WorldWideScience

Sample records for young healthy male

  1. [Primary psoas abscess in a young healthy male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nassehi, D.; Galbo, H.; Skovsgaard, F.

    2008-01-01

    and North America. It is primarily seen in young men, and the classical symptom-triad is: fever, back pain, and limpness. The golden standard diagnostic tool is computed tomography, and treatment involves appropriate antibiotics, which can be combined with percutaneous drainage Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/24......A young male saw his general practitioner because of lower back pain, limpness, nightly sweating, subfebrilia, and weight loss. Further diagnostics showed that he had a primary psoas abscess. Psoas abscesses are categorized as primary and secondary. Primary psoas abscess is a rare disease in Europe...

  2. Effect of footwear on standing balance in healthy young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Zafar, Hamayun; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of footwear on standing balance in healthy young adult males. Thirty healthy male participants aged 20-30 years were tested for standing balance on the Balance Master on three occasions, including wearing a sandal, standard shoe, or no footwear (barefoot). The tests of postural stability include; "Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance" (mCTSIB), "Unilateral Stance" (US), and the "Limits of Stability" (LOS). The balance scores (mCTSIB, US, and LOS) was analyzed. There was a significant effect between footwear conditions for mCTIB with eye closed on a firm surface (p=0.002). There was a significant effect between footwear conditions for the US with eye open and closed (p⟨0.05). There was a significant effect between footwear conditions for LOS reaction time during forward movement (p=0.02). Similarly, there was a significant effect between footwear conditions for LOS reaction time during left side movement (p=0.01). Wearing sandals compared to bare feet significantly increased postural sway and reduced stability in healthy young adult males. However, wearing a standard shoe compared to bare feet did not significantly affect balance scores in standing.

  3. Hip joint torques during the golf swing of young and senior healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxworth, Judy L; Millar, Audrey L; Long, Benjamin L; Way, Michael; Vellucci, Matthew W; Vogler, Joshua D

    2013-09-01

    Descriptive, laboratory study. To compare the 3-D hip torques during a golf swing between young and senior healthy male amateur golfers. The secondary purpose was to compare the 3-D hip joint torques between the trail leg and lead leg. The generation of hip torques from the hip musculature is an important aspect of the golf swing. Golf is a very popular activity, and estimates of hip torques during the golf swing have not been reported. Twenty healthy male golfers were divided into a young group (mean ± SD age, 25.1 ± 3.1 years) and a senior group (age, 56.9 ± 4.7 years). All subjects completed 10 golf swings using their personal driver. A motion capture system and force plates were used to obtain kinematic and kinetic data. Inverse dynamic analyses were used to calculate 3-D hip joint torques of the trail and lead limbs. Two-way analyses of covariance (group by leg), with club-head velocity as a covariate, were used to compare peak hip torques between groups and limbs. Trail-limb hip external rotator torque was significantly greater in the younger group compared to the senior group, and greater in the trail leg versus the lead leg. When adjusting for club-head velocity, young and senior healthy male amateur golfers generated comparable hip torques during a golf swing, with the exception of the trail-limb hip external rotator torque. The largest hip torque found was the trail-limb hip extensor torque.

  4. Knowledge attitudes and practices about hepatitis B and C among young healthy males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.; Tariq, W.U.Z.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the basic knowledge, attitudes and practices about viral hepatitis B and hepatitis C among young healthy adults. A total of 2038 young healthy adults belonging to central Punjab were included in the study. A closed structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the individuals. A total of 602(30.74%) of respondents knew that hepatitis B and C are viral diseases. Contaminated needles/syringes, blood transfusion and used blades were identified as a mode of transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses by 84.38%, 69.58%, 25.63 individuals. About 80% replied that even if they were found positive for HBsAg and anti-HCV, they would not have further investigations/ treatment. TV was the leading source of information about these diseases. The attitudes and practices regarding exposure to risk factors were significantly poor from knowledge among young adults. A high level of public awareness, especially among the young, is critical to decrease the burden of these diseases in Pakistan in future. (author)

  5. Vitamin D vitamers affect vitamin D status differently in young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Wreford Andersen, Elisabeth Anne; Christensen, Tue

    2018-01-01

    -hydroxyvitamin D in serum (vitamin D status). To test our hypothesis, we performed a randomized, crossover study. Twelve young males consumed 10 µg/day vitD3 during a four-week run-in period, followed by 3 × 6 weeks of 10 µg/day vitD3, 10 µg/day 25OH-D3, and 10 µg/day vitD2. The content of vitD3, vitD2, 25OH-D3...

  6. Shoulder rotational profiles in young healthy elite female and male badminton players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couppé, C; Thorborg, K; Hansen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to profile shoulder passive range of motion (ROM) and isometric strength for external (ER) and internal (IR) rotation as part of a preseason screening in adolescent national badminton players. Passive external range of motion (EROM) and internal range of motion...... (IROM) were examined on the dominant and nondominant shoulder in 31 adolescent national badminton players (12 females and 19 males) with a standard goniometer. Muscle strength was examined with a hand-held dynamometer in ER and IR. Total range of motion (TROM = EROM+IROM) was lower on the dominant side...... on the dominant side compared with the nondominant side in young elite badminton players, irrespective of gender. No rotational strength differences existed between the dominant and nondominant side in male players, but in female players a higher IR strength on the dominant side was not balanced by a higher ER...

  7. The Effect of Swimming on the Lung Functions in Healthy Young Male Population of Amritsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahajan Shashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research is to study the effects of swimming on the lung functions in adult male population of Amritsar. Many exercise physiologists study the effect of exercise on pathology, and the mechanisms by which exercise can reduce or reverse disease progression. The present study was undertaken to study the effects swimming on the lung functions. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs of swimming trainees were compared with those of controls. We evaluated PFTs in 50 healthy subjects who participated in a 3 months of swimming plan. Pulmonary function tests were recorded before the commencement of swimming and at the end of swimming and compared the values so obtained with 50 healthy non- swimmers who were chosen as controls. The controls were the physiotherapy students from Khalsa College Amritsar. Both were in the age group of 18- 20 years. The PFTs were carried out with a computerized spirometer “Med-Spiror”. The various data was collected, compiled, statistically analysed and valid conclusions were drawn. Higher lung volumes and flow rates were achieved in swimming trainees after their training period, as compared to their own values obtained before their training period and to those of controls. Regular exercise enhances physical capabilities and physiological responses of the human body and also in the lungs. The cause of improved of various respiratory functions and flow rates after  swimming duration was better mechanical factors and lower airway resistance influenced during the training period. Key words: Pulmonary; Expiration; Swimming; Pulmonary Function Test

  8. Vitamin D vitamers affect vitamin D status differently in young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Wreford Andersen, Elisabeth Anne; Christensen, Tue

    2018-01-01

    Dietary intake of vitamin D includes vitamin D3 (vitD3), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OH-D3), and vitamin D2 (vitD2). However, the bioactivity of the different species has not been scientifically established. The hypothesis in this study was that vitD3, 25OH-D3, and vitD2 have an equal effect on 25......-hydroxyvitamin D in serum (vitamin D status). To test our hypothesis, we performed a randomized, crossover study. Twelve young males consumed 10 µg/day vitD3 during a four-week run-in period, followed by 3 × 6 weeks of 10 µg/day vitD3, 10 µg/day 25OH-D3, and 10 µg/day vitD2. The content of vitD3, vitD2, 25OH-D3......, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25OH-D2) in serum was quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The hypothesis that the three sources of vitamin D affect vitamin D status equally was rejected. Based on the assumption that 1 µg vitD3/day will show an increase in vitamin D status...

  9. Passive Heating Attenuates Post-exercise Cardiac Autonomic Recovery in Healthy Young Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Peçanha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-exercise heart rate (HR recovery (HRR presents a biphasic pattern, which is mediated by parasympathetic reactivation and sympathetic withdrawal. Several mechanisms regulate these post-exercise autonomic responses and thermoregulation has been proposed to play an important role. The aim of this study was to test the effects of heat stress on HRR and HR variability (HRV after aerobic exercise in healthy subjects. Twelve healthy males (25 ± 1 years, 23.8 ± 0.5 kg/m2 performed 14 min of moderate-intensity cycling exercise (40–60% HRreserve followed by 5 min of loadless active recovery in two conditions: heat stress (HS and normothermia (NT. In HS, subjects dressed in a whole-body water-perfused tube-lined suit to increase internal temperature (Tc by ~1°C. In NT, subjects did not wear the suit. HR, core and skin temperatures (Tc and Tsk, mean arterial pressure (MAP skin blood flow (SKBF, and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC were measured throughout and analyzed during post-exercise recovery. HRR was assessed through calculations of HR decay after 60 and 300 s of recovery (HRR60s and HRR300s, and the short- and long-term time constants of HRR (T30 and HRRt. Post-exercise HRV was examined via calculations of RMSSD (root mean square of successive RR intervals and RMS (root mean square residual of RR intervals. The HS protocol promoted significant thermal stress and hemodynamic adjustments during the recovery (HS-NT differences: Tc = +0.7 ± 0.3°C; Tsk = +3.2 ± 1.5°C; MAP = −12 ± 14 mmHg; SKBF = +90 ± 80 a.u; CVC = +1.5 ± 1.3 a.u./mmHg. HRR and post-exercise HRV were significantly delayed in HS (e.g., HRR60s = 27 ± 9 vs. 44 ± 12 bpm, P < 0.01; HRR300s = 39 ± 12 vs. 59 ± 16 bpm, P < 0.01. The effects of heat stress (e.g., the HS-NT differences on HRR were associated with its effects on thermal and hemodynamic responses. In conclusion, heat stress delays HRR, and this effect seems to be mediated by an attenuated parasympathetic

  10. Assessing the Physiological Cost of Active Videogames (Xbox Kinect) Versus Sedentary Videogames in Young Healthy Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Gillian; Tough, Daniel; Sheerin, Phillip; Mattinson, Oliver; Dawe, Rachael; Board, Elisabeth

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to compare the physiological costs of active videogames (AVGs) and sedentary videogames (SVGs) and (2) to compare the exercise intensities attained during AVGs with the exercise intensity criteria for moderate and vigorous physical activity, as stated in current physical activity recommendations for improving public health. Nineteen young males participated in the study (age, 23 ± 3 years; height, 178 ± 6 cm; weight, 78 ± 15 kg). Participants completed a maximum oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) test and a gaming session, including AVGs ("Reflex Ridge," "River Rush," and "Boxing" for the Microsoft [Redmond, WA] Kinect™) and SVGs ("FIFA 14" [Electronic Arts, Burnaby, BC, Canada] and "Call of Duty" [Activision, Santa Monica, CA]). Heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake [Formula: see text]) were recorded continuously during all videogames. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was taken every 3 minutes during AVGs and SVGs. Energy expenditure (EE), expressed as metabolic equivalents (METs), was calculated. One MET was defined as the volume of oxygen consumed at rest in a seated position and is equal to 3.5 mL of O2/kg of body mass/minute. The exercise intensity for each game was expressed as a percentage of [Formula: see text] and percentage of age-predicted maximum HR (HRmax). Exercise intensity (percentage HRmax, percentage [Formula: see text], and RPE) and EE (METs) were significantly higher during active gaming compared with sedentary gameplay (P < 0.01). AVGs elicited moderate levels of exercise intensity (64-72 percent HRmax) in line with current recommended physical activity guidelines. Our results indicate AVGs provoke physiological responses equivalent to a moderate-intensity physical activity.

  11. Effect of pomegranate juice supplementation on matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 following exhaustive exercise in young healthy males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazani, M.; Fard, A. S.; Baghi, A. N.; Nemati, A.; Mogadam, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of pomegranate juice supplementation on matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 serum levels and improving antioxidant function in young healthy males during exhaustive exercise. Methods: The study was conducted at Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2010-11 and comprised 28 healthy subjects in 18-24 age bracket. They were randomly divided into control and supplemented groups. One cup of pomegranate juice and one cup of tap water were given to supplemented and control groups daily for two weeks respectively. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and at the end of two weeks of intervention. The subjects were given one exhaustive exercise and then fasting blood samples were taken for testing blood glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and serum levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, zinc, ceruloplasmin, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity. Data was analysed using descriptive statistical tests, paired and independent sample t-test. Results: The blood levels of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and serum levels of total antioxidant capacity after exhaustive exercise in the supplemented group were significantly increased (p<0.05), while the content of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, ceruloplasmin and malondialdehyde showed a significant decrease in comparison to the control group (p<0.05). Besides, there were no significant changes in other biochemical factors. Conclusion: Regular intake of pomegranate juice significantly modulates matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 serum levels of some inflammatory factors and thus protects against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative injury in young healthy males. (author)

  12. The effect of habitual waterpipe tobacco smoking on pulmonary function and exercise capacity in young healthy males: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawari, F I; Obeidat, N A; Ghonimat, I M; Ayub, H S; Dawahreh, S S

    2017-01-01

    Evidence regarding the health effects of habitual waterpipe smoking is limited, particularly in young smokers. Respiratory health and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were compared in young male habitual waterpipe smokers (WPS) versus non-smokers. 69 WPS (≥3 times/week for three years) and 69 non-smokers were studied. Respiratory health was assessed through the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD-78) adult questionnaire. Pulmonary function and cardiopulmonary exercise tests were performed. Self-reported respiratory symptoms, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV 1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV 1 /FVC ratio, forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF 25-75% ), peak expiratory flow (PEF), exercise time, peak end-tidal CO 2 tension (PetCO 2 ), subject-reported leg fatigue and dyspnea; peak O 2 uptake (VO 2 max), and end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) change from baseline (at peak exercise) were measured. WPS were more likely than non-smokers to report respiratory symptoms. WPS also demonstrated: shorter exercise time; lower peak VO 2 ; higher perceived dyspnea at mid-exercise; lower values of the following: FEV 1 , FVC, PEF, and EELV change. Habitual waterpipe tobacco smoking in young seemingly healthy individuals is associated with a greater burden of respiratory symptoms and impaired exercise capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babraj, John A; Vollaard, Niels B J; Keast, Cameron

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function...... cycle sprints per session). Aerobic performance (250-kJ self-paced cycling time trial), and glucose, insulin and NEFA responses to a 75-g oral glucose load (oral glucose tolerance test; OGTT) were determined before and after training. RESULTS: Following 2 weeks of HIT, the area under the plasma glucose......, to substantially improve insulin action in young sedentary subjects is remarkable. This novel time-efficient training paradigm can be used as a strategy to reduce metabolic risk factors in young and middle aged sedentary populations who otherwise would not adhere to time consuming traditional aerobic exercise...

  14. Shoulder rotational profiles in young healthy elite female and male badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couppé, C; Thorborg, K; Hansen, M; Fahlström, M; Bjordal, J M; Nielsen, D; Baun, M; Storgaard, M; Magnusson, S P

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to profile shoulder passive range of motion (ROM) and isometric strength for external (ER) and internal (IR) rotation as part of a preseason screening in adolescent national badminton players. Passive external range of motion (EROM) and internal range of motion (IROM) were examined on the dominant and nondominant shoulder in 31 adolescent national badminton players (12 females and 19 males) with a standard goniometer. Muscle strength was examined with a hand-held dynamometer in ER and IR. Total range of motion (TROM = EROM+IROM) was lower on the dominant side compared with the nondominant side in both groups (P badminton players, irrespective of gender. No rotational strength differences existed between the dominant and nondominant side in male players, but in female players a higher IR strength on the dominant side was not balanced by a higher ER strength. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Meal induced gut hormone secretion is altered in aerobically trained compared to sedentary young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Michael Taulo; Taudorf, Lærke; Hartmann, Bolette

    2013-01-01

    Postprandial insulin release is lower in healthy aerobically trained (T) compared to untrained (UT) individuals. This may be mediated by a lower release of the two incretin hormones [glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)] in T. The aim of this study...... concentration was higher in T versus UT, but the response in the following 3 h after a liquid meal was similar in T and UT. Satiety measures did not differ between groups throughout the test. It is possible that in aerobically T subjects, a lower GIP release is partly responsible for a lower postprandial...

  16. ISOMETRIC EXERCISE AND ITS EFFECT ON BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE, BEFORE AND AFTER TRAINING IN YOUNG HEALTHY MALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Isometric exercise is a normal part of everyday activities and many occupational tasks. Preventive services are important as they give physicians an opportunity and responsibility to promote regular physical activity, reduc e high blood pressure, and help in weight control. Physical inactivity is recognized as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Regular aerobic physical activity increases exercise capacity and plays a role in both primary and secondary prevention of ca rdiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of isometric handgrip training on Blood pressure and Heart rate in healthy young males in the age group of 18 - 22 years. MATERIALS AND METHOD : Study subjects consisted of 30 healthy adult males in the age group of 18 - 22 yrs. Age and sex matched adults who were not active in sports or in physical activities constituted the control group (n=30. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded and eval uated after a defined protocol of handgrip sustained static (isometric contractions performed with the handgrip dynamometer at Rest and Post Exercise. BP and HR were recorded with the help of automated blood pressure monitor and power lab 8/30 series inst rument available in the Department of Physiology , Navodaya Medical college, Raichur. RESULTS: There was no change in Resting Blood pressure and Heart rate between the subject and control group before the training sessions. There was significant decrease in resting Blood pressure and Heart rate in trained subject group when compared to untrained control group after 5 weeks of training sessions. CONCLUSION : Isometric hand grip training is effective in lowering arterial pressure in normotensive subjects. Isome tric training may be an effective intervention in the prevention and treatment of hypertension

  17. Tribulus terrestris-induced severe nephrotoxicity in a young healthy male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talasaz, Azita Hajhossein; Abbasi, Mohammad-Reza; Abkhiz, Saeed; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin

    2010-11-01

    Herbal medications are being progressively utilized all over the world. Nevertheless, herbal remedies are not without hazards and several cases of adverse reactions have been described. Tribulus terrestris is traditionally used because of its aphrodisiac and antiurolithiatic activities with almost complete inhibition of stone formation. We report a case of T. terrestris-induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity in an Iranian male patient who used the plant's extract to prevent kidney stone formation. He presented with seizure and very high serum aminotransferases and creatinine after consuming herbal water for 2 days. Discontinuation of the herbal remedy resulted in improvement in symptoms and normalization of his liver enzymes.

  18. Brief, recurrent, and spontaneous episodes of loss of consciousness in a healthy young male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherly Abraham

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sherly Abraham1, Sarath Reddy2, Joseph Abboud2, Krishnamurthy Jonnalagadda3, Sasi K Ghanta1, Vasantha Kondamudi11Family Medicine Department, 2Faculty Attending Cardiology Department, 3Internal Medicine Department, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY, USAIntroduction: Lyme disease is caused by bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted by Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus ticks, which get infected while feeding on the reservoir host of the bacteria.1 About 248,074 cases of Lyme disease were reported by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1992–2006.2 Over 95% of these cases are reported from the Northeastern and upper Midwestern United States.3 Carditis is usually a clinical manifestation/complication of Lyme disease and is seen in approximately 5% of untreated cases.4Case presentation: A 32-year-old male Hispanic from Chile presented with brief episodes of loss of consciousness and awareness of irregular heart beat, and denied any history of tick bite. The patient was found to have a heart rate of 40 beats per minute and fluctuating variable atrioventricular blocks. A transvenous pacemaker was placed with good capture. The diagnosis was made with serological testing and gallium scanning. Treatment with antibiotics and continuous cardiac monitoring resulted in remarkable symptomatic improvement of the patient.Conclusion: Absence of history or evidence of tick bite must not rule out the possibility of Lyme carditis in a patient with a transient heart block. Prompt recognition of this reversible cause of heart block is essential for avoiding implantation of an unnecessary, permanent pacemaker.Keywords: Lyme carditis, transient heart block

  19. Reduction in cortical IMP-SPET tracer uptake with recent cigarette consumption in a young group of healthy males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rourke, S.B.; Dupont, R.M.; Grant, I.; Lehr, P.P.; Lamoureux, G.; Halpern, S.; Yeung, D.W.C.

    1997-01-01

    Functional brain imaging techniques are being used increasingly to infer disturbances in brain function in various neuropsychiatric disorders, but the specificity of such findings is not always clear. We retrospectively examined the effects of one possible confound - cigarette smoking - on cortical uptake of iodine-123 iodoamphetamine (IMP) using single-photon emission tomographic imaging in a young (mean age=35 years) healthy group of male controls divided according to their smoking history. Subjects who had never smoked (n=17), or those with a history of smoking but no recent smoking (n=8), had equivalent and significantly higher mean cortical uptake of IMP than subjects with a history of smoking and who were current smokers (n=8). There were no differences in the cortical distribution of IMP. Our results indicate that cigarette smoking has an acute effect on global cerebral blood flow. This potential confound must be considered before abnormalities in cortical tracer uptake are attributed to some neuropsychiatric disorder of interest. (orig.). With 2 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Myocardial infarction during anaphylaxis in a young healthy male with normal coronary arteries- is epinephrine the culprit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayamali, W D; Herath, H M M T B; Kulathunga, Aruna

    2017-09-04

    Anaphylaxis is an acute, potentially fatal medical emergency. Myocardial injury or infarction in the setting of an anaphylaxis can be due the anaphylaxis itself, when it is known as Kounis syndrome or it can also be due to the effect of epinephrine treatment. Epinephrine is considered as the cornerstone in management of anaphylaxis. Myocardial infarction secondary to therapeutic doses of adrenaline is a rare occurrence and only a few cases have been reported in literature. The mechanism of myocardial injury was considered to be due to coronary vasospasm secondary to epinephrine as the coronary angiograms were normal on these occasions. A 21-year- old previously healthy male got admitted to the local hospital with an urticarial rash and difficulty in breathing, one hour after ingestion of prawns for which he was known to be allergic. He was treated with 0.5 ml of intramuscular adrenaline (1:1000) which was administered to the lateral side of the thigh, following which he developed palpitations and tightening type central chest pain. Electrocardiogram showed ST segment depressions in leads III, aVF and V1 to V5 and he was transferred to a tertiary care hospital. The second electrocardiogram, done 2 h later, showed resolution of ST segment depressions but new T inversions in leads I and aVL. Troponin I was elevated with a titer of 2.15 ng/ml. He was treated with sublingual GTN in the emergency treatment unit and the symptoms resolved. Transthoracic 2D echocardiogram and stress testing with treadmill was normal and CT coronary angiogram revealed normal coronary arteries. Here we present a case of a young healthy adult with no significant risk factors for coronary artery disease who developed myocardial infarction following intramuscular administration of therapeutic dose of adrenalin for an anaphylactic reaction. The postulated mechanism is most likely an alpha receptor mediated coronary vascular spasm. However the use of adrenaline in the setting of life

  1. Endothelial mechanotransduction proteins and vascular function are altered by dietary sucrose supplementation in healthy young male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Rytter, Nicolai; Lindskrog, Mads; Slingsby, Martina H Lundberg; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Sylow, Lykke; Richter, Erik A; Hellsten, Ylva

    2017-08-15

    Mechanotransduction in endothelial cells is a central mechanism in the regulation of vascular tone and vascular remodelling Mechanotransduction and vascular function may be affected by high sugar levels in plasma because of a resulting increase in oxidative stress and increased levels of advanced glycation end-products (AGE). In healthy young subjects, 2 weeks of daily supplementation with 3 × 75 g of sucrose was found to reduce blood flow in response to passive lower leg movement and in response to 12 W of knee extensor exercise. This vascular impairment was paralleled by up-regulation of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, NADPH oxidase and Rho family GTPase Rac1 protein expression, an increased basal phosphorylation status of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and a reduced phosphorylation status of PECAM-1. There were no measurable changes in AGE levels. The findings of the present study demonstrate that daily high sucrose intake markedly affects mechanotransduction proteins and has a detrimental effect on vascular function. Endothelial mechanotransduction is important for vascular function but alterations and activation of vascular mechanosensory proteins have not been investigated in humans. In endothelial cell culture, simple sugars effectively impair mechanosensor proteins. To study mechanosensor- and vascular function in humans, 12 young healthy male subjects supplemented their diet with 3 × 75 g sucrose day -1 for 14 days in a randomized cross-over design. Before and after the intervention period, the hyperaemic response to passive lower leg movement and active knee extensor exercise was determined by ultrasound doppler. A muscle biopsy was obtained from the thigh muscle before and after acute passive leg movement to allow assessment of protein amounts and the phosphorylation status of mechanosensory proteins and NADPH oxidase. The sucrose intervention led to a reduced flow

  2. No Evidence of Racial Differences in Endothelial Function and Exercise Blood Flow in Young, Healthy Males Following Acute Antioxidant Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Rosenberg, Alexander J; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute antioxidant supplementation on endothelial function, exercise blood flow and oxidative stress biomarkers in 9 young African American compared to 10 Caucasian males (25.7±1.2 years). We hypothesized that African American males would have lower exercise blood flow and endothelial responsiveness compared to Caucasian males, and these responses would be improved following antioxidant supplementation. Ultrasonography was used to measure blood flow during handgrip exercise. Endothelial function was assessed using flow-mediated dilation, and lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring levels of malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. African American males exhibited lower endothelial function than Caucasians at baseline (8.3±1.7 vs. 12.2±1.7%) and the difference was ameliorated with antioxidant supplementation (10.7±1.9% vs. 10.8±1.8%), but the interaction was not significant (p=0.10). There were no significant changes in malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances following antioxidant supplementation. There was a significant increase in brachial blood flow and forearm vascular conductance with exercise but no differences with antioxidant supplementation. There were no group differences in exercise responses and no differences with antioxidant supplementation, suggesting a lack of influence of oxidative stress during exercise in this cohort. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Hemorrhagic Stroke in a Young Healthy Male Following Use of Pre-Workout Supplement Animal Rage XL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Brandon F; Winn, Coty; Ableman, Thomas B

    2017-09-01

    So-called "pre-workout" supplements are substances marketed as natural dietary supplements with claims of helping athletes achieve more focused and intense workouts. The use of such products remains popular among American youth as a whole, but is especially high among active duty service members. Supplements are minimally regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and unlike pharmaceuticals, supplements are often brought to market without any testing to show neither efficacy nor safety. Several case reports have documented serious adverse events and raise the question of whether supplement use was a causative factor. Reported events occurring after use of pre-workout supplements include, among others, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, myocardial infarction, hepatitis, and death. Here, we present the case of a healthy 25-year-old active duty male who experienced a bilateral cerebellar hemorrhagic stroke occurring shortly after taking a supplement named Animal Rage XL. Hemorrhagic stroke occurring in a healthy 25-year-old male with no risk factors is exceedingly rare. This is the first known case of stroke temporally associated with this particular supplement, which is currently available for purchase at military exchanges. Additionally, several of the active ingredients in this supplement have been shown to cause hypertension, tachycardia, and vasospasm. All of these effects could increase the likelihood and severity of a hemorrhagic stroke. The investigated ingredients in this abstract include β-phenethylamine, creatine-monophosphate, and caffeine. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. Test–re-test reliability and inter-rater reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer in young, healthy males and females

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Beardsley; Tim Egerton; Brendon Skinner

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer (DPI) for measuring sagittal plane pelvic tilt in 18 young, healthy males and females.\\ud \\ud Method. The inter-rater reliability and test–re-test reliabilities of the DPI for measuring pelvic tilt in standing on both the right and left sides of the pelvis were measured by two raters carrying out two rating sessions of the same subjects, three weeks apart.\\ud \\ud Results. For measuring pel...

  5. Semen quality in relation to antioxidant intake in a healthy male population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zareba, Piotr; Colaci, Daniela S; Afeiche, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between dietary antioxidant intake and semen quality in young healthy males.......To assess the relationship between dietary antioxidant intake and semen quality in young healthy males....

  6. Use of pharmacist blood pressure telemonitoring systems in diagnosis of nocturnal hypertension in a young healthy male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuno T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomohiro Mizuno,1,* Chizuru Matsumoto,1,* Nobuko Nabetani,2 Yoshinari Yasuda,3 Tadashi Nagamatsu,1 Norimasa Umemura2 1Department of Analytical Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan; 2Haruka Community Pharmacy, Nagoya, Japan; 3Department of Chronic Kidney Disease Initiatives, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Blood pressure (BP telemonitoring systems and pharmacist management programs were introduced into Haruka Community Pharmacy. A 22-year-old healthy male came to the community pharmacy, although he was not in a diseased state, he had been informed previously that he had a moderately high BP during a routine examination. He continued home BP telemonitoring for 28 days. A pharmacist intervention was conducted at 2 week intervals. His average nighttime systolic BP was higher than the daytime systolic BP. The pharmacist consulted a doctor based on the BP telemonitoring results, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was initiated. The doctor detected nocturnal hypertension based on the results of ABPM monitoring. BP telemonitoring systems have been introduced into a small percentage of pharmacies in Japan, and this is the first case report for the usefulness of these systems in a community pharmacy. Keywords: community pharmacy, management, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

  7. Simple artificial training device for respiratory muscle strength and lung volumes in healthy young male and female subjects: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Pinkaew, Decha; Yankai, Araya; Chautrakoon, Busaba; Kuntain, Rungtiwa

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a simple artificial device for respiratory muscle strength training and lung volumes using either combined or non-combined exercise with elastic bands in healthy young participants. Forty healthy young participants (20 male and 20 female) aged 19-24 years old were randomized into two main experiments with four sub-groups; (1) artificial device (n = 10) & standard device (n = 10) training, and (2) artificial device training combined with elastic band (EB) exercise (n = 10) & standard device training combined with EB (n = 10) exercise. Respiratory muscle strength with maximal peak inspiratory pressure (PImax), and lung volumes; tidal volume (TV), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), expiratory reserve volume (ERV) and vital capacity (VC) were evaluated before and after training once daily for 3 weeks. Moreover, the peak dyspnea score and vital sign parameters were compared between the experimental groups after final training. All parameters had no statistical differences (p > 0.5) between the training devices alone and those combined with EB exercise prior to any experiments. Results from the first experiment showed that training with an artificial device increased all parameters (PImax, VC, IRV, ERV) significantly (p artificial device training combined with EB exercise showed a significant increase in all parameters, except for TV, and they were the same as the increased results in training with the standard device combined with EB exercise. There was no significant difference of data between these groups after the training period. Finally, the results of peak dyspnea score and all vital sign parameters from using the artificial device, with or without EB exercise, showed no statistical difference when compared to use of the standard device. This study proposed that a simple artificial device can be used to train the respiratory muscle with or without elastic band exercise in healthy young subjects

  8. Prolonged use of Kinesiotaping does not enhance functional performance and joint proprioception in healthy young males : Randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magalhães, Igor; Bottaro, Martim; Freitas, João R.; Carmo, Jake; Matheus, João P.C.; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous (48-hour) use of Kinesiotaping (KT) on functional and proprioceptive performance in healthy, physically active men. Method: Twenty-six healthy, physically active men (21.8±2.2 years old) were randomly allocated into two

  9. Intestinal Metagenomes and Metabolomes in Healthy Young Males: Inactivity and Hypoxia Generated Negative Physiological Symptoms Precede Microbial Dysbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Šket

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We explored the metagenomic, metabolomic and trace metal makeup of intestinal microbiota and environment in healthy male participants during the run-in (5 day and the following three 21-day interventions: normoxic bedrest (NBR, hypoxic bedrest (HBR and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb which were carried out within a controlled laboratory environment (circadian rhythm, fluid and dietary intakes, microbial bioburden, oxygen level, exercise. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2 and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2 were 0.209 and 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg for the NBR and 0.141 ± 0.004 and 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg (~4,000 m simulated altitude for HBR and HAmb interventions, respectively. Shotgun metagenomes were analyzed at various taxonomic and functional levels, 1H- and 13C -metabolomes were processed using standard quantitative and human expert approaches, whereas metals were assessed using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Inactivity and hypoxia resulted in a significant increase in the genus Bacteroides in HBR, in genes coding for proteins involved in iron acquisition and metabolism, cell wall, capsule, virulence, defense and mucin degradation, such as beta-galactosidase (EC3.2.1.23, α-L-fucosidase (EC3.2.1.51, Sialidase (EC3.2.1.18, and α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (EC3.2.1.50. In contrast, the microbial metabolomes, intestinal element and metal profiles, the diversity of bacterial, archaeal and fungal microbial communities were not significantly affected. The observed progressive decrease in defecation frequency and concomitant increase in the electrical conductivity (EC preceded or took place in absence of significant changes at the taxonomic, functional gene, metabolome and intestinal metal profile levels. The fact that the genus Bacteroides and proteins involved in iron acquisition and metabolism, cell wall, capsule, virulence and mucin degradation were enriched at the end of HBR suggest that both constipation and EC decreased intestinal metal availability

  10. Diurnal Variation and Twenty-Four Hour Sleep Deprivation Do Not Alter Supine Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Quintana

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV has become an increasingly popular index of cardiac autonomic control in the biobehavioral sciences due to its relationship with mental illness and cognitive traits. However, the intraindividual stability of HRV in response to sleep and diurnal disturbances, which are commonly reported in mental illness, and its relationship with executive function are not well understood. Here, in 40 healthy adult males we calculated high frequency HRV-an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS activity-using pulse oximetry during brain imaging, and assessed attentional and executive function performance in a subsequent behavioral test session at three time points: morning, evening, and the following morning. Twenty participants were randomly selected for total sleep deprivation whereas the other 20 participants slept as normal. Sleep deprivation and morning-to-night variation did not influence high frequency HRV at either a group or individual level; however, sleep deprivation abolished the relationship between orienting attention performance and HRV. We conclude that a day of wake and a night of laboratory-induced sleep deprivation do not alter supine high frequency HRV in young healthy male adults.

  11. Prolonged use of Kinesiotaping does not enhance functional performance and joint proprioception in healthy young males: Randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Igor; Bottaro, Martim; Freitas, João R; Carmo, Jake; Matheus, João P C; Carregaro, Rodrigo L

    2016-03-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous (48-hour) use of Kinesiotaping (KT) on functional and proprioceptive performance in healthy, physically active men. Twenty-six healthy, physically active men (21.8±2.2 years old) were randomly allocated into two groups: 1) Kinesiotaping group (KG, tape applied with 40% tension for rectus femoris activation); 2) Control (CG, tape applied over rectus femoris without additional tension). Subjects attended the laboratory on five separate occasions: 1) familiarization; 2) baseline measurement without tape (BL); 3) immediately post-tape application (T0); 4) 24h (T24); and 5) 48h (T48) post-tape application. The outcomes were distance in the single (SHT) and triple hop tests (THT), vertical jump height (VJH), vertical jump power (VJP), and rate of force development (RFD). A mixed-model ANOVA was applied to verify differences between and within groups. No significant (p >0.05) differences were found in the SHT and THT between groups and moments. Likewise, the main effects for VJH, VJP, and RFD were not significant (p >0.05). The present study demonstrated no significant immediate or prolonged (48h) effects of KT on functional and proprioceptive performance.

  12. Prolonged use of Kinesiotaping does not enhance functional performance and joint proprioception in healthy young males: Randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous (48-hour use of Kinesiotaping (KT on functional and proprioceptive performance in healthy, physically active men. Method Twenty-six healthy, physically active men (21.8±2.2 years old were randomly allocated into two groups: 1 Kinesiotaping group (KG, tape applied with 40% tension for rectus femoris activation; 2 Control (CG, tape applied over rectus femoris without additional tension. Subjects attended the laboratory on five separate occasions: 1 familiarization; 2 baseline measurement without tape (BL; 3 immediately post-tape application (T0; 4 24h (T24; and 5 48h (T48 post-tape application. The outcomes were distance in the single (SHT and triple hop tests (THT, vertical jump height (VJH, vertical jump power (VJP, and rate of force development (RFD. A mixed-model ANOVA was applied to verify differences between and within groups. Results No significant (p >0.05 differences were found in the SHT and THT between groups and moments. Likewise, the main effects for VJH, VJP, and RFD were not significant (p >0.05. Conclusion The present study demonstrated no significant immediate or prolonged (48h effects of KT on functional and proprioceptive performance.

  13. Impact of physical inactivity on subcutaneous adipose tissue metabolism in healthy young male offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, MP; Alibegovic, AC

    2010-01-01

    . The best known environmental modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes are obesity and a low level of habitual physical activity (1). Even though there is substantial evidence that a change toward a healthy lifestyle halts the progression of type 2 diabetes (2), certain groups, including first......OBJECTIVE Physical inactivity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and may be more detrimental in first-degree relative (FDR) subjects, unmasking underlying defects of metabolism. Using a positive family history of type 2 diabetes as a marker of increased genetic risk, the aim of this study...... changes in CON subjects compared with FDR subjects. Physical inactivity per se is not more deleterious in FDR subjects as compared with CON subjects with respect to derangements in AT metabolism. Type 2 diabetes is the product of a complex interplay between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors...

  14. The acute effects of the thermogenic supplement Meltdown on energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and hemodynamic responses in young, healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Matt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a thermogenic supplement, Meltdown, on energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and hemodynamics before and after maximal treadmill exercise. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, 12 male participants underwent two testing sessions after consuming either the Meltdown or placebo supplement. While in a fasted state, participants rested for one hour, orally ingested either Meltdown or placebo and rested for another hour, performed a maximal treadmill exercise test, and then rested for another hour. Throughout the testing protocol, resting energy expenditure (REE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER were assessed. In addition, heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were assessed before and after exercise. Meltdown increased REE significantly more than placebo at 45 min (1.44 ± 0.25 vs. 1.28 ± 0.23 kcal/min; p = 0.003, 60 min (1.49 ± 0.28 vs. 1.30 ± 0.22 kcal/min; p = 0.025, and 120 min (1.51 ± 0.26 vs. 1.33 ± 0.27 kcals/min; p = 0.014 post-ingestion. Meltdown significantly decreased RER at 30 min (0.84 ± 0.03 vs. 0.91 ± 0.04; p = 0.022 and 45 min post-ingestion (0.82 ± 0.04 vs. 0.89 ± 0.05; p = 0.042, and immediately post-exercise (0.83 ± 0.05 vs. 0.90 ± 0.07; p = 0.009. Furthermore, over the course of the evaluation period, area under the curve assessment demonstrated that REE was significantly increased with Meltdown compared to placebo (992.5 ± 133.1 vs. 895.1 ± 296.1 kcals; p = 0.043, while RER was significantly less than placebo (5.55 ± 0.61 vs. 5.89 ± 0.44; p = 0.002 following ingestion. HR and BP were not significantly affected prior to exercise with either supplement (p > 0.05 and the exercise-induced increases for HR and BP decreased into recovery and were not different between supplements (p > 0.05. These data suggest that Meltdown enhances REE and fat oxidation more than placebo for several hours after ingestion in fully rested and

  15. Test–re-test reliability and inter-rater reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer in young, healthy males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Beardsley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer (DPI for measuring sagittal plane pelvic tilt in 18 young, healthy males and females. Method. The inter-rater reliability and test–re-test reliabilities of the DPI for measuring pelvic tilt in standing on both the right and left sides of the pelvis were measured by two raters carrying out two rating sessions of the same subjects, three weeks apart. Results. For measuring pelvic tilt, inter-rater reliability was designated as good on both sides (ICC = 0.81–0.88, test–re-test reliability within a single rating session was designated as good on both sides (ICC = 0.88–0.95, and test–re-test reliability between two rating sessions was designated as moderate on the left side (ICC = 0.65 and good on the right side (ICC = 0.85. Conclusion. Inter-rater reliability and test–re-test reliability within a single rating session of the DPI in measuring pelvic tilt were both good, while test–re-test reliability between rating sessions was moderate-to-good. Caution is required regarding the interpretation of the test–re-test reliability within a single rating session, as the raters were not blinded. Further research is required to establish validity.

  16. Test-re-test reliability and inter-rater reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer in young, healthy males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Chris; Egerton, Tim; Skinner, Brendon

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer (DPI) for measuring sagittal plane pelvic tilt in 18 young, healthy males and females. Method. The inter-rater reliability and test-re-test reliabilities of the DPI for measuring pelvic tilt in standing on both the right and left sides of the pelvis were measured by two raters carrying out two rating sessions of the same subjects, three weeks apart. Results. For measuring pelvic tilt, inter-rater reliability was designated as good on both sides (ICC = 0.81-0.88), test-re-test reliability within a single rating session was designated as good on both sides (ICC = 0.88-0.95), and test-re-test reliability between two rating sessions was designated as moderate on the left side (ICC = 0.65) and good on the right side (ICC = 0.85). Conclusion. Inter-rater reliability and test-re-test reliability within a single rating session of the DPI in measuring pelvic tilt were both good, while test-re-test reliability between rating sessions was moderate-to-good. Caution is required regarding the interpretation of the test-re-test reliability within a single rating session, as the raters were not blinded. Further research is required to establish validity.

  17. Serum reference value of two potential doping candidates-myostatin and insulin-like growth factor-I in the healthy young male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Der-Sheng; Huang, Chi-Huang; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2017-01-01

    Myostatin negatively regulates muscle growth, and its inhibition by suitable proteins can increase muscle bulk and exercise performance. However, the reference values of serum myostatin in athletes performing strength training are still lacking. A cross-sectional study recruiting28 male collegiate athletes performing strength training and 29 age-matched normal controls was conducted. The serum concentration of myostatin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), grip strength, and body composition were the main outcome measures. We used regression models to analyze the correlation between serum markers and the physiological parameters. The athlete group had greater height, weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass percentage, fat-free mass, muscle mass, waist girth, grip strength, and estimated daily energy expenditure. The IGF-1 concentration was higher in the athlete group (324 ± 80 vs. 263 ± 134 ng/ml), but the myostatin levels did not differ (12.1 ± 3.7 vs. 12.4 ± 3.5 ng/ml). The reference value for IGF-1 among the healthy young males was 293 ± 114 ng/ml, correlated with age and height; the value for myostatin was 12.3 ± 3.6 ng/ml, correlated negatively with BMI, fat mass percentage, and waist girth after adjustment for age. Myostatin level is negatively related to fat percentage, and serum IGF-1 is positively related to height. The reference values could provide a basis for future doping-related study.

  18. Reliability of panoramic ultrasound imaging in simultaneously examining muscle size and quality of the hamstring muscles in young, healthy males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Ty B; Akehi, Kazuma; Thiele, Ryan M; Smith, Doug B; Thompson, Brennan J

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of ultrasound (US) measures of cross-sectional area (CSA), muscle thickness (MT) and echo intensity (EI) of the hamstrings, with comparisons between males and females. In 20 healthy participants (10 males, 10 females), CSA, MT and EI were measured from panoramic US scans of the hamstrings on 2 separate days. The intra-class correlation coefficients and standard errors of measurement as a percentage of the mean for CSA, MT and EI ranged from 0.715 to 0.984 and from 3.145 to 12.541% in the males and from 0.724 to 0.977 and from 4.571 to 17.890% in the females, respectively. The males had greater CSAs and MTs and lower EIs than the females (p = 0.002-0.049), and significant relationships were observed between CSA and MT (r = 0.714-0.938, p ≤ 0.001-0.023). From an overall reliability standpoint, these findings suggest that panoramic US may be a reliable technique for examining muscle size and quality of the hamstrings in both males and females. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between acoustic voice onset and offset and selected instances of oscillatory onset and offset in young healthy males and females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rita; Forrest, Karen; Hedges, Drew

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between (1) onset of the acoustic signal and pre-phonatory phases associated with oscillatory onset and (2) offset of the acoustic signal with the post-phonatory events associated with oscillatory offset across vocally healthy adults. Subjects and Methods High-speed videoendoscopy was captured simultaneously with the acoustic signal during repeated production of /hi.hi.hi/ at typical pitch and loudness from 56 vocally healthy adults (age 20–42 years; 21 male, 35 female). The relationship between the acoustic sound pressure signal and oscillatory onset /offset events from the glottal area waveforms (GAW), were statistically investigated using a multivariate linear regression analysis. Results The onset of the acoustic signal (X1a) is a significant predictor of the onset of first oscillations (X1g) and onset of sustained oscillations (X2g). X1a as well as gender are significant predictors of the first instance of medial contact (X1.5g). The offset of the acoustic signal (X2a) is a significant predictor of the first instance of oscillatory offset (X3g), first instance of incomplete glottal closure (X3.5g), and cessation of vocal fold motion (X4g). Conclusions The acoustic signal onset is closely related to the first medial contact of the vocal folds but the latency between these events is longer for females compared to males. The offset of the acoustic signal occurs immediately after incomplete glottal adduction. The emerging normative group latencies between the onset/offset of the acoustic and the GAW from this study appear promising for future investigations. PMID:27769696

  20. Takayasu arteritis in young male

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-23

    Sep 23, 2012 ... The study, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in the young constitute one of the major ... neck and hypertension. Key words: Hypertension, takayasu arteritis, young adults .... Pregnancy-induced hypertension. Drugs and ...

  1. Whole Body Vibration Improves Cognition in Healthy Young Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van der Zee, Eddy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5 +/- 2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration

  2. Lung function parameters of healthy Sri Lankan Tamil young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, M; Sivapalan, K; Thuvarathipan, R

    2014-06-01

    To establish reference norms of lung function parameters for healthy Sri Lankan Tamil young adults. Cross sectional study of Tamil students at the Faculty of Medicine, Jaffna. Healthy non smoking students of Sri Lankan Tamil ethnic group were enrolled. Age, height, weight, BMI and spirometric measurements (Micro Quark) were recorded in 267 participants (137 females and 130 males). Height was significantly correlated with (pTamils. When mean values were compared, these parameters were significantly higher in Tamil males (pTamil females (pTamils. However, our study sample was confined to medical students of 20-28 years which may explain the differences with Sinhalese.

  3. Whole Body Vibration Improves Cognition in Healthy Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5 +/- 2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on ...

  4. The decline in Australian young male suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Stephen; Page, Andrew N; Taylor, Richard J

    2007-02-01

    Since the late 1990s there has been a sharp downward trend in Australian young male suicide. It is possible that a major government youth suicide prevention initiative, the National Youth Suicide Prevention Strategy (NYSPS), implemented during 1995-1999 may have influenced the decline. In this article, we examine time trends in age- and means-specific male and female Australian suicide rates in relation to unemployment rates and the NYSPS. Based on Australian suicide data over the period 1966-2003, we assess secular changes in the 20-24 year male suicide to total (crude) male suicide rate ratio in relation to the NYSPS, using interrupted time series analysis (ARIMA), since this was previously found to be significantly associated with the 20-24 year male unemployment to total employment ratio. Results show that a dramatic reduction in Australian young male (aged 20-34 years) suicide has occurred since 1997-1998, declining from approximately 40 per 100,000 in 1997-1998 to approximately 20 per 100,000 in 2003. Most of the decline is due to a decrease in suicide by hanging and to a lesser extent from motor vehicle carbon monoxide and other gases. Further, the previously established strong secular association (lasting over 3 decades from 1966) between the rate ratio of 20-24 year male suicide to total (crude) male suicide, and the rate ratio of 20-24 year male unemployment to total unemployment, appears to have been disrupted. ARIMA modelling of the suicide ratio against the initiative indicates a highly significant statistical association between the NYSPS and the suicide ratio reduction but not between the NYSPS and the unemployment indicator trend, suggesting a break in the link between young male suicide and unemployment. The recent sudden turnaround in Australian young male suicide trends and its extent appears to preclude explanations centring on slow-moving social indices traditionally associated with suicide, or on possible cohort effects. This sudden decrease

  5. Higher bioavailability of isoflavones after a single ingestion of a soya-based supplement than a soya-based food in young healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, Sébastien; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine; Lamothe, Valérie; Chantre, Philippe; Potier, Mylène; Asselineau, Julien; Perez, Paul; Durand, Marlène; Moore, Nicholas; Sauvant, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Soya isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, are the focus of numerous studies investigating their potential effects on health and results remain controversial. Bioavailability is clearly a crucial factor influencing their bioefficacy and could explain these discrepancies. This study aimed at assessing: (1) the isoflavone content of sixty-nine European soya-derivative products sold on the French market; (2) the bioavailability of isoflavones comparing supplement with food. Twelve healthy volunteers were recruited in a randomized two-way crossover trial and received 35 mg isoflavones equivalent aglycone either through supplements or through cheese, both containing different patterns of isoflavone conjugates and different daidzein:genistein ratios. A specific ELISA method was used to assess the plasma and urinary concentrations of isoflavones and thus the pharmacokinetic parameters, which were then normalized to mg of each isoflavone ingested. Results showed that the normalized Cmax of daidzein (P = 0.002) and similarly the normalized AUC0 --> infinity and Cmax of genistein (P = 0.002) from soya-based capsules were higher than that from soya-based cheese. In conclusion, this work completes studies on isoflavone bioavailability and presents new data regarding isoflavone concentrations in soya-derivative products. Assuming that isoflavone conjugation patterns do not influence isoflavone bioavailability, this study shows that isoflavones contained in capsules are more bioavailable than those contained in soya-based cheese. Although the supplement is more bioavailable, the relative importance of this is difficult to interpret as there is little evidence that supplements are biologically active in human subjects to date and further studies will be necessary for this specific supplement to prove its efficacy.

  6. Asymptomatic endoalveolar hemorrhage in a young male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Kafyeke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a young male affected by granulomatosis with polyangiitis presenting with non-specific complaints and complicated by the occurrence of a diffuse endoalveolar hemorrhage characterized by atypical clinical and radiological features. The importance of a rapid and aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic approach has to be strongly underlined. Available data regarding prevalence, clinical and radiological characteristics and treatment of this uncommon manifestation have also been hereby reviewed.

  7. Athlete’s Hepatitis in a Young Healthy Marathon Runner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Khan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Athlete’s hepatitis is an uncommon clinical condition characterized by a significant ischemic insult to the liver. The most likely pathogenesis is decreased blood supply to the liver resulting in significant hypoxic hepatocyte injury. We report a case of a 48-year-old healthy young male who presented with athlete’s hepatitis confirmed by liver biopsy after a 14-mile marathon run. To our knowledge, this is the second case of athlete’s ischemic hepatitis reported in the literature. It is a diagnosis worth considering in patients involved in extreme exercise programs.

  8. The effects of an oral multivatimin combination with calcium, magnesium, and zinc on psychological well-being in healthy young male volunteers: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll, D.; Ring, C.; Suter, M.; Willemsen, A.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    Rationale: Vitamin and mineral supplements may be associated with improved psychological status. Objective: The present study tested the effects of a multivitamin and mineral supplement (Berocca®) on psychological well-being. Methods: In a double-blind randomised-control trial, 80 healthy male

  9. The Young Male Cigarette and Alcohol Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Vincke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many health risks of tobacco and alcohol use, high levels of smoking and drinking are being persisted. Moreover, young men engage more in these behaviors as compared to women. As male physical risk-taking behavior gains attractiveness in short-term mating contexts and given that smoking and drinking have considerable physical costs, this study explores the possibility that tobacco and alcohol use is part of a male short-term mating strategy. By means of a between-subjects experiment (N = 239, women’s perceptions of young male smoking and drinking were investigated. The experiment showed that women perceive men who smoke and drink as being more short-term oriented in their sexuality than nonusers. Moreover, both tobacco and (especially alcohol use brought some attractiveness benefits in short-term mating contexts. A follow-up study (N = 171 confirmed that men’s behavior corresponds with women’s perceptions. Overall, these findings show that cigarette and alcohol use can operate as a short-term mating strategy.

  10. Effects of neurofeedback therapy in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Sümeyra; Berberoglu, Bercim; Canan, Sinan; Dane, Şenol

    2016-12-01

    Neurofeedback refers to a form of operant conditioning of electrical brain activity, in which desirable brain activity is rewarded and undesirable brain activity is inhibited. The research team aimed to examine the efficacy of neurofeedback therapy on electroencephalogram (EEG) for heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG) and galvanic skin resistance (GSR) parameters in a healthy young male population. Forty healthy young male subjects aged between 18 to 30 years participated in this study. Neurofeedback application of one session was made with bipolar electrodes placed on T3 and T4 (temporal 3 and 4) regions and with reference electrode placed on PF1 (prefrontal 1). Electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG) and galvanic skin resistance (GSR) were assessed during Othmer neurofeedback application of one session to regulate slow wave activity for forty minutes thorough the session. Data assessed before neurofeedback application for 5 minutes and during neurofeedback application of 30 minutes and after neurofeedback application for 5 minutes throughout the session of 40 minutes. Means for each 5 minutes, that is to say, a total 8 data points for each subjects over 40 minutes, were assessed. Galvanic skin resistance increased and heart rate decreased after neurofeedback therapy. Beta activity in EEG increased and alfa activity decreased after neurofeedback therapy. These results suggest that neurofeedback can be used to restore sympathovagal imbalances. Also, it may be accepted as a preventive therapy for psychological and neurological problems.

  11. Specific airway resistance in healthy young Vietnamese and Caucasian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tuan, Thanh; Nguyen, Ngoc Minh; Demoulin, Bruno; Bonabel, Claude; Nguyen-Thi, Phi Linh; Ioan, Iulia; Schweitzer, Cyril; Nguyen, H T T; Varechova, Silvia; Marchal, Francois

    2015-06-01

    In healthy Vietnamese children the respiratory resistance has been suggested to be similar at 110 cm height but larger at 130 cm when compared with data in Caucasians from the literature, suggesting smaller airways in older Vietnamese children (Vu et al., 2008). The hypothesis tested here is whether the difference in airway resistance remains consistent throughout growth, and if it is larger in adult Vietnamese than in Caucasians. Airway resistance and Functional Residual Capacity were measured in healthy young Caucasian and Vietnamese adults in their respective native country using identical equipment and protocols. Ninety five subjects in Vietnam (60 males) and 101 in France (41 males) were recruited. Airway resistance was significantly larger in Vietnamese than in Caucasians and in females than in males, consistent with difference in body dimensions. Specific airway resistance however was not different by ethnicity or gender. The findings do not support the hypothesis that airway size at adult age - once normalized for lung volume - differs between Vietnamese and Caucasians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pulmonary function studies in young healthy Malaysians of Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-11-01

    Pulmonary function tests have been evolved as clinical tools in diagnosis, management and follow up of respiratory diseases as it provides objective information about the status of an individual's respiratory system. The present study was aimed to evaluate pulmonary function among the male and female young Kelantanese Malaysians of Kota Bharu, Malaysia, and to compare the data with other populations. A total of 128 (64 males, 64 females) non-smoking healthy young subjects were randomly sampled for the study from the Kelantanese students' population of the University Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu Campus, Kelantan, Malaysia. The study population (20-25 yr age group) had similar socio-economic background. Each subject filled up the ATS (1978) questionnaire to record their personal demographic data, health status and consent to participate in the study. Subjects with any history of pulmonary diseases were excluded from the study. The pulmonary function measurements exhibited significantly higher values among males than the females. FEV 1% did not show any significant inter-group variation probably because the parameter expresses FEV 1 as a percentage of FVC. FVC and FEV 1 exhibited significant correlations with body height and body mass among males whereas in the females exhibited significant correlation with body mass, body weight and also with age. FEV 1% exhibited significant correlation with body height and body mass among males and with body height in females. FEF 25-75% did not show any significant correlation except with body height among females. However, PEFR exhibited significant positive correlation with all the physical parameters except with age among the females. On the basis of the existence of significant correlation between different physical parameters and pulmonary function variables, simple and multiple regression norms have been computed. From the present investigation it can be concluded that Kelantanese Malaysian youths have normal range of

  13. Music and Movement for Young Children's Healthy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Morris, Vivian Gunn; Meredith, Cathy D.; Hicks, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Young children enjoy moving around when they hear music. Children take pleasure in physical activities that contribute to their healthy development. Physical activities are vital to retain healthy bodies, and inactivity is one cause of obesity in young children (Dow, 2010; Izumi-Taylor & Morris, 2007). This article describes how teachers and…

  14. Pulmonary Function Tests In Young Healthy Subjects Of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Rastogi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives : The diagnosis of disease done by skiagram can be substantiated by pulmonary function tests. Substantial data of Indians on PFTs is not available. The present study therefore has been planned on young healthy north Indians.Setting : 119 males and 49 female medical students of North India.Measurements : PFT's, T.V. FEV1, FVC, FER and PEFR were measured. P<0.05 was considered as significant.Results : In North Indian males, mean T. V was 437.56 ± 65.83 ml, FEV1 3.26 ±041 L, FVC 3.82 ± 0.48 L, FER 85.09 ± 2.42% and PEFR was 495.42 ± 101.82 L / min. In North Indian females, average T. V was 386.12 ± 37.90 ml, FEV1 2.39 ± 0.38 L, FVC 2.79 ± 0.43 L, FER 85.38 ± 257% and PEFR was 307.12 ± 75.74 L / min.Conclusions: Males in comparison to females had more value of PFTs. All the PFTs showed positive correlation with Height, Weight and Surface area except Tidal Volume and FER.

  15. Mycobacterium bovis meningitis in young Nigerian-born male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Lillebæk, Troels; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark, tuberculous meningitis is rare. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement with Mycobacterium bovis is even rarer and has only been seen three times since 1992. We present a case of M. bovis meningitis in a previously healthy young Nigerian-born male, who had been exposed to unpasteurized...... dairy products in Nigeria but had no known contact with larger mammals. Before the development of meningitis, the patient had several contacts with the health system due to fever and non-specific symptoms. Finally, upon hospital admission, the patient was diagnosed with M. tuberculosis complex...... meningitis and treated empirically. After 13 days he was discharged without neurological sequelae. Later, the culture revealed M. bovis and treatment was adjusted accordingly....

  16. PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IN CARS IS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS IN HEALTHY YOUNG MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in older and cardiac patients. Potential physiologic effects of in-vehicle, roadside, and ambient PM(2.5) were investigated in young, healthy, nonsmoking, male North Caro...

  17. [Severe Haemophilus influenzae b infection in healthy male adult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, A.C.; Gjorup, I.; David, Kim Peter

    2008-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) can be the cause of serious infections, and is mainly observed affecting children and immuno-compromised patients. We report a case of a healthy 49-year old male with a severe Hib infection complicated by septicaemia, meningitis and anuria. The risk of invasive Hib...

  18. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ruben H Regterschot

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT, Stroop Difference Score (SDS and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20 and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16 performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

  19. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Zeinstra, Edzard B; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20) and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

  20. Empowering Young Black Males--III: A Systematic Modular Training Program for Black Male Children & Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Courtland C.

    This series of five interrelated modules is an update and revision of "Saving the Native Son: Empowerment Strategies for Young Black Males (1996)." It offers specific strategies for empowering young African American males to help them achieve optimal educational and social success. Empowerment is a developmental process by which people who are…

  1. Haemorrhagic SLE In A Young Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopal R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE is a systemic autoimmune disease that tends to occur in early adult life. The peak age of onset of the first symptom or sign in females is about 38 years and later in men, at about 44 years. Females outnumber men in this illness in a ratio of about 8 : 1. Cutaneous lesions in male have not been properly investigated and some studies in male with SLE have shown that the illness may present with atypical skin lesions. A case of SLE in a 20 year male who developed sudden onset of haemorrhagic vesiculobullous butterfly rash is described.

  2. Sociocultural Influences on Body Image Concerns of Young Chinese Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This research assessed the extent to which sociocultural factors implicated in explanations of weight dissatisfaction among young Western females extend to sources of body image concern in emerging adult and adolescent males from the People's Republic of China. In Study 1, 219 Mainland Chinese male university students completed measures of stature…

  3. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Dianat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for design-ing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population.Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis.Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lat-eral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively.Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population.

  4. Population pharmacokinetics of olprinone in healthy male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunisawa T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Takayuki Kunisawa,1 Hidefumi Kasai,2 Makoto Suda,2 Manabu Yoshimura,3 Ami Sugawara,3 Yuki Izumi,3 Takafumi Iida,3 Atsushi Kurosawa,3 Hiroshi Iwasaki3 1Surgical Operation Department, Asahikawa Medical University Hospital, Hokkaido, Japan; 2Clinical Study Management Division, Bell Medical Solutions Inc, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Hokkaido, Japan Background: Olprinone decreases the cardiac preload and/or afterload because of its vasodilatory effect and increases myocardial contractility by inhibiting phosphodiesterase III. Purpose: The objective of this study was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of olprinone after a single continuous infusion in healthy male volunteers. Methods: We used 500 plasma concentration data points collected from nine healthy male volunteers for the study. The population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using the nonlinear mixed effect model (NONMEM® software. Results: The time course of plasma concentration of olprinone was best described using a two-compartment model. The final pharmacokinetic parameters were total clearance (7.37 mL/minute/kg, distribution volume of the central compartment (134 mL/kg, intercompartmental clearance (7.75 mL/minute/kg, and distribution volume of the peripheral compartment (275 mL/kg. The interindividual variability in the total clearance was 12.4%, and the residual error variability (exponential and additive were 22.2% and 0.129 (standard deviation. The final pharmacokinetic model was assessed using a bootstrap method and visual predictive check. Conclusion: We developed a population pharmacokinetic model of olprinone in healthy male adults. The bootstrap method and visual predictive check showed that this model was appropriate. Our results might be used to develop the population pharmacokinetic model in patients. Keywords: phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, men, pharmacokinetic model

  5. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  6. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  7. SERUM AND PAROTID FLUIS UREA-LEVELS IN UNREALOADED HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-four healthy young adult male subjects were given oral doses of urea, and parotid fluid and serum urea levels were studied for 1 to 3 hours. A...highly significant correlation between urea in serum and in parotid fluid (r equals 0.982) was found. The indication was that, with flow rate...carefully controlled, parotid fluid could be used interchangeably with serum in urea determination, regardless of the magnitude of the blood concentration. (Author)

  8. Bigger is better! Hippocampal volume and declarative memory performance in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlack, Sebastian T; Meyer, Patric; Cacciaglia, Raffaele; Liebscher, Claudia; Ridder, Stephanie; Flor, Herta

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the hippocampus for declarative memory processes is firmly established. Nevertheless, the issue of a correlation between declarative memory performance and hippocampal volume in healthy subjects still remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate this relationship in more detail. For this purpose, 50 healthy young male participants performed the California Verbal Learning Test. Hippocampal volume was assessed by manual segmentation of high-resolution 3D magnetic resonance images. We found a significant positive correlation between putatively hippocampus-dependent memory measures like short-delay retention, long-delay retention and discriminability and percent hippocampal volume. No significant correlation with measures related to executive processes was found. In addition, percent amygdala volume was not related to any of these measures. Our data advance previous findings reported in studies of brain-damaged individuals in a large and homogeneous young healthy sample and are important for theories on the neural basis of episodic memory.

  9. Effects of Ramadan fasting on glucose homeostasis and adiponectin levels in healthy adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanou, Justin V; Caszo, Brinnell A; Khalil, Khalifah M; Abdullah, Shahidah L; Knight, Victor F; Bidin, Mohd Z

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes during the fasting phase of the fast-fed cycle. Ramadan fasting involves prolonged fasting for up to twelve hours and thus could lead to increased secretion of adiponectin by adipocytes. However, studies on the role of adiponectin on glucose and body weight homeostasis during Ramadan fasting is still a matter of controversy. Thus the specific aim of this study was to assess the effect of fasting during Ramadan on the adiponectin levels, body weight and glucose homeostasis in healthy male Malaysian subjects. Twenty healthy male (19-23 years) Muslim subjects were followed up during the fasting month of Ramadan. Anthropometry and blood samples were taken one week before and during the fourth week of fasting. Plasma glucose, insulin and adiponectin were estimated and insulin sensitivity indices were estimated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment. Subjects experienced a significant decrease in body weight (2.4 %, p Ramadan fasting in young healthy individuals has a positive impact on the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. It also shows that adiponectin levels dropped along with significant loss in weight. We feel caloric restriction during the Ramadan fasting is in itself sufficient to improve insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals.

  10. Reliability of basal plasma vasopressin concentrations in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Daniel S; Westlye, Lars T; Smerud, Knut T; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Djupesland, Per G; Andreassen, Ole A

    2017-10-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) play important and interrelated roles in modulating mammalian social behaviour. While the OT system has received considerable research attention for its potential to treat psychiatric symptoms, comparatively little is known about the role of the AVP system in human social behaviour. To better understand the intraindividual stability of basal AVP, the present study assessed the reproducibility of basal plasma AVP concentrations. Basal plasma AVP was assessed at four sampling points separated by 8 days, on average, in 16 healthy adult males. Only one out of six comparisons revealed strong evidence for reproducibility of basal AVP concentrations (visit 2 vs. visit 4: r=0.8, p0.1). The concordance correlation coefficient [0.15, 95% CI (-0.55, 0.73)] also revealed poor overall reproducibility. Poor reliability of basal AVP concentrations suggests future work covarying AVP with trait markers should proceed with careful consideration of intraindividual fluctuations.

  11. Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia of Orbit in Young Male

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [3] The etiology of. Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia of Orbit in Young Male. Somen Misra, Akshay Bhandari, Sagar Chaudhari, Neeta Misra, Pratik Gogri, Parag Tupe. Department of Ophthalmology, Rural Medical .... blood eosinophilia, and nephrotic syndrome due to IgE deposition in the renal glomeruli.

  12. Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia of Orbit in Young Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia of Orbit in Young Male. Somen Misra, Akshay Bhandari, Sagar Chaudhari, Neeta Misra, Pratik Gogri, Parag Tupe. Abstract. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is an uncommon benign clinical entity characterized by the presence of a variable number of ...

  13. Strength profile in young male athletes from different sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buśko Krzysztof

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of the present study was to determine a strength profile which characterizes young male athletes from different sports and to use the method of allometry to synthetically evaluate the muscular strength with respect to body mass.

  14. Methylphenidate as a cognitive enhancer in healthy young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Batistela

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The so-called cognitive enhancers have been widely and increasingly used by healthy individuals who seek improvements in cognitive performance despite having no pathologies. One drug used for this purpose is methylphenidate, a first-line drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Objective: The aim of the present study was to test the effect of acute administration of varying doses of methylphenidate (10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg and placebo on a wide range of cognitive functions in healthy young people. Methods: A total of 36 young university students and graduates participated in the study. The participants underwent tests of attention and of episodic, and working memory. Results: No differences in performance were observed on any of the tests. There was a dose-dependent (40 mg > placebo effect on self-reported wellbeing. Conclusions: According to the recent literature, psychostimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, improve performance when cognitive processes are below an optimal level, which was not the case for the subjects of the present study. We suggest the impression that methylphenidate enhances cognitive performance in healthy young people, justifying its use, may be due to improvements in subjective wellbeing promoted by the drug.

  15. Methylphenidate as a cognitive enhancer in healthy young people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistela, Silmara; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Vaz, Leonardo José; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The so-called cognitive enhancers have been widely and increasingly used by healthy individuals who seek improvements in cognitive performance despite having no pathologies. One drug used for this purpose is methylphenidate, a first-line drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective: The aim of the present study was to test the effect of acute administration of varying doses of methylphenidate (10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg and placebo) on a wide range of cognitive functions in healthy young people. Methods: A total of 36 young university students and graduates participated in the study. The participants underwent tests of attention and of episodic, and working memory. Results: No differences in performance were observed on any of the tests. There was a dose-dependent (40 mg > placebo) effect on self-reported wellbeing. Conclusions: According to the recent literature, psychostimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, improve performance when cognitive processes are below an optimal level, which was not the case for the subjects of the present study. We suggest the impression that methylphenidate enhances cognitive performance in healthy young people, justifying its use, may be due to improvements in subjective wellbeing promoted by the drug. PMID:29213444

  16. Impact of 9 days of bed rest on hepatic and peripheral insulin action, insulin secretion, and whole-body lipolysis in healthy young male offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alibegovic, Amra C; Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette P

    2009-01-01

    decrease in whole-body insulin sensitivity in both groups. Hepatic insulin resistance was elevated in FDR subjects prior to bed rest and was significantly augmented by bed rest in FDR (P ... deteriorates with 9 days of bed rest, converging toward similar degrees of whole-body insulin resistance. FDR subjects exhibit hepatic insulin resistance (HIR), which, in contrast to CON subjects, deteriorates in response to physical inactivity. FDR subjects exhibit reduced insulin secretion when seen...... subjects, with no significant differences between the groups. Insulin resistance induced by bed rest was fully accounted for by the impairment of nonoxidative glucose metabolism in both groups (overall P resistant FDR and healthy CON subjects...

  17. A multidimensional intergenerational model of young males' driving styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Shani; Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Toledo, Tomer

    2016-12-01

    This study examines the associations between fathers' driving styles, the family's general and driving-related atmosphere, and the young drivers' motivations, on one hand, and young males' driving styles, on the other. The 242 father and son pairs that participated in the study independently completed several self-report questionnaires at different points in time within the first year after licensure of the young drivers. A structural equation model (SEM) was developed, in which the contribution of fathers' driving style and their sons' perceptions of the general family relations, the family climate for road safety (FCRS), and costs and benefits of driving, to the driving styles of the young male drivers was examined. The SEM estimation results show direct as well as indirect significant effects between the various dimensions. The FCRS factors of non-commitment and messages, and the cost of thrill, were found to be the strongest mediators between the fathers' driving style and the family cohesion, on one hand, and the driving style of the young driver, on the other. These results may be useful in pointing out directions for the development of interventions that could assist in reducing the involvement of youngsters in risky driving and car crashes, and encourage safe and considerate driving. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Roentgenographic evaluation of the profiles for young male and female

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tae Won [Department of Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-11-15

    The author has studied on the profiles on Korean young male and female by the cephalometric roentgenograms, and the subjects consisted of 104 persons with normal occlusion, and the measurements were done on the soft and hard structures. The mean and standard deviations in the subjects were calculated and compared between male and female. The author has obtained the following results: 1. In the linear measurement, male was longer than female in most measuring points. 2. Compared with the angulation of soft tissue, there were no differences between both sexes. 3. In the skeletal patterns, there were some differences between male and female, but there was a similarity to the facial profile. 4. The individual variations on the cephalometric profiles on the subjects were recognized, especially, in the lower facial part.

  19. Comparison between young males and females with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Slaibi Conti

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the differences between young males and females after acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 236 patients (54 females and 182 males after acute myocardial infarction and during hospital stay assessed the following parameters: risk factors; the treatment used; the pattern of coronary artery obstruction; left ventricular ejection fraction; complications; and, using a logistic regression model, the factors related to the occurrence of reinfarction and death. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed between the sexes in risk factors, pattern of coronary artery obstruction, and left ventricular function. The time interval between symptom onset and treatment was longer in females (p=0.03, who underwent thrombolysis (p=0.01 and angioplasty (p=0.03 less frequently than males did, but not myocardial revascularization. Female sex (OR = 5.98 and diabetes (OR = 14.52 were independent factors related to the occurrence of reinfarction and death. CONCLUSION: Young males and females after acute myocardial infarction did not differ in coronary risk factors, and clinical and hemodynamic characteristics. Females had their treatment started later, and they underwent chemical thrombolysis and angioplasty less frequently than males did. Female sex and diabetes were related to the occurrence of reinfarction and death.

  20. Fournier's Gangrene due to Masturbation in an Otherwise Healthy Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D. Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fournier's gangrene is a rare and often fulminant necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genital region frequently due to a synergistic polymicrobial infection. This truly emergent condition is typically seen in elderly, diabetic, or otherwise immune-compromised individuals. Here, we report an unusual case of Fournier's gangrene due to excessive masturbation in an otherwise healthy 29-year-old male who presented to the emergency department complaining of two days of fever, vomiting, and diffuse myalgias. Upon further questioning, he also endorsed severe scrotal pain and swelling and frequent masturbation with soap as a lubricant resulting in recurrent penile erythema and minor skin abrasions. Examination of the patient's perineum was consistent with Fournier's gangrene and included significant erythema, edema, and calor of the penis and scrotum with a large malodorous eschar. He was given intravenous antibiotics and immunoglobulin and promptly underwent three surgical debridements of the scrotum and penis with split-thickness skin grafting. Complications from excessive masturbation are exceedingly rare, but as this case illustrates, they can be life threatening.

  1. Fournier's Gangrene due to Masturbation in an Otherwise Healthy Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Jason D; Eng, Katisha D; Bialowas, Todd A; Devita, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a rare and often fulminant necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genital region frequently due to a synergistic polymicrobial infection. This truly emergent condition is typically seen in elderly, diabetic, or otherwise immune-compromised individuals. Here, we report an unusual case of Fournier's gangrene due to excessive masturbation in an otherwise healthy 29-year-old male who presented to the emergency department complaining of two days of fever, vomiting, and diffuse myalgias. Upon further questioning, he also endorsed severe scrotal pain and swelling and frequent masturbation with soap as a lubricant resulting in recurrent penile erythema and minor skin abrasions. Examination of the patient's perineum was consistent with Fournier's gangrene and included significant erythema, edema, and calor of the penis and scrotum with a large malodorous eschar. He was given intravenous antibiotics and immunoglobulin and promptly underwent three surgical debridements of the scrotum and penis with split-thickness skin grafting. Complications from excessive masturbation are exceedingly rare, but as this case illustrates, they can be life threatening.

  2. Dobutamine stress echocardiography in healthy adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couet Jacques

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dobutamine stress echocardiography is used to investigate a wide variety of heart diseases in humans. Dobutamine stress echocardiography has also been used in animal models of heart disease despite the facts that the normal response of healthy rat hearts to this type of pharmacological stress testing is unknown. This study was performed to assess this normal response. Methods 15 normal adult male Wistar rats were evaluated. Increasing doses of dobutamine were infused intravenously under continuous imaging of the heart by a 12 MHz ultrasound probe. Results Dobutamine stress echocardiography reduced gradually LV diastolic and systolic dimensions. Ejection fraction increased by a mean of +24% vs. baseline. Heart rate increased progressively without reaching a plateau. Changes in LV dimensions and ejection fraction reached a plateau after a mean of 4 minutes at a constant infusion rate. Conclusion DSE can be easily performed in rats. The normal response is an increase in heart rate and ejection fraction and a decrease in LV dimensions. A plateau in echocardiographic measurements is obtained after 4 minutes of a constant infusion rate in most animals.

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with selective attention and inhibitory control in healthy male high-school students

    OpenAIRE

    Wengaard, Eivind Johannessen; Kristoffersen, Morten; Harris, Anette; Gundersen, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown associations of physical fitness and cognition in children and in younger and older adults. However, knowledge about associations in high-school adolescents and young adults is sparse. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of physical fitness, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (V⋅O2max), muscle mass, weekly training, and cognitive function in the executive domains of selective attention and inhibitory control, in healthy male ...

  4. Inter-arm blood pressure differences in young, healthy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Alon; Prokupetz, Alex; Gordon, Barak; Morag-Koren, Nira; Grossman, Ehud

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence and magnitude of inter-arm BP difference (IAD) in young healthy patients is not well characterized. Flight academy applicants and designated aviators undergo annual evaluation that includes blood pressure (BP) measurement on both arms. All BP measurements performed from January 1, 2012, to April 30, 2012, were recorded and IAD was calculated. Results were compared between patients in whom BP was initially measured in the right arm (group 1), those in whom BP was initially measured in the left arm (group 2), and those in whom the arm in which BP was initially measured was not recorded (group 3). A total of 877 healthy patients had BP measured during the study period. In the entire group, mean systolic BP was the same in both arms. Absolute IAD was 5.6±5.5 mm Hg for systolic and 4.7±4.5 mm Hg for diastolic BP. IAD >10 mm Hg was recorded in 111 (12.6%) and 77 (8.8%) patients for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. IAD was the same in the 3 groups and was unrelated to age, body mass index, and heart rate, but was related to systolic BP. IAD is common in young healthy patients, is not dependent on which arm was measured first, and unrelated to age, body mass index, and heart rate. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Acute effects of smoking on QT dispersion in healthy males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Akbarzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking increases the risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death (SCD. QT dispersion (QTD is an important predictor of cardiac arrhythmia. The aim of this study was to assess the acute effect of smoking a single standard cigarette containing 1.7 mg nicotine on QT interval and QTD in healthy smokers and nonsmokers. METHODS: The study sample population consisted of 40 healthy male hospital staff, including 20 smokers and 20 nonsmokers. They were asked to refrain from smoking at least 6 h before attending the study. A 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG, recorded at paper speed of 50 mm/s, was obtained from all participants before and 10 min after smoking of a single complete cigarette. QT interval, corrected QT interval, QTD, and corrected QT dispersion (QTcD were measured before and after smoking. RESULTS: Smokers and nonsmokers did not have any significant differences in heart rate (HR (before smoking = 67.35 ± 5.14 vs. 67.70 ± 5.07, after smoking = 76.70 ± 6.50 vs. 76.85 ± 6.50, respectively, QTD (before smoking = 37.75 ± 7.16 vs. 39.15 ± 6.55, after smoking = 44.75 ± 11.97 vs. 45.50 ± 9.58, respectively, and QTcD (before smoking = 39.85 ± 7.40 vs. 41.55 ± 6.57, after smoking = 50.70 ± 14.31 vs. 51.50 ± 11.71, respectively. However, after smoking a single cigarette, HR, mean QTD, and QTcD significantly increased (all had P value <0.001 in comparison to the measures before smoking. CONCLUSION: Smoking of a single complete cigarette in both smokers and nonsmokers results in significant QTD increase, which can cause arrhythmia and SCD.   Keywords: Cardiac, Death, Electrocardiography, Smoking, Sudden  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  6. Anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of young male soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Andrews Portes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine anthropometric and physical fitnesscharacteristics of Brazilian male children and adolescents at the beginning of soccer training. Inthis study, 282 male soccer players ranging in age from 10 to 13 years were evaluated. The athletesparticipated in a formal soccer training program 3 times per week, with each training lasting 3hours. Anthropometric and physical fitness parameters were obtained. The boys were divided intoage classes and prevalence data were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-square test. Parametric datawere compared by one-way ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis test, when necessary. The resultsare expressed as the mean ± standard deviation and a p value <0.05 was considered to be significant.Growth, development, body adiposity and physical fitness characteristics were adequateand proportional to age among the boys studied (p<0.05. It was concluded that anthropometricand physical fitness characteristics of young male elite soccer players improve with and areproportional to age. Children and adolescents greatly benefit from regular physical activity. Thepresent results show that young male soccer players present adequate anthropometric conditionsand physical fitness prior to the initiation of formal training at soccer clubs.

  7. The role of masturbation in healthy sexual development: perceptions of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestle, Christine E; Allen, Katherine R

    2011-10-01

    Despite efforts to identify masturbation as a strategy to improve sexual health, promote relational intimacy, and reduce unwanted pregnancy, STIs, and HIV transmission, masturbation as a context for healthy sexual development has been met with silence or trepidation in the scientific and educational communities. Relegated to the realm of commercial media, rather than rational discourse in families, schools, and the general public, young people receive mixed messages about this non-reproductive sexual behavior. In order to explore how young adults have learned about masturbation and currently perceive masturbation, we conducted a grounded theory study of 72 college students (56 females; 16 males) enrolled in a human sexuality class. Findings revealed that a young adult's perceptions of and feelings toward masturbation were the result of a developmental process that included: (1) learning about the act of masturbation and how to do it, (2) learning and internalizing the social contradiction of stigma and taboo surrounding this pleasurable act, and (3) coming to terms with this tension between stigma and pleasure. Although nearly all participants learned about masturbation through the media and peers (not parents or teachers), gender was salient in coming to terms with the contradiction of stigma and pleasure. Most of the women reported either still struggling with the contradiction or accepting it as normal. Most of the men recognized the beneficial aspects for healthy sexual development that result from masturbation. Both male and female participants identified differential sexual scripts as contributing to the double standard.

  8. Genital diseases awareness in young male students: Is information necessary to protect them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Mondaini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Few studies on the prevalence of male sexual diseases are currently available due to difficult application of observational studies or andrological disease prevention campaigns on large series of apparently healthy subjects. The medical check-up linked to compulsory military service represented in Italy a valid tool for epidemiological and observational study for 18 year old boys from 1861 to 2004. The stopping of compulsory military service and its related medical check-up could have determined an important social impact in terms of a lower level of attention and care on male genital/sexual diseases. The aim of the present observational study was to check the prevalence of genital/ sexual diseases among young male high-school students and promote an alternative campaign of information among young students. Methods: A prospective observational analytical study on young male students was conducted by 6 urological centres. Genital and sexually transmitted diseases were presented with slides to students in a general assembly. Some students were then counselled and filled out a short questionnaire on their lifestyle. Results: 12,535 students (10,432 males-83.6% followed the presentation. and 4,897 males (46.7% decided to be checked-up by the urologist and out of them 1554 (31.7% presented relevant andrological diseases. Five-hundred students completed the questionnaire concerning their lifestyle. Many of them had not yet experienced condom use during sexual intercourse (27.8%. Drug abuse was reported by 39.6% of subjects and alcohol consumption in 80.8% of them. Conclusions: These data suggest the need for a national information campaign on male sexual disorders to promote sexual health.

  9. Adaptation of multijoint coordination during standing balance in healthy young and healthy old individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasma, J. H.; Schouten, A. C.; Aarts, R. G. K. M.; Meskers, C. G. M.; Maier, A. B.; van der Kooij, H.

    2015-01-01

    Standing balance requires multijoint coordination between the ankles and hips. We investigated how humans adapt their multijoint coordination to adjust to various conditions and whether the adaptation differed between healthy young participants and healthy elderly. Balance was disturbed by push/pull rods, applying two continuous and independent force disturbances at the level of the hip and between the shoulder blades. In addition, external force fields were applied, represented by an external stiffness at the hip, either stabilizing or destabilizing the participants' balance. Multivariate closed-loop system-identification techniques were used to describe the neuromuscular control mechanisms by quantifying the corrective joint torques as a response to body sway, represented by frequency response functions (FRFs). Model fits on the FRFs resulted in an estimation of time delays, intrinsic stiffness, reflexive stiffness, and reflexive damping of both the ankle and hip joint. The elderly generated similar corrective joint torques but had reduced body sway compared with the young participants, corresponding to the increased FRF magnitude with age. When a stabilizing or destabilizing external force field was applied at the hip, both young and elderly participants adapted their multijoint coordination by lowering or respectively increasing their neuromuscular control actions around the ankles, expressed in a change of FRF magnitude. However, the elderly adapted less compared with the young participants. Model fits on the FRFs showed that elderly had higher intrinsic and reflexive stiffness of the ankle, together with higher time delays of the hip. Furthermore, the elderly adapted their reflexive stiffness around the ankle joint less compared with young participants. These results imply that elderly were stiffer and were less able to adapt to external force fields. PMID:26719084

  10. The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Gryka; Wanda Pilch; Marta Szarek; Zbigniew Szygula; Łukasz Tota

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Material and Methods: Sixteen male subjects (20–23 years) were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5–16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mas...

  11. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous ghrelin infusion in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Andersen, Niels Holmark; Hansen, Troels Krarup

    2007-01-01

    Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied the cardio......Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied...... the cardiovascular effects of a constant infusion of human ghrelin at a rate of 5 pmol/kg per minute for 180 min. Fifteen healthy, young (aged 23.2 ± 0.5 yr), normal-weight (23.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2) men volunteered in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. With the subjects remaining fasting, peak...... myocardial systolic velocity S′, tissue tracking TT, left ventricular ejection fraction EF, and endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation were measured. Ghrelin infusion increased S′ 9% (P = 0.002) and TT 10% (P

  12. Structural covariance networks across healthy young adults and their consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Wang, Yan; Guo, Taomei; Chen, Kewei; Zhang, Jiacai; Li, Ke; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li

    2015-08-01

    To investigate structural covariance networks (SCNs) as measured by regional gray matter volumes with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from healthy young adults, and to examine their consistency and stability. Two independent cohorts were included in this study: Group 1 (82 healthy subjects aged 18-28 years) and Group 2 (109 healthy subjects aged 20-28 years). Structural MRI data were acquired at 3.0T and 1.5T using a magnetization prepared rapid-acquisition gradient echo sequence for these two groups, respectively. We applied independent component analysis (ICA) to construct SCNs and further applied the spatial overlap ratio and correlation coefficient to evaluate the spatial consistency of the SCNs between these two datasets. Seven and six independent components were identified for Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Moreover, six SCNs including the posterior default mode network, the visual and auditory networks consistently existed across the two datasets. The overlap ratios and correlation coefficients of the visual network reached the maximums of 72% and 0.71. This study demonstrates the existence of consistent SCNs corresponding to general functional networks. These structural covariance findings may provide insight into the underlying organizational principles of brain anatomy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Selective Attention in Healthy Male High-School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengaard, Eivind; Kristoffersen, Morten; Harris, Anette; Gundersen, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    Background : Previous studies have shown associations of physical fitness and cognition in children and in younger and older adults. However, knowledge about associations in high-school adolescents and young adults is sparse. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of physical fitness, measured as maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), muscle mass, weekly training, and cognitive function in the executive domains of selective attention and inhibitory control, in healthy male high-school students. Methods : Fifty-four males (17.9 ± 0.9 years, 72 ± 11 kg and 182 ± 7 cm) completed a [Formula: see text] test, a body composition test and a visual cognitive task based on the Posner cue paradigm with three types of stimuli with different attentional demands (i.e., stimuli presentation following no cue, valid cue or invalid cue presentations). The task consisted of 336 target stimuli, where 56 (17%) of the target stimuli appeared without a cue (no cue), 224 (67%) appeared in the same rectangle as the cue (valid cue) and 56 (17%) appeared in the rectangle opposite to the cue (invalid cue). Mean reaction time (RT) and corresponding errors was calculated for each stimuli type. Total task duration was 9 min and 20 s In addition, relevant background information was obtained in a questionnaire. Results : Linear mixed model analyses showed that higher [Formula: see text] was associated with faster RT for stimuli following invalid cue (Estimate = -2.69, SE = 1.03, p = 0.011), and for stimuli following valid cue (Estimate = -2.08, SE = 1.03, p = 0.048). There was no association of muscle mass and stimuli ( F = 1.01, p = 0.397) or of weekly training and stimuli ( F = 0.99, p = 0.405). Conclusion : The results suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive performance in healthy male high-school students in the executive domains of selective attention.

  14. Diabetes risk among overweight and obese metabolically healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twig, Gilad; Afek, Arnon; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Cukierman-Yaffe, Tali; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Tirosh, Amir

    2014-11-01

    To determine diabetes incidence over time among obese young adults without metabolic risk factors. Incident diabetes during a median follow-up of 6.1 years was assessed among 33,939 young men (mean age 30.9 ± 5.2 years) of the Metabolic, Lifestyle and Nutrition Assessment in Young Adults cohort who were stratified for BMI and the number of metabolic abnormalities (based on the Adult Treatment Panel-III). Metabolically healthy (MH) obesity was defined as BMI ≥30 kg/m2 in the presence of normoglycemia, normal blood pressure, and normal levels of fasting triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels (n = 631). A total of 734 new cases of diabetes were diagnosed during 210,282 person-years of follow-up. The incidence rate of diabetes among participants with no metabolic risk factors was 1.15, 2.10, and 4.34 cases per 1,000 person-years among lean, overweight, and obese participants, respectively. In a multivariable model adjusted for age, region of origin, family history of diabetes, physical activity, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride level, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and white blood cell count, a higher diabetes risk was observed among MH-overweight (hazard ratio [HR] 1.89 [95% CI 1.25-2.86]; P young adults from incident diabetes associated with overweight and obesity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  15. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use among young Finnish males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, V M; Rimpelä, A; Jormanainen, V; Sahi, T; Pihlajamäki, H

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the lifetime occurrence and associated factors of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) among young Finnish males. Of the 10 829 male conscripts (median age 19), 10 396 (96%) answered a questionnaire during the first days of their conscription in the years 2001-2007. The main outcome was lifetime AAS use. We also studied associations between 13 socioeconomic, health, and health behavioral background variables and AAS use by logistic regression. Eighty-nine (0.9%) respondents reported having used AAS. In addition, 26 (0.3%) respondents reported that they would use AAS if they could obtain them. In multivariate analysis, which included all significant variables and age, the strongest associated factors were weight training at fitness centers more than three times a week [odds ratio (OR) 11.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 7.1-19.6], low educational status (OR 3.7; 95% CI: 2.0-7.0), and weekly drunkenness as drinking style (OR 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4-4.5). Sports other than weight training were not associated with AAS in our sample. The use of AAS is relatively uncommon among Finnish males. It is strongly associated with weight training at fitness centers but also with lower educational status and a drunkenness-oriented lifestyle. Prevention should be targeted at those males participating in weight training.

  16. Decreased endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion in healthy young smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwado, Yasuyoshi; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Furuyama, Hideto; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara; Ito, Yoshinori; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki; Katoh, Chietsugu; Kuge, Yuji

    2002-01-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking alters coronary vascular endothelial response. To determine whether altered response also occurs in young individuals without manifest coronary disease we quantified coronary blood flow at rest, following adenosine vasodilator stress and during the cold pressor test in healthy young smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified by oxygen-15 labelled water positron emission tomography in 30 healthy men aged from 20 to 35 years (18 smokers and 12 non-smokers, aged 27.4±4.4 vs 26.3±3.3). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 9.4±4.9 pack-years. MBF was measured at rest, during intravenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP: 0.16 mg kg -1 min -1 ) infusion (hyperaemic response), and during cold pressor test (CPT) (endothelial vasodilator response). Rest MBF and hyperaemic MBF did not differ significantly between the smokers and the non-smokers (rest: 0.86±0.11 vs 0.92±0.14 and ATP: 3.20±1.12 vs 3.69±0.76 ml g -1 min -1 ; P=NS). Coronary flow reserve was similar between the two groups (smokers: 3.78±1.83; non-smokers: 4.03±0.68; P=NS). Although CPT induced a similar increase in rate-pressure product (RPP) in the smokers and the non-smokers (10,430±1,820 vs 9,236±1,356 beats min -1 mmHg -1 ), CPT MBF corrected by RPP was significantly decreased in the smokers (0.65±0.12 ml g -1 min -1 ) compared with the non-smokers (0.87±0.12 ml g -1 min -1 ) (P<0.05). In addition, the ratio of CPT MBF to resting MBF was inversely correlated with pack-years (r=-0.57, P=0.014). Endothelium-dependent coronary artery vasodilator function is impaired in apparently healthy young smokers. (orig.)

  17. Decreased endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotion in healthy young smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwado, Yasuyoshi; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Furuyama, Hideto; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita-Ku, Kita 15 Nishi 7, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Ito, Yoshinori; Noriyasu, Kazuyuki [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu; Kuge, Yuji [Department of Tracer Kinetics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking alters coronary vascular endothelial response. To determine whether altered response also occurs in young individuals without manifest coronary disease we quantified coronary blood flow at rest, following adenosine vasodilator stress and during the cold pressor test in healthy young smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified by oxygen-15 labelled water positron emission tomography in 30 healthy men aged from 20 to 35 years (18 smokers and 12 non-smokers, aged 27.4{+-}4.4 vs 26.3{+-}3.3). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 9.4{+-}4.9 pack-years. MBF was measured at rest, during intravenous adenosine triphosphate (ATP: 0.16 mg kg{sup -1} min{sup -1}) infusion (hyperaemic response), and during cold pressor test (CPT) (endothelial vasodilator response). Rest MBF and hyperaemic MBF did not differ significantly between the smokers and the non-smokers (rest: 0.86{+-}0.11 vs 0.92{+-}0.14 and ATP: 3.20{+-}1.12 vs 3.69{+-}0.76 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}; P=NS). Coronary flow reserve was similar between the two groups (smokers: 3.78{+-}1.83; non-smokers: 4.03{+-}0.68; P=NS). Although CPT induced a similar increase in rate-pressure product (RPP) in the smokers and the non-smokers (10,430{+-}1,820 vs 9,236{+-}1,356 beats min{sup -1} mmHg{sup -1}), CPT MBF corrected by RPP was significantly decreased in the smokers (0.65{+-}0.12 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}) compared with the non-smokers (0.87{+-}0.12 ml g{sup -1} min{sup -1}) (P<0.05). In addition, the ratio of CPT MBF to resting MBF was inversely correlated with pack-years (r=-0.57, P=0.014). Endothelium-dependent coronary artery vasodilator function is impaired in apparently healthy young smokers. (orig.)

  18. Encephalopathy Associated with Influenza B in a Healthy Young Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Masaki; Okada, Satoshi; Terashima, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    A 19-year-old man presented with a fever, convulsions, and loss of consciousness at our hospital. The patient had a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 12. Influenza B virus infection was diagnosed using the rapid test kit, and an eight-fold increase in the serum levels of anti-influenza B virus antibody was confirmed using the complement fixation test. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multifocal high-signal lesions, and an electroencephalogram showed diffuse slowing of the background activity, indicating acute encephalopathy. After treatment with peramivir and methylprednisolone for 3 days, the patient was discharged without any neurological impairment. This was a case of influenza B infection associated with acute encephalopathy in a healthy young man.

  19. Aortic Dissection in a Healthy Male Athlete: A Unique Case with Comprehensive Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balraj Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A young otherwise healthy 27-year-old male who has been using anabolic steroids for a long time developed Type I aortic dissection associated with heavy weightlifting. The patient did not have a recent history of trauma to the chest, no history of hypertension, and no illicit drug use. He presented with severe chest pain radiating to back and syncopal event with exertion. Initial vitals were significant for blood pressure of 80/50 mmHg, pulse of 80 beats per minute, respirations of 24 per minute, and oxygen saturation of 92% on room air. Physical exam was significant for elevated jugular venous pressure, muffled heart sounds, and cold extremities with diminished pulses in upper and absent pulses in lower extremities. Bedside echocardiogram showed aortic root dilatation and cardiac tamponade. STAT computed tomography (CT scan of chest revealed dissection of ascending aorta. Cardiothoracic surgery was consulted and patient underwent successful repair of ascending aorta. Hemodynamic stress of weightlifting can predispose to aortic dissection. Aortic dissection is a rare but often catastrophic condition if not diagnosed and managed acutely. Although rare, aortic dissection needs to be in the differential when a young weightlifter presents with chest pain as a delay in diagnosis may be fatal.

  20. Extracellular matrix fragmentation in young, healthy cartilaginous tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, R J; Hodson, N W; Ozols, M; Shearer, T; Hoyland, J A; Sherratt, M J

    2018-02-09

    Although the composition and structure of cartilaginous tissues is complex, collagen II fibrils and aggrecan are the most abundant assemblies in both articular cartilage (AC) and the nucleus pulposus (NP) of the intervertebral disc (IVD). Whilst structural heterogeneity of intact aggrecan ( containing three globular domains) is well characterised, the extent of aggrecan fragmentation in healthy tissues is poorly defined. Using young, yet skeletally mature (18-30 months), bovine AC and NP tissues, it was shown that, whilst the ultrastructure of intact aggrecan was tissue-dependent, most molecules (AC: 95 %; NP: 99.5 %) were fragmented (lacking one or more globular domains). Fragments were significantly smaller and more structurally heterogeneous in the NP compared with the AC (molecular area; AC: 8543 nm2; NP: 4625 nm2; p tissue-invariant. Molecular fragmentation is considered indicative of a pathology; however, these young, skeletally mature tissues were histologically and mechanically (reduced modulus: AC: ≈ 500 kPa; NP: ≈ 80 kPa) comparable to healthy tissues and devoid of notable gelatinase activity (compared with rat dermis). As aggrecan fragmentation was prevalent in neonatal bovine AC (99.5 % fragmented, molecular area: 5137 nm2) as compared with mature AC (95.0 % fragmented, molecular area: 8667 nm2), it was hypothesised that targeted proteolysis might be an adaptive process that modified aggrecan packing (as simulated computationally) and, hence, tissue charge density, mechanical properties and porosity. These observations provided a baseline against which pathological and/or age-related fragmentation of aggrecan could be assessed and suggested that new strategies might be required to engineer constructs that mimic the mechanical properties of native cartilaginous tissues.

  1. Extracellular matrix fragmentation in young, healthy cartilaginous tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RJ Craddock

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the composition and structure of cartilaginous tissues is complex, collagen II fibrils and aggrecan are the most abundant assemblies in both articular cartilage (AC and the nucleus pulposus (NP of the intervertebral disc (IVD. Whilst structural heterogeneity of intact aggrecan ( containing three globular domains is well characterised, the extent of aggrecan fragmentation in healthy tissues is poorly defined. Using young, yet skeletally mature (18-30 months, bovine AC and NP tissues, it was shown that, whilst the ultrastructure of intact aggrecan was tissue-dependent, most molecules (AC: 95 %; NP: 99.5 % were fragmented (lacking one or more globular domains. Fragments were significantly smaller and more structurally heterogeneous in the NP compared with the AC (molecular area; AC: 8543 nm2; NP: 4625 nm2; p < 0.0001. In contrast, fibrillar collagen appeared structurally intact and tissue-invariant. Molecular fragmentation is considered indicative of a pathology; however, these young, skeletally mature tissues were histologically and mechanically (reduced modulus: AC: ≈ 500 kPa; NP: ≈ 80 kPa comparable to healthy tissues and devoid of notable gelatinase activity (compared with rat dermis. As aggrecan fragmentation was prevalent in neonatal bovine AC (99.5 % fragmented, molecular area: 5137 nm2 as compared with mature AC (95.0 % fragmented, molecular area: 8667 nm2, it was hypothesised that targeted proteolysis might be an adaptive process that modified aggrecan packing (as simulated computationally and, hence, tissue charge density, mechanical properties and porosity. These observations provided a baseline against which pathological and/or age-related fragmentation of aggrecan could be assessed and suggested that new strategies might be required to engineer constructs that mimic the mechanical properties of native cartilaginous tissues.

  2. A tapetal-like fundus reflex in a healthy male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz, Patrik; Bregnhøj, Jesper; Arvidsson, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    To report on the retinal function and structure in a 37-year-old male who presented with a tapetal-like reflex (TLR) indistinguishable from that seen in female carriers of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP).......To report on the retinal function and structure in a 37-year-old male who presented with a tapetal-like reflex (TLR) indistinguishable from that seen in female carriers of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP)....

  3. Larger corpus callosum and reduced orbitofrontal cortex homotopic connectivity in codeine cough syrup-dependent male adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ying-Wei; Lv, Xiao-Fei; Jiang, Gui-Hua; Su, Huan-Huan; Ma, Xiao-Fen; Tian, Jun-Zhang; Zhuo, Fu-Zhen

    2017-03-01

    To characterize interhemispheric functional and anatomical connectivity and their relationships with impulsive behaviour in codeine-containing cough syrup (CCS)-dependent male adolescents and young adults. We compared volumes of corpus callosum (CC) and its five subregion and voxel-mirrored homotopic functional connectivity (VMHC) in 33 CCS-dependent male adolescents and young adults and 38 healthy controls, group-matched for age, education and smoking status. Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS.11) was used to assess participant impulsive behaviour. Abnormal CC subregions and VMHC revealed by group comparison were extracted and correlated with impulsive behaviour and duration of CCS use. We found selective increased mid-posterior CC volume in CCS-dependent male adolescents and young adults and detected decreased homotopic interhemispheric functional connectivity of medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Moreover, impairment of VMHC was associated with the impulsive behaviour and correlated with the duration of CCS abuse in CCS-dependent male adolescents and young adults. These findings reveal CC abnormalities and disruption of interhemispheric homotopic connectivity in CCS-dependent male adolescents and young adults, which provide a novel insight into the impact of interhemispheric disconnectivity on impulsive behaviour in substance addiction pathophysiology. • CCS-dependent individuals (patients) had selective increased volumes of mid-posterior corpus callosum • Patients had attenuated interhemispheric homotopic FC (VMHC) of bilateral orbitofrontal cortex • Impairment of VMHC correlated with impulsive behaviour in patients • Impairment of VMHC correlated with the CCS duration in patients.

  4. Relationship Between Neck Circumference and Epicardial Fat Thickness in a Healthy Male Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur Küçük

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Epicardial fat is an upper body visceral fat depot that may play a significant role in the development of adverse metabolic and cardiovascular risk profiles. There is a significant direct relationship between the amount of epicardial fat and general body adiposity (body mass index, BMI, but data regarding subcutaneous adiposity is limited. Objective: We conducted a study to determine the association between neck circumference and epicardial fat thickness in healthy young male individuals, and assess their individual correlations with general body adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: One hundred consecutive male patients aged 18 years or older with no known major medical conditions were included in the study. All participants underwent detailed physical examination including measurement of blood pressure, weight, height, waist/hip ratio, and neck circumference. Blood was collected to determine fasting glucose and lipid parameters. A standard echocardiographic examination was performed with additional epicardial fat thickness determination. Results: Among 100 study participants, neck circumference correlated significantly with weight, waist circumference, BMI, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, low-density (LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels. No significant correlation was found between neck circumference and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol levels. Neck circumference correlated moderately and positively with echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness. Conclusion: Among patients with low cardiometabolic risk, increased neck circumference was associated with increased epicardial fat thickness.

  5. Tales of healthy men: male reproductive bodies in biomedicine from 'Lebensborn' to sperm banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Antje

    2013-01-01

    Using the example of 'sperm tales', borne out of the biomedical technologies that went hand in hand with the establishment of the 'science of man' (andrology), the article engages with the epistemic evolution of interrelated biomedical theories and concepts of what constitutes a 'healthy' reproductive male body. The article asks: how has the normative ideal male body been either perpetuated or interrogated through these tales of male reproduction at the interface between scientific and medical technologies? And how were changes to the normalization of male bodies central to clinical practices and cultural understandings of health and illness? With many aspects of the medical history of male reproduction in the 20th century still unexplored, this article will focus on the growing intervention of biomedicine to 'treat' male infertility by way of the classification, standardization and normalization of male corporeality, focusing in particular on the representation and construction of men and the male body, as reflected in medical science and practice from the second half of the 20th century onwards in Germany. The article analyses the rise in importance of sperm in biomedical investigation, including a consideration of the construction of infertility as the defining force behind concepts of 'healthy men', and examines the related conceptualization of male reproductive bodies at the crossroad between 'healthy' and 'normal'. It is argued that the ideal of male reproduction as being inherently healthy has lost ground. By the late 20th century, male bodies have become vulnerable, at least as represented in medical science and technology.

  6. Evaluation of breast enlargement in young males and factors associated with gynecomastia and pseudogynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, M; Sahin, M; Bolu, E; Gok, D E; Taslipinar, A; Tapan, S; Torun, D; Uckaya, G; Kutlu, M

    2010-12-01

    Gynecomastia is defined as a palpable enlargement of the mammary gland in males that is distinguishable from lipomastia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of different causes of breast enlargement in young males referred to our tertiary center, and evaluation of the factors associated with gynaecomastia. One hundred thirty-five male recruits aged 20-30 years were enrolled in the study. A control group comprising 32 age-matched healthy individuals aged 20-25 years was also studied. Idiopathic gynecomastia (IG) was diagnosed in 31 of 135 patients (23%) and Klinefelter' syndrome (KS) was diagnosed in 70 cases (52%). Patients with KS had significantly higher body mass index (BMI) and waist and hip circumference waist/hip ratio than the control group. FSH, LH and SHBG were significantly higher and DHEAS, free testosterone (fT) and total testosterone (tT) were lower in patients with KS than the control group. Anthropometric measurements revealed significant increase in body weight and BMI in patients with IG compared with healthy controls. FSH and LH levels were significantly higher in the patients with IG. Patients with pseudogynecomastia alone were not obese and hypogonadism was observed in 35.1% of patients. We concluded that gynaecomastia in young adult males is mostly because of KS or idiopathic in origin. IG seems to be the result of androgen resistance and in part increased aromatization because of increased adiposity. Symptoms or findings for hypogonadism must be evaluated carefully in patients with pseudogynecomastia. We also suggest that the presence of both gynecomastia and azoospermia necessitate further karyotypic analyses for KS.

  7. Enhanced emotional empathy after psychosocial stress in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Oliver T; Schulte, Judith M; Drimalla, Hanna; Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Knoch, Daria; Dziobek, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is a core prerequisite for human social behavior. Relatively, little is known about how empathy is influenced by social stress and its associated neuroendocrine alterations. The current study was designed to test the impact of acute stress on emotional and cognitive empathy. Healthy male participants were exposed to a psychosocial laboratory stressor (trier social stress test, (TSST)) or a well-matched control condition (Placebo-TSST). Afterwards they participated in an empathy test measuring emotional and cognitive empathy (multifaceted empathy test, (MET)). Stress exposure caused an increase in negative affect, a rise in salivary alpha amylase and a rise in cortisol. Participants exposed to stress reported more emotional empathy in response to pictures displaying both positive and negative emotional social scenes. Cognitive empathy (emotion recognition) in contrast did not differ between the stress and the control group. The current findings provide initial evidence for enhanced emotional empathy after acute psychosocial stress.

  8. Articulation Rate and Vowel Space Characteristics of Young Males with Fragile X Syndrome: Preliminary Acoustic Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, David J.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Harris, Adrianne A.; Barnes, Elizabeth F.; Misenheimer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Increased speaking rate is a commonly reported perceptual characteristic among males with fragile X syndrome (FXS). The objective of this preliminary study was to determine articulation rate--one component of perceived speaking rate--and vowel space characteristics of young males with FXS. Method: Young males with FXS (n = 38), …

  9. Self-reported onset of puberty and subsequent semen quality and reproductive hormones in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Finne, Katrine Folmann; Skakkebæk, Niels E

    2016-01-01

    , at the same time as or later than their peers. Their semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count and percentages of motile and morphologically normal spermatozoa) and serum concentrations of sex hormones (LH, FSH, total testosterone, SHBG, inhibin B) and testicular size were determined......Study Question Is there an association between pubertal onset and subsequent reproductive health in young men? Summary Answer Self-reported later onset of puberty was associated with reduced semen quality and altered serum levels of reproductive hormones among 1068 healthy, young Danish men. What...... is Known Already The long-term effects of variations in the onset of male puberty on subsequent reproduction remain largely unstudied. Study Design, Size, Duration In a cross-sectional study, young healthy Danish men were approached when they attended a compulsory medical examination to determine...

  10. Knowledge about infertility risk factors, fertility myths and illusory benefits of healthy habits in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Laura; Boivin, Jacky

    2008-08-01

    Previous research has highlighted a lack of fertility awareness in the general population especially in relation to the optimal fertile period during the menstrual cycle, incidence of infertility and duration of the reproductive life span. The current study assessed fertility knowledge more broadly in young people and investigated three areas of knowledge, namely risk factors associated with female infertility (e.g. smoking), beliefs in false fertility myths (e.g. benefits of rural living) and beliefs in the illusory benefits of healthy habits (e.g. exercising regularly) on female fertility. The sample (n = 149) consisted of 110 female and 39 male postgraduate and undergraduate university students (average age 24.01, SD = 7.81). Knowledge scores were based on a simple task requiring the participants to estimate the effect a factor would have on a group of 100 women trying to get pregnant. Items (n = 21) were grouped according to three categories: risk factors (e.g. smoking; 7 items), myths (e.g. living in countryside; 7 items) and healthy habits (e.g. being normal weight; 7 items). An analysis of variance showed a significant main effect of factor (P healthy habits (P healthy habits. We suggest that the public education campaigns should be directed to erroneous beliefs about pseudo protective factors.

  11. Approximate time to steady state resting energy expenditure using indirect calorimetry in young, healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Popp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Indirect calorimetry (IC measurements to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE necessitate a stable measurement period, or steady state (SS. There is limited evidence when assessing the time to reach SS in young, healthy adults. The aims of this prospective study are to determine the approximate time to necessary reach SS using open-circuit IC and to establish the appropriate duration of SS needed to estimate REE. One hundred young, healthy participants (54 males and 46 females; age = 20.6 ± 2.1 years; body weight = 73.6 ± 16.3 kg; height 172.5 ± 9.3 cm; BMI = 24.5 ± 3.8 kg/m2 completed IC measurement for approximately 30-minutes while the volume of oxygen (VO2 and volume of carbon dioxide (VCO2 were collected. SS was defined by variations in the VO2 and VCO2 of ≤10% coefficient of variation (%CV over a period of 5- consecutive minutes. The 30-minute IC measurement was divided into six 5-minute segments, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6. The results show that SS was achieved during S2 (%CV = 6.81 ± 3.2%, and the %CV continued to met the SS criteria for the duration of the IC measurement (S3= 8.07 ± 4.4%; S4 = 7.93 ± 3.7%; S5 = 7.75 ± 4.1%; S6 = 8.60 ± 4.6%. The current study found that in a population of young, healthy adults the duration of the IC measurement period could be a minimum of 10 minutes. The first 5-minute segment was discarded, while SS occurred by the second 5-minute segment.

  12. High-resolution Sonographic Measurements of Lower Extremity Bursae in Chinese Healthy Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yan Gao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Using HR-US imaging, we were able to analyze lower extremity bursae with high detection rates in healthy young men. The normal ranges of lower extremity bursa dimensions in healthy young men measured by HR-US in this study could be used as reference values for evaluation of bursa abnormalities in the lower extremity.

  13. Energy expenditure during sexual activity in young healthy couples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Frappier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine energy expenditure in kilocalories (kcal during sexual activity in young healthy couples in their natural environment and compare it to a session of endurance exercise. METHODS: The study population consisted of twenty one heterosexual couples (age: 22.6 ± 2.8 years old from the Montreal region. Free living energy expenditure during sexual activity and the endurance exercise was measured using the portable mini SenseWear armband. Perceived energy expenditure, perception of effort, fatigue and pleasure were also assessed after sexual activity. All participants completed a 30 min endurance exercise session on a treadmill at a moderate intensity. RESULTS: Mean energy expenditure during sexual activity was 101 kCal or 4.2 kCal/min in men and 69.1 kCal or 3.1 kCal/min in women. In addition, mean intensity was 6.0 METS in men and 5.6 METS in women, which represents a moderate intensity. Moreover, the energy expenditure and intensity during the 30 min exercise session in men was 276 kCal or 9.2 kCal/min and 8.5 METS, respectively and in women 213 kCal or 7.1 kCal/min and 8.4 METS, respectively. Interestingly, the highest range value achieved by men for absolute energy expenditure can potentially be higher than that of the mean energy expenditure of the 30 min exercise session (i.e. 306.1 vs. 276 kCal, respectively whereas this was not observed in women. Finally, perceived energy expenditure during sexual activity was similar in men (100 kCal and in women (76.2 kCal when compared to measured energy expenditure. CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that energy expenditure during sexual activity appears to be approximately 85 kCal or 3.6 kCal/min and seems to be performed at a moderate intensity (5.8 METS in young healthy men and women. These results suggest that sexual activity may potentially be considered, at times, as a significant exercise.

  14. Varicocele among healthy young men in Turkey; prevalence and relationship with body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Soylemez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Varicocele is characterized by abnormal tortuosity and dilatation of the veins of the pampiniform plexus within the spermatic cord and is one of the causes related to male infertility. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between varicocele and somatometric parameters. We also aimed to determine prevalence and treatment ratio of this disorder among healthy young Turkish men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2061 young men aged from 19 to 34 years was enrolled and cross sectionally evaluated for status of varicocele. Body mass index was calculated. Patients were categorized as normal weight, overweight and obese using by National Institutes of Health criteria. Patients underwent physical examinations for the presence and grade of varicocele. If the varicocele was found and previously submitted to different treatment modalities, the age of treatment and outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: Varicocele was present in 498 men (24.2%. The mean age of the participants was 22.7 ± 1.8 years, and the median BMI was 22.8 ± 2.0 kg/m². There were no significant differences in age, height, weight and BMI among the patients with different grades of varicocele (p > 0.05. Although no significant difference was found in varicocele prevalence between normal weight and over-weight participants (p > 0.05, obese participants had significantly lower varicocele prevalence compared with normal or over weight participants (p = 0.006. A total of 49 men had scrotal pain and the treatment ratio was only 2.8%. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of varicocele was found in about 24% of healthy young Turkish population. Participants with varicocele had significantly lower BMI values compared with those without varicocele. Our findings supported the hypothesis that individuals with a greater BMI may have advantages in relieving the varicocele, but further studies are required to clarify this issue. Additionally treatment ratio was low among young men with varicocele.

  15. Thought-shape fusion in young healthy females appears after vivid imagination of thin ideals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyssen, Andrea; Coelho, Jennifer S; Wilhelm, Peter; Zimmermann, Grégoire; Munsch, Simone

    2016-09-01

    It has been shown that exposure to female thin ideals in media has minimal to moderate direct effects on body image satisfaction (BIS), mood and dysfunctional eating in healthy young women. Evidence has been found for several intervening variables such as social comparison processes. Accordingly it is assumed, that cognitive processing (rather than mere media exposure) is crucial. Consequently, vivid imagination of thin ideals after exposure to a fashion magazine was induced in order to trigger cognitive processes. Changes in mood, BIS and resulting bodyrelated cognitive distortions (Thought-Shape Fusion Body, TSF-B) were assessed. A total of 91 healthy women (mean age 21.9 years, SD = 2.0) were exposed to either a fashion magazine (thin-ideal group) or a nature magazine (control group) in a waiting room design. Afterwards they were instructed to vividly imagine either the thin ideals or landscapes. When exposed to thin ideals, a significant decrease in mood and BIS emerged after vivid imagination, but not after mere magazine exposure. Imagining thin ideals triggered body-related cognitive distortions (TSF-B). A higher degree of eating disorder (ED) symptomatology amplified this effect. These findings apply to young healthy females and cannot be generalized to samples with obesity, EDs or males. Internal validity is limited since the intensity of the exposure has not been systematically controlled. Vivid imagination of thin ideals promoted by magazines results in impaired mood and BIS and moreover in body-related cognitive distortions (TSF-B) in healthy women, especially, for those with stronger ED symptomatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm of the Pancreas in Young Male Patients: Three Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Aso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A preoperative diagnosis of solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs in young male patients is difficult to achieve using radiological images. We herein present three cases of young male patients with relatively small SPNs. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS showed well-encapsulated, smooth-surfaced, heterogeneous solid lesions in all patients, and all preoperative diagnoses were achieved by EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA. The final pathological diagnosis after surgery was an SPN with a Ki-67 labeling index of <2%. SPNs should be considered even in young male patients. EUS with EUS-FNA could be a useful diagnostic modality for SPNs even in young male patients.

  17. Acute effects of donepezil in healthy young adults underline the fractionation of executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginani, G E; Tufik, S; Bueno, O F A; Pradella-Hallinan, M; Rusted, J; Pompéia, S

    2011-11-01

    The cholinergic system is involved in the modulation of both bottom-up and top-down attentional control. Top-down attention engages multiple executive control processes, but few studies have investigated whether all or selective elements of executive functions are modulated by the cholinergic system. To investigate the acute effects of the pro-cholinergic donepezil in young, healthy volunteers on distinct components of executive functions we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, independent-groups design study including 42 young healthy male participants who were randomly assigned to one of three oral treatments: glucose (placebo), donepezil 5 mg or donepezil 7.5 mg. The test battery included measures of different executive components (shifting, updating, inhibition, dual-task performance, planning, access to long-term memory), tasks that evaluated arousal/vigilance/visuomotor performance, as well as functioning of working memory subsidiary systems. Donepezil improved sustained attention, reaction times, dual-task performance and the executive component of digit span. The positive effects in these executive tasks did not correlate with arousal/visuomotor/vigilance measures. Among the various executive domains investigated donepezil selectively increased dual-task performance in a manner that could not be ascribed to improvement in arousal/vigilance/visuomotor performance nor working memory slave systems. Other executive tasks that rely heavily on visuospatial processing may also be modulated by the cholinergic system.

  18. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Gerber, Markus; Kalak, Nadeem; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Calabrese, Pasquale; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5-3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA) at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT) as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD), and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females), 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females), and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females) took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy adolescents and healthy young adults, and equivalent levels of moderate-intensity PA and SD as young adults. MS patients reported lower levels of vigorous PA compared to both healthy adolescents and young adults. The pattern of the results of the present study suggests that the onset of MS is not associated with poor MT, poor sleep, or reduced moderate-intensity PA. Lower levels of vigorous PA were observed in MS patients. Low levels of vigorous PA may lead to decreased cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with MS and, in the long run, to reduced cardiovascular health and degraded psychological functioning.

  19. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Selective Attention in Healthy Male High-School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Wengaard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown associations of physical fitness and cognition in children and in younger and older adults. However, knowledge about associations in high-school adolescents and young adults is sparse. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of physical fitness, measured as maximal oxygen uptake (V·O2max, muscle mass, weekly training, and cognitive function in the executive domains of selective attention and inhibitory control, in healthy male high-school students.Methods: Fifty-four males (17.9 ± 0.9 years, 72 ± 11 kg and 182 ± 7 cm completed a V·O2max test, a body composition test and a visual cognitive task based on the Posner cue paradigm with three types of stimuli with different attentional demands (i.e., stimuli presentation following no cue, valid cue or invalid cue presentations. The task consisted of 336 target stimuli, where 56 (17% of the target stimuli appeared without a cue (no cue, 224 (67% appeared in the same rectangle as the cue (valid cue and 56 (17% appeared in the rectangle opposite to the cue (invalid cue. Mean reaction time (RT and corresponding errors was calculated for each stimuli type. Total task duration was 9 min and 20 s In addition, relevant background information was obtained in a questionnaire.Results: Linear mixed model analyses showed that higher V·O2max was associated with faster RT for stimuli following invalid cue (Estimate = −2.69, SE = 1.03, p = 0.011, and for stimuli following valid cue (Estimate = −2.08, SE = 1.03, p = 0.048. There was no association of muscle mass and stimuli (F = 1.01, p = 0.397 or of weekly training and stimuli (F = 0.99, p = 0.405.Conclusion: The results suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive performance in healthy male high-school students in the executive domains of selective attention.

  20. Acute kidney injury and hyperbilirubinemia in a young male after ingestion of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Margaret; Lazar, Ira; Nadasdy, Gyongyi M; Nadasdy, Tibor; Satoskar, Anjali A

    2015-03-01

    Acute tubular necrosis (ATN), especially from toxic injury is frequently accompanied by tubular casts and crystals. Myeloma casts, myoglobin, red blood cell and granular casts are well described. However, bile casts in tubules are rarely seen. We describe a case of Tribulus terrestris toxicity in a young healthy male, presenting with severe hyperbilirubinemia followed by acute renal failure and bile containing casts in the tubules. Tribulus terrestris is an herb often used by athletes as a nutritional supplement for performance enhancement. Although it is thought to be relatively safe, serious side effects have been reported before. Our aim is to increase awareness of the potential toxicities of performance enhancing herbal medications. These are often sold over-the-counter and therefore casually used, especially by young healthy individuals. Beneficial effects are controversial. Under-reporting by patients and infrequent documentation by health-care providers can delay diagnosis. We elaborately describe the kidney biopsy findings in Tribulus terrestris toxicity, and also provide a concise overview of the spectrum of tubular casts and their staining patterns, found in various kidney diseases.

  1. Association between oxidative stress index and serum lipid levels in healthy young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkdogan, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between lipid levels and oxidative stress index in healthy young adults. Methods: The study was camed out at the Department of Emergency Service, Faculty of Medicine, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey, between January 2011 and July 2012. A total of 100 healthy adult volunteers were enrolled in the study. Venous blood samples (10 ml) were collected from all individuals, and serum lipid parameters, total antioxidant capacity and total oxidative levels were studied. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Overall, there were 84 (84%) males and 16 (16%) females. The mean age of the male population was 30+-3 years, while that of the females was 31+-3 years. Overall age ranged from 25 to 35 years. A statistically significant correlation was found between the oxidative stress index and serum cholesterol (p<0.001; r=0.596), triglyceride (p<0.001; r=0.476) and low-density lipoprotein levels (p<0.001; r=0.318). However, no significant correlation was found between oxidative stress index and serum high-density lipoprotein levels (p=0.564; r=0.058). Conclusion: The results showed that even at an early age, there is a direct linear correlation between oxidative stress and serum lipid levels. (author)

  2. Glucose enhancement of memory is modulated by trait anxiety in healthy adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael A; Hii, Hilary L; Foster, Jonathan K; van Eekelen, J A M

    2011-01-01

    Glucose administration is associated with memory enhancement in healthy young individuals under conditions of divided attention at encoding. While the specific neurocognitive mechanisms underlying this 'glucose memory facilitation effect' are currently uncertain, it is thought that individual differences in glucoregulatory efficiency may alter an individual's sensitivity to the glucose memory facilitation effect. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function (itself a modulator of glucoregulatory efficiency), baseline self-reported stress and trait anxiety influence the glucose memory facilitation effect. Adolescent males (age range = 14-17 years) were administered glucose and placebo prior to completing a verbal episodic memory task on two separate testing days in a counter-balanced, within-subjects design. Glucose ingestion improved verbal episodic memory performance when memory recall was tested (i) within an hour of glucose ingestion and encoding, and (ii) one week subsequent to glucose ingestion and encoding. Basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function did not appear to influence the glucose memory facilitation effect; however, glucose ingestion only improved memory in participants reporting relatively higher trait anxiety. These findings suggest that the glucose memory facilitation effect may be mediated by biological mechanisms associated with trait anxiety.

  3. Cortisol reduces recall of explicit contextual pain memory in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwegler, Kyrill; Ettlin, Dominik; Buser, Iris; Klaghofer, Richard; Goetzmann, Lutz; Buddeberg, Claus; Alon, Eli; Brügger, Mike; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2010-09-01

    Remembering painful incidents has important adaptive value but may also contribute to clinical symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain states. Because glucocorticoids are known to impair memory retrieval processes, we investigated whether cortisol affects recall of previously experienced pain in healthy young men. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, 20 male participants were presented pictures, half of them combined with a heat-pain stimulus. The next day, the same pictures were shown in the absence of pain. Cortisol (20 mg) administered 1h before retention testing reduced recall of explicit contextual pain memory, whereas it did not affect pain threshold or pain tolerance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibition on neural activity related to risky decisions and monetary rewards in healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Fisher, Patrick M; Haahr, Mette E

    2014-01-01

    the involvement of the normally functioning 5HT-system in decision-making under risk and processing of monetary rewards. The data suggest that prolonged SSRI treatment might reduce emotional engagement by reducing the impact of risk during decision-making or the impact of reward during outcome evaluation.......Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine are commonly prescribed antidepressant drugs targeting the dysfunctional serotonin (5-HT) system, yet little is known about the functional effects of prolonged serotonin reuptake inhibition in healthy individuals. Here we used...... functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate how a three-week fluoxetine intervention influences neural activity related to risk taking and reward processing. Employing a double-blinded parallel-group design, 29 healthy young males were randomly assigned to receive 3 weeks of a daily dose of 40 mg fluoxetine...

  5. Molecular evaluation of vitamin D responsiveness of healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuter, Sabine; Virtanen, Jyrki K; Nurmi, Tarja; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Mursu, Jaakko; Voutilainen, Sari; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Neme, Antonio; Carlberg, Carsten

    2017-11-01

    Vitamin D 3 has via its metabolites 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (25(OH)D 3 ) and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ) direct effects on the transcriptome and the epigenome of most human cells. In the VitDbol study we exposed 35 healthy young adults to an oral vitamin D 3 dose (2000μg) or placebo and took blood samples directly before the supplementation as well as at days 1, 2 and 30. Within 24h the vitamin D 3 intake raised the average serum levels of both 25(OH)D 3 and 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 by approximately 20%. However, we observed large inter-individual differences in these serum levels, reflected by the average ratios between 25(OH)D 3 and 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 concentrations ranging from 277 to 1365. Interestingly, average serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels increased at day 1 by some 10% but then decreased within the following four weeks to levels 5% below baseline. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that were isolated at the same time points we determined vitamin D-modulated chromatin accessibility by FAIRE-qPCR at selected genomic loci. This method is well suited to evaluate both short-term and long-term in vivo effects of vitamin D on the epigenome of human subjects. The differential vitamin D responsiveness of the VitDbol study participants was determined via individual changes in their PTH levels or chromatin accessibility in relation to alterations in 25(OH)D 3 concentrations. This led to the segregation of the subjects into 14 high, 11 mid and 10 low responders. In summary, the vitamin D responsiveness classification provides additional information compared to a vitamin D status assessment based on single 25(OH)D 3 serum measurements. The study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02063334). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in healthy young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Tok

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It has been reported that the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is significantly elevated in patients with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<35 mg/dL. But in this study, some patients had hypertension that may have affected the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio. This study consisted of 1274 asymptomatic healthy young men. In contrast with the previous study, we investigated the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio in healthy young men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with controls. Methods: We studied 1274 asymptomatic young males (military personnel screening who underwent routine health check-up. Of them, 102 subjects had low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Results: The neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher among the men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than that of the control group (P < 0.001. Conclusion: We conclude that the neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is significantly elevated in asymptomatic healthy young men with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with control participants.

  7. CORRELATION BETWEEN BODY MASS INDEX AND HANDGRIP STRENGTH AND HANDGRIP ENDURANCE AMONG YOUNG HEALTHY ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity has become a serious problem all over the world. Handgrip Strength (a form of isometric static contraction test, is an important test to evaluate the physical fitness and nutritional status of an individua l. A number of factors like a ge, gender, body size, effort, skeletal muscle bulk and contractility may affect the handgrip strength (HGS and handgrip endurance (HGE. AIM: This study was conducted to establish the possible correlation (if any between body mass index and handgrip str ength and endurance among young healthy adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population based cross - sectional study comprising of 200 students (both male and female, age group - 18 - 22 yrs was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Jorhat Medical College. Anthropometric parameters like height and weight were taken to evaluate the BMI and handgrip strength and handgrip endurance were taken by using handgrip dynamometer. According to WHO classification of BMI, subjects were categorized into three groups as un derweight BMI ≤18.5 kg/m 2 , normal weight BMI 18.5 - 24.9 kg/m 2 and overweight BMI≥ 24.9 kg/m 2 . Gender wise difference was analyzed by unpaired t test. Statistical analysis for correlation was done by using Karl Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient denoted by(r. RESULT: Males had higher handgrip strength and handgrip endurance than females. Statistic ally significant correlation was found between BMI and handgrip strength & endurance in underweight & overweight subjects. Gender differences in correlation were observed in correlation between BMI & HGS and HGE. CONCLUSION: The observed influence of BMI a nd gender differences in correlation between BMI and HGS and HGE indicate that besides BMI several other factors like effort, strength, muscular contractility etc . affect muscular strength & endurance in young males and females.

  8. The barriers and enablers of healthy eating among young adults: a missing piece of the obesity puzzle: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munt, A E; Partridge, S R; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2017-01-01

    Young adults in Western countries are gaining weight faster than their parents and are more likely to gain weight than any other age cohort. Despite this, investigation into the complex young adults' food choice motives, which enable and prevent healthy eating, has not been widely investigated. A scoping review was conducted involving an extensive literature search of four major electronic databases: Medline, Embase, PsychInfo and CINAHL. Data were collected from 34 articles: study descriptions numerically analysed and key findings thematically analysed. The key barriers found included: male apathy towards diet; unhealthy diet of friends and family; expected consumption of unhealthy foods in certain situations; relative low cost of unhealthy foods; lack of time to plan, shop, prepare and cook healthy foods; lack of facilities to prepare, cook and store healthy foods; widespread presence of unhealthy foods; lack of knowledge and skills to plan, shop, prepare and cook healthy foods; lack of motivation to eat healthily (including risk-taking behaviour). The key enablers found included: female interest in a healthy diet; healthy diet of friends and family; support/encouragement of friends and family to eat healthy; desire for improved health; desire for weight management; desire for improved self-esteem; desire for attractiveness to potential partners and others; possessing autonomous motivation to eat healthy and existence and use of self-regulatory skills. This research provides evidence that can be used to tailor interventions for healthy eating and overweight and obesity in this population. However, government intervention in addressing food access, affordability, marketing and taxation remains essential to any significant change. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  9. Negative Social Contextual Stressors and Somatic Symptoms Among Young Black Males: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Lionel D.; McCoy, Henrika

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether negative social contextual stressors were associated with somatic symptoms among young Black males (N = 74) after accounting for background and psychological characteristics. Using Cunningham and Spencer’s Black Male Experiences Measure, negative social contextual stressors connoted those experiences connected to the personal attributes, devaluation, and negative imagery of young Black males, such as being followed when entering a store or police or security guards...

  10. Safety of a New Compact Male Intermittent Catheter: Randomized, Cross-Over, Single-Blind Study in Healthy Male Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, Per; Hannibalsen, Jane; Permild, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    in hematuria (p = 0.54) or discomfort/stinging/pain at first micturition (p = 0.56). During insertion, handling was easier (p = 0.0001) and touching the coating was necessary less often (2.2 vs. 81.3% of catheterizations; p catheter; it was preferred by nurses for 20 of 23......Introduction: A new compact male intermittent catheter was compared with a regular intermittent male catheter in terms of safety and acceptability. Methods: In this randomized, single-blind, cross-over study, healthy male volunteers were catheterized twice with a compact catheter and twice...... with a regular catheter. Results: 28 participants were enrolled. Mean ± SD discomfort (visual analogue scale; primary objective) was 2.25 ± 1.5 and 2.52 ± 1.8 for the compact and regular catheters, respectively (difference -0.27; 95% confidence interval -0.73 to 0.19); there was no significant difference...

  11. Correlation between spirometry values and pulmonary artery pressure in young healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Alon; Benderly, Michal; Prokupetz, Alex; Gordon, Barak; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra

    2014-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is frequently associated with parenchymal lung disease. We evaluated the association between spirometry values and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) in young subjects without lung disease : We studied applicants to the Israeli Air Force, who undergo routine evaluation that includes resting spirometry and echocardiography. Applicants with overt lung disease were excluded. All echocardiographic studies performed in the years 1994 through 2010 (n = 6,598) were screened, and files that included PASP and spirometry values were analyzed for the association between PASP and FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, peak expiratory flow, and forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the FVC maneuver. Of the 647 air force applicants who underwent echocardiography in which PASP was measurable and had spirometry data, 607 (94%) were male, and their average age was 18.16 ± 0.73 years. Mean PASP was 26.4 ± 5.2 mm Hg (range 10-41 mm Hg). None of the spirometry values significantly correlated with PASP. PASP in young healthy subjects is not significantly associated with spirometry values. Lung mechanics probably do not contribute significantly to PASP in this population.

  12. Experiences in Healthy Dieting of Male College Students with Obesity in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to describe and understand experiences of healthy dieting in male college students with obesity. Methods The interview data were collected from nine male students and analyzed by using descriptive phenomenology of Colaizzi. The procedural steps described the phenomenon of interest, collected participants' descriptions of the phenomenon, extracted the meaning of significant statements, organized the meanings into clusters, wrote exhaustive descriptions,...

  13. Effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation on anthropometric measurements & muscular strength in healthy males following chronic resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghar Eslami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Enhanced muscle strength is seen when resistance exercise is combined with the consumption of nutritional supplements. Although there is a limited number of studies available about the efficacy of gamma oryzanol supplementation with resistance exercise in humans, but its usage as a nutritional supplement for strength is common in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation during 9-week resistance training on muscular strength and anthropometric measurements of young healthy males. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, changes of anthropometric measurements and muscular strength were studied after chronic resistance exercise and gamma oryzanol supplementation in 30 healthy volunteers (16 in supplement and 14 in placebo. Each day, gamma oryzanol supplement (600 mg and placebo (the same amount of lactose were consumed after training. The participants exercised with 80 per cent 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM, for one hour and four days/week. Anthropometric measurements and subjects′ 1-RM for muscular strength were determined at the commencement and end of the 9-week study. Results: There was no significant difference between the baseline characteristics and target variables at baseline between the two groups. After gamma oryzanol supplementation, there was no significant difference in the means of anthropometric and skin fold measurements between the supplement and placebo groups. However, there were significant differences between the supplement and placebo groups for 1-RM of bench press and leg curl, which showed that gamma oryzanol improved muscle strength following resistance training. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicated that 600 mg/day gamma oryzanol supplementation during the 9-week resistance training did not change anthropometric and body measurements, but it increased muscular strength in young healthy males. Further, studies need to be done

  14. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón; Jorge E Chavarro; Jaime Mendiola; Manuela Roca; Cigdem Tanrikut; Jesús Vioque; Niels Jørgensen; Alberto M Torres-Cantero

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may inlfuence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this ifeld has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross‑sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega‑6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (Ptrend=0.01 and 0.02, respectively). The intake of omega‑3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega‑6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may inlfuence testicular function.

  15. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may influence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this field has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross-sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (P trend = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively. The intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may influence testicular function.

  16. Healthy Behaviors and Lifestyles in Young Adults with a History of Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Schendel, Diana; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Measure select Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators in young adults with and without a history of developmental disabilities (DD) using a population-based cohort. Methods: Young adults were interviewed to assess the prevalence of seven Leading Health Indicators: physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance…

  17. Stage-Based Healthy Lifestyles Program for Non-College Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer; Kattelmann, Kendra; White, Adrienne

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the feasibility of implementing a healthy lifestyles intervention to maintain or achieve healthy weight for low-income young adults in vocational education. Design/methodology/approach: Non-randomized, quasi-experimental feasibility test of a ten-week intervention with follow-up assessment designed…

  18. Effecting Healthy Lifestyle Changes in Overweight and Obese Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Marjorie; Clark, Lauren; Eldredge, Alison; Cardell, Beth; Jordan, Kristine; Chambless, Cathy; Burley, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated a 12-week recreation center-based healthy lifestyle intervention for 30 obese home-dwelling young adults (YA) with intellectual disabilities. Three cohorts participated: YA only, YA and parents, and parents only. The YA cohorts received a nutrition/exercise intervention; parents focused on modeling healthy lifestyle behaviors.…

  19. Informal Mealtime Pedagogies: Exploring the Influence of Family Structure on Young People's Healthy Eating Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarmby, Thomas; Dagkas, Symeon

    2015-01-01

    Families are increasingly recognised as informal sites of learning, especially with regard to healthy eating. Through the use of Bourdieu's conceptual tools, this paper explores the role of family meals within different family structures and the informal pedagogic encounters that take place. How they help to construct young people's healthy eating…

  20. Effects of short-term testosterone replacement on areal bone mineral density and bone turnover in young hypogonadal males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun Deb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effect of parenteral testosterone esters administration on bone-mineral density (BMD and bone turnover in young age onset male hypogonadism is not studied in Indian subjects. Aims: To prospectively study the effect of short-term (6 months replacement therapy with parenteral testosterone enanthate-propionate combination on BMD and bone turnover markers in hypogonadal adult patients. Settings and Design: Prospective, tertiary care academic center. Materials and Methods: Thirteen young, otherwise healthy hypogonadal males (age 25.5 ± 4.9 yrs, serum testosterone 2.56 ± 4.29 nmol/l were subjected to BMD measurements (DXA and estimation of urinary Crosslaps™ and serum osteocalcin at baseline. Twelve healthy age and BMI-matched males served as controls for BMD measurements. The hypogonadal patients were administered parenteral testosterone esters (as mixed enanthate and propionate 250 mg i.m. every 2-3 weeks, and prospectively followed for 6 months. BMD and bone markers were studied at the end of 6 months. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney nonparametric test, paired t-test and Pearson′s test of two-tail significance. Results: At baseline, BMD was significantly lower in hypogonadal males as compared to that in controls. With testosterone replacement, there was significant improvement in BMD, both at trabecular and cortical sites, There was a decline in bone turnover with treatment (Ur Crosslaps™:creatinine ratio: pretreatment 72.8 ± 40.4, post-treatment 35.5 ± 23.8 μg/mmol, P = 0.098; serum osteocalcin: pre-treatment 41.0 ± 16.8, post-treatment 31.7 ± 2.1 ng/ml, P = 0.393. Conclusions: Short-term parenteral testosterone replacement significantly improves BMD at the hip, lumbar spine and forearm in hypogonadal young males.

  1. Bone mineral density of lumbar spine and proximal femur in healthy males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akin, S.; Isikli, S.; Korkusuz, F.; Ungan, M.; Senkoylu, A.

    2004-01-01

    Relationship between BMD and age at lumbar spine and proximal femur in Turkish males was investigated. Two hundred ninety healthy males (aged 20-59 years) were investigated. BMD of the lumbar spine had its peak at ages 30-39, however, the peak for the proximal femur was between the ages of 20 and 29. There was a significant decrease in BMD at proximal femur after these peak values with increasing age. There was a significant correlation between age and the proximal femoral BMD in males and age has a strong predictive power on proximal femur BMD score. (author)

  2. Young adult males' motivators and perceived barrier towards eating healthily and being active: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a lack of understanding of young men's perspectives in obesity-related research. This study aims to: (1) identify young men's perceived motivators and barriers in adopting healthy eating and physical activity behaviors, and (2) explore any differences in responses by weight status categorie...

  3. In-vivo Kinetics of Silymarin (Milk Thistle) on Healthy Male Volunteers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as the test product while another silymarin tablet brand, Silliver® (Abbott Laboratories Pak Ltd) was the reference product. The tablets were administered to healthy male volunteers orally at a dose of 200 mg following an overnight fast according to a randomized cross-over design. Scheduled blood samples were collected ...

  4. Normal Patterns of Deja Experience in a Healthy, Blind Male: Challenging Optical Pathway Delay Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Akira R.; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old healthy, blind male, MT, who experiences normal patterns of deja vu. The optical pathway delay theory of deja vu formation assumes that neuronal input from the optical pathways is necessary for the formation of the experience. Surprisingly, although the sensation of deja vu is known to be experienced by blind…

  5. Neuroanatomical correlates of intelligence in healthy young adults: the role of basal ganglia volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Cosima; Mühle, Christiane; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Doerfler, Arnd; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    In neuropsychiatric diseases with basal ganglia involvement, higher cognitive functions are often impaired. In this exploratory study, we examined healthy young adults to gain detailed insight into the relationship between basal ganglia volume and cognitive abilities under non-pathological conditions. We investigated 137 healthy adults that were between the ages of 21 and 35 years with similar educational backgrounds. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and volumes of basal ganglia nuclei in both hemispheres were calculated using FreeSurfer software. The cognitive assessment consisted of verbal, numeric and figural aspects of intelligence for either the fluid or the crystallised intelligence factor using the intelligence test Intelligenz-Struktur-Test (I-S-T 2000 R). Our data revealed significant correlations of the caudate nucleus and pallidum volumes with figural and numeric aspects of intelligence, but not with verbal intelligence. Interestingly, figural intelligence associations were dependent on sex and intelligence factor; in females, the pallidum volumes were correlated with crystallised figural intelligence (r = 0.372, p = 0.01), whereas in males, the caudate volumes were correlated with fluid figural intelligence (r = 0.507, p = 0.01). Numeric intelligence was correlated with right-lateralised caudate nucleus volumes for both females and males, but only for crystallised intelligence (r = 0.306, p = 0.04 and r = 0.459, p = 0.04, respectively). The associations were not mediated by prefrontal cortical subfield volumes when controlling with partial correlation analyses. The findings of our exploratory analysis indicate that figural and numeric intelligence aspects, but not verbal aspects, are strongly associated with basal ganglia volumes. Unlike numeric intelligence, the type of figural intelligence appears to be related to distinct basal ganglia nuclei in a sex-specific manner. Subcortical brain structures thus may contribute substantially to

  6. Reference ranges for lymphocyte subsets in healthy adult male Oman is

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jabri, Ali A.; Al-Shukaili, Ahmed K.; Al-Rashdi, Zowaina T.; Ganguly, Shyam S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to determine the reference ranges of lymphocyte subsets in serologically HIV-seronegative healthy male adults in Oman. A cohort, of 118 healthy male blood donors ranging in age from 18-51 years, was included in the study. The average was 25 years. Blood samples collected into tubes containing ethylene-diamine-tetra acetic acid were investigated for lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometer. This study was conducted in the Immunology Laboratory of Sultan Qaboos University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Muscat, Oman during the year 2006. For the 118 males investigated, the mean percentage and absolute values of the lymphocyte subsets were as follows: Cd3: 68.53+-7.5%, 1701+-489 cells/ul; CD8: 25.8+-5.9%, 638+-225 cells/ul; CD19: 13.7+-4.7%, 349+-158 cells/ul, CD56: 12.2+-6.7%, 308+-204 cells/ul. The ratio of CD4/CD8 was 1.6. Immunophenotyping has been used to establish reference values of lymphocyte subsets in normal healthy adult males in Oman. The Omani male reference values obtained in this study show wide variations compared with kits values previously used as reference. (author)

  7. Mental toughness, sleep disturbances, and physical activity in patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Bahmani D

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,1 Markus Gerber,2 Nadeem Kalak,1 Sakari Lemola,3 Peter J Clough,4 Pasquale Calabrese,5 Vahid Shaygannejad,6 Uwe Pühse,2 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,1 Serge Brand1,2 1Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 2Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, Coventry, 4Department of Psychology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK; 5Division of Molecular and Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Department of Neurology and Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common chronic autoimmune demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, afflicting both the body and mind. The risk of suffering from MS is 2.5–3.5 times greater in females than in males. While there is extant research on fatigue, depression, and cognitive impairment in patients with MS during its clinical course, there is a lack of research focusing on sleep, psychological functioning, and physical activity (PA at the point of disease onset. The aims of the present study were therefore, to assess the markers of mental toughness (MT as a dimension of psychological functioning, sleep disturbances (SD, and PA among patients at the moment of disease onset and to compare these with the corresponding values for healthy adolescents and young adults. Methods: A total of 23 patients with MS at disease onset (mean age =32.31 years; 91% females, 23 healthy adolescents (mean age =17.43 years; 82% females, and 25 healthy young adults (mean age =20.72 years; 80% females took part in the study. They completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, MT, SD, and PA. Results: Patients with MS had similar scores for MT traits as those in healthy

  8. Bone mineral density in lifelong trained male football players compared with young and elderly untrained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hagman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the present controlled cross-sectional study was to investigate proximal femur and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD, as well as bone turnover profile, in lifelong trained elderly male football players and young elite football players compared with untrained age-matched men. Methods: One hundred and forty healthy, non-smoking men participated in the study, including lifelong trained football players (FTE, n = 35 aged 65–80 years, elite football players (FTY, n = 35 aged 18–30 years, as well as untrained age-matched elderly (UE, n = 35 and young (UY, n = 35 men. All participants underwent a regional dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA scan of the proximal femur and a whole-body DXA scan to determine BMD. From a resting blood sample, the bone turnover markers (BTMs osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal type-1 collagen crosslinks (CTX-1, procollagen type-1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP, and sclerostin were measured. Results: FTE had 7.3%–12.9% higher (p < 0.05 BMD of the femoral neck, wards, shaft, and total proximal femur in both legs compared to UE, and 9.3%–9.7% higher (p < 0.05 BMD in femoral trochanter in both legs compared to UY. FTY had 24.3%–37.4% higher (p < 0.001 BMD in all femoral regions and total proximal femur in both legs compared to UY. The whole-body DXA scan confirmed these results, with FTE showing similar whole-body BMD and 7.9% higher (p < 0.05 leg BMD compared to UY, and with FTY having 9.6% higher (p < 0.001 whole-body BMD and 18.2% higher (p < 0.001 leg BMD compared to UY. The plasma concentration of osteocalcin, CTX-1, and P1NP were 29%, 53%, and 52% higher (p < 0.01, respectively, in FTY compared to UY. Conclusion: BMD of the proximal femur and whole-body BMD are markedly higher in lifelong trained male football players aged 65–80 years and young elite football players aged 18–30 years compared to age-matched untrained men. Elderly football

  9. Evaluation of vocal fold vibration with an assessment form for high-speed digital imaging: comparative study between healthy young and elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Nito, Takaharu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Goto, Takao; Takano, Shingo; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Tayama, Niro

    2012-11-01

    We conducted a prospective study with a subjective assessment form for high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) to elucidate the features of vocal fold vibrations in vocally healthy subjects and to clarify gender- and age-related differences. Healthy adult volunteers participated in this study. They were divided into young (aged 35 and younger) and elderly (aged 65 and older) groups, and the scores of an assessment form for HSDI characteristics elaborated at our institution were statistically analyzed. Twenty-six young subjects (males: 9, females: 17; mean age: 27 years) and 20 elderly subjects (males: 8, females: 12; mean age: 72 years) were assigned to our study. Posterior gap and posterior-to-anterior longitudinal phase difference were characteristic to young females, whereas in young males, mucosal wave, anterior-to-posterior longitudinal phase difference, and supraglottic hyperactivity were frequent. In elderly males, axis shift, asymmetry, supraglottic hyperactivity, increased mucosal wave, lateral phase difference, and anterior-to-posterior longitudinal phase difference were frequent; and in elderly females, high incidence of lateral phase difference, atrophic change, anterior gap, and asymmetry were observed. The results show that the behaviors of vocal fold vibrations were diverse even in healthy subjects with no vocal complaints or history of laryngeal diseases, and hence, the diversity of vocal fold vibrations in normal subjects must be taken into account in evaluating vocal fold vibrations. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A descriptive study on selected growth parameters and growth hormone receptor gene in healthy young adults from the American Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartin, Samantha N; Hossain, Waheeda A; Manzardo, Ann M; Brown, Shaquanna; Fite, Paula J; Bortolato, Marco; Butler, Merlin G

    2018-02-12

    The first study of growth hormone receptor (GHR) genotypes in healthy young adults in the United States attending a Midwestern university and impact on selected growth parameters. To describe the frequency of GHR genotypes in a sample of healthy young adults from the United States attending a university in the Midwest and analyze the relationship between GHR genotypes and selected growth parameters. Saliva was collected from 459 healthy young adults (237 females, 222 males; age range = 18-25 y) and DNA isolated for genotyping of GHR alleles (fl/fl, fl/d3, or d3/d3). Selected growth parameters were collected and GHR genotype data examined for previously reported associations (e.g., height, weight or bone mass density) or novel findings (e.g., % body water and index finger length). We found 219 participants (48%) homozygous for fl/fl, 203 (44%), heterozygous fl/d3 and 37 (8%) homozygous d3/d3. The distribution of GHR genotypes in our participants was consistent with previous reports of non-US populations. Several anthropometric measures differed by sex. The distribution of GHR genotypes did not significantly differ by sex, weight, or other anthropometric measures. However, the fl/d3 genotype was more common among African-Americans. Our study of growth and anthropometric parameters in relationship to GHR genotypes found no association with height, weight, right index finger length, BMI, bone mass density, % body fat or % body water in healthy young adults. We did identify sex differences with increased body fat, decreased bone density, body water and index finger length in females. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Peculiarities of brain electric activity in young males and females of different creativity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermakov, Pavel N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that the peculiarities of divergent and convergent thinking in young males and females of various creativity levels are stipulated by a definite EEG frequency-and-spatial arrangement. Young males and females of mixed and left lateral arrangement profiles demonstrate an expressed activity of occipital, central, and temporal areas of both cerebral hemispheres. In young males and females of right LAP (lateral arrangement profile, connections are clearly localized in case of solution of both convergent and divergent tasks. Solution of divergent and convergent tasks may condition certain frequency-and-spatial arrangement of EEG in young males and females with different levels of academic progress and a different lateral arrangement profile (LAP.

  13. Glucose enhancement of memory is modulated by trait anxiety in healthy adolescent males

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Michael; Hii, Hilary; Foster, Jonathan; van Eekelen, Anke

    2011-01-01

    Glucose administration is associated with memory enhancement in healthy young individuals under conditions of divided attention at encoding. While the specific neurocognitive mechanisms underlying this ‘glucose memory facilitation effect’ are currently uncertain, it is thought that individual differences in glucoregulatory efficiency may alter an individual’s sensitivity to the glucose memory facilitation effect. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether basal hypothalamic–pituit...

  14. Type 2 diabetes family histories, body composition and fasting glucose levels: a cross-section analysis in healthy sedentary male and female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Antonino; Pomara, Francesco; Thomas, Ewan; Paoli, Antonio; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Petrucci, Marco; Proia, Patrizia; Bellafiore, Marianna; Palma, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes type 2 is a world wide spread disease with a multifactorial pathogenetic evolution. Various factors like obesity, physical inactivity and poor lifestyle habits contribute to its development. The aim of this study was to verify if in young healthy sedentary male and female there is positive correlation between family history to type 2 diabetes and an increase in body weight and fat mass, or alterations in basal glycemia values. Totally183 male and 237 female healthy sedentary subjects were analysed in 2012, in Italy. They were divided in three groups: FH(+) with first degree family history, FH(++) with second degree family history and FH(-) with no family history. Anthropometrics, body composition and blood parameters were assessed. Male had the highest BMI values (Plife-style changes, such as increased physical activity and controlled quantity and quality of food intake.

  15. Investigating Young Children's Perceptions of Body Size and Healthy Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Nerren, Jannah S.

    2017-01-01

    Attitudes and biases toward body size perceived as fat and body size perceived as thin are present in young children (Cramer and Steinwert in "J Appl Dev Psychol" 19(3):429-451, 1998; Worobey and Worobey in "Body Image" 11:171-174, 2014). However, the information children have regarding body size and ways to modify body size…

  16. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibition on neural activity related to risky decisions and monetary rewards in healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Fisher, Patrick M; Haahr, Mette E

    2014-01-01

    the involvement of the normally functioning 5HT-system in decision-making under risk and processing of monetary rewards. The data suggest that prolonged SSRI treatment might reduce emotional engagement by reducing the impact of risk during decision-making or the impact of reward during outcome evaluation....... to placebo, the SSRI intervention did not alter individual risk-choice preferences, but modified neural activity during decision-making and reward processing: During the choice phase, SSRI reduced the neural response to increasing risk in lateral orbitofrontal cortex, a key structure for value-based decision-making...... functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate how a three-week fluoxetine intervention influences neural activity related to risk taking and reward processing. Employing a double-blinded parallel-group design, 29 healthy young males were randomly assigned to receive 3 weeks of a daily dose of 40 mg fluoxetine...

  17. PPARα L162V underlies variation in serum triglycerides and subcutaneous fat volume in young males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarkson Priscilla M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the five sub-phenotypes defining metabolic syndrome, all are known to have strong genetic components (typically 50–80% of population variation. Studies defining genetic predispositions have typically focused on older populations with metabolic syndrome and/or type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that the study of younger populations would mitigate many confounding variables, and allow us to better define genetic predisposition loci for metabolic syndrome. Methods We studied 610 young adult volunteers (average age 24 yrs for metabolic syndrome markers, and volumetric MRI of upper arm muscle, bone, and fat pre- and post-unilateral resistance training. Results We found the PPARα L162V polymorphism to be a strong determinant of serum triglyceride levels in young White males, where carriers of the V allele showed 78% increase in triglycerides relative to L homozygotes (LL = 116 ± 11 mg/dL, LV = 208 ± 30 mg/dL; p = 0.004. Men with the V allele showed lower HDL (LL = 42 ± 1 mg/dL, LV = 34 ± 2 mg/dL; p = 0.001, but women did not. Subcutaneous fat volume was higher in males carrying the V allele, however, exercise training increased fat volume of the untrained arm in V carriers, while LL genotypes significantly decreased in fat volume (LL = -1,707 ± 21 mm3, LV = 17,617 ± 58 mm3 ; p = 0.002, indicating a systemic effect of the V allele on adiposity after unilateral training. Our study suggests that the primary effect of PPARα L162V is on serum triglycerides, with downstream effects on adiposity and response to training. Conclusion Our results on association of PPARα and triglycerides in males showed a much larger effect of the V allele than previously reported in older and less healthy populations. Specifically, we showed the V allele to increase triglycerides by 78% (p = 0.004, and this single polymorphism accounted for 3.8% of all variation in serum triglycerides in males (p = 0.0037.

  18. On the ecosystemic network of saliva in healthy young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaura, Egija; Brandt, Bernd W.; Prodan, Andrei; Teixeira De Mattos, Maarten Joost; Imangaliyev, Sultan; Kool, Jolanda; Buijs, Mark J.; Jagers, Ferry L.P.W.; Hennequin-Hoenderdos, Nienke L.; Slot, Dagmar E.; Fernandez Gutierrez, Maria; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2017-01-01

    A dysbiotic state is believed to be a key factor in the onset of oral disease. Although oral diseases have been studied for decades, our understanding of oral health, the boundaries of a healthy oral ecosystem and ecological shift toward dysbiosis is still limited. Here, we present the

  19. Autobiographical memory after acute stress in healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tollenaar, M.S.; Elzinga, B.M.; Spinhoven, P.; Everaerd, W.

    2009-01-01

    Autobiographical memories have been found to be less specific after hydrocortisone administration in healthy men, resembling memory deficits in, for example, depression. This is the first study to investigate the effects of stress-induced elevated cortisol levels on autobiographic memory specificity

  20. The effect of BCMO1 gene variants on macular pigment optical density in young healthy Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary eKyle-Little

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Serum lutein (L and zeaxanthin (Z positively correlate with macular pigment optical density (MPOD, hence the latter is a valuable indirect tool for measuring L and Z content in the macula. L and Z have been attributed antioxidant capacity and protection from certain retinal diseases but their uptake within the eye is thought to depend on genetic, age and environmental factors. In particular gene variants within beta-carotene monooxygenase (BCMO1 are thought to modulate MPOD in the macula.Objectives: To determine the effect of BCMO1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs11645428, rs6420424 and rs6464851 on macular pigment optical density (MPOD in a cohort of young healthy participants of Caucasian origin with normal ocular health.Design: In this cohort study, MPOD was assessed in 46 healthy participants (22 male and 24 female with a mean age of 24 ± 4.0 years (range 19-33. The three SNPs, rs11645428, rs6420424, rs6564851 that have established associations with MPOD were determined using MassEXTEND (hME Sequenom assay. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed on groups segregated into homozygous and heterozygous BCMO1 genotypes. Correlations between body mass index (BMI, iris colour, gender, central retinal thickness (CRT, diet and MPOD were investigated.Results: MPOD did not significantly vary with BCMO1 rs11645428 (F2,41 = 0.700, p = 0.503, rs6420424 (F2,41 = 0.210, p = 0.801 nor rs6464851 homozygous or heterozygous genotypes (F2,41 = 0,13, p = 0.88, in this young healthy cohort. The combination of these three SNPs into triple genotypes based on plasma conversion efficiency did not affect MPOD (F2,41 = 0.07, p = 0.9. There was a significant negative correlation with MPOD and central retinal thickness (r = - 0.39, p = 0.01 but no significant correlation between BMI, iris colour, gender and MPOD. Conclusion: Our results indicate that macular pigment deposition within the central retina is not dependent on BCMO1 gene variant

  1. Developmental trajectories of cerebrovascular reactivity in healthy children and young adults assessed with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jackie; Kosinski, Przemyslaw D; Croal, Paula L; Kassner, Andrea

    2016-05-15

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) reflects the vasodilatory reserve of cerebral resistance vessels. Normal development in children is associated with significant changes in blood pressure, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen metabolism. Therefore, it stands to reason that CVR will also undergo changes during this period. The study acquired magnetic resonance imaging measures of CVR and CBF in healthy children and young adults to trace their changes with age. We found that CVR changes in two phases, increasing with age until the mid-teens, followed by a decrease. Baseline CBF declined steadily with age. We conclude that CVR varies with age during childhood, which prompts future CVR studies involving children to take into account the effect of development. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) reflects the vasculature's ability to accommodate changes in blood flow demand thereby serving as a critical imaging tool for mapping vascular reserve. Normal development is associated with extensive physiological changes in blood pressure, cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, all of which can affect CVR. Moreover, the evolution of these physiological parameters is most prominent during childhood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to characterize the developmental trajectories of CVR in healthy children and young adults, and relate them to changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF). Thirty-four healthy subjects (17 males, 17 females; age 9-30 years) underwent CVR assessment using blood oxygen level-dependent MRI in combination with a computer controlled CO2 stimulus. In addition, baseline CBF was measured with a pulsed arterial spin labelling sequence. CVR exhibited a gradual increase with age in both grey and white matter up to 14.7 years. After this break point, a negative correlation with age was detected. Baseline CBF maintained a consistent negative linear correlation across the entire age range

  2. Enabling all young Australians to grow up safe, happy, healthy and resilient: a Collaboration for Young People, Technology and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes a framework for a multi-disciplinary collaboration to investigate the role of technology for improving young Australians' mental health and wellbeing. The poor mental health of young Australians poses a significant challenge to Australia's future. Half of all Australians will experience a mental health difficulty in their lifetime and 75% of mental illness has its onset before age 25. Cross-sectoral collaboration is critical for meeting this challenge. In order to establish a world-first multi-partner collaboration, leading researchers and institutes, commercial, non-profit and end-user organization and young people were identified and invited to participate. Together we have developed an international research framework that explores the role of technologies in young people's lives, their potential and how this can be harnessed to address challenges facing young people. This research framework will: (i) conduct empirical research that tests the utility of technology across mental health promotion, prevention, early intervention and treatment and, (ii) translate existing and new knowledge into products and services that help create a generation of safe, happy, healthy and resilient young people. Research undertaken by the Collaboration will be the most comprehensive investigation of technologies' potential to improve the wellbeing of young people ever conducted, leading to significant benefits for Australian young people and their mental health.

  3. Finger tapping ability in healthy elderly and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Tomoko; Fukuoka, Yoshiyuki

    2010-03-01

    The maximum isometric force production capacity of the fingers decreases with age. However, little information is available on age-related changes in dynamic motor capacity of individual fingers. The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic motor function of individual fingers between elderly and young adults using rapid single-finger and double-finger tapping. Fourteen elderly and 14 young adults performed maximum frequency tapping by the index, middle, ring, or little finger (single-finger tapping) and with alternate movements of the index-middle, middle-ring, or ring-little finger-pair (double-finger tapping). The maximum pinch force between the thumb and each finger, tactile sensitivity of each fingertip, and time taken to complete a pegboard test were also measured. Compared with young subjects, the older subjects had significantly slower tapping rates in all fingers and finger-pairs in the tapping tasks. The age-related decline was also observed in the tactile sensitivities of all fingers and in the pegboard test. However, there was no group difference in the pinch force of any finger. The tapping rate of each finger did not correlate with the pinch force or tactile sensitivity for the corresponding finger in the elderly subjects. Maximum rate of finger tapping was lower in the elderly adults compared with the young adults. The decline of finger tapping ability in elderly adults seems to be less affected by their maximum force production capacities of the fingers as well as tactile sensitivities at the tips of the fingers.

  4. Podophyllin induced urethral stricture in a young Nigerian male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urethral stricture is an abnormal narrowing or loss of distensibility due to fibrosis in the peri-urethral tissues. Some substances can induce chemical urethritis severe enough to cause stricture. We present a case of long segment anterior urethral stricture in a young Nigerian patient cause by self-application of podophyllin for ...

  5. Podophyllin induced urethral stricture in a young Nigerian male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.O. Areo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Urethral stricture is an abnormal narrowing or loss of distensibility due to fibrosis in the peri-urethral tissues. Some substances can induce chemical urethritis severe enough to cause stricture. We present a case of long segment anterior urethral stricture in a young Nigerian patient cause by self-application of podophyllin for the treatment of genital warts.

  6. Sustainable healthy eating behaviour of young adults: towards a novel methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Żakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Kostyra, Eliza; Raats, Monique

    2016-07-15

    Food, nutrition and health policy makers are poised with two pertinent issues more than any other: obesity and climate change. Consumer research has focused primarily on specific areas of sustainable food, such as organic food, local or traditional food, meat substitution and/or reduction. More holistic view of sustainable healthy eating behaviour has received less attention, albeit that more research is emerging in this area. This study protocol that aims to investigate young consumers' attitudes and behaviour towards sustainable and healthy eating by applying a multidisciplinary approach, taking into account economical, marketing, public health and environmental related issues. In order to achieve this goal, consumers' reactions on interactive tailored informational messages about sustainable from social, environmental and economical point of view, as well as healthy eating behaviour in a group of young adults will be investigated using randomized controlled trial. To undertake the objective, the empirical research is divided into three studies: 1) Qualitative longitudinal research to explore openness to adopting sustainable healthy eating behaviour; 2) Qualitative research with the objective to develop a sustainable healthy eating behaviour index; and 3) Randomised controlled trial to describe consumers' reactions on interactive tailored messages about sustainable healthy eating in young consumers. To our knowledge, this is the first randomised controlled trial to test the young adults reactions to interactive tailor made messages on sustainable healthy eating using mobile smartphone app. Mobile applications designed to deliver intervention offer new possibilities to influence young adults behaviour in relation to diet and sustainability. Therefore, the study will provide valuable insights into drivers of change towards more environmentally sustainable and healthy eating behaviours. NCT02776410 registered May 16, 2016.

  7. Sustainable healthy eating behaviour of young adults: towards a novel methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Pieniak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food, nutrition and health policy makers are poised with two pertinent issues more than any other: obesity and climate change. Consumer research has focused primarily on specific areas of sustainable food, such as organic food, local or traditional food, meat substitution and/or reduction. More holistic view of sustainable healthy eating behaviour has received less attention, albeit that more research is emerging in this area. Methods/design This study protocol that aims to investigate young consumers’ attitudes and behaviour towards sustainable and healthy eating by applying a multidisciplinary approach, taking into account economical, marketing, public health and environmental related issues. In order to achieve this goal, consumers’ reactions on interactive tailored informational messages about sustainable from social, environmental and economical point of view, as well as healthy eating behaviour in a group of young adults will be investigated using randomized controlled trial. To undertake the objective, the empirical research is divided into three studies: 1 Qualitative longitudinal research to explore openness to adopting sustainable healthy eating behaviour; 2 Qualitative research with the objective to develop a sustainable healthy eating behaviour index; and 3 Randomised controlled trial to describe consumers’ reactions on interactive tailored messages about sustainable healthy eating in young consumers. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first randomised controlled trial to test the young adults reactions to interactive tailor made messages on sustainable healthy eating using mobile smartphone app. Mobile applications designed to deliver intervention offer new possibilities to influence young adults behaviour in relation to diet and sustainability. Therefore, the study will provide valuable insights into drivers of change towards more environmentally sustainable and healthy eating behaviours. Trial

  8. Left ventricular function during acute high-altitude exposure in a large group of healthy young Chinese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Rao

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to observe left ventricular function during acute high-altitude exposure in a large group of healthy young males.A prospective trial was conducted in Szechwan and Tibet from June to August, 2012. By Doppler echocardiography, left ventricular function was examined in 139 healthy young Chinese men at sea level; within 24 hours after arrival in Lhasa, Tibet, at 3700 m; and on day 7 following an ascent to Yangbajing at 4400 m after 7 days of acclimatization at 3700 m. The resting oxygen saturation (SaO2, heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were also measured at the above mentioned three time points.Within 24 hours of arrival at 3700 m, the HR, ejection fraction (EF, fractional shortening (FS, stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO, and left ventricular (LV Tei index were significantly increased, but the LV end-systolic dimension (ESD, end-systolic volume (ESV, SaO2, E/A ratio, and ejection time (ET were significantly decreased compared to the baseline levels in all subjects. On day 7 at 4400 m, the SV and CO were significantly decreased; the EF and FS Tei were not decreased compared with the values at 3700 m; the HR was further elevated; and the SaO2, ESV, ESD, and ET were further reduced. Additionally, the E/A ratio was significantly increased on day 7 but was still lower than it was at low altitude.Upon acute high-altitude exposure, left ventricular systolic function was elevated with increased stroke volume, but diastolic function was decreased in healthy young males. With higher altitude exposure and prolonged acclimatization, the left ventricular systolic function was preserved with reduced stroke volume and improved diastolic function.

  9. Association between Yogurt Consumption and Intestinal Microbiota in Healthy Young Adults Differs by Host Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Suzuki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human intestinal microbiota are influenced by various factors viz. diet, environment, age, gender, geographical, and socioeconomic situation, etc. among which diet has the most profound impact. However, studies investigating this impact have mostly included subjects from diverse geographic/socioeconomic backgrounds and hence the precise effects of dietary factors on gut microbiota composition remain largely confounded. Herein, with an aim to evaluate the association between dietary habits, specifically yogurt consumption, and the gut microbiota in healthy young adults sharing similar age, lifestyle routine, geographical setting, etc., we conducted a cross-sectional study wherein 293 collegiate freshmen answered a questionnaire about their frequency of yogurt consumption over the last 2 months and provided stool specimens for microbiota analysis. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by highly sensitive reverse-transcription-quantitative-PCR assays targeting bacterial 16S rRNA molecules. Fecal organic acids were measured by HPLC. Overall, the gut microbiota were predominated (97.1 ± 8.6% by Clostridium coccoides group, Clostridium leptum subgroup, Bacteroides fragilis group, Bifidobacterium and Atopobium cluster. Interestingly, after adjusting the data for yogurt consumption, females were found to have higher total bacterial (P = 0.013 and Bifidobacterium (P = 0.046 count and fecal pH (P = 0.007 and lower fecal concentration of total organic acids (P = 0.030, succinic acid (P = 0.007 and formic acid (P = 0.046 as compared to males. Altogether, yogurt consumption showed positive linear association with Lactobacillus and Lactobacillus gasseri subgroup in both male and female subjects; however, several gender-specific disparities were also detected in this yogurt-microbiota association. Yogurt consumption demonstrated a negative association with L. sakei subgroup, Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus in males but shared a positive association with L

  10. The Destruction of the Young Black Male: The Impact of Popular Culture and Organized Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, John C.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the negative aspects of popular culture and organized sports in American society contribute to the economic, psychological, and social destruction of the Black male. The media nurtures unrealistic fantasies in young Black males, preventing them from acquiring the education and skills necessary to participate in the mainstream. (ETS)

  11. Vitamin D Insufficiency among Free-Living Healthy Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Tangpricha, Vin; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Chen, Tai C.; Holick, Michael F.

    2002-01-01

    Long-term vitamin D insufficiency can cause secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia (1). In addition, there is increasing evidence that vitamin D may protect against common cancers, such as cancer of the colon (2–4), prostate (5), and breast (6). Young adults aged 17 to 35 years drink inadequate amounts of milk (7) and are concerned about exposure to the sun because of the fear of developing skin cancer (8,9), which increases the risk of vitamin D insufficiency (10). We sought to exami...

  12. Repeated Bout Effect Was More Expressed in Young Adult Males Than in Elderly Males and Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Gorianovas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated possible differences using the same stretch-shortening exercise (SSE protocol on generally accepted monitoring markers (dependent variables: changes in creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and voluntary and electrically evoked torque in males across three lifespan stages (childhood versus adulthood versus old age. The protocol consisted of 100 intermittent (30 s interval between jumps drop jumps to determine the repeated bout effect (RBE (first and second bouts performed at a 2-week interval. The results showed that indirect symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage after SSE were more expressed in adult males than in boys and elderly males, suggesting that the muscles of boys and elderly males are more resistant to exercise-induced damage than those of adult males. RBE was more pronounced in adult males than in boys and elderly males, suggesting that the muscles of boys and elderly males are less adaptive to exercise-induced muscle damage than those of adult males.

  13. Neuromuscular function during drop jumps in young and elderly males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirainen, Jarmo M; Linnamo, Vesa; Sippola, Niina; Avela, Janne

    2012-12-01

    The Hoffman reflex (H-reflex), indicating alpha-motoneuron pool activity, has been shown to be task - and in resting conditions - age dependent. How aging affects H-reflex activity during explosive movements is not clear at present. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aging on H-reflexes during drop jumps, and its possible role in drop jump performance. Ten young (26.8 ± 2.7 years) and twenty elderly (64.2 ± 2.7 years) subjects participated in the study. Maximal drop jump performance and soleus H-reflex response (H/M jump) 20 ms after ground contact were measured in a sledge ergometer. Maximal H-reflex, maximal M-wave, Hmax/Mmax-ratio and H-reflex excitability curves were measured during standing rest. Although in young the H-reflex response (Hmax/Mmax) was 6.5% higher during relaxed standing and 19.7% higher during drop jumps (H jump/M jump) than in the elderly group, these differences were not statistically significant. In drop jumps, the elderly subjects had lower jumping height (30.4%, p push-off force (18.0%, p push-off time (31.0% p push-off force (r = 0.833, p push-off time (r = -0.857, p < 0.01) in young but not in the elderly. Correlations between H-reflex response and jumping parameters in young may indicate different jumping and activation strategies in drop jumps. However, it does not fully explain age related differences in jumping performance, since age related differences in H-reflex activity were non-significant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Obesity and overweight associated with increased carotid diameter and decreased arterial function in young otherwise healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Fahs, Christopher A; Smith, Denise; Horn, Gavin P; Agiovlasitis, Stomatis; Rossow, Lindy; Jae, Sae Y; Heffernan, Kevin S; Fernhall, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is linked to cardiovascular disease, stroke, increased mortality and vascular remodeling. Although increased arterial diameter is associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors and obesity, it is unknown whether lumen enlargement is accompanied by unfavorable vascular changes in young and otherwise healthy obese individuals. The purpose of this study was to compare carotid and brachial artery diameter, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and endothelial function in young, apparently healthy, normal-weight, overweight, and obese male subjects. One hundred sixty-five male subjects (27.39±0.59 years) were divided into 3 groups (normal weight, overweight, and obese) according to body mass index. Subjects underwent cardiovascular measurements to determine arterial diameter, function, and stiffness. After adjusting for age, the obese group had significantly greater brachial, carotid, and aortic pressures, brachial pulse wave velocity, carotid intima media thickness, and carotid arterial diameter compared with both the overweight and normal-weight groups. Obesity is associated with a much worse arterial profile, as an increased carotid lumen size was accompanied by higher blood pressure, greater arterial stiffness, and greater carotid intima media thickness in obese compared with overweight or normal-weight individuals. These data suggest that although obesity may be a factor in arterial remodeling, such remodeling is also accompanied by other hemodynamic and arterial changes consistent with reduced arterial function and increased cardiovascular risk.

  15. Downregulation of Checkpoint Protein Kinase 2 in the Urothelium of Healthy Male Tobacco Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Johannes; Denzinger, Stefan; Hartmann, Arndt; Otto, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    With this letter to the editor we present for the first time a study on CHEK2 expression in normal urothelium of healthy male smokers, former smokers and non-smokers. We could show a statistically significant downregulation of this DNA repair gene in current smokers compared to non-smokers, suggesting that smoking downregulates CHEK2 in normal urothelium, probably associated with an early step in carcinogenesis of urothelial bladder carcinoma. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Maximal exercise increases mucosal associated invariant T cell frequency and number in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Erik D; Danson, Eli; Nguyen-Robertson, Catriona V; Fyfe, Jackson J; Stepto, Nigel K; Bartlett, David B; Sakkal, Samy

    2017-11-01

    Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have properties of the innate and acquired immune systems. While the response to vigorous exercise has been established for most leukocytes, MAIT cells have not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose was to determine if MAIT cell lymphocytosis occurs with acute maximal aerobic exercise and if this response is influenced by exercise duration, cardiovascular fitness, or body composition. Twenty healthy young males with moderate fitness levels performed an extended graded exercise test until volitional fatigue. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from venous blood obtained prior and immediately after exercise and were labeled to identify specific T cell populations using flow cytometry. The percentage of MAIT cells relative to total T cells significantly increased from 3.0 to 3.8% and absolute MAIT cell counts increased by 2.2-fold following maximal exercise. MAIT cell subpopulation proportions were unchanged with exercise. Within cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), MAIT cells consisted of 8% of these cells and this remained constant after exercise. MAIT cell counts and changes with exercise were not affected by body composition, VO 2peak , or exercise duration. Maximal exercise doubled MAIT cell numbers and showed preferential mobilization within total T cells but the response was not influenced by fitness levels, exercise duration, or body composition. These results suggest that acute exercise could be used to offset MAIT cell deficiencies observed with certain pathologies. MAIT cells also make up a substantial proportion of CTLs, which may have implications for cytotoxicity assays using these cells.

  17. Cephalometric Evaluation of the Hyoid Bone Position in Lebanese Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraze, Antoine

    2018-05-01

    The objectives of this study are to assess hyoid sagittal and vertical position, and potential correlations with gender, skeletal class, and anthropometrics. Twenty-seven cephalometric linear, angular, and ratio measurements for the hyoid were recorded on lateral cephalograms obtained from 117 healthy young Lebanese adults. Anthropometric parameters including height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and neck circumference (NC) were measured. Statistically significant gender differences were demonstrated for 21 out of 27 parameters considered. All linear and two out of three angular measurements defining the vertical hyoid position were larger in males compared with females. Five linear, one angular, and two ratio measurements showed differences in the sagittal dimension. Skeletal classes did not influence the sagittal and vertical hyoid position. Anthropometric variables as height were strongly correlated to the vertical hyoid position, while weight correlated more sagittally. Cephalometric norms for hyoid position were established, sexual dimorphism and ethnic differences were demonstrated. Skeletal patterns did not influence the sagittal and vertical hyoid bone position. Anthropometric parameters, such as BMI correlated the least to both vertical and sagittal hyoid position measurements, while the impact of height and weight as separate entities made a paradigm shift providing accurate and strong correlation of the vertical hyoid position to the height, and the sagittal hyoid position to the weight of individuals. The cephalometric norms for the hyoid bone position in the Lebanese population established in the present study are of paramount clinical importance and should be considered in planning combined orthodontic and breathing disorders treatments.

  18. Purchasing Intentions of Young Thai Male towards Men‟s Skin Care Products

    OpenAIRE

    Bumrungkitjareon, Tipaporn; Tanasansopin, Suveera

    2011-01-01

    Title: Purchasing Intentions of Young Thai Male towards Men's Skin Care Products Problem: Men concern more about their image than ever before. This behavior is becoming a new trend in cosmetic market. Moreover, Thailand is one of the fast growing cosmetics industry, particularly male skin care market within countries in Asia-Pacific region. However, most of the literatures have just studied on women cosmetic products. There are a few studies within male cosmetic market, despite the demands of...

  19. Effect of Recumbent Body Positions on Dynamic Lung Function Parameters in Healthy Young Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Arvind Kumar; Tiwari, Sunita; Verma, Dileep Kumar

    2017-05-01

    The change in body position can alter pulmonary functions parameters, therefore it is important to understand the physiological basis of these alteration. Ideally, spirometry is done in sitting position until the subject is unable to do so. Hospitalized patients often assume recumbent body positions irrespective of underlying pathology. Hence, need arises to find out best recumbent body positions for the benefit of these patients to make breathing comfortable for them. The aim of this study was to find out whether the change from the supine position to crook lying and Fowler's position (45° dorsal elevation) causes change in spirometric parameters. The present work was carried out at Department of Physiology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow. A total 131 apparently healthy individuals were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Lung function was assessed using a PC-based spirometer according to American Thoracic Society guideline in the supine, crook lying and Fowler's position (45° dorsal elevation). The study consisted of 131 subjects (male 66%, female 34%), with mean age of 20.15±2.71 years and BMI 21.20±3.28 Kg/m 2 . Repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni test was used to compare the mean values between each body position. Compared with the other two positions, Fowler's position showed significantly (p<0.05) higher values for FVC, FEV 1 , PEF, FEF 25-75% . Recumbent body position influences spirometric parameters in young healthy subjects. We demonstrated that spirometric values are higher in the Fowler's position than in the supine or crook lying position. The results of this study will help in the selection of the best alternative position for the spirometry in bed ridden patients.

  20. Effect of tamsulosin on the pharmacokinetics of dutasteride in Chinese male healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huafang; Yang, Jiansong; Zhao, Hongxin; Fossler, Michael J; Wang, Chunrong

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tamsulosin (0.2 mg) on the pharmacokinetics of dutasteride (0.5 mg) in a group of healthy Chinese male volunteers. This was an open-label, single-sequence, 3-period, drug-drug interaction phase 1 study. Twenty-four healthy Chinese male volunteers were enrolled and administered a single dose of 0.5 mg dutasteride and, following a 28- to 30-day washout period, 0.2 mg tamsulosin once daily for 7 days. On day 5, subjects received 0.2 mg tamsulosin coadministered with 0.5 mg dutasteride. Serum dutasteride and tamsulosin concentrations were monitored. In the presence or absence of tamsulosin, there were no apparent changes in dutasteride AUC and Cmax . Adverse events reported were mild to moderate in intensity and resolved by the end of the study. In healthy Chinese male volunteers, tamsulosin 0.2 mg at steady state had no apparent effect on dutasteride pharmacokinetics. Dutasteride and tamsulosin when administered alone or in combination were well tolerated. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  1. Negative Social Contextual Stressors and Somatic Symptoms Among Young Black Males: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lionel D; McCoy, Henrika

    This study examines whether negative social contextual stressors were associated with somatic symptoms among young Black males ( N = 74) after accounting for background and psychological characteristics. Using Cunningham and Spencer's Black Male Experiences Measure, negative social contextual stressors connoted those experiences connected to the personal attributes, devaluation, and negative imagery of young Black males, such as being followed when entering a store or police or security guards asking them what they are doing when hanging out (e.g., in the park or playground or on the street corner). Results showed that such stressors made a unique and significant contribution to the experience of somatic symptoms. Future research directions and implications for addressing the larger societal perceptions of young Black males are discussed.

  2. Vitamin D supplementation does not improve human skeletal muscle contractile properties in insufficient young males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Daniel J; Webber, Daniel; Impey, Samuel G; Tang, Jonathan; Donovan, Timothy F; Fraser, William D; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2014-06-01

    Vitamin D may be a regulator of skeletal muscle function, although human trials investigating this hypothesis are limited to predominantly elderly populations. We aimed to assess the effect of oral vitamin D3 in healthy young males upon skeletal muscle function. Participants (n = 29) received an oral dose of 10,000 IU day(-1) vitamin D3 (VITD) or a visually identical placebo (PLB) for 3 months. Serum 25[OH]D and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were measured at baseline and at week 4, 8 and 12. Muscle function was assessed in n = 22 participants by isokinetic dynamometry and percutaneous isometric electromyostimulation at baseline and at week 6 and 12. Baseline mean total serum 25[OH]D was 40 ± 17 and 41 ± 20 nmol L(-1) for PLB and VITD, respectively. VITD showed a significant improvement in total 25[OH]D at week 4 (150 ± 31 nmol L(-1)) that remained elevated throughout the trial (P L(-1)) compared with baseline. Despite marked increases in total serum 25[OH]D in VITD and a decrease in PLB, there were no significant changes in any of the muscle function outcome measures at week 6 or 12 for either group (P > 0.05). Elevating total serum 25[OH]D to concentrations > 120 nmol L(-1) has no effect on skeletal muscle function. We postulate that skeletal muscle function is only perturbed in conditions of severe deficiency (L(-1)).

  3. Percutaneous absorption of triadimefon in the adult and young male and female rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaak, J.B.; Yee, K.; Ackerman, C.R.; Zweig, G.; Wilson, B.W.

    1984-01-01

    The percutaneous absorption of 14 C-phenoxy ring labeled triadimefon was studied in adult and young male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Triadimefon was applied (41.1 to 46.4 micrograms/cm2) in 0.2 ml of acetone to areas comprising 3% of the body surface (7.0 to 14.5 cm2). Thirty-six animals were treated at the initiation of each study. Groups of three animals were subsequently killed at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 hr after treatment. Skin from the treated area as well as blood, heart, liver, kidneys, remaining carcass, urine, and feces were analyzed for 14 C by scintillation counting techniques. Based on 14 C counts, triadimefon was lost more rapidly from the skin of young animals (t 1/2, 20 to 25 hr) than from the skin of adult animals (t 1/2, 29 to 53 hr). Recovery studies indicated that adult males, adult females, young males, and young females, respectively, absorbed 53, 82, 57, and 52% of the dose. The rest of the dose based on material balance was presumably lost by evaporation. Approximately 2.5 to 3.9% of the dose penetrated the skin in one hour and was available for absorption. The rate of entry triadimefon into blood was 2 to 2.5 times faster for young than that observed in adult animals. Elimination of it from blood was faster in the case of the young animals. Triadimefon was absorbed through the skins of the adult male, adult female, young male, and young female rats, respectively, at rates of 0.20, 0.50, 0.58, and 0.48 micrograms/hr/cm2 of skin

  4. Predictors of Memory Deficits in Adolescents and Young Adults with Congenital Heart Disease Compared to Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A. Pike

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease [CHD] show a range of memory deficits, which can dramatically impact their clinical outcomes and quality of life. However, few studies have identified predictors of these memory changes. The purpose of this investigation was to identify predictors of memory deficits in adolescents and young adults with CHD after surgical palliation compared to healthy controls. Method: 156 adolescents and young adults [80 CHD and 76 controls; age 14-21 years] were recruited and administered an instrument to assess memory [Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2nd Edition – general memory index (GMI score] and completed questionnaires that measure anxiety, depression, sleepiness, health status, and self-efficacy. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used to assess group differences, and logistic regression to identify predictors of memory deficits. Results: CHD subjects consisted of 58% males, median age 17 years, 41% Hispanic, and medians of 2 previous heart surgeries and 14 years since last surgery. Memory deficits [GMI < 85] were identified in 50% CHD compared to 4% healthy controls [median GMI 85 vs. 108, p <0.001]. Of GMI subscale medians, CHD subjects had significantly worse memory performance vs. healthy controls [verbal 88 vs. 105, p <0.001; attention 88 vs. 109, p<0.001; working memory 86 vs. 108, p <0.001]. No significant differences appeared between groups for visual memory. Multiple clinical and psychosocial factors were identified which were statistically different on bivariate analyses between the subjects with and without memory deficits. By multivariate analysis, male gender, number of surgeries, anxiety, and self-efficacy emerged as independent predictors of memory deficits. Conclusion: Adolescents and young adults with CHD, more than a decade since their last surgery, show significant verbal, attention and working memory deficits over controls. To enhance

  5. Relationship Between Neck Circumference and Epicardial Fat Thickness in a Healthy Male Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Uğur; Küçük, Hilal Olgun; Cüce, Ferhat; Balta, Sevket

    2016-09-01

    Epicardial fat is an upper body visceral fat depot that may play a significant role in the development of adverse metabolic and cardiovascular risk profiles. There is a significant direct relationship between the amount of epicardial fat and general body adiposity (body mass index, BMI), but data regarding subcutaneous adiposity is limited. We conducted a study to determine the association between neck circumference and epicardial fat thickness in healthy young male individuals, and assess their individual correlations with general body adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. One hundred consecutive male patients aged 18 years or older with no known major medical conditions were included in the study. All participants underwent detailed physical examination including measurement of blood pressure, weight, height, waist/hip ratio, and neck circumference. Blood was collected to determine fasting glucose and lipid parameters. A standard echocardiographic examination was performed with additional epicardial fat thickness determination. Among 100 study participants, neck circumference correlated significantly with weight, waist circumference, BMI, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, low-density (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels. No significant correlation was found between neck circumference and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Neck circumference correlated moderately and positively with echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness. Among patients with low cardiometabolic risk, increased neck circumference was associated with increased epicardial fat thickness. A gordura epicárdica é um depósito de gordura visceral na parte superior do organismo que pode desempenhar um papel importante no desenvolvimento de perfis cardiovasculares e metabólicos adversos. Há uma relação direta significativa entre a quantidade de gordura epicárdica e a adiposidade corporal geral (índice de massa corporal, IMC), mas dados sobre a adiposidade

  6. Healthy older adults have insufficient hip range of motion and plantar flexor strength to walk like healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dennis E; Madigan, Michael L

    2014-03-21

    Limited plantar flexor strength and hip extension range of motion (ROM) in older adults are believed to underlie common age-related differences in gait. However, no studies of age-related differences in gait have quantified the percentage of strength and ROM used during gait. We examined peak hip angles, hip torques and plantar flexor torques, and corresponding estimates of functional capacity utilized (FCU), which we define as the percentage of available strength or joint ROM used, in 10 young and 10 older healthy adults walking under self-selected and controlled (slow and fast) conditions. Older adults walked with about 30% smaller hip extension angle, 28% larger hip flexion angle, 34% more hip extensor torque in the slow condition, and 12% less plantar flexor torque in the fast condition than young adults. Older adults had higher FCU than young adults for hip flexion angle (47% vs. 34%) and hip extensor torque (48% vs. 27%). FCUs for plantar flexor torque (both age groups) and hip extension angle (older adults in all conditions; young adults in self-selected gait) were not significantly adults lacked sufficient hip extension ROM to walk with a hip extension angle as large as that of young adults. Similarly, in the fast gait condition older adults lacked the strength to match the plantar flexor torque produced by young adults. This supports the hypothesis that hip extension ROM and plantar flexor strength are limiting factors in gait and contribute to age-related differences in gait. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A rare pleural effusion in a young male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabana Begum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 28-year-old male presented with fever with right-sided chest pain for 2 weeks. Clinicoradiological picture was suggestive of right-sided pleural effusion. He had history of polytrauma following a road traffic accident and had to undergo emergency laparotomy a month ago. Microscopic and culture examination of the pleural fluid showed neutrophilia, high bilirubin content and presence of gram-negative bacilli. Ultrasound of the abdomen showed the presence of biloma in the liver and right subdiaphragmatic space with fistulous communication into the right thoracic cavity. The patient was managed successfully with complete recovery.

  8. Giant non traumatic intradiploic arachnoid cyst in a young male

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rajesh [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, ASCOMS Hospital, Sidhra, Jammu (India); Gupta, Puneet; Mahajan, Manik, E-mail: puneetgupta619@yahoo.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi (India); Sharma, Poonam [Department of Pathology, GMC, Jammu (India); Gupta, Anchal; Khurana, Arti [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, GMC, Jammu (J and K) (India)

    2016-09-15

    Intradiploic arachnoid cysts have scarcely been reported in the literature, most reported cases being secondary to trauma. Non traumatic arachnoid cysts are quite rare and have been reported mostly in adults. Here, we report the case of a 16-year-old male presenting with a slowly growing mass in the occipital region and intermittent headaches. On the basis of the findings of X-rays, computed tomography scans, and magnetic resonance imaging scans of the head, the mass was diagnosed as a giant intradiploic arachnoid cyst. Keywords: Arachnoid cysts; Cerebrospinal fluid; Headache/diagnosis. (author)

  9. Unique Mechanism of Chance Fracture in a Young Adult Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Birch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the first description of the Chance fracture in 1948, there have been few case reports ofunique mechanisms causing this classical flexion-extension injury to the spine in motor vehicleaccidents, sports injury, and falls. To our knowledge, this injury has not been reported from a fall withthe mechanistic forces acting laterally on the spine and with spinal support in place. We present a21-year-old male who slid down a flight of stairs onto his side wearing a heavy mountaineering stylebackpack, subsequently sustaining a Chance fracture of his first lumbar vertebrae.

  10. Healthy food consumption in young women: The influence of others’ eating behavior and body weight appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, M.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together

  11. Healthy food consumption in young women : The influence of others' eating behavior and body weight appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, M.; van Koningsbruggen, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together

  12. Interindividual variation, correlations, and sex-related differences in the salivary biochemistry of young healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prodan, A.; Brand, H.S.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Imangaliyev, S.; Tsivtsivadze, E.; van der Weijden, F.; Crielaard, W.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to evaluate interindividual biochemical variation in unstimulated whole saliva in a population of 268 systemically healthy young students, 18-30 yr of age, with no apparent caries lesions or periodontal disease. Salivary flow rate, protein content,

  13. Modification of a sonographic enthesitis score to differentiate between psoriatic arthritis and young healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wervers, K. (K.); M. Vis (M.); Rasappu, N. (N.); M. van der Ven (Myrthe); I. Tchetverikov (Ilja); Kok, M. (M.); A.H. Gerards (Andreas); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); J.J. Luime (Jolanda)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: We aimed to describe sonographic structural and inflammatory changes in entheses of patients with recently diagnosed psoriatic arthritis (PsA), patients with established PsA, and young healthy volunteers, and to investigate whether the MAdrid Sonographic Enthesitis Index

  14. Establishing and explaining the impact of characters on young children’s healthy food choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Droog, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide the number of overweight children rises dramatically. One way to prevent overweight is by creating healthy eating habits from a very young age. This dissertation explores whether and how 4- to 6-year-olds’ fruit and vegetable choices can be stimulated by using an immensely popular

  15. Establishing and explaining the impact of characters on young children's healthy food choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droog, S.M. de

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide the number of overweight children rises dramatically. One way to prevent overweight is by creating healthy eating habits from a very young age. This dissertation explores whether and how 4- to 6-year-olds’ fruit and vegetable choices can be stimulated by using an immensely popular

  16. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in metabolically healthy obese young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) have been limited to postmenopausal white women. We sought to determine whether PA and SB differ between MHO and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO), in young black and white women....

  17. Reference Values for Cardiac and Aortic Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy, Young Caucasian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikendal, Anouk L M; Bots, Michiel L; Haaring, Cees; Saam, Tobias; van der Geest, Rob J; Westenberg, Jos J M; den Ruijter, Hester M; Hoefer, Imo E; Leiner, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Reference values for morphological and functional parameters of the cardiovascular system in early life are relevant since they may help to identify young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. This study provides age and sex specific reference values for aortic wall characteristics, cardiac function parameters and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a population-based sample of healthy, young adults using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In 131 randomly selected healthy, young adults aged between 25 and 35 years (mean age 31.8 years, 63 men) of the general-population based Atherosclerosis-Monitoring-and-Biomarker-measurements-In-The-YOuNg (AMBITYON) study, descending thoracic aortic dimensions and wall thickness, thoracic aortic PWV and cardiac function parameters were measured using a 3.0T MR-system. Age and sex specific reference values were generated using dedicated software. Differences in reference values between two age groups (25-30 and 30-35 years) and both sexes were tested. Aortic diameters and areas were higher in the older age group (all page or sex effect. This study provides age and sex specific reference values for cardiovascular MR parameters in healthy, young Caucasian adults. These may aid in MR guided pre-clinical identification of young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing.

  18. Brain activation by visual erotic stimuli in healthy middle aged males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S W; Sohn, D W; Cho, Y-H; Yang, W S; Lee, K-U; Juh, R; Ahn, K-J; Chung, Y-A; Han, S-I; Lee, K H; Lee, C U; Chae, J-H

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify brain centers, whose activity changes are related to erotic visual stimuli in healthy, heterosexual, middle aged males. Ten heterosexual, right-handed males with normal sexual function were entered into the present study (mean age 52 years, range 46-55). All potential subjects were screened over 1 h interview, and were encouraged to fill out questionnaires including the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory. All subjects with a history of sexual arousal disorder or erectile dysfunction were excluded. We performed functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in male volunteers when an alternatively combined erotic and nonerotic film was played for 14 min and 9 s. The major areas of activation associated with sexual arousal to visual stimuli were occipitotemporal area, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nucleus. However, hypothalamus and thalamus were not activated. We suggest that the nonactivation of hypothalamus and thalamus in middle aged males may be responsible for the lesser physiological arousal in response to the erotic visual stimuli.

  19. Accuracy of young male drivers’ self-assessments of driving skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    Accurate self-assessment of skill is important because it creates an appropriate level of confidence and hence behaviour. Inaccurate self-assessment of driving ability has been linked to reckless driving and accidents. Inaccurate self-assessment of driving skills may be a contributing factor...... to the over-representation of young male drivers in accident statistics. Most previous research on self-assessment of driving skills did not compare self-reported skills to objectively measured driving skills, so the aims of this study were: (1) to test the accuracy of young male drivers’ self......-assessments of specific driving skills by comparing them with performance in a driving simulator; (2) to test whether self-assessment accuracy varied with driving skill, driving experience and sensation-seeking propensity. We found that young male drivers’ self-assessments were inconsistent with their driving performance...

  20. Oral contraceptives modulate the muscle metaboreflex in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Hanna R; Sears, Jasmin; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; McCulloch, Cara L; McCracken, Laura A; Brown, Courtney V; Sheel, A William; Dominelli, Paolo B

    2018-05-01

    There are known sex differences in blood pressure regulation. The differences are related to ovarian hormones that influence β-adrenergic receptors and the transduction of muscle sympathetic nerve activity. Oral contraceptives (OC) modulate the ovarian hormonal profile in women and therefore may alter the cardiovascular response. We questioned if OC would alter the absolute pressor response to static exercise and influence the day-to-day variability of the response. Healthy men (n = 11) and women (n = 19) completed a familiarization day and 2 experimental testing days. Women were divided into those taking (W-OC, n = 10) and not taking (W-NC, n = 9) OC. Each experimental testing day involved isometric handgripping exercise, at 30% of maximal force, followed by circulatory occlusion to isolate the metaboreflex. Experimental days in men were 7-14 days apart. The first experimental testing in W-OC occurred 2-7 days after the start of the active phase of their OC. Women not taking OC were tested during the early and late follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as determined by commercial ovulation monitor. The increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during exercise was significantly lower in W-NC (95 ± 4 mm Hg) compared with men (114 ± 4 mm Hg) and W-OC (111 ± 3 mm Hg) (P < 0.05), with the differences preserved during circulatory occlusion. The rise in MAP was significantly correlated between the 2 testing days in men (r = 0.72, P < 0.01) and W-OC (r = 0.77, P < 0.05), but not in W-NC (r = 0.17, P = 0.67), indicating greater day-to-day variation in W-NC. In conclusion, OC modulate the exercise pressor response in women and minimize day-to-day variability in the exercise metaboreflex.

  1. HIV prevention interventions for young male commercial sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester-Arnal, R; Gil-Llario, M D; Salmeron-Sánchez, P; Giménez-García, C

    2014-03-01

    The sex industry, where men sell sexual services to other men or women, has grown in recent years. These men who offer sexual services are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection due to such factors as: frequency of risky sexual practices, number of sex partners, drug-taking, prevalence of sexually-transmitted infections (STI) and their specific situation of social exclusion which may hinder access to health services. These multi-faceted realities faced by sex workers explain the burgeoning interest in new avenues of scientific research. There are too few preventive programs however aimed at this population group and the studies that evaluate their effectiveness are fewer still. In this article we survey more recent studies on the difficulties of implementing programs for HIV prevention in male sex workers (MSW), as well as the studies that have gauged the impact of preventive programs in this group.

  2. Adoption of American Heart Association 2020 ideal healthy diet recommendations prevents weight gain in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, Geneviève; Doyon, Myriam; Lacerte, Guillaume; Labonté, Mélissa; Brown, Christine; Carpentier, André C; Langlois, Marie-France; Hivert, Marie-France

    2013-11-01

    In 2010, the American Heart Association established the concept of ideal cardiovascular health. Nationally representative data estimated that Healthy Diet Score. In a cohort of young adults (N=196), we aimed to investigate the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health and ideal Healthy Diet Score and its association to weight gain over a 4-year follow-up period. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and blood samples were taken according to standardized procedures. Dietary intake was measured by a 3-day food diary and verified by a registered dietitian. We observed that only 0.5% of our sample met the criteria for ideal cardiovascular health and only 4.1% met the criteria for an ideal Healthy Diet Score. The components of the Healthy Diet Score with the lowest observance were consumption of fruits and vegetables (9.7%) and whole grains (14.8%). Meeting zero or one out of five of the Healthy Diet Score components was associated with increased risk of weight gain over 4 years compared with meeting at least two components (P=0.03). With the exception of dietary criteria, prevalence was high for achieving ideal levels of the remaining six cardiovascular health metrics. In conclusion, in this sample of young adults, a very low prevalence of ideal overall cardiovascular health was observed, mainly driven by poor dietary habits, and a poor Healthy Diet Score was associated with increased weight gain. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Catalase activity in healthy and inflamed pulp tissues of permanent teeth in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Kmc; Kırıcı, D Ö; Evcil, M S

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity in healthy and inflamed dental pulp of young patient's teeth and to investigate if an active defense system oxidizing agents is present as a response to bacterial invasion. Twenty young patients between 15 and 25 ages, who were diagnosed to be healthy, were the source of the pulp tissue. The situation of the dental pulps was evaluated using clinical and radiographic assessments. The patients were divided two groups from healthy, and inflamed pulp tissues were obtained; each participant provided one pulp tissue specimens. The specimens were collected during endodontic treatment or by longitudinally grooving and splitting the teeth (if extracted). Catalase activity was determined through spectrophotometric methods and an independent sample t-test assessed the significance of differences between the groups. There was statistically a difference between healthy pulp tissue and inflamed pulp tissue (P catalase activity of healthy group was significantly lower than inflamed pulp groups. The present study has shown that a significant increase in catalase activity is determined in inflamed dental pulps, which is due to pulpitis in comparison to healthy dental pulp.

  4. Influence of kinnow juice on the bioavailability of carbamazepine in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, S K; Bhargava, V K; James, H; KuJan-Mar, N; Prabhakar, S; Naresh, Ku

    1998-01-01

    Kinnow juice produces a marked and variable increase in carbamazepine bioavailability. The pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine was studied after drug administration with 300 ml water or kinnow juice in a randomized cross over trial on nine healthy male volunteers. With kinnow juice peak serum concentration (Cmax) and area under the serum concentration time curve (AUC) was significantly (P kinnow juice enhances carbamazepine bioavailability could be due to inhibition of cytochrome P-450 enzyme, since kinnow juice contains naringin which is considered to be inhibitor of liver microsomal dihydropyridine oxidation.

  5. Dietary Silicon Intake of Korean Young Adult Males and Its Relation to their Bone Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Accumulated data suggests a positive effect of silicon on bone health; however, limited research exists on the silicon content of foods. To further the understanding of the relationship between dietary silicon intake and bone health, a food composition database of commonly consumed foods in Korea is required. For quantitative data on the intake levels of silicon, we analyzed the silicon content of 365 food items commonly consumed in Korea using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following microwave-assisted digestion. To investigate the dietary silicon intake status and to examine the potential role of dietary silicon intake in the bone status of men, a total of 400 healthy Korean adult males aged 19-25 were observed for their diet intake and calcaneus bone density using the 24-h recall method and quantitative ultrasound, respectively. Clinical markers reflecting bone metabolism such as serum total alkaline phosphatase, N-mid osteocalcin, and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide concentrations were also analyzed. Silicon intake of the subjects was estimated as 37.5 ± 22.2 mg/day. Major food sources of dietary silicon in the Korean male were cereal and cereal products (25.6 % of total silicon intake), vegetables (22.7 %), beverages and liquors (21.2 %), and milk and milk products (7.0 %). Silicon intake correlated positively with age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, and alcohol intake. After adjusted for age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, alcohol intake, smoking cigarettes, and regular exercise status, daily total silicon intake had no correlation with calcaneus bone density and the bone metabolism markers, but silicon intake from vegetables had a positive correlation with serum total alkaline phosphatase activity, a bone formation maker. These findings show the possible positive relationship between dietary silicon intake from vegetables and the bone formation of young adult males. Further

  6. Young adult males' motivators and perceived barriers towards eating healthily and being active: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Lee M; Hutchesson, Melinda J; Rollo, Megan E; Morgan, Philip J; Thompson, Debbe I; Collins, Clare E

    2015-07-15

    There is a lack of understanding of young men's perspectives in obesity-related research. This study aims to: (1) identify young men's perceived motivators and barriers in adopting healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, and (2) explore any differences in responses by weight status categories. Ten focus groups (32-63 minutes; 3-9 participants per group) were conducted with 61 young men (BMI: 25.3 ± 5.1 kg/m(2), aged: 18-25 years) from the Hunter region, New South Wales, Australia. There were 35 (57.4 %) healthy weight men and 26 (42.6 %) overweight/ obese men. Three groups were with healthy weight participants, three with overweight/obese participants and four with mixed-BMI participants. Sessions were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data analysis was conducted by an independent researcher using NVIVO10. Motivators for healthy eating grouped into four themes: physical health (e.g. to live longer), sport or performance (e.g. to support their sporting goals), physical appearance (e.g. sexual attractiveness) and social influences (e.g. societal expectations to eat healthy), while key motivators for physical activity were: physical appearance (e.g. sexual attractiveness), social inclusion (e.g. making friends), physical and mental health (e.g. relieve stress) and improvements for sport or performance (e.g. improve fitness). Themes for key barriers to eating healthy were: intrinsic (e.g. perceived effort to adopt healthy eating), logistic (e.g. cost), and social factors (e.g. peer influence), while busy lifestyles (e.g. lack of time), logistic (e.g. cost), cognitive-emotional (e.g. feelings of inferiority) and social factors (e.g. family upbringing) were key barriers for physical activity. Responses varied little by BMI status. This research emphasises the importance of consulting young men when developing healthy lifestyle programs that aim to promote healthy eating and physical activity in young men. Future research is needed to identify the most

  7. Postprandial Effects of Breakfast Glycemic Index on Vascular Function among Young Healthy Adults: A Crossover Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sanchez-Aguadero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the postprandial effects of high and low glycemic index (GI breakfasts on vascular function. It was a crossover trial that included 40 young healthy adults (50% women, aged 20–40 years, who were recruited at primary care settings. They consumed three experimental breakfasts in randomized order, each one separated by a 1-week washout period: (1 control conditions (only water; (2 low GI (LGI breakfast (29.4 GI and 1489 KJ energy; and (3 high GI (HGI breakfast (64.0 GI and 1318 KJ energy. Blood samples were collected at 60 and 120 min after each breakfast to determine glucose and insulin levels. Vascular parameters were measured at 15 min intervals. Augmentation index (AIx was studied as a primary outcome. Secondary outcomes comprised glucose, insulin, heart rate (HR and pulse pressures (PPs. We found a trend toward increased AIx, HR and PPs for the HGI versus the LGI breakfast. A significant interaction between the type of breakfast consumed and all measured parameters was identified (p < 0.05 except for central PP. Stratifying data by sex, this interaction remained significant for AIx and augmentation pressure only in males (p < 0.05. In conclusion, breakfast GI could affect postprandial vascular responses in young healthy adults.

  8. Myosin content of single muscle fibers following short-term disuse and active recovery in young and old healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Brocca, Lorenza; Ørtenblad, Niels

    2017-01-01

    healthy men. Following disuse, myosin content decreased (p... young and old in both fiber types, with MHC 2a fibers demonstrating an overshooting in young (+31%, pStrong correlations were observed between myosin content and single fiber SF in both young and old, with greater slope steepness in MHC 2a vs 1 fibers indicating an enhanced intrinsic...

  9. Acute effects of interval versus continuous endurance training on pulse wave reflection in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Henner; Nussbaumer, Monique; Moor, Christoph; Cordes, Mareike; Schindler, Christian; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2015-02-01

    Our aim was to investigate the acute and 24-hour (h) effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate continuous training (MCT) on arterial pulse wave reflection, an established marker of arterial stiffness and cardiovascular risk. In a randomized cross-over design, 21 young healthy male participants performed a HIIT or a MCT on separate visits. Before and 5 (t5), 20 (t20), 35 (t35), and 50 (t50) minutes after the acute exercise bouts, the crude augmentation index (AIx) and the AIx at a set heart rate (AIx@75) were analysed by applanation tonometry. Starting 1 h post-exercise, both indices were captured over 24-h with an oscillometric monitoring device. AIx did not change significantly after MCT but declined progressively after HIIT, reaching significantly lower values compared to MCT at t35 (P = 0.045) and t50 (P = 0.008). AIx@75 increased after both acute exercise types but was higher after HIIT at t5 (P HIIT (P = 0.007) but not after MCT (P = 0.813). Exercise intensity affects pulse wave reflection, with different time courses for AIx and AIx@75 post-exercise. Although initially higher after HIIT, AIx@75 declines in the 24-h recovery period indicating more favourable effects on pulse wave reflection compared to MCT. This may result in substantial positive chronic training effects on arterial stiffness in health and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute Liver Impairment in a Young, Healthy Athlete: Hypoxic Hepatitis and Rhabdomyolysis following Heat Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville Azzopardi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Any process that substantially diminishes arterial blood flow or arterial oxygen content to the liver can result in hypoxic (ischaemic hepatitis. 90% of hypoxic hepatitis occurs in unstable patients in intensive care units with haemodynamic failure secondary to heart failure, respiratory failure and toxic shock. The rate of in-hospital mortality in hypoxic hepatitis is very high with studies recording mortalities of 61.5%. It tends to be very uncommon in healthy, young patients with no underlying medical problems. We report here the case of a young healthy athlete who developed heat stroke associated with rhabdomyolysis and hypoxic hepatitis while he was running the final stages of a marathon. The patient required intensive care admission and inotropic support for a few hours after he was admitted with heat stroke. He underwent a rapid recovery after he was resuscitated with fluids. N-acetyl cysteine was also given during the acute stage of the hepatitis. This case highlights an uncommon case of hypoxic hepatitis in a young, healthy patient secondary to hypotension and heat stroke. Inotropic support might have precipitated the hypoxic hepatitis in this young patient.

  11. A Case Study of Deep Vein Thrombosis of the Right Internal Jugular Vein in a Healthy 21-Year-Old Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Corral

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a case of a healthy 21-year-old male, with no significant past medical history, who was found to have an incidental nonocclusive deep vein thrombosis in the right internal jugular vein detected on a head MRI previously ordered for work-up of headaches. A follow-up upper extremity venous Doppler ultrasound confirmed the presence of a partially occlusive deep vein thrombosis in the right jugular vein. The case presented is unique for the reason that the patient is young and has no prior risk factor, personal or familial, for venous thrombosis except for associated polycythemia on clinical presentation.

  12. Muscle fatigue resistance during stimulated contractions is reduced in young male smokers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morse, C.I.; Wust, R.C.I.; Jones, D.A.; de Haan, A.; Degens, H.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether muscle function is compromised in healthy smokers in comparison with activity-matched non-smokers. Methods: Nine male smokers (aged 22.2 ± 2.5 years: mean ± SD) with a smoking history of 2.5 ± 3.1 pack years, and ten male control participants (25.4 ± 2.9 years) matched for

  13. ARSH 3: Reproductive and sexual health knowledge: a comparison among married male and female young adults (15-24 y).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M K C; Thankachi, Yamini; Leena, M L; George, Babu; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2013-11-01

    To examine reproductive and sexual knowledge of young married men and women between (15-24 y) in Kerala and to compare the reproductive health knowledge and sexual health knowledge among young married men and women of 20-24 y. This cross sectional community survey was conducted in three districts in Kerala. The married young adults were stratified into age groups of 15-19 y and 20-24 y. Data was collected using separate pretested structured interview schedule. There were no married males below the age of 20 y and only 24 females below the age of 20 y. More proportion of males had statistically significant knowledge about masturbation (72.3%), night emission in boys as an indicator of adolescence (92.6%), the fact that there is no relation between size of penis and sexual performance (78.8%) and condom prevents pregnancy and HIV/AIDS. Among the married 20-24 y group higher proportion of males had knowledge on safe period (47.9%) and condom use (97.9%) whereas higher proportion of females had knowledge on copper-T. With regard to sexual health higher percentage females talked about satisfactory sexual life (83.5%) and good sexual hygiene practices (81.5%). This study on reproductive sexual health knowledge of married men and women between 15 and 24 y, conducted in three districts of Kerala suggests a gap in knowledge level of reproductive health between married men and women. However, with regard to sexual health the opinion expressed are more open in content but not necessarily healthy, suggesting the need for both premarital and newlywed counseling.

  14. Designing a packaging to promote healthy and low-fat foods: Adolescents versus young-adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-López, Natalia; Küster-Boluda, Ines; Sarabia-Sánchez, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    Packaging is a relevant tool when adolescents and young adults search for low-fat and healthy foods. However, the power of a packaging is not homogenous. In this framework, two main objectives guide our work: (i) to investigate to what extent visual cues (size, colors, images etc.) are more important than informational cues (label); (ii) to analyze if adolescents and young adults pay equal attention to both packaging cues. 590 adolescents between 12 and 18years of age were interviewed at the door of both public and private schools. Additionally, 300 young adults between 19 and 25years of age were contacted. Their opinions were analyzed twice using structural modelling techniques: (i) without considering age differences and (ii) splitting the sample into adolescents (590 participants) and young-adults (300 participants) to compare their perceptions. Our results have showed that when looking for healthy and low-fat aliments visual cues (size, colors, images etc.) are more important than informational cues (label design, easily understandable words, size of the letters). Additionally, age is a pertinent variable to explain alternative packaging strategies, because adolescents and young adults do not pay equal attention to both packaging cues. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The relationship between age and brain response to visual erotic stimuli in healthy heterosexual males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Y; Jeong, B; Kim, J-W; Choi, J

    2010-01-01

    The various changes of sexuality, including decreased sexual desire and erectile dysfunction, are also accompanied with aging. To understand the effect of aging on sexuality, we explored the relationship between age and the visual erotic stimulation-related brain response in sexually active male subjects. Twelve healthy, heterosexual male subjects (age 22-47 years) were recorded the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals of their brain activation elicited by passive viewing erotic (ERO), happy-faced (HA) couple, food and nature pictures. Mixed effect analysis and correlation analysis were performed to investigate the relationship between the age and the change of brain activity elicited by erotic stimuli. Our results showed age was positively correlated with the activation of right occipital fusiform gyrus and amygdala, and negatively correlated with the activation of right insula and inferior frontal gyrus. These findings suggest age might be related with functional decline in brain regions being involved in both interoceptive sensation and prefrontal modulation while it is related with the incremental activity of the brain region for early processing of visual emotional stimuli in sexually healthy men.

  16. Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Hardani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nowadays, a lot of attention has been paid to the therapeutic properties of herbs, including evaluation of the effects of these plants on fertility in laboratory animals. Apium graveolens L. (celery has been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disorders including impotency. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of A. graveolens on testicular tissue and spermatogenesis in healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: In this research, 24 apparently healthy male rats were divided into three groups, including eight rats in each. The first group as control received only distilled water 1 ml/animal/day. The second and third groups orally received 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively, for 30 days. The day after the last administration of the extract, the rats were sacrificed, the testes were removed entirely, and the morphometric studies were carried out. Epididymal sperm count and histological studies of testicular tissue were conducted. Results: The comparison between the treated and control groups revealed a remarkable increase in the seminiferous tubules diameter, testes volume (p≤0.001, and the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatozoa. Furthermore, the increase in the number of spermatids and epididymal weight were only significant at high doses of the extract (p≤ 0.05. Conclusions: The results from this study indicated that administration of celery leaf extract may improve spermatogenesis process and also be useful for some sperm fertility parameters.

  17. Pharmacokinetic drug interaction between gemfibrozil and sitagliptin in healthy Indian male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K P, Arun; Meda, Venkata Subbaiah; Kucherlapati, V S P Raj; Dubala, Anil; M, Deepalakshmi; P R, Anand VijayaKumar; K, Elango; B, Suresh

    2012-05-01

    To study the impact of gemfibrozil co-administration on the pharmacokinetics of sitagliptin in healthy Indian male volunteers. A randomized open label two-period crossover study involving 12 healthy Indian male volunteers was conducted at a single center. In each phase, the volunteers were administered sitagliptin as 100 mg tablets, either alone or co-administered with gemfibrozil as 600 mg tablets twice daily for 3 days. There was a 2-week washout period between phases. The venous blood samples were serially collected at 0-12 h post-dose, and plasma concentrations of the study drugs were estimated by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet method. Relative to the administration of sitagliptin alone, co-administration with gemfibrozil increased the AUC₀₋₁₂ (2,167 ± 82.9 vs. 2,970 ± 76.4 ng h/ml; p gemfibrozil, this interaction may not have any clinical significance as sitagliptin has a wide therapeutic index. Hence, in clinical practice, sitagliptin as 100 mg tablets and gemfibrozil as 600 mg tablets may be co-prescribed without much threat of sitagliptin toxicity. However, these results may not hold if the dose of sitagliptin is increased or if is co-prescribed with other antidiabetic drugs and/or cytochrome P450 2C8/human organic anion transporter-3 inhibitors. Further studies are needed to confirm these results in patients.

  18. Use of the male condom by heterosexual adolescents and young people: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Leah; Jackson, Debra; O'Brien, Louise; Peters, Kathleen

    2007-07-01

    This paper is a report of a literature review to explore issues influencing condom use in heterosexual adolescents and young people. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major international health issue and adolescents and young people are particularly vulnerable. Efforts to address the rapid spread of STIs have largely focused on promoting the use of condoms as a protective 'safer sex' measure. However, use of the male condom is still inconsistent and the incidence of STIs continues to increase. A search of the literature using EBSCO Host databases was undertaken in 2006, with a focus on women, young people, condoms and STIs. Papers published in English from 1992 to 2006 were sought. Only research papers are included in this review. Factors impeding decisions to use protection by young people include lack of knowledge about prevalence of STIs, ambiguity around contraception and safer sex practices, and the difficulty faced by young women in particular in negotiating safer sex. The notion of romantic love confounds the assessment of risk and can render young people, particularly young women, ineffective in negotiating safer sex practices. Adolescents and young adults are particularly vulnerable in relation to STIs. There is a need to ensure that accurate messages are delivered about safer sex and contraception to this very vulnerable group. Furthermore, it is important to recognize that romantic love comprises strong emotions that have a role in decision-making and options for reducing personal-health risk during sexual activity.

  19. Rare case of solitary plasmacytoma of the skull in a young male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solitary plasmacytoma of bone without signs of multiple myeloma is a rare entity. It usually presents as an osteolytic lesion in the axial skeleton of an elderly patient. Here, we report a case of solitary plasmacytoma in the skull of a young male patient which emphasises the need to consider it in the differential diagnosis of a ...

  20. Migraine with Ischemic Stroke in a Young Male with Hyperhomocysteinemia and Connective Tissue Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Yevtushenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Case report of migraine with ischemic stroke on the background of hyperhomocysteinemia in a young male with connective tissue dysplasia is given in the article. The clinical picture, results of magnetic resonance imaging, tomography, genetic and somatic examination are described.

  1. Young, Black, and Sentenced To Die: Black Males and the Death Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Janice

    1996-01-01

    Explores the death penalty as imposed on young black males in the United States and examines the disparity in death penalty rates for homicides with black offenders and white victims. States continue to impose the death penalty rather than viewing youth violence as a failure of the social system. (SLD)

  2. An Unusual Case of Unilateral Multifocal Choroiditis in a Young Male

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multifocal choroiditis is a vision‑threatening disease causing inflammation at the level of retinal pigment epithelium and outer retina. We present a unique case of unilateral multifocal choroiditis in a young nonmyopic male and its subsequent course. The patient developed visual loss due to the sub‑retinal neovascular ...

  3. Long term effects of parenting and family characteristics on delinquency of male young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; Smeenk, W.; Loeber, R.; Southamer-Loeber, M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Gerris, J.R.; Dubas, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Drawing from the criminology literature and family studies, we investigated the long-term effects of established family risk factors and parenting styles on male young adult delinquency. We used data sets from two longitudinal studies, the Pittsburgh Youth Study (N474) and the Child-Rearing and

  4. After-School Programs: A Resource for Young Black Males and Other Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, Malcolm H.

    2016-01-01

    While after-school programs are plentiful, they are often developed arbitrarily with little attention given to theoretical underpinnings that may inform program interventions. In this article, after-school programs are situated in resilience theory as protective factors, which encourage resilience among young Black males and other urban youth. The…

  5. The Effect of Various Standing Positions in Muscles Activity between Healthy Young Men and those with Genu Varum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persian Abstract Amir Hossein Barati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Genu varum is considered a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis. Being aware of the changes in muscles activity in various standing positions among genu varum patients, can provide insight for preventing osteoarthritis in this population. This study is undertaken to compare muscles activity in various standing positions between young healthy and genu varum male individuals. Methods: 80 healthy male university students, 40 normal and 40 subjects with genu varum deformity, participated in this study. Deformity of genu varum was assessed with caliper and Goniometer. Each subject stood in five different positions and muscles activity was recorded with EMG device. For data analysis, Matlab and SPSS software were employed and Mixed variance analysis test (Mixed ANOVA was run to compare the dependent variables at a significance level of P ≤ 0.05. Results: Significant differences were observed between the two groups for muscles activity of the tensor fasia latae (at single leg with closed eye position, tertius fibulae and gluteus medius muscles (at single leg with closed eye and upward head postions( p≤0.05 while no significant differences were observed in other muscles. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, it can be suggested that frontal knee angle may affect muscles activity. Perhaps one of the reasons for higher injury risk and knee osteoarthritis in genu varum population is the increase in muscles activity. Therefor, It is proposed that focusing on corrective exercises can reduce these risks.

  6. The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryka, Dorota; Pilch, Wanda; Szarek, Marta; Szygula, Zbigniew; Tota, Łukasz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Sixteen male subjects (20-23 years) were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5-16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mass, heart rate, body skinfold thickness. The percentage fat content and then, the lean body mass were calculated. Total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, lipoprotein cholesterol LDL and HDL were measured in blood samples. A statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was observed during 3 weeks of sauna treatment and in the week afterwards. A significant decline in triacylglycerols was found directly after the 1st and 24 h directly after the 10th sauna session. After the 10th sauna session the level of HDL cholesterol remained slightly increased, but this change was not statistically significant. A decrease in blood plasma volume was found directly after the 1st and the last sauna bathing session due to perspiration. An adaptive increase in blood plasma volume was also found after the series of 10 sauna sessions. Ten complete sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna caused a reduction in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol fraction levels during the sessions and a gradual return of these levels to the initial level during the 1st and the 2nd week after the experiment. A small, statistically insignificant increase in HDL-C level and a transient decline in triacylglycerols were observed after those sauna sessions. The positive effect of sauna on lipid profile is similar to the effect that can be obtained through a moderate-intensity physical exercise.

  7. The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gryka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Material and Methods: Sixteen male subjects (20–23 years were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5–16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mass, heart rate, body skinfold thickness. The percentage fat content and then, the lean body mass were calculated. Total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, lipoprotein cholesterol LDL and HDL were measured in blood samples. Results: A statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was observed during 3 weeks of sauna treatment and in the week afterwards. A significant decline in triacylglycerols was found directly after the 1st and 24 h directly after the 10th sauna session. After the 10th sauna session the level of HDL cholesterol remained slightly increased, but this change was not statistically significant. A decrease in blood plasma volume was found directly after the 1st and the last sauna bathing session due to perspiration. An adaptive increase in blood plasma volume was also found after the series of 10 sauna sessions. Conclusions: Ten complete sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna caused a reduction in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol fraction levels during the sessions and a gradual return of these levels to the initial level during the 1st and the 2nd week after the experiment. A small, statistically insignificant increase in HDL-C level and a transient decline in triacylglycerols were observed after those sauna sessions. The positive effect of sauna on lipid profile is similar to the effect that can be obtained through a moderate-intensity physical exercise.

  8. Delayed clearance of triglyceride‐rich lipoproteins in young, healthy obese subjects†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, R.; Lekahl, S.; Moen, O. S.; Florholmen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome. The aims were, first, to study the postprandial triglyceride clearance in young, healthy obese subjects and, second, to investigate if fasting triglycerides can predict delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance. Eighteen apparently healthy, obese subjects with no clinical signs of metabolic disturbances participated. Controls were age‐ and sex‐matched, healthy, normal weight subjects. Subclinical markers of metabolic disturbances were assessed by measuring postprandial triglycerides in serum and in chylomicrons by oral fat tolerance test. Postprandial triglyceride clearance for 8 h was assessed indirectly as removal of the lipid from serum during the oral fat tolerance test. Insulin resistance was measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA‐IR). Twelve (66%) of the apparently healthy obese individuals had insulin resistance measured by HOMA‐IR. There was a delayed clearance of serum triglycerides and chylomicron triglycerides at 6 h when compared with the control group, while, at 8 h, the differences were only detected for the chylomicron triglyceride clearance. Triglyceride response was significantly greater in the obese subjects. Fasting triglycerides in upper normal level predicted a delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. In young, apparently healthy obese subjects early metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance can be detected. Fasting serum triglyceride in upper normal level predicted delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. PMID:26469529

  9. Delayed clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in young, healthy obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M A; Goll, R; Lekahl, S; Moen, O S; Florholmen, J

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome. The aims were, first, to study the postprandial triglyceride clearance in young, healthy obese subjects and, second, to investigate if fasting triglycerides can predict delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance. Eighteen apparently healthy, obese subjects with no clinical signs of metabolic disturbances participated. Controls were age- and sex-matched, healthy, normal weight subjects. Subclinical markers of metabolic disturbances were assessed by measuring postprandial triglycerides in serum and in chylomicrons by oral fat tolerance test. Postprandial triglyceride clearance for 8 h was assessed indirectly as removal of the lipid from serum during the oral fat tolerance test. Insulin resistance was measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Twelve (66%) of the apparently healthy obese individuals had insulin resistance measured by HOMA-IR. There was a delayed clearance of serum triglycerides and chylomicron triglycerides at 6 h when compared with the control group, while, at 8 h, the differences were only detected for the chylomicron triglyceride clearance. Triglyceride response was significantly greater in the obese subjects. Fasting triglycerides in upper normal level predicted a delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. In young, apparently healthy obese subjects early metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance can be detected. Fasting serum triglyceride in upper normal level predicted delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. © 2015 World Obesity.

  10. Cortisol secretion after adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH and Dexamethasone tests in healthy female and male dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Victor

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the conclusive diagnosis of Cushing's Syndrome, a stimulating ACTH test or a low suppressive Dexamethasone test is used. Reports in other species than the dog indicate that plasma cortisol concentration after ACTH administration is affected by gender. We investigated the effect of gender on the cortisol response to ACTH and Dexamethasone tests in dogs. Methods Seven healthy adult Cocker Spaniels (4 females and 3 males were assigned to a two by two factorial design: 4 dogs (2 females and 2 males received IV Dexamethasone 0.01 mg/kg, while the other 3 dogs received an IV saline solution (control group. Two weeks later the treatments were reversed. After one month, ACTH was given IV (250 μg/animal to 4 dogs (2 female and 2 males while the rest was treated with saline solution (control group. Cortisol concentrations were determined by a direct solid-phase radioimmunoassay and cholesterol and triglycerides by commercial kits. Results and Discussion No effect of treatment was observed in metabolite concentrations, but females presented higher cholesterol concentrations. ACTH-treated dogs showed an increase in cortisol levels in the first hour after sampling until 3 hours post injection. Cortisol concentrations in Dexamethasone-treated dogs decreased one hour post injection and remained low for 3 hours, thereafter cortisol concentrations increased. The increase in cortisol levels from one to two hours post ACTH injection was significantly higher in females than males. In Dexamethasone-treated males cortisol levels decreased one hour post injection up to 3 hours; in females the decrease was more pronounced and prolonged, up to 5 hours post injection. Conclusion We have demonstrated that cortisol response to ACTH and Dexamethasone treatment in dogs differs according to sex.

  11. Pharmacokinetic interaction between udenafil and dapoxetine: a randomized, open-labeled crossover study in healthy male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YH

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Yo Han Kim,1 Hee Youn Choi,1 Shi Hyang Lee,1 Hae Sun Jeon,1 Hyeong-Seok Lim,1 Mi Young Bahng,2 Kyun-Seop Bae1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, 2Clinical Development Department, Dong-A ST Co, Ltd, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: “Udenafil” is a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor indicated for erectile dysfunction. “Dapoxetine” is a serotonin transport inhibitor indicated for premature ejaculation. The aim of the study reported here was to investigate the pharmacokinetic drug interaction between udenafil and dapoxetine in healthy male subjects. Methods: An open-label, three-treatment, six-sequence, three-period crossover study was performed in healthy male subjects. In varying sequences, each subjects received single oral doses of udenafil 200 mg, dapoxetine 60 mg, and both treatments. The periods were separated by a washout period of 7 days. Serial blood samples were collected up to 48 hours after dosing. The plasma concentrations of udenafil and dapoxetine were determined using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by non-compartmental analysis. Tolerability was assessed throughout the study. Results: Twenty-three healthy subjects completed the study. The geometric mean ratios of the area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time 0 to last measurable time point and measured peak plasma concentration for udenafil were 0.923 (90% confidence interval [CI]: 0.863–0.987 and 0.864 (90% CI: 0.789–0.947, respectively. The geometric mean ratios of the area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time 0 to last measurable time point and measured peak plasma concentration for dapoxetine were 1.125 (90% CI: 1.044–1.213 and 0.837 (90% CI: 0.758–0.925, respectively. There were no serious adverse events reported, and none of the subjects dropped out due to adverse events

  12. Salivary adiponectin concentration in healthy adult males in relation to anthropometric measures and fat distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Mona Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Body fat content, fat distribution, and adiponectin level are important variables in the development of obesity related complications. Anthropometric indices may provide an economic and faster method in measuring the risk for complications through their predictive effect of fat distribution and adiponectin concentration. We aimed to determine, which of the waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, and body mass index (BMI may be the best predictor for the total fat percentage (WF, visceral fat level (VF, and subcutaneous whole-body fat (SCWBF. We aimed also to investigate the potential use of the anthropometric measures and fat distribution as predictors for the salivary adiponectin level in the healthy adult males. Subjects. A total of 88 adult males aged between 18−25 years with a wide range of BMI were studied. Anthropometric indices were measured using standardized methods and salivary adiponectin level was assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. In path analysis of the Structural Equation Model (SEM using IBM@SPSS AMOS, version22, BMI and WC, but not WHR, were strong predictors for WF and SCWBF (p<0.05. BMI but not WC was a strong predictor for VF (p<0.001. WF was strong predictor for SCWBF (p<0.001, but not for VF. BMI, WC, WHR, WF, VF, and SCWBF were poor predictors of the salivary adiponectin level. Conclusion. BMI is the best predictor for the total body fat and fat distribution. However, WHR seems to be of a little value and the salivary adiponectin level independent of BMI and body fat in healthy adult Malay males.

  13. Is rivastigmine safe as pretreatment against nerve agents poisoning? A pharmacological, physiological and cognitive assessment in healthy young adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavon, Ophir; Eisenkraft, Arik; Blanca, Merav; Raveh, Lily; Ramaty, Erez; Krivoy, Amir; Atsmon, Jacob; Grauer, Ettie; Brandeis, Rachel

    2015-07-01

    Rivastigmine, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor, approved as a remedy in Alzheimer's disease, was suggested as pretreatment against nerve agents poisoning. We evaluated the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, physiologic, cognitive and emotional effects of repeated rivastigmine in young healthy male adults, in a double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial. Three groups completed 3 treatment periods: 0, 1.5 and 3mg twice a day, for a total of 5 intakes. Parameters monitored were: vital signs, ECG, laboratory tests, sialometry, visual accommodation, inspiratory peak flow, and cognitive function tests. Adverse reactions were mild. Peak blood levels and peak cholinesterase inhibition increased with repeated intakes, and high variability and non-linear pharmacokinetics were demonstrated. In addition, two cognitive functions were affected (perceptual speed and dynamic tracking). The complicated pharmacological profile and the high inter-personal variability limit the potential use of rivastigmine as pretreatment for war fighters and first responders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D with peak bone mineral density and body composition in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Annemieke M; Krenning, Eric P; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M P F

    2011-01-01

    The associations between peak bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition with 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in healthy young adults were evaluated. The number of participants was 464; 347 women and 117 men. The mean age was 24.3 years (range 17-31 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, total body and femoral neck (FN) and body composition were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Volumetric BMD, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD), of the lumbar spine and FN was calculated. In females, 25OHD level was positively associated with FN BMD and BMAD (both ppercentage body fat (pbody BMD and lean body mass (p=0.03 and p=0.01). 25OHD level is a determinant of peak BMD in both sexes. Vitamin D status was associated with body fat in females and with lean body mass in males.

  15. Effect of acyclovir and steroid in a young immunocompetent male with herpes zoster myelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Safadi, Louay; Arngrim, Nanna; Amin, Faisal Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Herpes zoster myelitis is a rare condition, usually seen in aged and immunocompromised patients. Due to atypical presen-tations it can be hard to diagnose. Intraspinal lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) support the diagnosis. We present a 39-year-old otherwise healthy male with symptoms...

  16. Reductive stress in young healthy individuals at risk of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badía, Mari-Carmen; Giraldo, Esther; Dasí, Francisco; Alonso, Dolores; Lainez, Jose M; Lloret, Ana; Viña, Jose

    2013-10-01

    Oxidative stress is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) but this has not been studied in young healthy persons at risk of the disease. Carrying an Apo ε4 allele is the major genetic risk factor for AD. We have observed that lymphocytes from young, healthy persons carrying at least one Apo ε4 allele suffer from reductive rather than oxidative stress, i.e., lower oxidized glutathione and P-p38 levels and higher expression of enzymes involved in antioxidant defense, such as glutamylcysteinyl ligase and glutathione peroxidase. In contrast, in the full-blown disease, the situation is reversed and oxidative stress occurs, probably because of the exhaustion of the antioxidant mechanisms just mentioned. These results provide insights into the early events of the progression of the disease that may allow us to find biomarkers of AD at its very early stages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Healthy lifestyle in the primordial prevention of cardiovascular disease among young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomistek, Andrea K; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Eliassen, A Heather; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B

    2015-01-06

    Overall mortality rates from coronary heart disease (CHD) in the United States have declined in recent decades, but the rate has plateaued among younger women. The potential for further reductions in mortality rates among young women through changes in lifestyle is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of CHD cases and clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among young women that might be attributable to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle. A prospective analysis was conducted among 88,940 women ages 27 to 44 years at baseline in the Nurses' Health Study II who were followed from 1991 to 2011. Lifestyle factors were updated repeatedly by questionnaire. A healthy lifestyle was defined as not smoking, a normal body mass index, physical activity ≥ 2.5 h/week, television viewing ≤ 7 h/week, diet in the top 40% of the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010, and 0.1 to 14.9 g/day of alcohol. To estimate the proportion of CHD and clinical CVD risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia) that could be attributed to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle, we calculated the population-attributable risk percent. During 20 years of follow-up, we documented 456 incident CHD cases. In multivariable-adjusted models, nonsmoking, a healthy body mass index, exercise, and a healthy diet were independently and significantly associated with lower CHD risk. Compared with women with no healthy lifestyle factors, the hazard ratio for CHD for women with 6 lifestyle factors was 0.08 (95% confidence interval: 0.03 to 0.22). Approximately 73% (95% confidence interval: 39% to 89%) of CHD cases were attributable to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle. Similarly, 46% (95% confidence interval: 43% to 49%) of clinical CVD risk factor cases were attributable to a poor lifestyle. Primordial prevention through maintenance of a healthy lifestyle among young women may substantially lower the burden of CVD. Copyright © 2015 American College

  18. Young males' perspectives on pregnancy, fatherhood and condom use: Where does responsibility for birth control lie?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer L; Fenwick, Jennifer; Skinner, Rachel; Merriman, Gareth; Hallett, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    To improve our understanding of males' role in contraceptive practices, this paper explores the relationship between young males' perspectives on pregnancy and fatherhood and their attitudes, beliefs and practices in relation to condom use and birth control. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of 42 males aged 15-25 years. A systematic process of thematic analysis was used to reduce and organise the narrative data around the focus areas of relationships, sex, condom use, STIs and pregnancy/fatherhood. To facilitate the emergence of key patterns in the data, new data was constantly compared with existing ideas to formulate and refine codes and descriptive categories. The analysis revealed a clear discrepancy between young males' desire to prevent pregnancy and the level of control they assumed over this. Despite pregnancy emerging as the overriding concern for participants, this failed to motivate continued use of condoms when STI risk was perceived as low and a partner was using birth control. Reliance on a partner's use of hormonal contraceptives and in several cases, beliefs of low personal responsibility for pregnancy prevention reduced young males' participation in fertility control. Young males' unfavourable attitudes toward immediate pregnancy and fatherhood provide a unique opportunity for safe sex promotion by encouraging greater ownership over sexual and reproductive health outcomes. However, this requires a shift in the meanings associated with condoms, from a disease prevention only orientation to one that promotes condom use as a positive act for self and partner protection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of tramadol and acepromazine on intraocular pressure and pupil diameter in young healthy cats

    OpenAIRE

    Schroder, Deise Cristine; Monteiro, Bianca Garay; Pytlak, Deborah Braga; Souza, Mayara Carvalho de; Mendonça, Adriane Jorge; Ribeiro, Alexandre Pinto

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the effects of the systemic administration of acepromazine, tramadol and the association of both on intraocular pressure (IOP) and pupil diameter (PD) in young healthy cats. Cats were randomly allocated into three groups (n=10/each) and intramuscular acepromazine (AG), tramadol (TG) or acepromazine combined with tramadol (ATG) were injected. PD (electronic caliper) and IOP (applanation tonometry) were assessed before (baseline) and following 15, 30, 6...

  20. Physical activity is not related to semen quality in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime; Gaskins, Audrey J; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2014-10-01

    To study the relationship of physical activity with semen quality among healthy young men from Spain. Cross-sectional study. University and college campuses of Murcia Region, Spain. Healthy young men with untested fertility (n = 215). A physical examination, blood and semen samples, and completion of a questionnaire. Semen quality parameters. Physical activity was not related to semen quality parameters. The adjusted percentage differences (95% confidence interval) in semen parameters comparing men in the top quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (≥9.5 h/wk) with men in the bottom quartile (≤3 h/wk) were 4.3% (-30.2%, 38.9%) for total sperm count, 7.2% (-30.6%, 45.1%) for sperm concentration, -2.42% (-6.53%, 1.69%) for sperm motility, and 12.6% (-12.0%, 37.2%) for sperm morphology. In contrast to previous research among athletes, these data suggest that physical activity is not deleterious to testicular function, as captured by semen quality parameters in this population of healthy young men in Spain. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of quadriceps and hamstrings muscle cooling on standing balance in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, A H; Anwer, S; Zafar, H; Al-Eisa, E S

    2017-09-01

    The present study compared the effect of quadriceps and hamstring muscle cooling on standing balance in healthy young men. Thirty healthy young men (18-30 years) participated in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups (n=10 each): quadriceps cooling (QC), hamstring cooling (HC), or control group (no cooling). Participants in the QC and HC groups received 20 minutes of cooling using a cold pack (gel pack), placed on the anterior thigh (from the apex of the patella to the mid-thigh) and the posterior thigh (from the base of the popliteal fossa to the mid-thigh), respectively. Balance score including unilateral stance was measured at baseline and immediately after the application of the cold pack. No significant difference in the balance score was noted in any group after the application of the cold pack (p⟩0.05). Similarly, no significant differences in post-test balance score were noted among the three groups (p⟩0.05). Cooling of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles has no immediate effect on standing balance in healthy young men. However, longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate the long-term effects of cooling these muscles on standing balance.

  2. Physical activity is not related to semen quality in young healthy men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime; Gaskins, Audrey J; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the relation of physical activity with semen quality among healthy young men from Spain. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting University and college campuses of Murcia Region, Spain. Patients Healthy young men with untested fertility (n=215). Intervention A physical examination, blood and semen samples, and completion of a questionnaire. Main outcomes measure Semen quality parameters. Results Physical activity was not related to semen quality parameters. The adjusted percentage differences (95% confidence interval) in semen parameters comparing men in the top quartile of moderate to vigorous physical activity (≥9.5h/wk) to men in the bottom quartile (≤3h/wk) were 4.3% (−30.2, 38.9) for total sperm count, 7.2% (−30.6, 45.1) for sperm concentration, −2.42% (−6.53, 1.69) for sperm motility, and 12.6% (−12.0, 37.2) for sperm morphology. Conclusion In contrast to previous research among athletes, these data suggest that physical activity is not deleterious to testicular function, as captured by semen quality parameters in this population of healthy young men in Spain. PMID:25064411

  3. Endothelial function in highly endurance-trained and sedentary, healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Ingvild T; Hoven, Heidi; Hetland, Eva V; Rognmo, Oivind; Slørdahl, Stig A

    2005-05-01

    Endothelial function is reduced by age, chronic heart failure, coronary artery disease, hypertension or type 2 diabetes, and it is shown that aerobic exercise may reverse this trend. The effect of a high aerobic training status on endothelial function in young, healthy subjects is however less clear. The present study was designed to determine whether endothelial function is improved in highly endurance-trained young women compared to sedentary, healthy controls. Brachial artery diameter was measured in 16 endurance-trained (age: 23.7 +/- 2.5 years, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): 60.6 +/- 4.5 ml/kg per min) and 14 sedentary females (age: 23.7 +/- 2.1 years, VO2max: 40.5 +/- 5.6 ml/kg per min) at rest, during flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and after sublingual glycerol trinitrate administration, using high-resolution ultrasound. FMD did not differ between the endurance-trained and the sedentary females (14.8% vs 16.4%, p = NS), despite a substantial difference in VO2max of 50% (p endurance-trained group possessed however, a 9% larger resting brachial artery diameter when adjusted for body surface area. The results of the present study suggest that endothelial function is well preserved in young, healthy women, and that a high aerobic training status due to long term aerobic training does not improve the dilating capacity any further.

  4. Gastrointestinal mean transit times in young and middle-aged healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years......, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated. The gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were significantly longer in women. Ageing was shown to accelerate the gastric and small intestinal transit significantly. In the group of men the colonic mean transit time...... was unaffected by age, but middle-aged women had a significantly slower colonic transit than young women. We therefore conclude that both age and gender have to be considered when reference values for gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times have to be established....

  5. Eikenella corrodens endocarditis and liver abscess in a previously healthy male, a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Anne Christine; Vøgg, Ruth Ottilia Birgitta; Permin, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eikenella corrodens is one of the HACEK bacteria constituting part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, however, still an uncommon pathogen. We report a case of a large Eikenella corrodens liver abscess with simultaneously endocarditis in a previously healthy male. CASE PRESENTATION...... on pneumonia treatment, a PET-CT scan was performed, which showed a large multiloculated abscess in the liver. The abscess was drained using ultrasound guidance. Culture demonstrated Eikenella corrodens. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed aortic endocarditis. The patient was treated with antibiotics...... corrodens concurrent liver abscess and endocarditis. The case report highlights that Eikenella corrodens should be considered as a cause of liver abscess. Empirical treatment of pyogenic liver abscess will most often cover Eikenella corrodens, but the recommended treatment is a third generation...

  6. Cardio-respiratory response of young adult Indian male subjects to stress: Effects of progressive muscle relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunima Chaudhuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress and anxiety have become an integral part of our lives. Of late, this has resulted in the increase in incidence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. Objectives: To assess the effect of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR on young adult males and its role in the modulation of cardio-respiratory response on exposure to stress. Materials and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care referral hospital. Undergraduate male students under stress were chosen for the study. Fasting blood samples were drawn to analyze sugar and lipid profile, followed by anthropometric measurements and ECG. In the resting condition, blood pressure, pulse rate, and spirometric parameters; forced vital capacities (FVC, and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV 1 % were measured. Then, they were made to exercise with bicycle ergometer and post exercise, the vital parameters were recorded. All subjects were given a training of Jacobson′s Progressive Muscular Relaxation and asked to practice this technique for 3 months. All parameters were re-evaluated. Results: Significant decreases in resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol levels of subjects were seen after PMR training. Exercise-induced rise in heart rate and blood pressure were also significantly less in subjects following PMR training. Conclusion: Progressive muscle relaxation helps in modulation of heart rate, blood pressure, and lipid profile in healthy normal adult male individuals.

  7. A 3-day high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet does not alter exercise-induced growth hormone response in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroto; Ishibashi, Aya; Tsuchiya, Yoshihumi; Shimura, Nobuhiro; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Ebi, Kumiko; Goto, Kazushige

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of 3 days isoenergetic high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet (HF-LC) relative to low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet (LF-HC) on the exercise-induced growth hormone (GH) response in healthy male subjects. Ten healthy young males participated in this study. Each subject consumed the HF-LC (18±1% protein, 61±2% fat, 21±1% carbohydrate, 2720 kcal per day) for 3 consecutive days after consuming the LF-HC (18±1% protein, 20±1% fat, 62±1% carbohydrate, 2755 kcal per day) for 3 consecutive days. After each dietary intervention period, the hormonal and metabolic responses to an acute exercise (30 min of continuous pedaling at 60% of V˙O2max) were compared. The intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) contents in the vastus lateralis, soleus, and tibialis anterior were evaluated by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Serum GH concentrations increased significantly during the exercise after both the HF-LC and LF-HC periods (Pexercise-induced GH response was not significantly different between the two periods. Fat utilization and lipolytic responses during the exercise were enhanced significantly after the HF-LC period compared with the LF-HC period. IMCL content did not differ significantly in any portion of muscle after the dietary interventions. We could not show that short-term HF-LC consumption changed significantly exercise-induced GH response or IMCL content in healthy young males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship Between ABCB1 Polymorphisms and Cold Pain Sensitivity Among Healthy Opioid-naive Malay Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, Zalina; Lee, Chee Siong; Ibrahim, Muslih Abdulkarim; Musa, Nurfadhlina; Mohd Yasin, Mohd Azhar; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Tan, Soo Choon; Mohamad, Nasir; Ismail, Rusli

    2017-09-01

    Endogenous and exogenous opioids are substrates of the permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter, which is encoded by the ABCB1 (MDR1) gene. Genetic polymorphisms of ABCB1 may contribute to interindividual differences in pain modulation and analgesic responses. We investigated the relationship between ABCB1 polymorphisms and cold pain sensitivity among healthy males. Cold pain responses, including pain threshold and pain tolerance, were measured using the cold-pressor test (CPT). DNA was extracted from whole blood and genotyped for ABCB1 polymorphisms, including c.1236C>T (rs1128503), c.2677G>T/A (rs2032582), and c.3435C>T (rs1045642), using the allelic discrimination real-time polymerase chain reaction. A total of 152 participants were recruited in this observational study. Frequencies of mutated allele for c.1236C>T, c.2677G>T/A, and c.3435C>T polymorphisms were 56.6%, 49.7%, and 43.4%, respectively. Our results revealed an association of the CGC/CGC diplotype (c.1236C>T, c.2677G>T/A, and c.3435C>T) with cold pain sensitivity. Participants with the CGC/CGC diplotype had 90% and 72% higher cold pain thresholds (87.62 seconds vs. 46.19 seconds, P = 0.010) and cold pain tolerances (97.24 seconds vs. 56.54 seconds, P = 0.021), respectively, when compared with those without the diplotype. The CGC/CGC diplotype of ABCB1 polymorphisms was associated with variability in cold pain threshold and pain tolerance in healthy males. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  9. Feed efficiency, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of young Nellore males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; dos Santos, Guilherme Pinheiro; Branco, Renata Helena; Ribeiro, Enilson Geraldo; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilization between young Nellore males and females by comparing growth traits, feed intake, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of the animals. Data from 768 Nellore males and females that participated in eight performance tests for individual feed intake evaluation were used. Performance and feed efficiency measures, efficiency-related hematological, metabolic and hormonal variables, and data regarding ingestive behavior were collected. Feed efficiency measures were defined by the relationship between performance and feed intake. Data were analyzed using mixed models that included the fixed effects of sex, herd, and the covariate age within sex and the random effects of facility within year, year, and residual. Significant differences between males and females were observed for traits related to weight gain and feed intake. Although individual dynamics of feed efficiency measures differed between males and females, no significant differences in residual feed intake, feed efficiency, or relative growth rate were observed between sexes. Significant differences between sexes were found for platelets, red blood cells, hemoglobin, creatinine, glucose, urea, triglycerides, insulin, cortisol, and IGF-I. Females spent more time feeding and less time ruminating when compared to males. However, males exhibited higher feeding efficiency and lower rumination efficiency than females. Growing Nellore males and females are efficient in feed utilization, and the differences in blood variables observed are probably due to differences in body size and feed intake. Males spend less time eating, consume more food, and spend more time ruminating than females.

  10. Healthy or Unhealthy Lifestyle: A Thematic Analysis of Iranian Male Adolescents' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareiyan, Armin

    2017-01-01

    Identifying what adolescents perceive as their lifestyle and exploring the factors persuading their decisions to engage in or avoid healthy or unhealthy lifestyle behaviors could improve the ability of healthcare professionals to develop innovative preventive strategies and modify negative health behaviors in adolescents. Hence, the literature on adolescent health-related issues reported by adults showed a rarity of information from adolescents themselves. A qualitative study using the thematic analysis approach was conducted. Data were collected by semi-structured, digitally recorded interviews from 32 male adolescents. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and after collecting the data, the thematic analysis process was started and conducted in six phases. After data collection, the interview texts were transcribed, and approximately 800 initial codes were extracted. The initial codes were reevaluated to yield 48 main themes. Hence, the final thematic map was created as having 5 overarching themes and 12 subthemes, showing that interviewees emphasized unhealthy lifestyle. The components of unhealthy lifestyle seem important to them because they consider that they could lead a healthy lifestyle through elimination of negative behaviors.

  11. Pressure/cross-sectional area relations in the proximal urethra of healthy males: the time dependent pressure response following forced dilation. Part IV: results in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, Per; Bøtker-Rasmussen; Kristensen, Jørgen Kvist

    2002-01-01

    The significance of the anatomical location and age on the urethral response to a sudden forced dilation was studied in 30 healthy males aged 23-85 years. The pressure decay after dilation was fitted with a double exponential function of the form: P(t) = P(equ) + P(alpha)e(-t/tau(alpha) + P...

  12. Variation in risk indicators of cardiovascular disease during the menstrual cycle: an investigation of within-subject variations in glutathione peroxidase, haemostatic variables, lipids and lipoproteins in healthy young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Andersen, H R; Hansen, A B

    1996-01-01

    Variations in erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity, serum concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins and in blood coagulation and fibrinolysis during the menstrual cycle were studied in healthy young women. Blood samples were drawn twice a week for 9 weeks. A group of males was used...

  13. Neural Correlates of Impulsivity in Healthy Males and Females with Family Histories of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVito, Elise E; Meda, Shashwath A; Jiantonio, Rachel; Potenza, Marc N; Krystal, John H; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2013-01-01

    Individuals family-history positive (FHP) for alcoholism have increased risk for the disorder, which may be mediated by intermediate behavioral traits such as impulsivity. Given the sex differences in the risk for and clinical presentation of addictive disorders, risk for addiction may be differentially mediated by impulsivity within FHP males and females. FHP (N=28) and family-history negative (FHN, N=31) healthy, non-substance-abusing adults completed an fMRI Go/No-Go task and were assessed on impulsivity and alcohol use. Effects of family history and sex were investigated as were associations between neural correlates of impulse control and out-of-scanner measures of impulsivity and alcohol use. FHP individuals showed greater activation in the left anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus during successful inhibitions, an effect that was driven primarily by FHP males. Higher self-reported impulsivity and behavioral discounting impulsivity, but not alcohol use measures, were associated with greater BOLD signal in the region that differentiated the FHP and FHN groups. Impulsivity factors were associated with alcohol use measures across the FHP and FHN groups. These findings are consistent with increased risk for addiction among FHP individuals being conferred through disrupted function within neural systems important for impulse control. PMID:23584260

  14. Mental health of the male adolescent and young man: the Copenhagen statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Timothy R; Shah, Lesha D; Trelles, Pilar; Lin, Shih-Ku; Christensen, Dinne Skjærlund; Walther, Andreas; Sher, Leo

    2018-06-01

    Male adolescents and young men benefit when their mental health care is specialized to match their unique gendered and developmental needs. Sensitivity to the social circumstances of this population is important; additionally, the emerging ability to tailor care through knowledge gleaned from the intersection of psychiatry, neurology, and endocrinology informs care. This article summarized the views of six experts in the area of the adolescent and young adult male mental health. These experts were select members of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry's Task Force on Men's Mental Health. They convened to present two symposia on the topic of men's mental health at the 13th World Congress of Biological Psychiatry (WCBP) in Copenhagen, Denmark in 2017. In these works, a special focus is paid to addictive disorders, disruptive behavior disorders, aggression, and brain development. Collectively, the authors present an argument for the merits of a male-specific model of mental health care to advance the overall well-being of this population. Men's mental health should be recognized as a social issue as much as a medical issue, with special attention paid to problems such as unemployment, familial disruption, and substance abuse. These problems, and especially those of major societal impact including violence and suicide which are much more frequently the product of male youth and men, should have more male-tailored options for service provision that respond to men's mental health needs.

  15. A Qualitative Exploration of Gender Identity in Young People who identify as Neither Male nor Female

    OpenAIRE

    Boddington, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The dominant approach to categorising gender in western cultures, follows a binary\\ud system, where the gender of an individual must be either male or female. However,\\ud some individuals feel that their gender identity is neither male nor female, and may\\ud define themselves as non-binary. Non-binary gender has predominantly been\\ud encompassed within wider transgender research and, therefore, little is known about\\ud how young people who identify as non-binary describe their gender identity...

  16. Diet quality and adherence to a healthy diet in Japanese male workers with untreated hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanauchi, Masao; Kanauchi, Kimiko

    2015-07-10

    As Japanese societies rapidly undergo westernisation, the prevalence of hypertension is increasing. We investigated the association between dietary quality and the prevalence of untreated hypertension in Japanese male workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 433 male workers who completed a brief food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to the WHO-based Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), the American Heart Association 2006 Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and Mediterranean-style diet was assessed using four adherence indexes (HDI score, AI-84 score, DASH score and MED score). Hypertension classes were classified into three categories: non-hypertension, untreated hypertension and treated hypertension (ie, taking antihypertensive medication). The prevalence of untreated hypertension and treated hypertension was 22.4% and 8.5%, respectively. Patients with untreated hypertension had significantly lower HDI and AI-84 scores compared with non-hypertension. DASH and MED scores across the three hypertension classes were comparable. After adjusting for age, energy intake, smoking habit, alcohol drinking, physical activity and salt intake, a low adherence to HDI and a lowest quartile of AI-84 score were associated with a significantly higher prevalence of untreated hypertension, with an OR of 3.33 (95% CI 1.39 to 7.94, p=0.007) and 2.23 (1.09 to 4.53, p=0.027), respectively. A lower dietary quality was associated with increased prevalence of untreated hypertension in Japanese male workers. Our findings support a potential beneficial impact of nutritional assessment using diet qualities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Multifocal Choroiditis with Retinal Vasculitis, Optic Neuropathy, and Keratoconus in a Young Saudi Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhafiri, Yousef; Al Rubaie, Khalid; Kirat, Omar; May, William N; Nguyen, Quan D; Kozak, Igor

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe an association of unilateral multifocal choroiditis (MFC), retinal vasculitis, optic neuropathy, and bilateral keratoconus in a young Saudi male. A 27-year-old male patient with stable bilateral keratoconus presented with a painless vision loss in his left eye. Ophthalmic examinations revealed multiple foci of idiopathic chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and mild optic disc leakage on fluorescein angiography, all of which resolved on systemic therapy with mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone after 3 months. Systemic medication was stopped after 8 months. One year after presentation, patient's visual acuity has improved and remained stable. Systemic immunomodulatory therapy can be effective in managing and leading to resolution of MFC, retinal vasculitis, and optic disc leak in young patients.

  18. Case study: a young male with auditory hallucinations in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowski, Abigail

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this case study is to demonstrate use of the nursing process and the standardized nursing languages of NANDA International (NANDA-I), the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC), and the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) to assist a young male with paranoid schizophrenia to deal with auditory hallucinations. Data were obtained from the experience and expertise of the author and published literature. This case study demonstrates nurses' clinical decision making in providing care for an adolescent with mental illness. This case study provides the pertinent nursing diagnosis, patient outcomes, and nursing interventions for a young male with auditory hallucinations in paranoid schizophrenia. The use of NANDA-I, NOC, and NIC can provide the necessary framework for enhancing and improving the management of care with patients who experience auditory hallucinations in paranoid schizophrenia. © 2011, The Authors. International Journal of Nursing Terminologies and Classifications © 2011, NANDA International.

  19. Cognitive behavioral therapy to reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Li, Chun; Wang, Hong; Ou, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Song; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    This 9-week study was designed to determine whether a commercial cognitive-behavioral training program could effectively reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders. Sixty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive routine intervention alone (control group) or routine intervention plus Williams LifeSkills Training (WLST group) in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome was change scores on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) from baseline to one week following end of training. Secondary outcomes were change scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS). There were significant between-group differences in change of MOAS total score (P behavior in young male violent offenders. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Peak muscle mass in young men and sarcopenia in the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Nielsen, T L; Brixen, K

    2015-01-01

    of sarcopenia in men. INTRODUCTION: The ageing population increases the prevalence of sarcopenia. Estimation of normative data on muscle mass in young men during the peak of anabolic hormones is necessary for the diagnosis of sarcopenia in ageing males. The purposes of this study were to provide population......The prevalence of sarcopenia increases with age. The diagnosis of sarcopenia relies in part on normative data on muscle mass, but these data are lacking. This study provides population-based reference data on muscle mass in young men, and these results may be used clinically for the diagnosis......-based reference data on lean body mass (LBM) in young men during the time of peak levels of GH/IGF-1 and testosterone and further to apply the reference data on a population-based sample of men aged 60-74 years to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, population-based single...

  1. Reliability of anthropometric measurements in young male and female artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siatras, Theophanis; Skaperda, Malamati; Mameletzi, Dimitra

    2010-12-01

    Body dimensions and body composition of children participating in artistic activities, such as gymnastics and many types of dancing, are important factors in performance improvement. The present study aimed to determine the reliability of a series of selected anthropometric measurements in young male and female gymnasts. Segment lengths, body breadths, circumferences, and skinfold thickness were measured in 20 young gymnasts by the same experienced examiner, using portable and easy-to-use instruments. All parameters were measured twice (test-retest) under the same conditions within a week's period. The high intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) values ranging from 0.87 to 0.99, as well as the low coefficient of variation (CV) values (artistic gymnasts. Therefore, these measurements could contribute to further research in this field of investigation, helping to monitor young artistic gymnasts' growth status and identify specific characteristics for increased performance in this sport.

  2. Implicit cognitive aggression among young male prisoners: Association with dispositional and current aggression.

    OpenAIRE

    Ireland, Jane Louise; Adams, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The current study explores associations between implicit and explicit aggression in young adult male prisoners, seeking to apply the Reflection-Impulsive Model and indicate parity with elements of the General Aggression Model and Social Cognition. Implicit cognitive aggressive processing is not an area that has been examined among prisoners. Two hundred and sixty two prisoners completed an implicit cognitive aggression measure (PUZZLE Test) and explicit aggression measures, covering current b...

  3. Rare case of solitary plasmacytoma of the skull in a young male patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Singh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Solitary plasmacytoma of bone without signs of multiple myeloma is a rare entity. It usually presents as an osteolytic lesion in the axial skeleton of an elderly patient. Here, we report a case of solitary plasmacytoma in the skull of a young male patient which emphasises the need to consider it in the differential diagnosis of a destructive calvarial mass lesion even in this age group.

  4. Lack of Day/Night variation in fibroblast growth factor 21 levels in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, J-P; Aronis, K N; Chamberland, J P; Mantzoros, C S

    2015-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 is an endocrine factor with an emerging role as a metabolic regulator. We previously reported the presence of a significant day/night variation of FGF-21 in energy-replete, healthy female subjects. However the day/night patterns of secretion in male subjects remain to be fully elucidated. To elucidate day/night pattern of FGF-21 levels in male subjects in the energy-replete state, its relationship to FFA and to investigate whether a sexual dimorphism exists in FGF-21 physiology. Eight healthy lean male subjects were studied for up to 5 days while on an isocaloric diet. Blood samples were obtained for measurement of FGF-21 and free fatty acids (FFA) hourly from 0800 AM on day 4 till 0800AM on day 5. FGF-21 did not exhibit any statistically significant day/night variation pattern of circulating FGF-21 levels during the isocaloric fed state in male subjects. FGF-21 levels in male subjects are closely cross-correlated with FFA levels, similar to female subjects. A sexual dimorphism exists in FGF-21 physiology; that as opposed to female subjects, no significant day/night variation exists in FGF-21 rhythm in male subjects in the energy-replete state. Circulating pattern of FGF-21, similar to the female subjects, was highly cross-correlated to the FFA levels in the male subjects, signifying that the sexual dimorphism in FGF-21 physiology may be related to the differing lipid metabolism in both the genders.

  5. Body height and arterial pressure in seated and supine young males during +2 G centrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedsen, Sine K.; Eiken, Ola; Kölegård, Roger

    2015-01-01

    by the use of a human centrifuge would increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) more in tall than in short males in the seated position. In short (162-171cm, n=8) and tall (194-203cm, n=10) healthy males (18-41yr), brachial arterial pressure, heart rate (HR) and cardiac output were measured during +2G...... centrifugation, while they were seated upright with the legs kept horizontal (+2Gz). In a separate experiment, the same measurements were done with the subjects supine (+2Gx). During +2Gz MAP increased in the short (22±2 mmHg, P 

  6. Low Nourishment of Vitamin C Induces Glutathione Depletion and Oxidative Stress in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Attabi, Zahir; Guizani, Nejib

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the status of vitamin C among healthy young adults in relation to serum antioxidant parameters [glutathione (GSH), thiols, and total antioxidant capacity, (TAC)], and oxidative stress markers [malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitrites plus nitrates (NN)]. A prospective study included 200 young adults, and their dietary intake was assessed by using food diaries. Fasting plasma vitamin C, serum levels of GSH, thiols, TAC, MDA, and NN were measured using biochemical assays. It was observed that 38% of the enrolled subjects, n=76, had an adequate dietary intake of vitamin C (ADI group). Meanwhile, 62%, n=124, had a low dietary intake of vitamin C (LDI group) as compared to the recommended dietary allowances. The fasting plasma level of vitamin C was significantly higher in the ADI group as compared to the LDI group. Oxidative stress in the sera of the LDI group was evidenced by depletion of GSH, low thiols levels, impairment of TAC, an elevation of MDA, and increased NN. In the ADI group, positive correlations were found between plasma vitamin C and serum antioxidant parameters (GSH, thiols, and TAC). Meanwhile, the plasma vitamin C was negatively correlated with serum MDA and NN levels. This study reveals a significant increase of oxidative stress status and reduced antioxidant capacity in sera from healthy young adults with low intake of the dietary antioxidant, vitamin C.

  7. Putting the Boys in the Picture: A Review of Programs To Promote Sexual Responsibility among Young Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryfoos, Joy G.

    This document focuses entirely on pregnancy prevention and young males. It begins with a brief review of current literature on male involvement from which many of the findings and program ideas reported in the document were compiled. A short essay on the self-reported life experiences of adolescent males is followed with statistical data on the…

  8. Two weeks taurine supplementation reverses endothelial dysfunction in young male type 1 diabetics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, Michael A

    2010-10-01

    Type 1 diabetics have a well-recognised risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease. Even in the absence of clinical signs there are detectable abnormalities of conduit vessel function. Our group has previously reported reversal of endothelial dysfunction in diabetics with pravastatin. In young asymptomatic smokers, taurine supplementation has a beneficial impact on macrovascular function, assessed by FMD, and shows an up-regulation of nitric oxide from monocyte-endothelial cell interactions. We hypothesise that taurine supplementation reverses early endothelial abnormalities in young male type 1 diabetics, as assessed by applanation tonometry, brachial artery ultrasound and laser Doppler fluximetry. Asymptomatic, male diabetics (n=9) were scanned prior to treatment and then randomised in a double-blind cross-over fashion to receive either 2 weeks placebo or taurine. Control patients (n=10) underwent a baseline scan. Assessed diabetics had detectable, statistically significant abnormalities when compared with controls, in both arterial stiffness (augmentation index) and brachial artery reactivity (FMD). Both of these parameters were returned to control levels with 2 weeks taurine supplementation. In conclusion, 2 weeks taurine supplementation reverses early, detectable conduit vessel abnormalities in young male diabetics. This may have important implications in the long-term treatment of diabetic patients and their subsequent progression towards atherosclerotic disease.

  9. Risk Factors for Glaucoma Suspicion in Healthy Young Asian and Caucasian Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lauren Doss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the prevalence of certain risk factors for glaucoma in a healthy, young population and to compare these risk factors between Asian Americans and Caucasians. Methods. 120 healthy graduate students (mean age 24.8±3.0 years underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Regression analyses controlling for age, sex, and refraction, comparing glaucoma risk factors in Asians (n=54 and Caucasians (n=41, were performed. Outcome variables included family history, intraocular pressure (IOP, spherical equivalent, central corneal thickness (CCT, mean deviation (MD and pattern standard deviation (PSD, and disc and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL parameters. Results. 61% of subjects were female; the mean spherical equivalent was -3.81±3.2 D; and the mean axial length (AL was 25.1±1.7 mm. Regression analysis showed race affected spherical equivalent (P0.05. In this study, we found Asian Americans, compared to Caucasians, had 2.95±0.64 D greater myopia; greater IOP by 2.74±0.62 mmHg; and larger CDAR by 0.12±0.046. Conclusions. In our study population, young, healthy Asian Americans had greater myopia, IOP, and CDAR as compared to Caucasians, suggesting that racial variations can be important when diagnosing glaucoma.

  10. Fluid intake and voiding; habits and health knowledge in a young, healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rebekah N; Grimmer-Somers, Karen A

    2012-01-01

    Health professionals commonly advise patients with incontinence and other lower urinary tract symptoms about modifiable contributing factors such as drinking and voiding habits. Poor drinking and voiding habits may begin early in life, before symptoms emerge. However, little is known about the habits and knowledge young people have regarding healthy drinking and voiding behaviors. This research aimed to assess the habits and health knowledge of young people regarding fluid intake and voiding. A questionnaire was used to assess the drinking and voiding behaviors of first year university students and their knowledge about healthy fluid intake and voiding. The average daily fluid intake was >2 L/day for both genders. Poor drinking and voiding habits (such as high consumption of caffeinated drinks and alcohol, or nocturia) were common. Widely reported myths about the benefits of a high fluid intake were commonly believed. More informed public education regarding healthy fluid intake, and drinking and voiding habits, is required as part of the effort to reduce the development of lower urinary tract symptoms, including incontinence.

  11. Poor sleep quality diminishes cognitive functioning independent of depression and anxiety in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Andreana; Gunstad, John

    2012-01-01

    Sufficient sleep is essential for optimum cognitive and psychological functioning. Diminished sleep quality is associated with depression and anxiety, but the extent to which poor sleep quality uniquely impacts attention and executive functions independent of the effects of the common underlying features of depression and anxiety requires further exploration. Here 67 healthy young adults were given the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, second edition (MMPI-2), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and tests of attention and executive functions. Similar to findings from a previous study with healthy community-based older adults (Nebes, Buysse, Halligan, Houck, & Monk, 2009), participants who reported poor sleep quality on the PSQI endorsed significantly greater scores on MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical scales related to depression and anxiety (Cohen's d = 0.77-1.05). In addition, PSQI component scores indexing poor sleep quality, duration, and medication use were associated with diminished attention and executive functions, even after controlling for emotional reactivity or demoralization (rs = 0.21-0.27). These results add to the concurrent validity of the PSQI, and provide further evidence for subtle cognitive decrements related to insufficient sleep even in healthy young adults. Future extension of these findings is necessary with larger samples and clinical comparison groups, and using objective indices of sleep dysfunction such as polysomnography.

  12. Healthy lifestyle through young adulthood and the presence of low cardiovascular disease risk profile in middle age: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults (CARDIA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kiang; Daviglus, Martha L; Loria, Catherine M; Colangelo, Laura A; Spring, Bonnie; Moller, Arlen C; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2012-02-28

    A low cardiovascular disease risk profile (untreated cholesterol risk profile. We examined whether adopting a healthy lifestyle throughout young adulthood is associated with the presence of the low cardiovascular disease risk profile in middle age. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults (CARDIA) study sample consisted of 3154 black and white participants 18 to 30 years of age at year 0 (1985-1986) who attended the year 0, 7, and 20 examinations. Healthy lifestyle factors defined at years 0, 7, and 20 included average body mass index risk profile at year 20 were 3.0%, 14.6%, 29.5%, 39.2%, and 60.7% for people with 0 or 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 healthy lifestyle factors, respectively (P for trend risk profile in middle age. Public health and individual efforts are needed to improve the adoption and maintenance of healthy lifestyles in young adults.

  13. Masturbation and its relationship to sexual activities of young males in Korean military service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y J; Lee, W H; Rha, K H; Xin, Z C; Choi, Y D; Choi, H K

    2000-04-01

    This study examined the masturbatory experiences and other sexual activities of young Korean males in military service. The actual status of masturbation and its relationship to sexual activity questionnaire. A total of 1,212 young males among military personnel in Korea were interviewed with sexuality questionnaires on masturbation, sexual intercourse and personal characteristics. We divided these subjects into four groups according to the age of initiation of masturbation and analyzed the relationship between masturbation and other sexual activities. The mean age of subjects was 22.03 +/- 1.22 (19-27) years. The percentage of men who reported ever having masturbated was 98.1% (1189/1212) and the average age of initiation of masturbation was 14.26 +/- 1.66 years. So we divided 1,212 males into four groups on the basis of the average age below and above one standard deviation. Overall, 67.7% (821/1212) had experienced sexual intercourse, and significantly, the earlier the initiation age of masturbation, the higher the coitus rate in each group (p masturbation were closely linked to the initiation age of masturbation, respectively (p masturbation was earlier. Coital incidence in this study was 67.7% for young males in Korean military service, and 21.5% of them had their first sexual intercourse with prostitutes. Prostitution still plays an important role in the sexual lives of males in Korea. The incidence of STD was over 10% and homosexual manifestation was seen in 1.07% of subjects. Thus a proper and sound sex education at school during childhood is needed in Korea. A large scale survey of sexual behavior in various populations is essential for the improvement of correct sexual concepts.

  14. [Psycho-social factors of sexual failure among newly married Uyghur young males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkin, Ashim; Hamrajan, Memtili; Kadirjan, Mijit; Adil, Eli; Elijan, Abdureshit; Ibrahim, Ubul; Abdulla, Tursun; Hasanjan, Abdurehim; Turgun, Hekim; Eli, Ablet; Eset, Metmusa

    2016-08-01

    To study the psycho-social risk factors of sexual failure among newly married young males in the Uyghur population. We conducted a paired case control study of 186 newly married Uyghur young males (aged 17-30 [23.4±2.9] yr) with sexual failure and another 186 (aged 18-34 [24.0±3.1] yr) with no such problem as controls. We performed a logistic regression analysis on the possible psycho-social risk factors of this condition. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors of sexual failure among the newly married men included personality (OR=0.271, 95% CI 0.176-0.420), income (OR=0.391, 95% CI 0.264-0.580), history of masturbation (OR=0.824, 95% CI 0.710-0.956), premarital sex (OR=0.757, 95% CI 0.677-0.847), sense of obligation (OR=1.756, 95% CI 1.157-2.693), equality of the social status (OR=0.574, 95% CI 0.435-0.756), degree of mutual care (OR=1.605, 95% CI 1.268-2.032), female's psychological obstacle (OR=2.832, 95% CI 1.221-6.569), and religion (OR=0.643, 95% CI 0.472-0.967). There was a statistical significance in the correlation between these factors and sexual failure in the newly married males (all Ppsycho-social factors, which necessitates sexual education among young males and particularly pre-marriage sexual education and psychological guide among both males and females.

  15. Body composition and circulating estradiol are the main bone density predictors in healthy young and middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilha, S C; Branisteanu, D; Buzduga, C; Constantinescu, D; Cianga, P; Anisie, E; Covic, A; Ungureanu, M C

    2018-01-16

    Current fracture risk assessment options in men call for improved evaluation strategies. Recent research directed towards non-classic bone mass determinants have often yielded scarce and conflicting results. We aimed at investigating the impact of novel potential bone mass regulators together with classic determinants of bone status in healthy young and middle-aged men. Anthropometric measurements, all-site bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition parameters assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and also serum concentrations of (1) the adipokines leptin and resistin, (2) vitamin D and parathormone (PTH), (3) sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone and estradiol (free testosterone was also calculated) and (4) C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx) were obtained from 30 apparently healthy male volunteers aged 20-65 years enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Only lean mass (LM) and total estradiol independently predicted BMD in men in multiple regression analysis, together explaining 49% (p ≤ 0.001) of whole-body BMD variance. Hierarchical regression analysis with whole-body BMD as outcome variable demonstrated that the body mass index (BMI) beta coefficient became nonsignificant when LM was added to the model. Adipokines, fat parameters, testosterone (total and free), SHBG, PTH and vitamin D were not independently associated with BMD or CTx. The present study shows that LM and sex hormones-namely estradiol-are the main determinants of bone mass in young and middle-aged men. The effects of BMI upon BMD seem to be largely mediated by LM. Lifestyle interventions should focus on preserving LM in men for improved bone outcomes.

  16. Parâmetros de bioquímica sérica de machos, fêmeas e filhotes de Araras canindé (Ara ararauna saudáveis mantidas em cativeiro comercial Serum biochemical parameters of healthy male, female and young blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna bred in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella de Faria Valle

    2008-06-01

    , totaling nearly 80 species. The blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna, the most representative species of the Psittaciformes order, lives in the forest areas of different Brazilian regions. IBAMA, Brazilian environmental protection agency, has authorized the trade of wild animals raised in breeding facilities; consequently, their use as household pets has increased ever since. Currently, too little is known about clinical and laboratory parameters of wild species bred in captivity. The aim of the present study was to determine the serum biochemical parameters of healthy blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna of different sexes and ages reared in a commercial breeding facility under controlled and standardized feeding and management practices. Blood samples were collected from 35 blue-and-yellow macaws (11 fledglings and 24 adults and sent to the Laboratory of Veterinary Clinical Pathology of Universidade de Passo Fundo (UPF for measurement of the following biochemical parameters: uric acid (UA, albumin (Alb, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, calcium (Ca, cholesterol (Chol, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (AP, inorganic phosphorus (iP, fructosamine (Fru, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, total protein (TP and urea nitrogen (Ur. There were significant differences among adult macaws with regard to CK levels (higher in males and to Ca and UA levels (higher in females. Differences were noted among adults and fledglings with respect to UA, Ca, Alb, Chol, AP, iP and Fru. Most of the findings can be ascribed to the different feeding regimens and ages of the birds analyzed. The data obtained herein can be used as reference parameters for Brazilian blue-and-yellow macaws.

  17. Physical Demand but Not Dexterity Is Associated with Motor Flexibility during Rapid Reaching in Healthy Young Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greve, Christian; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Bongers, Raoul M.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy humans are able to place light and heavy objects in small and large target locations with remarkable accuracy. Here we examine how dexterity demand and physical demand affect flexibility in joint coordination and end-effector kinematics when healthy young adults perform an upper extremity

  18. Vitamin D Status and Quality of Life in Healthy Male High-Tech Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigal Tepper

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available While low vitamin D status has been shown to be associated with decreased quality of life in unhealthy populations and women, only limited data are available regarding healthy adult men. Our aim was to evaluate the associations between health-related quality of life (QoL and vitamin D status in adult men. High-tech employees aged 25–65 year were recruited from an occupational periodic examination clinic at Rambam Health Campus. QoL was assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC Health-related quality of life questionnaire (HRQOL-4. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD and Body Mass Index (BMI were measured; further information was collected about physical activity, education, sun exposure, sick-days, and musculoskeletal pain severity (visual analog scale. Three hundred and fifty-eight men were enrolled in the study; mean serum 25(OHD level was 22.1 ± 7.9 ng/mL (range 4.6–54.5 ng/mL. In a multivariate logistic regression model, 25(OHD was a significant independent determinant of self-rated health; Odds Ratio (OR for self-rated health was 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.85–0.97, p = 0.004, adjusted for age, BMI, pain severity, physical activity, and sun exposure. Every 1 ng/mL increase of 25(OHD was associated with 9% reduction in the odds of reporting self-rated health as fair or poor. Poisson regression model demonstrated an association between physically unhealthy days and 25(OHD levels (rate ratio 0.95, p < 0.001. In conclusion, serum levels of 25(OHD were associated with self-rated health and with physically unhealthy days of HRQOL in healthy high-tech male workers. Future intervention studies are required to test the impact of vitamin D supplementation on QoL.

  19. Vitamin D Status and Quality of Life in Healthy Male High-Tech Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Sigal; Dabush, Yael; Shahar, Danit R; Endevelt, Ronit; Geva, Diklah; Ish-Shalom, Sofia

    2016-06-15

    While low vitamin D status has been shown to be associated with decreased quality of life in unhealthy populations and women, only limited data are available regarding healthy adult men. Our aim was to evaluate the associations between health-related quality of life (QoL) and vitamin D status in adult men. High-tech employees aged 25-65 year were recruited from an occupational periodic examination clinic at Rambam Health Campus. QoL was assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Health-related quality of life questionnaire (HRQOL-4). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and Body Mass Index (BMI) were measured; further information was collected about physical activity, education, sun exposure, sick-days, and musculoskeletal pain severity (visual analog scale). Three hundred and fifty-eight men were enrolled in the study; mean serum 25(OH)D level was 22.1 ± 7.9 ng/mL (range 4.6-54.5 ng/mL). In a multivariate logistic regression model, 25(OH)D was a significant independent determinant of self-rated health; Odds Ratio (OR) for self-rated health was 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85-0.97, p = 0.004), adjusted for age, BMI, pain severity, physical activity, and sun exposure. Every 1 ng/mL increase of 25(OH)D was associated with 9% reduction in the odds of reporting self-rated health as fair or poor. Poisson regression model demonstrated an association between physically unhealthy days and 25(OH)D levels (rate ratio 0.95, p health and with physically unhealthy days of HRQOL in healthy high-tech male workers. Future intervention studies are required to test the impact of vitamin D supplementation on QoL.

  20. Comparative pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of branded and generic formulations of meloxicam in healthy male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Tacca M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mario Del Tacca,1,2 Giuseppe Pasqualetti,3 Giovanni Gori,1 Pasquale Pepe,1 Antonello Di Paolo,2 Marianna Lastella,2 Ferdinando De Negri,1 Corrado Blandizzi2 1Clinical Pharmacology Centre for Drug Experimentation, Pisa University Hospital, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 3Geriatrics Unit, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to assess the pharmacokinetic bioequivalence between a generic formulation of meloxicam 15 mg tablets (Meloxicam Hexal and its respective brand product (Mobic, in order to verify whether the generic product conforms to the regulatory standards of bioequivalence in the postmarketing setting. As a secondary exploratory aim, the pharmacodynamic effects of the two formulations were also evaluated by means of rating scales following hyperalgesia induced by cutaneous freeze injury. Subjects and methods: A single 15 mg dose of generic or branded meloxicam tablets was administered to 24 healthy male volunteers in a crossover fashion. Plasma samples, collected for 24 hours after dosing, were assayed for meloxicam concentration by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Results: The analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters did not show any significant difference between the two meloxicam formulations: the 90% confidence intervals fell within the acceptance range of 80%–125% (0.84–1.16 for area under the curve [0–24], and 0.89–1.23 for peak concentration. No difference in the pharmacodynamic end point was observed between the two groups. Conclusion: The pharmacokinetic profiles of the two meloxicam formulations confirm the regulatory criteria for bioequivalence; pharmacodynamic data indicate a similar antihyperalgesic effect. The two formulations can be used interchangeably in the clinical setting. Keywords: meloxicam, pharmacokinetics, healthy volunteers, generic drug, bioequivalence, postmarketing

  1. Multimodal imaging of small hard retinal drusen in young healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hilde R; Gilson, Stuart J; Dubra, Alfredo

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small hard macular drusen can be observed in the retina of adults as young as 18 years of age. Here, we seek to describe the in vivo topography and geometry of these drusen. METHODS: Retinal images were acquired in young, healthy adults using colour fundus photography, spectral domain...... the foveal centre were characterised. RESULTS: Small hard drusen were seen on colour photographs in 21 out of 97 participants and 26 drusen in 12 eyes in 11 participants were imaged using the full protocol. Drusen were easily identifiable in all modalities, except a few very small ones, which were...... not visible on SD-OCT. On AOSLO images, these drusen appeared as round, oval or lobular areas (up to three lobules) of diameter 22-61 µm where cone photoreceptor reflectivity and density was decreased (p=0.049). This was usually associated with discrete thickening of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE...

  2. Gastrointestinal mean transit times in young and middle-aged healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years......). After ingestion of a meal containing 111Indium-labelled water and 99mTechnetium-labelled omelette imaging of the abdomen was performed at intervals of 30 min until all radioactivity was located in the colon and henceforth at intervals of 24 h until all radioactivity had cleared from the colon. Gastric......, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated. The gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were significantly longer in women. Ageing was shown to accelerate the gastric and small intestinal transit significantly. In the group of men the colonic mean transit time...

  3. Higher fasting glucose is associated with poorer cognition among healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Misty A W; Gunstad, John; Calvo, Dayana; Spitznagel, Mary Beth

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is associated with cognitive deficits; however, the mechanisms are unclear, especially among otherwise healthy adults. Our objectives were to examine (a) whether obesity is linked to elevations in fasting glucose and (b) whether these elevations are associated with cognitive impairment among otherwise healthy young adults. Participants were 35 normal weight adults and 35 young adults with obesity who completed a task from the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics-4 (ANAM-4). Measured body mass index (BMI) and fasting blood glucose levels (mg/dL) were examined. Persons with obesity had higher fasting glucose levels than normal weight persons (p = .03). After applying Bonferroni correction for multiple tests, higher fasting glucose predicted less accurate performance on tests of inhibitory control: Go/No-Go Commission Errors (β = .33, p = .004). No effects were observed for sustained attention or working memory (ps ≥. 049). Persons with glucose levels in the prediabetes range had nearly twice as many errors as those with normal glucose, a large effect that was independent of BMI. Young adults who were obese but otherwise healthy had higher fasting glucose levels compared with normal weight peers. Higher glucose levels were associated with poorer cognitive performance on tests of inhibitory control, especially among individuals with prediabetes levels. Thus, subclinical elevations in blood glucose may contribute to cognitive impairment and, ultimately, greater impulsivity-well in advance of the development of chronic disease states (e.g., insulin resistance or Type 2 diabetes) and independently of excess adiposity--though prospective studies are needed to determine directionality of this relationship. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Azuki Bean Juice Lowers Serum Triglyceride Concentrations in Healthy Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Chizuko; Araki, Risa; Kawamura, Mito; Kondo, Naoko; Kigawa, Mieko; Kawai, Yukari; Takanami, Yoshikazu; Miyashita, Koichi; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2008-01-01

    Effects of azuki bean juice supplementation, prescribed according to a Kanpo medicine regimen, on serum lipid concentrations were studied. Healthy young Japanese women were recruited and were randomly assigned to one of the three groups using a parallel-group design. Control (n = 10), azuki (n = 11) and Concentrated azuki (CA) (n = 12) juice groups consumed 150 g daily of the isocaloric assigned juice for one menstrual cycle with their usual diet. Triglyceride concentrations were decreased in...

  5. Effects of kinesthetic haptic feedback on standing stability of young healthy subjects and stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad Raheel; Byun, Ha-Young; Oh, Min-Kyun; Yoon, Jungwon

    2015-03-13

    Haptic control is a useful therapeutic option in rehabilitation featuring virtual reality interaction. As with visual and vibrotactile biofeedback, kinesthetic haptic feedback may assist in postural control, and can achieve balance control. Kinesthetic haptic feedback in terms of body sway can be delivered via a commercially available haptic device and can enhance the balance stability of both young healthy subjects and stroke patients. Our system features a waist-attached smartphone, software running on a computer (PC), and a dedicated Phantom Omni® device. Young healthy participants performed balance tasks after assumption of each of four distinct postures for 30 s (one foot on the ground; the Tandem Romberg stance; one foot on foam; and the Tandem Romberg stance on foam) with eyes closed. Patient eyes were not closed and assumption of the Romberg stance (only) was tested during a balance task 25 s in duration. An Android application running continuously on the smartphone sent mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) tilt angles to a PC, which generated kinesthetic haptic feedback via Phantom Omni®. A total of 16 subjects, 8 of whom were young healthy and 8 of whom had suffered stroke, participated in the study. Post-experiment data analysis was performed using MATLAB®. Mean Velocity Displacement (MVD), Planar Deviation (PD), Mediolateral Trajectory (MLT) and Anteroposterior Trajectory (APT) parameters were analyzed to measure reduction in body sway. Our kinesthetic haptic feedback system was effective to reduce postural sway in young healthy subjects regardless of posture and the condition of the substrate (the ground) and to improve MVD and PD in stroke patients who assumed the Romberg stance. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that kinesthetic haptic feedback significantly reduced body sway in both categories of subjects. Kinesthetic haptic feedback can be implemented using a commercial haptic device and a smartphone. Intuitive balance cues were

  6. Gel chromatography of immunoextracted plasma calcitonin in response to the calcium clamp in healthy males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucht, E.; Toerring, O.; Sjoeberg, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for immunoreactive calcitonin (iCT) in human plasma. Antibodies against synthetic human calcitonin (hCT) coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA) were raised in rabbits and were directed against the carboxy terminal part of CT. The detection limit of the assay was 8 pg/ml. In 7 males the iCT response to a calcium-clamp was studied. Blood was collected at 0,30 and 60 min after the start of the calcium infusion. iCT was measured directly in plasma and in extracts obtained after purification of plasma iCT by means of immobilized CT antiboides. There was a good correlation between iCT in plasma samples and extracts, r = 0.993, n = 14 (P< 0.001). Dilution curves of extracts and plasma were parallel with the hCT standard curves. Gel chromatography of the extracts on Sephadex G-50 and G-75 disclosed heterogeneity of iCT in normal plasma during basal conditions as well as during calcium stimulation. Thirty min after the start of the calcium clamp all molecular forms, most likely constituting monomeric and dimeric CT and larger forms, were increased, while after 60 min iCT seemed to constitute predominantly forms larger than monomeric TCY. Basal levels of unextracted iCT in healthy males (n = 44, 37 +/- 10 years) were 15 +/- 9 pg-equivalents/ml (mean +/- SD), which was higher than in females (n = 40, 32 +/- 9 years) 11 +/- 4 pg-equivalents/ml (P < 0.05). (author)

  7. ECG Changes in Young Healthy Smokers: A Simple and Cost-Effective Method to Assess Cardiovascular Risk According to Pack-Years of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nirmal Kumar; Jaiswal, Kapil Kumar; Meena, S R; Chandel, Rahul; Chittora, Saurabh; Goga, Prem Singh; Harish, H B; Sagar, Rajesh

    2017-06-01

    To document the prevalence of ECG abnormalities in young healthy smokers and compare ECG changes in smokers, young healthy non-smokers and amongst smokers with different pack years. This was a prospective case-control study consisting of 200 young healthy male and female individuals, 150 smokers and 50 non-smokers between ages 25-40 years, further categorized and compared according to age, sex and pack years of smoking. The ECG recordings were analyzed for different ECG parameters like heart rate, P-wave duration, P-wave amplitude, PR interval, QRS duration, RR-interval, ST-segment duration, QT interval and QTc interval. The results were compared using statistical tools. In present study abnormalities in ECG parameters were significantly more prevalent in smokers as compared to non-smokers (56.66 % Vs 6.00 %) (p non-invasive and cost effective it is potentially an effective and yet a simple method for cardiovascular risk evaluation in smokers. Furthermore, such ECG abnormalities may guide the clinician for risk evaluation in smokers and may be used to convince the smokers to quit smoking.

  8. Neural Correlates of Moral Evaluation and Psychopathic Traits in Male Multi-Problem Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josjan Zijlmans

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-problem young adults (18–27 years present with a plethora of problems, including varying degrees of psychopathic traits. The amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC have been implicated in moral dysfunction in psychopathy in adolescents and adults, but no studies have been performed in populations in the transitional period to adulthood. We tested in multi-problem young adults the hypothesis that psychopathic traits are related to amygdala and vmPFC activity during moral evaluation. Additionally, we explored the relation between psychopathic traits and other regions consistently implicated in moral evaluation. Our final sample consisted of 100 multi-problem young adults and 22 healthy controls. During fMRI scanning, participants judged whether pictures showed a moral violation on a 1–4 scale. Whole brain analysis revealed neural correlates of moral evaluation consistent with the literature. Region of interest analyses revealed positive associations between the affective callous-unemotional dimension of psychopathy and activation in the left vmPFC, left superior temporal gyrus, and left cingulate. Our results are consistent with altered vmPFC function during moral evaluation in psychopathy, but we did not find evidence for amygdala involvement. Our findings indicate the affective callous-unemotional trait of psychopathy may be related to widespread altered activation patterns during moral evaluation in multi-problem young adults.

  9. Respiration monitoring by Electrical Bioimpedance (EBI) Technique in a group of healthy males. Calibration equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balleza, M; Vargas, M; Delgadillo, I; Kashina, S; Huerta, M R; Moreno, G

    2017-01-01

    Several research groups have proposed the electrical impedance tomography (EIT) in order to analyse lung ventilation. With the use of 16 electrodes, the EIT is capable to obtain a set of transversal section images of thorax. In previous works, we have obtained an alternating signal in terms of impedance corresponding to respiration from EIT images. Then, in order to transform those impedance changes into a measurable volume signal a set of calibration equations has been obtained. However, EIT technique is still expensive to attend outpatients in basics hospitals. For that reason, we propose the use of electrical bioimpedance (EBI) technique to monitor respiration behaviour. The aim of this study was to obtain a set of calibration equations to transform EBI impedance changes determined at 4 different frequencies into a measurable volume signal. In this study a group of 8 healthy males was assessed. From obtained results, a high mathematical adjustment in the group calibrations equations was evidenced. Then, the volume determinations obtained by EBI were compared with those obtained by our gold standard. Therefore, despite EBI does not provide a complete information about impedance vectors of lung compared with EIT, it is possible to monitor the respiration. (paper)

  10. High levels of physical activity are associated with poorer asthma control in young females but not in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövström, Ludvig; Emtner, Margareta; Alving, Kjell; Nordvall, Lennart; Borres, Magnus P; Janson, Christer; Malinovschi, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies on the levels of physical activity in asthma patients compared with controls have yielded varying results. We have previously reported that high versus moderate levels of physical activity were associated with higher prevalence of wheezing, especially in females. Here we studied the levels of physical activity in young patients with asthma and healthy subjects and their effect on asthma control. Four hundred eight physician-diagnosed patients with asthma and 118 controls (10-34 years) answered questions concerning frequency and/or duration of physical activity and undertook the Asthma Control Test (ACT), spirometry, methacholine challenges and exhaled nitric oxide measurements. Asthma patients were more frequently physically active (P = 0.01) and for longer durations (P = 0.002) than controls. Highly versus moderately physically active patients with asthma had a higher prevalence of not well-controlled asthma (ACT < 20) when physical activity was assessed by frequency (40.6% vs 24.1%, P = 0.001) or duration (39.0% vs 21.7%, P < 0.001). This was only seen in females who had reduced ACT items (P < 0.05). Frequently versus moderately active females had an odds ratio of 4.81 (2.43, 9.51) to have ACT < 20, while no such effect was found in males (OR 1.18 (0.61, 2.30)) and this interaction was statistically significantly associated with gender (P = 0.003). No differences in fraction of exhaled nitric oxide or methacholine reactivity were found between moderately and highly physically active females with asthma. Young asthma patients were more active than controls. High levels of physical activity were associated with poor asthma control as judged by the ACT in females, but not in males, and this appears unrelated to airway inflammation or responsiveness. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  11. Tai chi training reduces self-report of inattention in healthy young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander K. Converse

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to identify effective non-pharmacological alternatives to stimulant medications that reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. In this study of healthy young adults, we measured the effects of training in tai chi, which involves mindful attention to the body during movement. Using a non-randomized, controlled, parallel design, students in a 15-week introductory tai chi course (n=28 and control participants (n=44 were tested for ADHD indicators and cognitive function at three points over the course of the 15 weeks. The tai chi students' self-report of attention, but not hyperactivity-impulsivity, improved compared to controls. At baseline, inattention correlated positively with reaction time variability in an affective go/no-go task across all participants, and improvements in attention correlated with reductions in reaction time variability across the tai chi students. Affective bias changed in the tai chi students, as reaction times to positive- and negative-valenced words equalized over time. These results converge to suggest that tai chi training may help improve attention in healthy young adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate tai chi as therapy for individuals with ADHD.

  12. Ambient carbon monoxide associated with alleviated respiratory inflammation in healthy young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhuohui; Chen, Renjie; Lin, Zhijing; Cai, Jing; Yang, Yingying; Yang, Dandan; Norback, Dan; Kan, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing controversy on whether acute exposure to ambient carbon monoxide (CO) is hazardous on respiratory health. We therefore performed a longitudinal panel study to evaluate the acute effects of ambient CO on fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a well-established biomarker of airway inflammation. We completed 4–6 rounds of health examinations among 75 healthy young adults during April to June in 2013 in Shanghai, China. We applied the linear mixed-effect model to investigate the short-term associations between CO and FeNO. CO exposure during 2–72 h preceding health tests was significantly associated with decreased FeNO levels. For example, an interquartile range increase (0.3 mg/m"3) of 2-h CO exposure corresponded to 10.6% decrease in FeNO. This association remained when controlling for the concomitant exposure to co-pollutants. This study provided support that short-term exposure to ambient CO might be related with reduced levels of FeNO, a biomarker of lower airway inflammation. - Highlights: • We completed 4–6 rounds of health examinations among 75 healthy young adults. • Short-term CO exposure was significantly associated with decreased FeNO levels. • The inverse association between CO and FeNO was robust controlling for co-pollutants. - Short-term exposure to ambient carbon monoxide may alleviate the respiratory inflammation.

  13. Association between aerobic fitness and cerebrovascular function with neurocognitive functions in healthy, young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jungyun; Kim, Kiyoung; Brothers, R Matthew; Castelli, Darla M; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2018-05-01

    Studies of the effects of physical activity on cognition suggest that aerobic fitness can improve cognitive abilities. However, the physiological mechanisms for the cognitive benefit of aerobic fitness are less well understood. We examined the association between aerobic fitness and cerebrovascular function with neurocognitive functions in healthy, young adults. Participants aged 18-29 years underwent measurements of cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVMR) in response to rebreathing-induced hypercapnia, maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) during cycle ergometry to voluntary exhaustion, and simple- and complex-neurocognitive assessments at rest. Ten subjects were identified as having low-aerobic fitness (LF aerobic fitness (HF > 80th fitness percentile). There were no LF versus HF group differences in cerebrovascular hemodynamics during the baseline condition. Changes in middle cerebral artery blood velocity and CVMR during hypercapnia were elevated more in the HF than the LF group. Compared to the LF, the HF performed better on a complex-cognitive task assessing fluid reasoning, but not on simple attentional abilities. Statistical modeling showed that measures of VO 2 max, CVMR, and fluid reasoning were positively inter-correlated. The relationship between VO 2 max and fluid reasoning, however, did not appear to be reliably mediated by CVMR. In conclusion, a high capacity for maximal oxygen uptake among healthy, young adults was associated with greater CVMR and better fluid reasoning, implying that high-aerobic fitness may promote cerebrovascular and cognitive functioning abilities.

  14. Effects of multidimensional pelvic floor muscle training in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talasz, Helena; Kalchschmid, Elisabeth; Kofler, Markus; Lechleitner, Monika

    2012-03-01

    Cross-sectional and interventional study to assess pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function in healthy young nulliparous women and to determine the effects of a 3-month PFM training program with emphasis on co-contraction of PFM and anterolateral abdominal muscles and on correctly performed coughing patterns. PFM function was assessed by digital vaginal palpation in 40 volunteers and graded according to the 6-point Oxford grading scale. The PFM training program was comprised theoretical instruction, as well as verbal feedback during hands-on instruction and repeated training sessions focussing on strengthening PFM and anterolateral abdominal muscle co-contraction during forced expiration and coughing. At baseline, 30 women (75%) were able to perform normal PFM contractions at rest (Oxford scale score ≥ 3); only 4 of them (10%) presented additional involuntary PFM contractions before and during coughing. The remaining 10 women (25%) were unable to perform voluntary or involuntary PFM contractions. Mean Oxford scale score in the whole group was 3.3 ± 1.7. After completing the PFM training program, 29 women (72.5%) performed cough-related PFM contractions and group mean Oxford scale score increased significantly to 4.2 ± 1.0. The study shows that PFM dysfunction may be detected even in healthy young women. Multidimensional training, however, may significantly improve PFM function.

  15. Young consumers' considerations of healthy working conditions in purchasing decisions: a qualitative examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Shane M; Nordvall, Anna-Carin; Cukier, Wendy; Neumann, W Patrick

    2017-05-01

    Research has suggested that products manufactured under healthy work conditions (HWC) may provide a marketing advantage to companies. This paper explores young consumers' considerations of HWC in purchasing decisions using data from qualitative interviews with a sample of 21 university students. The results suggest that interviewees frequently considered the working conditions of those who produced the products they purchased. Participants reported a willingness to pay 17.5% more on a $100 product if it were produced under HWC compared to not. Their ability and willingness to act on this issue was, however, hampered by  a lack of credible information about working conditions in production, the limited availability of HWC goods and a presumed higher price of HWC goods. While caution should be applied when generalising from this targetable market segment to a general population, these results provide actionable direction for companies interested in using a HWC brand image to gain a strategic sales advantage. Practitioner Summary: This interview study shows that young consumers are interested in, and willing to pay a premium for, goods made under healthy working conditions (HWC). Reported barriers to acting on this impulse include a lack of credible information on working conditions. Ergonomics can help provide a strategic marketing advantage for companies.

  16. Sun Protection Preferences and Behaviors among Young Adult Males during Maximum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population. PMID:23912201

  17. Sun Protection Preferences and Behaviors among Young Adult Males during Maximum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June K. Robinson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137 responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31 participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population.

  18. Extraction of items identifying hiesho (cold disorder) and their utility in young males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Shunji; Kuge, Hiroshi; Mori, Hidetoshi; Miyazaki, Junji; Tanaka, Tim Hideaki; Hanyu, Kazuyo; Takeda, Taro; Sasaki, Kazuro

    2016-01-01

    Hie (cold sensation) is one of the most common health complaints in Japan. Those who suffer from severe hie are considered as having hiesho (cold disorder). However, exact hiesho symptoms have not been defined clearly and the decision as to whether a person suffers from hiesho is subjective and based on self-awareness. The study was conducted in attempt to develop a standardized hiesho diagnostic scale. Subjects comprised 1 146 students. From the self-awareness of hiesho symptoms, males and females were divided into hiesho and non-hiesho groups. Physical, behavioral and adaptive characteristics were compared using the 24-item questionnaire (four-grade survey) and indicators for hiesho symptoms were extracted. Based on the scores, a receiver operating characteristic curve was drawn for the total ordinal scale score of the extracted items in relation to the presence and absence of hiesho symptoms, and an optimal cutoff value was determined. The self-awareness of having hiesho was found in 23.2% males and in 55.6% females. The sensitivity was 84.5% for males and 83.3% for females in the hiesho groups, and the specificity was 86.0% for males and 85.2% for females in the non-hiesho groups. A questionnaire consisting of the extracted items may be useful to identify hiesho in young males and females with a high level of accuracy.

  19. Is perceived parental monitoring associated with sexual risk behaviors of young Black males?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Crosby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined whether perceived parental monitoring is associated with any of twelve selected outcomes related to sexual risk behaviors of young Black males. Recruitment occurred in clinics diagnosing and treating sexually transmitted infections. Young Black males living with a parent or guardian (N = 324 were administered a 9-item scale assessing level of perceived parental monitoring. The obtained range was 10–45, with higher scores representing more frequent monitoring. The mean was 29.3 (sd = 7.0. Eight of the twelve outcomes had significant associations with perceived parental monitoring (all in a direction indicating a protective effect. Of these eight, five retained significance in age-adjusted models were ever causing a pregnancy, discussing pregnancy prevention, safer sex, and condom use with sex partners, and using a condom during the last act of penile–vaginal sex. Monitoring by a parent figure may be partly protective against conceiving a pregnancy for Black males 15–23 years of age.

  20. Short-term high-fat diet alters postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numao, Shigeharu; Kawano, Hiroshi; Endo, Naoya; Yamada, Yuka; Takahashi, Masaki; Konishi, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2016-08-01

    Short-term intake of a high-fat diet aggravates postprandial glucose metabolism; however, the dose-response relationship has not been investigated. We hypothesized that short-term intake of a eucaloric low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (LCHF) would aggravate postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating adhesion molecules in healthy males. Seven healthy young males (mean ± SE; age: 26 ± 1 years) consumed either a eucaloric control diet (C, approximately 25% fats), a eucaloric intermediate-carbohydrate/intermediate-fat diet (ICIF, approximately 50% fats), or an LCHF (approximately 70% fats) for 3 days. An oral meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed after the 3-day dietary intervention. The concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined at rest and during MTT. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of plasma glucose concentration during MTT was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.009). The first-phase insulin secretion indexes were significantly lower in LCHF than in C (P = 0.04). Moreover, the iAUC of GLP-1 and VCAM-1 concentrations was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.014 and P = 0.04, respectively). The metabolites from ICIF and C were not significantly different. In conclusion, short-term intake of eucaloric diet containing a high percentage of fats in healthy males excessively increased postprandial glucose and VCAM-1 concentrations and attenuated first-phase insulin release.

  1. Consistency between subjectively and objectively measured hazard perception skills among young male drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abele, Liva; Haustein, Sonja; Møller, Mette

    2018-01-01

    . Subjective measures of HPS include self-reports derived based on the Hazard Perception Questionnaire (HPQ), Driving Skill Questionnaire (DSQ), and Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (BSSS). Results show that drivers who respond to the hazards on time, as compared to drivers who do not respond, have higher scores......Young male drivers have lower hazard perception skills (HPS) than older and more experienced drivers and a tendency to overestimate their skills in hazardous situations. Both factors contribute to an over-representation in traffic accidents. Based on a sample of 63 drivers aged 18-24, this study...... negatively when the hazard is visible. To enhance the HPS among young drivers, the results of this study suggest that specific hazard perception training is relevant, especially for hazards that require more advanced HPS....

  2. Red-cockaded woodpecker male/female foraging differences in young forest stands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to pine (Pinus spp.) forests of the southeastern United States. I examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging behavior to learn if there were male/female differences at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The study was conducted in largely young forest stands (,50 years of age) in contrast to earlier foraging behavior studies that focused on more mature forest. The Redcockaded Woodpecker at the Savannah River site is intensively managed including monitoring, translocation, and installation of artificial cavity inserts for roosting and nesting. Over a 3-year period, 6,407 foraging observations covering seven woodpecker family groups were recorded during all seasons of the year and all times of day. The most striking differences occurred in foraging method (males usually scaled [45% of observations] and females mostly probed [47%]),substrate used (females had a stronger preference [93%] for the trunk than males [79%]), and foraging height from the ground (mean 6 SE foraging height was higher for males [11.1 6 0.5 m] than females [9.8 6 0.5 m]). Niche overlap between males and females was lowest for substrate (85.6%) and foraging height (87.8%), and highest for tree species (99.0%), tree condition (98.3%), and tree height (96.4%). Both males and females preferred to forage in older, large pine trees. The habitat available at the Savannah River Site was considerably younger than at most other locations, but the pattern of male/female habitat partitioning observed was similar to that documented elsewhere within the range attesting to the species’ ability to adjust behaviorally.

  3. Interval Running Training Improves Cognitive Flexibility and Aerobic Power of Young Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Trinkunas, Eugenijus; Baranauskiene, Neringa; Solianik, Rima; Juodsnukis, Antanas; Streckis, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2016-08-01

    Venckunas, T, Snieckus, A, Trinkunas, E, Baranauskiene, N, Solianik, R, Juodsnukis, A, Streckis, V, and Kamandulis, S. Interval running training improves cognitive flexibility and aerobic power of young healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2114-2121, 2016-The benefits of regular physical exercise may well extend beyond the reduction of chronic diseases risk and augmentation of working capacity, to many other aspects of human well-being, including improved cognitive functioning. Although the effects of moderate intensity continuous training on cognitive performance are relatively well studied, the benefits of interval training have not been investigated in this respect so far. The aim of the current study was to assess whether 7 weeks of interval running training is effective at improving both aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. For this purpose, 8 young dinghy sailors (6 boys and 2 girls) completed the interval running program with 200 m and 2,000 m running performance, cycling maximal oxygen uptake, and cognitive function was measured before and after the intervention. The control group consisted of healthy age-matched subjects (8 boys and 2 girls) who continued their active lifestyle and were tested in the same way as the experimental group, but did not complete any regular training. In the experimental group, 200 m and 2,000 m running performance and cycling maximal oxygen uptake increased together with improved results on cognitive flexibility tasks. No changes in the results of short-term and working memory tasks were observed in the experimental group, and no changes in any of the measured indices were evident in the controls. In conclusion, 7 weeks of interval running training improved running performance and cycling aerobic power, and were sufficient to improve the ability to adjust behavior to changing demands in young active individuals.

  4. Counselling parents on young children's healthy diet: A modified scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg Fagerlund, Bettina; Helseth, Sølvi; Owe, Jenny; Glavin, Kari

    2017-12-01

    To map and describe key information in existing research about counselling of parents of children aged 0-2 years on the child's healthy diet in preventive healthcare settings, particularly in public health nursing. Many parents are likely to be concerned with their infant's food-related happiness "here and now," disregarding the child's long-term health and development related to feeding practices. Hence, a focus on counselling parents in considering young children's healthy diet is important. A modified scoping review with an inductive qualitative content analysis of selected empirical studies. Systematic searches in EMBASE (1996-2015 Week 46), Ovid Nursing Database (1946-2015 November Week 1), Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid OLDMEDLINE (2000-18 November 2015) and CINAHL (2000-22 December 2015), using search terms based on aims. Eight included studies, with participants per sample ranging from 19->500. Research designs were focus group discussions and/or interview study (n = 2), cluster-randomised trials (n = 2), randomised controlled trials (n = 2), a follow-up interview study (n = 1) to a previous randomised controlled trial and a cross-sectional electronic questionnaire study (n = 1). The studies included a total sample of 2,025 participants, 42 of them in interview studies. Findings indicate parents' perceptions of inconsistency, misconceptions and uncertainty related to the recommendations on child feeding from the authorities. Thus, adapted advice could impact healthier child diet. Maternal knowledge on child feeding and reduced use of food as a reward are mediators for improved diet quality in children. Counselling on young children's healthy diet should be anticipatory, consistent and adapted to the family. Due to inconsistent recommendations and omitted focus on anticipatory counselling on child feeding, parents might perceive pressure and uncertainty related to the child's diet. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Altered arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio in young healthy light smokers after acute exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Doonan

    Full Text Available Studies showed that long-standing smokers have stiffer arteries at rest. However, the effect of smoking on the ability of the vascular system to respond to increased demands (physical stress has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of smoking on arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio, at rest and after acute exercise in young healthy individuals.Healthy light smokers (n = 24, pack-years = 2.9 and non-smokers (n = 53 underwent pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements at rest, and 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes following an exercise test to exhaustion. Smokers were tested, 1 after 12h abstinence from smoking (chronic condition and 2 immediately after smoking one cigarette (acute condition. At rest, chronic smokers had higher augmentation index and lower aortic pulse pressure than non-smokers, while subendocardial viability ratio was not significantly different. Acute smoking increased resting augmentation index and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with non-smokers, and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with the chronic condition. After exercise, subendocardial viability ratio was lower, and augmentation index and aortic pulse pressure were higher in non-smokers than smokers in the chronic and acute conditions. cfPWV rate of recovery of was greater in non-smokers than chronic smokers after exercise. Non-smokers were also able to achieve higher workloads than smokers in both conditions.Chronic and acute smoking appears to diminish the vascular response to physical stress. This can be seen as an impaired 'vascular reserve' or a blunted ability of the blood vessels to accommodate the changes required to achieve higher workloads. These changes were noted before changes in arterial stiffness or subendocardial viability ratio occurred at rest. Even light smoking in young healthy individuals appears to have harmful effects on vascular

  6. Peer Influence on IPV by Young Adult Males: Investigating the Case for a Social Norms Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKool, Marissa; Stephenson, Rob; Winskell, Kate; Teten Tharp, Andra; Parrott, Dominic

    2017-08-01

    Nearly 32% of women report experiencing physical violence from an intimate partner and more than 8% report being raped by a significant other in their lifetime. Young people's perceptions that their peers perpetrate relationship violence have been shown to increase the odds of self-reported perpetration. Yet, limited research has been conducted on this relationship as individuals begin to age out of adolescence. The present study sought to examine the link between the perception of peer perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) and self-reported IPV perpetration among a sample of predominately young adult (21-35 years) males. This study also explored the discordance between the perception of peer IPV behavior and self-reported perpetration. Data from 101 male peer dyads ( n = 202) were taken from a study on the effects of alcohol and bystander intervention in Atlanta, Georgia. Thirty-six percent ( n = 73) of men reported perpetrating physical IPV and 67% ( n = 135) reported perpetrating sexual IPV in the past 12 months. Nearly 35% ( n = 55) of the sample reported that none of their peers had perpetrated physical IPV, which contradicted their friend's self-report of physical IPV perpetration. Similarly, 68% ( n = 115) of the men perceived none of their peers to have perpetrated sexual IPV, which contradicted their friend's self-report of sexual IPV perpetration. Discordance variables were significantly associated with self-reported perpetration for both physical (χ 2 = 152.7, p peer IPV perpetration among young adult males. Findings suggest a traditional social norms approach to IPV prevention, which seeks to persuade individuals that negative behaviors are less common than perceived, may not be the best approach given a significant number of men believed their friends were nonviolent when they had perpetrated violence.

  7. Variability of hemodynamic parameters in young healthy subjects with and without hypertensive family history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palombo, C.; Michelassi, C.; Ghione, S.

    1987-01-01

    In order to assess the short-term variability of the hemodynamic pattern in healthy normal subjects, Transcutaneous Aortovelography, a continuous wave Doppler technique, was performed in 17 normotensive males, 11 with and 6 without hypertensive family history and repeated after 30'. Reproducibility of measurements in the whole sample was comparable with previous observation reported in literature, but in the group with a positive family history of hypertension the reproducibility of most parameters was lower than in the other, suggesting the existence of a greater hemodynamic variability in normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents

  8. The Effect of High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Body Composition of Overweight Young Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heydari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of a 12-week high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE intervention on total body, abdominal, trunk, visceral fat mass, and fat free mass of young overweight males. Participants were randomly assigned to either exercise or control group. The intervention group received HIIE three times per week, 20 min per session, for 12 weeks. Aerobic power improved significantly (P0.05 occurred in levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, and blood lipids. Twelve weeks of HIIE resulted in significant reductions in total, abdominal, trunk, and visceral fat and significant increases in fat free mass and aerobic power.

  9. Bone mineral density in lifelong trained male football players compared with young and elderly untrained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagman, Marie; Helge, Eva Wulff; Hornstrup, Therese

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present controlled cross-sectional study was to investigate proximal femur and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD), as well as bone turnover profile, in lifelong trained elderly male football players and young elite football players compared with untrained age....... All participants underwent a regional Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan of the proximal femur and a whole-body DXA scan to determine BMD. From a resting blood sample, the bone turnover markers (BTMs) osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal type-1 collagen crosslinks (CTX-1), procollagen type-1 amino...

  10. Differences in chewing behaviors between healthy fully dentate young and older adults assessed by electromyographic recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H

    2015-01-01

    To characterize changes in chewing behaviors associated with healthy aging, 10 young and 10 older fully dentate healthy participants were enrolled in this study. They chewed carrot samples that differed in hardness until their normal swallowing threshold. Their chewing behaviors were assessed using an electromyographic recording device. Adjusting for gender and body mass index, older adults had a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.020), a longer chewing duration (p chewing rate (p = 0.002), a greater maximal electromyographic voltage (p = 0.003) and a greater muscle activity (p = 0.002) before they could comfortably swallow the food bolus. A statistically significant main effect of food hardness on the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration, chewing rate and muscle activity was also observed (p < 0.001 for all). These results suggest that reduced mastication efficiency is associated with healthy aging in fully dentate adults. This ingestive behavior may contribute to aging-related reduction in appetite in older adults.

  11. High-Intensity Interval Training Attenuates Insulin Resistance Induced by Sleep Deprivation in Healthy Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jorge F T; Dáttilo, Murilo; de Mello, Marco T; Tufik, Sergio; Antunes, Hanna K M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep deprivation can impair several physiological systems and recently, new evidence has pointed to the relationship between a lack of sleep and carbohydrate metabolism, consequently resulting in insulin resistance. To minimize this effect, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is emerging as a potential strategy. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HIIT on insulin resistance induced by sleep deprivation. Method: Eleven healthy male volunteers were recruited, aged 18-35 years, who declared taking 7-8 h sleep per night. All volunteers were submitted to four different conditions: a single night of regular sleep (RS condition), 24 h of total sleep deprivation ( SD condition), HIIT training followed by regular sleep (HIIT+RS condition), and HIIT training followed by 24 h of total sleep deprivation (HIIT+ SD condition). They performed six training sessions over 2 weeks and each session consisted of 8-12 × 60 s intervals at 100% of peak power output. In each experimental condition, tests for glucose, insulin, cortisol, free fatty acids, and insulin sensitivity, measured by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), were performed. Results: Sleep deprivation increased glycaemia and insulin levels, as well as the area under the curve. Furthermore, an increase in free fatty acids concentrations and basal metabolism was observed. There were no differences in the concentrations of cortisol. However, HIIT before 24 h of sleep deprivation attenuated the increase of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids. Conclusion: Twenty-four hours of sleep deprivation resulted in acute insulin resistance. However, HIIT is an effective strategy to minimize the deleterious effects promoted by this condition.

  12. High-Intensity Interval Training Attenuates Insulin Resistance Induced by Sleep Deprivation in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F. T. de Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep deprivation can impair several physiological systems and recently, new evidence has pointed to the relationship between a lack of sleep and carbohydrate metabolism, consequently resulting in insulin resistance. To minimize this effect, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT is emerging as a potential strategy.Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HIIT on insulin resistance induced by sleep deprivation.Method: Eleven healthy male volunteers were recruited, aged 18–35 years, who declared taking 7–8 h sleep per night. All volunteers were submitted to four different conditions: a single night of regular sleep (RS condition, 24 h of total sleep deprivation (SD condition, HIIT training followed by regular sleep (HIIT+RS condition, and HIIT training followed by 24 h of total sleep deprivation (HIIT+SD condition. They performed six training sessions over 2 weeks and each session consisted of 8–12 × 60 s intervals at 100% of peak power output. In each experimental condition, tests for glucose, insulin, cortisol, free fatty acids, and insulin sensitivity, measured by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, were performed.Results: Sleep deprivation increased glycaemia and insulin levels, as well as the area under the curve. Furthermore, an increase in free fatty acids concentrations and basal metabolism was observed. There were no differences in the concentrations of cortisol. However, HIIT before 24 h of sleep deprivation attenuated the increase of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids.Conclusion: Twenty-four hours of sleep deprivation resulted in acute insulin resistance. However, HIIT is an effective strategy to minimize the deleterious effects promoted by this condition.

  13. Effect of fructose and sucralose on flow-mediated vasodilatation in healthy, white European males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, M. Q.; Simpson, E. J.; Macdonald, I. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess how acute consumption of fructose affects flow-mediated dilatation in brachial artery. Methods: The randomised cross-over study was conducted at the University of Nottingham's Medical School, Nottingham, United Kingdom in July 2009. Ten healthy, white European males visited the laboratory twice, on separate mornings. On each visit, the volunteers consumed water (3ml/kg body weight) and rested semi-supine on the bed. After 30 minutes, baseline diastolic brachial artery diameter and blood velocity was measured. At 60 minutes, blood velocity and five scans of brachial artery diameter were recorded before a blood pressure cuff was inflated on the forearm for 5 minutes and at 50-60-70-80 and 90 sec after cuff deflation. Fifteen minutes later, the volunteers consumed 500ml of test-drink containing either fructose (0.75 g/kg body weight) or sucralose (sweetness-matched with fructose drink); 45 minutes later, baseline and flow-mediated dilatation was re-measured. Results: Pre-drink and post-drink baseline values were similar on two occasions (p> 0.05). Brachial artery diameter increased (p < 0.05) by 7+-3% pre-fructose and by 6. 3% above baseline values post-fructose with no significant difference in these responses (p < 0.15). It increased (p < 0.05) by 5.9+-3% above baseline before and by 6.7+-2% (p < 0.01) after sucralose; a significant difference was noted in these flow-mediated dilatation responses (p < 0.02). Responses before and after sucralose were not different from those before and after fructose (p < 0.294). Conclusion: Acute ingestion of fructose or sucralose had no effect on flow-mediated dilatation measured at brachial artery. (author)

  14. Effects of meal frequency on metabolic profiles and substrate partitioning in lean healthy males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjet J M Munsters

    Full Text Available The daily number of meals has an effect on postprandial glucose and insulin responses, which may affect substrate partitioning and thus weight control. This study investigated the effects of meal frequency on 24 h profiles of metabolic markers and substrate partitioning.Twelve (BMI:21.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2 healthy male subjects stayed after 3 days of food intake and physical activity standardization 2 × 36 hours in a respiration chamber to measure substrate partitioning. All subjects randomly received two isoenergetic diets with a Low meal Frequency (3 ×; LFr or a High meal Frequency (14 ×; HFr consisting of 15 En% protein, 30 En% fat, and 55 En% carbohydrates. Blood was sampled at fixed time points during the day to measure metabolic markers and satiety hormones.Glucose and insulin profiles showed greater fluctuations, but a lower AUC of glucose in the LFr diet compared with the HFr diet. No differences between the frequency diets were observed on fat and carbohydrate oxidation. Though, protein oxidation and RMR (in this case SMR + DIT were significantly increased in the LFr diet compared with the HFr diet. The LFr diet increased satiety and reduced hunger ratings compared with the HFr diet during the day.The higher rise and subsequently fall of insulin in the LFr diet did not lead to a higher fat oxidation as hypothesized. The LFr diet decreased glucose levels throughout the day (AUC indicating glycemic improvements. RMR and appetite control increased in the LFr diet, which can be relevant for body weight control on the long term.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01034293.

  15. Glycine Transporter Inhibitor Attenuates the Psychotomimetic Effects of Ketamine in Healthy Males: Preliminary Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Deepak Cyril; Singh, Nagendra; Elander, Jacqueline; Carbuto, Michelle; Pittman, Brian; de Haes, Joanna Udo; Sjogren, Magnus; Peeters, Pierre; Ranganathan, Mohini; Schipper, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Enhancing glutamate function by stimulating the glycine site of the NMDA receptor with glycine, -serine, or with drugs that inhibit glycine reuptake may have therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. The effects of a single oral dose of cis-N-methyl-N-(6-methoxy-1-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-ylmethyl) amino-methylcarboxylic acid hydrochloride (Org 25935), a glycine transporter-1 (GlyT1) inhibitor, and placebo pretreatment on ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms, perceptual alterations, and subjective effects were evaluated in 12 healthy male subjects in a randomized, counter-balanced, within-subjects, crossover design. At 2.5 h after administration of the Org 25935 or placebo, subjects received a ketamine bolus and constant infusion lasting 100 min. Psychotic symptoms, perceptual, and a number of subjective effects were assessed repeatedly before, several times during, and after completion of ketamine administration. A cognitive battery was administered once per test day. Ketamine produced behavioral, subjective, and cognitive effects consistent with its known effects. Org 25935 reduced the ketamine-induced increases in measures of psychosis (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)) and perceptual alterations (Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale (CADSS)). The magnitude of the effect of Org 25935 on ketamine-induced increases in Total PANSS and CADSS Clinician-rated scores was 0.71 and 0.98 (SD units), respectively. None of the behavioral effects of ketamine were increased by Org 25935 pretreatment. Org 25935 worsened some aspects of learning and delayed recall, and trended to improve choice reaction time. This study demonstrates for the first time in humans that a GlyT1 inhibitor reduces the effects induced by NMDA receptor antagonism. These findings provide preliminary support for further study of the antipsychotic potential of GlyT1 inhibitors. PMID:22113087

  16. Heat exposure of Cannabis sativa extracts affects the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Martin; Spinedi, Luca; Unfer-Grauwiler, Sandra; Bodmer, Michael; Surber, Christian; Luedi, Markus; Drewe, Juergen

    2012-05-01

    The most important psychoactive constituent of CANNABIS SATIVA L. is Δ (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabidiol (CBD), another important constituent, is able to modulate the distinct unwanted psychotropic effect of THC. In natural plant extracts of C. SATIVA, large amounts of THC and CBD appear in the form of THCA-A (THC-acid-A) and CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), which can be transformed to THC and CBD by heating. Previous reports of medicinal use of cannabis or cannabis preparations with higher CBD/THC ratios and use in its natural, unheated form have demonstrated that pharmacological effects were often accompanied with a lower rate of adverse effects. Therefore, in the present study, the pharmacokinetics and metabolic profiles of two different C. SATIVA extracts (heated and unheated) with a CBD/THC ratio > 1 were compared to synthetic THC (dronabinol) in a double-blind, randomized, single center, three-period cross-over study involving 9 healthy male volunteers. The pharmacokinetics of the cannabinoids was highly variable. The metabolic pattern was significantly different after administration of the different forms: the heated extract showed a lower median THC plasma AUC (24 h) than the unheated extract of 2.84 vs. 6.59 pmol h/mL, respectively. The later was slightly higher than that of dronabinol (4.58 pmol h/mL). On the other hand, the median sum of the metabolites (THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, CBN) plasma AUC (24 h) was higher for the heated than for the unheated extract. The median CBD plasma AUC (24 h) was almost 2-fold higher for the unheated than for the heated extract. These results indicate that use of unheated extracts may lead to a beneficial change in metabolic pattern and possibly better tolerability. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. High-Intensity Interval Training Attenuates Insulin Resistance Induced by Sleep Deprivation in Healthy Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jorge F. T.; Dáttilo, Murilo; de Mello, Marco T.; Tufik, Sergio; Antunes, Hanna K. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep deprivation can impair several physiological systems and recently, new evidence has pointed to the relationship between a lack of sleep and carbohydrate metabolism, consequently resulting in insulin resistance. To minimize this effect, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is emerging as a potential strategy. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HIIT on insulin resistance induced by sleep deprivation. Method: Eleven healthy male volunteers were recruited, aged 18–35 years, who declared taking 7–8 h sleep per night. All volunteers were submitted to four different conditions: a single night of regular sleep (RS condition), 24 h of total sleep deprivation (SD condition), HIIT training followed by regular sleep (HIIT+RS condition), and HIIT training followed by 24 h of total sleep deprivation (HIIT+SD condition). They performed six training sessions over 2 weeks and each session consisted of 8–12 × 60 s intervals at 100% of peak power output. In each experimental condition, tests for glucose, insulin, cortisol, free fatty acids, and insulin sensitivity, measured by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), were performed. Results: Sleep deprivation increased glycaemia and insulin levels, as well as the area under the curve. Furthermore, an increase in free fatty acids concentrations and basal metabolism was observed. There were no differences in the concentrations of cortisol. However, HIIT before 24 h of sleep deprivation attenuated the increase of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids. Conclusion: Twenty-four hours of sleep deprivation resulted in acute insulin resistance. However, HIIT is an effective strategy to minimize the deleterious effects promoted by this condition. PMID:29270126

  18. The association of diet and thrombotic risk factors in healthy male vegetarians and meat-eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D; Sinclair, A; Mann, N; Turner, A; Ball, M; Kelly, F; Abedin, L; Wilson, A

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess thrombosis tendency in subjects who were habitual meat-eaters compared with those who were habitual vegetarians. Cross-sectional comparison of habitual meat-eaters and habitual vegetarians. Free living subjects. One hundred and thirty-nine healthy male subjects (vegans n = 18, ovolacto vegetarians n = 43, moderate-meat-eaters n = 60 and high-meat-eaters n = 18) aged 20-55 y who were recruited in Melbourne. Dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. The parameters of thrombosis were measured by standard methods. Saturated fat and cholesterol intakes were significantly higher and polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) was significantly lower in the meat-eaters compared with vegetarians. In the meat-eaters, the platelet phospholipids AA levels were significantly higher than in the vegetarians, but there was no increase in ex vivo platelet aggregation and plasma 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 levels. Vegetarians, especially the vegans, had a significantly increased mean collagen and ADP stimulated ex vivo whole blood platelet aggregation compared with meat-eaters. The vegan group had a significantly higher mean platelet volume than the other three dietary groups. However, meat-eaters had a significantly higher cluster of cardiovascular risk factors compared with vegetarians, including increased body mass index, waist to hip ratio, plasma total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol and LDL-C levels, ratio of TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C and plasma factor VII activity. Consumption of meat is not associated with an increased platelet aggregation compared with vegetarian subjects.

  19. A new topical formulation enhances relative diclofenac bioavailability in healthy male subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Martin; Davies, David; Martin, Wolfgang; Leuratti, Chiara; Lackner, Edith; Müller, Markus

    2011-01-01

    AIMS To evaluate the relative plasma and tissue availability of diclofenac after repeated topical administration of a novel diclofenac acid-based delivery system under development (DCF100C). METHODS This was a single-centre, open-label, three-period, crossover clinical trial of five discrete diclofenac formulations. Test preparations comprised two concentrations (1.0% and 2.5%) of DCF100C, with and without menthol and eucalyptus oil (total daily doses of 5 mg and 12.5 mg). Voltaren® Emulgel® gel (1.0%) was the commercially available comparator (total daily dose of 40 mg). Topical application was performed onto the thigh of 20 male healthy subjects for 3 days. Applying a Youden square design, each drug was evaluated in 12 subjects, with each subject receiving three test preparations. Blood sampling and in vivo microdialysis in subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle tissues were performed for 10 h after additional final doses on the morning of day 4. RESULTS All four DCF100C formulations demonstrated a three- to fivefold, dose-dependent increase in systemic diclofenac availability compared with Voltaren® Emulgel® and were approximately 30–40 times more effective at facilitating diclofenac penetration through the skin, taking different dose levels into account. Tissue concentrations were low and highly variable. The 2.5% DCF100C formulation without sensory excipients reached the highest tissue concentrations. AUC(0,10 h) was 2.71 times greater than for Voltaren® Emulgel® (90% CI 99.27, 737.46%). Mild erythema at the application site was the most frequent adverse event associated with DCF100C. There were no local symptoms after treatment with the reference formulation. CONCLUSION DCF100C formulations were safe and facilitated greater diclofenac penetration through the skin compared with the commercial comparator. DCF100C represents a promising alternative to oral and topical diclofenac treatments that warrants further development. PMID:21241352

  20. Governing the healthy male citizen: men, masculinity and popular health in Men's Health magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Paul

    2007-10-01

    Recent commentators have noted the potential of newer neo-liberal discourses of health care to position responsibility for the management of well-being with the individual. Often promoted through the inculcation of risk avoidance and management, such discourses are played out in myriad settings, including the popular media. Magazines are one such media site in which diverse exhortations for the achievement of health, well-being and the perfectible body are made, and Bunton [1997. Popular health, advanced liberalism and good housekeeping magazine. In A. Petersen & Bunton R. (Eds.) Foucault, health and medicine (pp. 223-247). London: Routledge] has identified 'magazine medicine' as a significant manifestation of more dedifferentiated models of health care. Recent discussions have placed men's health high on research and policy agendas, with a concomitant interest in more popular realms. The UK magazine Men's Health (MH) is indicative of these trends, and represents a site at which discourses of men, health and masculinity are constructed. Typically reflecting neo-liberal models of health, here men are constructed as active and entrepreneurial citizens able to maintain their own health and well-being through the judicious management of risk in contexts appropriate to dominant discourses of hegemonic masculinity. Data which resulted from a critical discourse analysis of a 2-year sample (21 issues) of MH are considered and findings related to medicalisation, individualisation and risk discussed. It is suggested that magazine texts such as MH reflect newer individualised models of health care and neo-liberal strategies of health governance premised upon constructing a healthy male citizen, willing and able to take responsibility for their own well-being.

  1. Pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence study of two brands of valsartan tablets in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Valizadeh, Hadi; Islambulchilar, Ziba; Nemati, Mahboob

    2010-01-01

    Valsartan (CAS 137862-53-4) is an antihypertensive drug belonging to the family of angiotensin II receptor antagonists acting at the AT1 receptor, which mediates all known effects of angiotensin II on the cardiovascular system. In the present study, the pharmacokinetic parameters of two oral formulations of valsartan tablets were compared in a randomized, single oral dose, two-treatment crossover design in 24 healthy male volunteers under fasting conditions. After an overnight fast, the volunteers received 80 mg valsartan. Blood samples were collected up to 48 h and drug concentrations were determined by a reverse-phase HPLC method with fluorescence detection. Various pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from the plasma concentration-time curves of both formulations. The obtained values for test and reference products were 3067.7 +/- 1,281.7 and 3,304.3 +/- 1,196.4 ng/ml for Cmax; 17,834.4 +/- 7,083.8 and 18,319.1 +/- 7,800.7 ng x h/ml for AUC0-48; 18,825.7 +/- 7,553.2 and 19,172.2 +/- 8,307.2 ng x h/ml for AUC0-infinity, respectively. The 90% confidence intervals obtained by analysis of variance were 86.84-100.87% for Cmax and 93.43-115.54% for AUC0-t, which are within the acceptance range of 80-125%. Therefore it can be concluded that both products are bioequivalent in terms of rate and extent of drug absorption and therefore interchangeable.

  2. Effects of submaximal exercise with water ingestion on intraocular pressure in healthy human males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exercise and water replacement on intraocular pressure (IOP have not been well established. Furthermore, it is not known whether the temperature of the fluid ingested influences the IOP response. In the present study we determined the effect of water ingestion at three temperatures (10, 24 and 38ºC; 600 ml 15 min before and 240 ml 15, 30 and 45 min after the beginning of each experimental session on the IOP of six healthy male volunteers (age = 24.0 ± 3.5 years, weight = 67.0 ± 4.8 kg, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak = 47.8 ± 9.1 ml kg-1 min-1. The subjects exercised until exhaustion on a cycle ergometer at a 60% VO2peak in a thermoneutral environment. IOP was measured before and after exercise and during recovery (15, 30 and 45 min using the applanation tonometry method. Skin and rectal temperatures, heart rate and oxygen uptake were measured continuously. IOP was similar for the right eye and the left eye and increased post-water ingestion under both exercising and resting conditions (P<0.05 but did not differ between resting and exercising situations, or between the three water temperatures. Time to exhaustion was not affected by the different water temperatures. Rectal temperature, hydration status, heart rate, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide extraction and lactate concentration were increased by exercise but were not affected by water temperature. We conclude that IOP was not affected by exercise and that water ingestion increased IOP as expected, regardless of water temperature.

  3. The Socioecology of Sexual and Reproductive Health Care Use Among Young Urban Minority Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcell, Arik V; Morgan, Anthony R; Sanders, Renata; Lunardi, Nicole; Pilgrim, Nanlesta A; Jennings, Jacky M; Page, Kathleen R; Loosier, Penny S; Dittus, Patricia J

    2017-04-01

    To explore perceptions of facilitators/barriers to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care use among an urban sample of African-American and Hispanic young men aged 15-24 years, including sexual minorities. Focus groups were conducted between April 2013 and May 2014 in one mid-Atlantic U.S. city. Young men aged 15-24 years were recruited from eight community settings to participate in 12 groups. Moderator guide explored facilitators/barriers to SRH care use. A brief pregroup self-administered survey assessed participants' sociodemographics and SRH information sources. Content analysis was conducted, and three investigators independently verified the themes that emerged. Participants included 70 males: 70% were aged 15-19 years, 66% African-American, 34% Hispanic, 83% heterosexual, and 16% gay/bisexual. Results indicated young men's perceptions of facilitators/barriers to their SRH care use come from multiple levels of their socioecology, including cultural, structural, social, and personal contexts, and dynamic inter-relationships existed across contexts. A health care culture focused on women's health and traditional masculinity scripts provided an overall background. Structural level concerns included cost, long visits, and confidentiality; social level concerns included stigma of being seen by community members and needs regarding health care provider interactions; and personal level concerns included self-risk assessments on decisions to seek care and fears/anxieties about sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing. Young men also discussed SRH care help-seeking sometimes involved family and/or other social network members and needs related to patient-provider interactions about SRH care. Study findings provide a foundation for better understanding young men's SRH care use and considering ways to engage them in care. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Anthropometric Variables and Somatotype of Young and Professional Male Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Gryko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determining somatic models and profiles in young athletes has recently become a fundamental element in selecting basketball playing positions. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the body build of young and adult elite male basketball players at different playing positions. Methods: Participants consisted of 35 young (age: 14.09 ± 0.30 years, n = 35 and 35 adult professional basketball players (age: 24.45 ± 5.40 years, n = 35 competing in elite leagues. The anthropometric characteristics assessed included body mass, body height, skinfolds, somatotypes, girths, and breadths. Results: The centers in both age groups were significantly taller and heavier (p < 0.001 compared to forwards and guards. The greatest difference between categories were in the guards’ personal height (from 169.36 to 186.68 = 17.32 cm. The guards from the professional team were closest in height to the forwards (difference = 7.17 cm compared to young players where the difference between guards and forwards was 13.23 cm. Young competitors were more ectomorphic (2.12-3.75-4.17, while professional players were more mesomorphic (2.26-4.57-3.04. Significant criteria for center selection at professional level seems to be personal height and arm span ratio. Conclusions: The results indicate that the selection for basketball playing positions should include the analysis of body height and mass, shoulder breadth, humerus breadth, femur breadth and specifically for centers the difference between personal the height and arm span.

  5. The Effect of Hindlimb Suspension on the Reproductive System of Young Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Janet; Grindeland, R.; Baer, L.; Guran, G.; Fung, C.; Wade, C.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Colonization of space requires the ability to reproduce in reduced gravity. Following spaceflight, astronauts and male rats exhibit decreased testosterone (T). This has important implications as T effects the testes and accessory sex glands. To our knowledge no studies have examined the effects of spaceflight on accessory sex glands. Due to the rarity of spaceflight opportunities, ground models have been used to simulate weightlessness. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of long-term (21 d) weightlessness on the reproductive system of male rats. Weightlessness was simulated using the Morey-Holton hindlimb suspension (HLS) model. Age 10 week old, male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing (209.0 +9.7g) were randomly assigned (n=10/group) to either HLS or ambulatory control. In HLS rats, testes mass was 33% lower (pmale rats. This discrepancy may have been due to the age of animal and timing of sampling. T levels vary dramatically during testes development as well as within normal diurnal cycles. In young HLS rats, testes weight was reduced but not plasma T. Subsequently there was no effect on accessory sex glands. However, this may not be the case in older rats. More studies using standardized methods are needed to gain a better understanding of male reproduction function and capability in weightlessness. Funding provided by NASA.

  6. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Enriched Hen Eggs Consumption Enhances Microvascular Reactivity in Young Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupin, Ana; Rasic, Lidija; Matic, Anita; Stupin, Marko; Kralik, Zlata; Kralik, Gordana; Grcevic, Manuela; Drenjancevic, Ines

    2018-04-10

    Whilst the beneficial effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation on cardiovascular (CV) system is well supported in CV patients, the effect of consumption of omega-3 PUFAs enriched functional food in healthy individuals is still not fully elucidated. This study aimed to determine the effect of consumption of omega-3 PUFAs enriched hen eggs on microvascular reactivity (primary outcome), blood pressure (BP) and serum lipid profile in young healthy individuals. Control group (N=16) ate three ordinary hen eggs (277 mg omega-3 PUFAs/day), and OMEGA-3 group (N=20) ate three omega-3 PUFAs enriched eggs containing 259 mg of omega-3 PUFAs/egg daily (ALA 167 mg/egg, EPA 7 mg/egg, DHA 84 mg/egg) for 3 weeks (777 mg omega-3 PUFAs/day). Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) in skin microcirculation assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry, serum lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and arterial BP were measured in all subjects before and after the protocol. PORH was significantly enhanced, and triglycerides, hsCRP and BP were significantly decreased in OMEGA-3 group compared to baseline measurement, while there was no significant difference in Control group after the protocol compared to baseline. This is the first study to demonstrate that consumption of a mixture of omega-3 PUFAs (ALA+EPA+DHA), provided via enriched hen eggs, elicits changes in microvascular reactivity, BP and triglycerides level in healthy subjects that are associated with CV benefits, thus suggesting that daily consumption of omega-3 PUFAs enriched eggs in healthy individuals may potentially contribute to CV risk factors attenuation and disease prevention.

  7. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  8. Additive effects of heating and exercise on baroreflex control of heart rate in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peçanha, Tiago; Forjaz, Cláudia L M; Low, David A

    2017-12-01

    This study assessed the additive effects of passive heating and exercise on cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS) and heart rate variability (HRV). Twelve healthy young men (25 ± 1 yr, 23.8 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 ) randomly underwent two experimental sessions: heat stress (HS; whole body heat stress using a tube-lined suit to increase core temperature by ~1°C) and normothermia (NT). Each session was composed of a preintervention rest (REST1); HS or NT interventions; postintervention rest (REST2); and 14 min of cycling exercise [7 min at 40%HR reserve (EX1) and 7 min at 60%HR reserve (EX2)]. Heart rate and finger blood pressure were continuously recorded. cBRS was assessed using the sequence (cBRS SEQ ) and transfer function (cBRS TF ) methods. HRV was assessed using the indexes standard deviation of RR intervals (SDNN) and root mean square of successive RR intervals (RMSSD). cBRS and HRV were not different between sessions during EX1 and EX2 (i.e., matched heart rate conditions: EX1 = 116 ± 3 vs. 114 ± 3 and EX2 = 143 ± 4 vs. 142 ± 3 beats/min but different workloads: EX1 = 50 ± 9 vs. 114 ± 8 and EX2 = 106 ± 10 vs. 165 ± 8 W; for HS and NT, respectively; P heat stress to exercise does not affect cBRS and HRV. Alternatively, in workload-matched conditions, the addition of heat to exercise results in reduced cBRS and HRV compared with exercise in normothermia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present study assessed cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during the combination of heat and exercise stresses. This is the first study to show that prior whole body passive heating reduces cardiac baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation of heart rate during exercise. These findings contribute to the better understanding of the role of thermoregulation on cardiovascular regulation during exercise.

  9. Effects of a short-term personalized Intermittent Work Exercise Program (IWEP) on maximal cardio-respiratory function and endurance parameters among healthy young and older seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, T; Leprêtre, P-M; Brechat, P-H; Lonsdorfer, E; Benetos, A; Kaltenbach, G; Lonsdorfer, J

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a short-term Intermittent Work Exercise Program (IWEP) among healthy elderly subjects. This longitudinal prospective study took place at the Strasbourg University Hospital geriatric department. One hundred and fifty older volunteers, previously determined as being free from cardiac and pulmonary disease, were separated into two age groups: the "young senior" (60.2 ± 3.1 yr) and the "older senior" groups (70.8 ± 5.2 yr). These groups were then subdivided by gender into the "young female senior", "young male senior" "older female senior" and "older male senior" groups. Before and after the IWEP, all subjects were asked to perform an incremental cycle exercise to obtain their first ventilatory threshold (VT1), maximal tolerated power (MTP), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and maximal minute ventilation (MMV). The IWEP consisted of a 30-min cycling exercise which took place twice a week, and was divided into six 5-min stages consisting of 4 min at VT1 intensity and 1 min at 90% MTP. An assessment was made of the effects of the IWEP on maximal cardio-respiratory function (MTP, VO2peak, MMV) and endurance parameters (VT1, heart rate [HR] measured at pretraining VT1 and lactate concentrations at pre-training MTP). This short-term training program resulted in a significant increase of MTP (from 13.2% to 20.6%), VO2peak (from 8.9% to 16.6%) and MMV (from 11.1% to 21.8%) in all groups (pseniors" were not significantly different (p>0.05) from the "young seniors" pre-training values for the same parameters. The most striking finding in this study is that after only 9 weeks, our short-term "individually-tailored" IWEP significantly improved both maximal cardio-respiratory function and endurance parameters in healthy, previously untrained seniors.

  10. A case of Sweet's syndrome associated with uveitis in a young male with ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancu, Ligia Ariana; Ureche, Corina; Crăciun, Nicoleta Maria; Marian, Dorin

    2016-01-01

    Sweet's syndrome is rare acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis whose onset is either idiopathic or associated with other underlying conditions, such as infections, autoimmune diseases, pregnancy, use of certain medications, or malignancy. We report the case of a young male with known history of ulcerative colitis and abrupt onset of high fever, malaise, blurred vision and eruption of painful erythematous nodules and papules, localized on the head, neck, trunk and upper limbs. Ophthalmological examination established the diagnosis of anterior uveitis. Inflammatory markers were positive. Histological examination of skin lesions revealed a dense neutrophilic infiltrate of the dermis. Clinical, laboratory and histological findings were suggestive for the diagnosis of Sweet's syndrome and uveitis on a background of ulcerative colitis. Systemic and ophthalmic administration of corticotherapy leads to a prompt resolution of symptoms and inflammatory syndrome. The particularity of this case is the occurrence of two simultaneous extraintestinal manifestations in a young male with inflammatory bowel disease and colonic involvement. Although a relatively rare condition, Sweet's syndrome should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with acute onset of high fever and skin rash, as it may have notable internal involvement and can be easily treated.

  11. Effects on the reproductive system of young male rats of subcutaneous exposure to n-butylparaben.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tania; Schreiber, Elga; Kumar, Vikas; Prasad, Raju; Sirvent, Juan J; Domingo, Jose L; Gómez, Mercedes

    2017-08-01

    This study was aimed at determining whether an in vivo subcutaneous exposure to n-butylparaben (n-ButP) during one complete spermatogenic cycle could be harmful to the reproductive system of young male rats. Animals were subcutaneously given 0, 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg/day of n-ButP with vehicle (peanut oil). Body and organ weights, n-ButP excretion, biochemical parameters, sperm and spermatid count, sperm motility, viability, maturity and morphology were examined. Results showed that after a completed spermatogenic cycle, although n-ButP did not induce dose-related changes in the different biochemical parameters, a significant decrease of triacylglicerides (TAG) -due to the vehicle-was found. Furthermore, no effects of n-ButP on body weight gain and relative organ weight changes were noted. Regarding sexual organs, prostate relative weight was significantly increased at the high dose of n-ButP. On the other hand, a significant increase of abnormal sperm morphology due to n-ButP exposure, accompanied by different alterations in sexual organs histopathology, was found. The current results indicate that subcutaneous exposure of n-ButP in young male rats induced toxic effects on the reproductive system, which could affect the capacity of fertilization of animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Should different marketing communication strategies be used to promote healthy eating among male and female adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara; Ng, Yu-Leung; Prendergast, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine how interpersonal norms, media norms, attitudes, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy had an influence on healthy eating intention among adolescents. A probability sample of 544 adolescents aged 12 to 18 was conducted. Results indicated that girls had a more favorable attitude and intention toward healthy eating than boys. Healthy eating intention among boys was predicted by attitude, perceived behavioral control, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy, and among girls was predicted by perceived behavioral control and self-efficacy. Different marketing strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescent boys and girls should be adopted.

  13. Prevalence of pesticide exposure in young males (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panwalkar Amit

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence implicating pesticides as causative agents of prostate cancer is controversial, and specifically, data in young adults is lacking. Hence, we performed a preliminary study evaluating the relationship between pesticide exposure and prostate cancer in young males. After approval from the University of North Dakota Institutional Review Board and Human Subjects Committee, a retrospective study was performed on all young males (2400 hours were considered as 'exposed.' The 2400 hour cut-off value was chosen on the basis of previous reports indicating that this figure represents heavy exposure to genotoxic agents. Statistical analysis was obtained using SPSS-10®. Between 1991 and 2001, 61 young males with adenocarcinoma of the prostate were identified, of whom 56 patients with a mean age of 47 years (range: 40–49 had complete records of treatment and could be contacted for completion of the questionnaire. The most common stage at presentation was Stage III and the mean Gleason's score was 7.5 (range 5–9. Interestingly, almost a third (16/56, 28.6% of patients had stage IV disease at presentation. 37/56 (66.1% patients had 'significant' exposure in our study. In addition, interestingly, the mean survival in the subgroup of patients with pesticide exposure was 11.3 months (SD: +/- 2

  14. The Effect of Occasional Alcohol Drinking on Semen Quality and Sperm Morphology among Young and Healthy Polish Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicja Lwow

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Ethanol (EtOH is an agent that seems to exert an especially harmful effect on male fertility. The impact of high EtOH intake on fertility was demonstrated in numerous researches, with data suggesting that this effect may have been due to decreased semen quality; however, similar negative effects were not identified among occasional EtOH drinkers. There are currently no recommendations for alcohol consumption for men who plan to have a child other than avoiding high EtOH intake. Thus, studies on the effect of moderate and occasional EtOH drinking on semen quality are needed to develop appropriate recommendations for men planning to have a child in the future. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in semen quality parameters and sperm morphology occur in healthy young men who occasionally exceed the WHO-recommended weekly dose of EtOH but are not alcohol dependent and do not frequently consume high amounts of EtOH. Methods: The study sample consisted of 172 young men residing in urban areas. The semen quality and morphology of men who consumed more than 140 g of ethanol (high-risk group, HR, n=44 weekly was compared with that of low-risk group members (LR, n=128 who reported lower alcohol consumption. Results: The only between-group difference in semen characteristics was the identification of a higher percentage of macrocephalic sperm in the HR group (P=0.011. Alcohol intake was the sole factor influencing the percentage of macrocephalic sperm (b=0.171, P=0.025, multiple linear regression. Conclusions: We concluded that occasional alcohol consumption did not alter fertility but caused the accumulation of macrocephalic sperm potentially containing damaged DNA. Therefore, we recommend that men who plan to father children stop drinking alcohol at least 3 months before engaging in sexual intercourse that may lead to pregnancy.

  15. Linking mind wandering tendency to risky driving in young male drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Derek A; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Jarret, Julien; Cloutier, Marie-Soleil; Paquette, Martin; Badeau, Nancy; Brown, Thomas G

    2018-02-01

    Risky driving is a significant contributor to road traffic crashes, especially in young drivers. Transient mind wandering states, an internal form of distraction, are associated with faster driving, reduced headway distance, slower response times, reduced driver vigilance, and increased crash risk. It is unclear whether a trait tendency to mind wander predicts risky driving, however. Mind wandering is also associated with poor executive control, but whether this capacity moderates the putative link between mind wandering tendency and risky driving is uncertain. The present study tested whether mind wandering tendency predicts risky driving behaviour in young male drivers aged 18-21 (N=30) and whether this relationship is mediated by driver vigilance and moderated by executive control capacity. Mind wandering was measured with the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) and the Daydreaming Frequency Scale (DDFS). Risky driving was assessed by mean speed in a driving simulator and driver vigilance was quantified by horizontal eye movements measured with eye tracking. Results showed that greater mind wandering tendency based on SART performance significantly predicts faster mean speed, confirming the main hypothesis. Neither driver vigilance mediated nor executive control capacity moderated this relationship as hypothesized. These findings speak to the complexity of individual differences in mind wandering. Overall, mind wandering tendency is a significant marker of risky driving in young drivers, which could guide the development of targeted interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. COMPARISON BETWEEN POST ISOMETRIC RELAXATION AND RECIPROCAL INHIBITION MANUEVERS ON HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY IN YOUNG HEALTHY ADULTS: RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Sonal S

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Purpose: Variations in the application of muscle energy technique (MET for increasing the extensibility of muscles have been advocated, but little evidence exists to support the relative merit of a particular approach. This study investigated two types of muscle energy techniques that have been advocated in the osteopathic literature that differ primarily in the muscle group targeted. Aim: To compare the efficacy of Post Isometric Relaxation (PIR and Reciprocal Inhibition (RI on hamstring length in young healthy adults Methodology: Randomized clinical trial 100 college students aged between 18-25 years were included. The subjects were randomly assigned to PIR and RI group. Each group consisted of 50 subjects (25 male, 25 female. Knee extension limitation was measured by using active knee extension test (AKET pre & post-intervention, i.e. after 3 weeks of stretching regimen, with the help of universal full circle goniometer. Results: There was significant improvement in hamstrings flexibility (p=0.000 in both PIR and RI groups. Statistical comparison of the results of both the technique showed that PIR group had greater improvement than the RI group (p=0.000 Conclusion: PIR and RI were both found to be effective in improving hamstring flexibility but, PIR is more effective therapeutic maneuver.

  17. Lower Limb Symmetry: Comparison of Muscular Power Between Dominant and Nondominant Legs in Healthy Young Adults Associated With Single-Leg-Dominant Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisman, Alex; Guiloff, Rodrigo; Rojas, Juan; Delgado, Iris; Figueroa, David; Calvo, Rafael

    2017-12-01

    Achieving a symmetrical power performance (difference power between the dominant and nondominant legs in healthy young adults, (2) evaluate the effect of a single-leg-dominant sport activity performed at the professional level, and (3) propose a parameter of normality for maximal power difference in the lower limbs of this young adult population. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 78 healthy, male, young adults were divided into 2 groups according to sport activity level. Group 1 consisted of 51 nonathletes (mean ± SD age, 20.8 ± 1.5 years; weight, 71.9 ± 10.5 kg) who participated in less than 8 hours a week of recreational physical activity with nonspecific training; group 2 consisted of 27 single-leg-dominant professional soccer players (age, 18.4 ± 0.6 years; weight, 70.1 ± 7.5 kg) who specifically trained and competed at their particular activity 8 hours or more a week. For assessment of maximal leg power, both groups completed the single-leg squat jump test. Dominance was determined when participants completed 2 of 3 specific tests with the same extremity. Statistical analysis included the Student t test. No statistical difference was found for maximal power between dominant and nondominant legs for nonathletes ( t = -1.01, P = .316) or single-leg-dominant professional soccer players ( t = -1.10, P = .281). A majority (95%) of participants studied showed a power difference of less than 15% between their lower extremities. Among young healthy adults, symmetrical power performance is expected between lower extremities independent of the existence of dominance and difference in sport activity level. A less than 15% difference in power seems to be a proper parameter to define symmetrical power performance assessed by vertical single-leg jump tests.

  18. Unilateral visual loss secondary to cat scratch disease in a healthy young man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norfarizal Ashikin Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cat scratch disease is a benign clinical syndrome manifested as lymphadenopathy, fever and sometimes with atypical symptom of blurring of vision. It occurs following cat ’s bites or scratches. This case report presented a healthy young man presented with left eye blurring of vision for 1 month duration preceeded by history of recurrent low grade fever with previous history of being scratched by cat. Examination revealed optic disc edema with macula star. Thorough investigations were done and shown positive titre towards Bartonella henselae. He responded well with intravenous ceftazidime, oral doxycycline and rifampicin. His vision improved to 6/9 and 6/6 with pinhole after 3 months.

  19. Exogenous cortisol acutely influences motivated decision making in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Peter; Antypa, Niki; Crysovergi, Panagiota; van der Does, Willem A J

    2010-02-01

    The glucocorticoid (GC) hormone cortisol is the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis). Acute psychological stress increases HPA activity and GC release. In humans, chronic disturbances in HPA activity have been observed in affective disorders and in addictive behaviour. Recent research indicates that acute effects of GCs may be anxiolytic and increase reward sensitivity. Furthermore, cortisol acutely influences early cognitive processing of emotional stimuli. In order to extend such findings to more complex emotional-cognitive behaviour, the present study tested acute effects of 40 mg cortisol on motivated decision making in 30 healthy young men. Results showed that cortisol indeed increased risky decision making, as predicted. This effect occurred for decisions where making a risky choice could potentially yield a big reward. These results are discussed with respect to currently proposed mechanisms for cortisol's potential anxiolytic effect and GCs' involvement in reward systems.

  20. Actinomyces graevenitzii Pulmonary Abscess Mimicking Tuberculosis in a Healthy Young Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Gliga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary actinomycosis is a rare disease that is often misdiag-nosed as tuberculosis or lung cancer. Actinomyces graevenitzii is a relatively new recognized Actinomyces species isolated from various clinical samples. The authors report a case of pulmonary actinomycosis caused by A graevenitzii. A computed tomography examination revealed an excavated consolidation in the middle right lobe of a previously healthy young man who presented with a long history of moderate cough. Cultures of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary abscess caused by A gravenitzii. At the three-month follow-up consultation and, after six weeks of high-dose amoxicillin, the pulmonary lesion had completely disappeared.

  1. Evaluation of fat-free mass by whole-body counter in Japanese healthy young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, N.; Takamura, N.; Murakami, T.; Jo, O.; Aoyagi, K.; Yamashita, S.; Okumura, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Whole-body counters (WBCs) are special instruments for measuring internal irradiation doses and are usually housed within or around nuclear facilities in the event of unexpected radiation emergencies. As a substantial proportion of total body potassium (TBK) is found in fat-free mass (FFM), FFM volume can be predicted from WBC-measured 40 K. We screened TBK in Japanese healthy young adults using a WBC and found strong linear correlations between TBK and lean body mass (LBM) and body mass index (r = 0.97, P<0.01 and r = 0.47, P<0.01, respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis, following adjustments for sex, indicates that only LBM has a significant correlation with TBK (P<0.01). These results strongly support the feasibility of using WBCs for estimating FFM. (authors)

  2. Polysomnographic validation of a wireless dry headband technology for sleep monitoring in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonetti, Lorenzo; Cellini, Nicola; de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Fabbri, Marco; Martoni, Monica; Fábregas, Stephan E; Stegagno, Luciano; Natale, Vincenzo

    2013-06-13

    The present study aimed to explore the validity and reliability of a wireless dry headband technology for sleep monitoring (WS), through a comparison with concurrent polysomnographic (PSG) recording in healthy young adults. Eleven volunteers (7 females; mean age±SD: 24.75±3.62years) took part in the study, wearing the WS for two overnight PSG recordings in the sleep laboratory. The WS was compared to PSG in the identification of wake, light, deep and REM sleep. The WS sensitivity and specificity were 97.6% and 56.1%, respectively. The WS agreement with PSG, measured by Cohen's kappa, was 0.56 for light sleep, 0.70 for deep sleep, and 0.67 for REM sleep. The present results showed that the agreement ranged from moderate to high between PSG and the WS, while wakefulness detection was observed to be a limitation of the WS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Executive function on the 16-day of bed rest in young healthy men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Yuko; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Tanaka, Hidetaka; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Fujii, Yuri; Hattori-Uchida, Yuko; Nakamura, Minako; Ohkawa, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Hodaka; Taniuchi, Shoichiro; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2009-05-01

    Microgravity due to prolonged bed rest may cause changes in cerebral circulation, which is related to brain function. We evaluate the effect of simulated microgravity due to a 6° head-down tilt bed rest experiment on executive function among 12 healthy young men. Four kinds of psychoneurological tests—the table tapping test, the trail making test, the pointing test and losing at rock-paper-scissors—were performed on the baseline and on day 16 of the experiment. There was no significant difference in the results between the baseline and day 16 on all tests, which indicated that executive function was not impaired by the 16-day 6° head-down tilting bed rest. However, we cannot conclude that microgravity did not affect executive function because of the possible contribution of the following factors: (1) the timing of tests, (2) the learning effect, or (3) changes in psychophysiology that were too small to affect higher brain function.

  4. DNA damage and repair activity after broccoli intake in young healthy smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riso, Patrizia; Martini, Daniela; Møller, Peter

    2010-01-01

    compounds, including smokers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of broccoli intake on biomarkers of DNA damage and repair. Twenty-seven young healthy smokers consumed a portion of steamed broccoli (250 g/day) or a control diet for 10 days each within a crossover design with a washout period...... mRNA expression levels of repair and defence enzymes: 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X-type motif 1 (NUDT1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). After broccoli consumption, the level of oxidised DNA lesions decreased by 41% (95% confidence interval: 10%, 72......%) and the resistance to H(2)O(2)-induced DNA strand breaks increased by 23% (95% CI: 13%, 34%). Following broccoli intake, a higher protection was observed in subjects with glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1-null genotype. The expression level and activity of repair enzymes was unaltered. In conclusion, broccoli...

  5. Increased nocturnal fat oxidation in young healthy men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Lilleøre, S K; Jensen, C B

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight (LBW), a marker of disturbed fetal growth, is associated with adiposity and increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of the study was to investigate whether LBW is associated with changes in 24-h energy expenditure (EE) and/or substrate utilization rates......, potentially contributing to the development of adiposity and/or T2D compared to matched control subjects. MATERIALS/METHODS: Forty-six young, healthy men were included in the study; 20 with LBW (= 10th percentile) and 26 control subjects with normal birth weight (NBW) (50th-90th percentile). The subjects were...... fed a weight maintenance diet and 24-h energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), and substrate oxidation were assessed in a respiratory chamber. RESULTS: No differences in 24-h EE, RQ or substrate oxidation were observed between LBW and controls. Interestingly, the LBW group exhibited lower...

  6. White matter abnormalities in young males with antisocial personality disorder Evidence from voxel-based morphometry-diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daxing Wu; Ying Zhao; Jian Liao; Huifang Yin; Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry-diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra analysis was used to investigate the structural characteristics of white matter in young males with antisocial personality disorder (APD) and healthy controls without APD. The results revealed that APD subjects, relative to healthy subjects, exhibited increased white matter volume in the bilateral prefrontal lobe, right insula, precentral gyrus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, right precuneus, right middle occipital lobe, right parahippocampal gyrus and bilateral cingulate, and decreased volume in the middle temporal cortex and right cerebellum. The white matter volume in the medial frontal gyrus was significantly correlated with antisocial type scores on the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire in APD subjects. These experimental findings indicate that white matter abnormalities in several brain areas may contribute to antisocial behaviors in APD subjects.

  7. Moderate-intensity endurance training improves endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, Joanna; Grandys, Marcin; Duda, Krzysztof; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Balcerczyk, Aneta; Kolodziejski, Leszek; Szymoniak-Chochol, Dorota; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Chlopicki, Stefan; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2017-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? The main aim of the present study was to determine the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity endurance training on the endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in relationship to the training-induced changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant defence in humans. What is the main finding and its importance? We have shown, for the first time, a protective effect of prolonged moderate-intensity endurance training on endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity, as judged by significantly lower basal and end-exercise serum concentrations of glycocalyx damage markers, i.e. syndecan-1 and heparan sulfate, accompanied by attenuation of oxidative stress and enhancement of antioxidant defence after training in previously untrained healthy young men. In this study, we evaluated the effect of 20 weeks of moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) on the endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in relationship to the training-induced changes in antioxidant defence. Eleven healthy young, untrained men performed an incremental cycling exercise bout until exhaustion before and after 20 weeks of ET. Endurance training consisted of 40 min sessions, mainly of moderate intensity (∼50% of maximal oxygen uptake), performed four times per week. Venous blood samples were taken at rest and at the end of the maximal exercise test. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis were taken before and after the training. Endurance training resulted in a significant increase in physical capacity (P  0.05). Moderate-intensity ET exerts a pronounced protective effect on endothelial glycocalyx integrity at rest and during exercise, probably through an improvement of antioxidant defence that may represent the vasoprotective mechanisms highly responsive to moderate-intensity endurance training. © 2016 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  8. Obesity gene NEGR1 associated with white matter integrity in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Emily L; Jahanshad, Neda; Braskie, Meredith N; Warstadt, Nicholus M; Hibar, Derrek P; Kohannim, Omid; Nir, Talia M; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Toga, Arthur W; Wright, Margaret J; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-11-15

    Obesity is a crucial public health issue in developed countries, with implications for cardiovascular and brain health as we age. A number of commonly-carried genetic variants are associated with obesity. Here we aim to see whether variants in obesity-associated genes--NEGR1, FTO, MTCH2, MC4R, LRRN6C, MAP2K5, FAIM2, SEC16B, ETV5, BDNF-AS, ATXN2L, ATP2A1, KCTD15, and TNN13K--are associated with white matter microstructural properties, assessed by high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) in young healthy adults between 20 and 30 years of age from the Queensland Twin Imaging study (QTIM). We began with a multi-locus approach testing how a number of common genetic risk factors for obesity at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level may jointly influence white matter integrity throughout the brain and found a wide spread genetic effect. Risk allele rs2815752 in NEGR1 was most associated with lower white matter integrity across a substantial portion of the brain. Across the area of significance in the bilateral posterior corona radiata, each additional copy of the risk allele was associated with a 2.2% lower average FA. This is the first study to find an association between an obesity risk gene and differences in white matter integrity. As our subjects were young and healthy, our results suggest that NEGR1 has effects on brain structure independent of its effect on obesity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. TOPICAL ESTROGEN IN WOUND HEALING: A DOUBLE BLIND RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL ON YOUNG HEALTHY PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A ASILIAN

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acceleration of wounf healing is intrested because of decreasing the risk of wound complication and infections as well as reducing the cost of treatment. In animal models, it has been proved that estrogen can accelerate wound healing. It has been also suggested that topical estrogen can eliminate effect of aging on wound healing and can increase the speed of wound healing in old people. Methods: We selected 16 young healthy people who developed symmetrical and ulcers (regarding size and depths after dermabrasion, shave and electrocoagulouzon and CO2 laser. Primary lesions of patients were benign and noninfective. Identical and symmetrical lesions of each patient were randomly divided into two groups (A and B. Topical estrogen with concentration of 0.625 mg/g in the base of silver sulfadiazine cream was applied to A ulcers and silver sulfadiazine cream alone was applied on B ulcers. Ulcers were dressed by Telfa gauzes. The A ulcers of each patients were compared to counterpart B ulcers in regard of redness, size, depth, general appearance of ulcers and wound healing duration at three days intervals by a physician. Results: Average time of healing was 10.8 days and 8.5 days for B (n=29 and A (n=29 ulcers, respectively (P < 0.001. In 78 percent of cases, the A ulcers were judged better than B ulcers by physician (P < 0.01. Discussion: It seems that estrogen not only accelerate healing of acute ulcers but also it is efficient in young healthy people who don"t have any hormonal or wound healing problems.

  10. Bioequivalence study of a generic Risperidone (Iperdal® in healthy Thai male volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werawath Mahatthanatrakul

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the rate and extent of absorption of a generic risperidone (Iperdal® with a reference formulation (Risperdal® when given orally. The study was an open label, randomized, two-period, two-sequence,single dose cross-over design with a 2 weeks washout period in 16 healthy Thai male volunteers. Single oral dose of two 2-mg tablets of risperidone were administered and serial blood samples were collected from the antecubital vein before and at0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12, 24 and 48 hours post dose. Risperidone plasma concentrations were assayed using a validated High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC-UV method modified from Avenosoet al. (2000. Pharamcokinetic parameters i.e. Cmax, AUC0à48 and Tmax were analyzed by noncompartment analysis. Variations of the data were analyzed by “Two Way Analysis of Variance” (ANOVA. Statistics were tested as stated in USP 28 guidelinefor bioequivalence study. The maximum concentration (Cmax, ng/ml of risperidone for the innovator and the generic product were 31.11±17.24 (range 5.64-56.78 and 32.58±19.77 (range 5.29-84.56 ng/ml, respectively. The area under theplasma concentration-time curve (AUC0®48 of the innovator and the generic product were 160.64±152.89 (range 18.57- 550.32 and 144.03±127.37 (range 16.27-456.0 ng.hr/ml, respectively. The time to maximum concentration (Tmax of theinnovator and the generic product were 0.97±0.41(range 0.5-2 and 1.02±0.32 (range 0.5-1.5 hr, respectively. The 90% confidence interval of the ratio of the ln-transformed of Cmax and AUC0à48 of both preparations were 89.39-112.99% and80.02-107.28% respectively which were within the acceptance range of 80.00-125.00%. Therefore, it can be concluded that both preparations used in this study are bioequivalent in terms of both the rate and extent of absorption.

  11. A new topical formulation enhances relative diclofenac bioavailability in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Martin; Davies, David; Martin, Wolfgang; Leuratti, Chiara; Lackner, Edith; Müller, Markus

    2011-06-01

    • Therapy with topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) relies on the ability of the active drug to penetrate the skin in sufficiently high amounts to exert a clinical effect, which is linked to the specific galenic properties of the formulation. • This phase 1 study characterizes the transdermal penetration and plasma exposure of different dose levels with galenic differences of a novel topical diclofenac formulation under development and indicates greater diclofenac penetration through the skin when compared with a commercially available formulation. To evaluate the relative plasma and tissue availability of diclofenac after repeated topical administration of a novel diclofenac acid-based delivery system under development (DCF100C). This was a single-centre, open-label, three-period, crossover clinical trial of five discrete diclofenac formulations. Test preparations comprised two concentrations (1.0% and 2.5%) of DCF100C, with and without menthol and eucalyptus oil (total daily doses of 5 mg and 12.5 mg). Voltaren Emulgel gel (1.0%) was the commercially available comparator (total daily dose of 40 mg). Topical application was performed onto the thigh of 20 male healthy subjects for 3 days. Applying a Youden square design, each drug was evaluated in 12 subjects, with each subject receiving three test preparations. Blood sampling and in vivo microdialysis in subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle tissues were performed for 10 h after additional final doses on the morning of day 4. All four DCF100C formulations demonstrated a three- to fivefold, dose-dependent increase in systemic diclofenac availability compared with Voltaren Emulgel and were approximately 30-40 times more effective at facilitating diclofenac penetration through the skin, taking different dose levels into account. Tissue concentrations were low and highly variable. The 2.5% DCF100C formulation without sensory excipients reached the highest tissue concentrations. AUC(0,10 h) was

  12. Intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia during sleep does not induce ventilatory long-term facilitation in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Naomi L; McEvoy, R Doug; Stadler, Daniel L; Catcheside, Peter G

    2017-09-01

    Intermittent hypoxia-induced ventilatory neuroplasticity is likely important in obstructive sleep apnea pathophysiology. Although concomitant CO 2 levels and arousal state critically influence neuroplastic effects of intermittent hypoxia, no studies have investigated intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia effects during sleep in humans. Thus the purpose of this study was to investigate if intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia during sleep induces neuroplasticity (ventilatory long-term facilitation and increased chemoreflex responsiveness) in humans. Twelve healthy males were exposed to intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia (24 × 30 s episodes of 3% CO 2 and 3.0 ± 0.2% O 2 ) and intermittent medical air during sleep after 2 wk washout period in a randomized crossover study design. Minute ventilation, end-tidal CO 2 , O 2 saturation, breath timing, upper airway resistance, and genioglossal and diaphragm electromyograms were examined during 10 min of stable stage 2 sleep preceding gas exposure, during gas and intervening room air periods, and throughout 1 h of room air recovery. There were no significant differences between conditions across time to indicate long-term facilitation of ventilation, genioglossal or diaphragm electromyogram activity, and no change in ventilatory response from the first to last gas exposure to suggest any change in chemoreflex responsiveness. These findings contrast with previous intermittent hypoxia studies without intermittent hypercapnia and suggest that the more relevant gas disturbance stimulus of concomitant intermittent hypercapnia frequently occurring in sleep apnea influences acute neuroplastic effects of intermittent hypoxia. These findings highlight the need for further studies of intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia during sleep to clarify the role of ventilatory neuroplasticity in the pathophysiology of sleep apnea. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Both arousal state and concomitant CO 2 levels are known modulators of the effects of intermittent hypoxia on

  13. Effect of Misoprostol on the Pharmacokinetics of Sustained Release Diclofenac in Myanmar Healthy Male Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Htet Htet Aung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sustained release diclofenac (diclofenac SR is the commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Misoprostol, prostaglandin analogue, is the agent that enhances gastrointestinal mucosal defense. Concomitant administration of misoprostol with diclofenac SR can prevent the gastrointestinal side effects of diclofenac SR. Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore the effect of misoprostol on the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac SR in healthy volunteers. Methods: Crossover study was evaluated in 14 male volunteers. Single oral dose of 100 mg diclofenac SR was concomitantly administered with 200 μg misoprostol with one-week wash out period. Plasma concentrations at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 6 and 10 hrs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as area under concentration-time curve (AUC0-α, peak plasma concentration (Cmax, time to achieve peak plasma concentration (Tmax, absorption half-life (T½(ab, elimination half-life (T1/2(el, absorption rate constant (Kab, and elimination rate constant (Kel were determined. Results: With misoprostol, the mean AUC0-α of diclofenac SR was significantly reduced from 12.11±5.25μg/ mL×hr to 4.17±2.72μg/mL×hr (p0.05. The mean T½(ab was decreased from 0.56±0.23hr to 0.54±0.19hr (p>0.05. The mean Kab were almost the same 1.43±0.54hr-1 and 1.43±0.48hr-1. The mean T1/2(el was decreased from 3.68±1.64hr to 3.03±1.08hr (p>0.05. The mean Kel was increased from 0.21±0.09hr-1 to 0.25±0.09hr-1 (p>0.05. Conclusion: There was a significant reduction in the extent of absorption of diclofenac SR when concomitantly administered with misoprostol. Therefore, the dose of diclofenac SR may need to be increased to avoid therapeutic failure of diclofenac SR or concurrent use with misoprostol may need to be changed to other gastroprotective agents.

  14. Changes of Physiological Tremor Following Maximum Intensity Exercise in Male and Female Young Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Jan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in postural physiological tremor following maximum intensity effort performed on arm ergometer by young male and female swimmers. Methods. Ten female and nine male young swimmers served as subjects in the study. Forearm tremor was measured accelerometrically in the sitting position before the 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test on arm ergometer and then 5, 15 and 30 minutes post-test. Results. Low-frequency tremor log-amplitude (L1−5 increased (repeated factor: p < 0.05 from −7.92 ± 0.45 to −7.44 ± 0.45 and from −6.81 ± 0.52 to −6.35 ± 0.58 in women and men, respectively (gender: p < 0.05 5 minute post-test. Tremor log-amplitude (L15−20 increased (repeated factor: p < 0.001 from −9.26 ± 0.70 to −8.59 ± 0.61 and from −8.79 ± 0.65 to −8.39 ± 0.79 in women and men, respectively 5 minute post-test. No effect of gender was found for high frequency range.The increased tremor amplitude was observed even 30 minute post-exercise. Mean frequency of tremor spectra gradually decreased post-exercises (p < 0.001. Conclusions. Exercise-induced changes in tremor were similar in males and females. A fatigue produced a decrement in the mean frequency of tremor what suggested decreased muscle stiffness post-exercise. Such changes intremorafter exercise may be used as the indicator of fatigue in the nervous system.

  15. Sexual function and hormone profile in young adult men with idiopathic gynecomastia: Comparison with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sir, Emin; Üçer, Oktay; Aksoy, Alper; Güngör, Melike; Ceylan, Yasin

    2016-01-22

    To compare sexual function and hormone profile in male patients with gynecomastia with matched controls. Forty-seven male subjects with gynecomastia and thirty healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Serum free T3, free T4, TSH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol, total testosterone, free testosterone, DHEA-SO4, LH and total PSA were measured in the patients and controls. Sexual function of the patients and controls were evaluated using International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). The hormone values and IIEF scores of the patients were statistically compared with the controls'. The mean of age, body mass index, right and left testicular volume in the patient and control group were similar. The mean FSH and free T3 values of the patients were significantly lower than the controls (p = 0.007 and p = 0.03, respectively). The mean of the other hormone values in the both groups were found to be statistically similar (p > 0.05). The mean ±SD of total IIEF scores in the patient and control group were 60.14 ± 8.78 and 65.24 ± 5.52, respectively (p = 0.007). Although the mean IIEF-erectile function, orgasmic function and intercourse satisfaction scores in the patient group were significantly lower than the control group (p gynecomastia were similar with the controls. However, gynecomastia adversely affected male sexual function.

  16. The Effects of Sprint Interval vs. Continuous Endurance Training on Physiological and Metabolic Adaptations in Young Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalcakan Gulbin Rudarli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of sprint interval training (SIT and continuous endurance training (CET on selected anthropometric, aerobic, and anaerobic performance indices as well as the blood lipid profile, inflammatory and muscle damage markers in healthy young males. Fifteen recreationally active male volunteers (age: 21.7 ±2.2 years, body mass: 83.0 ±8.0 kg, body height: 1.82 ±0.05 m were divided into two groups according to their initial VO2max levels. Training programs were conducted 3 times per week for 7 weeks. The SIT program consisted of 4-6 Wingate anaerobic sprints with a 4.5 min recovery, while CET consisted of 30-50 min cycling at 60% VO2max. Biochemical, anthropometric and fitness assessments were performed both pre and post-intervention. Significant improvements in VO2max, anaerobic power and capacity, and VO2 utilization during the submaximal workout and significant decreases in body fat and in waist circumference after the intervention occurred in both SIT and CET groups. Significantly greater gross efficiency was measured in the CET group. No differences in the lipid profile or serum levels of inflammatory, myocardial and skeletal muscle damage markers were observed after the training period. The study results agree with the effectiveness of a 30 s all-out training program with a reduced time commitment for anthropometric, aerobic and anaerobic adaptation and eliminate doubts about its safety as a model.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of DA-8031, a novel selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for premature ejaculation in healthy male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin D

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dongseong Shin,1 SeungHwan Lee,2 Sojeong Yi,2 Seo Hyun Yoon,2 Joo-Youn Cho,2 Mi Young Bahng,3 In-Jin Jang,2 Kyung-Sang Yu2 1Clinical Trials Center, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, 2Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, 3Department of Product Development, Dong-A ST, Seoul, Korea Objective: DA-8031 is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor under development for the treatment of premature ejaculation. This is the first-in-human study aimed at evaluating the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of DA-8031 and its metabolites (M1, M2, M4, and M5 in the plasma and urine after administration of a single oral dose in healthy male subjects.Methods: A dose block-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single ascending dose study was conducted. Subjects received either placebo or a single dose of DA-8031 at 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 120 mg. DA-8031 and its four metabolites were analyzed in the plasma and urine for pharmacokinetic evaluation. The effect of genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome-P450 (CYP enzymes on the pharmacokinetics of DA-8031 was evaluated.Results: After a single dose, plasma DA-8031 reached the maximum concentration at a median of 2–3 h and was eliminated with terminal elimination half-life of 17.9–28.7 h. The mean renal clearance was 3.7–5.6 L/h. Dose-proportional pharmacokinetics was observed over the dose range of 20–80 mg. Among the metabolites, M4 had the greatest plasma concentration, followed by M5 and M1. Subjects with CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizer had significantly greater dose-normalized Cmax and AUC0–t of DA-8031 as well as smaller metabolic ratios than those subjects with CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer. The most common adverse events were nausea, dizziness, and headache, and no serious adverse events were reported.Conclusion: In conclusion, the systemic exposure of DA-8031 was increased proportionally to the dose within 20

  18. Healthy food consumption in young women. The influence of others' eating behavior and body weight appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stel, Mariëlle; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M

    2015-07-01

    People's eating behaviors tend to be influenced by the behaviors of others. In the present studies, we investigated the effect of another person's eating behavior and body weight appearance on healthy food consumption of young women. In Study 1, participants watched a short film fragment together with a confederate who appeared normal weight or overweight and consumed either 3 or 10 cucumber slices. In Study 2, a confederate who appeared underweight, normal weight, or overweight consumed no or 4 cucumber slices. The number of cucumber slices eaten by participants was registered. Results showed that participants' healthy eating behavior was influenced by the confederate's eating behavior when the confederate was underweight, normal weight, and overweight. Participants ate more cucumber slices when the confederate ate a higher amount of cucumber slices compared with a lower (or no) amount of cucumber slices (Studies 1 and 2). The food intake effect was stronger for the underweight compared with the overweight model (Study 2). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Does family history of metabolic syndrome affect the metabolic profile phenotype in young healthy individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska, Anna; Koczaj-Bremer, Magdalena; Jankowski, Krzysztof; Kaźmierczak, Agnieszka; Ciurzyński, Michał; Ou-Pokrzewińska, Aisha; Mikocka, Ewelina; Lewandowski, Zbigniew; Demkow, Urszula; Pruszczyk, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Early identification of high-risk individuals is key for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to assess the potential impact of a family history of metabolic syndrome (fhMetS) on the risk of metabolic disorders (abnormal body mass, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and blood pressure) in healthy young individuals. We studied CVD risk factors in 90 healthy volunteers, aged 27-39 years; of these, 78 had fhMetS and 12 were without fhMetS (control group). Fasting serum lipids, glucose, and insulin levels were assayed, and anthropometric parameters and blood pressure using, an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system, were measured. Nutritional and physical activity habits were assessed. Despite similar nutritional and physical activity habits, abnormal body mass was found in 53.2% of the fhMetS participants and 46.1% of the control participants (p = 0.54). The occurrence of obesity was 19.4% and 0%, respectively (p = 0.69). Compared to the control participants, fhMetS was associated with significantly higher total cholesterol (5.46 mmol/L vs. 4.69 mmol/L, p family history of MetS.

  20. The Relationship between Processing Speed and Regional White Matter Volume in Healthy Young People.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Magistro

    Full Text Available Processing speed is considered a key cognitive resource and it has a crucial role in all types of cognitive performance. Some researchers have hypothesised the importance of white matter integrity in the brain for processing speed; however, the relationship at the whole-brain level between white matter volume (WMV and processing speed relevant to the modality or problem used in the task has never been clearly evaluated in healthy people. In this study, we used various tests of processing speed and Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM analyses, it is involves a voxel-wise comparison of the local volume of gray and white, to assess the relationship between processing speed and regional WMV (rWMV. We examined the association between processing speed and WMV in 887 healthy young adults (504 men and 383 women; mean age, 20.7 years, SD, 1.85. We performed three different multiple regression analyses: we evaluated rWMV associated with individual differences in the simple processing speed task, word-colour and colour-word tasks (processing speed tasks with words and the simple arithmetic task, after adjusting for age and sex. The results showed a positive relationship at the whole-brain level between rWMV and processing speed performance. In contrast, the processing speed performance did not correlate with rWMV in any of the regions examined. Our results support the idea that WMV is associated globally with processing speed performance regardless of the type of processing speed task.

  1. Effects of Chinese Liquors on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Healthy Young Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Sheng Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To elucidate whether consumption of two Chinese liquors, tea-flavor liquor (TFL and traditional Chinese liquor (TCL have protective effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in healthy human subjects. Methods. Forty-five healthy subjects (23 men, 22 women, aged 23–28, were recruited and randomized into two groups: TFL and TCL, and consumed 30 mL/day (45% (v/v alcohol of either liquor for 28 days. Results. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C/LDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 were significantly increased, and total cholesterol (TC and TC/HDL-C were significantly decreased after the intervention in both groups (P<0.05. Serum uric acid (P=0.004 for TFL, P=0.001 for TCL, glucose (P<0.001 for TFL, P<0.001 for TCL and endothelial adhesion molecules (P<0.05 were significantly decreased after the intervention. ADP-induced whole blood platelet aggregation was also significantly decreased after the intervention in both TFL and TCL groups (P<0.05. Conclusions. TFL and TCL consumption had protective effects on CVD risk factors in young humans. However, the results were valid only for 28 days, and that the possibility of adverse effect (liver, kidney of chronic alcohol consumption should be considered.

  2. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippelt, D P; van der Kint, S; van Herk, K; Naber, M

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.

  3. Does diurnal variation in cough reflex testing exist in healthy young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sarah; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether diurnal variation in cough reflex sensitivity exists in healthy young adults when a tidal-breathing method is used. Fifty-three participants (19-37 years) underwent cough reflex testing on two occasions: once in the morning (between 9 am - midday) and once in the afternoon (between 2-5 pm). The order of testing was counter-balanced. Within each assessment, participants inhaled successively higher citric acid concentrations via a facemask, with saline solution randomly interspersed to control for a placebo response. The lowest concentration that elicited a reflexive cough response was recorded. Morning cough thresholds (mean=0.6mol/L) were not different from afternoon cough thresholds (mean=0.6mol/L), p=0.16, T=101, r=-0.14. We found no evidence of diurnal variability in cough reflex testing. There was, however, an order effect irrespective of time of day, confirming that healthy participants are able to volitionally modulate their cough response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Healthy Lifestyle through Young Adulthood and Presence of Low Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile in Middle Age: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults (CARDIA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kiang; Daviglus, Martha L.; Loria, Catherine M.; Colangelo, Laura A.; Spring, Bonnie; Moller, Arlen C.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background A low cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile (untreated cholesterol risk profile. We examined whether adopting a healthy lifestyle throughout young adulthood is associated with presence of the low CVD risk profile in middle age. Methods and Results The CARDIA study sample consisted of 3,154 black and white participants aged 18 to 30 years at Year 0 (Y0, 1985-86) who attended the Year 0, 7 and 20 (Y0, Y7 and Y20) examinations. Healthy lifestyle factors (HLFs) defined at Y0, Y7 and Y20 included: 1) Average BMI risk profile at Y20 were 3.0%, 14.6%, 29.5%, 39.2% and 60.7% for people with 0 or 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 HLFs, respectively (p-trend risk profile in middle age. Public health and individual efforts are needed to improve adoption and maintenance of healthy lifestyles in young adults. PMID:22291127

  5. Distribution of kappa opioid receptors in the brain of young and old male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggi, R.; Limonta, P.; Dondi, D.; Martini, L.; Piva, F.

    1989-01-01

    The experiments to be described have been designed in order to: (a) provide new information on the concentrations of opioid kappa receptors in different regions of the brain of the male rats; and (b) to analyze whether the density of brain kappa receptors might be modified by the process of aging. The concentration of kappa receptors was investigated in the hypothalamus, amygdala, mesencephalon, corpus striatum, hippocampus, thalamus, frontal poles, anterior and posterior cortex collected from male rats of 2 and 19 months of age. 3 H-bremazocine (BRZ) was used as the ligand of kappa receptors, after protection of mu and delta receptors respectively with dihydromorphine and d-ala-d-leu-enkephalin. The results obtained show that: (1) in young male rats, the number of kappa opioid receptors is different in the various brain areas examined. (2) Aging exerts little influence on the number of kappa receptors in the majority of the brain structures considered. However in the amygdala and in the thalamus the number of kappa receptors was increased in old animals

  6. A Young Male with Spontaneous Ruptured Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation (Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorino Modesto Santos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM is considered a congenital condition characterized by arterial-venous connections in the absence of intermediate capillaries with circulatory and functional changes, inclusive on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF dynamics. Case: A previously healthy young man with abrupt onset of intense headache followed by incoercible vomiting and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. On admission, he was in Glasgow scale IV with respiratory gasping, signs of decerebration and anisocoric mydriasis, and right paresis. Computed tomography showed left intraparenchymal hematoma and intraventricular blood. The abnormal vessels and blood clots were removed by neurosurgery. In early postoperative phase a large cerebrospinal fluid leak developed, and was aspirated and further controlled. The patient had respiratory complications, including pulmonary infection by Pseudomonas. Conclusions: After longstanding hospitalization, he was referred to other medical institution and home care. 

  7. Diurnal variation of vascular diameter and reactivity in healthy young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.F.D. Bau

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The higher incidence of cardiovascular events in the morning is accompanied by an increased vascular tone. However, there are few published studies designed to evaluate the diurnal variation of vascular and endothelial parameters in healthy subjects. In the present investigation, we evaluated the diurnal variation in brachial artery diameter (BAD, flow-mediated dilation (FMD and endothelium-independent dilation (NFMD in a homogeneous sample of healthy non-smoker young men. Fifty subjects aged 20.8 ± 0.3 years (range: 18 to 25 years were investigated by brachial artery ultrasound. Exclusion criteria were female gender and evidence of clinically significant health problems, including obesity. Volunteers were asked to rest and avoid fat meals as well as alcoholic beverages 48 h before and until completion of the evaluations. BAD, FMD and NFMD were measured at 7 am, 5 pm, and 10 pm and tested by repeated measures ANOVA. BAD was smaller at 7 am (mean ± SEM, 3.8 ± 0.1 mm in comparison with 5 pm (3.9 ± 0.1 and 10 pm (4.0 ± 0.1 mm; P < 0.001. FMD values did not change significantly during the day, while NFMD increased more at 7 am (18.5 ± 1.1%, when compared to 15.5 ± 0.9% at 10 pm and 15.5 ± 0.9% at 5 pm (P = 0.04. The physiological state of vasoconstriction after awakening, with preserved capability to dilate in the morning, should be considered to be part of the healthy cardiovascular adaptation before considering later life risk factors and endothelial dysfunction.

  8. POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS WITH AND WITHOUT CHRONIC MOTION SENSITIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyahya D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postural control requires complex processing of peripheral sensory inputs from the visual, somatosensory and vestibular systems. Motion sensitivity and decreased postural control are influenced by visual-vestibular conflicts.The purpose of this study was to measure the difference between the postural control of healthy adults with and without history of sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity using a computerized dynamic posturography in a virtual reality environment. Sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity was operationally defined as a history of avoiding activities causing dizziness, nausea, imbalance, and/or blurred vision without having a related medical diagnosis. Methods: Twenty healthy adults between 22 and 33 years of age participated in the study. Eleven subjects had sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity and 9 subjects did not. Postural control was measured in both groups using the Bertec Balance Advantage-Dynamic Computerized Dynamic Posturography with Immersion Virtual Reality (CDP-IVR. The CDP-IVR reports an over-all equilibrium score based on subjects’ center of gravity displacement and postural sway while immersed in a virtual reality environment. Subjects were tested on stable (condition 1 and unstable (condition2 platform conditions. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean age, height, weight, body mass index in kg/m2, postural control scores for conditions 2, and average (p>0.05. However, significant differences were observed in mean postural control for condition 1 between groups (p=0.03. Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that healthy young adults without chronic sub-clinical motion sensitivity have better postural control than those with chronic sub-clinical motion sensitivity. Further investigation is warranted to explore wider age ranges with larger samples sizes as well as intervention strategies to improve postural control.

  9. Spinal shape analysis in 1,020 healthy young adults aged from 19 to 30 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krejčí

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of studies on diseased spine have been published; however, there is a relative paucity of studies investigating spine shape characteristics in healthy populations. Such characteristics are needed for diagnostics of spine disorders and assessment of changes in the spinal shape that may have been caused by influence of the modern life style or intensive sport activity. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine characteristics of the spine shape in a large sample of healthy young adults. Methods: Population cross-sectional study. A non-radiographic surface method (system DTP-3 was used for the assessment of spine shape in the sagittal and frontal planes. A total of 1,020 participants (440 men, 580 women took part in the study, their mean (± SD age was 21.8 ± 1.9 years (range 19.1-29.7 for men and 21.9 ± 1.8 years (range 19.3-29.7 for women. All data were checked for normality and are presented as means, standard deviations, ranges, skewness, and kurtosis. Differences between the sexes were assessed with the two-sample t-test. Results: The average sagittal spinal shape was C3 - 12.9° - C7 - 43.0° - T10 - 27.1° - L5 for men and C3 - 12.1° - C6 - 44.5° - T11 - 34.1° - L5 for women. Men showed a significantly smaller thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis curvatures than women. The average curvature due to the lateral deviation in the frontal plane was 6.1° for both sexes, the curvature was larger than 10° in 9.1% of men and 8.8% of women. We found left lateral deviation in 72.5% of men and in 63.6% of women. Conclusions: The study provides characteristics of the spine shape in a large sample of healthy young adults. Such characteristics should be part and parcel of determining the cut-off level for physiological spinal shape. Based on the results of the study, we suggest a lateral deviation of 10° as the maximum for a curvature to be still considered non-pathological.

  10. Primary spontaneous coronary dissectİon in a young male and the role of intravascular ultrasonography for diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadık Volkan Emren

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome and is observed especially during gestation or the postpartum period of young healthy female patients. SCAD is much more rarely seen in young male patients. A 32 year-old male was admitted to our clinic with a typical anginal complaint that had begun after a verbal discussion in a family environment. The patient was hospitalized with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction without ST elevation. During coronary angiography, a lesion seen as a dissection in the proximal region of the left anterior descending artery (LAD, 30% stenosis in the circumflex artery and plaque in the right coronary artery were observed. In the LAD osteal region, a dissection flap and intimal rupture was observed at the 12:00–2:00 o'clock position using intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS. Our case was very young and had no atherosclerotic risk factors except for a history of smoking. It was suggested that intense emotional stress was the triggering factor for coronary dissection. The gold standard imaging method for spontaneous coronary dissection is coronary angiography. Recently, imaging methods like IVUS have made important contributions to the diagnosis of dissections that cannot be detected by coronary angiography. Treatment must be individual since there is no standard protocol. Medical therapy, percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass surgery are the main treatment options.

  11. Smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, smoking cessation idea and education level among young adult male smokers in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Lingli; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2015-02-16

    In 2012 in China, 52.9% of men were reported to smoke while only 2.4% of women smoked. This study explored the smoking-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) among young adult male smokers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four municipal areas of Chongqing using a questionnaire administered to 536 natives young male smokers aged 18-45 years old. The total score of smoking cognition, the total score of smoking attitude and the total score of positive behavior to quit smoking was significantly different among the three groups by education. Besides, 30.97% of male smokers never seriously thought about quitting smoking. Logistic regression analysis found smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and sociodemographic factors affect having smoking cessation idea. But no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking in a sample of higher education. No statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.03012, p = 0.6811), and also no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.08869, p = 0.2364) in the sample of higher education young adult males Young adult males with higher education have a better knowledge of smoking hazards and a more positive attitude toward smoking, however, this knowledge and attitude do not necessarily translate into health behavioral outcomes such as not smoking. Overall the present findings indicate that no statistically significant correlation between the education level and quitting smoking idea exists among young adult male smokers in China. This survey gives a snapshot of the impact of education on smoking-related KAP among young adults male smokers.

  12. Dopamine precursor depletion improves punishment prediction during reversal learning in healthy females but not males.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, O.J.; Standing, H.R.; DeVito, E.E.; Cools, R.; Sahakian, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The neurotransmitter dopamine has frequently been implicated in reward processing but is also, increasingly, implicated in punishment processing. We have previously shown that both patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy individuals with low dopamine (DA) synthesis are better at

  13. "It's not healthy and it's decidedly not masculine": a media analysis of UK newspaper representations of eating disorders in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Alice; Sweeting, Helen; Walker, Laura; Patterson, Chris; Räisänen, Ulla; Hunt, Kate

    2015-05-29

    Recent qualitative research found young men reporting that an expectation that eating disorders (EDs) mainly affect young women led them, and others, to only recognise their symptoms when their ED had become entrenched. This raises questions about how these stereotypes persist. We therefore explored how EDs in males were represented in articles published in UK newspapers over a 10-year period (7.12.2002-7.12.2012), specifically attending to whether newsprint media represent EDs in males as 'gender appropriate', 'gender anomalous' or 'gender neutral'. A qualitative thematic analysis of UK newspaper articles. We searched two databases, Newsbank and LexisNexis, for newspaper articles including ED and male terms in the lead/first paragraph. Following de-duplication, 420 articles were scrutinised; 138 met inclusion criteria for detailed textual analysis and were imported into NVivo10. The number of articles peaked in 2008 when a UK politician announced that he had experienced bulimia nervosa. Analysis of how the articles portrayed male ED-related characterisations and experiences revealed that they conveyed ambiguous messages about EDs in males. Despite apparently aiming to dispel stereotypes that only young women experience EDs and to address stigma surrounding EDs in males, many aspects of the articles, including repetition of phrases such as 'a young woman's illness', serve to reinforce messages that EDs are inherently 'female' and so 'anomalous' for men. Newspaper articles represent men with EDs as atypical of men, as a result of having an ED (and any feminising or demasculinising characteristics associated with this), and as atypical of people with EDs, who are still usually portrayed as teenage girls. Such media representations frame a cultural paradigm in which there is an expectation that men may feel shame about or strive to conceal EDs, potentially contributing to men with EDs delaying help-seeking, gaining late access to treatments and reducing chances of

  14. Evaluation of coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers: Cold pressor test using [15O]H2O PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Byeong-il; Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate coronary endothelial dysfunction in young healthy smokers by measuring myocardial blood flow (MBF) using [ 15 O]H 2 O-PET. The study population was 18 young male volunteers consisted of 9 smokers (age: 23.8±1.1 yr) and 9 non-smokers (age: 25.0±2.5 yr). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 6.6±2.5 pack years. Myocardial [ 15 O]H 2 O-PET was performed at rest, during cold (5 deg. C) pressor stimulation and during adenosine infusion. Left ventricular (LV) input function and tissue time-activity curves were obtained by drawing region of interest (ROI) on the LV blood pool and myocardium images obtained by non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) of dynamic [ 15 O]H 2 O-PET data, and MBF was calculated using these time-activity curves and single compartmental model. There were no significant difference in resting MBF between two groups (smokers: 1.43±0.41 and non-smokers: 1.37±0.41 ml/g/min; P=NS). However, during cold pressor stimulation, MBF in smokers was significantly lower than that in non-smokers (1.25±0.33 vs. 1.59±0.29 ml/g/min; P=0.019). MBF changed to 90±24% of resting MBF in smokers and 122±28% in non-smokers. The difference in the ratio of cold pressor MBF to basal MBF between two groups was also significant (P=0.024). During adenosine infusion, however, hyperemic MBF did not differ significantly between smokers and non-smokers (5.81±1.99 vs. 5.03±1.27 ml/g/min; P=NS). This study shows that [ 15 O]H 2 O PET analysis can reveal that endothelial dysfunction occurs in even young smokers of about 6 pack years.

  15. Yellow mustard bran attenuates glycaemic response of a semi-solid food in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Aron M; Thondre, Pariyarath S; Rosenthal, Andrew J

    2013-03-01

    In a randomized, repeated-measures design, the glycaemic response and satiety ratings of a potato and leek soup were compared with and without the addition of 5 g of yellow mustard bran. Ten healthy, non-smoking, moderately active male subjects (mean age of 21.1 years and mean body mass index 23.2 kg/m(2)) were recruited to the study. Capillary blood glucose and satiety were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min, postprandial of each food. The incremental area under the blood glucose curve, blood glucose at each time point and satiety rating were calculated and compared via paired t-test. Mean blood glucose values at 15, 30 and 90 min (p soup.

  16. Reproductive health in young male adults with chronic diseases in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf; Mohamed, Yassin

    2013-01-01

    The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention have defined a chronic diseases as an "illnesses that are prolonged, do not resolve spontaneously, and are rarely cured completely". Approximately 20% of all children have a chronic illness and 65% of them the illness is severe enough to interfere with daily activities. Failure of pubertal growth, delay or absence of sexual development, infertility and sexual dysfunction due to hypogonadism and defective spermatogenesis are well recognized disturbances among adolescents and young male adult patients with chronic diseases. The causes are multifactorial and can be due to disease itself, associated complications or drugs. Haemoglobinopathies, endocrine disorders, gastrointestinal and renal diseases are some examples that frequently cause some degree of disability. Infertility affects the future quality of life of these patients and is a predictor of stress in current and future relationships. Health care providers often neglect the reproductive health of chronically ill adolescents and young adults, although many studies indicate that they are sexually active and interested in knowing about their future fertility. This review article provides an overview of the literature concerning the impact of some chronic diseases in adolescents and young adults on reproductive health but will not address patients with cancer because it has been tackled adequately in the literature.MEDLINE database search of English-language medical journal articles published between 1975 and 2012 for papers related to reproductive health in adolescents and young adults with chronic diseases since childhood was done. Several Authors, recommend that all young adult patients with severe/prolonged chronic disease in childhood should be offered reproductive health care in a specialized center with appropriate expertise, involving a multidisciplinary team, including endocrinologists, andrologists, geneticists, psychologists, urologists and specialist

  17. Bone health and risk factors of cardiovascular disease--a cross-sectional study in healthy young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Pirilä

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Both osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD are diseases that comprise a growing medical and economic burden in ageing populations. They share many risk factors, including ageing, low physical activity, and possibly overweight. We aimed to study associations between individual risk factors for CVD and bone mineral density (BMD and turnover markers (BTMs in apparently healthy cohort. DESIGN: A cross-sectional assessment of 155 healthy 32-year-old adults (74 males was performed for skeletal status, CVD risk factors and lifestyle factors. METHODS: We analysed serum osteocalcin, procollagen I aminoterminal propeptide (P1NP, collagen I carboxy-terminal telopeptide (ICTP and urine collagen I aminoterminal telopeptide (U-NTX, as well as serum insulin, plasma glucose, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels. BMD, fat and lean mass were assessed using DXA scanning. Associations were tested with partial correlations in crude and adjusted models. Bone status was compared between men with or without metabolic syndrome (defined according to the NCEP-ATPIII criteria with multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Osteocalcin and P1NP correlated inversely with insulin (R = -0.243, P = 0.003 and R = -0.187, P = 0.021 and glucose (R = -0.213, P = 0.009 and R = -0.190, P = 0.019, but after controlling for fat mass and lifestyle factors, the associations attenuated with insulin (R = -0.162, P = 0.053 and R = -0.093, P = 0.266 and with glucose (R = -0.099, P = 0.240 and R = -0.133, P = 0.110, respectively. Whole body BMD associated inversely only with triglycerides in fully adjusted model. In men with metabolic syndrome, whole body BMD, osteocalcin and P1NP were lower compared to healthy men, but these findings disappeared in fully adjusted model. CONCLUSIONS: In young adults, inverse associations between BTM/BMD and risk factors of CVD appeared in crude models, but after adjusting for fat mass

  18. "Eating Beans ... that Is a "No-No" for Our Times": Young Cypriots' Consumer Meanings of "Healthy" and "Fast" Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Soula

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in-depth beliefs and experiences relating to the choice of fast and/or healthy foods from a group of young people living in Cyprus. Design: Data for the study were generated from one-to-one qualitative interviews which encouraged the participants to articulate the symbolic value of eating choices in their day-to-day…

  19. Specific Interference between a Cognitive Task and Sensory Organization for Stance Balance Control in Healthy Young Adults: Visuospatial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Raymond K. Y.; Mills, Bradley; Dailey, Leanna; Lane, Elizabeth; Smith, Sarah; Lee, Kyoung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a computational overload results when two activities, one motor and the other cognitive that draw on the same neural processing pathways, are performed concurrently. Healthy young adult subjects carried out two seemingly distinct tasks of maintaining standing balance control under conditions of low (eyes closed),…

  20. Assessment of torque-steadiness reliability at the ankle level in healthy young subjects: implications for cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Rose, Martin Høyer; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2008-01-01

    It was the primary objective of this study to investigate whether quantifying fluctuations in dorsi and plantarflexor torque during submaximal isometric contractions is a reliable measurement in young healthy subjects. A secondary objective was to investigate the reliability of the associated mus...

  1. Butterfly Girls; promoting healthy diet and physical activity to young African American girls online: Rationale and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally ...

  2. The relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D with peak bone mineral density and body composition in healthy young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    Objective: The associations between peak bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition with 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in healthy young adults were evaluated. Methods: The number of participants was 464; 347 women and 117 men. The mean age was 24.3 years (range 17-31 years). BMD of the

  3. Daily stress, presleep arousal, and sleep in healthy young women: a daily life computerized sleep diary and actigraphy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzeler, Katja; Voellmin, Annette; Schäfer, Valérie; Meyer, Andrea H; Cajochen, Christian; Wilhelm, Frank H; Bader, Klaus

    2014-03-01

    Our study aimed to further elucidate the mediating role of presleep arousal in the relationship between daily stress and sleep by investigating subjective sleep quality and actigraphy-assessed sleep efficiency (SE) on both within- and between-participant levels in a sample of healthy young women. Multilevel modeling was applied on electronically assessed data comprising 14 consecutive nights in 145 healthy young women to assess the relationship between daily stress, presleep (somatic and cognitive) arousal, and sleep on both levels between participants and within participants across days. Higher levels of daily stress were consistently and significantly associated with higher levels of somatic and cognitive arousal. Somatic arousal mediated the relationship between daily stress and worsened subjective sleep quality on the between-participant level, while cognitive arousal mediated the relationship between daily stress and worsened subjective sleep quality on the within-participants level. Unexpectedly, healthy young women showed higher SE following days with above-average stress with somatic arousal mediating this relationship. Our data corroborate the role of presleep arousal mediating the relationship between daily stress and subjective sleep quality. Interestingly this effect was restricted to somatic arousal being relevant on interindividual levels and cognitive arousal on intraindividual levels. For young and healthy individuals who experience high stress and arousal, well-established cognitive-behavioral techniques could be useful to regulate arousal and prevent worse subjective sleep quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Alcohol and Exercise Affect Declining Kidney Function in Healthy Males Regardless of Obesity: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Eiichiro; Muneyuki, Toshitaka; Suwa, Kaname; Nakajima, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Although lifestyle is associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases, there has been no sufficient evidence of lifestyles on incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this prospective cohort study is to investigate the effects of lifestyles on kidney function in healthy people. A total of 7473 healthy people were enrolled in this Saitama Cardiometabolic Disease and Organ Impairment Study, Japan. Data on alcohol consumption, exercise frequency, and sleep duration were collected. The outcome event was incident CKD or decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by >25% in 3 years. Subjects were classified into four groups according to body mass index and gender. Mean ± standard deviation of age was 38.8±10.5 years; eGFR, 78.1±15.2 ml/min/1.73 m2. In the male groups, multivariate logistic regression models showed that the outcome events were associated with a small amount of alcohol consumed (20 to 140 g of alcohol/week) (ref. more than 140 g of alcohol/week); non-obese male, adjusted odds ratio 1.366 (95% confidence interval, 1.086, 1.718); obese male (body mass index ≥25), 1.634 (1.160, 2.302); and with frequent exercise (twice a week or more) (ref. no exercise); non-obese male, 1.417 (1.144, 1.754); obese male, 1.842 (1.317, 2.577). Sleep duration was not associated with the outcome events. These findings suggest that, regardless of obesity, a small amount of alcohol consumed and high exercise frequency were associated with the increased risk of loss of kidney function in the male groups.

  5. A preliminary investigation of a new pictorial method of measuring aggression-supportive cognition among young aggressive males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Jade N; Gannon, Theresa A; Gilchrist, Elizabeth

    2010-04-01

    A new pictorial assessment was developed to measure aggression-supportive cognitions among young aggressive male students. The assessment was comprised of 17 watercolor ambiguous sketches that could be interpreted in either an aggressive or a benign manner (e.g., two young people facing each other with their arms folded). The results showed that high trait aggressive male students were more likely to make hostile attributions of the pictures, providing significantly more themes of entitlement and power in the stories they generated about the pictures. Aggressive male students also endorsed significantly more aggression-supportive cognitions on a self-report measure and provided some supporting qualitative accounts of physically aggressive encounters. The results of this study are discussed and evaluated with reference to future work with young violent adolescents.

  6. Unusual presentation of primary mandibular gingival squamous cell carcinoma in young male: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishat Sultan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is usually considered a disease of older people. Recently, there is a change in the occurrence of such lesions in young patients and lacking the established risk factors. CASE REPORT: A 21-year-old male reported with an innocuous gingival growth over lower incisors since a month. Within 15 days he noticed another gingival growth in same region lingually. The growths were mildly tender with no suppuration. The associated teeth were non-mobile and vital. The radiographic findings were insignificant. An excisional biopsy was performed under local anesthesia. The stained H and E section showed a hyper-parakeratinized stratified squamous surface epithelium with underlying connective tissue with collagen fibers, fibroblasts, blood vessels and areas of dense chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate. Epithelium exhibited features of dysplasia. There was a breach in the continuity of the basement membrane and the malignant epithelial cells were seen invading the connective tissue in form of thin cord. CONCLUSION: The histopathological study confirmed the diagnosis of well differentiated SCC. Oral SCC is not a disease of the elderly anymore. We also reviewed the literature of SCC in young patients. Thus biopsy is mandatory for any non-resolving gingival growth.

  7. When Virtual Muscularity Enhances Physical Endurance: Masculinity Threat and Compensatory Avatar Customization Among Young Male Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Won, Roselyn J; Tang, Wai Yen; Kibbe, Mackenzie R

    2017-01-01

    Masculinity-threatened men attempt to resolve the negative states caused by the threat through compensatory behavior such as public display of muscularity, which constitutes one way in which men physically establish masculinity. Avatars serve as a key means for self-presentation in technology-mediated environments, and compensatory motives can drive avatar customization. Noting this, the present research examined whether masculinity-threatened young men engage in compensatory avatar customization and whether such customization can be self-affirming. Specifically, we conducted a laboratory experiment to investigate the effects of masculinity threat on customization of avatar muscularity and physical endurance on a task that represents behavioral self-regulation. Data from 238 male college students revealed that masculinity-threatened young men customized their avatar to have greater muscle definition than did their nonthreatened counterparts, and greater muscle definition of the customized avatar predicted greater physical endurance on a handgrip task. Furthermore, muscle definition of the customized avatar significantly mediated the relationship between masculinity threat and physical endurance. None of these effects were moderated by masculine norm conformity, which suggested that the effects overrode individual differences in the extent to which participants conformed to masculine norms and expectations. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. Body image and body composition: comparisons of young male elite soccer players and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Marta; Gonzalez-de-Suso, Jose Manuel; Sanchez, Celia; Ansotegui, Laura; Rocandio, Ana M

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate body composition and body image (perception and satisfaction) in a group of young elite soccer players and to compare the data with those of a control group (age and BMI matched). Participants were 56 volunteer males whose mean age and BMI were 19.6 (SD 1.3) years and 23.3 (SD 1.1) kg/m2, respectively. Results showed that soccer players have a higher lean mass and lower fat mass than controls. Moreover, body perception (difference between current and actual image) was more accurate in controls than in soccer players, and the results suggest a tendency for soccer players to aspire to have more muscle mass and body fat. Soccer players perceived an ideal image with significantly higher body-fat percentage than their current and actual images. There were no body-dissatisfaction differences between groups, however. Although the results are necessarily limited by the small sample size, the findings should be of interest to coaches of young elite soccer teams.

  9. Effect of Body Fat Distribution on Pulmonary Functions in Young Healthy Obese Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Timmanna Koraddi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is defined as “abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health”. WHO defines obesity as Body Mass Index (BMI ≥30 2 Kg/m . Obesity is becoming more prevalent in the world and has effects on different body systems. Main is the impact on respiratory function. Aim & Objectives: We have aimed to study the gender difference in obesity induced changes on pulmonary functions and determine adiposity marker which best predicts the pulmonary function in young adult obese individuals and age-matched non-obese young adult subjects. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional 2 study was conducted on obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m male (n=32 and female (n=18 students aged 18-25 years and compared with age matched non-obese (BMI 2 18.5–24.99 Kg/m male (n=23 and female subjects (n=27 as controls. Weight(kg, Height(cm, Body -2 Mass Index(BMI, kgm , Waist Circumference(WC, cm, Waist to Hip Ratio(WHR,Waist to Height Ratio (WHtR, Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, L, Forced Expiratory Volume in first second (FEV , L/min, 1 FEV , FEF (L/sec, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate 1% 25-75% (PEFR, L/min and Maximum Expiratory Pressure (MEP, mm Hg were recorded. Results: Systolic Blood Pressure, Diastolic Blood Pressure, Pulse Rate and Respiratory Rate were significantly higher in obese students when compared to their respective controls. We observed highly significant reduction in PEFR (p<0.001 and MEP (p<0.001 in both obese male and female groups compared to controls. FEV was 1% significantly lower in obese female students. Linear regression analysis revealed that BMI, WHR and WC were significant predictors of PEFR. BMI was only the significant predictor of MEP. WHtR and WHR were best predictors of FVC, FEF and FEV . 25-75% 1 Conclusion: Obesity and pattern of fat distribution have independent effect on pulmonary function.

  10. Sex effects on spatial learning but not on spatial memory retrieval in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piber, Dominique; Nowacki, Jan; Mueller, Sven C; Wingenfeld, Katja; Otte, Christian

    2018-01-15

    Sex differences have been found in spatial learning and spatial memory, with several studies indicating that males outperform females. We tested in the virtual Morris Water Maze (vMWM) task, whether sex differences in spatial cognitive processes are attributable to differences in spatial learning or spatial memory retrieval in a large student sample. We tested 90 healthy students (45 women and 45 men) with a mean age of 23.5 years (SD=3.5). Spatial learning and spatial memory retrieval were measured by using the vMWM task, during which participants had to search a virtual pool for a hidden platform, facilitated by visual cues surrounding the pool. Several learning trials assessed spatial learning, while a separate probe trial assessed spatial memory retrieval. We found a significant sex effect during spatial learning, with males showing shorter latency and shorter path length, as compared to females (all pretrieval (p=0.615). Furthermore, post-hoc analyses revealed significant sex differences in spatial search strategies (pretrieval. Our study raises the question, whether men and women use different learning strategies, which nevertheless result in equal performances of spatial memory retrieval. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Growth Hormone Receptor Antagonist Treatment Reduces Exercise Performance in Young Males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goto, K.; Doessing, S.; Nielsen, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    between the groups in terms of changes in serum free fatty acids, glycerol, (V) over dotO(2), or relative fat oxidation. Conclusion: GH might be an important determinant of exercise capacity during prolonged exercise, but GHR antagonist did not alter fat metabolism during exercise. (J Clin Endocrinol......Context: The effects of GH on exercise performance remain unclear. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the effects of GH receptor (GHR) antagonist treatment on exercise performance. Design: Subjects were treated with the GHR antagonist pegvisomant or placebo for 16 d. After the treatment...... period, they exercised to determine exercise performance and hormonal and metabolic responses. Participants: Twenty healthy males participated in the study. Intervention: Subjects were treated with the GHR antagonist (n = 10; 10 mg/d) or placebo (n = 10). After the treatment period, they performed...

  12. Antihyperlipidemic effect of crude extract of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus) in healthy male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Iliass Lahmass; Sabir Ouahhoud; Assia Sabouni; Mohammed Elyoubi; Redouane Benabbas; Rachid Elmoussaoui; Mohammed Choukri; Ennouamane Saalaoui

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated for the first time the antihyperlipidemic ef-fects of crude extract of stigmas from Crocus sativus (saffron) against hyperlipidemia induced by tartrazine (synthetic dye) in normal male rats. Thirty adult male albino rats weighing about 150 - 200 g, were divided into 5 groups (n = 6) and daily treatment was given orally. Clinical biochemis-try and metabolic parameters were evaluated at the end of the experiment and after 105 days. (n=6, for all groups). Our data ...

  13. Yoga's potential for promoting healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among young adults: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Allison W; Rydell, Sarah A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Laska, Melissa N; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2018-05-02

    A regular yoga practice may have benefits for young adult health, however, there is limited evidence available to guide yoga interventions targeting weight-related health. The present study explored the relationship between participation in yoga, healthy eating behaviors and physical activity among young adults. The present mixed-methods study used data collected as part of wave 4 of Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults), a population-based cohort study in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota. Young adults (n = 1820) completed the Project EAT survey and a food frequency questionnaire, and a subset who reported practicing yoga additionally participated in semi-structured interviews (n = 46). Analyses of survey data were used to examine cross-sectional associations between the frequency of yoga practice, dietary behaviors (servings of fruits and vegetables (FV), sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and snack foods and frequency of fast food consumption), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Thematic analysis of interview discussions further explored yoga's perceived influence on eating and activity behaviors among interview participants. Regular yoga practice was associated with more servings of FV, fewer servings of SSBs and snack foods, less frequent fast food consumption, and more hours of MVPA. Interviews revealed that yoga supported healthy eating through motivation to eat healthfully, greater mindfulness, management of emotional eating, more healthy food cravings, and the influence of the yoga community. Yoga supported physical activity through activity as part of yoga practice, motivation to do other forms of activity, increased capacity to be active, and by complementing an active lifestyle. Young adult yoga practitioners reported healthier eating behaviors and higher levels of physical activity than non-practitioners. Yoga should be investigated as an intervention for young adult health promotion and healthy weight management.

  14. Intestinal microbiota in healthy U.S. young children and adults--a high throughput microarray analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Ringel-Kulka

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that the infant's microbiota is established during the first 1-2 years of life. However, there is scarce data on its characterization and its comparison to the adult-like microbiota in consecutive years.To characterize and compare the intestinal microbiota in healthy young children (1-4 years and healthy adults from the North Carolina region in the U.S. using high-throughput bacterial phylogenetic microarray analysis.Detailed characterization and comparison of the intestinal microbiota of healthy children aged 1-4 years old (n = 28 and healthy adults of 21-60 years (n = 23 was carried out using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip (HITChip phylogenetic microarray targeting the V1 and V6 regions of 16S rRNA and quantitative PCR.The HITChip microarray data indicate that Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Clostridium cluster IV and Bacteroidetes are the predominant phylum-like groups that exhibit differences between young children and adults. The phylum-like group Clostridium cluster XIVa was equally predominant in young children and adults and is thus considered to be established at an early age. The genus-like level show significant 3.6 fold (higher or lower differences in the abundance of 26 genera between young children and adults. Young U.S. children have a significantly 3.5-fold higher abundance of Bifidobacterium species than the adults from the same location. However, the microbiota of young children is less diverse than that of adults.We show that the establishment of an adult-like intestinal microbiota occurs at a later age than previously reported. Characterizing the microbiota and its development in the early years of life may help identify 'windows of opportunity' for interventional strategies that may promote health and prevent or mitigate disease processes.

  15. Diurnal variation of hematology parameters in healthy young males: the Bispebjerg study of diurnal variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette P; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Hansen, Anne-Louise S

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of time of day on the circulating concentrations of 21 hematology parameters.......To evaluate the influence of time of day on the circulating concentrations of 21 hematology parameters....

  16. Creatine Loading Does Not Preserve Muscle Mass or Strength During Leg Immobilization in Healthy, Young Males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backx, Evelien M.P.; Hangelbroek, Roland; Snijders, Tim; Verscheijden, Marie Louise; Verdijk, Lex B.; Groot, de Lisette C.P.G.M.; Loon, van Luc J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: A short period of leg immobilization leads to rapid loss of muscle mass and strength. Creatine supplementation has been shown to increase lean body mass in active individuals and can be used to augment gains in muscle mass and strength during prolonged resistance-type exercise

  17. Spontaneous external auditory canal cholesteatoma in a young male: Imaging findings and differential diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashant Aswani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A cholesteatoma is a non-neoplastic lesion of the petrous temporal bone commonly described as “skin in the wrong place.” It typically arises within the middle ear cavity, may drain externally via tympanic membrane (mural type, or may originate in the external auditory canal (EAC. The latter type is rarely encountered and typically affects the elderly. EAC cholesteatoma poses diagnostic challenges because it has numerous differential diagnoses. The present case describes a 19-year-old male who presented with gradually progressive diminution of hearing in a previously naïve right ear since 8 months. A soft tissue attenuation lesion confined to the right EAC with erosion of the canal on computed tomography prompted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The lesion showed restricted diffusion on MRI. Thus, a diagnosis of spontaneous EAC cholesteatoma was established. The case elucidates the rarity of spontaneous EAC cholesteatoma in a young male. In addition, it describes the role of imaging to detect, delineate the extent, and characterize lesions of petrous temporal bone. The case also discusses common differential diagnoses of EAC cholesteatoma, as well as the importance of diffusion weighted imaging in EAC cholesteatoma similar to its middle ear counterpart.

  18. The release of immunosuppressive factor(s) in young males following exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Nie, Jinlei; Tong, Tom K; Baker, Julien S

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that a suppressive protein, acting as an immune suppressor, is generated in animals and humans under particular stresses. However, studies related to immunosuppressive factors in response to the stress resulting from acute exercise are limited. This study compares the effects of pre- and post-exercise human serum on concanavalin A stimulated lymphocyte proliferation of mice. In the present study, blood samples in eight male undergraduates (age 21 ± 0.7 years) were taken before and immediately after ten sets of exercise consisting of 15 free and 30 10-kg loaded squat jumps in each set. The suppression of lymphocyte proliferation was analysed with high pressure liquid chromatography. It was noted from the result of gel chromatography columns that the post-exercise values of the suppression of lymphocyte proliferation, in comparison to corresponding pre-exercise values, were generally greater with significant differences observed in 7.5th-9th min post-exercise eluates (P exercise may lead to generation of immunosuppressive factor(s) in young males.

  19. The Release of Immunosuppressive Factor(s in Young Males Following Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien S. Baker

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that a suppressive protein, acting as an immune suppressor, is generated in animals and humans under particular stresses. However, studies related to immunosuppressive factors in response to the stress resulting from acute exercise are limited. This study compares the effects of pre- and post-exercise human serum on concanavalin A stimulated lymphocyte proliferation of mice. In the present study, blood samples in eight male undergraduates (age 21 ± 0.7 years were taken before and immediately after ten sets of exercise consisting of 15 free and 30 10-kg loaded squat jumps in each set. The suppression of lymphocyte proliferation was analysed with high pressure liquid chromatography. It was noted from the result of gel chromatography columns that the post-exercise values of the suppression of lymphocyte proliferation, in comparison to corresponding pre-exercise values, were generally greater with significant differences observed in 7.5th–9th min post-exercise eluates (P < 0.05. Such findings suggest that intense eccentric type exercise may lead to generation of immunosuppressive factor(s in young males.

  20. Evaluation of salivary surface tension in a cohort of young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglio-Bonda, P L; Laguini, E; Davoli, C; Pattarino, F; Foglio-Bonda, A

    2018-03-01

    To determine salivary pH, flow rate (FR) and surface tension (γs) in a cohort of 30 healthy young adults. To acquire cohort biological independent variables (age, gender, weight, height, medications, smoking, pathologies, and allergies) and to correlate them with pH, FR and γs obtained values. Evaluate the possible variation of the γs values during the time after the withdrawal and the influence of the operational abilities of the experimenting operators. Evaluate the relationship between γs, pH and FR  and the dependence between pH and FR. Non-stimulated saliva samples were taken in four different time span, for three days, with a drooling method for 15 minutes. The saliva sample was analyzed, in terms of γs, by two different operators (OP1 and OP2), twice consecutive (γs-1 and γs-2) for a total of 360 measurements. The γs was calculated using the du Noüy method. The FR was evaluated by weighing technique and pH by pH indicator papers. The measurements of γs performed by two different operators (OP1, OP2) showed respectively average values of 46.46 mN/m and 43.45 mN/m, while the mean FR was 0.29 ± 0.13 mL/min and the average pH was 7.1 ± 0.43. There were no significant correlations between γs and the biological variables analyzed. We can consider as reference values, in a sample of young adults, γs 45.56 ± 6.51 mN/m.

  1. Visual and psychological stress during computer work in healthy, young females-physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Randi; Falkenberg, Helle K; Fostervold, Knut Inge; Thorud, Hanne Mari S

    2018-05-30

    Among computer workers, visual complaints, and neck pain are highly prevalent. This study explores how occupational simulated stressors during computer work, like glare and psychosocial stress, affect physiological responses in young females with normal vision. The study was a within-subject laboratory experiment with a counterbalanced, repeated design. Forty-three females performed four 10-min computer-work sessions with different stress exposures: (1) minimal stress; (2) visual stress (direct glare); (3) psychological stress; and (4) combined visual and psychological stress. Muscle activity and muscle blood flow in trapezius, muscle blood flow in orbicularis oculi, heart rate, blood pressure, blink rate and postural angles were continuously recorded. Immediately after each computer-work session, fixation disparity was measured and a questionnaire regarding perceived workstation lighting and stress was completed. Exposure to direct glare resulted in increased trapezius muscle blood flow, increased blink rate, and forward bending of the head. Psychological stress induced a transient increase in trapezius muscle activity and a more forward-bent posture. Bending forward towards the computer screen was correlated with higher productivity (reading speed), indicating a concentration or stress response. Forward bent posture was also associated with changes in fixation disparity. Furthermore, during computer work per se, trapezius muscle activity and blood flow, orbicularis oculi muscle blood flow, and heart rate were increased compared to rest. Exposure to glare and psychological stress during computer work were shown to influence the trapezius muscle, posture, and blink rate in young, healthy females with normal binocular vision, but in different ways. Accordingly, both visual and psychological factors must be taken into account when optimizing computer workstations to reduce physiological responses that may cause excessive eyestrain and musculoskeletal load.

  2. Comparison of bone mineral density in young patients with breast cancer and healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Kolahi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Almost 1 in 8 women will have breast cancer during their lifetime. Several risk factors were identified; however, 70% of females with breast cancer have no risk factors. Many risk factors are associated with sex steroid hormones. Some studies have been focused on identification of the indices of cumulative exposures to estrogen during the patients’ life. One of these indicators is bone mineral density (BMD. Our aim was the comparison of BMD in young patients with and without breast cancer, and finding a relationship between breast cancer and bone density. METHODS: In this case-control study, 120 people were enrolled; 40 patients with breast cancer and 80 normal healthy persons as control group. Measurement of BMD was performed in both groups and compared. RESULTS: Both groups were matched in age, weight, age at menarche, age at first marriage and first pregnancy, number of pregnancies over 32 weeks and lactation period, and taking supplemental calcium and vitamin D. However, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of estrogen intake, family history of breast cancer, and history of breast masses (P = 0.03, P = 0.03, P ≤ 0.01, respectively. A significant difference was found between BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and t-scores of lumbar spine of the two groups; they were higher in the control group (P = 0.08, P ≤ 0.01, P = 0.06, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that bone mineral density of young patients with breast cancer is not higher than normal similar age females; thus, BMD is not directly a risk factor for breast cancer.

  3. Complexity of heartbeat interval series in young healthy trained and untrained men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platisa, Mirjana M; Nestorovic, Zorica; Gal, Vera; Mazic, Sanja

    2008-01-01

    The origin of heart rate variability (HRV) is largely in parasympathetic activity. The direct influence of sympathetic activity and other control mechanisms, especially at an increased HR, is not well understood. The objectives of the study were to investigate the influence of increasing HR on the properties of heartbeat interval (RR) series in young healthy subjects. ECG was recorded in 9 trained and 11 untrained young men during supine rest, standing, incremental running exercise and relaxation. During exercise, a breath-to-breath gas exchange was monitored. The RR time series analysis included the spectral analysis, detrended fluctuations analysis method and sample entropy (SampEn) calculation. During exercise, spectral powers were reduced dramatically in both groups. The dependence of short-term scaling exponent (α 1 ) on the RR included a characteristic maximum, while SampEn for the same value of the RR had a minimum. The value of HR corresponding to the maximum of α 1 and minimum of SampEn (IHR) corresponded to the intrinsic HR obtained by an autonomic blockade. In trained subjects, the curves α 1 versus RR and SampEn versus RR were moved toward larger RR, compared with control. For HR values higher than IHR, α 1 decreased and SampEn increased. These results reveal that the complexity of the heart rhythm above intrinsic HR decreases with an increase in HR. We suggest that at the highest HR intrinsic heart control is reflected in the heart rhythm. We point out the possibility of developing a new non-invasive method for the determination of intrinsic HR from the curve α 1 versus RR

  4. The effect of anaerobic and aerobic tests on autonomic nervous system activity in healthy young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Ratkowski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. In the evaluation of physical efficiency in professional athletes two tests are used: Wingate test (WT and incremental test for maximal oxygen uptake (IT. In the former anaerobic power is evaluated and in the latter aerobic power. The influence of these tests on autonomic nervous system (ANS activity is not fully examined. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of anaerobic and aerobic tests performed on the consecutive days, on the ANS activity in young healthy athletes. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Ten athletes aged 17 ± 1 were included in the study. The ANS parameters (baroreflex sensitivity – BRS_WBA, heart rate variability–HRV were analysed on the basis of 10-minute systolic arterial pressure and heart period (HP records during controlled breathing (0.23 Hz. BRS_WBA, HRV indices and mean HP were analysed before (examination 1 and 1 hour after WT (examination 2, 1 hour after IT (examination 3, and on the day after the tests (examination 4. RESULTS. The borderline statistically significant decrease in BRS_WBA in examination 2 in comparison to 1 was found (16.4 ± 10.5 vs 9.4 ± 3.9 ms/mmHg, p=0.059. In examination 3 in comparison to 1 the significant decrease in BRS_WBA was found (8.8 ± 6.2 ms/mmHg, p<0.05. SDNN, PNN50, RMSSD and HF were significantly lower in examination 2 comparing to 1 (p<0.05; the changes of HFnu were borderline statistically significant (p=0.059. These lower values were also noticed after examination 3 and returned to the initial values in examination 4. The mean HP showed similar changes. LF/HF increased significantly in examination 2 in comparison to 1 (p<0.05. The changes in LFnu were borderline statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS. Anaerobic and aerobic exercise tests lead to the decrease in ANS parasympathetic activity and to the increase in sympathetic one in young healthy athletes. These changes persist for at least one hour after exertion. The return to the initial values is observed the

  5. Exercise-induced prostacyclin release positively correlates with VO(2max) in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, J A; Majerczak, J; Duda, K; Chłopicki, S

    2009-01-01

    In this study we have evaluated the effect of maximal incremental cycling exercise (IE) on the systemic release of prostacyclin (PGI(2)), assessed as plasma 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) concentration in young healthy men. Eleven physically active - untrained men (mean +/- S.D.) aged 22.7 +/- 2.1 years; body mass 76.3 +/- 9.1 kg; BMI 23.30 +/- 2.18 kg . m(-2); maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) 46.5 +/- 3.9 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1), performed an IE test until exhaustion. Plasma concentrations of 6-keto-PGF(1alpha), lactate, and cytokines were measured in venous blood samples taken prior to the exercise and at the exhaustion. The net exercise-induced increase in 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) concentration, expressed as the difference between the end-exercise minus pre-exercise concentration positively correlated with VO(2max) (r=0.78, p=0.004) as well as with the net VO(2) increase at exhaustion (r=0.81, p=0.003), but not with other respiratory, cardiac, metabolic or inflammatory parameters of the exercise (minute ventilation, heart rate, plasma lactate, IL-6 or TNF-alpha concentrations). The exercise-induced increase in 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) concentration?? was significantly higher (p=0.008) in a group of subjects (n=5) with the highest VO(2max) when compared to the group of subjects with the lowest VO(2max), in which no increase in 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) concentration was found. In conclusion, we demonstrated, to our knowledge for the first time, that exercise-induced release of PGI(2) in young healthy men correlates with VO(2max), suggesting that vascular capacity to release PGI(2) in response to physical exercise represents an important factor characterizing exercise tolerance. Moreover, we postulate that the impairment of exercise-induced release of PGI(2) leads to the increased cardiovascular hazard of vigorous exercise.

  6. Brain structures and functional connectivity associated with individual differences in Internet tendency in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Li, Yadan; Yang, Wenjing; Zhang, Qinglin; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Wenfu; Hitchman, Glenn; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Internet addiction (IA) incurs significant social and financial costs in the form of physical side-effects, academic and occupational impairment, and serious relationship problems. The majority of previous studies on Internet addiction disorders (IAD) have focused on structural and functional abnormalities, while few studies have simultaneously investigated the structural and functional brain alterations underlying individual differences in IA tendencies measured by questionnaires in a healthy sample. Here we combined structural (regional gray matter volume, rGMV) and functional (resting-state functional connectivity, rsFC) information to explore the neural mechanisms underlying IAT in a large sample of 260 healthy young adults. The results showed that IAT scores were significantly and positively correlated with rGMV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, one key node of the cognitive control network, CCN), which might reflect reduced functioning of inhibitory control. More interestingly, decreased anticorrelations between the right DLPFC and the medial prefrontal cortex/rostral anterior cingulate cortex (mPFC/rACC, one key node of the default mode network, DMN) were associated with higher IAT scores, which might be associated with reduced efficiency of the CCN and DMN (e.g., diminished cognitive control and self-monitoring). Furthermore, the Stroop interference effect was positively associated with the volume of the DLPFC and with the IA scores, as well as with the connectivity between DLPFC and mPFC, which further indicated that rGMV variations in the DLPFC and decreased anticonnections between the DLPFC and mPFC may reflect addiction-related reduced inhibitory control and cognitive efficiency. These findings suggest the combination of structural and functional information can provide a valuable basis for further understanding of the mechanisms and pathogenesis of IA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neural correlates of childhood trauma with executive function in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaojia; Pan, Fen; Gao, Weijia; Wei, Zhaoguo; Wang, Dandan; Hu, Shaohua; Huang, Manli; Xu, Yi; Li, Lingjiang

    2017-10-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among childhood trauma, executive impairments, and altered resting-state brain function in young healthy adults. Twenty four subjects with childhood trauma and 24 age- and gender-matched subjects without childhood trauma were recruited. Executive function was assessed by a series of validated test procedures. Localized brain activity was evaluated by fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) method and compared between two groups. Areas with altered fALFF were further selected as seeds in subsequent functional connectivity analysis. Correlations of fALFF and connectivity values with severity of childhood trauma and executive dysfunction were analyzed as well. Subjects with childhood trauma exhibited impaired executive function as assessed by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Stroop Color Word Test. Traumatic individuals also showed increased fALFF in the right precuneus and decreased fALFF in the right superior temporal gyrus. Significant correlations of specific childhood trauma severity with executive dysfunction and fALFF value in the right precuneus were found in the whole sample. In addition, individuals with childhood trauma also exhibited diminished precuneus-based connectivity in default mode network with left ventromedial prefrontal cortex, left orbitofrontal cortex, and right cerebellum. Decreased default mode network connectivity was also associated with childhood trauma severity and executive dysfunction. The present findings suggest that childhood trauma is associated with executive deficits and aberrant default mode network functions even in healthy adults. Moreover, this study demonstrates that executive dysfunction is related to disrupted default mode network connectivity.

  8. Differences in dynamic and static functional connectivity between young and elderly healthy adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Eun; Jung, Seung Chai; Ryu, Kyeoung Hwa; Oh, Joo Young; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong-Gon; Kim, Sang Joon; Shim, Woo Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Songpa-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Brain connectivity is highly dynamic, but functional connectivity (FC) studies using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) assume it to be static. This study assessed differences in dynamic FC between young healthy adults (YH) and elderly healthy adults (EH) compared to static FC. Using rs-fMRI data from 12 YH and 31 EH, FC was assessed in six functional regions (subcortical, auditory [AUD], sensorimotor [SM], visuospatial [VS], cognitive control [CC], and default mode network [DMN]). Static FC was calculated as Fisher's z-transformed correlation coefficient. The sliding time window correlation (window size 30 s, step size 3 s) was applied for dynamic FC, and the standard deviation across sliding windows was calculated. Differences in static and dynamic FC between EH and YH were calculated and compared by region. EH showed decreased static FC in the subcortical, CC, and DMN regions (FDR corrected p = 0.0013; 74 regions), with no regions showing static FC higher than that in YH. EH showed increased dynamic FC in the subcortical, CC, and DMN regions, whereas decreased dynamic FC in CC and DMN regions (p < 0.01). However, the regions showing differences between EH and YH did not overlap between static and dynamic FC. Dynamic FC exhibited differences from static FC in EH and YH, mainly in regions involved in cognitive control and the DMN. Altered dynamic FC demonstrated both qualitatively and quantitatively distinct patterns of transient brain activity and needs to be studied as an imaging biomarker in the aging process. (orig.)

  9. Red wine consumption improves in vitro migration of endothelial progenitor cells in young, healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Saher; Alshiek, Jonia; Aharon, Anat; Brenner, Benjamin; Roguin, Ariel

    2010-07-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to the maintenance of vascular endothelial function. The moderate consumption of red wine provides cardiovascular protection. We investigated the underlying molecular mechanism of EPC migration in young, healthy individuals who drank red wine. Fourteen healthy volunteers consumed 250 mL red wine daily for 21 consecutive days. Vascular endothelial function, plasma stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF1alpha) concentrations, and the number, migration, and nitric oxide production of EPCs were determined before and after the daily consumption of red wine. EPCs were glucose stressed to study the effect of red wine on EPC migration, proliferation, and senescence and to study the expressions of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and members of the Pi3K/Akt/eNOS (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/endothelial nitric oxide synthase) signaling pathway by Western blotting. Daily red wine consumption for 21 consecutive days significantly enhanced vascular endothelial function. Although plasma SDF1alpha concentrations were unchanged, EPC count and migration were significantly increased after this 21-d consumption period. Red wine increased the migration, proliferation, CXCR4 expression, and activity of the Pi3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway and decreased the extent of apoptosis in glucose-stressed EPCs. The results of the present study indicate that red wine exerts its effect through the up-regulation of CXCR4 expression and activation of the SDF1alpha/CXCR4/Pi3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway, which results in increased EPC migration and proliferation and decreased extent of apoptosis. Our findings suggest that these effects could be linked to the mechanism of cardiovascular protection that is associated with the regular consumption of red wine.

  10. Effects of sports training & nutrition on bone mineral density in young Indian healthy females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Raman K; Puri, Seema; Tandon, Nikhil; Dhir, Sakshi; Agarwal, Neha; Bhadra, Kuntal; Saini, Namita

    2011-09-01

    Peak bone mass, a major determinant of osteoporosis is influenced by genetic, nutritional, lifestyle and hormonal factors. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of sports training on dietary intake and bone mineral and metabolic parameters in young healthy Indian females. Healthy female college going students (N=186, sportswomen, 90; controls 96) in the age group of 18-21 yr, residing in New Delhi (India) were evaluated for anthropometry, biochemistry (serum total and ionic calcium, phosphorus, total alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D & parathyroid hormone), diet, physical activity and lifestyle. Bone mineral density (BMD) at hip, forearm and lumbar spine were studied using central DXA. Sports related physical activity (3 vs. 0 h/day, P direct sunlight exposure (120 vs. 30 min/day, P < 0.001) were significantly higher in sportswomen than in controls with sedentary lifestyle. Significantly higher intake of all macronutrients (energy, protein, carbohydrates and fat) and dietary calcium was noted in the diets of sportswomen. Mean serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly higher (53.0 ± 18.9 vs. 12.9 ± 7.7 nmol/l; P < 0.001) while PTH (35.3 ± 17.6 vs. 51.7 ± 44.9 pg/ml; P < 0.001) and ALP levels (194.0 ± 51.0 vs. 222.1 ± 51.4 IU/l; P<0.001) were significantly lower in sportswomen when compared to controls. No significant difference was found in ionized calcium and inorganic phosphorus in the two groups. Significantly higher (P < 0.001) total BMD and BMD at all sites except femur neck were found in sportswomen than controls (P < 0.001). Physical activity, optimal nutrition and adequate sun exposure are vital for attaining peak bone mass.

  11. Testosterone may increase selective attention to threat in young male macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacreuse, Agnès; King, Hanna M; Kurdziel, Laura B; Partan, Sarah R; Caldwell, Kaelyn M; Chiavetta, Margaret R; Millette, Matthew M; Meyer, Jerrold S; Grow, Daniel R

    2010-11-01

    Animal studies indicate that sex hormones have widespread effects on the brain, cognition and emotion, but findings in humans are inconsistent. Well-controlled studies in nonhuman primates are crucial to resolve these discrepancies. In this study, we examined the effects of testosterone (T) on emotion in male rhesus monkeys. Six young adult males were tested on two emotional tasks during three hormonal conditions in a crossover design: when intact at baseline and when pharmacologically hypogonadal with add-back of T or placebo. The emotional tasks were the Approach-Avoidance task, which tested behavioral responses to three categories of objects (familiar, novel, and negative) and a Social Playback task which tested behavioral responses to scenes of unfamiliar conspecifics engaged in three types of social activities (neutral, positive, or negative). Following a 4-week baseline period, monkeys were treated with Depot Lupron, 200μg/kg before being randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: Depot Lupron+Testosterone Enanthate (TE, 20mg/kg) or Depot Lupron+oil vehicle. In each treatment group, monkeys received one injection of Lupron and one injection of TE or one injection of Lupron and one injection of oil at the onset of a 4-week testing period, before crossing over to the alternate treatment for an additional 4weeks of testing. TE treatment had no effect on behavioral measures in the Approach-Avoidance task. For the Social Playback task, however, TE significantly increased watching time of video clips which depicted fights between unfamiliar conspecifics. The enhancing effect of T on watching time for negative social scenes is consistent with human data suggesting that T decreases aversion or facilitates approach to threatening social stimuli. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which T may mediate responsiveness to social threat in male primates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A randomised trial of the effect of the glycine reuptake inhibitor Org 25935 on cognitive performance in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, David; Diaper, Alison; Wilson, Sue; Rich, Ann; Phillips, Suzanne; Udo de Haes, Joanna; Sjogren, Magnus; Nutt, David

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive impairment is integral to many neurological illnesses. Specific enhancement of glutamatergic transmission may improve memory and learning. Org 25935 increases the synaptic availability of glycine, an obligate co-agonist with glutamate at N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. We hypothesised that Org 25935 would acutely improve the learning and memory of healthy volunteers. A randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, single-dose study of Org 25935 and placebo was carried out. Thirty-two healthy male volunteers took either 12-mg Org 25935 or matching placebo and were later assessed with the manikin task, digit span and verbal memory tests. Systematic assessments of cardiovascular and adverse events were also taken. There was no effect of Org 25935 on reaction time, number of correct responses or learning (greater or slower improvement over successive tasks) compared with placebo. Org 25935 caused significantly more dizziness and drowsiness compared with placebo; these side effects were mainly mild. A single dose of Org 25935 does not improve learning or memory in healthy male individuals. However, the drug was well tolerated, and it remains to be seen whether it would have a positive effect on cognition in patient groups with pre-existing cognitive deficits.

  13. Parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. Findings from the Healthy Beginnings Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris; Flood, Victoria M; Baur, Louise A

    2013-12-01

    Parenting style may have a role in the development of young children's dietary behaviour, and a better understanding of parenting style may lead to better-targeted childhood obesity prevention interventions. This study aimed to investigate the association of parental self-efficacy, parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. A cross-sectional study with 242 first-time mothers and their children was conducted using the data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in one of the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of south-western Sydney, in 2007-2010. Parental self-efficacy, parenting style (warmth and hostility) and children's dietary behaviours (consumption of vegetables, fruit, soft-drink and snacks) were assessed by face-to-face interviews with participating mothers in the control group when their children were 2 years old. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between parenting style and the child's dietary behaviour. Mothers with higher levels of global parental self-efficacy and self-efficacy for an infant were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetables per day, with odds ratio (OR) 2.40 (95%CI 1.35-4.27, P=0.003) and OR 1.88 (95%CI 1.06-3.36, P=0.03), respectively. A higher level of global parental self-efficacy or self-efficacy for an infant was significantly associated with having 2 serves of fruit per day with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.46 (95%CI 1.35-4.48, P=0.003) and AOR 1.85 (95%CI 1.00-3.41, P=0.048), respectively, after adjusting for annual household income. Mothers with a higher level of parental warmth were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetable per day with OR 1.85 (95%CI 1.06-3.25, P=0.03). Parental self-efficacy and parenting style were associated, cross-sectionally, with important children's dietary behaviours. Interventions which target parental self-efficacy and parenting style may improve eating habits of young children, and

  14. Male breast cancer in a young patient treated with nipple-sparing mastectomy: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luini, Alberto; Gatti, Giovanna; Brenelli, Fabricio; Silva, Luzemira Santos; Ivaldi, Giovanni; Vento, Anna Rita; Gentilini, Oreste

    2007-01-01

    Male breast carcinoma is an uncommon phenomenon, accounting for less than 1% of all malignancies of the breast. The approximate annual incidence in Europe is 1 in 100,000 cases. The highest incidence occurs 5-10 years later in men than in women, with a peak at 60 to 67 years of age. We here describe a case of male breast carcinoma in a young patient (44 years of age), which is quite unusual in the pattern of breast carcinoma presentation.

  15. Effects of aquatic balance training and detraining on neuromuscular performance and balance in healthy middle aged male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abbasi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since disorders in neuromuscular performance and imbalance are the main cause of fallingamong the middle aged, their aspects including rehabilitation of balance are the main concern theresearchers attend to them. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of eight weeks aquaticbalance training (ABT and detraining on neuromuscular performance and balance in healthy middle agedmale.Materials and Methods: Thirty adult male subjects were randomized into two groups of ABT and control(n=15 per group. Berg balance scale, Timed Up and Go and 5-Chair stand tests, as they are indicators ofbalance and neuromuscular performance in older subjects, were taken as pretest and post-test and after four,six, and eight weeks of detraining as well. The ABT consisted of the sessions that lasted one hour, threetimes a week, for eight weeks.Results: Results showed that neuromuscular performance and balance improved significantly in ABTgroup (P 0.05.Conclusion: ABT can affect neuromuscular performance and balance in healthy middle aged male, andreduce the probability of falling among them. Moreover, the effects of these training are persistent afterdetraining periods. Hence, ABT can be recommended as an effective neuromuscular and balance training inhealthy middle aged male

  16. Acute myocardial infarction in a young male wrestler: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoorak Poorzand

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anabolic steroids have been widely used in recent years. It could adversely affect the cardiovascular system. Non-traditional risk factors for coronary heart diseases (CHDs have raised great concern. CASE REPORT: A young bodybuilder was presented with crushing retrosternal chest pain, excessive diaphoresis, and vomiting. The symptoms began during wrestling. The patient did not have a history of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. He was using large quantities of nutritional and bodybuilding supplements with multiple intramuscular injections of dexamethasone during past 6 months. The electrocardiography (ECG revealed ST-segment elevation in the precordial, I and aVL leads consistent with acute extensive myocardial infarction (MI. Lipid profile, cardiac troponin, and creatine phosphokinase-MB (CPK-MB was abnormal. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE revealed mild left ventricular (LV enlargement and reduced global systolic dysfunction with regional wall akinesia. The patient received thrombolytic therapy which was resulted in symptomatic relief and resolution in ST-T changes. Significant smoke was seen in LV cavity without clot formation on the discharge day. About 1 week later, large fresh clots were seen in the apex. He was admitted again, and the burden of clots was reduced significantly after initiation of oral warfarin. Other laboratory tests were as follows: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP: 25.9 mg/dl, homocysteine: 26.2 µmol/l. The patient was discharged with specific medication. Clots were disappeared after 6 weeks of warfarin therapy. Later, the patient was evaluated again, and there was not any symptom and LV clots.. CONCLUSION: Hyperhomocysteinemia could be induced by steroid abuse and may cause atherosclerotic and thrombotic effects in healthy athletes. We suggest clinicians to take a careful history of young athletes presented with MI or thrombotic events and also pay special attention to their homocysteine

  17. Doppler-echocardiographic assessment of valvular regurgitation in healthy young subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filcheva, K.; Gochev, D.; Petrovski, P.; Kotsev, P.

    1995-01-01

    The study covers 300 clinically healthy, randomly selected young subjects, aged 17 to 21 years. The incidence and characteristic features of the valvular regurgitations are assayed by means of pulsed and continuous transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. Valvular insufficiency is registered in total of 198 cases (66%). Regurgitation of single valve is observed in 122 cases (61%), regurgitation of two valves - in 70 (36%) and three valves - in six (3%). Right-sided regurgitations (tricuspid, pulmonic and a combination of both) are detected in 156 subjects, and left-sided (mitral and/or aortic) in twenty-six of which only one regurgitation of the aortic valve. There is a definite tendency of the first two to prevail at a ratio 6:1. A constellation of various anatomical and physiological factors are considered as a likely underlying cause. Whenever atrio-ventricular valves are examined (the mitral one in particular), it is necessary that the regurgitation jet involves over 50% of systole in order to avoid hyperdiagnostics and the so-called 'Doppler's disease'. 14 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs. (author)

  18. Dose-response investigation into glucose facilitation of memory performance and mood in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Owen, Lauren; Finnegan, Yvonne; Hu, Henglong

    2011-08-01

    It has been suggested that the memory enhancing effect of glucose follows an inverted U-shaped curve, with 25 g resulting in optimal facilitation in healthy young adults. The aim of this study was to further investigate the dose dependency of the glucose facilitation effect in this population across different memory domains and to assess moderation by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight. Following a double-blind, repeated measures design, 30 participants were administered drinks containing five different doses of glucose (0 g, 15 g, 25 g, 50 g, and 60 g) and were tested across a range of memory tasks. Glycaemic response and changes in mood state were assessed following drink administration. Analysis of the data showed that glucose administration did not affect mood, but significant glucose facilitation of several memory tasks was observed. However, dose-response curves differed depending on the memory task with only performance on the long-term memory tasks adhering largely to the previously observed inverted U-shaped dose-response curve. Moderation of the response profiles by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight was observed. The current data suggest that dose-response function and optimal dose might depend on cognitive domain and are moderated by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight.

  19. Acute ingestion of different macronutrients differentially enhances aspects of memory and attention in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emma K; Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Wesnes, Keith A

    2012-02-01

    The role of carbohydrates on mood and cognition is fairly well established, however research examining the behavioural effects of the other macronutrients is limited. The current study compared the effects of a 25 g glucose drink to energetically matched protein and fat drinks and an inert placebo. Following a blind, placebo-controlled, randomised crossover design, 18 healthy young adults consumed drinks containing fat, glucose, protein and placebo. Cognitive performance was examined at baseline and again 15- and 60 min post drink. Mood was assessed at baseline and then 10-, 35- and 80 min post drink. Attention and speed were enhanced 15 min following fat or glucose ingestion and working memory was enhanced 15 min following protein ingestion. Sixty minutes post drink memory enhancements were observed after protein and memory impairment was observed following glucose. All drinks increased ratings of alertness. The findings suggest that macronutrients: (i) have different windows of opportunity for effects (ii) target different cognitive domains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A study of glycaemic effects following acute anthocyanin-rich blueberry supplementation in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L; Lamport, D J; Butler, L T; Williams, C M

    2017-09-20

    The postprandial response to ingested carbohydrate is recognised as a marker of metabolic health. Postprandial hyperglycaemia is observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus and is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cognitive deficits are also associated with type 2 diabetes. Therefore interventions which moderate postprandial glucose profiles are desirable. Here we investigated the impact of anthocyanin-rich wild blueberries on postprandial glucose response. Seventeen healthy young adults consumed a range of doses of freeze-dried wild blueberry powder, in smoothie form, in both sugar-matched and no-added-sugar conditions. Plasma glucose was determined by a capillary sampling method at baseline and at regular intervals up to 2.5 hours postprandially. Blueberries were observed to significantly extend the postprandial glucose response beyond the period observed for a sugar-matched control, characteristic of a beneficial glycaemic response. Furthermore, blueberries were observed to reduce peak postprandial glucose levels, although statistical significance was not achieved. The findings suggest a tempering of the postprandial glucose response in the presence of anthocyanin-rich blueberry, and are discussed with reference to likely glucoregulatory mechanisms of action and their implications for cognitive and type 2 diabetes research.

  1. A bilberry drink with fermented oatmeal decreases postprandial insulin demand in young healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björck Inger ME

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background in traditional medicine, blueberries have been used to facilitate blood glucose regulation in type 2 diabetes. Recent studies in diabetic mice have indicated facilitated glycaemic regulation following dietary supplementation with extracts from European blueberries, also called bilberries, (Vaccinium myrtillus. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of fermented oat meal drinks containing bilberries or rosehip (Rosa canina on glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. Methods glycaemic and insulinaemic responses in young healthy adults were measured in two series. In series 1, two drinks based on oat meal (5%, fermented using Lactobacillus plantarum 299v, and added with fruit (10%; bilberries (BFOMD or rose hip (RFOMD respectively, were studied. In series 2, BFOMD was repeated, additionally, a drink enriched with bilberries (47% was tested (BBFOMD. As control a fermented oat meal drink (FOMD was served. Results in series 1 the bilberry- and rosehip drinks, gave high glucose responses similar to that after the reference bread. However, the insulin index (II after the BFOMD was significantly lower (II = 65 (P Conclusion a fermented oat meal drink added with bilberries induced a lower insulin response than expected from the glycaemic response. The mechanism for the lowered acute insulin demand is still unclear, but may be related to some bio-active component present in the bilberries, or to the fermented oat meal base.

  2. Effects of tramadol and acepromazine on intraocular pressure and pupil diameter in young healthy cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Cristine Schroder

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the effects of the systemic administration of acepromazine, tramadol and the association of both on intraocular pressure (IOP and pupil diameter (PD in young healthy cats. Cats were randomly allocated into three groups (n=10/each and intramuscular acepromazine (AG, tramadol (TG or acepromazine combined with tramadol (ATG were injected. PD (electronic caliper and IOP (applanation tonometry were assessed before (baseline and following 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes of treatments. It was verified that in AG, PD decreased significantly from time point 30 to 120 (P=0.002, but such reduction did not differ significantly from baseline (P=0.89. In TG, PD increased significantly from the first 15 minutes, until the last time point of evaluation (P0.05. It can be concluded that tramadol alone or in association with acepromazine produced significant mydriasis for up to 120 minutes, without changing IOP values in normal cats. Results of this study suggested that tramadol alone or in association with acepromazine caused significant mydriasis and did not change IOP values in normal cats. Therefore, it may be considered a satisfactory pre-anesthetic combination for ophthalmic surgery in cats. However, further studies are warranted on the use of such protocols in cats with ophthalmic diseases undergoing ocular or intraocular surgery.

  3. Cognitive Behavior Evaluation Based on Physiological Parameters among Young Healthy Subjects with Yoga as Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nagendra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effect of yoga practice on cognitive skills, autonomic nervous system, and heart rate variability by analyzing physiological parameters. Methods. The study was conducted on 30 normal young healthy engineering students. They were randomly selected into two groups: yoga group and control group. The yoga group practiced yoga one and half hour per day for six days in a week, for a period of five months. Results. The yoga practising group showed increased α, β, and δ EEG band powers and significant reduction in θ and γ band powers. The increased α and β power can represent enhanced cognitive functions such as memory and concentration, and that of δ signifies synchronization of brain activity. The heart rate index θ/α decreased, neural activity β/θ increased, attention resource index β/(α+θ increased, executive load index (δ+θ/α decreased, and the ratio (δ+θ/(α+β decreased. The yoga practice group showed improvement in heart rate variability, increased SDNN/RMSSD, and reduction in LF/HF ratio. Conclusion. Yoga practising group showed significant improvement in various cognitive functions, such as performance enhancement, neural activity, attention, and executive function. It also resulted in increase in the heart rate variability, parasympathetic nervous system activity, and balanced autonomic nervous system reactivity.

  4. Comparison of intraocular pressure measurements with different contact tonometers in young healthy persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulius Galgauskas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the correlation of Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT, I-Care tonometer and Tono-Pen tonometer results in young healthy persons, and to investigate the influence of central corneal thickness (CCT on intraocular pressure (IOP measurements recorded with these tonometers. METHODS: We conducted a pilot clinical study in 78 eyes of 78 subjects aged 22-28 years old (44 women and 34 men; mean age 23.8±1.19y. IOP was measured using GAT, I-Care and Tono-Pen tonometers, followed by measurements of CCT. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0. RESULTS: The mean IOPs and standard deviation (±SD for GAT, I-Care and Tono-Pen were 15.62±2.281 mm Hg, 16.29±2.726 mm Hg and 16.32±2.393 mm Hg, respectively. The mean CCT was 555.15±29.648 μm. Clear positive correlations between GAT and I-Care, GAT and Tono-Pen, and I-Care and Tono-Pen tonometers were found (r=0.867, P0.05. Both non-gold standard tonometers were affected by CCT; that is, both I-Care and Tono-Pen tonometer values were significantly higher with higher CCT means (>555 μm; MD=−1.282, P555 μm were associated with overestimated IOP values.

  5. Wii Fit exer-game training improves sensory weighting and dynamic balance in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Brian L; Levy, Susan S; Goble, Daniel J

    2015-02-01

    The Nintendo Wii Fit is a balance training tool that is growing in popularity due to its ease of access and cost-effectiveness. While considerable evidence now exists demonstrating the efficacy of the Wii Fit, no study to date has determined the specific mechanism underlying Wii Fit balance improvement. This paucity of knowledge was addressed in the present study using the NeuroCom Balance Manager's Sensory Organization Test (SOT) and Limits of Stability (LOS) test. These well-recognized posturography assessments, respectively, measure sensory weighting and dynamic stability mechanisms of balance. Forty healthy, young participants were recruited into two groups: Wii Fit Balance Intervention (WFBI) (n=20) and Control (CON) (n=20). Balance training consisted of seven Wii Fit exer-games played over the course of six consecutive weeks (2-4×/week, 30-45min/day). The WFBI group performed Neurocom testing before and after the intervention, while the CON group was tested along a similar timeline with no intervention. Mixed-design ANOVAs found significant interactions for testing time point and condition 5 of the SOT (peffects were such that greater improvements were seen for the WFBI group following Wii Fit training. These findings suggest that individuals with known issues regarding the processing of multiple sources of sensory information and/or who have limited functional bases of support may benefit most from Wii Fit balance training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The influence of athletic activity on the plantar fascia in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzel, Murat; Cetinus, Ercan; Ekerbicer, H Cetin; Karaoguz, Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    Complaints deriving from the plantar fascia are relatively common in athletes. This study aimed to investigate the changes of thickness of plantar fascia via sonography in healthy young adults with different levels of activity. One hundred ten adults with normal body mass index were separated into three groups according to activity level: sedentary (group 1, n = 50), athletic activity less than 7 hours per week (group 2, n = 30), and athletic activity 7 or more hours per week (group 3, n = 30). The thicknesses of the plantar fascia at origin and at a point 5 mm distal to origin were measured via sonography. The mean values of the thickness of the proximal plantar fascia (PFp) and the distal plantar fascia (PFd) in group 1 were similar to those of groups 2 and 3 (p > 0.05). The mean values of PFp and PFd were significantly higher in men than in women (p 0.05). There were moderate positive correlations between PFp and weight, height, and body mass index but no correlation between PFp and amount of athletic activity. The thickness of the plantar fascia at origin did not change with athletic activity at the amateur level. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Higher cortisol levels at diurnal trough predict greater attentional bias towards threat in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakamata, Yuko; Izawa, Shuhei; Sato, Eisuke; Komi, Shotaro; Murayama, Norio; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Hanakawa, Takashi; Inoue, Yusuke; Tagaya, Hirokuni

    2013-11-01

    Attentional bias (AB), selective information processing towards threat, can exacerbate anxiety and depression. Despite growing interest, physiological determinants of AB are yet to be understood. We examined whether stress hormone cortisol and its diurnal variation pattern contribute to AB. Eighty-seven healthy young adults underwent assessments for AB, anxious personality traits, depressive symptoms, and attentional function. Salivary cortisol was collected at three time points daily (at awakening, 30 min after awakening, and bedtime) for 2 consecutive days. We performed: (1) multiple regression analysis to examine the relationships between AB and the other measures and (2) analysis of variance (ANOVA) between groups with different cortisol variation patterns for the other measures. Multiple regression analysis revealed that higher cortisol levels at bedtime (pattention and cortisol measurement at three time points daily. We showed that higher cortisol levels at bedtime and blunted cortisol variation are associated with greater AB. Individuals who have higher cortisol levels at diurnal trough might be at risk of clinical anxiety or depression but could also derive more benefits from the attentional-bias-modification program. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 1Interaction between serum BDNF and aerobic fitness predicts recognition memory in healthy young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Andrew; Young, Daniel E.; He, Xuemei; Chen, Tai C.; Wagenaar, Robert C.; Stern, Chantal; Schon, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Convergent evidence from human and non-human animal studies suggests aerobic exercise and increased aerobic capacity may be beneficial for brain health and cognition. It is thought growth factors may mediate this putative relationship, particularly by augmenting plasticity mechanisms in the hippocampus, a brain region critical for learning and memory. Among these factors, glucocorticoids, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hormones that have considerable and diverse physiological importance, are thought to effect normal and exercise-induced hippocampal plasticity. Despite these predictions, relatively few published human studies have tested hypotheses that relate exercise and fitness to the hippocampus, and none have considered the potential links to all of these hormonal components. Here we present cross-sectional data from a study of recognition memory; serum BDNF, cortisol, IGF-1, and VEGF levels; and aerobic capacity in healthy young adults. We measured circulating levels of these hormones together with performance on a recognition memory task, and a standard graded treadmill test of aerobic fitness. Regression analyses demonstrated BDNF and aerobic fitness predict recognition memory in an interactive manner. In addition, IGF-1 was positively associated with aerobic fitness, but not with recognition memory. Our results may suggest an exercise adaptation-related change in the BDNF dose-response curve that relates to hippocampal memory. PMID:24269495

  9. The overlapping community structure of structural brain network in young healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Community structure is a universal and significant feature of many complex networks in biology, society, and economics. Community structure has also been revealed in human brain structural and functional networks in previous studies. However, communities overlap and share many edges and nodes. Uncovering the overlapping community structure of complex networks remains largely unknown in human brain networks. Here, using regional gray matter volume, we investigated the structural brain network among 90 brain regions (according to a predefined anatomical atlas in 462 young, healthy individuals. Overlapped nodes between communities were defined by assuming that nodes (brain regions can belong to more than one community. We demonstrated that 90 brain regions were organized into 5 overlapping communities associated with several well-known brain systems, such as the auditory/language, visuospatial, emotion, decision-making, social, control of action, memory/learning, and visual systems. The overlapped nodes were mostly involved in an inferior-posterior pattern and were primarily related to auditory and visual perception. The overlapped nodes were mainly attributed to brain regions with higher node degrees and nodal efficiency and played a pivotal role in the flow of information through the structural brain network. Our results revealed fuzzy boundaries between communities by identifying overlapped nodes and provided new insights into the understanding of the relationship between the structure and function of the human brain. This study provides the first report of the overlapping community structure of the structural network of the human brain.

  10. Sleep extension increases IGF-I concentrations before and during sleep deprivation in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Drogou, Catherine; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle

    2016-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to suppress circulating trophic factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This experiment examined the effect of an intervention involving 6 nights of extended sleep before total sleep deprivation on this catabolic profile. In a randomized crossover design, 14 young men (age range: 26-37 years) were either in an extended (EXT; time in bed: 2100-0700 h) or habitual (HAB: 2230-0700 h) sleep condition, followed by 3 days in the laboratory with blood sampling at baseline (B), after 24 h of sleep deprivation (24h-SD), and after 1 night of recovery sleep (R). In the EXT condition compared with the HAB condition, free IGF-I levels were significantly higher at B, 24h-SD, and R (P sleep deprivation was for insulin levels, which were significantly higher after R compared with B. In a healthy adult, additional sleep over 1 week increased blood concentrations of the anabolic factor IGF-I before and during 24 h of sleep deprivation and after the subsequent recovery night without effects on BDNF. With further research, these findings may prove to be important in guiding effective lifestyle modifications to limit physical or cognitive deficits associated with IGF-I decrease with age.

  11. Inulin-enriched pasta improves intestinal permeability and modifies the circulating levels of zonulin and glucagon-like peptide 2 in healthy young volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Francesco; Linsalata, Michele; Clemente, Caterina; Chiloiro, Marisa; Orlando, Antonella; Marconi, Emanuele; Chimienti, Guglielmina; Riezzo, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    Apart from the intestinal environment, inulin induces physiological effects, which includes a reduction in glucose and lipid concentrations and modulation of gastrointestinal motility through the release of different peptides. We hypothesized that inulin-enriched pasta may also improve small intestine permeability in relation to zonulin and glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) levels in healthy young subjects. Twenty healthy, young male volunteers completed a randomized, double-blind crossover study consisting of a 2-week run-in period and two 5-week study periods (11% inulin-enriched or control pasta), with an 8-week washout period in between. The intestinal barrier function was assessed by lactulose-mannitol excretion in urine. Zonulin values and GLP-2 release were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the inulin group, the urinary lactulose recovery was significantly lower than the other 2 groups. There were no significant differences in urinary mannitol levels between groups. Accordingly, the lactulose-mannitol excretion ratio was significantly decreased in the inulin-enriched pasta group compared with the other 2 groups. The inulin-enriched pasta group had significantly lower zonulin serum values and significantly higher GLP-2 basal values when compared with the baseline and control pasta groups. The dietary use of inulin-enriched pasta preserves intestinal mucosal barrier functioning and modulates circulating levels of zonulin and GLP-2, suggesting that prebiotics could be used in the prevention of gastrointestinal diseases and metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in salivary microbiota increase volatile sulfur compounds production in healthy male subjects with academic-related chronic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Dias Nani

    Full Text Available To investigate the associations among salivary bacteria, oral emanations of volatile sulfur compounds, and academic-related chronic stress in healthy male subjects.Seventy-eight healthy male undergraduate dental students were classified as stressed or not by evaluation of burnout, a syndrome attributed to academic-related chronic stress. This evaluation was carried out using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey questionnaire. Oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide were measured using an Oral Chroma™ portable gas chromatograph. The amounts in saliva of total bacteria and seven bacteria associated with halitosis were quantified by qPCR. The in vitro production of H2S by S. moorei and/or F. nucleatum was also measured with the Oral Chroma™ instrument.The stressed students group showed increased oral emanations of hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide, together with higher salivary Solobacterium moorei levels (p < 0.05, Mann Whitney test. There were moderate positive correlations between the following pairs of variables: Fusobacterium nucleatum and S. moorei; F. nucleatum and hydrogen sulfide; Tannerella forsythia and F. nucleatum; T. forsythia and S. moorei. These correlations only occurred for the stressed group (p < 0.05, Spearman correlation. The in vitro experiment demonstrated that S. moorei increased H2S production by F. nucleatum (p < 0.05, ANOVA and Tukey's test.The increased amount of S. moorei in saliva, and its coexistence with F. nucleatum and T. forsythia, seemed to be responsible for increased oral hydrogen sulfide in the healthy male stressed subjects.

  13. [The use of Cantonese pain descriptors among healthy young adults in Hong Kong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, W Y; Wong, C H; Yang, J C; Tan, P P

    1998-12-01

    The interpretation and expression of pain are closely related to an individual's social and cultural background. To convey messages on pain, language and words (pain descriptors) is particularly significant in assessment and evaluation of pain severity and its management. Therefore, the study of pain descriptors is crucial in clinical practice. It was of exploratory-descriptive design. Samples were recruited by convenience. Data were collected by structured self-administered questionnaire. Data obtained included demographic information and pain descriptors used by the subjects in various pain conditions. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Pain descriptors were categorized according to nature, process, intensity, aggravating factors, accompanying symptoms and behavioral manifestation. Total number of pain descriptors (in Cantonese) based on real pain experience was 3017, mean was 3 (n = 986). The commonest used descriptors was the nature of pain (41%). The intensity of pain constituted 20%. There was no significant difference in the number of pain descriptors between male and female. However, there was a significant difference between the type of pain descriptors used (Mfemale = 526, Mmale = 453, Z = -2.9729, p = 0.0029). There were also significant differences in the use of pain descriptors among the various age groups (X2 = 15.0157, df = 4, P = 0.0047) and educational levels (X2 = 11.2443, df = 4, P = 0.0240). The types of descriptors used increased with an increase in age and education levels. This exploratory-descriptive study explores the use of pain descriptors among Chinese young adults in Hong Kong. The result shows that female use more pain descriptors than male. The pain descriptors that female used are mostly of nature type. The similarities and differences in findings with those of the Ho's (1991) are compared.

  14. No influence of beta-carotene on haemostatic balance in healthy male smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppel, G. van; Hospers, J.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.; Laterveer, R.

    1995-01-01

    A high intake of β-carotene has been associated with a decreased risk for cardiovascular disease. To evaluate whether β-carotene may exert a protective effect through an impact on haemostasis a randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in male smokers (n = 149) using 20 mg/day β-carotene

  15. Healthy overweight male partners of subfertile couples should not worry about their semen quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duits, Floor H.; van Wely, Madelon; van der Veen, Fulco; Gianotten, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of body mass index (BMI) on semen quality in a cohort of male partners in subfertile couples. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: A fertility center based in an academic hospital. Patient(s): Between January 2000 and January 2007, 1466 men visiting the Centre

  16. Healthy or Unhealthy Lifestyle: A Thematic Analysis of Iranian Male Adolescents? Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Zareiyan, Armin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Identifying what adolescents perceive as their lifestyle and exploring the factors persuading their decisions to engage in or avoid healthy or unhealthy lifestyle behaviors could improve the ability of healthcare professionals to develop innovative preventive strategies and modify negative health behaviors in adolescents. Hence, the literature on adolescent health-related issues reported by adults showed a rarity of information from adolescents themselves. Materials and Methods:...

  17. Socio-demographic and Clinical Features of Young Adult Males Using Synthetic Cannabinoid (English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Oznur

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Object: Synthetic Cannabinoid (SC use is becoming more widespread throughout the world. Studies that revealed user profiles indicate that the drug is especially popular among young men. Knowledge on sociodemographic, clinical characteristics and motivation for SC users in our country is limited. On the other hand, in spite of the increase of information known about symptoms of acute intoxication of SC use, physical and psychiatric consequences and loss of function due to longterm use of SC is limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate socio-demographic and clinical characteristics associated with SC use and the negative consequences caused by the use of SC. Methods: 166 male patients who admitted to the psychiatric outpatient clinic due to SC use disorder between November 2014 to April 2015 were enrolled in the study. Demographic data of patients, substance use characteristics, familial substance use, reasons for substance use, medical history, the problems related to drug use was questioned. Results: The age of onset for SC use was found to be 17.25 ± 2.30. SC using duration was 3.79 ± 2.15 years. The most common agents accompanying SC use were smoking (95.8% and cannabis (88.6%. It was determined that 62.7% developed suicidal ideas due to SC use. Among psychiatric side effects, most common were euphoria, hallucinations, skepticism and suicidal ideation. About 1/3 of cases were found to live loss of business and legal issues depending on long-term SC use. 76.5% of the patients' consumed SC through inhalation and 22.9 % orally. It was determined that oral users began SC use at an earlier age than users via inhalation. Discussion: Despite the physical, mental, occupational, social and legal problems caused by the use of SC, it has become an important public health problem, especially among young men. Effective intervention programs for the use of outbreaking SCs need to be developed.

  18. "Dulling the Edges": Young Men's Use of Alcohol to Deal With Grief Following the Death of a Male Friend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Genevieve; Oliffe, John; Matthews, Jennifer; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background: The death of a male friend can be challenging for men because expressions of grief can be governed and restrained by dominant ideals of masculinity. It is common for young men to engage in health risk practices, such as alcohol overuse, to deal with feelings of sadness. Objective: This qualitative study investigated the ways that young…

  19. The Most Blessed Room in the City: The Influence of a Youth Development Program on Three Young Black Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, Malcolm H.; Martin, Justin F.; Hill, R. LeRoi; Worrell, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    The social and educational life risks associated with being a Black male in the United States are not novel concerns. However, researchers, policymakers, educators, and other stakeholders have yet to consistently identify programs and interventions that can mediate the inequities that confront young Black men. Some researchers have indicated that…

  20. Effects of immobilisation and caloric restriction on antioxidant parameters and T-cell apoptosis in healthy young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, S.; Arendt, B. M.; Boese, A.; Juschus, M.; Schaefer, S.; Stoffel-Wagner, B.; Goerlich, R.

    Background: Astronauts are exposed to oxidative stress due to radiation and microgravity, which might impair immune functions. Effects of hypocaloric nutrition as often observed in astronauts on oxidative stress and immune functions are not clear. We investigated, if microgravity, simulated by 6 Head-down tilt (HDT) and caloric restriction (-25%, fat reduced) with adequate supply of micronutrients affect DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes, antioxidant parameters in plasma, and T-cell apoptosis. Material & Methods: 10 healthy male non-smokers were subjected to 4 different interventions (normocaloric diet or caloric restriction (CR) in upright position (UP) or HDT) for 14 days each (cross-over). DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes (Comet Assay), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and uric acid in plasma were measured before, after 5, 10, and 13 days of intervention, and after 2 days recovery. T-cell apoptosis (Annexin V binding test) was assessed before and after intervention. Results: Preliminary results show that only endogenous, but not ex vivo H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks were reduced by CR compared to normocaloric diet. In upright position, endogenous DNA strand breaks decreased continuously during CR, reaching significance after recovery. During HDT, caloric restriction seems to counteract a temporary increase in DNA strand breaks observed in subjects receiving normocaloric diet. TEAC was reduced during HDT compared to UP in subjects under caloric restriction. An increase in plasma uric acid related to intervention occurred only after 5 days HDT in CR vs. normocaloric diet. T-cell apoptosis was not affected by any kind of intervention. Conclusion: Neither HDT nor CR with sufficient supply of micronutrients seem to induce oxidative stress or T-cell apoptosis in healthy young men. In contrast, CR might prevent endogenous DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes. As DNA-damage is a risk factor for carcinogenesis, protective effects of energy reduction are

  1. Bone mineral density in lifelong trained male football players compared with young and elderly untrained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagman, Marie; Helge, Eva Wulff; Hornstrup, Therese

    2018-01-01

    001) BMD in all femoral regions and total proximal femur in both legs compared to UY. The whole-body DXA scan confirmed these results, with FTE showing similar whole-body BMD and 7.9% higher (p 0.05) leg BMD compared to UY, and with FTY having 9.6% higher (p 001) whole-body BMD and 18.2...... men. Methods: One hundred and forty healthy, non-smoking men participated in the study, including lifelong trained football players (FTE, n = 35) aged 65-80 years, elite football players (FTY, n = 35) aged 18-30 years, as well as untrained age-matched elderly (UE, n = 35) and young (UY, n = 35) men....... All participants underwent a regional Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan of the proximal femur and a whole-body DXA scan to determine BMD. From a resting blood sample, the bone turnover markers (BTMs) osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal type-1 collagen crosslinks (CTX-1), procollagen type-1 amino...

  2. Functional analyses of the skin surface of the areola mammae: comparison between healthy adult male and female subjects and between healthy individuals and patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, K; Tagami, H; Akaraphanth, R; Aiba, S

    2011-01-01

    Although the nipple and areola of the breast constitute a unique and prominent area on the chest, so far no study has been done on the functional properties of their skin surfaces. To study the stratum corneum (SC) covering the areola using noninvasive methods. Eighteen adult healthy subjects comprising nine men and nine women and 18 age- and sex-matched patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), none of whom had visible skin lesions, participated in the study. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin surface hydration and skin surface lipid levels were measured on the areola and adjacent breast skin. The size of the skin surface corneocytes of these skin regions was assessed. All the healthy subjects showed significantly higher TEWL accompanied by smaller sized corneocytes on the areola than on the adjacent breast skin. Only female subjects revealed a significantly higher skin surface hydration state together with significantly increased skin surface lipid levels on the areola than on the adjacent breast skin. These sex differences were observed even in patients with AD. Comparison between healthy individuals and the patients with AD demonstrated higher TEWL, decreased skin surface hydration state and lower skin surface lipid levels associated with smaller sized corneocytes in the areola in the patients with AD, especially in male patients. In adults, the SC barrier function and SC water-binding capacity of the areola were functionally poorer than in the adjacent skin, being covered by smaller sized corneocytes and lower amounts of skin surface lipids, especially in men and in patients with AD. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists 2011.

  3. Insulin response to oral glucose in healthy, lean young women and patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Ganie, Mohammed Ashraf; Praveen, Edavan Pulikkanath; Gupta, Nandita; Lal Khurana, Madan; Seith, Ashu; Dwivedi, Sadanand N; Kumar, Guresh; Ammini, Ariachery C

    2008-11-01

    Insulin resistance and consequent hyperinsulinemia are common among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Ethnicity and dietary habits affect insulin levels. There is little published information from India on insulin levels in PCOS patients. Thus the present study aimed to determine the insulin response to oral glucose in women with PCOS and healthy women. In a case-control study design, women with PCOS and lean healthy women without a family history of diabetes mellitus underwent oral glucose tolerance testing. Samples were collected at 0, 1 and 2 h after glucose ingestion. Two hundred and eighty-five women with PCOS and 27 lean healthy young women were enrolled into the study. The mean age of controls was 22.8 +/- 4.5 years (range 15-32 years) and their mean body mass index (BMI) was 19.7 +/- 2.6 kg/m(2). Mean blood glucose at 0, 1 and 2 h was 88.2 +/- 7.2, 115.5 +/- 25.5 and 91.8 +/- 20.5 mg/dl, respectively. Corresponding plasma insulin levels were 5.8 +/- 1.1, 32.7 +/- 26.5 and 14.6 +/- 9.6 mIU/l. Peak insulin levels were seen at 1 h and these came down to less than 40% of the peak value by 2 h. Glucose/insulin ratio at 0, 1 and 2 h was 15.6 +/- 3.1, 7.0 +/- 3.1 and 11.4 +/- 7.0. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was 1.2 +/- 0.2. The age of the PCOS women ranged from 15 to 40 years (mean 23.4 +/- 6.2 years) and their BMI ranged from 16.4 to 50.4 kg/m(2) (mean 27.7 +/- 6.3 kg/m(2)). One hundred and seventy-six (62%) PCOS patients had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 39 (14%) had impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 49 (17%) had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 21 (7%) had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Insulin response was higher in women with PCOS. Peak insulin was observed at 1 h. The difference between 1-h and 2-h post-glucose insulin decreased with worsening glucose tolerance. Both plasma insulin and BMI showed a rising trend from NGT to IFG to IGT. There was no further increase in either insulin or BMI from IGT to T2DM

  4. A Novel Concept of Amino Acid Supplementation to Improve the Growth of Young Malnourished Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Chie; Murakami, Hitoshi

    2018-01-01

    This study was aimed at understanding the relationship between plasma amino acids and protein malnutrition and at determining whether amino acid supplementation associated with malnutrition and growth improves linear growth in growing rats. Body length and plasma amino acids were measured in young male rats that were fed the following diet for 3 weeks, mimicking a low and imbalanced protein diets based on maize, a major staple consumed in developing countries: a 70% calorically restricted cornmeal-based diet (C), C + micronutrients (CM), CM + casein (CMC), CM + soy protein (CMS) or CMS + 0.3% lysine. A correlation analysis of linear growth and plasma amino acids indicated that lysine, tryptophan, branched-chain amino acids, methionine, and phenylalanine significantly correlated with body length. Supplementation with these 5 amino acids (AA1) significantly improved the body length in rats compared to CMC treatment whereas, nitrogen-balanced amino acid supplemented controls (AA2) did not (CM +1.2 ± 0.2, CMC +2.7 ± 0.3, CMS +2.1 ± 0.3, AA1 +2.8 ± 0.2, and AA2 +2.5 ± 0.3 cm). With securing proper amino acid balance, supplementing growth-related amino acids is more effective in improving linear growth in malnourished growing male rats. Analysis of the correlation between plasma amino acids and growth represents a powerful tool to determine candidate amino acids for supplementation to prevent malnutrition. This technology is adaptable to children in developing countries. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Anxiety and mood disorder in young males with mitral valve prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    For-Wey Lung

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For-Wey Lung1–4, Chih-Tao Cheng5, Wei-To Chang6, Bih-Ching Shu71Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Graduate Institute of Behavioral Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical Center, Taiwan; 3Department of Psychiatry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Calo Psychiatric Center, Pingtung County, Taiwan; 5School of public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA; 6Liu Chia-Hsiu Hospital, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan; 7Institute of Allied Health Sciences and Department of Nursing, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, TaiwanObjective: This study explored the prevalence of panic disorder and other psychiatric disorders in young Han Chinese males with mitral valve prolapse (MVP. With the factors of age, sex, and ethnicity controlled, the specific role of MVP in panic disorder was analyzed. Methods: Subjects with chest pain aged between 18 and 25 years were assessed with the echocardiograph for MVP and the Chinese version of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for panic disorder (n = 39.Results: Of the 39 participants, 35.9% met the diagnosis of anxiety disorder, 46.2% met at least one criterion of anxiety disorder, and 23.1% met the diagnostic criteria of major depressive disorder. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of panic disorder between one of the (8.3% MVP patients, and two (7.4% control participants.Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of psychiatric disorder, including anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder, in those who report pain symptoms, so that diagnosis and treatment of these patients is of great importance. In addition, individuals with MVP did not have an increased risk for panic disorder. Whether MVP may be a modifier or mediating factor for panic disorder needs to be further assessed in a larger scale study.Keywords: mitral valve prolapse, panic disorder, Han Chinese males, major depressive disorder

  6. Androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function in Filipino young adult males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Calen P.; McDade, Thomas W; Gettler, Lee T.; Eisenberg, Dan T.A.; Rzhetskaya, Margarita; Hayes, M. Geoffey; Kuzawa, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Testosterone (T), the primary androgenic hormone in males, is stimulated through pulsatile secretion of LH and regulated through negative feedback inhibition at the hypothalamus and pituitary. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis also controls sperm production through the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Negative feedback in the HPG axis is achieved in part through the binding of T to the androgen receptor (AR), which contains a highly variable trinucleotide repeat polymorphism (AR-CAGn). The number of repeats in the AR-CAGn inversely correlates with transcriptional activity of the AR. Thus, we predicted longer AR-CAGn to be associated with higher T, LH, and FSH levels. Methods We examined the relationship between AR-CAGn and total plasma T, LH, and FSH, as well as 'bioavailable' morning (AM-T) and evening (PM-T) testosterone in 722 young (21.5 ± 0.5 years) Filipino males. Results There was no relationship between AR-CAGn and total T, AM-T, or LH (P > 0.25 for all). We did observe a marginally non-significant (P = 0.066) correlation between AR-CAGn and PM-T in the predicted direction, and a negative correlation between AR-CAGn and FSH (P = 0.005). Conclusions Our results both support and differ from previous findings in this area, and study parameters that differ between our study and others, such as participant age, sample time, and the role of other hormones should be considered when interpreting our findings. While our data point to a modest effect of AR-CAGn on HPG regulation at best, the AR-CAGn may still affect somatic traits by regulating androgenic activity at peripheral tissues. PMID:27417274

  7. Plasma vitamin D is associated with fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance in young adult males, but not females, of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Amy; Hochner, Hagit; Sitlani, Colleen M; Williams, Michelle A; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; de Boer, Ian H; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Siscovick, David S; Friedlander, Yechiel; Enquobahrie, Daniel A

    2015-05-01

    To examine cross-sectional relationships between plasma vitamin D and cardiometabolic risk factors in young adults. Data were collected from interviews, physical examinations and biomarker measurements. Total plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured using LC-tandem MS. Associations between 25(OH)D and cardiometabolic risk factors were modelled using weighted linear regression with robust estimates of standard errors. Individuals born in Jerusalem during 1974-1976. Participants of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study (n 1204) interviewed and examined at age 32 years. Participants were oversampled for low and high birth weight and for maternal pre-pregnancy obesity. Mean total 25(OH)D concentration among participants was 21·7 (sd 8·9) ng/ml. Among males, 25(OH)D was associated with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (natural log-transformed, β=-0·011, P=0·004) after adjustment for BMI. However, these associations were not present among females (P for sex interaction=0·005). We found evidence for inverse associations of 25(OH)D with markers of insulin resistance among males, but not females, in a healthy, young adult Caucasian population. Prospective studies and studies conducted on other populations investigating sex-specific effects of vitamin D on cardiometabolic risk factors are warranted.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of oral human papillomavirus infection among healthy males and females in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brian J; Walter, Leora; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrerra, Lilia; Gravitt, Patti E; Marks, Morgan A

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated head and neck cancers (HNCs) have been increasing in Peru. However, the burden of oral HPV infection in Peru has not been assessed. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of oral HPV infection in a population-based sample from males and females from Lima, Peru. Between January 2010 and June 2011, a population-based sample of 1099 individuals between the ages of 10 and 85 from a low-income neighbourhood in Lima, Peru was identified through random household sampling. Information on demographic, sexual behaviours, reproductive factors and oral hygiene were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Oral rinse specimens were collected from each participant, and these specimens were genotyped using the Roche Linear Array assay. ORs were used to assess differences in the prevalence of any oral HPV and any high-risk oral HPV infection by demographic factors, sexual practices and oral hygiene among individuals 15+ years of age. The prevalence of any HPV and any high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.8% and 2.0%, respectively. The three most common types were HPV 55 (3.4%), HPV 6 (1.5%) and HPV 16 (1.1%). Male sex (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI 1.22 to 4.03) was associated with any HPV infection after adjustment. The prevalence of oral HPV in this study was similar to estimates observed in the USA. Higher prevalence of oral infections in males was consistent with a male predominance of HPV-associated HNCs and may signal a sex-specific aetiology in the natural history of infection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Antihyperlipidemic effect of crude extract of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus in healthy male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliass Lahmass

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated for the first time the antihyperlipidemic ef-fects of crude extract of stigmas from Crocus sativus (saffron against hyperlipidemia induced by tartrazine (synthetic dye in normal male rats. Thirty adult male albino rats weighing about 150 - 200 g, were divided into 5 groups (n = 6 and daily treatment was given orally. Clinical biochemis-try and metabolic parameters were evaluated at the end of the experiment and after 105 days. (n=6, for all groups. Our data revealed that the meta-bolic parameters like consumption of food and water, pH and urine vol-ume have not been affected; also the difference between liver, right kid-ney and heart weight was not significant. The levels of cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly increased in group 2 and group 3 compared to control group. There was no significant difference in the level of cholesterol and triglyceride in group 4. Treatment with saffron alone did not have any significant effects on the level of fat compared to control group. The oral administration of the crude extract of saffron revealed good hypolipidemic effects in adult male albino rats. These results suggest that aqueous saffron extract reduced plasma cholesterol and decreased triglyceride. Therefore, it could conceivably lead to suitable changes in blood lipid profiles. [J Med Allied Sci 2017; 7(1.000: 20-25

  10. Diurnal rhythms in psychological reward functioning in healthy young men: 'Wanting', liking, and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jamie E M; Murray, Greg

    2017-01-01

    A range of evidence suggests that human reward functioning is partly driven by the endogenous circadian system, generating 24-hour rhythms in behavioural measures of reward activation. Reward functioning is multifaceted but literature to date is largely limited to measures of self-reported positive mood states. The aim of this study was to advance the field by testing for hypothesised diurnal variation in previously unexplored components of psychological reward: 'wanting', liking, and learning using subjective and behavioural measures. Risky decision making (automatic Balloon Analogue Risk Task), affective responsivity to positive images (International Affective Pictures System), uncued self-reported discrete emotions, and learning-contingent reward (Iowa Gambling Task) were measured at 10.00 hours, 14.00 hours, and 19.00 hours in a counterbalanced repeated measures design with 50 healthy male participants (aged 18-30). As hypothesised, risky decision making (unconscious 'wanting') and ratings of arousal towards positive images (conscious wanting) exhibited a diurnal waveform with indices highest at 14.00 hours. No diurnal rhythm was observed for liking (pleasure ratings to positive images, discrete uncued positive emotions) or in a learning-contingent reward task. Findings reaffirm that diurnal variation in human reward functioning is most pronounced in the motivational 'wanting' components of reward.

  11. Differential neural substrates of working memory and cognitive skill learning in healthy young volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2005-01-01

    It is known that different neural circuits are involved in working memory and cognitive skill learning that represent explicit and implicit memory functions, respectively. In the present study, we investigated the metabolic correlates of working memory and cognitive skill learning with correlation analysis of FDG PET images. Fourteen right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24 ± 2 yr; 5 males and 9 females) underwent brain FDG PET and neuropsychological testing. Two-back task and weather prediction task were used for the evaluation of working memory and cognitive skill learning, respectively, Correlation between regional glucose metabolism and cognitive task performance was examined using SPM99. A significant positive correlation between 2-back task performance and regional glucose metabolism was found in the prefrontal regions and superior temporal gyri bilaterally. In the first term of weather prediction task the task performance correlated positively with glucose metabolism in the bilateral prefrontal areas, left middle temporal and posterior cingulate gyri, and left thalamus. In the second and third terms of the task, the correlation found in the prefrontal areas, superior temporal and anterior cingulate gyri bilaterally, right insula, left parahippocampal gyrus, and right caudate nucleus. We identified the neural substrates that are related with performance of working memory and cognitive skill learning. These results indicate that brain regions associated with the explicit memory system are recruited in early periods of cognitive skill learning, but additional brain regions including caudate nucleus are involved in late periods of cognitive skill learning

  12. Mapping the structure of perceptual and visual-motor abilities in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingling; Krasich, Kristina; Bel-Bahar, Tarik; Hughes, Lauren; Mitroff, Stephen R; Appelbaum, L Gregory

    2015-05-01

    The ability to quickly detect and respond to visual stimuli in the environment is critical to many human activities. While such perceptual and visual-motor skills are important in a myriad of contexts, considerable variability exists between individuals in these abilities. To better understand the sources of this variability, we assessed perceptual and visual-motor skills in a large sample of 230 healthy individuals via the Nike SPARQ Sensory Station, and compared variability in their behavioral performance to demographic, state, sleep and consumption characteristics. Dimension reduction and regression analyses indicated three underlying factors: Visual-Motor Control, Visual Sensitivity, and Eye Quickness, which accounted for roughly half of the overall population variance in performance on this battery. Inter-individual variability in Visual-Motor Control was correlated with gender and circadian patters such that performance on this factor was better for males and for those who had been awake for a longer period of time before assessment. The current findings indicate that abilities involving coordinated hand movements in response to stimuli are subject to greater individual variability, while visual sensitivity and occulomotor control are largely stable across individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential neural substrates of working memory and cognitive skill learning in healthy young volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    It is known that different neural circuits are involved in working memory and cognitive skill learning that represent explicit and implicit memory functions, respectively. In the present study, we investigated the metabolic correlates of working memory and cognitive skill learning with correlation analysis of FDG PET images. Fourteen right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24 {+-} 2 yr; 5 males and 9 females) underwent brain FDG PET and neuropsychological testing. Two-back task and weather prediction task were used for the evaluation of working memory and cognitive skill learning, respectively, Correlation between regional glucose metabolism and cognitive task performance was examined using SPM99. A significant positive correlation between 2-back task performance and regional glucose metabolism was found in the prefrontal regions and superior temporal gyri bilaterally. In the first term of weather prediction task the task performance correlated positively with glucose metabolism in the bilateral prefrontal areas, left middle temporal and posterior cingulate gyri, and left thalamus. In the second and third terms of the task, the correlation found in the prefrontal areas, superior temporal and anterior cingulate gyri bilaterally, right insula, left parahippocampal gyrus, and right caudate nucleus. We identified the neural substrates that are related with performance of working memory and cognitive skill learning. These results indicate that brain regions associated with the explicit memory system are recruited in early periods of cognitive skill learning, but additional brain regions including caudate nucleus are involved in late periods of cognitive skill learning.

  14. Contrast sensitivity measured by two different test methods in healthy, young adults with normal visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Baste, Valborg; Roumes, Corinne; Høvding, Gunnar

    2015-03-01

    This study reports contrast sensitivity (CS) reference values obtained by two different test methods in a strictly selected population of healthy, young adults with normal uncorrected visual acuity. Based on these results, the index of contrast sensitivity (ICS) is calculated, aiming to establish ICS reference values for this population and to evaluate the possible usefulness of ICS as a tool to compare the degree of agreement between different CS test methods. Military recruits with best eye uncorrected visual acuity 0.00 LogMAR or better, normal colour vision and age 18-25 years were included in a study to record contrast sensitivity using Optec 6500 (FACT) at spatial frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 18 cpd in photopic and mesopic light and CSV-1000E at spatial frequencies of 3, 6, 12 and 18 cpd in photopic light. Index of contrast sensitivity was calculated based on data from the three tests, and the Bland-Altman technique was used to analyse the agreement between ICS obtained by the different test methods. A total of 180 recruits were included. Contrast sensitivity frequency data for all tests were highly skewed with a marked ceiling effect for the photopic tests. The median ICS for Optec 6500 at 85 cd/m2 was -0.15 (95% percentile 0.45), compared with -0.00 (95% percentile 1.62) for Optec at 3 cd/m2 and 0.30 (95% percentile 1.20) FOR CSV-1000E. The mean difference between ICSFACT 85 and ICSCSV was -0.43 (95% CI -0.56 to -0.30, p<0.00) with limits of agreement (LoA) within -2.10 and 1.22. The regression line on the difference of average was near to zero (R2=0.03). The results provide reference CS and ICS values in a young, adult population with normal visual acuity. The agreement between the photopic tests indicated that they may be used interchangeably. There was little agreement between the mesopic and photopic tests. The mesopic test seemed best suited to differentiate between candidates and may therefore possibly be useful for medical selection purposes.

  15. Effect of Fasting Blood Glucose Level on Heart Rate Variability of Healthy Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Faisal Lutfi

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported increased risk of cardiac events in subjects with fasting blood glucose (FBG levels lower than the diagnostic threshold of diabetes mellitus. However, whether increased cardiac events in those with upper normal FBG is secondary to the shift of their cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance is unknown.To assess the association between FBG levels and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM in euglycaemic healthy subjects based on heart rate variability (HRV derived indices.The study enrolled 42 healthy young adults. Following sociodemographic and clinical assessment, blood samples were collected to measure FBG levels. Five minutes ECG recordings were performed to all participants to obtain frequency domain HRV measurements, namely the natural logarithm (Ln of total power (LnTP, very low frequency (LnVLF, low frequency (LnLF and high frequency (LnHF, low frequency/ high frequency ratio (LnLF/HF, normalized low frequency (LF Norm and high frequency (HF Norm.FBG levels correlated positively with LnHF (r = 0.33, P = 0.031 and HF Norm (r = 0.35, P = 0.025 and negatively with LF Norm (r = -0.35, P = 0.025 and LnLF/HF (r = -0.33, P = 0.035. LnHF and HF Norm were significantly decreased in subjects with the lower (4.00 (1.34 ms2/Hz and 33.12 (11.94 n.u compared to those with the upper FBG quartile (5.64 (1.63 ms2/Hz and 49.43 (17.73 n.u, P = 0.013 and 0.032 respectively. LF Norm and LnLF/HF were significantly increased in subjects with the lower (66.88 (11.94 n.u and 0.73 (0.53 compared to those with the higher FBG quartile (50.58 (17.83 n.u and 0.03 (0.79, P = 0.032 and 0.038 respectively.The present study is the first to demonstrate that rise of blood glucose concentration, within physiological range, is associated with higher parasympathetic, but lower sympathetic CAM. Further researches are needed to set out the glycemic threshold beyond which further increase in glucose level readjusts sympathovagal balance

  16. The effects of methylphenidate on cognitive performance of healthy male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Louise Rostron

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the effects of methylphenidate (MPH in healthy rats on two distinct radial maze tasks which rely on brain structures and neurotransmitters known to be affected by MPH: the Random Foraging Non-Delay Task (RFNDT and the Delay Spatial Win Shift Task (DSWT. Hooded Lister rats were trained to complete either the RFNDT or the DSWT having received oral treatment of either a vehicle or MPH (3.0 mg/kg and 5.0 mg/kg for RFNDT, 3.0 mg/kg for DSWT. We found no effect of MPH on the RFNDT relative to the control group. However, those treated with 5.0 mg/kg MPH did take significantly longer to reach criterion performance than those treated with the 3.0 mg/kg MPH, suggesting some doses of MPH can have detrimental effects. For the DSWT, if MPH was present in both phases, performance did not differ from when it was absent in both phases. However, when present in only one phase there was an increase in errors made, although this only reached significance for when MPH was present only in the test-phase. These data suggest that MPH may have detrimental effects on task performance and can result in state dependent effects in healthy individuals.

  17. Reliability characteristics and applicability of a repeated sprint ability test in male young soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castagna, Carlo; Francini, Lorenzo; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness and reliability characteristics of a repeated sprint ability test considering 5 line sprints of 30-m interspersed with 30-s of active recovery in non-elite outfield young male soccer players. Twenty-six (age 14.9±1.2 years, height 1.72±0.12 cm......, body mass 62.2±5.1 kg) players were tested 48 hours and 7 days apart for 5x30-m performance over 5 trials (T1-T5). Short- (T1-T2) and long-term reliability (T1-T3-T4-T5) were assessed with Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and with typical error for measurement (TEM). Short- and long...... study revealed that the 5x30-m sprint test is a reliable field test in the short and long-term when the sum of sprint times and the best sprint performance are considered as outcome variables. Sprint performance decrements variables showed large variability across trials....

  18. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in a young adult male from Berber, Sudan (2nd-3rd century CE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, M; Saad, M

    2017-09-01

    Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is a pathological condition characterised by extensive periosteal new bone formation (NBF) on the diaphyses of the long bones, metacarpal and metatarsal bones. In modern clinical contexts, the secondary form of the disease is common and most often occurs secondary to intra-thoracic cancer and other forms of chronic pulmonary disease. Paleopathological evidence for HOA on the other hand has only occasionally been reported. Here we report a young adult male from the Meriotic cemetery at Berber in Sudan (2nd-3rd century CE) displaying widespread NBF on the diaphyses of the upper and lower limb bones, metacarpal and metatarsal bones, as well as the pelvis and scapulae. While several pathological conditions have to be considered as differential diagnostic options for NBF in the post-cranial skeleton, HOA is the most likely diagnosis, based on the distribution of the changes observed in this individual, as well as their macroscopic and radiographic characteristics. A chronic pulmonary condition as indicated by NBF on the visceral side of the ribs may represent the underlying cause for the HOA. This individual represents the first paleopathological case of HOA reported from an archaeological site in Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Increase in upper extremity fractures in young male soccer players in the Netherlands, 1998-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Putter, C E; van Beeck, E F; Burdorf, A; Borsboom, G J J M; Toet, H; Hovius, S E R; Selles, R W

    2015-08-01

    Young male soccer players have been identified as a target group for injury prevention, but studies addressing trends and determinants of injuries within this group are scarce. The goal of this study was to analyze age-specific trends in hospital-treated upper extremity fractures (UEF) among boys playing soccer in the Netherlands and to explore associated soccer-related factors. Data were obtained from a national database for the period 1998-2009. Rates were expressed as the annual number of UEF per 1000 soccer players. Poisson's regression was used to explore the association of UEF with the number of artificial turf fields and the number of injuries by physical contact. UEF rates increased significantly by 19.4% in boys 5-10 years, 73.2% in boys 11-14 years, and 38.8% in boys 15-18 years old. The number of injuries by physical contact showed a significant univariate association with UEF in boys 15-18 years old. The number of artificial turf fields showed a significant univariate association with UEF in all age groups, and remained significant for boys aged 15-18 years in a multivariate model. This study showed an increase of UEF rates in boys playing soccer, and an independent association between artificial turf fields and UEF in the oldest boys. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Intensive video gaming improves encoding speed to visual short-term memory in young male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Inge L; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of action video gaming on central elements of visual attention using Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention. To examine the cognitive impact of action video gaming, we tested basic functions of visual attention in 42 young male adults. Participants were divided into three groups depending on the amount of time spent playing action video games: non-players (15h/month, N=20). All participants were tested in three tasks which tap central functions of visual attention and short-term memory: a test based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), an enumeration test and finally the Attentional Network Test (ANT). The results show that action video gaming does not seem to impact the capacity of visual short-term memory. However, playing action video games does seem to improve the encoding speed of visual information into visual short-term memory and the improvement does seem to depend on the time devoted to gaming. This suggests that intense action video gaming improves basic attentional functioning and that this improvement generalizes into other activities. The implications of these findings for cognitive rehabilitation training are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Anthropometric analysis and performance characteristics to predict selection in young male and female handball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Fernández-Romero

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was two-fold. The first aim was to determine if there were any anthropometric and physical performance differences (controlling for maturation between male and female handball players selected in training categories as well asthe relation of these differences with the performance level achieved. The second aim was to identify the discriminatory variables between the performance levels achieved. A total of 216 young handball players (125 men and 91 women participated in the study. The data were classified by selection level (regional n=154; national n=62, gender (men; women and age category (under-15; under-17. The use of MANCOVA analyses, controllingfor maturation, identified how gender could determine variables related to handball players' future competitive levels. The results revealed that anthropometric variables such as height, arm span, trochanter height, thigh girth, and leg girth were more influential in men than in women. In addition, the physical performance tests of vertical jump (squat jump and counter movement jump with/without arm and 10x5m shuttle run were determinants in both sexes. Discriminatory analysis predicted that a combination of five variables (counter movement jump with arm, body mass, 10x5m shuttle run, dominant hand length and trochanter height would successfully distinguish between regional and national players, with a predictive accuracy of 81.9% for all players.

  2. Ewing's sarcoma arising from the adrenal gland in a young male: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Muhammad Nauman; Ansari, Tayyaba Zehra; Moatter, Tariq; Memon, Wasim; Pervez, Shahid

    2013-12-13

    Ewing's sarcoma uncommonly arises from extraosseous soft tissue or parenchymal organs. Primary adrenal Ewing's Sarcoma, although very rare, is extremely aggressive and commonly fatal. A 17 year old Pakistani male was referred to the outpatient oncology clinic at our center with a three month history of concomitant pain, swelling and dragging sensation in the right hypochondrium. Abdominal examination revealed a large, firm mass in the right hypochondrium extending into the right lumbar region and epigastrium. His genital exam was unremarkable and there were no stigmata of hepatic or adrenal disease.Computed tomography scans revealed a large peripherally enhancing mass in the hepatorenal area, biopsy of which showed a neoplastic lesion composed of small round blue cells which exhibited abundance of glycogen and stained diffusely positive for CD99 (MIC2 antigen). Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated gene rearrangement at chromosome 22q12 which confirmed the diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma. Staging scans revealed pulmonary metastasis and hence he was commenced on systemic chemotherapy. This case report highlights the importance of keeping Ewing's sarcoma in mind when a young patient presents with a large non-functional adrenal mass.

  3. Vitamin C and fibre consumption from fruits and vegetables improves oxidative stress markers in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Barbosa, Kiriaque B F; Volp, Ana Carolina P; Puchau, Blanca; Bressan, Josefina; Zulet, M Ángeles; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to assess the potential relationships between fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption and some oxidative stress markers in young adults, with particular emphasis on fibre and vitamin C intake. The study enrolled 246 healthy subjects (eighty-eight men and 158 women), with a mean age of 22 (sd 3) years and a mean BMI of 21·9 (sd 2·8) kg/m2. Dietary intake, anthropometry, blood pressure, lifestyle features and blood biochemical data were assessed with validated procedures. Those subjects in the highest tertile (T) of FV consumption ( ≥ 705 g/d) had statistically lower oxidised LDL (ox-LDL) concentrations as well as higher plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (P for trend well as increased TAC and GPx activity in healthy young adults, with dietary fibre and vitamin C from FV clearly being implicated in this beneficial relationship.

  4. Endurance training increases plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentration in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, J A; Pilc, A; Majerczak, J; Grandys, M; Zapart-Bukowska, J; Duda, K

    2008-12-01

    It is believed that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neuronal growth, transmission, modulation and plasticity. Single bout of exercise can increase plasma BDNF concentration [BDNF](p) in humans. It was recently reported however, that elevated [BDNF](p) positively correlated with risk factors for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle age group of subjects. On the other hand it is well established that endurance training decreases the risk of diabetes and development of metabolic syndrome. In the present study we have examined the effect of 5 weeks of moderate intensity endurance training on the basal and the exercise induced changes in [BDNF](p) in humans. Thirteen young, healthy and physically active men (mean +/- S.E: age 22.7 +/- 0.5 yr, body height 180.2 +/- 1.7 cm, body weight 77.0 +/- 2.5 kg, V(O2max) 45.29 +/- 0.93 ml x kg-1 x min(-1)) performed a five week endurance cycling training program, composed mainly of moderate intensity bouts. Before training [BDNF]p at rest have amounted to 10.3 +/- 1.4 pg x ml(-1). No effect of a single maximal incremental cycling up to V(O2max) on its concentration was found (10.9 +/- 2.3 pg x ml(-1), P=0.74). The training resulted in a significant (P=0.01) increase in [BDNF]p at rest to 16.8 +/- 2.1 pg x ml(-1), as well as in significant (P=0.0002) exercise induced increase in the [BDNF](p) (10.9 +/- 2.3 pg x ml(-1) before training vs. 68.4 +/- 16.0 pg x ml(-1) after training). The training induced increase in resting [BDNF](p) was accompanied by a slight decrease in insulin resistance (P=0.25), calculated using the homeostatic model assessment version 2 (HOMA2-IR), amounting to 1.40 +/- 0.13 before and 1.15 +/- 0.13 after the training. Moreover, we have found that the basal [BDNF](p) in athletes (n=16) was significantly higher than in untrained subjects (n=13) (29.5 +/- 9.5 pg x ml(-1) vs. 10.3 +/- 1.4 pg x ml(-1), P=0.013). We have concluded that endurance training of

  5. Preconception Screening for Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Thrombophilia and Hyperhomocysteinemia Risk in Healthy Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Yu. Glotova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency characteristics of the gene polymorphisms (FVL G1691A, FII G20210A, MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTRR A66G associated with thrombophilia, hyperhomocysteinemia risk and different perinatal or pregnancy complications were studied. This examination was conducted among 130 planned-pregnancy healthy young women aged between 19 and 29 years. A gene mutation analysis was performed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR. Factor V Leiden (FVL G1691A and prothrombin gene (FII G20210A mutations were not identified in the women surveyed. The frequency of the occurrence of the heterozygous FVL 1691G/A genotype associated with the risk of thrombosis during pregnancy was very low in these women (0.8%. The frequency of the MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 1298C/С mutant genotype was 11.5%, MTHFR 677T/Т – 5.4%, and MTRR (methionine synthase reductase 66G/G – 31.5%. A combination of the MTHFR 677TT/1298CC and MTHFR 677TТ/MTRR 66GG mutant genotypes, which significantly increased the risk of pregnancy loss and neural tube defects, were found to occur in 0.8% of the cases.We concluded that selective thrombophilia screening (FVL G1691A and FII G20210A based on prior personal and/or family history of venous thromboembolism was more cost-effective than a universal preconception screening in all planning pregnancy women. However, in order to decrease the risk of congenital anomalies and pregnancy complications associated with folate dependent homocysteine metabolism, preconception care should include folate supplementation

  6. Magnetic resonance elastography of the kidneys: feasibility and reproducibility in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvière, Olivier; Souchon, Rémi; Pagnoux, Gaële; Ménager, Jean-Michel; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of renal magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in young healthy volunteers. Ten volunteers underwent renal MRE twice at a 4-5 week interval. The vibrations (45 and 76 Hz) were generated by a speaker positioned beneath the volunteers' back and centered on their left kidney. For each frequency, three sagittal slices were acquired (eight phase offsets per cycle, motion-encoding gradients successively positioned along the three directions of space). Shear velocity images were reconstructed using the curl operator combined with the local frequency estimation (LFE) algorithm. The mean shear velocities measured in the renal parenchyma during the two examinations were not significantly different and exhibited a mean variation of 6% at 45 Hz and 76 Hz. The mean shear velocities in renal parenchyma were 2.21 ± 0.14 m/s at 45 Hz (shear modulus of 4.9 ± 0.5 kPa) and 3.07 ± 0.17 m/s at 76 Hz (9.4 ± 0.8 kPa, P < 0.01). The mean shear velocities in the renal cortex and medulla were respectively 2.19 ± 0.13 m/s and 2.32 ± 0.16 m/s at 45 Hz (P = 0.002) and 3.06 ± 0.16 m/s and 3.10 ± 0.22 m/s at 76 Hz (P = 0.13). Renal MRE was feasible and reproducible. Two independent measurements of shear velocities in the renal parenchyma of the same subjects showed an average variability of 6%. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. The effect of light touch on balance control during overground walking in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, A R; Unger, J; Arnold, C M; Fung, J; Lanovaz, J L

    2017-12-01

    Balance control is essential for safe walking. Adding haptic input through light touch may improve walking balance; however, evidence is limited. This research investigated the effect of added haptic input through light touch in healthy young adults during challenging walking conditions. Sixteen individuals walked normally, in tandem, and on a compliant, low-lying balance beam with and without light touch on a railing. Three-dimensional kinematic data were captured to compute stride velocity (m/s), relative time spent in double support (%DS), a medial-lateral margin of stability (MOS ML ) and its variance (MOS ML CV), as well as a symmetry index (SI) for the MOS ML . Muscle activity was evaluated by integrating electromyography signals for the soleus, tibialis anterior, and gluteus medius muscles bilaterally. Adding haptic input decreased stride velocity, increased the %DS, had no effect on the MOS ML magnitude, decreased the MOS ML CV, had no effect on the SI, and increased activity of most muscles examined during normal walking. During tandem walking, stride velocity and the MOS ML CV decreased, while %DS, MOS ML magnitude, SI, and muscle activity did not change with light touch. When walking on a low-lying, compliant balance beam, light touch had no effect on walking velocity, MOS ML magnitude, or muscle activity; however, the %DS increased and the MOS ML CV and SI decreased when lightly touching a railing while walking on the balance beam. The decreases in the MOS ML CV with light touch across all walking conditions suggest that adding haptic input through light touch on a railing may improve balance control during walking through reduced variability.

  8. The effect of light touch on balance control during overground walking in healthy young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Oates

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Balance control is essential for safe walking. Adding haptic input through light touch may improve walking balance; however, evidence is limited. This research investigated the effect of added haptic input through light touch in healthy young adults during challenging walking conditions. Sixteen individuals walked normally, in tandem, and on a compliant, low-lying balance beam with and without light touch on a railing. Three-dimensional kinematic data were captured to compute stride velocity (m/s, relative time spent in double support (%DS, a medial-lateral margin of stability (MOSML and its variance (MOSMLCV, as well as a symmetry index (SI for the MOSML. Muscle activity was evaluated by integrating electromyography signals for the soleus, tibialis anterior, and gluteus medius muscles bilaterally. Adding haptic input decreased stride velocity, increased the %DS, had no effect on the MOSML magnitude, decreased the MOSMLCV, had no effect on the SI, and increased activity of most muscles examined during normal walking. During tandem walking, stride velocity and the MOSMLCV decreased, while %DS, MOSML magnitude, SI, and muscle activity did not change with light touch. When walking on a low-lying, compliant balance beam, light touch had no effect on walking velocity, MOSML magnitude, or muscle activity; however, the %DS increased and the MOSMLCV and SI decreased when lightly touching a railing while walking on the balance beam. The decreases in the MOSMLCV with light touch across all walking conditions suggest that adding haptic input through light touch on a railing may improve balance control during walking through reduced variability.

  9. Associations between basal cortisol levels and memory retrieval in healthy young individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Sandra; Hartmann, Francina; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J F; Rasch, Björn

    2013-11-01

    Cortisol is known to affect memory processes. On the one hand, stress-induced or pharmacologically induced elevations of cortisol levels enhance memory consolidation. On the other hand, such experimentally induced elevations of cortisol levels have been shown to impair memory retrieval. However, the effects of individual differences in basal cortisol levels on memory processes remain largely unknown. Here we tested whether individual differences in cortisol levels predict picture learning and recall in a large sample. A total of 1225 healthy young women and men viewed two different sets of emotional and neutral pictures on two consecutive days. Both sets were recalled after a short delay (10 min). On Day 2, the pictures seen on Day 1 were additionally recalled, resulting in a long-delay (20 hr) recall condition. Cortisol levels were measured three times on Days 1 and 2 via saliva samples before encoding, between encoding and recall as well as after recall testing. We show that stronger decreases in cortisol levels during retrieval testing were associated with better recall performance of pictures, regardless of emotional valence of the pictures or length of the retention interval (i.e., 10 min vs. 20 hr). In contrast, average cortisol levels during retrieval were not related to picture recall. Remarkably during encoding, individual differences in average cortisol levels as well as changes in cortisol did not predict memory recall. Our results support previous findings indicating that higher cortisol levels during retrieval testing hinders recall of episodic memories and extend this view onto interindividual changes in basal cortisol levels.

  10. The effects of carbonated water upon gastric and cardiac activities and fullness in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakisaka, Shiori; Nagai, Hajime; Mura, Emi; Matsumoto, Takehiro; Moritani, Toshio; Nagai, Narumi

    2012-01-01

    Although previous reports suggested that carbonated water drinking was effective against gastrointestinal symptoms, there is little information about the effects of carbonated water on gastric and appetite sensation. We therefore investigated the effect of carbonated water on short-term fullness with respect to gastric and cardiac responses in 19 healthy young women. Each subject was tested on three separate days at approximately 9 a.m. after an overnight fast. Gastric motility, evaluated by electrogastrography (EGG) and heart rate (HR), was measured for 20 min in the fasting state and 40 min after ingestion of water. Preloads consisted of an equivalent amount (250 mL) of water (W) or carbonated water (CW) and no drinking (blank). Fullness scores were measured using visual analog scales. To determine gastric motility, we assessed the component of bradygastria (1-2 cycles/min [cpm]), normogastria (2-4 cpm), tachygastria (4-9 cpm), and dominant frequency of the EGG power spectrum. After ingestion of CW, significant increases in fullness scores were observed compared with W. All postprandial EGG powers were significantly greater than preprandial, but no group difference was found. However, a dominant frequency tended to shift toward a lower band after ingestion of W. A significantly higher HR was found following consumption of CW as opposed to W. Multiple regression analysis revealed that increased HR was a significant variable contributing to the variances in fullness after ingestion of CW at 40 min. Our data suggest that CW may induce a short-term, but significant, satiating effect through enhanced postprandial gastric and cardiac activities due possibly to the increased sympathetic activity and/or withdrawal of parasympathetic activity.

  11. Comparison of intraocular pressure measurements with different contact tonometers in young healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgauskas, Saulius; Strupaite, Rasa; Strelkauskaite, Ernesta; Asoklis, Rimvydas

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the correlation of Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), I-Care tonometer and Tono-Pen tonometer results in young healthy persons, and to investigate the influence of central corneal thickness (CCT) on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements recorded with these tonometers. We conducted a pilot clinical study in 78 eyes of 78 subjects aged 22-28 years old (44 women and 34 men; mean age 23.8±1.19y). IOP was measured using GAT, I-Care and Tono-Pen tonometers, followed by measurements of CCT. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0. The mean IOPs and standard deviation (±SD) for GAT, I-Care and Tono-Pen were 15.62±2.281 mm Hg, 16.29±2.726 mm Hg and 16.32±2.393 mm Hg, respectively. The mean CCT was 555.15±29.648 µm. Clear positive correlations between GAT and I-Care, GAT and Tono-Pen, and I-Care and Tono-Pen tonometers were found (r=0.867, P0.05). Both non-gold standard tonometers were affected by CCT; that is, both I-Care and Tono-Pen tonometer values were significantly higher with higher CCT means (>555 µm; MD=-1.282, Ptonometers overestimated IOP compared with the GAT values. Either the I-Care or Tono-Pen tonometer could be used instead of GAT because there was no significant difference between their results. Higher CCT values (>555 µm) were associated with overestimated IOP values.

  12. EFFECT OF SHOULDER SIDE PACK ON DYNAMIC POSTURAL STABILITY IN YOUNG HEALTHY FEMALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas ELsayed Mohamed Abutaleb

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Control of balance is a complex motor skill that involves integration of sensory inputs and the planning and execution of flexible movement patterns. Carrying side packs is famous in our society especially shoulder side packs. Most students carry shoulder side packs and they don't care about the way to carry them to be more balanced. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of carrying shoulder side pack on dynamic postural stability and to determine the best way of carrying a shoulder side pack either on the dominant side or non-dominant side that doesn’t affect dynamic postural stability in young healthy female. Methods: Sixty female volunteers aged from 18 to 25 years old participated in the study. Biodex balance system was used to measure the dynamic postural stability in three different occasions (without carrying a shoulder side pack, with carrying a shoulder side pack on the dominant side, and on the non-dominant side with a rest period in between. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc test were used to compare dynamic posture balance without carrying and during carrying a shoulder side pack on dominant and non-dominant sides. Analysis revealed that overall, anteroposterior and mediolateral stability indexes reduced significantly (P<0.0001 when carrying shoulder side pack on dominant side in comparison with when carrying shoulder side pack on non-dominant side and without carrying bag. Conclusion: It was concluded that carrying a shoulder side pack on the non-dominant side didn't disturb the postural stability when compared to carrying on the dominant side so, we recommend the students to carry shoulder side packs on the non-dominant side.

  13. Endurance training of moderate intensity increases testosterone concentration in young, healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandys, M; Majerczak, J; Duda, K; Zapart-Bukowska, J; Kulpa, J; Zoladz, J A

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term, moderate intensity and low volume endurance training on gonadal hormone profile in untrained men. Fifteen young, healthy men performed an endurance training of 5-week duration on a cycle ergometer. Before and after the exercise program all participants completed a maximal incremental test. Concentration of testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and cortisol (C) as well as blood morphology were determined in venous blood samples at rest both before and after the training. The training program resulted in 3.7% improvement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and 8.2% improvement of power output reached at VO(2max) (PO (max)). This was accompanied by significant increase in T (from 18.84+/-5.73 nmol.l(-1) to 22.03+/-6.61 nmol.l(-1), p = 0.0004) and calculated fT concentration (from 374+/-116 pmol.l(-1) to 470+/-153 pmol.l(-1), p = 0.00005). Moreover, the training caused a significant decrease in SHBG concentration (from 34.45+/-11.26 nmol.l(-1) to 31.95+/-10.40 nmol.l(-1), p = 0.01), whereas no significant changes were found in the cortisol concentration (334+/-138 nmol.l(-1) vs. 367+/-135 nmol.l(-1) for pre- and post-training measures, respectively, p = 0.50) and T/C and fT/C ratios. We have concluded that short-term, moderate intensity and low volume endurance training can significantly increase testosterone concentration in previously untrained men.

  14. Can healthy, young adults uncover personal details of unknown target individuals in their dreams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carlyle

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the possibility that undergraduate college students could incubate dreams containing information about unknown target individuals with significant life problems. In Experiment 1, students provided two baseline dreams. They were then exposed to a photo of an individual and invited to dream about a health problem (unknown to them and the experimenter) of that individual and asked to provide two more dreams. From a class of 65 students, 12 dreamers volunteered dreams about the unknown target. In Experiment 2, 66 students were asked to dream about the life problems of a second individual, simply by looking at the photo (experimental group). Another 56 students were exposed to this same paradigm, but the photo that they examined was computer generated and the target individual was fictitious (control group). The dream elements were objectively scored with categories devised using the Hall-Van de Castle system as a model. Data were ordinal, and the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to examine preincubation (baseline) versus postincubation (photo examination and incubation) dream content in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a Z score for proportions was used to compare differences in frequency of devised categories between experimental and control groups. In Experiment 1, the comparison of postincubation dreams (all categories combined) was significant compared with the preincubation dreams (Z = 2.09, P = .036). The postincubation dreams reflected the health problem of the target. In Experiment 2, the proportion of scored categories in experimental and control groups were compared at the preincubation and postincubation conditions. The proportions of "Combined" (all categories) was very significantly larger at the postincubation condition (Z = 6.27, P dreams of the experimental group were related to the problems of the target individual. Young, healthy adults are capable of dreaming details about the personal problems of an unknown individual

  15. [Nutrition in pregnancy - Practice recommendations of the Network "Healthy Start - Young Family Network"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, B; Bauer, C-P; Bung, P; Cremer, M; Flothkötter, M; Hellmers, C; Kersting, M; Krawinkel, M; Przyrembel, H; Rasenack, R; Schäfer, T; Vetter, K; Wahn, U; Weißenborn, A; Wöckel, A

    2012-06-01

    Nutrition, physical activity and lifestyle in pregnancy influence maternal and child health. The "Healthy start - Young Family Network" supported by the German Government with the national action plan IN FORM developed recommendations on nutrition in pregnancy. Folic acid supplements (400 µg/day) should be started before pregnancy and continue for at least the first trimester. Iodine rich foods and salt and an iodine supplement (100-150 µg/day) are recommended. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids should be provided with ≥ 1 weekly portion of oily sea fish, or a DHA-supplement if regular fish consumption is avoided. Vitamin D supplementation is advisable unless there is regular exposure to sunlight. Iron supplements should be used based on medical history and blood testing. Vegetarian diets with nutritional supplements can provide adequate nutrition, but counselling is recommended. In contrast, a vegan diet is inadequate and requires additional micronutrient supplementation. For risk reduction of listeriosis and toxoplasmosis, raw animal foods, soft cheeses and packed fresh salads should be avoided; fresh fruit, vegetables and salad should be washed well and consumed promptly. Pregnant women should remain physically active and perform sports with moderate intensity. They should avoid alcohol, active and passive smoking. Up to 3 daily cups of coffee are considered harmless, but energy drinks should be avoided. Childhood allergy is not reduced by avoiding certain foods in pregnancy whereas oily sea fish is recommended. Health care professions should lead parents to health-promoting lifestyles. Subjects of part 1 of the article are practice recommendations on nutrition, on energy needs, micronutrient needs and body weight/weight gain in pregnancy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Exercise increases pressure pain tolerance but not pressure and heat pain thresholds in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaegter, H B; Hoeger Bement, M; Madsen, A B; Fridriksson, J; Dasa, M; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2017-01-01

    Exercise causes an acute decrease in the pain sensitivity known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH), but the specificity to certain pain modalities remains unknown. This study aimed to compare the effect of isometric exercise on the heat and pressure pain sensitivity. On three different days, 20 healthy young men performed two submaximal isometric knee extensions (30% maximal voluntary contraction in 3 min) and a control condition (quiet rest). Before and immediately after exercise and rest, the sensitivity to heat pain and pressure pain was assessed in randomized and counterbalanced order. Cuff pressure pain threshold (cPPT) and pain tolerance (cPTT) were assessed on the ipsilateral lower leg by computer-controlled cuff algometry. Heat pain threshold (HPT) was recorded on the ipsilateral foot by a computer-controlled thermal stimulator. Cuff pressure pain tolerance was significantly increased after exercise compared with baseline and rest (p  0.77) compared with HPT (intraclass correlation = 0.54). The results indicate that hypoalgesia after submaximal isometric exercise is primarily affecting tolerance of pressure pain compared with the pain threshold. These data contribute to the understanding of how isometric exercise influences pain perception, which is necessary to optimize the clinical utility of exercise in management of chronic pain. The effect of isometric exercise on pain tolerance may be relevant for patients in chronic musculoskeletal pain as a pain-coping strategy. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: The results indicate that hypoalgesia after submaximal isometric exercise is primarily affecting tolerance of pressure pain compared with the heat and pressure pain threshold. These data contribute to the understanding of how isometric exercise influences pain perception, which is necessary to optimize the clinical utility of exercise in management of chronic pain. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  17. The Relationship between Selected Anthropometric Indices and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Apparently Healthy Young Adults in a Nigerian Community

    OpenAIRE

    C. N. Ofiaeli; A. V. Egwuonwu; M. J. Nwankwo; Y. E. Ihegihu; U. P. Okonkwo

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a useful tool for establishment of baseline fitness status and monitoring of physical activity level. Therefore, it may by extension serve as health risk index. However, studies that have determined the correlation between anthropometric indices and CRF in apparently healthy young adults is difficult to find in other to preempt preventive actions before pathology develops. Materials and Methods: Using a descriptive correlational resea...

  18. Pyrethroid insecticide exposure and reproductive hormone levels in healthy Japanese male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshinaga, J; Imai, K; Shiraishi, H

    2014-01-01

    )] were explored in 322 male university students in suburban Tokyo. The subjects constituted part of a large cross-sectional survey on the reference value of semen quality of Japanese men. Urinary 3-PBA was detectable in 91% of the subjects demonstrating ubiquitous exposure among the general population....... However, there were no associations between urinary 3-PBA and serum hormone levels. This result was inconsistent with those reported in China and the USA for subjects who had similar levels of urinary 3-PBA to the present subjects. One of the possible reasons of the inconsistency might be different...

  19. The Preliminary Findings of a Study Exploring the Perceptions of a Sample of Young Heterosexual Males regarding HIV Prevention Education Programming in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahagan, Jacqueline; Rehman, Laurene; Barbour, Laura; McWilliam, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Despite the increasing numbers of young Canadian females becoming infected with HIV through heterosexual transmission with an infected male sexual partner, the majority of current HIV prevention programs and services in Canada continue to ignore the needs of young heterosexual males. This research is derived from 30 in-depth interviews, 9 focus…

  20. Effects of different frequencies of rhythmic auditory cueing on the stride length, cadence, and gait speed in healthy young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lili; Zhang, Qi; Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Ye, Miao; Li, Desheng

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to explore the effects of different frequencies of rhythmic auditory cueing (RAC) on stride length, cadence, and gait speed in healthy young females. The findings of this study might be used as clinical guidance of physical therapy for choosing the suitable frequency of RAC. [Subjects] Thirteen healthy young females were recruited in this study. [Methods] Ten meters walking tests were measured in all subjects under 4 conditions with each repeated 3 times and a 3-min seated rest period between repetitions. Subjects first walked as usual and then were asked to listen carefully to the rhythm of a metronome and walk with 3 kinds of RAC (90%, 100%, and 110% of the mean cadence). The three frequencies (90%, 100%, and 110%) of RAC were randomly assigned. Gait speed, stride length, and cadence were calculated, and a statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS (version 17.0) computer package. [Results] The gait speed and cadence of 90% RAC walking showed significant decreases compared with normal walking and 100% and 110% RAC walking. The stride length, cadence, and gait speed of 110% RAC walking showed significant increases compared with normal walking and 90% and 100% RAC walking. [Conclusion] Our results showed that 110% RAC was the best of the 3 cueing frequencies for improvement of stride length, cadence, and gait speed in healthy young females.