, including fathers, could have significant effect on reducing risk and related risk
Kauer, Sylvia Deidre; Mangan, Cheryl; Sanci, Lena
Young people regularly use online services to seek help and look for information about mental health problems. Yet little is known about the effects that online services have on mental health and whether these services facilitate help-seeking in young people. This systematic review investigates the effectiveness of online services in facilitating mental health help-seeking in young people. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, literature searches were conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane library. Out of 608 publications identified, 18 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria of investigating online mental health services and help-seeking in young people aged 14-25 years. Two qualitative, 12 cross-sectional, one quasi-experimental, and three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were reviewed. There was no change in help-seeking behavior found in the RCTs, while the quasi-experimental study found a slight but significant increase in help-seeking. The cross-sectional studies reported that online services facilitated seeking help from a professional source for an average of 35% of users. The majority of the studies included small sample sizes and a high proportion of young women. Help-seeking was often a secondary outcome, with only 22% (4/18) of studies using adequate measures of help-seeking. The majority of studies identified in this review were of low quality and likely to be biased. Across all studies, young people regularly used and were generally satisfied with online mental health resources. Facilitators and barriers to help-seeking were also identified. Few studies examine the effects of online services on mental health help-seeking. Further research is needed to determine whether online mental health services effectively facilitate help-seeking for young people.
To analyse the determinants of youth drinking behaviour within an economic -theoretical framework. The paper focuses especially on the effects of (a) having parents willing to supply alcohol, (b) living in a single-parent household, (c) having parents who are currently unemployed and (d) having received education about alcohol, narcotics and tobacco. A Swedish cross-sectional survey data on 833 individuals aged 12-18 years was used to analyse the effects of the above variables on participation in drinking, frequency of drinking, intensity of drinking and binge drinking. Separate analyses were conducted for beer, wine and spirits. Care was taken in using appropriate econometric methods for the questions posed (negative binomial regression, censored regression and probit regression). Having parents willing to supply alcohol increased frequency (P < 0.05) of beer, wine and spirits consumption, intensity (P < 0.05) of wine, spirits and illicit alcohol consumption, and increased probabilities (P < 0.10) of binge drinking and participation in drinking (P < 0.05). No effects were seen from living in a single-parent household. Having received education about alcohol, narcotics and tobacco had a negative association only with intensity (P < 0.10) of beer consumption. Having a father who was currently unemployed was associated with an increased (P < 0.05) probability of binge drinking but a reduced (P < 0.05) frequency of wine consumption. The positive effect of having parents willing to supply alcohol could reflect that these individuals face lower acquisition costs or lower psychological costs in consumption. It could also reflect a price effect, if the individual receives the alcohol free from his or her parents.
Ellis, Louise A; Collin, Philippa; Davenport, Tracey A; Hurley, Patrick J; Burns, Jane M; Hickie, Ian B
Young men are particularly vulnerable to suicide, drug, and alcohol problems and yet fail to seek appropriate help. An alternative or adjunct to face-to-face services has emerged with widespread uptake of the Internet and related communication technologies, yet very little evidence exists that examines the capacity of the Internet to engage young men and promote help seeking. To explore young people's attitudes and behaviors in relation to mental health and technology use. The aim was to identify key gender differences to inform the development of online mental health interventions for young men. A cross-sectional online survey of 1038 young people (aged 16 to 24 years) was used. Young men are more likely than young women to play computer games, access online video/music content, and visit online forums. More than half of young men and women reported that they sought help for a problem online, and the majority were satisfied with the help they received. Significant gender differences were identified in relation to how young people would respond to a friend in need, with young men being less likely than young women to confront the issue directly. Online interventions for young men need to be action-oriented, informed by young men's views and everyday technology practices, and leverage the important role that peers play in the help-seeking process.
Thomas, Rachel; Barker, Lucy; Rubin, Gary; Dahlmann-Noor, Annegret
Recent technological developments, such as the near universal spread of mobile phones and portable computers and improvements in the accessibility features of these devices, give children and young people with low vision greater independent access to information. Some electronic technologies, such as closed circuit TV, are well established low vision aids and newer versions, such as electronic readers or off-the shelf tablet computers, may offer similar functionalities with easier portability and at lower cost. To assess the effect of electronic assistive technologies on reading, educational outcomes and quality of life in children and young people with low vision. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2014), the Health Technology Assessment Programme (HTA) (www.hta.ac.uk/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 30 October 2014. We intended to include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs in this review. We planned to include trials involving children between the ages of 5 and 16 years with low vision as defined by, or equivalent to, the WHO 1992 definition of low vision. We planned to include studies that explore the use of assistive technologies (ATs). These could include all types of closed circuit television/electronic vision enhancement systems (CCTV/EVES), computer technology including tablet computers and adaptive technologies such as screen readers, screen magnification and
Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy
In the context of reforms in the field of disability, this study documents the trajectories and mechanisms of support for young people with mental illness or intellectual disability or pervasive developmental disorders, during the teen-adult life transition period; andfactorsfostering or impeding this transition for their maintenance in an everyday environment, particularly in SESSAD (special education and home care service) and the SAMSAH/ SPAC (medico-social support for adults with disabilities/support services in social life). This study was conducted in the French department of Seine-et-Marne. It was supported by a mixed call for tenders, in which 77 respondents (professionals, families and users), and 26 organizations were consulted. The study shows that few young adults in SAMSAH/SPAC programmes are derived from SESSAD, and they encounter major difficulties living in an everyday environment, particularly during the transition period. Clinical or socio-economic factors related to the profiles of users or healthcare service organization facilitate or hinder the inclusion of young people in an everyday environment. Support for users was also often limited to followup over a suboptimal period, and was hampered by insufficient networking within the regional healthcare system. On the other hand, empowerment of users and their optimal inclusion in an everyday environment, as founding principles of the reform, constitute major action priorities for healthcare structures. Strengthening services for young people (16-25 years), including integration strategies, is recommended in order to establish an integrated network of services in the field of disability.
Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza
Full Text Available Esta investigação visou identificar os fatores associados ao bem-estar psicológico em jovens de 18 a 24 anos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Em estudo transversal de base populacional, 1.621 jovens responderam a um questionário estruturado com questões referentes a dados sociodemográficos, prática de religião, trabalho remunerado, uso de substâncias e o Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI para avaliação dos transtornos psiquiátricos. A Escala de Faces de Andrews avaliou o bem-estar psicológico. A regressão de Poisson foi utilizada para análise multivariada. Dos entrevistados, 85,3% apresentaram bem-estar psicológico, que esteve associado ao não uso de drogas ilícitas, ao trabalho remunerado, à prática de religião, às classes socioeconômicas A e B, à alta escolaridade e a não presença de transtornos psiquiátricos. Programas que visem à redução da pobreza, incentivo à educação, identificação e prevenção de uso de drogas em jovens são de extrema importância para a melhoria do bem-estar psicológico e prevenção da saúde.This study aimed to identify factors associated with psychological well-being among young people 18 to 24 years of age in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. In a population-based cross-sectional study, 1,621 subjects answered a structured questionnaire on socio-demographic data, religion, employment, and substance use, as well as the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI to assess psychiatric disorders. The Faces Scale (Andrews was used to evaluate psychological well-being. Poisson regression was used for multivariate analysis. Of the total sample, 85.3% displayed psychological well-being, which was positively associated with non-use of illicit drugs, current employment, religion, socioeconomic status (classes A and B, higher educational levels, and absence of psychiatric disorders. Programs to reduce poverty and encourage education and
Jones, Gill; Jamieson, Lynn
A study of youth out-migration from the Scottish Borders region was based on the 1989 Scottish Young People's Survey--a survey of students during their final compulsory school year (age 16-17)--plus followup interviews in 1995 with 23-year-olds from the rural Borders region. Among those in school in the Borders at age 16, only around one-third…
Tika Ram Gautam
Full Text Available Current trends of migration in Nepal imply that the extensive out-migration of young people from rural areas, to foreign and internal urban centres, coincides with a rise in the problem of older couples in rural areas. This article examines the impact of migration on living condition and internal feelings of old age couples by drawing on the results of sociological and demographic field studies in Kandebash Village Development Committee (VDC comprising multiethnic communities of western Nepal. The methodology for identifying older people is, social survey followed by direct interview with semi-structured questionnaire, examining variations by socio-economic strata and family structures. Comparative analysis indicates considerable heterogeneity in past and present migration patterns, both within and between countries. Economically higher status families are commonly able to reinforce their position by making better use of emigration opportunities. These families are migrating permanently to urban centers within country. Migrants from economically middle and lower status families are continuing temporary migration to foreign countries. Temporary migration, both within and between countries, is making old age couples alone in rural villages. The migrants' financial and material contributions are a nominal support. The old age lonely couples are facing many problems such as feeling loneliness, helplessness, frustration, increased household and social burdening.Key words: Migration, emigration, immigration, old age couple, rural migration, NepalDOI = 10.3126/dsaj.v2i0.1361Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.2 pp.145-160
The health-related behaviours adopted by children and young people can have both immediate and long-term health effects. Health promotion interventions that target children and young people can lay the foundations of a healthy lifestyle that may be sustained into adulthood. This paper is based on a selective review of evidence relating to health promotion in childhood, carried out to support the external working group on the 'Healthy Child' module of the Children's National Service Framework. This is a selective review of mainly secondary research. It focuses on injury prevention, support for parenting and the promotion of good mental health, and promoting a healthy diet and physical activity amongst children and young people. In many areas, the quality of primary research into health promotion interventions aimed at children and young people is poor. Interventions are heterogeneous and not described in sufficient detail. Sample sizes tend to be small, and there are commonly problems of bias. Despite these difficulties, there is good evidence for a range of interventions, including (1) area road safety schemes; (2) combining a variety of approaches to the promotion of the use of safety equipment, including legislation and enforcement, loan/assisted purchase/giveaway schemes, education, fitting and maintenance of safety equipment; (3) school-based mental health promotion; (4) parenting support; (5) interventions that promote and facilitate 'lifestyle' activity for children, such as walking and cycling to school, and those that aim to reduce sedentary behaviours such as parent education to reduce the time children spend watching TV and using computers; and (6) controlling advertising of unhealthy food that is aimed at children. There are effective interventions to promote and protect the health of children and young people that require action across the five areas described in the Ottawa Charter. Health, social care and education services have a direct role in the
In recent times, empowerment has become the focus of much work with young people amidst increasing concerns about their health. Empowerment is often offered as a 'solution' to such concerns, with the uncritical assumption being made that empowerment unproblematically results in positive health outcomes. While much of the health promotion literature advocates 'empowerment', it often does so without offering a clear conceptualisation of the word itself or indeed addressing the thorny theoretical tensions surrounding the concept's root word of power. In light of this omission, this article offers a more theoretically informed conceptualisation of empowerment and considers the relationship to young people's health. This article outlines a more dynamic and generative conceptualisation of empowerment than hitherto articulated in the literature, informed by Lukes' multidimensional perspective of power. Drawing on findings from an ethnographic study on empowerment and young people's health, this article develops six conceptually distinct forms of empowerment (impositional, dispositional, concessional, oppositional, normative and transformative). Data were collected from 55 young men and women aged 15-16 years through group discussions, individual interviews and observational work in a school and surrounding community settings in England. Crucially, these six new forms of empowerment capture and synthesise individual, structural and ideological elements of power that differentially, and sometimes inconsistently, shape the possibilities for young people's empowerment. Of significance is the way in which these different forms of empowerment intersect to (re)produce relations of power and may offer different possibilities for health promotion.
Haysom, L; Indig, D; Moore, E; Gaskin, C
Intellectual disability (ID) is known to be more common in incarcerated groups, especially incarcerated youth. Aboriginal young people have higher rates of ID, and make up half of all youth in juvenile custody in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. We aimed to describe the prevalence of possible ID and borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) in young people in NSW custody, and to describe the association between possible ID and Aboriginality after adjusting for the inequalities in social disadvantage. Baseline study of all youth in NSW Custodial Centres between August and October 2009, with 18-month follow-up. Using Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) cognitive assessments, possible ID was defined as Extremely Low Intellectual Quotient range (Full Scale Intellectual Quotient, FSIQ intellectual functioning (by IQ assessment), and 14% had an IQ in the extremely low range (FSIQ intellectual impairment of those incarcerated from a young age. Aboriginal young people with psychosis are also at high risk of cognitive impairments that might indicate a possible co-morbid ID, and these patients should be diverted at court into community assessment services, rather than incarcerated. These results highlight a need for better and earlier identification of young people (particularly Aboriginal youth) at risk of ID and other co-morbidities in the juvenile justice system. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Research has identified the lack of acceptance of a two-child-family norm as the biggest obstacle to achieving replacement-level fertility in Egypt. This analysis examines norms about desired family size for 1,366 males and 1,367 females aged 15-24 in 2004 in rural Minya governorate. Two-level random-effects multivariate logistic regression models, stratified by sex and grouped by neighborhood, are used to assess normative influence at the household and neighborhood levels, controlling for individual- and household-level covariates. In the final model, young males in neighborhoods where more people desire a small family are 33 percent more likely to desire a small family than are young males in other neighborhoods. Young females in households with one or more adults preferring a small family are 78 percent more likely to desire a small family, and young females in households with one or more young people who prefer a small family are 37 percent more likely to desire a small family themselves, compared with those living with adults or with young people, respectively, who do not prefer a small family. Programs aiming to reduce fertility should be aware of gender differences in the sources of normative influence on desired family size.
Moodie, Crawford; Ford, Allison; Mackintosh, Anne Marie; Hastings, Gerard
In the United Kingdom, with most marketing channels prohibited, packaging is one of the few remaining ways that tobacco companies can promote their products. An online survey with young people aged 10-17 years (N = 658) was used to explore why youth choose cigarettes, perceptions of pack color, and perceptions of plain (nonbranded) cigarette packaging. Young people were also shown an image of 3 plain packs, which differed by shape and method of opening, and asked which they liked most and thought others their age would smoke. Price and what significant others smoke were key factors for choosing cigarettes, with packaging also an important influence. More than a third of the sample associated lighter pack color with weak tasting and less harmful cigarettes. Plain packs were rated negatively as were perceptions of plain pack users. One in 3 showed a preference for either a narrow "perfume type" plain pack or a plain "slide" pack that opened from the side, and 1 in 3 also thought that young people would smoke these packs. Packaging appears to both attract young people and mislead them about product strength and relative harm. Innovative pack construction (novel pack shape and method of opening) and the use of color are instrumental in these effects. The findings therefore suggest that any move to plain packaging should not only consider the benefits of removing branding (including color) but also of standardizing pack construction in terms of shape and method of opening.
Full Text Available The Internet affords users a unique and low-cost way to engage with news, politics, and one another. Although young people are the most likely age cohort to go online, it is questionable whether young people take advantage of the Internet as a deliberative space. We examine the way college students perceive the online world as a venue for political discussion by analyzing responses from six focus groups conducted with college students across the United States. Using deliberative theory as a guide, we examine focus group participants’ thoughts about political discussion both online and offline. Our findings indicate that young people’s preferences for online discussions about politics and the news consistently link to the ideals of deliberation. Young people prefer engaging with others who are knowledgeable and remain flexible and calm during discussions. Goals for engaging in conversations about politics primarily revolved around sharing information and opinions. Participants preferred civil discourse that focuses on commonalities rather than differences between people. This study provides greater insight into how the rising generation currently engages with politics and the news and reasons why many people hesitate to participate in online discussions about public affairs.
McMillan, Karen; Worth, Heather
Young people are a key group for HIV prevention in the Pacific region where levels of STIs are high and condom use is low. During 2008, 62 in-depth interviews were conducted with people aged between 18 and 25 years in Tonga and Vanuatu. The research was aimed at understanding factors impacting on young peoples' condom use in two Pacific Island nations. The data show a marked disjuncture between attitudes and practice with regard to condoms. This paper discusses factors underpinning that inconsistency and directs attention to the effect of social and cultural influences on young people's condom use. The authors conclude that individual-level approaches to improving rates of condom use will be inadequate unless they are informed by an understanding of the role of identity, culture and tradition in young peoples' decisions around condom use. The findings also underline the need for country-specific approaches to condom promotion efforts in the Pacific.
Christiansen, Erik; Agerbo, Esben; Bilenberg, Niels
BACKGROUND: SSRIs are widely used in the treatment of mental illness for both children and adults. Studies have found a slightly increased risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts in young people using SSRIs but SSRIs' impact on risk for suicides in youth is not well-established. AIM......: Is there indication that SSRIs might raise risk for suicide attempts in young people? METHODS: We used an observational register-based historical cohort design, a large cohort of all Danish individuals born in 1983-1989 (n = 392,458) and a propensity score approach to analyse the impact from SSRIs on risk for suicide...... attempts. Every suicide attempt and redeemed prescription of SSRIs was analysed by Cox regression. RESULTS: We found a significant overlap between redeeming a prescription on SSRIs and subsequent suicide attempt. The risk for suicide attempt was highest in the first 3 months after redeeming the first...
Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Greifinger, Rena; Nwosu, Adaeze; Hainsworth, Gwyn; Sundaram, Lakshmi; Hadi, Sheena; McConville, Fran; Benevides, Regina; Simon, Callie; Patkar, Archana; Schoening, Eva; Sethi, Disha; Boldosser-Boesch, Amy; Awasthi, Prateek; Mathur, Arvind; Braeken, Doortje
This year's Women Deliver conference made a strong call for investing in the health and development of adolescents and young people. It highlighted the unique problems faced by adolescent girls and young women-some of the most vulnerable and neglected individuals in the world-and stressed the importance of addressing their needs and rights, not only for their individual benefit, but also to achieve global goals such as reducing maternal mortality and HIV infection.In response to an invitation from the editors of Reproductive Health, we-the sixteen coauthors of this commentary-put together key themes that reverberated throughout the conference, on the health and development needs of adolescents and young people, and promising solutions to meet them.1. Investing in adolescents and young people is crucial for ensuring health, creating prosperity and fulfilling human rights.2. Gender inequality contributes to many health and social problems. Adolescent girls and boys, and their families and communities, should be challenged and supported to change inequitable gender norms.- Child marriage utterly disempowers girls. It is one of the most devastating manifestations of gender discrimination.- Negative social and cultural attitudes towards menstruation constrain the lives of millions of girls. This may well establish the foundation for lifelong discomfort felt by girls about their bodies and reticence in seeking help when problems arise.3. Adolescents need comprehensive, accurate and developmentally appropriate sexuality education. This will provide the bedrock for attitude formation and decision making.4. Adolescent-centered health services can prevent sexual and reproductive health problems and detect and treat them if and when they occur.5. National governments have the authority and the responsibility to address social and cultural barriers to the provision of sexual and reproductive health education and services for adolescents and young people.6. Adolescents should
Ana Maya Goto Uyehara
Full Text Available At the end of XX century, the old age theme has been approached due to concern of the society with the quality of man’s life in the aging process and the fact of seniors correspond to a growing representative portion of the population in the quantitative point of view. So the aging changes in a problem that wins expressiveness and legitimacy in the field of the daily current concerns. This article intends to demonstrate that the work can articulate other life projects for the seniors and to avoid psychic pathologies in the old age that can appear due to the loss of personal identity, to the involvement lack in motivated activities or starting from the adoption of inadequate consumption ways or lifestyles. For this, this article assumes a line of preventive character explanation under two slopes: the first refers to the fact that, if the work ennobles the man, he must acquire or improve this individual competences, adapting them to the new demands of the job market to get a job, or even to reactivate his professional life because new life projects. The second slope follows the direction of the discovery of the seniors’ potentialities for the companies, which can adapt the qualities [and limitations] of this workers category to the various functions in the organization. The Brazilian entrepreneur needs to be attentive to the image of his company and the differential competitive that can distinguish it of the other companies. And this can be to employee senior people or to maintenance it in the company personnel staff.
Grealish, Annmarie; Tai, Sara; Hunter, Andrew; Emsley, Richard; Murrells, Trevor; Morrison, Anthony P
There is consensus that empowerment is key to recovery from mental health problems, enabling a person to take charge of their life and make informed choices and decisions about their life. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which empowerment affects mental health in young people. The current study involved young people aged 16-29 years and examined empowerment as a potential mediator of the relationship between psychological factors (psychosocial, cognition, coping, and control) and mental health, well-being, and recovery from personal problems. A cross-sectional, Internet-based questionnaire study recruited 423 young people aged between 16 and 29 attending universities in England (n = 336) and Ireland (n = 87). Psychological factors, mental well-being, empowerment, and recovery from personal problems were measured using self-report measures. Mediation analysis in both the single and one over-arching mediator models revealed that empowerment mediates the relationship between psychological factors (psychosocial, self-efficacy, thinking style, coping, and control) and mental health, well-being, and recovery from general life problems. This study demonstrates the importance of empowerment, showing that it mediates the relationship between psychological processes and mental health, well-being, and recovery in young people. Clinical implications for working with young people within mental health services, and facilitating their empowerment are discussed. Empowerment is currently a poorly defined concept. This study demonstrates how empowerment mediates the relationship between psychological processes and mental health, well-being, and recovery in young people. Clinicians working with young people might benefit from a structured means of understanding and assessing the different ways in which individuals manage their thinking styles. Empowerment in young people is influenced by the manner in which clinicians facilitate them in establishing social
Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk; Mikkelsen, Sidse Hølvig; Gravesen, David Thore
Abstract In this article we present our qualitative mixed-methods methodology that we name the Map-Talk-Walk Approach (MTW Approach). We developed the approach to better grasp young people’s understandings of youth, normality and belonging, which make up the thematic framework of our current youth...... research. The MTW Approach is based on three phases, 1) Researcher-initiated workshops, 2) Focus group interviews, and 3) Walk-and-talks in the young people’s local environments. In the article, we discuss the ethical complications related to doing research with young people and positioning them as experts...... in their life worlds. Our ambition is to create a democratized research process that allows the participants ownership, and we find this to be a challenging task. In the closing section, after a thorough presentation of the three phases, we discuss some of the pitfalls we experienced during the process...
Gerard, F Jeane; Browne, Kevin D; Whitfield, Kate C
This study investigated gender differences regarding young people charged with murder in England and Wales. A sample of 318 cases was collected from the Home Office's Homicide Index and analysed. Of these cases, 93% of the offenders were male and 7% female. The analyses explored gender differences in terms of the offender's race, offender's age, victim's age, victim's gender, weapon used, offender-victim relationship, and circumstances of the offence. The study found that a female offender was significantly more likely to murder a family member than a male offender, and a male offender was significantly more likely to murder a stranger than a female offender. In addition, a female offender was significantly more likely to murder a victim below the age of 5 than a male offender. Implications for interventions with young people who are charged with murder are discussed.
Full Text Available The task of this paper was to explore how young people understand the values of democracy, how much they believe in democracy as a political system, how much they are satisfi ed with the way democracy works (“constitution at work”, and how much they trust government institutions. It is important to analyse the understanding of democracy, for democracy is dependent on the citizens’ opinions and the level of their political culture rather than on its normative constitution and formal value system. Thus, this analysis joins in the debate between foundationalists and antifoundationalists on democracy and its functioning. The present model of research has provided insights into the relationship between so-called diff use and specifi c support of democracy (D. Easton and an explanation of that which R. Dahl defi nes as the “democratic paradox” in contemporary democracies. This scrutiny shows that young people in Croatia understand democracy within the framework of liberal values, but also that they largely tend towards so-called consensual democracy and a socialist syndrome involving a prevalent aspiration to social equality and an economically interventionist state. Moreover, the analysis shows that young people in Croatia have a low level of democratic legitimation and an even lower level of trust in government institutions. This is not a good basis for the development of stable and well-functioning democracy in Croatian society. It all warns against serious shortcomings in the political education of young people in Croatia and in the development of democratic political culture and democratic citizenship.
Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe
Social competences are crucial parts of vocational education and training (VET) competences. As part of a development project preparing unskilled young people for VET, an action research project was conducted with the aim of developing a schema for assessing and grading social competences. The development included defining the social competences as well as three levels for assessing these competences. The schema was developed in cooperation with the assessors, i.e., representatives from workp...
McLean, Lavinia; Griffiths, Mark
Research has indicated that most young people spend more time watching screen media than in any other activity apart from sleeping (Strasberg, 2004). In Ireland, a large longitudinal study of children has indicated that over half of nine-year old children are playing video games daily, while the international adolescence literature indicates that the rate of game play is growing year on year (Gentile, 2008). There is a concern that the effects of video game playing are larger than the effects...
Harakeh, Zeena; van Nijnatten, Carolus H C J
Peers exert influence not to smoke but little is yet known on how this affects young people's behavior and cognitions. This experimental study investigates the impact of two types of peer influence not to smoke on the verbalized attitudes and responses of daily-smoking young people. Two conditions were conducted: 1) a peer confederate stating three times that s/he had quit smoking and was glad to have done so (covert peer influence); 2) a peer confederate making similar statements, but urging to quit smoking (overt peer influence). The participant performed a music task with the peer in order to disguise the true nature of the experiment. Thirty-one daily-smoking young people (16-24 years) participated; 44 responses in the overt and 34 responses in the covert condition were analyzed in a discourse analysis. The participants in the covert condition were more elaborative about smoking, i.e., taking an active role in a dialogue about the experiences of the peer or the participant in quitting smoking while in the overt condition participants showed more passive resistance, i.e., not showing an intention to follow the advice but avoid causing the peer embarrassment or discomfort. Open resistance, i.e., demonstration of being well-informed and indicating the redundancy of the advice, does not significantly differ in these two conditions but occurs, for both, primarily at the third discouragement. Overt and frequent discouragement seems to be less effective in stimulating young people to take an active role in the dialogue with their peers about smoking.
Haug, Severin; Castro, Raquel Paz; Kwon, Min; Filler, Andreas; Kowatsch, Tobias; Schaub, Michael P
Background and Aims Smartphone addiction, its association with smartphone use, and its predictors have not yet been studied in a European sample. This study investigated indicators of smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and their associations with demographic and health behaviour-related variables in young people. Methods A convenience sample of 1,519 students from 127 Swiss vocational school classes participated in a survey assessing demographic and health-related characteristics as well a...
Rogers , Colin
Part 2: Key Competencies, Learning and Life Transitions; International audience; This paper explores the underlying assumptions that are often made concerning the beneficial impact of the use of Digital Technologies in relation to the motivation for academic work, and related forms of engagement. In particular, these claims are assessed in the context of an overarching concern with the motivational characteristics that are most likely to abet the effective transition of young people from one ...
Rogers, Katherine D.; Young, Alys M.
The experiences of being a deaf role model have been little explored in the literature. This paper explores the role of the deaf role model as perceived by d/Deaf adults who carried out this role, when working with deaf young people, parents of deaf children, and professionals who work with them. The data were collected from part of the evaluation…
Coffé, H.R.; Voorpostel, M.B.J.
It is commonly found that young people tend to adopt the political party choice of their parents. However, far less is known about the applicability of this theory when investigating radical right support. Using the Swiss Household panel data (1999e2007), this study empirically identifies the
Full Text Available The treatment of young people with chronic pain is a complex endeavor. Many of these youth do not obtain adequate relief from available interventions. Psychological neuromodulatory treatments have been shown to have potential benefit for adults with chronic pain. Here, we review and summarize the available information about the efficacy of three promising psychological neuromodulatory treatments—neurofeedback, meditation and hypnosis—when provided to young people with chronic pain. A total of 16 articles were identified and reviewed. The findings from these studies show that hypnotic treatments are effective in reducing pain intensity for a variety of pediatric chronic pain problems, although research suggests variability in outcomes as a function of the specific pain problem treated. There are too few studies evaluating the efficacy of neurofeedback or meditation training in young people with chronic pain to draw firm conclusions regarding their efficacy. However, preliminary data indicate that these treatments could potentially have positive effects on a variety of outcomes (e.g., pain intensity, frequency of pain episodes, physical and psychological function, at least in the short term. Clinical trials are needed to evaluate the effects of neurofeedback and meditation training, and research is needed to identify the moderators of treatment benefits as well as better understand the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of all three of these treatments. The findings from such research could enhance overall treatment efficacy by: (1 providing an empirical basis for better patient-treatment matching; and (2 identifying specific mechanisms that could be targeted with treatment.
Amos, Amanda; Bostock, Yvonne
Smoking among young people has become increasingly gendered. In several countries, smoking among adolescent girls is now higher than among adolescent boys. However, we have only a limited understanding of the reasons behind these gender patterns. This paper reports the findings from a qualitative study which used single-sex focus groups to explore the gendered nature of the meaning and function of smoking among Scottish 15- to 16-year old smokers. The study found that young people were ambivalent about their smoking but that this was somewhat different for boys and girls. These differences related to their social worlds, pattern of social relationships, interests, activities and concerns, the meanings they attached to smoking and the role smoking played in dealing with the everyday experience of being a boy or girl in their mid-teens. For example, boys were concerned about the impact of smoking on their fitness and sport, whereas girls were more concerned about the negative aesthetic effects such as their clothes and bodies smelling of smoke. Of particular importance was how smoking related in different ways to the gendered 'identity work' that adolescents had to undertake to achieve a socially and culturally acceptable image. The implications for programmes aimed at reducing smoking among young people, particularly the need for more gender-sensitive approaches, are discussed.
Khokhlova A. Yu.
Full Text Available The article presents the experience of the communication training for young people with visual and hearing impairments. Boys and girls aged 16–25 with simultaneous hearing and visual impairments of varying severity took part in the group trainings. The variety of means of communication used by them described, conditions of effective training work outlined. The results showed that young people with visual and hearing impairments demonstrate a fairly high level of possession of various means of communication without pronounced additional violations. Communicative needs and preferences in young people with visual and hearing impairments are age-appropriate. Communication training allows the following: to eliminate some of the objective communicative difficulties which are exists in deaf-blind people, to motivate participants to show initiative in communication, to learn new about each other. Also communicative training creates a positive experience of communication with a wider range of people. The most important result is the opportunity to talk about ones feelings in a supportive atmosphere.
McCabe, Susan M; Blackmore, A Marie; Abbiss, Chris R; Langdon, Katherine; Elliott, Catherine
The aims were to identify in-home concerns about sleep in children and young people with cerebral palsy (CP) across age and Gross Motor Function Classification Scale (GMFCS) levels. This was a retrospective review of clinical notes of 154 children and young people with CP, aged 1-18 years (M = 7.8; standard deviation = 5.4) who received a home-based sleep service. Reported concerns were synthesised, for analysis according to age groups (1-5, 6-13, 14-18) and GMFCS levels. Sixteen factors of concern were derived from the home-based assessment reports. Most children and young people had multiple factors of concern. These varied across age groups and GMFCS levels. Body position was of concern across all age groups, for over 90% at GMFCS levels IV and V, and for 10% at GMFCS level I. Settling routines were of concern for more than 90% at GMFCS levels I and II, but for less than 50% at GMFCS levels IV and V. Settling routines were of concern to over 65% of those under 6 years but less than 25% of those over 14 years. Conversely, pain and pressure care concerned less than 10% of children under 6, and more than 35% of those over 14 years. Concerns about sleep vary across ages and GMFCS levels of children and young people with CP. Concerns relate to impairment of body structure and function, activity, environment, and personal supports. Multi-disciplinary, home-based assessment and interventions are recommended to address these concerns. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Maquibar, Amaia; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Goicolea, Isabel
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem with devastating effects on young women's health. These negative effects increase when the exposure to IPV lasts for a long time and exposure at an early age increases the risk of adult IPV. Despite efforts made in the last few decades, data show little progress has been made towards its reduction. Thus, the aim of the study reported here is to explore professionals' perceptions regarding intimate partner violence (IPV) among young people, focusing on the characteristics of the phenomenon and their perceptions about existing programmes and campaigns aimed at addressing it. Twelve professionals from education, health and municipal social services were interviewed. All but one of the interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed according to the methodology of inductive thematic analysis, with the support of Atlas.ti software. The transcripts were read several times and coded line by line. Afterwards, codes were grouped into themes. The developed themes were refined into two phases with the participation of all the authors. From the analysis, the following three themes were identified: "A false sense of gender equity", "IPV among young people: subtle, daily and normalized", and "Mass media campaigns do not fit young people's needs". According to the participants, psychological abuse in the form of controlling behaviour by their partners is the most common type of IPV young women are exposed to, although exposure to other types of IPV was also acknowledged. This violence was described as something subtle, daily and normalized and, consequently, not something that is easy to recognize for the girls that are exposed to it, nor for adults working with young people. The study participants showed good knowledge of the characteristics IPV has among young people. This knowledge was reflected in locally implemented IPV prevention projects, which they considered successful in addressing young
Abstract This article gives voice to refugee young people experiencing homelessness. It is based on a project that conducted interviews with refugee young people and consultations with service providers. The research reveals that the profoundly under-recognised phenomenon of homelessness experienced by young people of refugee background is often hidden and does not match commonly held beliefs about homeless young people. The article examines the nexus between migration and homelessness in...
Iredale, Rachel; Longley, Marcus; Thomas, Christian; Shaw, Anita
Young people will increasingly have the option of using new technologies for reproductive decision making but their voices are rarely heard in debates about acceptable public policy in this area. Capturing the views of young people about potentially esoteric topics, such as genetics, is difficult and methodologically challenging. A Citizens' Jury is a deliberative process that presents a question to a group of ordinary people, allows them to examine evidence given by expert witnesses and personal testimonies and arrive at a verdict. This Citizens' Jury explored designer babies in relation to inherited conditions, saviour siblings and sex selection with young people. Fourteen young people aged 16-19 in Wales. Acceptance of designer baby technology was purpose-specific; it was perceived by participants to be acceptable for preventing inherited conditions and to create a child to save a sibling, but was not recommended for sex selection. Jurors stated that permission should not depend on parents' age, although some measure of suitability should be assessed. Preventing potential parents from going abroad was considered impractical. These young people felt the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority should have members under 20 and that the term 'designer baby' was not useful. Perspectives on the acceptability of this technology were nuanced, and based on implicit value judgements about the extent of individual benefit derived. Young people have valuable and interesting contributions to make to the debate about genetics and reproductive decision making and a variety of innovative methods must be used to secure their involvement in decision-making processes.
Olfson, Mark; King, Marissa; Schoenbaum, Michael
Despite concerns about rising treatment of young people with antipsychotic medications, little is known about trends and patterns of their use in the United States. To describe antipsychotic prescription patterns among young people in the United States, focusing on age and sex. A retrospective descriptive analysis of antipsychotic prescriptions among patients aged 1 to 24 years was performed with data from calendar years 2006 (n = 765,829), 2008 (n = 858,216), and 2010 (n = 851,874), including a subset from calendar year 2009 with service claims data (n = 53,896). Data were retrieved from the IMS LifeLink LRx Longitudinal Prescription database, which includes approximately 60% of all retail pharmacies in the United States. Denominators were adjusted to generalize estimates to the US population. The percentage of young people filling 1 or more antipsychotic prescriptions during the study year by sex and age group (younger children, 1-6 years; older children, 7-12 years; adolescents, 13-18 years; and young adults, 19-24 years) was calculated. Among young people with antipsychotic use, percentages with specific clinical psychiatric diagnoses and 1 or more antipsychotic prescriptions from a psychiatrist and from a child and adolescent psychiatrist were also determined. The percentages of young people using antipsychotics in 2006 and 2010, respectively, were 0.14% and 0.11% for younger children, 0.85% and 0.80% for older children, 1.10% and 1.19% for adolescents, and 0.69% and 0.84% for young adults. In 2010, males were more likely than females to use antipsychotics, especially during childhood and adolescence: 0.16% vs 0.06% for younger children, 1.20% vs 0.44% for older children, 1.42% vs 0.95% for adolescents, and 0.88% vs 0.81% for young adults. Among young people treated with antipsychotics in 2010, receiving a prescription from a psychiatrist was less common among younger children (57.9%) than among other age groups (range, 70.4%-77.9%). Approximately 29.3% of
Cleaver, Frances; Cockburn, T
This research was commissioned by the Carnegie UK Trust to inform the Inquiry into the Future of Civil Society in the UK and Ireland, which was established to strenghen civil society…This report connects with the work that the Inquiry has conducted to explore the relationships between children, young people and civil society. The report is based on extensive literature review and on primary research amongst three groups of young people in the UK. The report explores how young people associate...
This guide shows how "Foyers" (safe residences for working/learning youth) and other organizations provide routes back into learning for young people. Chapter 1, "Young People and the Current Learning Agenda," provides a summary of encouraging developments from government, ushering in new learning opportunities for young people. Chapter 2,…
Bourke, Lisa; Geldens, Paula M.
In Australia, wellbeing has been used as an assessment of how young people are doing by health researchers, youth researchers and psychologists. The concept "wellbeing" is increasingly applied to young people in their late teens and early twenties with little discussion of young people's perspectives. Using quantitative measures of…
Castillo Nuñez, Jessica; Derluyn, Ilse; Valcke, Martin
This study analyses the expressed sexuality education needs of young people from Azuay, a region of Ecuador characterised by a large proportion of young people whose parents have migrated abroad, a group often considered at risk to developing of sexual health problems. Multi-stage stratified cluster sampling was used to recruit young people aged…
Roberts, Helen; Ingold, Anne; Liabo, Kristin; Manzotti, Grazia; Reeves, David; Bradby, Hannah
Background: Young people with learning disabilities are frequently underrepresented in research accounts. This study describes the experiences of young people moving from the care system. Methods: We scoped the English and Swedish literature for first-hand accounts and interviewed four young people with learning disabilities leaving the English…
Haug, Severin; Castro, Raquel Paz; Kwon, Min; Filler, Andreas; Kowatsch, Tobias; Schaub, Michael P.
Background and Aims Smartphone addiction, its association with smartphone use, and its predictors have not yet been studied in a European sample. This study investigated indicators of smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and their associations with demographic and health behaviour-related variables in young people. Methods A convenience sample of 1,519 students from 127 Swiss vocational school classes participated in a survey assessing demographic and health-related characteristics as well as indicators of smartphone use and addiction. Smartphone addiction was assessed using a short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SAS-SV). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate demographic and health-related predictors of smartphone addiction. Results Smartphone addiction occurred in 256 (16.9%) of the 1,519 students. Longer duration of smartphone use on a typical day, a shorter time period until first smartphone use in the morning, and reporting that social networking was the most personally relevant smartphone function were associated with smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction was more prevalent in younger adolescents (15–16 years) compared with young adults (19 years and older), students with both parents born outside Switzerland, persons reporting lower physical activity, and those reporting higher stress. Alcohol and tobacco consumption were unrelated to smartphone addiction. Discussion Different indicators of smartphone use are associated with smartphone addiction and subgroups of young people have a higher prevalence of smartphone addiction. Conclusions The study provides the first insights into smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and predictors of smartphone addiction in young people from a European country, which should be extended in further studies. PMID:26690625
Haug, Severin; Castro, Raquel Paz; Kwon, Min; Filler, Andreas; Kowatsch, Tobias; Schaub, Michael P
Smartphone addiction, its association with smartphone use, and its predictors have not yet been studied in a European sample. This study investigated indicators of smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and their associations with demographic and health behaviour-related variables in young people. A convenience sample of 1,519 students from 127 Swiss vocational school classes participated in a survey assessing demographic and health-related characteristics as well as indicators of smartphone use and addiction. Smartphone addiction was assessed using a short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SAS-SV). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate demographic and health-related predictors of smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction occurred in 256 (16.9%) of the 1,519 students. Longer duration of smartphone use on a typical day, a shorter time period until first smartphone use in the morning, and reporting that social networking was the most personally relevant smartphone function were associated with smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction was more prevalent in younger adolescents (15-16 years) compared with young adults (19 years and older), students with both parents born outside Switzerland, persons reporting lower physical activity, and those reporting higher stress. Alcohol and tobacco consumption were unrelated to smartphone addiction. Different indicators of smartphone use are associated with smartphone addiction and subgroups of young people have a higher prevalence of smartphone addiction. The study provides the first insights into smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and predictors of smartphone addiction in young people from a European country, which should be extended in further studies.
Full Text Available Aims: To examine existing evidence on the effectiveness of interventions that are designed to prevent the illegal sale of tobacco to young people. The review considers specific sub-questions related to the factors that might influence effectiveness, any differential effects for different sub-populations of youth, and barriers and facilitators to implementation. Methods: A review of studies on the impact of interventions on young people under the age of 18 was conducted. It included interventions that were designed to prevent the illegal sale of tobacco to children and young people. The review was conducted in July 2007, and included 20 papers on access restriction studies. The quality of the papers was assessed and the relevant data was extracted. Results: The evidence obtained from the review indicates that access restriction interventions may produce significant reductions in the rate of illegal tobacco sales to youth. However, lack of enforcement and the ability of youth to acquire cigarettes from social sources may undermine the effectiveness of these interventions. Conclusions: When access interventions are applied in a comprehensive manner, they can affect young people’s access to tobacco. However, further research is required to examine the effects of access restriction interventions on young people’s smoking behaviour.
Asanov, E O; Os'mak, Ie D; Kuz'mins'ka, L A
The peculiarities of the response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional and hypoxic stress in healthy young people and in aged people with physiological and accelerated aging of respiratory system were studied. It was shown that in aging a more pronounced response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional stress. At the same time, elderly people with different types of aging of the respiratory system did not demonstrate a difference in the response of the sympathoadrenal system to psychoemotional stress. Unlike in young people, in aged people, combination of psychoemotional and hypoxic stresses resulted in further activation of the sympathoadrenal system. The reaction of the sympathoadrenal system was more expressed in elderly people with accelerated ageing of the respiratory system.
Crawford, Belinda; Yamazaki, Rowena; Franke, Elise; Amanatidis, Sue; Ravulo, Jioji; Steinbeck, Kate; Ritchie, Jan; Torvaldsen, Siranda
Food insecurity is recognised as an increasing problem in disadvantaged and marginalised groups. The aim of this study was to investigate issues associated with food insecurity and nutrition in young people experiencing, or at risk of, homelessness in metropolitan Australia. Eight focus group discussions were conducted with 48 young people (aged between 15 and 25 years) in specialist homelessness services in central and south-western Sydney. Participants described daily experiences of food insecurity, persistent hunger and poverty. Structural barriers to food security and nutrition were identified and included poverty and reduced physical access to fresh foods. Participants also described a desire to save time, for convenience and to be socially connected. Despite the hardships and the chaos of youth homelessness, the groups were defined by their strength of character, resilience and hope for the future. Homeless young people within central and south-western Sydney report varying degrees of food insecurity, despite being supported by specialist youth homelessness services. SO WHAT? A collaborative, multistrategic approach with youth participation is required to further enhance the capacity of youth services to improve food security, food access and the availability of nutritious foods for homeless young people. A greater focus on advocacy and policy action is also required to bring food security and nutrition to the forefront of national efforts to improve the health and welfare of disadvantaged groups.
Gunnarsson, A Birgitta; Eklund, Mona
Young people with psychiatric disabilities may require support in structuring their everyday life. To learn more about the relevance of day centres in this respect, this study aimed to examine the experiences of young people with psychiatric disabilities. A particular focus was on the perceptions of meaningful occupation when visiting day centres, their reasons for not choosing this option when given it and what they desired instead. A qualitative design based on individual interviews was used. Twelve women and eight men between 18 and 35 years, with a need for organized daily occupations, participated as informants. Qualitative content analysis revealed three categories: 'Being in a context', 'Balancing between developing and stagnating', and 'Longing for something more'. The findings indicated that the occupations were inherently age neutral, as were the possibilities for socializing. There was a desire for more activities in the community and more support for engaging in occupations that other young people did. A major issue in the accomplishment of this was the need to earn money, and the lack of opportunities for doing that in the day centre context was a considerable drawback. The findings highlight the importance of identifying young people's views when designing day centres.
Uehara, Hisao; Kawasoe, Takuma; Miyata, Shiro; Nakano, Shinichi; Wakisaka, Shinichiro; Fujime, Kenichi; Ohta, Hajime; Arikawa, Shoji
We assessed the therapeutic indications for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in aged people. Between April 1999 and March 2002, 142 patients with aneurysmal SAH were treated and enrolled in this study. They were divided into 3 groups: 33 patients 75 years old and older (Group A, 23.2%), 37 between 65 and 74 years old (Group B, 26.1%), and 72 64 years old and younger (Group C, 47.4). Hunt and Kosnik grades, Fisher's CT classifications and clinical outcome were evaluated in each group. Clinical outcome was measured by Glasgow Outcome Scale, and good recovery and moderately disabled were defined as favorable outcome. Group A had a significantly higher incidence of serious Hunt and Kosnik grades of patients compared with the other 2 groups (p<0.05, <0.01). Fisher's CT classification was also more severe in Group A than Group C (p<0.05). Therefore the rate of radical treatments was significantly lower in Group A (45.5%) compared with Group B (73.0%) and C (86.1%). Only 4 of the 33 patients (12.1%) with favorable outcome were in Group A, whereas the rates of favorable outcome in Group B and C were 54.1 and 62.5%, respectively. Group A had a significantly poor outcome compared with the other 2 groups. Particularly, none of the patients in Group A with Hunt and Kosnik Grades 4-5 and Fisher's Classification 4 had favorable outcome. Since there were no significant differences in the rate of radical treatments and clinical outcome between Group B and C, aged people 74 years old and younger should be actively treated in the same manner as the young. In aged people 75 years old and older, however, radical treatment should be restricted to those with Hunt and Kosnik Grade 1-3 and Fisher's CT Classification 2-3. (author)
Lim, Megan S C; Gold, Judy; Bowring, Anna L; Pedrana, Alisa E; Hellard, Margaret E
In 2009, the Australian Government's National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program launched a multi-million dollar sexual health campaign targeting young people. We assessed campaign recognition among a community sample of young people. Individuals aged 16-29 years self-completed a questionnaire at a music festival. Participants were asked whether they recognised the campaign image and attempted to match the correct campaign message. Recognition of two concurrent campaigns, GlaxoSmithKline's The Facts genital herpes campaign (targeting young women) and the Drama Downunder campaign (targeting gay men) were assessed simultaneously. Among 471 participants, just 29% recognised the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign. This compared to 52% recognising The Facts and 27% recognising Drama Downunder. Of 134 who recognised the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign, 27% correctly recalled the campaign messages compared to 61% of those recognising the Facts campaign, and 25% of those recognising the Drama Downunder campaign. There was no difference in National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign recognition by gender or age. Campaign recognition and message recall of the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign was comparatively low. Future mass media sexual health campaigns targeting young people can aim for higher recognition and recall rates than that achieved by the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign. Alternative distribution channels and message styles should be considered to increase these rates. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Carson, Kristin V; Ameer, Faisal; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Hnin, Khin; van Agteren, Joseph Em; Sayehmiri, Fatemeh; Brinn, Malcolm P; Esterman, Adrian J; Chang, Anne B; Smith, Brian J
Mass media interventions can be used as a way of delivering preventive health messages. They have the potential to reach and modify the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of a large proportion of the community. To assess the effects of mass media interventions on preventing smoking in young people, and whether it can reduce smoking uptake among youth (under 25 years), improve smoking attitudes, intentions and knowledge, improve self-efficacy/self-esteem, and improve perceptions about smoking, including the choice to follow positive role models. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE and Embase in June 2016. This is an update of a review first published in 1998. Randomized trials, controlled trials without randomization and interrupted time-series studies that assessed the effect of mass media campaigns (defined as channels of communication such as television, radio, newspapers, social media, billboards, posters, leaflets or booklets intended to reach large numbers of people and which are not dependent on person-to-person contact) in influencing the smoking behaviour (either objective or self-reported) of young people under the age of 25 years. We define smoking behaviour as the presence or absence of tobacco smoking or other tobacco use, or both, and the frequency of tobacco use. Eligible comparators included education or no intervention. Two review authors independently extracted information relating to the characteristics and the content of media interventions, participants, outcomes, methods of the study and risks of bias. We combined studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. We assessed the risks of bias for each study using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, alongside additional domains to account for the nature of the intervention. We assessed the quality of evidence contributing to outcomes using GRADE. We identified eight eligible studies reporting information about mass media smoking
Carter, N.L.; Waugh, R.L.; Keen, K.; Murray, N.; Bulteau, V.G.
We gave 944 young people (aged 16 to 20 years) pure-tone audiometry, electroacoustic impedance tests, and ear, nose and throat examination. We questioned them about their histories of exposure to occupational and recreational noise. The data do not support the view that there is wide-spread hearing loss caused by exposure to amplified music in young people under the age of 21 years. However, the accumulated exposure of some of them to noise is such that, if their recreational patterns remain the same, they are at risk of some noise-induced hearing loss by their mid-twenties. Further empirical studies are necessary to determine whether these hearing losses will eventuate.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The so-called cognitive enhancers have been widely and increasingly used by healthy individuals who seek improvements in cognitive performance despite having no pathologies. One drug used for this purpose is methylphenidate, a first-line drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Objective: The aim of the present study was to test the effect of acute administration of varying doses of methylphenidate (10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg and placebo on a wide range of cognitive functions in healthy young people. Methods: A total of 36 young university students and graduates participated in the study. The participants underwent tests of attention and of episodic, and working memory. Results: No differences in performance were observed on any of the tests. There was a dose-dependent (40 mg > placebo effect on self-reported wellbeing. Conclusions: According to the recent literature, psychostimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, improve performance when cognitive processes are below an optimal level, which was not the case for the subjects of the present study. We suggest the impression that methylphenidate enhances cognitive performance in healthy young people, justifying its use, may be due to improvements in subjective wellbeing promoted by the drug.
Batistela, Silmara; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Vaz, Leonardo José; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes
ABSTRACT The so-called cognitive enhancers have been widely and increasingly used by healthy individuals who seek improvements in cognitive performance despite having no pathologies. One drug used for this purpose is methylphenidate, a first-line drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective: The aim of the present study was to test the effect of acute administration of varying doses of methylphenidate (10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg and placebo) on a wide range of cognitive functions in healthy young people. Methods: A total of 36 young university students and graduates participated in the study. The participants underwent tests of attention and of episodic, and working memory. Results: No differences in performance were observed on any of the tests. There was a dose-dependent (40 mg > placebo) effect on self-reported wellbeing. Conclusions: According to the recent literature, psychostimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, improve performance when cognitive processes are below an optimal level, which was not the case for the subjects of the present study. We suggest the impression that methylphenidate enhances cognitive performance in healthy young people, justifying its use, may be due to improvements in subjective wellbeing promoted by the drug. PMID:29213444
Bugge, Annechen Bahr
Despite the fact that no studies have been carried out to map the amount of unhealthy food advertising aimed at Norwegian children and adolescents, it is still widely held belief that this type of advertising is disproportionately common. As a consequence, one of the issues high on the agenda in Norway in the 2000s was the possibility of imposing restrictions on advertising for unhealthy foods to children. The purpose of this study is to contribute with a research-based foundation for implementing this health initiative by mapping food marketing in media channels widely used by children and adolescents. In sum, the study shows that the food industry spends a lot of resources to influence young consumers' eating and drinking habits. Compared with studies from USA, UK and Australia, however, there are, strong indications that there is significantly less unhealthy food advertising in Scandinavian countries. Similar to a previous Swedish study, this study shows that Norwegian children and young people were exposed to little advertising for unhealthy food products through media channels such as TV, the Internet, magazines, comics and cinemas. The study also supports critical remarks from some researchers that the extensive use of the international discourse as a political argument and recommendation for Norwegian conditions is not accurate. For the future it may be beneficial to look more closely at the relationship between advertising and health policy, and how this relationship can be further developed to improve children and young people's diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mas-Manchón, Lluís; Rodríguez-Bravo, Ángel; Montoya-Vilar, Norminanda; Morales-Morante, Fernando; Lopes, Elaine; Añaños, Elena; Peres, Rafaella; Martínez, María Eugenia; Grau, Antoni
Advertising uses stereotyped body images to promote physical ideals and unhealthy eating habits related to food products which are targeted especially at young people. The purpose of this study, carried out in Barcelona (Spain) in May 2013, was to test the perception of 139 young people of university age - with and without eating disorders - regarding 25 values in seven food commercials that did and did not use body image strategies. Results show that only the group of young people with eating disorders considered commercials using body image strategies to have a very negative influence on values such as health, well-being, family and effort. In contrast, the assessment of the two groups regarding the rest of the commercials greatly coincided. These results show that todays university youth have accepted as normal a beauty canon based on the prevailing social and economic order, while young people in treatment for eating disorders have learned to denaturalize such messages.
McGorry, Patrick D; Goldstone, Sherilyn D; Parker, Alexandra G; Rickwood, Debra J; Hickie, Ian B
Mental ill health is now the most important health issue facing young people worldwide. It is the leading cause of disability in people aged 10-24 years, contributing 45% of the overall burden of disease in this age group. Despite their manifest need, young people have the lowest rates of access to mental health care, largely as a result of poor awareness and help-seeking, structural and cultural flaws within the existing care systems, and the failure of society to recognise the importance of this issue and invest in youth mental health. We outline the case for a specific youth mental health stream and describe the innovative service reforms in youth mental health in Australia, using them as an example of the processes that can guide the development and implementation of such a service stream. Early intervention with focus on the developmental period of greatest need and capacity to benefit, emerging adulthood, has the potential to greatly improve the mental health, wellbeing, productivity, and fulfilment of young people, and our wider society. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hunt, Geoffrey; Fazio, Adam; MacKenzie, Kathleen; Moloney, Molly
This article analyzes eating and beliefs about family meals in the qualitative interview narratives of 30 "at-risk" gang-involved young women in the San Francisco Bay Area. We begin our examination of consumption practices with a study of households and identify three major types-extended, single-parent and blended. Within these households, food purchasing and consumption activities are varied, and in many cases, our respondents rely upon extended family members and non-kin relations for support. In examining eating within the family, we identify two sets of practices and meanings: eating alone, and eating with others. Eating alone is symbolic of independence from one's family of origin, or is the result of familial conflict at the dinner table; however, it does not necessarily change our respondents' eating patterns. Eating with others in the family remains important, and many of the young women value family meals, although there are significant obstacles to eating regularly with the entire nuclear family. Many of these young women play an important role in the purchasing and preparation of food for family members as well. This paper highlights the importance of understanding family eating practices from the perspective of young people in the family, whose contribution to family ingestive practices has tended to be underestimated in much of available research literature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oliveira, Elda de; Soares, Cassia Baldini; Batista, Leandro Leonardo
to understand everyday representations of young people about the peripheral areas, with the purpose of establishing topics to drug education media programs. Marxist approach, with emancipatory action research and the participation in workshops of 13 youngsters from a public school of the peripheral area of São Paulo. there are contradictory everyday representations about the State's role, which, on the one hand, does not guarantee social rights and exert social control over the peripheral areas and, on the other hand, is considered the privileged interlocutor for the improvement of life and work conditions. the action research discussed mainly topics related to social rights context, claim of the young participants. It is necessary to expand the discussion beyond the citizenship rights sphere, which is only part of the debate about social inequalities inherent in capitalist exploitation and the necessary transformations to build equality policies.
Speizer, Ilene S; Beauvais, Harry; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Outlaw, Theresa Finn; Roussel, Barbara
No previous published research has examined the applicability of varying methods for identifying young people who are at high risk of experiencing unintended pregnancy and acquiring HIV infection. This study compares three surveys of young people aged 15-24 in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, in terms of their sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviors and the surveys'usefulness for identifying young people at high risk and for program planning. The surveys consist of responses from: a representative sample of young people in the 2005-06 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey (HDHS), a 2004 facility-based study, and a 2006-07 venue-based study that used the Priorities for Local AIDS Control Efforts (PLACE) method. The facility-based and PLACE studies included larger proportions of single, sexually experienced young people and people who knew someone with HIV/ AIDS than did the HDHS. More respondents in the PLACE sample had multiple sex partners in the past year and received money or gifts in return for sex, compared with respondents in the facility study. At first and last sex, more PLACE respondents used contraceptives, including condoms. Experience of pregnancy was most commonly reported in the data from the facility-based sample; however, more ever-pregnant PLACE respondents than others reported ever having terminated a pregnancy. Program managers seeking to implement prevention activities should consider using facility- or venue-based methods to identify and understand the behaviors of young people at high risk.
Nicole H T M Dukers-Muijrers
Full Text Available Non-volitional sex (NVS in young people continues to be a major public health problem with long-term negative health outcomes. For the first time, the prevalence of different types of NVS and associated factors are compared between young people with same-sex sexual activities and those who have not.We obtained data from 10,401 young women and men (aged 12 to 25 years who participated in a population study on sexual health, the Netherlands. We calculated and compared the prevalence of six types of NVS between women who had sex with men (yWSM or women (yWSW, and men who had sex with women (yMSW or men (yMSM. In sexually experienced participants (n = 5986 logistic regression analyses were applied to assess associations with NVS by assault or penetration. Analyses were weighted to represent the Dutch population.The prevalence of NVS ranged from 1% to 61%, depending on type. Prevalence was higher for young women (any: 40.6% than men (any: 20.4%, and highest for yMSM and yWSW. Prevalence of NVS by assault or penetration was related to a range of socio-demographic, behavioral and social factors, which were largely similar regardless of sex or same-sex-experiences. The NVS perpetrators were in over 70% of cases known to the victim; 1 in 4 cases of NVS by penetration were accompanied by violence.A substantial proportion of young people in the Netherlands have experienced NVS. Medical professionals, educators and caregivers should integrate services to continue to address NVS by targeting young people's multifaceted risk profiles and evidenced based interventions for doing so are needed.
Webb, Marianne Julie; Wadley, Greg; Sanci, Lena Amanda
Despite experiencing a high prevalence and co-occurrence of mental health disorders and health-compromising behaviors, young people tend not to seek professional help for these concerns. However, they do regularly attend primary care, making primary care providers ideally situated to identify and discuss mental health and lifestyle issues as part of young people's routine health care. The aim was to investigate whether using a codesigned health and lifestyle-screening app, Check Up GP, in general practice influenced young people's assessment of the quality of their care (measures of patient-centered care and youth friendliness), and their disclosure of sensitive issues. In addition, this study aimed to explore young people's acceptance and experience of using a screening app during regular health care. This was a mixed methods implementation study of Check Up GP with young people aged 14 to 25 years attending a general practice clinic in urban Melbourne, Australia. A 1-month treatment-as-usual group was compared to a 2-month intervention group in which young people and their general practitioners (GPs) used Check Up GP. Young people in both groups completed an exit survey immediately after their consultation about disclosure, patient-centered and youth-friendly care, and judgment. In addition, participants in the intervention group were surveyed about app acceptability and usability and their willingness to use it again. Semistructured interviews with participants in the intervention group expanded on themes covered in the survey. The exit survey was completed by 30 young people in the treatment-as-usual group and 85 young people in the intervention group. Young people using Check Up GP reported greater disclosure of health issues (Ptime to ask questions. In all, 86% (73/85) of young people felt the app was a "good idea" and only 1% (1/85) thought it a "bad idea." Thematic analysis of qualitative interviews with 14 participants found that Check Up GP created scope
Francis, Joel M; Weiss, Helen A; Mshana, Gerry; Baisley, Kathy; Grosskurth, Heiner; Kapiga, Saidi H
Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD) among young people in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers) in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza) of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB) method. A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users) than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users). Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females) and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females) followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8) than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners. Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual
Joel M Francis
Full Text Available Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD among young people in sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB method.A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users. Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8 than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners.Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual
Ana Daniela Silva
Full Text Available This work presents two studies of career exploration with specific groups of youth, using the Career Exploration Survey (CES. The first study compares the career exploration process of 136 foster-care youth and 186 youth living with their families, using the One-Way MANOVA. In the second study we analyzed the process of career exploration of 323 young people in vocational education, comparing it with the 208 regular education using the T-Test. Implications for career intervention with specific groups will be taken based on the results.
This article identifies the key ethical issues that need to be addressed in any research study involving children and young people, accessed through the NHS. It makes specific reference to the Declaration of Helsinki and to additional guidance developed for researchers from a variety of disciplines, both within healthcare and in other fields of study. The focus of the paper is on defining the key ethical issues, identifying the complexities in the legislative framework underpinning research involving this patient group and offering practical advice on when, and how, ethical approval needs to be sought
Although school is usually considered the most promising institution for the social and economic integration of young people of migration background, the educational outcomes of young people of Ecuadorian background signal a broken promise. Their families, peers, and teachers mediate the effect of the intersections of age, gender, class and…
Dalenberg, Wieke G.; Timmerman, Margaretha C.; Kunnen, E. Saskia; Van Geert, Paul L. C.
This study builds on existing research into how young people's emergent sexual development is connected to parent-child sex-related communication through avoidance vs. disclosure. Over the course of one year, a total of 21 young people (age range 12-17.5) reported in longitudinal qualitative diaries their (1) everyday sexual experiences and (2)…
This paper investigates the reasons why young people in urban and rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania do not attend school, their socio-demographic characteristics, AIDS knowledge and risk perception. A structured face-to-face interview was conducted with 1007 young people between the ages of 13 and 18. Findings suggest that non-attendance is the product…
Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Ara, Ignacio; Moreno, Luis A.; Casajus, Jose A.
Aim: To determine whether the bone mass of young people with Down syndrome may increase, following a 21-week conditioning training programme including plyometric jumps. Method: Twenty-eight participants with Down syndrome (13 females, 15 males) aged 10 to 19 years were divided into exercise (DS-E; n = 14; eight females, six males mean age 13y 8mo,…
Baker, Karen Elizabeth
The Internet has made sexually explicit media more accessible to young people. Online pornography is diverse, can be very graphic, and a large amount is available free of charge with restrictions varying by country. Many young people are accessing online pornography, intentionally or unintentionally, and there are fears that this could impact on…
Yeung, Timothy H; Horyniak, Danielle R; Vella, Alyce M; Hellard, Margaret E; Lim, Megan S C
Background 'Sexting' is the exchange of sexually explicit material via communication technologies. Despite significant media attention, there has been little examination of sexting in the Australian setting. This study aimed to provide insight into sexting behaviours and attitudes among young Australians. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a convenience sample of people aged 16-29 years attending a music festival (n=1372). Correlates of lifetime sexting were determined using multivariate logistic regression. Attitudes towards and perceived consequences of sexting were explored in focus group discussions (FGDs) with 39 young people. Forty percent of survey participants reported that they had ever sent or received a sext (48% of males, 36% of females), most commonly with a regular partner. Lower levels of education, greater recreational spending, greater number of sexual partners, inconsistent condom use with a regular partner, identifying as being nonheterosexual and risky alcohol consumption were all independent correlates of sexting. FGD participants made a clear distinction between consensual creating, sending and possessing of sexts, and nonconsensual sharing of sexts. Positive outcomes of consensual sexting included flirting and sexual experimentation, with sexting perceived as a normalised aspect of sexual interaction. Sexting is a common and normalised practice among young Australians. Our findings highlight the distinction in young people's minds between consensual sexting and the nonconsensual sharing or circulation of sexts, which is not currently well recognised in sexuality education, the media or the law.
Perry, Yael; Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Calear, Alison L.; Christensen, Helen
Objective: Suicide is a significant public health issue, and is especially concerning in adolescents and young adults, who are over-represented both in attempts and completed suicide. Emerging technologies represent a promising new approach to deliver suicide prevention interventions to these populations. The current systematic review aims to identify online and mobile psychosocial suicide prevention interventions for young people, and evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions. Method: PsycINFO, Medline, Embase and The Cochrane Library were electronically searched for all articles published between January, 2000 and May, 2015. Peer-reviewed journal articles reporting on interventions for young people aged 12–25 years with suicidality as a primary outcome were eligible for inclusion. No exclusions were placed on study design. Results: One study met inclusion criteria, and found significant reductions in the primary outcome of suicidal ideation, as well as depression and hopelessness. Two relevant protocol papers of studies currently underway were also identified. Conclusions: There is a paucity of current evidence for online and mobile interventions for suicide prevention in youth. More high quality empirical evidence is required to determine the effectiveness of these novel approaches to improving suicide outcomes in young people. PMID:27274742
Goldman-Mellor, Sidra J; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, Honalee; Hogan, Sean; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E
Suicidal behavior has increased since the onset of the global recession, a trend that may have long-term health and social implications. To test whether suicide attempts among young people signal increased risk for later poor health and social functioning above and beyond a preexisting psychiatric disorder. We followed up a cohort of young people and assessed multiple aspects of their health and social functioning as they approached midlife. Outcomes among individuals who had self-reported a suicide attempt up through age 24 years (young suicide attempters) were compared with those who reported no attempt through age 24 years (nonattempters). Psychiatric history and social class were controlled for. The population-representative Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, which involved 1037 birth cohort members comprising 91 young suicide attempters and 946 nonattempters, 95% of whom were followed up to age 38 years. Outcomes were selected to represent significant individual and societal costs: mental health, physical health, harm toward others, and need for support. As adults approaching midlife, young suicide attempters were significantly more likely to have persistent mental health problems (eg, depression, substance dependence, and additional suicide attempts) compared with nonattempters. They were also more likely to have physical health problems (eg, metabolic syndrome and elevated inflammation). They engaged in more violence (eg, violent crime and intimate partner abuse) and needed more social support (eg, long-term welfare receipt and unemployment). Furthermore, they reported being lonelier and less satisfied with their lives. These associations remained after adjustment for youth psychiatric diagnoses and social class. Many young suicide attempters remain vulnerable to costly health and social problems into midlife. As rates of suicidal behavior rise with the continuing global recession, additional suicide prevention efforts and long
Moffitt, Terrie E; Belsky, Daniel W; Danese, Andrea; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom
To prevent onset of age-related diseases and physical and cognitive decline, interventions to slow human aging and extend health span must eventually be applied to people while they are still young and healthy. Yet most human aging research examines older adults, many with chronic disease, and little is known about aging in healthy young humans. This article explains how this knowledge gap is a barrier to extending health span and puts forward the case that geroscience should invest in researching the pace of aging in young adults. As one illustrative example, we describe an initial effort to study the pace of aging in a young-adult birth cohort by using repeated waves of biomarkers collected across the third and fourth decades to quantify the pace of coordinated physiological deterioration across multiple organ systems (eg, pulmonary, periodontal, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, metabolic, and immune function). Findings provided proof of principle that it is possible to quantify individual variation in the pace of aging in young adults still free of age-related diseases. This article articulates research needs to improve longitudinal measurement of the pace of aging in young people, to pinpoint factors that slow or speed the pace of aging, to compare pace of aging against genomic clocks, to explain slow-aging young adults, and to apply pace of aging in preventive clinical trials of antiaging therapies. This article puts forward a research agenda to fill the knowledge gap concerning lifelong causes of aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
AIDS has become a major cause of death in Tanzania and young people represent the most vulnerable group. Recent HIV prevalence data showed that young women are more likely than young men to become infected. This paper examined commonalties and differences in the sociodemographic and ideational predictors of condom use among young men and women in Tanzania. The data derive from a 2004 sample survey among young people aged 15-24 years in five regions of Tanzania. The sample on which the analyses were based included 1,523 single women and 1,200 single men. An ideation framework guided the analyses of the predictors of consistent condom use. Logistic regression was the main analytic method used and separate models were estimated for men and women. The most significant correlates of consistent condom use for men included perceived self-efficacy for correct condom use, discussing condom use with friends, and perceived self-efficacy for using condoms with a long-term partner. Discussing condom use with a sex partner and the perceived self-efficacy to refuse sex if the sex partner refused to use a condom were the most significant predictors for women. One implication of the findings is that for men, effective interventions should emphasize correct condom use know-how and address the issue of negative peer pressure and group norms around condom use. For women, interventions should focus on sexual empowerment.
Ssewanyana, Derrick; Bitanihirwe, Byron
Gambling is a cross-cultural and global activity which typically involves the wagering of money or an item of monetary value on an outcome that is governed by chance. Although gambling is positioned as a legitimate recreational and leisure activity within sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), there is widespread recognition among healthcare professionals and policy-makers that gambling has the capacity to become dysfunctional in a minority. Emerging knowledge suggests that problem gambling is rapidly evolving in to a public health concern in SSA, especially among youth. This article focuses on problem gambling among young people in SSA with an emphasis on three key themes: (1) gambling behavior and patterns in SSA; (2) public health and socioeconomic implications of gambling in SSA; and (3) public health policies and interventions for addressing this issue. We believe that collaborative efforts between government, prevention specialists, legislators, researchers, treatment providers, and other stake holders can influence the uptake of research findings necessary to implement social policies and design effective public health intervention options to combat problem gambling and its associated implications among young people in SSA.
Full Text Available Social competences are crucial parts of vocational education and training (VET competences. As part of a development project preparing unskilled young people for VET, an action research project was conducted with the aim of developing a schema for assessing and grading social competences. The development included defining the social competences as well as three levels for assessing these competences. The schema was developed in cooperation with the assessors, i.e., representatives from workplaces, municipal youth guidance centres, and VET colleges. There were two main findings. First, the definitions of the competences and the levels for assessing the competences are related to the context in which the competences should be developed. Second, even though the definitions should be related to the specific contexts, to be manageable they should not be too elaborate. The aim of the project being to develop a schema that practitioners in general can use for assessing young peoples' social competences in relation to work-based training, the study concludes that further research is needed to clarify whether the schema can be used without instruction or training.
Full Text Available Gambling is a cross-cultural and global activity which typically involves the wagering of money or an item of monetary value on an outcome that is governed by chance. Although gambling is positioned as a legitimate recreational and leisure activity within sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, there is widespread recognition among healthcare professionals and policy-makers that gambling has the capacity to become dysfunctional in a minority. Emerging knowledge suggests that problem gambling is rapidly evolving in to a public health concern in SSA, especially among youth. This article focuses on problem gambling among young people in SSA with an emphasis on three key themes: (1 gambling behavior and patterns in SSA; (2 public health and socioeconomic implications of gambling in SSA; and (3 public health policies and interventions for addressing this issue. We believe that collaborative efforts between government, prevention specialists, legislators, researchers, treatment providers, and other stake holders can influence the uptake of research findings necessary to implement social policies and design effective public health intervention options to combat problem gambling and its associated implications among young people in SSA.
Wulf-Andersen, Trine Østergaard
The paper considers the different ways young people were involved in the research process in a Danish research project with young people with social and psychological problems. Young people were involved in life story interviews and subsequently in the interpretation of material produced through...... and employed as a vehicle for certain kinds of participation, representation, and dialogue, of situated participants. The paper comments on the potentials of ‘doing’ poetic representations as an example of writing in ways which brings young people’s voices to the foreground, includes aspects which academic...... writing tends to marginalize, and challenges what sometimes goes unasked in (participative) social work research with young people at risk....
Maria Belen Villace
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify alcohol consumption in young people between 18 and 24 years of age in the province of Córdoba who participated in the National Survey of Risk Factors, according to sociodemographic characteristics. METHOD: a quantitative, analytic and cross-sectional study was undertaken in a sample of 240 young people. The alcohol consumption and sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed using bivariate analysis, risk ratio and confidence intervals. RESULTS: the lifetime prevalence of alcohol consumption corresponded to 79.17%, the one-year prevalence to 72.91% and the one-month prevalence to 57.08%, while episodic abuse and regular hazardous consumption corresponded to 25.55% and 24.19%. Consumption levels in the last month were higher among males (p=0.0028, single people (p=0.0001, with a secondary education degree (p=0.0306. CONCLUSION: in the province of Córdoba, drugs use, including alcohol, has not been an area of research interest in recent years, although alcohol abuse is associated with other risk factors, like accidents and violence, and is a factor of comorbidity and early mortality. Therefore, alcohol consumption in young people represents an area of concern and, once characterized, preventive actions should be adopted.
Full Text Available Whilst data on statutory homelessness is well recorded in the UK, there is a lack of data on informal homelessness (such as ‘sofa surfing’ and rough sleeping, other than that which relies on partial information and street counts. This paper presents findings from a recent online survey of young people and helps to fill this gap. It found that rates of sofa surfing and rough sleeping among young people were much higher than previously thought. Twenty-six percent of young people (aged 16–25 had slept rough at some point in their life and 35 percent had ‘sofa surfed’ (stayed with friends or family on their floor or sofa because they had nowhere else to go. The paper explores the implications of this for how we conceptualise homelessness. It suggests that homelessness may often be neither cause nor consequence of wider forms of exclusion, but that we may need to explore further the factors that enable some people to move swiftly out of homelessness more easily than others.
Fry, Charlotte E; Langley, Kate; Shelton, Katherine H
Young people who have experienced homelessness, foster care, or poverty are among the most disadvantaged in society. This review examines whether young people who have these experiences differ from their non-disadvantaged peers with respect to their cognitive skills and abilities, and whether cognitive profiles differ between these three groups. Three electronic databases were systematically searched for articles published between 1 January 1995 and 1 February 2015 on cognitive functioning among young people aged 15 to 24 years who have experienced homelessness, foster care, or poverty. Articles were screened using pre-determined inclusion criteria, then the data were extracted, and its quality assessed. A total of 31 studies were included. Compared to non-disadvantaged youth or published norms, cognitive performance was generally found to be impaired in young people who had experienced homelessness, foster care, or poverty. A common area of difficulty across all groups is working memory. General cognitive functioning, attention, and executive function deficits are shared by the homeless and poverty groups. Creativity emerges as a potential strength for homeless young people. The cognitive functioning of young people with experiences of impermanent housing and poverty has been relatively neglected and more research is needed to further establish cognitive profiles and replicate the findings reviewed here. As some aspects of cognitive functioning may show improvement with training, these could represent a target for intervention.
Full Text Available Background Standardised cigarette packs were introduced into the UK in May 2016. Retailers could sell old stock until May 2017 after which only the sale of cigarettes and tobacco in standardised packs was allowed. As in Australia, pack shape, colour, opening mechanism and font are regulated, together with the size and position of health warnings and number of cigarettes in a pack. This paper explores Scottish young people's awareness of and views about standardised packs in Spring 2017. Methods The DISPLAY study is a five year study established to evaluate the national tobacco point-of sale (POS promotions ban in four communities in Scotland. This paper is based on the qualitative component, annual focus groups carried out with Secondary 2 (13 year olds and Secondary 4 (15 year olds students in four secondary schools. 16 groups (82 students convened in February - March 2017 explored students' perceptions of standardised packaging. Results There was a high level of awareness of standardised packs prior to their full implementation. Smokers had bought them, and they and other participants had seen them in possession of friends and family members, and in litter. Participants' views of the new packaging were generally negative, described as unappealing and depressing, particularly the pictorial health warnings. Packs were compared unfavourably with previous non-standardised versions. However, there was no consensus on their likely impact. Some participants argued that their impact would be widespread, while others thought that any impact would be confined to young non/occasional smokers and that established smokers would be unaffected. Conclusions In early 2017 young people in Scotland had high awareness and knowledge of standardised tobacco packs before their full implementation. Despite differing views about their likely impact on youth smoking, participants irrespective of smoking status overwhelmingly regarded them as unattractive and less
Jorm, Anthony F
Objective: The aim of this paper is to assess young people's awareness of mental health organizations supporting their age group. Of particular interest was awareness of headspace, which was created in 2006 to provide youth-oriented mental health services, and of beyondblue, which aims to raise community awareness of depression, anxiety and related disorders. Method: A telephone survey was carried out on a national sample of young people who were part of a 2-year follow-up study of youth mental health literacy. Data were analysed for those aged 13-25 years. Results: Awareness was highest for beyondblue and telephone helplines; headspace had established some awareness, particularly in areas where its services operate. However, awareness was unrelated to the participant's psychological symptoms in the past year. Conclusions: If youth-oriented services are to be successful, young people need to know about them. Awareness campaigns need to be targeted at the sub-group who have greatest need for these services, namely those with mental health problems.
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to present evidence on the impact of enterprise education on young people still at school in London, UK. The study was designed to measure the effect of participation in a Young Enterprise (YE) Company Program on young people's attitudes toward starting a business, and on their enterprise potential.…
Disciplining and pastoral power are central to the strategies and practices of intervening in the lives of young people deemed at risk of disengaging from school, or not completing their compulsory education. As an expression of power concerned with young people's welfare and self-improvement, disciplining and pastoral practices push young people…
Andrew S. Wilson
Full Text Available Young people living with long term conditions will eventually have to transfer their care to the adult setting. Failure to plan and coordinate this has been associated with poorer health outcomes and disruption to their care. Transition planning encourages both health literacy and health promoting behaviours in an age and developmentally appropriate way. In order to gauge the attainment of these skills the Birmingham Children’s Hospital Adolescent Rheumatology Team (UK have developed a series of transitional care checklists. This paper focuses on discussing how the application of gamification (using game mechanics in non-game contexts to these checklists could improve the engagement of young people in managing their self-care and provide a mechanism for doctors to quantifying the acquisition of these skills.
Full Text Available Government initiatives have tried to ensure uniform computer access for young people; however a divide related to socioeconomic status (SES may still exist in the nature of information technology (IT use. This study aimed to investigate this relationship in 1,351 Western Australian children between 6 and 17 years of age. All participants had computer access at school and 98.9% at home. Neighbourhood SES was related to computer use, IT activities, playing musical instruments, and participating in vigorous physical activity. Participants from higher SES neighbourhoods were more exposed to school computers, reading, playing musical instruments, and vigorous physical activity. Participants from lower SES neighbourhoods were more exposed to TV, electronic games, mobile phones, and non-academic computer activities at home. These patterns may impact future economic, academic, and health outcomes. Better insight into neighbourhood SES influences will assist in understanding and managing the impact of computer use on young people's health and development.
Harris, Courtenay; Straker, Leon; Pollock, Clare
Government initiatives have tried to ensure uniform computer access for young people; however a divide related to socioeconomic status (SES) may still exist in the nature of information technology (IT) use. This study aimed to investigate this relationship in 1,351 Western Australian children between 6 and 17 years of age. All participants had computer access at school and 98.9% at home. Neighbourhood SES was related to computer use, IT activities, playing musical instruments, and participating in vigorous physical activity. Participants from higher SES neighbourhoods were more exposed to school computers, reading, playing musical instruments, and vigorous physical activity. Participants from lower SES neighbourhoods were more exposed to TV, electronic games, mobile phones, and non-academic computer activities at home. These patterns may impact future economic, academic, and health outcomes. Better insight into neighbourhood SES influences will assist in understanding and managing the impact of computer use on young people's health and development.
Frost, Mareka; Casey, Leanne M; O'Gorman, John G
This study examined the relationship between self-injurious behavior and intentions to seek help from professionals, family and friends, technology based support and from no-one. Participants were 679 young people aged 14-25 years drawn from a larger internet survey (N =1463) on the basis of their reported self-injury. A help-negation effect was found only in relation to intentions to seek help from family and friends. That is, a higher extent or severity of self-injury was independently associated with lower intentions to seek help from family and friends. This effect remained after controlling for psychological distress and suicidal ideation. Establishing avenues for early intervention and providing access to a range of potential avenues for help-seeking may assist young people to seek support in relation to self-injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Selen Ozakar Akca
Full Text Available Summary Objective: The most important determinant of suicide ideation, tendency and initiative is the presence of mental disorders. Since the number of those who lost their lives due to suicide in the world rose rapidly among the young population, the World Health Organization emphasizes the importance of assessing young people in the high-risk age group to prevent suicidal behavior. This study aimed to determine psychological symptom levels and suicide probability in young people. Method: The cross-sectional research consisted of 15-24 year-old individuals (N=348, who have sought a psychiatric clinic between February and June, 2015. The Research Data was collected by applying Data Collection Form, Suicide Probability Scale (SPS and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI. SPSS 22.0 statistical package program was used for data analysis. Results: There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 between the mean SPS scores according to education, psychiatric treatment, self-harm, smoking and drinking status of the participants in the study. Apart from this, there was also a statistically significant correlation between anxiety, depression, negative self and hostility according to the SPS and BSI subscales (p<0.001, r=0.739; p<0.001, r=0.729; p<0.001, r=0.747; p<0.001, r=0.715; respectively. Conclusion: The results of our study show that suicide risk is significantly higher in young people with depression, anxiety, negative self-perception and hostility symptoms. In this regard, we suggest the relevance of assessing the suicide risk of young people seeking a psychiatric clinic, with thorough attention to those who have high potential for suicide.
Whale, Katie; Cramer, Helen; Joinson, Carol
To explore the impact of the secondary school environment on young people with continence problems. In-depth qualitative semi-structured interviews. We interviewed 20 young people aged 11-19 years (11 female and nine male) with continence problems (daytime wetting, bedwetting, and/or soiling). Interviews were conducted by Skype (n = 11) and telephone (n = 9). Transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. We generated five main themes: (1) Boundaries of disclosure: friends and teachers; (2) Social consequences of avoidance and deceit; (3) Strict and oblivious gatekeepers; (4) Intimate actions in public spaces; and (5) Interrupted learning. Disclosure of continence problems at school to both friends and teachers was rare, due to the perceived stigma and fears of bullying and social isolation. The lack of disclosure to teachers and other school staff, such as pastoral care staff, creates challenges in how best to support these young people. Young people with continence problems require unrestricted access to private and adequate toilet facilities during the school day. There is a need for inclusive toilet access policies and improved toilet standards in schools. Addressing the challenges faced by young people with continence problems at school could help to remove the barriers to successful self-management of their symptoms. It is particularly concerning that young people with continence problems are at higher risk of academic underachievement. Increased support at school is needed to enable young people with continence problems to achieve their academic potential. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? Continence problems are among the most common paediatric health problems Self-management of continence problems requires a structured schedule of fluid intake and bladder emptying Inadequate toilet facilities and restricted access make it difficult for young people to manage their incontinence What does this study add
ANTONIO GUTIÉRREZ RESA
Full Text Available In the following article we try to establish the foundations that support “the active future of the aged people in Spain”. We base our work on data from the National Institute of Statistics (INE, the Statistics Annuary of Spain, the Information System of the System for Autonomy and Dependency Caring (SISAAD and the Aged People Observatory-Institute of Aged People and Social Services (IMSERSO. Actually, one can notice that, if human beings are linked to production and utility, after 65–70 years of age, the possibilities of happiness can be accomplished now. We try to show that, with the number of people aged over 65 (8 million people in Spain increasing more than any other group and in acceptable health conditions, the context is more reasonable and facilitates an active future of the aged people. That is, the development of a process of optimization of health, participation and security opportunities, aiming at bettering the quality of life according as people age. We maintain that aging is not necessarily negative, the chronological age being a more and more unsatisfactory criterion. In the following pages we show the undeniable reality that we are going to live longer and probably in better conditions. Nevertheless, according to our data, it is convenient to distinguish from now on between people of 65 to 79 years and people of 80 and more. This stems, above all, from the domination of the dependency situations which go unsolved in Spain, despite the Law No. 6 of 2006. The article presents those services (IMSERSO which promote the active ageing: nurseries and clubs, vacations and thermal therapy, universities for aged people, accessibility programs and telealarms. Also presented are those services of familial solidarity promotion and maintaining: home help, residences, day nurseries and familial support services. The available data show the insufficiency of the aforementioned services in Spain. Therefore, we can say that the clearly pro
Davison, Jenny; Share, Michelle; Hennessy, Marita; Knox, Barbara Stewart
The number of young people in Europe who are not in education, employment or training (NEET) is increasing. Given that young people from disadvantaged backgrounds tend to have diets of poor nutritional quality, this exploratory study sought to understand barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and dietary health promotion needs of unemployed young people aged 16-20 years. Three focus group discussions were held with young people (n = 14). Six individual interviews and one paired interview with service providers (n = 7). Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically content analysed. Themes were then fitted to social cognitive theory (SCT). Despite understanding of the principles of healthy eating, a 'spiral' of interrelated social, economic and associated psychological problems was perceived to render food and health of little value and low priority for the young people. The story related by the young people and corroborated by the service providers was of a lack of personal and vicarious experience with food. The proliferation and proximity of fast food outlets and the high perceived cost of 'healthy' compared to 'junk' food rendered the young people low in self-efficacy and perceived control to make healthier food choices. Agency was instead expressed through consumption of junk food and drugs. Both the young people and service providers agreed that for dietary health promotion efforts to succeed, social problems needed to be addressed and agency encouraged through (individual and collective) active engagement of the young people themselves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Power, Sally; Smith, Kevin
This paper explores the responses of nearly 1,200 children and young people in Wales who were asked to identify which three famous people they most admired and which three they most disliked. Analysis of these young people's responses reveals a number of sociological and educational issues. Their selections confirm other research which has…
Olga V. Kruzhkova
Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the article is to consider the psychological characteristics of involvement of youth in extremist community through the Internet.Methods. The theoretical analysis and modeling were used as the main methods.Results. The Internet is described as a means and space of psychological influence on young people, which can be both positive and negative. Absorption of teenagers, boys and young men, in a virtual space essentially converts their activity and, as a result, transform the leading activity, which in turn leads to different mental tumors. Three main effects from the exposure of the Internet are found out: «the effect of the goals of drift», mythology and «the effect of excitement»; their impact on the individual in each age periods is noted. Consideration of the main motivational reasons, taking into account the specifics of building human interaction with the environment made it possible to identify and describe the main types of behavioural patterns exhibited by young people on the Internet. The degree of activity of young people in the network is described from the perspective of integrated strategies of behaviour: information blocking, changes in the distance, control, transformations. Risk groups of users, the most susceptible to extremist manipulations are designated. «Vulnerability areas» of representatives of each group are summarized and described; a step-by-step algorithm of victims’ involvement in extremist communities by recruiters is described.Scientific novelty of the present study consists in discussion of one of the most acute problems of the present – the changed conditions of a growing and socialization of younger generation; constant stay in network virtual space is an integral part of today’s existence, wherein unformed and immature person is very vulnerable to the influence of extremist content. To prevent the increased potential threat of involvement of young people in destructive, asocial
With large numbers of young people experiencing mental health difficulties but not seeking help, there is a need to develop not only innovative but also well-promoted strategies that are appealing to this population and reduce barriers to help seeking. Reach Out! (http://www.reachout.com.au) is presented as a case study, demonstrating an internet-based initiative that sucessfully incorporates technology and social branding to provide a service that promotes the mental health and wellbeing of young people in Australia aged 16 to 25. With over seven million visits since its launch in 1998 and one in three young Australians aware of the website, Reach Out! is a trusted service that young people in Australia use when going through a tough time. Online user profiling suggests that after visiting Reach Out!, 38% of young people contact a mental health professional. The implications of these results will be discussed. Reach Out! can serve as a model for the social sector to utilize technology and social branding to enhance existing community-based services and promote the mental health and wellbeing of young people.
van Ours, J.C.; Veenman, J.M.C.
For immigrants who arrive in a country at a young age it is easier to assimilate than for teenagers.This paper investigates up to what immigration age the educational attainment of young immigrants in the Netherlands is similar to the educational attainment of secondgeneration immigrants, who were
Virginia Ramírez Martín
Full Text Available In 1898, Spanish press take up part of its pages with a relevant international issue: the Dreyfus affair. The case was widely covered by Spanish newspapers, in special by Don Quijote, a Madrilenian satiric press, whose Director promoted a campaign in favour of Zola collecting signatures in order to the French litterateur was aware that Spain was close to him. This initiative is completed with a call to Spanish young people who is illustrated with a quixotic caricature. Cervantine character personifies the idea of justice getting to transmit during the Spanish crisis at the end of the nineteenth century the image of the nobleman forged by Spanish stereotypical, like a crusader fighting for a noble cause, thus turning Don Quixote into another dreyfussard.
Laura Catalina Timiras
Full Text Available In this paper are presented some of the results obtained through an exploratory research carried out in the month of April 2016 on a sample of 100 students from the Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau, referring to awareness of festive food brands on the Romanian market. Festive products have special sensory properties designed to especially satisfy gastronomic indulgence and not nutritional needs of individuals. Thus, we studied a number of categories covering mainly food products for the pleasure of eating, namely: confectionery, coffee, tea, chips and snacks, soft drinks and alcoholic beverages. Thus there are shown brands that enjoy the highest spontaneous awareness in the investigated sample, young people undergoing investigation being asked to indicate the top 3 brands that come to mind for various product categories investigated. The study shows both the brands which enjoy the highest top of mind awareness and those brands which were nominated by most respondents among the top three of which they remember.
Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe
competences. The schema was developed in cooperation with practitioners, i.e. representatives from workplaces, from municipal youth guidance centres, and from VET colleges. Based on the experiences accrued in developing the schema, the article discusses how personal and social competences can be assessed......Personal and social competences are crucial parts of VET competences. As part of a development project preparing unskilled young people for vocational education and training, a research project was conducted with the aim of developing a schema for assessing and grading personal and social...... and graded. The central finding is that personal and social competences are assessed in relation to specific work tasks or situations, meaning that personal and social competences are context-specific....
Full Text Available We describe the results of a survey of 50 experts – representatives of educational institutions of Moscow, district education authorities and the staff of the juvenile justice system. We note that the researchers often miss the opinion of the subjects of preventive work. Expert survey allowed to specify the conditions and behavioral manifestations of contemporary youth extremism, rank his psychological reasons, summarize the available methods and forms of prevention. We show the basic extremist ideas that are common among young people, and extremists speech features. The study revealed the understanding by the subjects of the preventive work of the “extremism” concept content, of goals and mechanisms of prevention, shows the typical difficulties in this work. The results can be used to search for new and more effective forms of prevention and improving the organization of preventive work in general.
Humberto González Galbán
Full Text Available Domestic violence or spousal abuse, largely determined by the existing traditional gender roles, is the issue discussed in this article, which is focusing on the special case of young people of the state of Baja California. During the search of the conditional agents of this social process, there were valued psychological and socio–demographic variables, such as family violence during childhood, immigration status, educational level and age, all these variables were separated by the gender and age (rank 18–29 of the sudied sample.Considering the information provided of the database used; The Survey of Adolescent Reproductive Health of Baja California 2006, it is described and analyzed in this research, several indicators, all of them related with important issues which affect a part of the young population of Baja California, regardless the lack of information and almost non previous research about this theme.
It is estimated that 10% of children and young people have mental health problems so significant that they impact not only on their day-to-day life but, if left untreated, they will continue into adulthood. In this article, the author discusses mental health issues affecting children and young people and examines evidence-based early intervention and prevention programmes that have been shown to support better outcomes for children, young people and their families.
The ThinkQuest Internet Challenge Awards are given to young teams of web site designers. This year, the award ceremony was hosted by CERN on 19 March. Young visitors to CERN are not unusual. But those you may have seen around the Laboratory last Monday were here for a special event - the ThinkQuest Internet Challenge Awards. This is an international program for students from 12 to 19 working in teams, across different schools and cultures, to design exciting, interactive, and educational web sites. At stake in the competition was over $1 million in scholarships and awards. Martine Brunschwig Graf (top left), Geneva State Councillor responsible for public education, at the ThinkQuest award ceremony at CERN where some 70 young finalists were assembled. For this year's Award Ceremony, the 70 finalists were CERN's guests on Monday after spending three days in Geneva. Ranging in age from 14 to 19 years and representing over 20 countries, the finalists were welcomed to the awards day by CERN Director G...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people with neurological impairments such as epilepsy are known to receive less adequate services compared to young people with other long-term conditions. The time (age 13-19 years around transition to adult services is particularly important in facilitating young people's self-care and ongoing management. There are epilepsy specific, biological and psycho-social factors that act as barriers and enablers to information exchange and nurturing of self-care practices. Review objectives were to identify what is known to be effective in delivering information to young people age 13-19 years with epilepsy and their parents, to describe their experiences of information exchange in healthcare contexts, and to identify factors influencing positive and negative healthcare communication. Methods The Evidence for Policy and Practice Information Coordinating Centre systematic mixed-method approach was adapted to locate, appraise, extract and synthesise evidence. We used Ley's cognitive hypothetical model of communication and subsequently developed a theoretical framework explaining information exchange in healthcare contexts. Results Young people and parents believed that healthcare professionals were only interested in medical management. Young people felt that discussions about their epilepsy primarily occurred between professionals and parents. Epilepsy information that young people obtained from parents or from their own efforts increased the risk of epilepsy misconceptions. Accurate epilepsy knowledge aided psychosocial adjustment. There is some evidence that interventions, when delivered in a structured psycho-educational, age appropriate way, increased young people's epilepsy knowledge, with positive trend to improving quality of life. We used mainly qualitative and mixed-method evidence to develop a theoretical framework explaining information exchange in clinical encounters. Conclusions There is a paucity of evidence
Zulli, C; Federico, A; Gaeta, L; Del Prete, A; Iadevaia, M; Gravina, A G; Romano, M; Loguercio, C
Alcohol consumption by adolescents and young adults is an issue of significant public concern. Internet-based Social Networking sites, such as Facebook, are potential avenues to reach young people easily. to underline the innovation in proposing surveys to collect health-related information regarding young people alcohol consumption and other substances abuse by using Social Networking Websites, particularly Facebook. A questionnaire investigating modalities of alcohol consumption, drinking patterns' risk behaviors and other substances abuse was proposed through a "Facebook event" to young Italian Facebook users aged between 16 and 32. Each Facebook user invited to the event was free to participate, to answer to the questionnaire and to invite his "Facebook friends". During the 89 days of permanence on the Social Network, 1846 Facebook users participated the event and 732 of them decided spontaneously to answer the questionnaire. The frequency of answering was 8.2 people per day. About 200 users wrote a positive comment to the initiative on the wall of the event. Sixty% of subjects participating the survey were females. Ninety-one% of people answering the questionnaire were alcohol consumers. More than 50% of alcohol consumers were also smokers. Approximately 50% of subjects were binge drinkers. Illegal drugs were used by the 22.2% of the interviewed people. Facebook resulted an efficient and rapid tool to reach young people from all over Italy and to propose surveys in order to investigate alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems in the youth.
MacFadyen, L; Hastings, G; MacKintosh, A M
To examine young people's awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing and to determine the association, if any, between this and their smoking behaviour. Cross sectional, quantitative survey, part interview and part self completion, administered in respondents' homes. North east England. Stratified random sample of 629 young people aged 15 and 16 years who had "opted in" to research through a postal consent procedure. There was a high level of awareness of and involvement in tobacco marketing among the 15-16 year olds sampled in the study: around 95% were aware of advertising and all were aware of some method of point of sale marketing. Awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing were both significantly associated with being a smoker: for example, 30% (55/185) of smokers had received free gifts through coupons in cigarette packs, compared with 11% (21/199) of non-smokers (Pawareness of coupon schemes, brand stretching, and tobacco marketing in general were all independently associated with current smoking status. Teenagers are aware of, and are participating in, many forms of tobacco marketing, and both awareness and participation are associated with current smoking status. This suggests that the current voluntary regulations designed to protect young people from smoking are not working, and that statutory regulations are required.
Tyrrell, Rachel L; Greenhalgh, Fiona; Hodgson, Susan; Wills, Wendy J; Mathers, John C; Adamson, Ashley J; Lake, Amelia A
We aimed to identify and characterize the food environments from which young people obtain food and to explore associations between the type of food environment and food intakes. Young people (n = 86, mean age 17 years; combined data of two sequential pilot studies (collected in 2008-09) and a study conducted in 2011-12) recorded in 4-day self-complete food diaries what food they consumed and where food was sourced. Nutrient, fruit and vegetable intake was calculated according to the source of food, categorized using a food environment classification tool. Over 4 days, respondents sourced food from an average of 4.3 different food environments. Home food was used daily and was more favourable in terms of nutrient profile than out-of-home food. Food sourced from specialist outlets, convenience stores and retail bakers had the highest energy density. Food from retail bakers and 'takeaway and fast food' outlets were the richest sources of fat while vending machines and convenience stores had the highest percentage of energy from sugar. This work provides details of 'where' young people obtain food and the nutritional consequences of choosing those food environments. While home food was a significant contributor to total dietary intake, food was obtained from a broad range of environments; particularly takeaway, fast food and education establishments. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Introduction. Depression in adolescents and young people is associated with reduced social, occupational, and interpersonal functioning, increases in suicide and self-harm behaviours, and problematic substance use. Age-appropriate, evidence-based treatments are required to provide optimal care. Methods. “Evidence mapping” methodology was used to quantify the nature and distribution of the extant high-quality research into the prevention and treatment of depression in young people across psychological, medical, and other treatment domains. Results. Prevention research is dominated by cognitive-behavioral- (CBT- based interventions. Treatment studies predominantly consist of CBT and SSRI medication trials, with few trials of other psychological interventions or complementary/alternative treatments. Quality studies on relapse prevention and treatment for persistent depression are distinctly lacking. Conclusions. This map demonstrates opportunities for future research to address the numerous evidence gaps for interventions to prevent or treat depression in young people, which are of interest to clinical researchers, policy makers, and funding bodies.
Tanboga, I; Durhan, M A; Durmus, B; Marks, L A
To assess the prevalence of signs and symptoms related to TMJ disorders in a group of young people with intelectual disability (ID) and a matched group of healthy adolescents. A group of 105 young Special Olympics (SO) athletes (ID group) aged from 14 to 25 years and a control group were examined for the presence or absence of signs and symptoms of TMD through interview and clinical examination. A total of 64 young people with ID (61%) had at least one sign of TMD compared to 41 (39%) of the individuals screened that was free of any TMD symptoms. A significantly higher prevalence of TMJ sounds (palpation and stethoscope), TMJ tenderness, maximum vertical opening, headaches were observed among SO athletes compared to the healthy control group (pdisabled patients and a possible cause of pain that should be examined more in detail. We suggest that oral screening in people with a mental disability should be modified by including basic TMJ examination parameters in order to allow better understanding of the pathological aspects so as to address effective preventive and therapeutic measures.
Mercier, Vlasta; Hohmann, Beat W.
Listening to loud music has been associated, in a number of studies, with hearing loss and tinnitus among young people. However an unanswered question is whether or not these same young people want to have their music so loud. In our study 533 young men and 167 young women, in the age group 16 to 25, who were attending a vocational training centre, responded to a questionnaire and volunteered to have their hearing assessed. The questionnaire sought information on listening habits, on the kinds of events attended, on whether the music at these events was too loud or not, and if the respondents considered their hearing had been impaired. Analysis of this data indicated that 79% of the subjects attend discotheques, 52% pop and rock concerts, and 35% techno parties (e.g. raves). A significant number considered the music at these venues was too loud. Some 42% considered this was the case at discos, 35% thought pop and rock concerts too loud, and 39% held a similar view of techno parties. Conversely, fewer than 3% considered sound levels at these events to be too low. On the basis of the response to the questionnaire we estimate that over half the respondents (56.6%) have a sound exposure (L(eq)) from music of over 87 dB(A). It is not surprising therefore that 71% reported that they had suffered tinnitus following attendance at a music event. The hearing capacity of the sample was measured by audiometry. These measurements detected hearing loss in 11% of the 700 individuals tested. However it was not possible to show that the risk of hearing loss increased with increasing exposure to loud music. We conclude that young people neither demand nor require the excessive sound levels typical of most music events.
Ryninks, Kirsty; Sutton, Eileen; Thomas, Elizabeth; Jago, Russell; Shield, Julian P H; Burren, Christine P
To investigate young people's attitudes to, and understanding of, physical activity on glycaemic control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Four focus groups with 11-14 and 15-16 year olds were conducted with twelve young people with Type 1 Diabetes, from within a larger study investigating physical activity and fitness. Qualitative analysis of the focus group data was performed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Four superordinate themes were identified: Benefits of Exercise, Knowledge and Understanding, Information and Training and "You can do anything". Young people felt that exercising helped them to manage their diabetes and had a beneficial psychological and physical impact on their bodies. They reported a lack of knowledge and understanding about diabetes among school staff and other young people. The overwhelming sense from young people was that although diabetes impacts upon their lives, with preparation, physical activity can take place as normal. Whilst young people had an awareness of the physical and psychological benefits of exercise in managing their diabetes, they experienced difficulties at school. Professional support and discussions with young people, giving tailored strategies for managing Type 1 Diabetes during exercise are needed. Healthcare teams should ensure that the support and educational needs of school staff are met. Providing more opportunities to empower young people to take on the responsibility for their Type 1 Diabetes care is merited. Young people felt diabetes did not stop them from participating in activities; it is simply a part of them that needs managing throughout life.
Day, David M; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Ruck, Martin D
Relations between maternal socio-political attitudes and parenting style and young people's and mothers' attitudes toward young people's nurturance and self-determination rights were examined. Both young people (n = 121) and mothers (n = 67) were more supportive of nurturance than self-determination rights, although young people were more supportive than their mothers of self-determination rights and mothers were more supportive than young people of nurturance rights. Maternal conservatism was unrelated to young people's support for rights and negatively related to mothers' support for both types of rights. Last, young people who perceived their mother to be either authoritarian or uninvolved showed stronger endorsement of self-determination rights than young people who perceived their mother to be authoritative. The implications of these findings for the development of young people's attitudes toward rights within the context of various family factors are discussed. In particular, it is suggested that a balance needs to be achieved between assertion of rights and a respect for the rights of others.
Full Text Available To investigate young people's attitudes to, and understanding of, physical activity on glycaemic control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.Four focus groups with 11-14 and 15-16 year olds were conducted with twelve young people with Type 1 Diabetes, from within a larger study investigating physical activity and fitness. Qualitative analysis of the focus group data was performed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.Four superordinate themes were identified: Benefits of Exercise, Knowledge and Understanding, Information and Training and "You can do anything". Young people felt that exercising helped them to manage their diabetes and had a beneficial psychological and physical impact on their bodies. They reported a lack of knowledge and understanding about diabetes among school staff and other young people. The overwhelming sense from young people was that although diabetes impacts upon their lives, with preparation, physical activity can take place as normal.Whilst young people had an awareness of the physical and psychological benefits of exercise in managing their diabetes, they experienced difficulties at school. Professional support and discussions with young people, giving tailored strategies for managing Type 1 Diabetes during exercise are needed. Healthcare teams should ensure that the support and educational needs of school staff are met. Providing more opportunities to empower young people to take on the responsibility for their Type 1 Diabetes care is merited. Young people felt diabetes did not stop them from participating in activities; it is simply a part of them that needs managing throughout life.
Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción; Fernández-Monroy, Margarita
This social marketing study focuses on street drinking behavior among young people. The objective is to divide the market of young people who engage in this activity into segments according to their motivations. For the three segments identified, a behavior model is created using the beliefs, attitudes, behavior, and social belonging of young people who engage in street drinking. The methodology used individual questionnaires filled in by a representative sample of young people. The results show that the behavior model follows the sequence of attitudes-beliefs-behavior and that social belonging influences these three variables. Similarly, differences are observed in the behavior model depending on the segment individuals belong to.
Ali Murat KIRIK
Full Text Available Internet technology today shows a quick progress, and social networks increase their number of users on each day. Social networking, which is one of the main indicators of th e technology era, attracts people of all ages while the virtual world goes beyond the real life via the applications it offers. Especially young people show an intense interest in social media which is an extension of the Internet technology. Social media addiction is increasing both in Turkey and all around the world. This study aims to determine the level of social media addiction in young people in Turkey, and to make suggestions on the prevention of the addiction while stating the current work carried o ut on the subject in Turkey. Survey type research model is used in the study, and social media addiction is examined in depth to determine causes of the addiction among young people. In this study, the addiction factor of the Social Networking Status Scale is used as a data collection tool to measure social media addiction among young people. The scale has three factors including addiction, ethics and convergence, and it is a reliable and valid scale, as the reliability and validity of the scale had been te sted. The study is conducted on 271 students between the ages of 13 - 19. It has been found that gender (t=0.406; P>0.05 makes no significant difference in social media addiction while the factors of age (F= 6.256; P<0.05, daily time spent on the Internet ( F= 44.036; P<0.05 and daily frequency of visiting social media profiles (F= 53.56; P<0.05 make significant differences in addiction level. The results have showed that low addiction level of 14 - year group increases with age up to 17 years, and the level de creases in 18 - year group. Social media addiction level shows a dramatic increase also in the case of daily time spent on the Internet increases. More frequent d aily visits to social media profiles increase the addiction as well. The study also provides sug
Alcohol related violence is a troubling backdrop to the social lives and relationships of many young people in post-industrial societies. The development of the night-time economy where young people are encouraged to drink heavily in entertainment precincts has increased the risk of violence. This paper reports on 60 individual structured in-depth interviews about the drinking biographies of young people (aged 20-24) living in Victoria, Australia. Twenty-six males and 34 females participated in the research. The participants discussed their experiences with alcohol over their life course to date. The material on alcohol related violence is analysed in this paper. Just over half of the participants (33/60) recounted negative experiences with alcohol related violence. The findings demonstrate the continuing gendered nature of experiences of perpetration and victimization. Participants reported that aggression and violence perpetrated by some men was fuelled by alcohol consumption and required ongoing management. Experiences of violence were also spatialized. Men were more likely to report managing and avoiding violence in particular public settings whilst more women than men discussed managing violence in domestic settings. The central argument of this paper is that incidents of alcohol related violence and reactions to it are specific gender performances that occur in specific socio-cultural contexts. In contrast to research which has found some young people enjoy the adventure and excitement of alcohol related violence the mainstream participants in this study saw violence as a negative force to be managed and preferably avoided. Understanding violence as a dynamic gender performance complicates the development of policy measures designed to minimize harm but also offers a more holistic approach to developing effective policy in this domain. There is a need for greater acknowledgement that alcohol related violence in public venues and in families is primarily about
Full Text Available To quantify the impact of service provider characteristics on young people's choice of family planning (FP service provider in rural Malawi in order to identify strategies for increasing access and uptake of FP among youth.A discrete choice experiment was developed to assess the relative impact of service characteristics on preferences for FP service providers among young people (aged 15-24. Four alternative providers were included (government facility, private facility, outreach and community based distribution of FP and described by six attributes (the distance between participants' home and the service delivery point, frequency of service delivery, waiting time at the facility, service providers' attitude, availability of FP commodities and price. A random parameters logit model was used to estimate preferences for service providers and the likely uptake of services following the expansion of outreach and community based distribution (CBDA services. In the choice experiment young people were twice as likely to choose a friendly provider (government service odds ratio [OR] = 2.45, p<0.01; private service OR = 1.99, p<0.01; CBDA OR = 1.88, p<0.01 and more than two to three times more likely to choose a provider with an adequate supply of FP commodities (government service OR = 2.48, p<0.01; private service OR = 2.33, p<0.01; CBDA = 3.85, p<0.01. Uptake of community based services was greater than facility based services across a variety of simulated service scenarios indicating that such services may be an effective means of expanding access for youth in rural areas and an important tool for increasing service uptake among youth.Ensuring that services are acceptable to young people may require additional training for service providers in order to ensure that all providers are friendly and non-judgemental when dealing with younger clients and to ensure that supplies are consistently available.
Bailey, S; Boddy, K; Briscoe, S; Morris, C
Children and young people can be valuable partners in research, giving their unique perspectives on what and how research should be done. However, disabled children are less commonly involved in research than their non-disabled peers. This review investigated how disabled children have been involved as research partners; specifically how they have been recruited, the practicalities and challenges of involvement and how these have been overcome, and impacts of involvement for research, and disabled children and young people. The INVOLVE definition of involvement and the Equality and Human Rights Commission definition of disability were used. Relevant bibliographic databases were searched. Websites were searched for grey literature. Included studies had involved disabled children and young people aged 5-25 years in any study design. Reviews, guidelines, reports and other documents from the grey literature were eligible for inclusion. Twenty-two papers were included: seven reviews, eight original research papers, three reports, three guidelines and one webpage. Nine examples of involvement were identified. Recommendations included developing effective communication techniques, using flexible methods that can be adapted to needs and preferences, and ensuring that sufficient support and funding is available for researchers undertaking involvement. Positive impacts of involvement for disabled children included increased confidence, self-esteem and independence. Positive impacts for research were identified. Involving disabled children in research can present challenges; many of these can be overcome with sufficient time, planning and resources. More needs to be done to find ways to involve those with non-verbal communication. Generally, few details were reported about disabled children and young people's involvement in studies, and the quality of evidence was low. Although a range of positive impacts were identified, the majority of these were authors' opinions rather
Salmon, Jo; Tremblay, Mark S; Marshall, Simon J; Hume, Clare
Opportunities for young people to be sedentary have increased during leisure time, study time, and transportation time. This review paper focuses on sedentary behaviors among young people aged 2-18 years and includes evidence of the relationship between sedentary behavior and health risk indicators, an overview of public health recommendations, the prevalence of key sedentary behaviors, evidence of correlates of sedentary behavior and the effectiveness of interventions to reduce sedentary behaviors. Although this is a narrative style review and not systematic, where possible, findings from relevant review papers were summarized and a search of more recent literature was performed using computer-based databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, ERIC, PsycINFO, Social Science Index, SportDiscus, and Health Reference Center - Academic. Young people spend 2-4 hours per day in screen-based behaviors and 5-10 hours per day sedentary. Ethnicity, sociodemographic status, having a TV set in the bedroom, and parental behavior appear to be the most consistent correlates of TV viewing time; however, few recent studies aiming to reduce TV viewing or sedentary time among young people have been successful. A growing body of evidence supports the development of public health recommendations to limit the time spent in screen-based behaviors. More research is needed to examine the prospective and experimental evidence of associations between overall sedentary time and health, determinants of sedentary behaviors other than screen-based behaviors, and interventions to reduce overall sedentary time or even alternative sedentary behaviors, such as transport- or education-related sitting time. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article addresses the challenges faced by youth in developing countries. Using India as an example of a fast-globalizing country, this article highlights the experience and challenges faced by adolescents and emerging adults as they search for their interpersonal and professional identities. The difficulties of defining identity in the context of rapid globalization where people are exposed to diverse cultural forces that may conflict with each other are particularly salient when dealing with anger. Anger frequently results from thwarted wants and needs. In globalizing developing economies, young people often face inequitable access and opportunities that may be cause for distress-anger and depression. However, the skills to deal with anger are frequently culturally determined and may not be effective in situations where multiple cultural rules are operational. For example, India being a collectivist culture traditionally encourages the suppression of anger. However, situations and rules of conduct in a global economic order require the assertive expression of anger and the confrontation of conflict. Research that is methodologically and culturally appropriate is needed in exploring these issues and ameliorating distress associated with inequity, conflicts, and challenges. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hendriks, Hanneke; Gebhardt, Winifred A; van den Putte, Bas
Many young people place alcohol-related posts on social networking sites (SNS) which can result in undesirable effects. Although several recent studies have investigated the occurrence of alcohol-related SNS use, it is neither clear (a) what type of alcohol posts are placed on SNS, (b) the motivations to place alcohol posts, nor (c) which young people are most likely to place alcohol posts. This study addressed these three goals. A large cross-sectional study among young participants (12-30 years; N = 561) assessed the posting of different types of alcohol posts, the motivations to (not) post these posts, and potential differences in posting between subgroups (i.e., in terms of age, gender, and religion). Participants reported that they most often placed moderate, instead of more extreme, alcohol posts, in particular, when alcohol was present in the post "by chance". Furthermore, they indicated to post alcohol-related content mostly for entertainment reasons. Finally, we found differences in self-reported posting and motivations to post according to age, gender, and religion. These findings provide relevant implications for future interventions aiming to decrease alcohol posts, for example, by making participants aware of their posting behavior and by targeting specific at risk groups. Future research should explore the effectiveness of such intervention strategies and should investigate whether alcohol posts lead to an underestimation of alcohol-related risks.
Shepherd, Jean M
To highlight the emotional impact of being in the hospital for young people and to explore the impact of the care by younger student nurses on promoting a sense of "normalcy" for them. Adolescence is strongly influenced by peer relationships and is a unique period in life that requires the achievement of many developmental tasks. An important task of adolescent is developing relationships with peers and feeling part of a recognised peer group. Young people prefer engaging in conversation with people of their own age because they feel less likely to be judged by their peers. Heideggerian hermeneutic phenomenological study. A Heideggerian phenomenological study was undertaken. Individual unstructured interviews were conducted with eleven younger student nurses (aged l7 years and 5 months-l8 years and 11 months) and nine young people with a chronic illness (aged 13 years and 7 months-18 years and 1 month). The data was collected in 2009. Young people in the hospital with a chronic illness experienced moments in time when they had nothing to think about but the business of getting better. During unique caring interactions, younger children's nursing students were able to help them temporarily forget about their illness and promote for them a sense of normalcy. Younger children's nursing students are in a unique position to engage in ontological caring interactions with the young people due to their similarity in age and stage of development. They are uniquely placed to help the young people reintegrate back into their known "lifeworlds" and promote for them a sense of "normalcy". Clinical staff need to be alerted to the emotional distress caused to young people during long periods of time in the hospital. Practitioners and nurse educators should be facilitating younger student nurses to interact with the young people in a therapeutic way and the care delivered to young people in the hospital should promote a sense of normalcy for them. © 2013.
N. N. Nikitina
Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effect of imidasoline agonist, rilmenidine (Albarel, on 24-hour blood pressure (BP profile and autonomic regulation of cardiovascular system in young patients with arterial hypertension (HT and exogenous constitutional obesity (ECO.Material and methods. The study included 80 men aged 18-32 ( average age 20,5 years, including 34 patients with HT and normal body weight, 36 patients with HT and ECO, 10 healthy men as a control group. All hypertensive patients were treated with rilmenidine 1-2 mg daily during 12 weeks. BP 24-hour profile and heart rate variability (HRV were estimated before and after therapy.Results. Rilmenidine monotherapy resulted in significant reduction in average 24-hour, day-time and night-time BP as well as indices of BP loading in both groups. Indices of HRV proved the initial sympathetic overdrive among hypertensive patients especially among those with ECO. This sympathetic overdrive significantly reduced after 12 weeks of therapy.Conclusion. Rilmenidine effectively controls BP and reduces sympathetic system overdrive in young hypertensive patients with ECO.
N. N. Nikitina
Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effect of imidasoline agonist, rilmenidine (Albarel, on 24-hour blood pressure (BP profile and autonomic regulation of cardiovascular system in young patients with arterial hypertension (HT and exogenous constitutional obesity (ECO.Material and methods. The study included 80 men aged 18-32 ( average age 20,5 years, including 34 patients with HT and normal body weight, 36 patients with HT and ECO, 10 healthy men as a control group. All hypertensive patients were treated with rilmenidine 1-2 mg daily during 12 weeks. BP 24-hour profile and heart rate variability (HRV were estimated before and after therapy.Results. Rilmenidine monotherapy resulted in significant reduction in average 24-hour, day-time and night-time BP as well as indices of BP loading in both groups. Indices of HRV proved the initial sympathetic overdrive among hypertensive patients especially among those with ECO. This sympathetic overdrive significantly reduced after 12 weeks of therapy.Conclusion. Rilmenidine effectively controls BP and reduces sympathetic system overdrive in young hypertensive patients with ECO.
Eastwood, B; Dockrell, M J; Arnott, D; Britton, J; Cheeseman, H; Jarvis, M J; McNeill, A
The recent growth in the market for electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has led to concerns over their use by young people. It is therefore important to examine trends in the perception and use of e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes in this group. Two-wave cross-sectional survey design. Young people aged 11-18 in Great Britain were surveyed online by YouGov in 2013 and 2014. Use of e-cigarettes, together with perceived health harms and intention to use were assessed and compared in relation to cigarette smoking history, age and gender. Ever-use of e-cigarettes increased significantly from 4.6% (95% CI 3.8-5.7) in 2013 to 8.2% (95% CI 7.0-9.6) in 2014. Monthly or more use of e-cigarettes increased from 0.9% (95% CI 0.5-1.5) to 1.7 (1.2-2.4), but remained rare in never-smokers at under 0.2%. The proportion of young people who perceived e-cigarettes to be less harmful to users than cigarettes fell from 73.4% (95% CI 71.0-75.8) to 66.9% (95% CI 64.5-69.2), while the proportion who considered e-cigarettes to cause similar levels of harm increased from 11.8% (95% CI 10.0-13.5) to 18.2% (95% CI 16.3-20.1). Of the 8.2% of e-cigarette ever-users in 2014, 69.8% (95% CI 62.2%-77.3%) had smoked a cigarette prior to using an e-cigarette, while 8.2% (95% CI 4.1%-12.2%) first smoked a cigarette after e-cigarette use. A growing proportion of young people in Great Britain believe e-cigarettes are as harmful as smoking tobacco. Use of e-cigarettes by young people is increasing, but is largely confined to those who smoke. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Iredale, Rachel; Longley, Marcus; Thomas, Christian; Shaw, Anita
Abstract Background Young people will increasingly have the option of using new technologies for reproductive decision making but their voices are rarely heard in debates about acceptable public policy in this area. Capturing the views of young people about potentially esoteric topics, such as genetics, is difficult and methodologically challenging. Design A Citizens’ Jury is a deliberative process that presents a question to a group of ordinary people, allows them to examine evidence given by expert witnesses and personal testimonies and arrive at a verdict. This Citizens’ Jury explored designer babies in relation to inherited conditions, saviour siblings and sex selection with young people. Participants Fourteen young people aged 16–19 in Wales. Results Acceptance of designer baby technology was purpose‐specific; it was perceived by participants to be acceptable for preventing inherited conditions and to create a child to save a sibling, but was not recommended for sex selection. Jurors stated that permission should not depend on parents’ age, although some measure of suitability should be assessed. Preventing potential parents from going abroad was considered impractical. These young people felt the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority should have members under 20 and that the term ‘designer baby’ was not useful. Conclusions Perspectives on the acceptability of this technology were nuanced, and based on implicit value judgements about the extent of individual benefit derived. Young people have valuable and interesting contributions to make to the debate about genetics and reproductive decision making and a variety of innovative methods must be used to secure their involvement in decision‐making processes. PMID:16911135
Braica Alexandra Patricia
Full Text Available Assessment and research into this phenomenon of social marginalization and social exclusion of young people at both national and European levels has as a target to find methods of prevention and reduction of this phenomenon and understand the fact that it is only through communication, debates and dialog that will we be able to establish benchmarks for joint action. Young people are one of the age segments which are most affected by the economic recession. It is also accepted that in each of the Member States of the EU, despite different circumstances and levels of economic development, major issues faced by young people are the same: from access to essential services (such as education and health and up to their integration into the labour market with a view to achieving a higher standard of living. The decision makers are constantly interested in solving these stringent problems, which can be found in the policies and strategies for economic recovery and fighting the austerity measures adopted by the Member States of the EU, through a series of programs that have as main objectives combating unemployment and poverty among young people and providing opportunities for more active involvement in their community life: political, social, economic, cultural. In Romania, the problem of young people constitutes an issue of major importance for the Government, which has drawn up for the first time an Integrated Strategy of Romania with regard to young people called "National Strategy for Youth 2014-2020", with particular emphasis on the first role that education must play in this context. Examples of solutions identified by the governors are: an increase in public funding for mentoring programs, for the prevention of school dropout rates, establishment of differentiated educational offers, training schemes designed to eliminate lack of qualification in young people, in such a way as to maintain a competitive and well-prepared generation in the country
Across South Africa there is a growing body of work that explores gender dynamics in heterosexual relationships between young people aged 15-24 years. This is mainly influenced by the high prevalence of HIV and the incidence of intimate partner violence in this age group. Most studies to date have been based upon non-disabled young people, with limited focus on young disabled people. In an attempt to address this gap, this paper describes findings from a study conducted with 22 Zulu-speaking young people with visual and physical disabilities in KwaZulu-Natal. Throughout the findings, young disabled participants appeared to downplay their disability with respect to intimate relationships and accentuated the interweaving of complementary and contentious discourses of gender and cultural identity. Taking cognisance of the intersectionality of gender and cultural discourses, the paper extend constructs of disabled sexualities beyond an exclusive gaze on disability in the South African context.
Diniz, Fernando, Comp.; Kropveld, Peter, Comp.
An exploratory study sought to examine the special educational needs of young people with disabilities preparing for the transition from school to adulthood. Major issues addressed were citizenship (social and life skills), the world of work, and recreation. Students aged 14 and above from several European countries who were perceived as having…
Olaleye, Adeniyi O.; Anoemuah, Olayinka A.; Ladipo, Oladapo A.; Delano, Grace E.; Idowu, Grace F.
Purpose: The paper seeks to explore sexual behaviours and reproductive health knowledge among in-school young people with disabilities (PWD) in Ibadan, Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: In the paper a structured questionnaire was administered to 103 randomly selected PWD, aged ten to 25, from four integrated secondary schools in Ibadan. The…
Vervaeke, H.K.E.; Benschop, A.; van den Brink, W.; Korf, D.J.
Our aim is to identify predictors of first-time ecstasy use in a prospective study among young people at risk. As part of the multidisciplinary Netherlands XTC Toxicity Study (NeXT), we monitored 188 subjects aged ≥ 18 who were ecstasy-naive at baseline but seemed likely to start taking ecstasy in
Vervaeke, Hylke K. E.; Benschop, Annemieke; van den Brink, Wim; Korf, Dirk J.
Our aim is to identify predictors of first-time ecstasy use in a prospective study among young people at risk. As part of the multidisciplinary Netherlands XTC Toxicity Study (NeXT), we monitored 188 subjects aged > or = 18 who were ecstasy-naive at baseline but seemed likely to start taking ecstasy
Vervaeke, Hylke K.E.; Benschop, Annemieke; Van Den Brink, Wim; Korf, Dirk J.
Our aim is to identify predictors of first-time ecstasy use in a prospective study among young people at risk. As part of the multidisciplinary Netherlands XTC Toxicity Study (NeXT), we monitored 188 subjects aged up to 18 years who were ecstasy-naive at baseline but seemed likely to start taking ecstasy in the near future. After an 11- to…
Wills, W. J.; Danesi, G.; Kapetanaki, A. B.
This paper highlights factors that influence young people aged 13-15 years when purchasing food or drink within or beyond the school catering service. The paper draws from a qualitative study of secondary schools in Scotland, which varied in terms of relative socio-economic deprivation and density of food and drink businesses within a 10-min walk.…
Alvarez Gutiérrez, Leticia
This research examines how high-school-aged undocumented immigrant Latinas/os and their families resist being marginalized in schools and in communities. These young people and their families are part of a university intergenerational participatory action research collective, Family School Partnership (FSP), located within an urban high school in…
das Dores Guerreiro, Maria; Caetano, Ana; Rodrigues, Eduardo
This article examines gender representations of family and parental roles among young people aged 11 to 14 years. It is based on the qualitative analysis of 792 essays written by Portuguese girls and boys attending compulsory education. The adolescents' texts express normative images and cultural representations about gender that are plural and…
Goedhart, Geertje; Vrijheid, Martine; Wiart, Joe; Hours, Martine; Kromhout, Hans; Cardis, Elisabeth; Eastman Langer, Chelsea; de Llobet Viladoms, Patricia; Massardier-Pilonchery, Amelie; Vermeulen, Roel
A newly developed smartphone application was piloted to characterize and validate mobile phone use in young people. Twenty-six volunteers (mean age 17.3 years) from France, Spain, and the Netherlands used a software-modified smartphone for 4 weeks; the application installed on the phone recorded
Haynes, Gill; McCrone, Tami; Wade, Pauline
This paper explores the decision-making processes of young people aged 13-14?years in 30 consortia across England as they chose their options for Key Stage 4 at a time when a new qualification, the 14-19 Diploma, was being introduced. It draws on data collected as part of a longitudinal national study (January 2008-August 2011) of the introduction…
Taylor, Rachel M; Fern, Lorna A; Solanki, Anita; Hooker, Louise; Carluccio, Anna; Pye, Julia; Jeans, David; Frere-Smith, Tom; Gibson, Faith; Barber, Julie; Raine, Rosalind; Stark, Dan; Feltbower, Richard; Pearce, Susie; Whelan, Jeremy S
Patient experience is increasingly used as an indicator of high quality care in addition to more traditional clinical end-points. Surveys are generally accepted as appropriate methodology to capture patient experience. No validated patient experience surveys exist specifically for adolescents and young adults (AYA) aged 13-24 years at diagnosis with cancer. This paper describes early work undertaken to develop and validate a descriptive patient experience survey for AYA with cancer that encompasses both their cancer experience and age-related issues. We aimed to develop, with young people, an experience survey meaningful and relevant to AYA to be used in a longitudinal cohort study (BRIGHTLIGHT), ensuring high levels of acceptability to maximise study retention. A three-stage approach was employed: Stage 1 involved developing a conceptual framework, conducting literature/Internet searches and establishing content validity of the survey; Stage 2 confirmed the acceptability of methods of administration and consisted of four focus groups involving 11 young people (14-25 years), three parents and two siblings; and Stage 3 established survey comprehension through telephone-administered cognitive interviews with a convenience sample of 23 young people aged 14-24 years. Stage 1: Two-hundred and thirty eight questions were developed from qualitative reports of young people's cancer and treatment-related experience. Stage 2: The focus groups identified three core themes: (i) issues directly affecting young people, e.g. impact of treatment-related fatigue on ability to complete survey; (ii) issues relevant to the actual survey, e.g. ability to answer questions anonymously; (iii) administration issues, e.g. confusing format in some supporting documents. Stage 3: Cognitive interviews indicated high levels of comprehension requiring minor survey amendments. Collaborating with young people with cancer has enabled a survey of to be developed that is both meaningful to young
Tjelta, Thomas; Ritchie, Deborah; Amos, Amanda
Reducing young people's access to cigarettes is a key element of smoking prevention policies. This article explores how young people source cigarettes following the increase in the UK minimum age of sale from 16 to 18 years. Semi-structured individual, paired and triadic interviews with 60 disadvantaged young people aged between 12 and 17. Participants were recruited from clubs and voluntary organizations offering advice and support to disadvantaged young people. Most participants said they sourced cigarettes from shops, but understandings of "buying cigarettes from shops" included using intermediaries for proxy purchases. Access from social sources was contingent on reciprocation, and blackmarket sources were avoided. The distinction between potential and actual sources reflected participants concerns about their presentation of self. Those who bought cigarettes directly from shops accrued status and power in negotiating social hierarchies. Participants therefore highlighted their smoking related competencies, that is, ability to secure regular retail access to tobacco, while downplaying the significant difficulties they experienced. The presentational dimension of youth cigarette access highlights a need for caution in associating self-reported changes in young people's cigarette sources straightforwardly with access policies. The conflation of direct retail purchases with proxy purchases, and the interrelationship between commercial and social cigarette sources also raises issues for interpreting data on "usual" cigarette sources from national surveys. Findings suggest that some young people may still be both reliant on making retail cigarette purchases following the increase in the age of sale in the United Kingdom, and experiencing significant difficulties making these. This study highlights the self-presentational dimension of youth cigarette access in a particular community context, and the important distinction between the apparent range of sources
Fidler, W.; Lambert, T.
OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the effectiveness of primary health care teams in maintaining a group of young people aged 10-15 years as non-smokers. DESIGN—Randomised controlled trial using postal questionnaires. SETTING—Oxfordshire, UK. SUBJECTS—2942 young people who were initially self declared non-smokers. INTERVENTION—Information about smoking, sent under signature of the subject's general practitioner, certificates and posters intended to reinforce non-smoking behaviour. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—C...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the best ways for a member of the public to respond when someone in their social network develops a mental disorder. Controlled trials are not feasible in this area, so expert consensus may be the best guide. Methods To assess expert views, postal surveys were carried out with Australian GPs, psychiatrists and psychologists listed on professional registers and with mental health nurses who were members of a professional college. These professionals were asked to rate the helpfulness of 10 potential first aid strategies for young people with one of four disorders: depression, depression with alcohol misuse, social phobia and psychosis. Data were obtained from 470 GPs, 591 psychiatrists, 736 psychologists and 522 mental health nurses, with respective response rates of 24%, 35%, 40% and 32%. Data on public views were available from an earlier telephone survey of 3746 Australian youth aged 12–25 years and 2005 of their parents, which included questions about the same strategies. Results A clear majority across the four professions believed in the helpfulness of listening to the person, suggesting professional help-seeking, making an appointment for the person to see a GP and asking about suicidal feelings. There was also a clear majority believing in the harmfulness of ignoring the person, suggesting use of alcohol to cope, and talking to them firmly. Compared to health professionals, young people and their parents were less likely to believe that asking about suicidal feelings would be helpful and more likely to believe it would be harmful. They were also less likely to believe that talking to the person firmly would be harmful. Conclusion Several first aid strategies can be recommended to the public based on agreement of clinicians about their likely helpfulness. In particular, there needs to be greater public awareness of the helpfulness of asking a young person with a mental health problem about
De Silva, Stefanie; Parker, Alexandra; Purcell, Rosemary; Callahan, Patrick; Liu, Ping; Hetrick, Sarah
Suicide and self-harm (SSH) in young people is a major cause of disability-adjusted life years. Effective interventions are of critical importance to reducing the mortality and morbidity associated with SSH. To investigate the extent and nature of research on interventions to prevent and treat SSH in young people using evidence mapping. A systematic search for SSH intervention studies was conducted (participant mean age between 6-25 years). The studies were restricted to high-quality evidence in the form of systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and controlled trials. Thirty-eight controlled studies and six systematic reviews met the study inclusion criteria. The majority (n = 32) involved psychological interventions. Few studies (n = 9) involved treating young people with recognized mental disorders or substance abuse (n = 1) which also addressed SSH. The map was restricted to RCTs, CCTs, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, and thus might have neglected important information from other study designs. The effectiveness of interventions within the trials was not evaluated. The evidence base for SSH interventions in young people is not well established, which hampers best-practice efforts in this area. Promising interventions that need further research include school-based prevention programs with a skills training component, individual CBT interventions, interpersonal psychotherapy, and attachment-based family therapy. Gaps in the research exist in evaluations of interventions for SSH in young people with identifiable psychopathology, particularly substance use disorder, and research that classifies participants on the basis of their suicidal intent.
Power, Sally; Taylor, Christopher; Horton, Kim
There are increasing concerns that social pressures, such as family changes and social media, are ‘invading’ the sanctuary of the bedroom with the result that students arrive at school tired and stressed. This paper seeks to examine whether these concerns are justified and contribute to the growing literature on the social dimensions of sleep through examining the rest and routines of two cohorts of young people aged 12–13 and 14–15 years old. Our research indicates that, in general, most you...
Bernays, Sarah; Bukenya, Dominic; Thompson, Claire; Ssembajja, Fatuma; Seeley, Janet
The behaviour of adolescents is recognised increasingly as having substantial and long-term consequences for their health. We examined the meaning of 'adolescence' in southern Uganda with HIV-positive young people aged 11-24 years. Adolescent girls and boys are described differently in the local language (Luganda). Adolescence is described as a behavioural rather than a life course category and an inherently dangerous one. The practices, risks and consequences of 'adolescent' behaviour are highly gendered. Local understandings of adolescence are likely to have a significant impact on the efficacy of interventions designed to minimise their 'risky behaviour'.
Bernays, Sarah; Bukenya, Dominic; Thompson, Claire; Ssembajja, Fatuma; Seeley, Janet
The behaviour of adolescents is recognised increasingly as having substantial and long-term consequences for their health. We examined the meaning of ‘adolescence’ in southern Uganda with HIV-positive young people aged 11–24 years. Adolescent girls and boys are described differently in the local language (Luganda). Adolescence is described as a behavioural rather than a life course category and an inherently dangerous one. The practices, risks and consequences of ‘adolescent’ behaviour are highly gendered. Local understandings of adolescence are likely to have a significant impact on the efficacy of interventions designed to minimise their ‘risky behaviour’. PMID:29472746
Dunne, Aine; Lawlor, Margaret-Anne; Rowley, Jennifer
Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore why young people use and participate in social networking sites (SNS) with specific reference to Bebo. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative approach is employed in this study with a view to exploring the uses and gratifications that girls aged 12 to 14 years, both seek and obtain from the Bebo social networking site. The research was conducted in a school setting in Ireland. Findings – The findings indicate that the participant...
Full Text Available This paper examines how the leisure of young people in Western Europe has changed since the 1950s. It considers the effects of the extension of the youth life stage, the shift into a post-industrial era, and the steep increases in leisure spending that have occurred. The paper considers the ways in which youth cultures have now become milieu where social relationships and divisions are changed rather than reproduced, argues that this is most plausible in relation to gender, for some but not all ethnic divisions, and wholly implausible in relation to social class. It is argued that class differences in childhood leisure socialisation which result in the acquisition of different amounts and types of cultural capital, plus the social relationships formed among social equals, enable class differences to be maintained throughout the youth life stage even though young people on most social class trajectories share much leisure in common.
Este artículo examina cómo ha cambiado el ocio de los jóvenes en Europa occidental desde los años 50. Considera los efectos de la extensión de la etapa vital de la juventud, el ingreso en una era post-industrial y el notable aumento del gasto en ocio. El artículo explora las maneras en que las culturas juveniles se han convertido ahora en medios donde las relaciones y divisiones sociales son transformadas antes que reproducidas, y argumenta que esto es más plausible en relación al género, para algunas –aunque no todas– las divisiones étnicas, y totalmente implausible en relación a la clase social. Se aduce que las diferencias de clase en la socialización del ocio durante la infancia, que resultan en la adquisición de diferentes cantidades y tipos de capital cultural, junto a las relaciones sociales formadas entre pares sociales, permiten que las diferencias de clase se mantengan a lo largo de la etapa vital de la juventud, incluso aunque los jóvenes en la mayoría de trayectorias de clase
Jiang, Heng; Xiang, Xiaojun; Hao, Wei; Room, Robin; Zhang, Xiaojie; Wang, Xuyi
The paper reviews alcohol consumption patterns and alcohol-related social and health issues among 15-29-year old young people in Asian countries, and discusses strategies for preventing and controlling alcohol use and related harms. We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science for reports, reviews and journal articles published in English between 1st Jan 1990 and 31st August 2016. Forty-one reports, reviews and journal papers were identified and included in the final review. The current drinking levels and prevalence among young people are markedly different between eight included Asian countries, ranging from 4.2% in Malaysia to 49.3% in China. In a majority of the selected Asian countries, over 15% of total deaths among young men and 6% among young women aged 15-29 years are attributable to alcohol use. Alcohol use among young people is associated with a number of harms, including stress, family violence, injuries, suicide, and sexual and other risky behaviours. Alcohol policies, such as controlling sales, social supply and marketing, setting up/raising a legal drinking age, adding health warning labels on alcohol containers, and developing a surveillance system to monitor drinking pattern and risky drinking behaviour, could be potential means to reduce harmful use of alcohol and related harm among young people in Asia. The review reveals that drinking patterns and behaviours vary across eight selected Asian countries due to culture, policies and regional variations. The research evidence holds substantial policy implications for harm reduction on alcohol drinking among young people in Asian countries -- especially for China, which has almost no alcohol control policies at present.
Objectives This study aims at examining parent-young people communication about sexual and reproductive health related topics and factors associated with it from both young people’s and parents’ perspectives. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,269 young people aged 10–24 years in Nekemte town and semi urban areas, western Ethiopia. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted using SPSS for windows version 16. The qualitative data was coded, and categorized in to emerging themes using the open code software version 3.4. Result About a third of young people-32.5% (32.4% of females and 32.7% males) engaged in conversation about sexual and reproductive health topics with their parents/parent figures during the last six months. In logistic regression analyses, young people who were aged 15–19 years were more likely to report parent-communication compared to the other age groups (AOR = 1.57; 95%CI = 1.26-1.97). Female young people are more likely to discuss with their mothers, (AOR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.13-3.2), sister (AOR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.19-3.9) and female friends (AOR = 11.7, 95% CI = 7.36-18.7) while males are more likely to discuss with male friends (AOR = 17.3, 95%CI = 10-4-28.6). Educated young people were more likely to parent-communicate(AOR = 1.70, 95%CI = 1.30-2.24). Fear of parent, cultural taboos attached to sex, embarrassments, and parents’ lack of knowledge related to sexual and reproductive health were found to be barriers for parent communication. Parent-communication takes place not only infrequently but also in warning, & threatening way. Conclusion Parent-young people communication about sexual health is occurring rarely in the family and bounded by certain barriers. Programmes/policies related to young people’s reproductive health should address not only individual or behavioral factors but also cultural and social factors that negatively
Martinez, Linda Sprague
Young people of color and young people growing up in low-income communities are at high risk for experiencing poor health. In part, this is because they have inequitable access to the supports, opportunities, and experiences that science affirms are essential for children's well-being. Wellness initiatives--holistic approaches to overall physical…
Hampden-Thompson, Gillian; Galindo, Claudia
Families' perceptions of, and interactions with, schools and teachers can play an essential role in young people's educational outcomes. According to Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory, young people grow within multiple nested systems of influence interacting with each other. Thus, their development is affected by persons, processes, and…
Monks, Helen; Cardoso, Patricia; Papageorgiou, Alana; Carolan, Catherine; Costello, Leesa; Thomas, Laura
Social media is a central component in the lives of many young people, and provides innovative potential to conduct research among this population. Ethical issues around online research have been subject to much debate, yet young people have seldom been consulted to provide a youth perspective and voice. Eight (8) focus groups involving 48 Grade 9…
Kitagawa, Kaori; Encinas, Mabel
This article presents findings from the Changing Youth Labour Markets and Schools to Work Transitions in Modern Britain projects undertaken between 2009 and 2010. The projects examined young people's experiences and perceptions about study, work, and the future while going through transitions. The target group was young people on vocational…
Kelly, Elish; McGuinness, Seamus; O'Connell, Philip J.
Many young people have short spells of unemployment during their transition from school to work; however, some often get trapped in unemployment and risk becoming long-term unemployed. Much research has been undertaken on the factors that influence unemployment risk for young people during their school-to-work transition. However, very little is…
Despite rates of participation in post-compulsory full-time education reaching approximately 84% in Wales, social class inequalities continue to shape young people's transitions from compulsory to post-compulsory education. This article draws upon data from a project which explored how young people's educational decisions and transitions in Wales,…
Niens, Ulrike; Mawhinney, Alison; Richardson, Norman; Chiba, Yuko
This paper aims to explore the relationship between religious identity, acculturation strategies and perceptions of acculturation orientation in the school context amongst young people from minority belief backgrounds. Based on a qualitative study including interviews with 26 young people from religious minority belief backgrounds in Northern…
Mrnjaus, Kornelija; Vrcelj, Sofija; Zlokovic, Jasminka
In this paper, the authors address the youth as a research phenomenon and present the current position of young people in the Croatian society. The authors exhibit interesting results of a recent study of youth in Croatia and present the results of their research conducted among Croatian students aiming to explore the attitudes of young people and…
Janssen, Marty; Davis, Jackie
Sexual health promotion is of primary importance for young people in Australia, especially for vulnerable and at-risk young people. The authors first identify the important role of youth workers in engaging clients proactively around a broad range of sexual health issues, and then discuss real and perceived barriers that youth workers face in…
Malvaso, Catia; Delfabbro, Paul; Hackett, Louisa; Mills, Hayley
Although leaving statutory out-of-home care can be a challenging time for many young people, it is recognised that young people who have multiple or complex needs find this transition particularly difficult. This study aims to gain a deeper understanding of the challenges faced by care leavers who have complex needs, as well as to identify some of…
Davies, Jill; Burke, Christine; Mattingly, Molly
This booklet is for young people and their families, friends and supporters to read and talk about together. It is based on the stories of four young people. Big changes happened for some of them; others are still waiting for things to change. The goal of the booklet is to give students ideas about how they may want to plan or change things when…
Roker, Debi; Player, Katie; Coleman, John
Discusses political apathy and alienation among youth, challenging this negative image. Describes empirical research that demonstrates a high level of engagement by young people in social activism and community activities, focuses on factors influencing young people's participation, and demonstrates that volunteering and campaigning affect young…
Coll, Leanne; O'Sullivan, Mary; Enright, Eimear
What do young people believe sexuality education ought to be about? It is within the absence of a sustained and critical consideration of the possibilities and politics of engaging in research with rather than for young people in the reimagining of sexuality education that this paper is positioned. Data were generated as part of an 18-month Youth…
Rudd, Peter; Walker, Matthew
Web 2.0 technologies are online tools that allow users to share, collaborate and interact with one another. This small-scale project focused on young people's personal use of social media, and on the potential to use these tools to collect the views of young people and involve them in democracy in communities and local authorities. The main…
Donovan, Owen M.
Situated in the larger questions of how to support the educational engagement and positive psychosocial development of young people with cancer, the purpose of this exploratory study was to address gaps in the literature and build understanding of how young people use digital and Internet-connected technologies in ways that support their social…
Foyer Foundation, London (England).
Homelessness in the United Kingdom has very wide ramifications. Young homeless people face a difficult transition into adult life as poverty, low self-esteem, lack of family support, and lack of qualifications reinforce each others' effects. Homeless young people start behind their peers in educational achievement. Government policies put up…
This article explores the implementation of the Victorian Youth Employment, Education and Training Initiative (YEETI). This statewide initiative delivered brokerage funds to homeless young people through their housing advocates. One of the findings of the project was that the main barrier to young people achieving a stable continuum in their lives…
Khotkina, Z. A.
Survey data comparing the life aspirations of three generations of Russians show an increase from the level of the Soviet generation of young people to the perestroika generation, followed by a decline in the generation of young people who were born and grew up in today's "market" Russia. One chief cause of the downward dynamic of their…
Pascoe, C. J.
A lack of good information about what youth are doing with new media stimulates fears and hopes about the relationship between young people and digital technologies. This article focuses on new modes of inquiry into youth new media use, highlighting the challenges, complexities, and opportunities inherent in studying young people's digital…
Connelly, Graham; Chakrabarti, Mono
The context for this paper relates to the policy and practice implications of efforts to achieve social justice for Scotland's 12,000 children and young people in the care of local government authorities. The paper is located within a growing evidence base of the educational experience of young people in care and leaving care. The data on…
The labour market in Sweden today does not offer a rosy picture for young people. Among them are youth with a migrant background that have the lowest chance of becoming employed. The table below shows the unemployment rates of young people with a migrant background. (Contains 1 table, 1 figure and 11 notes.)
Andersson, Erik; Öhman, Johan
Young people's conversations about environmental and sustainability issues in social media and their educational implications are under-researched. Understanding young people's meaning-making in social media and the experiences they acquire could help teachers to stage pluralistic and participatory approaches to classroom discussions about the…
Craig, Gary; Stanley, Nicky
Teenage pregnancy has become a major policy issue, for which young people are often publicly held solely responsible. However, a combination of factors substantially increases the risks of conception faced by young people engaging in early sexual activity. This article reports the main findings of a study of teenage pregnancy in linked seaside and…
Faust, Hannah; Scior, Katrina
Background: Young people with intellectual disabilities seem to be at increased risk of developing mental health problems. The present study set out to examine the impact such difficulties can have on parents. Method: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were carried out with 13 parents and one adult sibling of 11 young people with intellectual…
Ginó, Sandra; Mendes, Tiago; Maroco, João; Ribeiro, Filipa; Schmand, Ben A.; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Guerreiro, Manuela
BACKGROUND: Subjective memory complaints are frequently reported by the elderly. There is less information about the characterization of subjective memory complaints in young people. OBJECTIVE: To determine different memory complaints between young and elderly people with the use of the Subjective
Ginó, S.; Mendes, T.; Maroco, J.; Ribeiro, F.; Schmand, B.A.; de Mendonca, A.; Guerreiro, M.
Background: Subjective memory complaints are frequently reported by the elderly. There is less information about the characterization of subjective memory complaints in young people. Objective: To determine different memory complaints between young and elderly people with the use of the Subjective
Hochstenbach, C.; Boterman, W.R.
In many western cities, housing opportunities of young people are increasingly constrained due to housing market reforms and decreasing affordability as a result of processes of gentrification. Little is known about how young people deal with these constraints and how this differs across class and
Wilks, Leigh; Harris, Neil
Objective: Young people's environmental views are typically conflicted, with little recognition of the links between environmental issues or between environmental responsibility and action. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether young people's understanding of the environment is in conflict or whether they are forming interconnections…
This article responds to intermediality through a case study of an intermedial applied performance for young people. "Heterophobia," a hybrid fusion of live performance, digital technology, social media and urban street art, aimed to challenge homophobia in schools and online. Intermediality was used as a tool to enhance young people's…
Ravenna, Jean; Cleaver, Karen
Prevalence of mental health disorder is increasing among young people. It is recognized that early intervention is essential in supporting young people, and care provided within schools to support emotional well-being is recommended as part of this process. A scoping review was undertaken examining school nurses' experiences of supporting the…
Wilkin, Sarah; Davies, Huw; Eynon, Rebecca
Despite the ongoing discourse about the constantly connected and digitally savvy youth in the UK, a growing evidence base demonstrates that there are still significant inequalities in young people's ability to access and use the internet. There is a small, but significant, proportion of young people who do not have internet access at home, nor…
Snydera, Ilana; Prinsloo, Mastin
Claims about the complex ways in which young people's lives are entangled with digital technologies abound, yet insufficient theoretically informed empirical research has been conducted to examine how they use them and with what impact. This special issue of Language and Education presents theoretical and empirical understandings of young people's…
The characteristics, experiences and long-term prospects of young people outside the labour market and education have attracted widespread international attention in recent decades, and the specific category of young people not in education, employment or training (NEET) has been a policy concern for the UK Government since 1997. This paper…
McCrystal, Patrick; Percy, Andrew
Aims: Substance use and misuse amongst young people attending colleges of further education (FE) has received little attention in the drug use literature in the UK. This article aims to explore the patterns of drug use amongst young people attending colleges of further education in Northern Ireland. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey…
Souza Edinilsa Ramos de
Full Text Available This study analyzes suicide among young Brazilians (15-24 years old in nine metropolitan areas. Mortality data for 1979-1998 were obtained from the Mortality Information System of the Ministry of Health. External causes are the main causes of death among youth, and suicide is the sixth most frequent of these causes. The distribution is heterogeneous, varying according to the social stratum, specific age group, sex, and means used to commit suicide. All cities analyzed showed increased suicide rates from 1979 to 1998 (from 3.5 to 5.0 per 100,000 inhabitants 15-24 years old. Salvador and Rio de Janeiro had the lowest suicide rates, while Porto Alegre and Curitiba had the highest. The principal means used by youth to commit suicide were hanging, strangling, and suffocation (Porto Alegre, followed by firearms and explosives (Belo Horizonte.
Newby, Katie V; Cook, Chloe; Meisel, Susanne F; Webb, Thomas L; Fisher, Bernadette; Fisher, Abi
The primary objective was to explore young people's risk appraisals of bowel cancer, including whether they had a coherent understanding of the protective effects of physical activity (PA). A secondary objective was to examine whether the illness risk representations (IRRs) framework could be used to understand beliefs underlying bowel cancer risk appraisals. Qualitative. Framework analysis of semi-structured interviews with 19 people aged 14-17 years. Participants judged their risk of getting bowel cancer as low. This was based on a lack of family history of cancer and their current lifestyle behaviours, which were viewed as having a protective effect, or because they planned on making change to their lifestyle in the future when disease risk became more relevant. Participants were not aware of, and struggled to understand, the link between PA and bowel cancer. They also lacked knowledge of the effects of, or treatments for, bowel cancer. Beliefs underlying judgements about the risk of bowel cancer fitted the IRR framework reasonably well. The present research suggests that interventions designed to increase PA with a view to reducing the risk of bowel cancer should aim to make the future risk of bowel cancer feel more tangible, help young people to understand the full range of consequences, explain how and why preventative behaviours such as PA are effective in reducing risk, and emphasize that the typical late presentation of symptoms, and therefore investigation by health care services, reduces treatability. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Physical activity (PA) performed throughout the lifespan can have a protective effect on bowel cancer, but levels of PA are low among young people. Changing beliefs about the risk of getting bowel cancer may be a useful strategy in motivating PA. What does this study add? Increased understanding of how young people think about bowel cancer and the relationship between PA and cancer
Ana Paula Salles da Silva
Full Text Available Electronic games have been one of the main ways of access of young to technology in Brazil, leading to new experiences in social practices.The objective of this study is to identify the perception of young people on the experience of electronic games of movement with sports theme. Methodology: 24 young elementary school students were investigated, divided into 3 groups. Each group participated in 10 sessions with electronic games of movement of 3 hours each. During the sessions the speeches of the young people were recorded in a field diary. Results: departing from the speeches of young people the experiment with electronic games of movement emerges as a mediated and unique experience. It is mediated because it interposes itself between subject and object and it is unique because the way is the experience itself.Conclusions: the perception of the young people indicates a conceptual enlargement in which the comprehension of sports is expanded by the experiences with technology.
Trzcinski, Eileen; Holst, Elke
This study used a nationally representative sample of young people in Germany from the German Socio-Economic Panel to examine how demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the young persons and their parents, personality traits of the young persons, quality and quantity of relationships, the parent's level of life satisfaction, and other…
Teerachote, C; Kessomboon, P; Rattanasiri, A; Koju, R
Peer leadership is widely recognized as an effective approach to health promotion and empowerment among people of similar ages, especially the youth. Such programs build peer leaders who in turn help empower the youths in their groups to improve their health and life skills related to health. Most previous studies have focused on the effectiveness of such activities in target groups but have neglected to effectively address and explore the transformations in peer leaders themselves. This descriptive study aimed to investigate the level of social change and health consciousness among student peer leaders in three Youth health promotion programs in Thailand: Friend's Corner, Smart Consumer and Volunteer Minded Young Dentists, and to compare them with the general students. The study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire, which was developed based on Tyree's Social Change Model of leadership, Gould's concept and Dutta-Bergman's concept. The study population comprised of 11th grade students (N=660) from Kalasin Province in Thailand, 320 of whom were peer leaders. The findings revealed that the peer leaders scored higher than non peer leaders in all domains. Among the peer leaders, it was found that Volunteer Minded Young Dentists group had the highest scores in "controversy with civility", "social change agent" characteristics, "holistic health perceptions" and "responsibility for one's own health" regarding health consciousness. The results of this study confirmed that the peer leadership approach can help young people to develop life skills through social transformation and increase health consciousness for better status of health in the community.
Gørlich, Anne; Katznelson, Noemi
Background: Across Europe and the Nordic countries, unemployment among 18–30 year-olds is a major challenge, which in some countries is being tackled by focusing on education. In Denmark, young unemployed people or people on the margins of the education system are assessed regarding what is known...... disorganised educational market, a changing labour market, a rapidly increasing tendency to diagnose, as well as increased demands related to performance, position the young people on the margins of the educational system. The analyses suggest that the young people’s ways of interacting with structural...... of apprenticeships. There is a need to devise solutions that involve the labour market more closely, address issues of the noteworthy increase in ‘diagnoses’ and how this affects young people, and find ways of reducing the pressure on young people in educational systems in general....
Deliberate self-harm is recognized as a serious public health issue in young people. There is evidence that young people who self-harm are more likely to repeat self-harm, and this in turn increases their risk of completed suicide. Prevalence studies have identified that the rate of self-harm among young people is on the increase, information largely based on data arising from review and analysis of hospital attendances. However, community-based studies indicate that the prevalence is much higher, with those seen in emergency departments representing the 'tip of the iceberg' (Hawton and Rodham, 2006). Young people's motives for self-harm are discussed, as are research findings which indicate that nurses can have negative attitudes towards patients who self-harm. The article considers the implications of this for young people and identifies areas for future research.
Lic. Felipe Andres Nesbet Montecinos
Full Text Available It is undeniable that the Internet has a capital importance in the contemporary society. In the new technological paradigm, known as the Information Age, the relevance of the network is equivalent to that of oil in the Industrial Age. Although we can dissent of the prediction done by Nicholas Negroponte in 1995, in its famous book “Being Digital”, with respect to which the digital divide would be translated in a subject, net, generational, expressed in the dichotomy: young person-rich versus old-poor men. However, this author (1995 guessed right in his theory of the greater facility of the young people towards the new technologies. For that reason, the Internet is dominated by young people. The appearance of Wena Naty, a video uploaded to the network (with the explicit consent of their protagonists in which a 14 year old girl practiced oral sex to a partner in a public square, is the most dramatic demonstration of the use and abuse that young Chileans make new technologies.The present article reviews data collected on the use of technologies in Chile (INJUV 2002, Godoy 2006 y PNUD 2006. As well as it analyzes collected own data from the investigations of Carcamo “Percepción del tiempo y de la motivación ante tareas de búsqueda de información y conferencias de texto (Chat mediadas por computador en estudiantes secundarios de Chile” and Nesbet (2007, “Usos de la mensajería instantánea en estudiantes secundarios de Valdivia.”
Le Thi Kim Thoa
Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is associated with a wide range of health and social consequences. It is also associated with a number of risk taking behaviours. These include illicit drug use and unsafe sex. Alcohol consumption appears to be increasing in Vietnam. The purpose of this paper is to examine the patterns of alcohol consumption and its relationship with a number of other risk taking behaviours amongst young people. Information was also obtained concerning leisure activities and use of health care. The paper also sets out to examine possible gender differences in relation to alcohol consumption and risk behaviour and to propose the development and implementation of alcohol monitoring and prevention programs in Vietnam. The study involved a cross-sectional, community survey using a standardised interview. This was conducted during face-to-face interviews with 1,408 young people aged 10-19 years. Respondents were recruited randomly through the lists of the households from 12 selected communes in three areas in Northern Vietnam. The findings presented here were part of a larger health risk behaviour survey. Levels of alcohol use were low. Overall, 16.5% of participants were experienced drinkers, and only 4% of them were current drinkers. Males were significantly more likely than females to report drinking. This study also showed that rates of alcohol consumption were associated with age, education, geographical area, gender, tobacco smoking, involvement in violence, watching television, computer use and playing computer games, wearing safety helmets and use of health services. Alcohol consumption tended to increase with age for both males and females. Alcohol and its effects on young people are clearly a growing public health issue in Vietnam. Because of this, more detailed behavioral research should be conducted into the relationship between alcohol consumption and other risky behaviours amongst young people. It is also
This article discusses the author's use of reflexivity in trying to gain a better understanding of ageing in older people with learning disabilities. In the general population ageing is viewed in rather negative terms and as a significant life transition. However, for some older people with learning disabilities this transition may go unnoticed because of their past negative life experiences and lack of opportunities. Reflexivity has the potential to provide nurses with greater understanding of the personal perspectives of older people with learning disabilities.
Jawad, Mohammed; Cheeseman, Hazel; Brose, Leonie S
One percent of adults in Great Britain use waterpipe tobacco at least monthly, however national epidemiological evidence among young people is absent. This study aims to assess waterpipe tobacco prevalence and correlates among young people in Great Britain. Data were analyzed from online surveys conducted annually from 2013 to 2016 with weighted national samples of 11 to 18-year olds in Great Britain (annual n = 1936-2059). Primary outcome measures were at least monthly waterpipe tobacco use and lifetime waterpipe tobacco use. Binary logistic regression models tested the association between these outcomes and age, sex, country of residence and other tobacco consumption. Between 2013 and 2016, 1.7% (95% CI 1.5-2.1%) used waterpipe tobacco at least monthly and 9.9% (95% CI 9.2-10.7%) used waterpipe in their lifetime. There were no changes in prevalence over time. At least monthly use was associated with older age groups [16-18 years vs. 11-15 years, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.63, 95% CI 1.55-4.46], male sex (AOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.23-2.71) and other tobacco consumption (e.g. lifetime cigarette use AOR 10.30, 95% CI 5.22-20.29). Lifetime use had similar correlates, but was not associated with male sex (AOR 0.97, 95% CI 0.80-1.17). One in 10 young people in Great Britain have tried waterpipe tobacco, though more frequent use appears low. We found no evidence of increasing or decreasing prevalence of waterpipe use between 2013 and 2016. Being male, older and a concurrent user of other tobacco products were correlated with waterpipe tobacco use.
Foley Louise S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behaviour has been linked with adverse health outcomes in young people; however, the nature and context of being sedentary is poorly understood. Accurate quantification and description of sedentary behaviour using population-level data is required. The aim of this research was to describe sedentary behaviour among New Zealand (NZ youth and examine whether sedentary behaviour differs by Body Mass Index (BMI status in this population. Methods A national representative cross-sectional survey of young people aged 5-24 years (n = 2,503 was conducted in 2008-2009. Data from this survey, which included subjectively (recall diary; n = 1,309 and objectively (accelerometry; n = 960 measured sedentary behaviour for participants aged 10-18 years were analysed using survey weighted methods. Results Participants self-reported spending on average 521 minutes per day (standard error [SE] 5.29 in total sedentary behaviour, 181 minutes per day (SE 3.91 in screen-based sedentary activities (e.g., television and video games, and 340 minutes per day (SE 5.22 in other non-screen sedentary behaviours (e.g., school, passive transport and self-care. Accelerometer-measured total sedentary behaviour was on average 420 minutes per day (SE 4.26, or 53% (SE 0.42% of monitored time. There were no statistically significant differences in time spent in sedentary behaviour among overweight, obese and healthy/underweight young people. Conclusions Both subjective and objective methods indicate that NZ youth spend much of their waking time being sedentary. No relationships were found between sedentary behaviour and BMI status. These findings extend previous research by describing engagement in specific sedentary activities, as well as quantifying the behaviour using an objective method. Differences in what aspects of sedentary behaviour the two methods are capturing are discussed. This research highlights the potential for future interventions to
Calvo, Michele; MacFarlane, Jessica; Zaccaro, Heather; Curtis, Matthew; Cabán, María; Favaro, Jamie; Passannante, Marian R; Frost, Taeko
Little is known about the engagement of young people who use drugs (PWUD) in harm reduction programs (HRPs), and few studies have included non-opioid users and non-injectors. While HRPs have effectively engaged PWUD, young people are under-represented in their services. The Injection Drug Users Health Alliance Citywide Study (IDUCS) is the largest community-based study of PWUD in HRPs in the US. From 2014-2015, 2421 HRP participants across New York City (NYC) completed a cross-sectional survey. We investigated differences in socio-demographics, service utilization, and risk behaviors between young (aged 18-30) and older participants and examined factors associated with overdose among young participants. The study included 257 young participants. They were significantly more likely than older participants to be white, educated, uninsured, unstably housed or homeless, and have a history of incarceration and residential drug treatment. They were more likely to report recent overdose but less likely to report knowledge of naloxone. Young participants also had higher rates of alcohol, marijuana, benzodiazepine, and injection drug use, and related risk behaviors such as public injection. Factors associated with past year overdose among young participants included experiencing symptoms of psychological distress (AOR=9.71), being unstably housed or homeless (AOR=4.39), and utilizing detox (AOR=4.20). Young PWUD who access services at HRPs in NYC differ significantly from their older counterparts. New York City and other urban centers that attract young PWUD should consider implementing harm reduction oriented services tailored to the unique needs of young people. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Tefft, Brian C; Williams, Allan F; Grabowski, Jurek G
Background Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teens and young adults in the United States. Graduated driver licensing (GDL) systems were designed to protect young novice drivers by limiting their exposure to specific risks while they gain experience driving. In the United States, most states? GDL systems only apply to new drivers younger than 18. Some experts suggest that GDL might encourage young people to wait until age 18 to obtain a license, to avoid GDL requirements...
Rodway, Cathryn; Tham, Su-Gwan; Ibrahim, Saied; Turnbull, Pauline; Windfuhr, Kirsten; Shaw, Jenny; Kapur, Nav; Appleby, Louis
There is concern about the mental health of children and young people and a possible rise in suicidal behaviour in this group. We have done a comprehensive national multi-agency study of suicide in under 20s in England. We aimed to establish how frequently suicide is preceded by child-specific and young person-specific suicide risk factors, as well as all-age factors, and to identify contact with health-care and social-care services and justice agencies. This study is a descriptive examination of suicide in a national consecutive sample of children and young people younger than 20 years who died by suicide in England between Jan 1, 2014, and April 30, 2015. We obtained general population mortality data from the Office for National Statistics (ONS). We collected information about antecedents considered to be relevant to suicide (eg, abuse, bullying, bereavement, academic pressures, self-harm, and physical health) from a range of investigations and inquiries, including coroner inquest hearings, child death investigations, criminal justice system reports, and the National Health Service, including data on people in contact with mental health services in the 12 months before their death. 145 suicides in people younger than 20 years were notified to us during the study period, of which we were able to obtain report data about antecedents for 130 (90%). The number of suicides rose sharply during the late teens with 79 deaths by suicide in people aged 18-19 years compared with 66 in people younger than 18 years. 102 (70%) deaths were in males. 92 (63%) deaths were by hanging. Various antecedents were reported among the individuals for whom we had report data, including academic (especially exam) pressures (35 [27%] individuals), bullying (28 [22%]), bereavement (36 [28%]), suicide in family or friends (17 [13%]), physical health conditions (47 [36%]), family problems (44 [34%]), social isolation or withdrawal (33 [25%]), child abuse or neglect (20 [15%]), excessive
Full Text Available Disabled young people are sexual beings, and deserve equal rights and opportunities to have control over, choices about, and access to their sexuality, sexual expression, and fulfilling relationships throughout their lives. This is critical to their overall physical, emotional, and social health and well-being. However, societal misconceptions of disabled bodies being non-normative, other, or deviant has somewhat shaped how the sexuality of disabled people has been constructed as problematic under the public gaze. The pervasive belief that disabled people are asexual creates barriers to sexual citizenship for disabled young people, thereby causing them to have lower levels of sexual knowledge and inadequate sex education compared to their non-disabled peers. As a consequence, they are more vulnerable to “bad sex”—relationships, which are considered to be exploitative and disempowering in different ways. Access to good sex and relationships education for disabled young people is, therefore, not only important for them to learn about sexual rights, sexual identity, and sexual expression but also about how to ensure their sexual safety. In so doing, it will contribute to the empowerment and societal recognition of disabled people as sexual beings, and also help them resist and report sexual violence. Therefore, it is critical that parents, educationalists, and health and social care professionals are aware and appropriately equipped with knowledge and resources to formally educate disabled young people about sexuality and well-being on par to their non-disabled peers.
Kim Allen; Laura Harvey; Heather Mendick
In this article, we explore the ways that contemporary young masculinities are performed and regulated through young peopleâ€™s relationship with celebrity. We address the relative paucity of work on young menâ€™s engagements with popular culture. Drawing on qualitative data from group interviews with 148 young people (aged 14-17) in England, we identify â€˜celebrity talkâ€™ as a site in which gender identities are governed, negotiated and resisted. Specifically we argue that celebrity as a s...
Nassaif, Maryam M; Alobed, Ghufran J J; Alaam, Noor A A; Alderrazi, Abdulla N; Awdhalla, Muyssar S; Vaithinathan, Asokan G
Energy drink (ED) consumption is becoming increasingly popular among young Bahrainis, who may be unaware of the health risks associated with ED consumption. To date, there have been few publications on the consumption of ED in Bahrain, particularly among adolescents. This study seeks to fill a gap in the literature on energy drink consumption practices of Bahraini adolescents. Data were collected using a previously established European Food Safety Authority questionnaire. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on a convenience sample of 262 Bahraini students aged 10 to 18 years. Most participants consumed energy drinks 2 to 3 times per week and consumed two or more cans at a time. Eighty percent of partcipants preferred energy drinks with sugar. Participants in the older age group and higher educational level consumed more ED. The majority (57%) consumed ED at home with friends as part of socialization. Notably, 60% of the parents of the respondents have not consumed energy drinks. Prominent reasons for consumption of energy drinks included: taste (40%), energy (30%), stay awake (13%), augment concentration (4%), and enhance sports performance (6%). Energy drink consumption is a popular socialization activity among adolescents of Bahrain. The potential health risks necessitates the need for novel health promotion strategies and advocacy efforts for healthy hydration practices.
Yang, Hai-Chun; Rossini, Michele; Ma, Li-Jun; Zuo, Yiqin; Ma, Ji; Fogo, Agnes B
Bone marrow-derived stem cells may modulate renal injury, but the effects may depend on the age of the stem cells. Here we investigated whether bone marrow from young mice attenuates renal aging in old mice. We radiated female 12-mo-old 129SvJ mice and reconstituted them with bone marrow cells (BMC) from either 8-wk-old (young-to-old) or 12-mo-old (old-to-old) male mice. Transfer of young BMC resulted in markedly decreased deposition of collagen IV in the mesangium and less β-galactosidase staining, an indicator of cell senescence. These changes paralleled reduced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), PDGF-B (PDGF-B), the transdifferentiation marker fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1), and senescence-associated p16 and p21. Tubulointerstitial and glomerular cells derived from the transplanted BMC did not show β-galactosidase activity, but after 6 mo, there were more FSP-1-expressing bone marrow-derived cells in old-to-old mice compared with young-to-old mice. Young-to-old mice also exhibited higher expression of the anti-aging gene Klotho and less phosphorylation of IGF-1 receptor β. Taken together, these data suggest that young bone marrow-derived cells can alleviate renal aging in old mice. Direct parenchymal reconstitution by stem cells, paracrine effects from adjacent cells, and circulating anti-aging molecules may mediate the aging of the kidney.
Nicholls, Adam R.; Cope, Ed; Bailey, Richard; Koenen, Katrin; Dumon, Detlef; Theodorou, Nikolaos C.; Chanal, Benoit; Saint Laurent, Delphine; Müller, David; Andrés, Mar P.; Kristensen, Annemarie H.; Thompson, Mark A.; Baumann, Wolfgang; Laurent, Jean-Francois
Taking performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) can cause serious and irreversible health consequences, which can ultimately lead to premature death. Some young people may take PEDs without fully understanding the ramifications of their actions or based on the advice from others. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the main factors that predicted doping among young people. The literature was systematically reviewed using search engines, manually searching specialist journals, and pearl growing. Fifty-two studies, which included 187,288 young people aged between 10 and 21 years of age, 883 parents of adolescent athletes, and 11 adult coaches, who were interviewed regarding young athletes, were included in this review. Nine factors predicted doping among young people: gender; age; sports participation; sport type; psychological variables; entourage; ethnicity; nutritional supplements; and health harming behaviors. In regards to psychological variables, 22 different constructs were associated with doping among young people. Some psychological constructs were negatively associated with doping (e.g., self-esteem, resisting social pressure, and perfectionist strivings), whereas other were positively associated with doping (e.g., suicide risk, anticipated regret, and aggression). Policy makers and National Anti-Doping Organizations could use these findings to help identify athletes who are more at risk of doping and then expose these individuals to anti-doping education. Based on the current findings, it also appears that education programs should commence at the onset of adolescence or even late childhood, due to the young age in which some individuals start doping. PMID:28676778
Adam R. Nicholls
Full Text Available Taking performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs can cause serious and irreversible health consequences, which can ultimately lead to premature death. Some young people may take PEDs without fully understanding the ramifications of their actions or based on the advice from others. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the main factors that predicted doping among young people. The literature was systematically reviewed using search engines, manually searching specialist journals, and pearl growing. Fifty-two studies, which included 187,288 young people aged between 10 and 21 years of age, 883 parents of adolescent athletes, and 11 adult coaches, who were interviewed regarding young athletes, were included in this review. Nine factors predicted doping among young people: gender; age; sports participation; sport type; psychological variables; entourage; ethnicity; nutritional supplements; and health harming behaviors. In regards to psychological variables, 22 different constructs were associated with doping among young people. Some psychological constructs were negatively associated with doping (e.g., self-esteem, resisting social pressure, and perfectionist strivings, whereas other were positively associated with doping (e.g., suicide risk, anticipated regret, and aggression. Policy makers and National Anti-Doping Organizations could use these findings to help identify athletes who are more at risk of doping and then expose these individuals to anti-doping education. Based on the current findings, it also appears that education programs should commence at the onset of adolescence or even late childhood, due to the young age in which some individuals start doping.
Nicholls, Adam R; Cope, Ed; Bailey, Richard; Koenen, Katrin; Dumon, Detlef; Theodorou, Nikolaos C; Chanal, Benoit; Saint Laurent, Delphine; Müller, David; Andrés, Mar P; Kristensen, Annemarie H; Thompson, Mark A; Baumann, Wolfgang; Laurent, Jean-Francois
Taking performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) can cause serious and irreversible health consequences, which can ultimately lead to premature death. Some young people may take PEDs without fully understanding the ramifications of their actions or based on the advice from others. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the main factors that predicted doping among young people. The literature was systematically reviewed using search engines, manually searching specialist journals, and pearl growing. Fifty-two studies, which included 187,288 young people aged between 10 and 21 years of age, 883 parents of adolescent athletes, and 11 adult coaches, who were interviewed regarding young athletes, were included in this review. Nine factors predicted doping among young people: gender; age; sports participation; sport type; psychological variables; entourage; ethnicity; nutritional supplements; and health harming behaviors. In regards to psychological variables, 22 different constructs were associated with doping among young people. Some psychological constructs were negatively associated with doping (e.g., self-esteem, resisting social pressure, and perfectionist strivings), whereas other were positively associated with doping (e.g., suicide risk, anticipated regret, and aggression). Policy makers and National Anti-Doping Organizations could use these findings to help identify athletes who are more at risk of doping and then expose these individuals to anti-doping education. Based on the current findings, it also appears that education programs should commence at the onset of adolescence or even late childhood, due to the young age in which some individuals start doping.
Bozinoff, Nikki; Small, Will; Long, Cathy; DeBeck, Kora; Fast, Danya
Vancouver is an international leader in implementing interventions to reduce harms related to drug use. However, street-involved young people who use drugs continue to be vulnerable to overdose death, hepatitis C (HCV) infection, and high rates of syringe sharing. To better understand this in the context of the intensive public health response, we examined how young people, who are involved in the 'street drug scene', understood, experienced and engaged with harm reduction. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2013 with 13 young people (ages 17-28) recruited from the At-Risk Youth Study, a prospective cohort of street-involved and drug-using young people. These interviews were embedded within a larger, eight-year program of ethnographic research and explored participants' understandings of harm reduction, their use of specific services, and their ideas about improving their day-to-day lives. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic analysis was performed. Young peoples' ideas about harm reduction were diverse and expansive. They articulated the limitations of existing programs, indicating that while they are positioned to reduce the risk of HIV and HCV transmission, they offer little meaningful support to improve young peoples' broader life chances. Young people described strategies to mitigate risk and harm in their own lives, including transitioning to drugs deemed less harmful and attempting to gain access to drug treatment. Finally, young people indicated that spatial considerations (e.g., distance from Vancouver's Downtown Eastside) strongly determined access to services. In Vancouver, a large, well established harm reduction infrastructure seeks to reduce HIV and HCV transmission among street-involved young people. However, young peoples' multiple understandings, experiences and engagements with harm reduction in this setting illustrate the limitations of the existing infrastructure in improving their broader life chances. Copyright
Background: Growing numbers of people with learning disabilities are now living into older age. This study aims to examine the state of knowledge about their lives and the challenges that ageing has for both family carers and policymakers and practitioners. Materials and Methods: The article synthesises existing research in the fields of learning…
Berry, Clio; Greenwood, Kathryn
Social inclusion and vocational activity are central to personal recovery for young people with psychosis. Studies with people experiencing long term psychosis suggest negative self-beliefs are important, but less is known about whether this association is present for young service users or about the potential influence of positive self-beliefs such as hopefulness. The aim of the current paper was to investigate the direct and indirect associations between dysfunctional attitudes, self-stigma, hopefulness, social inclusion and vocational activity for young people with psychosis. A 5-month longitudinal study was conducted with young psychosis service users. Measures of dysfunctional attitudes and self-stigma and vocational activity were obtained at baseline. Measures of hopefulness, social inclusion and vocational activity were obtained at follow-up. Hopefulness mediates the associations between self-stigma, social inclusion and vocational activity. Self-stigma may have a greater influence on social inclusion with age. Dysfunctional attitudes do not significantly predict social inclusion or change in vocational activity status. Findings suggest that the impact of self-stigma may extend beyond social and occupational withdrawal and undermine subjective community belonging. Findings encourage an increased emphasis on facilitating hopefulness for young people who experience psychosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Michielsen, Kristien; Remes, Pieter; Rugabo, John; Van Rossem, Ronan; Temmerman, Marleen
This study aimed to gain more insight into young Rwandans' perceptions on sex and relationships, which is essential for formulating effective sexual and reproductive health (SRH) promotion interventions. Using a 'mailbox technique', this paper studies the spontaneous thoughts of Rwandan young people on sexuality. Mailboxes were installed in five secondary schools in the Bugesera district and students were invited to write about their ideas, secrets, wishes, desires and fears on sexuality and relationships. Of the 186 letters collected, 154 addressed SRH topics. The letters were analysed in NVivo 9 using a theoretical model on vulnerability. Two stereotypical sexual interactions co-exist: experimental sex, taking place unprepared, driven by desire among young people of the same age, and transactional sex, occurring after negotiation between older men/women and younger girls/boys in exchange for money or goods. Both types expose young people to poor, though different, SRH outcomes. Young people have little capacity to manage their vulnerability in these relationships: they have limited knowledge on SRH topics, lack adult guidance or support and have difficult access to condoms. They apply seemingly contradictory norms and behaviours concerning sexuality. In conclusion, we have formulated several recommendations for SRH interventions.
Settersten, Richard A; Ray, Barbara
Richard Settersten and Barbara Ray examine the lengthening transition to adulthood over the past several decades, as well as the challenges the new schedule poses for young people, families, and society. The authors begin with a brief history of becoming an adult, noting that the schedule that youth follow to arrive at adulthood changes to meet the social realities of each era. For youth to leave home at an early age during the 1950s, for example, was "normal" because opportunities for work were plentiful and social expectations of the time reinforced the need to do so. But the prosperity that made it possible for young adults of that era to move quickly into adult roles did not last. The economic and employment uncertainties that arose during the 1970s complicated enormously the decisions that young adults had to make about living arrangements, educational investments, and family formation. The authors next take a closer look at changes in the core timing shifts in the new transition-the lengthening time it now takes youth to leave home, complete school, enter the workforce, marry, and have children. They stress that today's new schedule for attaining independence leaves many families overburdened as they support their children for an extended period. The continued need to rely on families for financial assistance, the authors say, exacerbates the plight of young people from a variety of vulnerable backgrounds. It also raises complex questions about who is responsible for the welfare of young people and whether the risks and costs newly associated with the early adult years should be absorbed by markets, by families, or by governments. Settersten and Ray stress that the longer transition to adulthood strains not only families but also the institutions that have traditionally supported young Americans in making that transition-such as residential colleges and universities, community colleges, military service, and national service programs. They emphasize the need
McLean, Kenneth A; Hardie, Samantha; Paul, Abigail; Paul, Gary; Savage, Iain; Shields, Paul; Symes, Rebecca; Wilson, Joanna; Winstanley, Catherine; Harden, Jeni
People with disabilities in the Republic of Moldova continue to experience considerable discrimination and social exclusion. The Moldovan government recently affirmed their commitment to promote community integration. However, there remains limited evidence to facilitate understanding of these issues, and barriers to the integrative process. This study explored the knowledge and attitudes towards disability of young people within Moldova. A qualitative approach was adopted and 3 semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with schoolchildren (n = 12), aged 13-15 years. These interviews focussed on different aspects of disability, and community integration. Pictorial and written vignettes were used to stimulate discussion. The interviews were conducted and recorded in Romanian, and were subsequently translated into English to facilitate thematic data analysis. Identified themes included: (1) Knowledge and understanding of disability. The young people's knowledge was limited and framed by the medical model of disability; (2) Attitudes towards community integration. A bias against long-term care institutions, but differing views regarding integration; (3) Perceptions of barriers to community integration: (i) Cultural barriers. Negative, even hostile attitudes towards disability; (ii) Policy barriers. Poor support services; and (iii) Physical barriers. Ongoing issues regarding accessibility. People with disabilities in Moldova experience negative cultural attitudes linked to an outdated conception of disability itself. There are inadequate community support services and infrastructure which act as barriers to inclusion. At present, there can be limited interaction and participation of people with disabilities within local communities, and so few opportunities to refute persistent stereotypes and stigma surrounding disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Computer use draws on linguistic abilities. Using this medium thus presents challenges for young people with Specific Language Impairment (SLI and raises questions of whether computer-based tasks are appropriate for them. We consider theoretical arguments predicting impaired performance and negative outcomes relative to peers without SLI versus the possibility of positive gains. We examine the relationship between frequency of computer use (for leisure and educational purposes and educational achievement; in particular examination performance at the end of compulsory education and level of educational progress two years later. Participants were 49 young people with SLI and 56 typically developing (TD young people. At around age 17, the two groups did not differ in frequency of educational computer use or leisure computer use. There were no associations between computer use and educational outcomes in the TD group. In the SLI group, after PIQ was controlled for, educational computer use at around 17 years of age contributed substantially to the prediction of educational progress at 19 years. The findings suggest that educational uses of computers are conducive to educational progress in young people with SLI.
Wamoyi, Joyce; Wight, Daniel; Remes, Pieter
This paper explores the structural role of the family and parenting in young people's sexual and reproductive health. The study involved eight weeks of participant observation, 26 in-depth interviews, and 11 group discussions with young people aged 14-24 years, and 20 in-depth interviews and 6 group discussions with parents/carers of children in this age group. At an individual level, parenting and family structure were found to affect young people's sexual behaviour by influencing children's self-confidence and interactional competence, limiting discussion of sexual health and shaping economic provision for children, which in turn affected parental authority and daughters' engagement in risky sexual behaviour. Sexual norms are reproduced both through parents' explicit prohibitions and their own behaviours. Girls are socialised to accept men's superiority, which shapes their negotiation of sexual relationships. Interventions to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health should recognise the structural effects of parenting, both in terms of direct influences on children and the dynamics by which structural barriers such as gendered power relations and cultural norms around sexuality are transmitted across generations.
Fidler, W; Lambert, T W
To evaluate the effectiveness of primary health care teams in maintaining a group of young people aged 10--15 years as non-smokers. Randomised controlled trial using postal questionnaires. Oxfordshire, UK. 2942 young people who were initially self declared non-smokers. Information about smoking, sent under signature of the subject's general practitioner, certificates and posters intended to reinforce non-smoking behaviour. Changes in smoking behaviour, attitudes measured after one year. After a year, smoking uptake was 7.8% in the control group compared with 5.1% in the intervention group (odds ratio (OR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 2.2). Among boys the corresponding results were 5.2% and 2.4% (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.6), and among girls 10.0% and 7.5% (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.9 to 2.1). Among boys aged 14-15 the uptake rate was 12.8% in the control group compared with 5.4% in the intervention group. However, among girls of the same age the intervention was less effective, with smoking uptake of 15.1% in the control group and 12.8% in the intervention group. The intervention was more effective among young people whose initial attitudes identified them as definite non-smokers than those who were potential smokers. The intervention substantially reduced smoking uptake among the young people, particularly boys. Primary health care teams can play an important role in maintaining the non-smoking status of their young patients. Confidential postal contact from the doctor direct to the young person at home is influential and cost-effective.
Rice, Simon M; Simmons, Magenta B; Bailey, Alan P; Parker, Alexandra G; Hetrick, Sarah E; Davey, Christopher G; Phelan, Mark; Blaikie, Simon; Edwards, Jane
There is a lack of clear guidance regarding the management of ongoing suicidality in young people experiencing major depressive disorder. This study utilised an expert consensus approach in identifying practice principles to complement relevant clinical guidelines for the treatment of major depressive disorder in young people. The study also sought to outline a broad treatment framework for clinical intervention with young people experiencing ongoing suicidal ideation. In-depth focus groups were undertaken with a specialist multidisciplinary clinical team (the Youth Mood Clinic at Orygen Youth Health Clinical Program, Melbourne) working with young people aged 15-25 years experiencing ongoing suicidal ideation. Each focus group was audio recorded and transcribed verbatim using orthographic conventions. Principles of grounded theory and thematic analysis were used to analyse and code the resultant data. The identified codes were subsequently synthesised into eight practice principles reflecting engagement and consistency of care, ongoing risk assessment and documentation, individualised crisis planning, engaging systems of support, engendering hopefulness, development of adaptive coping, management of acute risk, and consultation and supervision. The identified practice principles provide a broad management framework, and may assist to improve treatment consistency and clinical management of young people experiencing ongoing suicidal ideation. The practice principles may be of use to health professionals working within a team-based setting involved in the provision of care, even if peripherally, to young people with ongoing suicidal ideation. Findings address the lack of treatment consistency and shared terminology and may provide containment and guidance to multidisciplinary clinicians working with this at-risk group.
I. L. Kukovska
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the university students’ views of possible situations and the reasons for the use of substances that can be addictive by their peers. So-called psychoactive substances (tobacco, alcohol, drugs, energy drinks can act as risk factors and contribute to the development of a number of socially significant diseases. The study did not provide for the study of the spread of harmful habits among young people, but only an analysis of the responses concerning the situation and the reasons for these phenomena. The study involved 137 students aged 17 to 21 years. It was found that the majority of respondents can not identify a single best reason, but pointed out a few of these reasons and situations. It is shown that in the opinion of young people, the freer use of psychoactive substances among young people is primarily promoted by visits to discos, meeting with friends who are on the background of the lack of interesting activities and hobbies, as well as the situation, accompanied by an insufficient level of adult supervision, including the holidays period. Analysis of the study results suggests a lack of skill level output from "uncomfortable" psychological situations among young people. The survey results indicate key influence of family and social environment on the degree of the risk-oriented behavior manifestation of young people. Taking into account the significant contribution of risk factors in the state of public health indicators, analysis of the processes of formation and perception of health risks among young people requires special attention. Conducting further systematic sociological studies, which will condition the direction and influence the quality of health preservation programs seems relevant and appropriate.
Easton, Stephanie; Morton, Katherine; Tappy, Zara; Francis, Daniella; Dennison, Laura
Social media use has become ubiquitous in the lives of many people, especially young adults. A popular recent trend emerging on social media is that of posting and following 'Fitspirational' content - material that purports to motivate and showcase healthy lifestyle habits, particularly relating to exercise and diet. There is very limited existing literature on how engaging with this type of content influences people's psychological and physical heath. Initial studies have focused on concerns over potential negative effects on psychological wellbeing including body image, self-esteem and eating disorders. We aimed to address a gap in the literature for exploratory research on this topic from the perspective of users. We used a qualitative approach to explore how people experience viewing Fitspiration on social media including why and how they engage with this material and how they perceive that it affects their thoughts, emotions, behaviour and health. We recruited 20 young adults (14 females, 6 males, aged 18-25) who self-declared themselves to be Fitspiration followers to participate in either focus groups or individual interviews. We asked detailed, open-ended questions about their motivations for following Fitspiration, experiences of viewing this content and its perceived impact. We used inductive thematic analysis to derive themes that represented common and salient features of the data set. Four main themes were developed: 1) A tool with the potential to support healthy living, 2) Unrealistic, untrustworthy content, 3) Negative effects on emotional wellbeing, and 4) Vulnerability and protective factors. Following Fitspirational posts on social media can provide young people with knowledge and motivation that may support healthy lifestyle behaviours. However, a range of harms also appeared to arise from Fitspiration viewing ranging from minor annoyances and frustrations to more meaningful negative effects on psychological & physical health. These negative
Full Text Available This paper explores the perceptions of young students, who are training in the field of economics, to the very new products and outlines the role that marketing plays in bringing to market products based on innovative technologies. The study is conducted in Romania and tries to highlight Romanian specific features about the relationship between marketing and innovation. The goal is to outline in a clear and actual image of young people thoughts about new technologies insertion on the market. The pursued objectives are: motivation investigation of option for new products; determining predisposition to the radical or incremental innovations, assessing perceptions of the link between marketing and innovation. Research have been made in this field on various areas of activity. At the level of the European Community there are several organizations which activate in the field of innovation research. Eurobarometer through its subdivision Innobarometer brings in the attention of the public on a regular basis, through a series of publications, the results of researches undertaken from the business perspective, and are concerning all areas of action. Research aims to identify the impact that new technologies have on the consumers most open to innovation. This exploratory research is based on a direct gathering of information, using an online questionnaire. Data are processed using SPSS software package, and the results show the type and nature of links between variables to be examined by applying bivariate and multivariate correlation tests. Analysis report provides descriptive, easy to follow, for all the situations covered and investigated in the questionnaire. The results show a clear output of the relationship between compromises that those open to using new technologies are making to obtain superior advantages from the newest products on the market. Research carried out by the author being the first one in this area, only manages to outline the
Achterberg, T J; Wind, H; de Boer, A G E M; Frings-Dresen, M H W
The aim of this systematic review was to study factors which promote or hinder young disabled people entering the labor market. We systematically searched PubMed (by means of MESH and text words), EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and CINAHL for studies regarding (1) disabled patients diagnosed before the age of 18 years and (2) factors of work participation. Out of 1,268 retrieved studies and 28 extended studies from references and four from experts, ten articles were included. Promoting factors are male gender, high educational level, age at survey, low depression scores, high dispositional optimism and high psychosocial functioning. Female and low educational level gives high odds of unemployment just like low IQ, inpatient treatment during follow up, epilepsy, motor impairment, wheelchair dependency, functional limitations, co-morbidity, physical disability and chronic health conditions combined with mental retardation. High dose cranial radiotherapy, type of cancer, and age of diagnosis also interfered with employment. Of the promoting factors, education appeared to be important, and several physical obstructions were found to be hindering factors. The last mentioned factors can be influenced in contrast to for instance age and gender. However, to optimize work participation of this group of young disabled it is important to know the promoting or hindering influence for employment.
Haack, Ricardo Lanzetta; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Cesar, Juraci Almeida
To assess the prevalence and risk factors for sunburn in young people. Population-based cross-sectional study using a multiple-stage sampling carried out with people living in the urban area of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, between October and December 2005. Data was collected from interviews with 1.604 subjects using a standardized pre-coded questionnaire about their family and another questionnaire applied to those aged between ten and 29 years for assessing the occurrence of sunburn episodes. Sunburn was defined as skin burning after sun exposure. Chi-square test with Yates' correction was used to compare proportions and Poisson regression with design effect control and robust adjustment of variance was applied in the multivariate analysis. Of those aged between 10 and 29 years, 1,412 reported sun exposure in the last summer. Losses and refusals were 5.5%. A total of 48.7% of the interviewees reported sunburn in the last year. The following variables were associated with sunburn in the multivariate analysis: white skin (PR=1.41; 95% CI: 1.12;1.79); higher skin sensitivity to sun exposure (PR=1.84; 95% CI: 1.64;2.06); age between 15 and 19 years (PR=1.30; 95% CI: 1.12;1.50); belonging to the higher quartile of income (PR=1.20; 95% CI: 1.01;1.42); and irregular use of sunscreens (PR=1.23; 95% CI: 1.08;1.42). The prevalence of sunburn in the population studied was high mainly among white young people with higher skin sensitivity, higher income and who used sunscreens irregularly. Sun exposure during safe times and with adequate protection should be promoted.
Full text: The popularity of computer multimedia, CD ROM and, in particular, the Internet among young people is unparalleled. Therefore, we make use of such tools for communication with this important target group. Following up EEZ's educational programme which achieved results we are proud of, we issued a multimedia sequence informing about nuclear power. Over twelve hundred CD-ROM discs carrying this programme were sold in two years, and in addition, several thousand visitors at exhibitions and in information centres of Czech nuclear power plants had the opportunity to watch the programme. Since the last year, EEZ has been displaying Internet pages presenting basic information about our nuclear power plants at Dukovany and Temelin; topical information is updated weekly (e.g. progress in construction of the Temelin plant, summary information concerning the construction of this plant as submitted to governmental authorities, response and answers to antinuclear activists' criticisms, ... ). The EEZ home page is linked with the home pages of the nuclear power plants themselves. Two new multimedia programmes are to be released by the end of 1998: presentation of the EEZ utility company, and Multimedia Power Encyclopaedia. Both titles will be linked to the Internet, as well as to the company intranet which is accessible to EEZ personnel. The multimedia encyclopaedia is an extension of the textual Power Encyclopaedia, which has been issued within our youth education programme. We are malting efforts for a of our multimedia products to be interlinked and to complement each other suitably. Surveys and statistical data indicate that the EEZ home page on the Internet is the most frequently visited page among the pages of Czech industrial companies. (author)
Bentley, Sarah; Nicholls, Rickie; Price, Maxine; Wilkinson, Aaron; Purcell, Matthew; Woodhall, Martin; Walmsley, Jan
We are five young people with learning disabilities who found out about the history of hospitals for people with learning disabilities in our area, and made a film about the project. The project taught us what life had been like for some people with learning disabilities only 30 years ago. It was very different to our lives; we have more choice,…
Boydell, Katherine M; Volpe, Tiziana; Pignatiello, Antonio
It is critical to consult young people about their experiences. This study addresses the paucity of research on the perspective of young people in general, and in paediatric telepsychiatry specifically. The goal is to understand the experience of young people receiving telepsychiatry. Interpretive interactionism (Denzin, 1989) was used to interview 30 young people; immediately following the consultation and four to six weeks later. Analysis occurred via a series of steps in keeping with the interpretive interactionist framework. Four themes arose repeatedly: the encounter with the psychiatrist and experience of having others in the room; the helpfulness of the session; a sense of personal choice during the consultation; and, the technology. Participants highlighted the importance of their relationship with the psychiatrist. Participant's narratives were replete with examples of ways that they actively took responsibility and exerted control within the session itself. Young people have a significant role to play in their own care. It is critical that telepsychiatry recommendations be explained and opportunities for young people to express their concerns and discuss alternatives are provided. Further efforts to include young people may include ensuring offering alternate treatments and/or negotiated when recommended treatments are unacceptable and/or resisted.
To obtain a profile of children and young people in north west England who needed the ongoing support of medical technology. As part of a larger study, 28 community children's nursing teams in the north west of England were asked to profile the children and young people on their caseloads who needed the ongoing support of medical technology. Twenty-five teams returned data, from which a total of 591 children and young people were identified. The most prevalent technology used was gastrostomy/jejunostomy, which was used by more than two-thirds of the sample. Over a quarter of the children/young people were supported by more than one technology. The majority of the children/young people were seven years old or younger Although most had used the technology for five years or less (71 per cent), there were 164 children/ young people who had been technology-assisted for six or more years. Although there are limitations in this study, the data is nevertheless useful for planning future services and support, including identifying the numbers of young people who will be transferring to adult services. A more efficient means of collecting these data would be to systematically record long-term conditions and technology assistance in electronic health records.
Souza, Celia Maria Mello de; Florenco, Eduardo; Campos, Michel Fabianski [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Jose Ribeiro da; Kurban, Maria Clara da Silva; Brito, Bruna Guimaraes de Souza; Figueira, Priscila Chami [Accenture, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
The aim of this initiative is to offer a professional qualification to young people with an average age between 18 and 25 years old. The project is an opportunity to this young generation which is currently living in risky areas in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Therefore the main objective is to promote the social inclusion of those people by giving them the access to basic education. (author)
Wark, Stuart; Hussain, Rafat; Edwards, Helen
Investigations around ageing with an intellectual disability have increased substantially in the past three decades. A research gap continued to exist regarding the detection of ageing issues in this cohort of people, particularly in rural areas where access to specialist support continued to be limited. The purpose of this study was to identify the main signs of ageing in rural people with intellectual disabilities. A multi-round Delphi design was used to examine what signs of ageing were observed by disability support staff, who assisted people with intellectual disability. The project was conducted across nine of the ten rural regions (as defined by the government funding body) in New South Wales (NSW). There were 31 participants representing 14 non-government organisations. The group was composed of 26 women and 5 men, with a mean age of 47 years, who averaged 10-year experience with people with intellectual disabilities. The objective was to gain the direct input of rurally based disability workers to identify the main signs of ageing in people with intellectual disabilities. Thirty-two specific signs of ageing, including emerging mental health issues, grief, loss of identity and aggression, were identified. A thematic analysis indicated two main categories: mental/emotional functioning and physical functioning. When carers have the information and skills needed to identify the main signs of ageing, they can more accurately recognise and address potential problems in a timely manner. Such understandings have the potential to reduce premature admissions to residential aged-care. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Lim, M S C; Cappa, C; Patton, G C
Subjective well-being incorporates elements of life satisfaction, happiness and optimism. It is increasingly relevant in the assessment of population health and economic development. There are strong continuities in well-being from youth into later life. Despite its significance, few global surveys capture subjective well-being. This paper describes patterns of well-being among young people in five Eastern European countries [Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia and Ukraine] and investigates association between demographic factors and well-being. Nationally representative household surveys, including large Roma population samples, were conducted as part of UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey programme. Young people aged 15-24 years ( N = 11 944) indicated their satisfaction with life, happiness and expectations about the future. Multilevel logistic regressions were conducted to determine the impact of individual-level predictors while accounting for country- and cluster-level variability. Around 40% of young people considered themselves very happy or very satisfied with their life overall. Three quarters reported optimism. Yet well-being varied greatly between countries, with youth in BiH and Ukraine reporting lowest levels of well-being. Current marriage, increasing wealth, higher education, rural residence and not having children were associated with greater well-being. Patterns of well-being in youth vary substantially between countries and are only partly accounted for by standard demographic characteristics. Despite higher rates of adolescent marriage and childbearing, and lower levels of educational attainment and employment, Roma youth had similar levels of well-being to the general population.
Han, Bing; Dai, Pu; Wang, Guo-Jian; Yuan, Yong-Yi; Li, Qi; Zhang, Xin; Kang, Dong-Yang; Han, Dong-Yi
To invesigate the molecular pathogenesis of deafness among the youth by means of genetic testing so as to provide pre-marriage genetic counseling and instruction for the deaf youth. 217 deaf young people, 126 males and 91 females, aged 18.9 (16 - 26), from Yunnan and Guizhou provinces, underwent history taking, auditory testing, and collection of peripheral blood samples. Genomic DNA and mitochondrial DNA were extracted to undergo sequence analysis of the entire gene GJB2, common point mutation of SLC26A4 gene, and mutation of mtDNA A1555G. Genetic prediction and marriage instruction were provided to each subject based on these results. Twenty-three of the 117 persons (10.5%), 13 males and 10 females, were mtDNA A1555G mutation carriers and they were instructed that they, their maternal relatives, and the offspring of the female carriers, should they be born, should strictly avoid the administration of amino glycoside antibiotics. Twenty eight of the 115 persons (12.9%), were confirmed to carry homozygous or compound GJB2 mutations, 5 individuals (2.3%) carried heterozygous GJB2 mutation, 19 (8.8%) carried homozygous or compound SLC26A4 mutations, and one (0.5%) carried heterozygous SLC26A4 mutation. The suggestion for them was to avoid getting married with deaf partners caused by the same deaf gene or with individuals carrying mutations in the same deaf gene. Meanwhile, suggestions such as avoiding aggressive exercises and head injury were provided to the deaf young people with SLC26A4 mutations. Genetic testing can provide more accurate and useful genetic counseling and instruction to deaf young people for their partner selection and eugenics.
Burke, Eva; Gold, Judy; Razafinirinasoa, Lalaina; Mackay, Anna
ABSTRACT Background: Young people often express a preference for seeking family planning information and services from the private sector. However, in many Marie Stopes International (MSI) social franchise networks, the proportion of young clients, and particularly those under 20 years of age, remains low. Marie Stopes Madagascar (MSM) piloted a youth voucher program that joins a supply-side intervention—youth-friendly social franchisee training and quality monitoring—with a corresponding demand-side-component, free vouchers that reduce financial barriers to family planning access for young people. Methods: Young people identified by MSM's community health educators (CHEs) received a free voucher redeemable at a BlueStar social franchisee for a package of voluntary family planning and sexually transmitted infection (STI) information and services. BlueStar social franchisees—private providers accredited by MSM—are reimbursed for the cost of providing these services. We reviewed service statistics data from the first 18 months of the youth voucher program, from July 2013 to December 2014, as well as client demographic profile data from July 2015. Findings: Between July 2013 and December 2014, 58,417 vouchers were distributed to young people by CHEs through a range of community mobilization efforts, of which 43,352 (74%) were redeemed for family planning and STI services. Most clients (78.5%) chose a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC), and just over half (51%) of young people benefited from STI counseling as part of their voucher service. Most (78%) services were provided in the Analamanga region (the capital and its surroundings), which was expected given the population density in this region and the high concentration of BlueStar franchisees. The client profile data snapshot from July 2015 revealed that 69% of voucher clients had never previously used a contraceptive method, and 96% of clients were aged 20 or younger, suggesting that the voucher
Burke, Eva; Gold, Judy; Razafinirinasoa, Lalaina; Mackay, Anna
Young people often express a preference for seeking family planning information and services from the private sector. However, in many Marie Stopes International (MSI) social franchise networks, the proportion of young clients, and particularly those under 20 years of age, remains low. Marie Stopes Madagascar (MSM) piloted a youth voucher program that joins a supply-side intervention-youth-friendly social franchisee training and quality monitoring-with a corresponding demand-side-component, free vouchers that reduce financial barriers to family planning access for young people. Young people identified by MSM's community health educators (CHEs) received a free voucher redeemable at a BlueStar social franchisee for a package of voluntary family planning and sexually transmitted infection (STI) information and services. BlueStar social franchisees-private providers accredited by MSM-are reimbursed for the cost of providing these services. We reviewed service statistics data from the first 18 months of the youth voucher program, from July 2013 to December 2014, as well as client demographic profile data from July 2015. Findings: Between July 2013 and December 2014, 58,417 vouchers were distributed to young people by CHEs through a range of community mobilization efforts, of which 43,352 (74%) were redeemed for family planning and STI services. Most clients (78.5%) chose a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC), and just over half (51%) of young people benefited from STI counseling as part of their voucher service. Most (78%) services were provided in the Analamanga region (the capital and its surroundings), which was expected given the population density in this region and the high concentration of BlueStar franchisees. The client profile data snapshot from July 2015 revealed that 69% of voucher clients had never previously used a contraceptive method, and 96% of clients were aged 20 or younger, suggesting that the voucher program is successfully reaching the
Visram, Shelina; Crossley, Stephen J; Cheetham, Mandy; Lake, Amelia
Consumption of soft drinks is declining in many countries, yet energy drink sales continue to increase, particularly amongst young consumers. Little is currently known about the drivers behind these trends. Energy drinks are high in sugar and caffeine, and evidence indicates that regular or heavy use by under 18s is likely to be detrimental to health. This study aimed to explore children and young people's attitudes and perceptions in relation to energy drinks in a UK context. Eight focus groups were conducted with pupils aged 10-11 years (n = 20) and 13-14 years (n = 17) from four schools in northern England. A sub-sample also took part in a mapping exercise to generate further insights. Data were analysed using the constant comparative approach. Energy drinks were reportedly consumed in a variety of public and private places, generally linked to social activities, sports and computer gaming (particularly amongst boys). Participants demonstrated strong brand awareness and preferences that were linked to taste and perceived value for money. The relatively low price of energy drinks and their widespread availability were identified as key factors, along with gendered branding and marketing. Some participants demonstrated a critical approach to manufacturers' claims and many were keen to become better informed, often through school- or peer-based interventions. Other potential interventions included age restrictions, voluntary schemes involving retailers and improved labelling. The lack of a single dominant factor in participants' consumption choices suggests that there is unlikely to be a 'silver bullet' in attempting to address this issue. However, the findings provide support for policy-level interventions that seek to change the behaviours of manufacturers and retailers as well as consumers, and actively involve children and young people where possible.
Full Text Available Consumption of soft drinks is declining in many countries, yet energy drink sales continue to increase, particularly amongst young consumers. Little is currently known about the drivers behind these trends. Energy drinks are high in sugar and caffeine, and evidence indicates that regular or heavy use by under 18s is likely to be detrimental to health. This study aimed to explore children and young people's attitudes and perceptions in relation to energy drinks in a UK context.Eight focus groups were conducted with pupils aged 10-11 years (n = 20 and 13-14 years (n = 17 from four schools in northern England. A sub-sample also took part in a mapping exercise to generate further insights. Data were analysed using the constant comparative approach.Energy drinks were reportedly consumed in a variety of public and private places, generally linked to social activities, sports and computer gaming (particularly amongst boys. Participants demonstrated strong brand awareness and preferences that were linked to taste and perceived value for money. The relatively low price of energy drinks and their widespread availability were identified as key factors, along with gendered branding and marketing. Some participants demonstrated a critical approach to manufacturers' claims and many were keen to become better informed, often through school- or peer-based interventions. Other potential interventions included age restrictions, voluntary schemes involving retailers and improved labelling.The lack of a single dominant factor in participants' consumption choices suggests that there is unlikely to be a 'silver bullet' in attempting to address this issue. However, the findings provide support for policy-level interventions that seek to change the behaviours of manufacturers and retailers as well as consumers, and actively involve children and young people where possible.
Betts, LR; Gkimitzoudis, T; Spenser, KA; Baguley, T
The roles that young people fulfil in face-to-face bullying have been well documented and there is some evidence that young people take on similar roles in cyber bullying. A person centred analytical approach was adopted to identify the roles that young people fulfil across five different types of cyber bullying assessed for up to nine media. Four hundred and forty (281 female and 154 male) 16- to 19-year-olds completed measures to assess their involvement in various types of cyber bullying a...