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Sample records for young goettingen minipigs

  1. Concentration of platelets and growth factors in platelet-rich plasma from Goettingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, Pascal; Grassmann, Jan-Peter; Thelen, Simon; Wild, Michael; Sager, Martin; Windolf, Joachim; Hakimi, Mohssen

    2014-01-01

    In minipigs little is known about the concentration of growth factors in plasma, despite their major role in several patho-physiological processes such as healing of fractures. This prompted us to study the concentration of platelets and selected growth factors in plasma and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preparation of sixteen Goettingen minipigs. Platelet concentrations increased significantly in PRP in comparison to native blood plasma. Generally, significant increase in the concentration of all growth factors tested was observed in the PRP in comparison to the corresponding plasma or serum. Five of the plasma samples examined contained detectable levels of bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2) whereas eleven of the plasma or serum samples contained minimal amounts of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-bb) respectively. On the other hand variable concentrations of bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP-7) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) were measured in all plasma samples. In contrast, all PRP samples contained significantly increased amounts of growth factors. The level of BMP-2, BMP-7, TGF-β1, VEGF and PDGF-bb increased by 17.6, 1.5, 7.1, 7.2 and 103.3 fold, in comparison to the corresponding non-enriched preparations. Moreover significant positive correlations were found between platelet count and the concentrations of BMP-2 (r=0.62, pplatelet-rich plasma of minipigs which might thus serve as a source of autologous growth factors.

  2. The Young Gottingen Minipig as a Model of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Berit; Golozoubova, Valeria; Pacini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Gender and sex hormones influence the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome in humans and Gottingen minipigs. The aim of this study was to investigate possible gender differences in the metabolic response to a high energy diet in young Gottingen minipigs as a model of childhood...... Gottingen minipig, and especially the female gender, seems to be a potential model for diet induced childhood/adolescent obesity and metabolic syndrome......./adolescent obesity. Design and Methods: Nine-week-old male and female Gottingen minipigs were fed restrictedly on either a low energy diet (LED) or a high energy diet (HED) for 4 months (n = 5-7). Parameters of interest were fat percentage, visceral fat mass, plasma lipids and glucose tolerance, insulin resistance...

  3. The University of Goettingen joins ATLAS - first impressions

    CERN Multimedia

    Arnulf Quadt

    This year the ATLAS Overview Week was being held in Glasgow from 9th to 13th July. The event was being organized by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Glasgow University. For me this was a very special and important week. In October 2006, I took a position at the University of Goettingen (Germany) with the task to start-up a new particle physics institute. Goettingen is an old and distinguished university with a strong history in quantum mechanics (Max Born, Werner Heisenberg, ...) and subatomic physics (James Franck, ...). Such opportunities are rather rare and I was thrilled to take it. First of all, a new institute needs a project to work on. Having worked at HERA, LEP and the Tevatron before, it was now time to get involved in the LHC and so we submitted an expression of interest to ATLAS. This proposal was presented to ATLAS at the previous Overview Week in February and this time the Collaboration was called to decide about our admission. When I arrived in Glasgow I received a warm welcome in t...

  4. Including solar energy in the local heat supply of the Goettingen city works; Einbindung von Sonnenenergie in die Nahwaermeversorgung der Stadtwerke Goettingen AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepe, R. [ISFH - Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung Hameln-Emmerthal GmbH, Emmerthal (Germany); Schreitmueller, K.R. [ISFH - Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung Hameln-Emmerthal GmbH, Emmerthal (Germany); Vanoli, K. [ISFH - Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung Hameln-Emmerthal GmbH, Emmerthal (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    The research project `Solar local heat Goettingen` was started in 1992 in which, by including a 785 m{sup 2} flat collector plant in the return of the local heat supply of the Goettingen City Works; the potential of the combined system of solar plant and conventional heat supply system is to be proved. The size of the collector plant and inclusion in an existing local heat network promised an advantageous combination due to appreciably lower investment costs (lower collector installation costs) and savings in system technique, reduced operating costs, and higher income due to favourable operating conditions with even low collector operating temperatures and reduced piping losses. In parallel with this system, the Goettingen City Works installed an air collector plant which is used to preheat the combustion air taken to the conventional burners. (orig./HW) [Deutsch] Es entstand im Jahr 1992 das Forschungsvorhaben `Solare Nahwaerme Goettingen`, in dem durch die Einbindung einer 785 m{sup 2} grossen Flachkollektoranlage in den Ruecklauf der Nahwaermeversorgung der Stadtwerke Goettingen AG das Potential der Systemkombination Solaranlage und konventionelle Waermeversorgungssystem nachgewiesen werden sollte. Die Groesse der Kollektoranlage sowie die Einbindung in ein bestehendes Nahwaermenetz versprachen eine vorteilhafte Kombination aufgrund - deutlich geringerer Investionskosten (geringe Kollektorinstallationskosten sowie Einsparungen bei der Systemtechnik); - reduzierter Betriebskosten; - hoher Ertraege durch guenstige Betriebsbedingungen wie gleichbleibend niedriger Kollektorbetriebstemperaturen und reduzierter Leitungsverluste. Parallel zu diesem System installierten die Stadtwerke Goettingen AG eine Luftkollektoranlage, die der Vorwaermung der den konventionellen Brennern zugefuehrten Verbrennungsluft dient. (orig./HW)

  5. Teratology studies in the minipig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnulty, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    The minipig is a suitable species for regulatory teratology testing and may be regarded as an alternative to the rabbit, dog, and primate. The first successful regulatory teratology studies in the minipig were performed in the 1990s. It became clear that minipigs have several benefits over the other non-rodents, as they are purpose-bred for laboratory use, they are sexually mature at approximately 5 months of age, and they produce multiple offspring. The minipig has subsequently gained regulatory acceptance in the teratology testing of new drugs.

  6. Modeling H-ARS using hematological parameters: a comparison between the non-human primate and mini-pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolduc, David L.; Buenger, Rolf; Moroni, Maria; Blakely, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple hematological biomarkers (i.e. complete blood counts and serum chemistry parameters) were used in a multivariate linear-regression fit to create predictive algorithms for estimating the severity of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (H-ARS) using two different species (i.e. Goettingen Mini-pig and non-human primate (NHP) (Macacca mulatta)). Biomarker data were analyzed prior to irradiation and between 1-60 days (mini-pig) and 1-30 days (NHP) after irradiation exposures of 1.6-3.5 Gy (mini-pig) and 6.5 Gy (NHP) 60 Co gamma ray doses at 0.5-0.6 Gy min -1 and 0.4 Gy min -1 , respectively. Fitted radiation risk and injury categorization (RRIC) values and RRIC prediction percent accuracies were compared between the two models. Both models estimated H-ARS severity with over 80% overall predictive power and with receiver operating characteristic curve area values of 0.884 and 0.825. These results based on two animal radiation models support the concept for the use of a hematopoietic-based algorithm for predicting the risk of H-ARS in humans. (authors)

  7. Diabetes induction by total pancreatectomy in minipigs with simultaneous splenectomy: a feasible approach for advanced diabetes research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinke, Sophie; Ludwig, Barbara; Schubert, Undine; Schmid, Janine; Kiss, Thomas; Steffen, Anja; Bornstein, Stefan; Ludwig, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Safe and reliable diabetes models are a key prerequisite for advanced preclinical studies on diabetes. Chemical induction is the standard model of diabetes in rodents and also widely used in large animal models of non-human primates and minipigs. However, uncertain efficacy, the potential of beta-cell regeneration, and relevant side effects are debatable aspects particularly in large animals. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate a surgical approach of total pancreatectomy combined with splenectomy for diabetes induction in an exploratory study in Goettingen minipigs. Total pancreatectomy was performed in Goettingen minipigs (n = 4) under general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation. Prior to surgery, a central venous line was established for drug application and blood sampling. After median laparotomy, splenectomy was performed and the lobular pancreas was carefully dissected with particular attention to the duodenal vascular arcade. Close monitoring of blood glucose was initiated immediately after surgery by standard glucometer measurement or continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS). Exogenous insulin was given by multiple daily subcutaneous (s.c.) injections or via insulin pump systems (CSII). Complete endogenous insulin deficiency was confirmed by intravenous glucose tolerance test (ivGTT) and measurement of c-peptide. For establishing a suitable regimen for diabetes management, the animals were followed for 4-6 weeks. Following pancreatectomy and splenectomy, the animals showed a quick recovery from surgery and initial analgetic medication and volume substitution could be terminated within 24 h. A rapid increase in blood glucose was observed immediately following pancreatectomy necessitating insulin therapy. The induced exocrine insufficiency did not cause any clinical symptoms. Complete insulin deficiency could be confirmed in all animals by determination of negative c-peptide during glucose challenge. The two regimen of insulin treatment (multiple daily

  8. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  9. Elimination and utilization of ammonium nitrogen from sewage treatment plants. Operating experience at the Goettingen and Cuxhaven sewage treatment plants; Entfernung und Verwertung von Ammonium-Stickstoff aus Klaeranlagen. Betriebserfahrungen auf den Klaeranlagen Goettingen und Cuxhaven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, S.; Sackewitz, M.; Spindler, T. [Rauschert Verfahrenstechnik GmbH, Steinwiesen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Stripping is a physical-chemical technique for reliable and easy removal of ammonium-nitrogen from waste water. Especially for treating small and heavily loaded partial streams, stripping represents an efficient complement to biological process stages. An energy-optimized concept evolved by the process engineering firm Rauschert manages to combine proved technology and the utilization of all process products in the long term into an economical process solution. This is reflected in the operating results of reference plants at Goettingen and Cuxhaven. (orig.) [German] Das Strippen ist ein physikalisch-chemisches Verfahren zur sicheren und einfachen Entfernung von Ammonium-Stickstoff aus Abwasser. Vor allem bei der Behandlung kleiner und hochbeladener Teilstroeme ist die Strippung eine effiziente Ergaenzung zu biologischen Verfahrensstufen. Ein energieoptimiertes Konzept der Firma Rauschert Verfahrenstechnik verbindet die bewaehrte Technik und die langfristige Verwertung saemtlicher Prozessprodukte zu einer wirtschaftlichen Problemloesung. Dies spiegelt sich in den Betriebsergebnissen der Referenzanlagen in Goettingen und Cuxhaven wider. (orig.)

  10. [Medical school admission test at the University of Goettingen - which applicants will benefit?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmenroth-Nayda, Anne; Meskauskas, Erik; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Görlich, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Medical schools in Germany may select 60% of the student applicants through their own admission tests. The influence of the school-leaving examination grades (EGs) in each of the procedural steps is controversial. At Goettingen Medical School, we combine a structured interview and a communicative skills assessment. We analysed how many applicants succeeded in our admission test, compared to a model which only takes EGs into account. Admission scores were transferred into SPSS-21. Sociodemographic data were submitted by the Stiftung Hochschulstart. Besides descriptive statistics, we used Pearson-correlation and means comparisons (t-test, analysis of variance). 221 applicants (EGs 1.0-1.9) were invited in the winter semester 2013/14 and 222 applicants (EGs 1.1-1.8) in the summer semester 2014. The proportion of women was 68% (winter) and 74% (summer). Sixteen and 37 applicants had a medical vocational training and performed slightly better. The analysis showed that our test was gender neutral. EGs did not correlate with interviews or skills assessment. Despite a two-fold impact of EGs, 26 (winter) and 44 (summer) of the overall 181 applicants had EGs of 1.4 -1.9, which would have been too low for admission otherwise. If EGs were only considered once, 40 (winter) and 59 (summer) applicants would have succeeded. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake...... of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour....... Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test...

  12. Expression profiles of miRNA-122 and its target CAT1 in minipigs (Sus scrofa) fed a high-cholesterol diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Busk, Peter Kamp

    2010-01-01

    The Göttingen minipig is an excellent model for studying effects of dietary high-fat intake on obesity. In this study, we analyzed the expression level of microRNA-122 (miRNA-122) and its target mRNA, CAT1, in intact young male minipigs fed either high-cholesterol or standard diet for 11 wk. Mi...... with a decrease in the expression of miRNA-122, confirming the implication of this microRNA in obesity. Gene expression levels of CAT1 did not differ between groups.......RNA-122 and CAT1 are known to be important regulators of lipid metabolism. The weight of the young minipigs was monitored once a week during the feeding period; measurements of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, and low-density lipoproteins were recorded at 4 time points (8, 14...

  13. Phenotype development in TgHD minipigs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ellederová, Zdeňka; Vidinská, Daniela; Mačáková, Monika; Kučerová, S.; Bohuslavová, Božena; Sedláčková, M.; Lišková, Irena; Valeková, Ivona; Baxa, Monika; Ardan, Taras; Juhás, Štefan; Motlík, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 11-11 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. 08.11.2015-10.11.2015, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : phenotype * minipig model of Huntington ´s disease * reproductive failure Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  14. The minipig as a platform for new technologies in toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forster, Roy; Ancian, Philippe; Fredholm, Merete

    2010-01-01

    The potential of the minipig as a platform for future developments in genomics, high density biology, transgenic technology, in vitro toxicology and related emerging technologies was reviewed. Commercial interests in the pig as an agricultural production species have driven scientific progress...... pigs and humans suggest that minipigs will be useful for the testing of biotechnology products (and possibly for in silico toxicology) and (iii) the minipig is the only non-rodent toxicology model where transgenic animals can be readily generated, and reproductive technologies are well developed...... in the pig. These properties should also make the minipig an interesting model for the testing of biotechnology products. These factors all support the idea that the minipig is well placed to meet the challenges of the emerging technologies and the toxicology of the future; it also seems likely...

  15. The histological components of the phoniatrical body-cover model in minipigs of different ages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Lang

    Full Text Available Pigs are models in human phoniatry. However, features of maturation and ageing have not been considered with regard to the so-called body-cover model in this species. Therefore, the glottis of "young" (2-3 months; n = 6 and "old" (4-7 years; n = 6 minipigs was investigated. Their cranial (CraF and caudal (CauF vocal folds were histomorphometrically and stratigraphically analysed with emphasis on their amounts of collagen structures and elastic fibres. A dense subepithelial layer (SEL was a distinct feature of CraF and CauF of both age groups; it was spread upon the underlying loose, flexible "cover" like a fibro-elastic membrane. The "cover" was characterised by the so-called superficial layer (SL, which was distinctly loose in the "young" minipigs, but had a much denser texture in the "old" minipigs. Here, the SL was dominated by elastic fibres in the CraF, but was of mixed qualities (collagenous and elastic in the CauF. The structural requirements for the SL's function as a loose "cover" were thus met only in the "young" animals. A clearly demarcated intermediate layer (IL--characterised by high amounts of elastic fibres (as in humans--was only found in the CraF of the "young" animals. In the "old" animals, it had lost its demarcation. In the depth of the CraF of the "old" animals, many thick collagen fibre bundles were detected in a location equivalent to that of the vocal muscle in the CauF. The development of their large diameters was interpreted as part of the maturation process, thereby supporting the hypothesis of their functional importance as a component of the "body." In the CauF, the amounts of collagen structures increased throughout the entire lamina propria, resulting in a loss of demarcated stratigraphical subdivisions in the "old" minipigs. This situation resembled that described in the vocal fold of geriatric humans.

  16. Behavioral phenotyping of minipigs transgenic for the Huntington gene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schramke, S.; Schuldenzucker, V.; Schubert, R.; Frank, F.; Wirsig, M.; Ott, S.; Motlík, Jan; Fels, M.; Kemper, N.; Hölzner, E.; Reilmann, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 265, S1 (2016), s. 34-45 ISSN 0165-0270 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : animal models * minipig * phenotyping * behavioral * motor Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.554, year: 2016

  17. A minipig model of maxillary distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Maria E; Troulis, Maria J; Glowacki, Julie; Kaban, Leonard B

    2010-11-01

    To establish a porcine model for maxillary distraction osteogenesis and to document the sequence of bone formation in the zone of advancement. Female Yucatan minipigs (n = 9) in the mixed dentition stage underwent modified Le Fort I osteotomy through a vestibular incision under general anesthesia. A unidirectional, semiburied Le Fort I distraction device was fixed across the osteotomy. The distraction protocol was 0-day latency, 1-mm/d rate for 12 days, and 24 days of fixation. Maxillary specimens (n = 9) were harvested and divided in half at the end of distraction (n = 6 sides), midfixation (n = 6), and the end of fixation (n = 6). Clinical stability, volume, and radiographic density across the zone of advancement were graded on semiquantitative scales. Specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined with light microscopy. Animals tolerated the operation, the distraction and fixation periods. There were no infections and no devices failed. At the end of the distraction period, bone trabeculae were present at the periphery and fibrous tissues, and vessels, preosteoblasts, and osteoblasts were present in the center of the zone of advancement. Islands of chondrocyte-like cells appeared in 1 specimen each at midfixation and the end of fixation. At the end of fixation, clinical stability and radiographic density were graded 3/3 and bone formation was complete across the advancement zone in all specimens. A model for Le Fort I distraction osteogenesis was established. Intramembranous bone formation was the predominant mechanism of healing in the zone of advancement. Latency was not necessary for bone formation in this minipig model. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Testicular pathology in transgenic minipig boars - in brief

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mačáková, Monika; Bohuslavová, Božena; Vochozková, Petra; Baxa, Monika; Ellederová, Zdeňka; Sedláčková, M.; Lišková, Irena; Valeková, Ivona; Vidinská, Daniela; Klíma, Jiří; Juhás, Štefan; Motlík, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 19-19 ISSN 1210-7859 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : transgenic minipig model of Huntington ´s disease * testes * spermatozoa Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  19. A transgenic minipig model of Hungtington´s disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baxa, Monika; Hruška-Plocháň, Marian; Juhás, Štefan; Vodička, Petr; Pavlok, Antonín; Juhásová, Jana; Miyanohara, A.; Nejime, T.; Klíma, Jiří; Mačáková, Monika; Marsala, S.; Weiss, A.; Kubíčková, S.; Musilová, P.; Vrtel, R.; Sontag, E. M.; Thompson, L.M.; Schier, Jan; Hansíková, H.; Howland, D. S.; Cattaneo, E.; DiFiglia, M.; Marsala, M.; Motlík, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2013), s. 47-68 ISSN 1879-6397 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011466; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : Huntington´s disease * mutant huntingtin * minipigs * large animal model Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. Ethical implications of using the minipig in regulatory toxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, John; Bollen, Peter; Grimm, Herwig; Jennings, Maggy

    2010-01-01

    Two key questions are addressed in this article. What are the potential harms to minipigs relative to the harms for dogs and non-human primates and can these harms be reduced more easily in minipigs than in other species? Are there potential benefits resulting from the use of minipigs relative to dogs and non-human primates? In considering the answers to these questions, we present an ethical framework which was developed taking into account the viewpoint of all concerned parties. This ethical matrix provides a framework upon which to identify and explore issues raised by the moral imperative to seek a fair compromise between the differing needs of different interest groups, which includes both the moral agents and the moral patients. The moral agents are the different groups of human stakeholders including society at large, regulatory bodies, industrialists and animal care staff. The moral patients are the laboratory animals, both breeding stock held by the animal supplier, and experimental animals in laboratories. In considering these animals it cannot be assumed that dogs, monkeys and minipigs differ with regard to the pain and suffering that they may experience and undergo when treated in studies designed for safety assessment. On this basis we rejected the argument that minipigs are more acceptable experimental animals than dogs or monkeys despite the fact that their use may prove less offensive to some groups within society at large. Species selection must be made on a case-by-case basis where the benefits are assessed by weighing the scientific evidence relating to the predictivity of the animal model, against the harm that may accrue to the animals both from the test procedures and their lifetime experience within the laboratory environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Histological characterization of 36 months old TgHD minipigs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vochozková, Petra; Kocurová, Gabriela; Hrnčiarová, Eva; Ardan, Taras; Motlík, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 25-26 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. 08.11.2015-10.11.2015, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington ´s disease * minipig * immunohistochemistry Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  2. Age- and Sex-Associated Effects on Acute-Phase Proteins in Göttingen Minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Berit Ø; Jensen, Søren J.; Ludvigsen, Trine P

    2015-01-01

    , 16, 24 and 40-48 wk) of male and female Göttingen minipigs. In addition, minipigs were tested under 2 housing conditions, after acute LPS challenge, and after diet-induced obesity with and without mild diabetes. Changing the pigs to a new environment induced significant increases in CRP, PMAP...

  3. Potential and limits of mammography (Statistical and casuistic investigation of clinically positive, mammographically negative cases among the patients of Goettingen Radiological University Hospital)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pforte, A.

    1978-01-01

    In the radiological clinic of the Goettingen University, 23,945 patients were mammographed from 1971 to 1977. For 612 patients with existing clinical findings, a negative radiological finding was established; as for the 202 patients who are dealt with in this paper, in 192 of these cases a histological or cytological clarification was carried out; 10 other cases were observed over a longer period. The average age of the patients examined was 39.7 years. The maximum frequency with regard to the age lies in the 5th life decade with 26.2%. Corresponding to the Goettingen model, the patients examined were assigned to 4 main groups in accordance to their parenchymal structure. In relation to the mamma structure, the clinical finding in 53.9% is hardening and in 46.1% nodes. As for the nodes, most have the size of cherry or plum (21.3%), this is followed by those with the size of beans (13,8%) and lenses (10.9%). A coherence between age and size of the clinical finding cannot be manifested definitely. In nearly half of the cases, the histological or cytological examination revealed a mastopathy (48.9%). In 10.4% a fibroadenoma was found and in 2.1% a carcinoma. In the remaining 32,8% the finding referred to lipomas, mastitis, atypical cells or negative cytological results. Related to the age, mastopathy is dominant in women between 20 and 60 years of age. In women below 20 years, fibroadenomas are dominant, in women in their 7th decade other benign diagnoses which in the 8th decade are of the same frequency as carcinomas. With increasing age, the number of fibroadenomas decreases.

  4. Nigrostriatal proteasome inhibition impairs dopamine neurotransmission and motor function in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillethorup, Thea Pinholt; Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    2018-01-01

    weeks after the unilateral administration of 100 μg lactacystin into the MFB. Compared to their baseline values, minipigs injected with lactacystin showed on average a 36% decrease in ipsilateral striatal binding potential corresponding to impaired presynaptic dopamine terminals. Behaviourally, minipigs....... In conclusion, direct injection of lactacystin into the MFB of minipigs provides a model of PD with reduced dopamine neurotransmission, TH-positive neuron reduction, microglial activation and behavioural deficits. This large animal model could be useful in studies of symptomatic and neuroprotective therapies...

  5. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in super obese Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Vegge, Andreas; Støckel, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Background: The specific mechanisms behind weight loss and comorbidity improvements in obese patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to establish and evaluate the feasibility of a long-term survival RYGBP model in super obese Göttingen...... minipigs in order to improve the translational potential relative to current animal models. Methods: Eleven Göttingen minipigs with diet-induced obesity underwent laparoscopic RYGBP and were followed up to 9 months after surgery. Intra-and post-operative complications, body weight (BW), food intake......, biliary and common limb between minipigs. Conclusion: The use of obese Göttingen minipigs as a translational RYGBP model is feasible and has potential for the study of RYGBP-related changes in gut function, type-2 diabetes and appetite regulation. Still, the surgical procedure is technically highly...

  6. The obese Göttingen minipig as a model of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study reported here was to induce obesity in the female Göttingen minipig to establish a model of the human metabolic syndrome. Nine- to ten-month-old female Göttingen minipigs received a high-fat high-energy (HFE) diet or a low-fat, low-energy (LFE) diet. The energy contents...... of the metabolic impairments seen in obese humans, and may thus serve as a model of the metabolic syndrome....

  7. Nigrostriatal proteasome inhibition impairs dopamine neurotransmission and motor function in minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillethorup, Thea P; Glud, Andreas N; Alstrup, Aage K O; Mikkelsen, Trine W; Nielsen, Erik H; Zaer, Hamed; Doudet, Doris J; Brooks, David J; Sørensen, Jens Christian H; Orlowski, Dariusz; Landau, Anne M

    2018-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra leading to slowness and stiffness of limb movement with rest tremor. Using ubiquitin proteasome system inhibitors, rodent models have shown nigrostriatal degeneration and motor impairment. We translated this model to the Göttingen minipig by administering lactacystin into the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). Minipigs underwent positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with (+)-α-[ 11 C]dihydrotetrabenazine ([ 11 C]DTBZ), a marker of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 availability, at baseline and three weeks after the unilateral administration of 100 μg lactacystin into the MFB. Compared to their baseline values, minipigs injected with lactacystin showed on average a 36% decrease in ipsilateral striatal binding potential corresponding to impaired presynaptic dopamine terminals. Behaviourally, minipigs displayed asymmetrical motor disability with spontaneous rotations in one of the animals. Immunoreactivity for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and HLA-DR-positive microglia confirmed asymmetrical reduction in nigral TH-positive neurons with an inflammatory response in the lactacystin-injected minipigs. In conclusion, direct injection of lactacystin into the MFB of minipigs provides a model of PD with reduced dopamine neurotransmission, TH-positive neuron reduction, microglial activation and behavioural deficits. This large animal model could be useful in studies of symptomatic and neuroprotective therapies with translatability to human PD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The vaginal microbiome is stable in prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen Minipigs throughout an estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Kudirkiene, Egle; Gutman, Nicole; Grossi, Anette Blak; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Erneholm, Karin; Skytte, Christina; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2015-10-28

    Although the pig has been introduced as an advanced animal model of genital tract infections in women, almost no knowledge exists on the porcine vaginal microbiota, especially in barrier-raised Göttingen Minipigs. In women, the vaginal microbiota plays a crucial role for a healthy vaginal environment and the fate of sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Therefore, knowledge on the vaginal microbiota is urgently needed for the minipig model. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbiota of the anterior vagina by 16 s rRNA gene sequencing in prepubertal and sexually mature Göttingen Minipigs during an estrous cycle. The dominating phyla in the vaginal microbiota consisted of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Tenericutes. The most abundant bacterial families were Enterobacteriaceae, unclassified families from Gammaproteobacteria, Clostridiales Family XI Incertae Sedis, Paenibacillaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Ruminococcaceae and Syntrophaceae. We found a higher abundance of Lactobacillaceae in the prepubertal Göttingen Minipigs compared to sexually mature non-pregnant Göttingen Minipigs. However, correlation tests and diversity parameters revealed a very stable vaginal microbiota in the Göttingen Minipigs, both before and after sexual maturity and on different days throughout an estrous cycle. The vaginal microbiota in Göttingen Minipigs was not dominated by lactobacilli, as it is in women and according to our results the minipig vaginal microbiota is very stable, in opposite to women. These differences should be considered when using the minipig as a model of the genital tract in women.

  9. Discrete Blood Glucose Control in Diabetic Göttingen Minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berno J.E. Misgeld

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite continuous research effort, patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D experience difficulties in daily adjustments of their blood glucose concentrations. New technological developments in the form of implanted intravenous infusion pumps and continuous blood glucose sensors might alleviate obstacles for the automatic adjustment of blood glucose concentration. These obstacles consist, for example, of large time-delays and insulin storage effects for the subcutaneous/interstitial route. Towards the goal of an artificial pancreas, we present a novel feedback controller approach that combines classical loop-shaping techniques with gain-scheduling and modern H ∞ -robust control approaches. A disturbance rejection design is proposed in discrete frequency domain based on the detailed model of the diabetic Göttingen minipig. The model is trimmed and linearised over a large operating range of blood glucose concentrations and insulin sensitivity values. Controller parameters are determined for each of these operating points. A discrete H ∞ loop-shaping compensator is designed to increase robustness of the artificial pancreas against general coprime factor uncertainty. The gain scheduled controller uses subcutaneous insulin injection as a control input and determines the controller input error from intravenous blood glucose concentration measurements, where parameter scheduling is achieved by an estimator of the insulin sensitivity parameter. Thus, only one controller stabilises a family of animal models. The controller is validated in silico with a total number of five Göttingen Minipig models, which were previously obtained by experimental identification procedures. Its performance is compared with an experimentally tested switching PI-controller.

  10. Computed tomographic evaluation of abdominal fat in minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinhwa; Jung, Joohyun; Lee, Hyeyeon; Chang, Dongwoo; Yoon, Junghee; Choi, Mincheol

    2011-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) exams were conducted to determine the distribution of abdominal fat identified based on the CT number measured in Hounsfield Units (HU) and to measure the volume of the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat in minipigs. The relationship between the CT-based fat volumes of several vertebral levels and the entire abdomen and anthropometric data including the sagittal abdominal diameter and waist circumference were evaluated. Moreover, the total fat volumes at the T11, T13, L3, and L5 levels were compared with the total fat volume of the entire abdomen to define the landmark of abdominal fat distribution. Using a single-detector CT, six 6-month-old male minipigs were scanned under general anesthesia. Three radiologists then assessed the HU value of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat by drawing the region of interest manually at the T11, T13, L1, L3, and L5 levels. The CT number and abdominal fat determined in this way by the three radiologists was found to be correlated (intra-class coefficient = 0.9). The overall HU ranges for the visceral and subcutaneous fat depots were -147.47 to -83.46 and -131.62 to -90.97, respectively. The total fat volume of the entire abdomen was highly correlated with the volume of abdominal fat at the T13 level (r = 0.97, p abdominal adipose tissue measured at the T13 level using CT is a strong and reliable predictor of total abdominal adipose volume.

  11. The Goettingen high-Tc superconductivity research pool: the effects of structure and structural defects on the performance of high-Tc superconductors. Final reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The compilation presents the final reports prepared by the various teams of the Goettingen research pool for high-Tc superconductivity. The reports are entitled: Structure and phase transition in high-Tc superconductors (Krebs/Freyhardt). Preparation and critical properties of high-Tc superconductors (Freyhardt/Heinemann/Zimmermann). EMC measurements in high-Tc superconductors (Bormann/Noelting). Phase analysis of the various phases observed in the preparation of high-Tc superconductors (Faupel/Hehenkamp). Positron annihilation in high-Tc superconductors (Hehenkamp). Preparation and characterization of thin films consisting of superconducting oxide ceramics (v. Minnigerode/Samwer). High-Tc superconductivity in monocrystals (Winzer/Beuermann). Microwave conductivity in high-Tc superconductors (Helberg). High-resolution structural analyses in high-Tc superconductors (Kupcik/Bente). Synthesis, structural analyses and spectroscopy of high-Tc superconductors (Bente). Synthesis, monocrystal growing, crystal structure of high-Tc superconductors (Schwarzmann). Ion-beam-aided studies in high-Tc superconductors (Uhrmacher). (orig./MM) [de

  12. Orosomucoid expression profiles in liver, adipose tissues and serum of lean and obese domestic pigs, Göttingen minipigs and Ossabaw minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rødgaard, Tina; Stagsted, Jan; Christoffersen, Berit Ø; Cirera, Susanna; Moesgaard, Sophia G; Sturek, Michael; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2013-02-15

    The acute phase protein orosomucoid (ORM) has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, and may play an important role in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in obesity-induced low-grade inflammation. Even though the pig is a widely used model for obesity related metabolic symptoms, the expression of ORM has not yet been characterized in such pig models. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of ORM1 mRNA in liver, visceral adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from the abdomen or retroperitoneal abdominal adipose tissue (RPAT) and SAT from the neck, as well as the serum concentration of ORM protein in three porcine obesity models; the domestic pig, Göttingen minipigs and Ossabaw minipigs. No changes in ORM1 mRNA expression were observed in obese pigs compared to lean pigs in the four types of tissues. However, obese Ossabaw minipigs, but none of the other breeds, showed significantly elevated ORM serum concentrations compared to their lean counterparts. Studies in humans have shown that the expression of ORM was unchanged in adipose tissue depots in obese humans with an increased serum concentration of ORM. Thus in this respect, obese Ossabaw minipigs behave more similarly to obese humans than the other two pig breeds investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Biochemical Intestinal Parameters in Germ-free Minipigs and Rats and in Ex-germ-free Minipigs and Rats Monoassociated with Escherichia coli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cardona, M.,E.; Kozáková, Hana; Collinder, E.; Persson, A.-K.; Midtvedt, T.; Norin, E.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 52, - (2005), s. 109-113 ISSN 1548-9213 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : germ-free * minipigs * ex-germ-free Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.111, year: 2005

  14. The Use of Minipig in Drug Discovery and Development: Pros and Cons of Minipig Selection and Strategies to Use as a Preferred Nonrodent Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heining, Peter; Ruysschaert, Tristan

    2016-04-01

    The pig was introduced more than 20 years ago in drug development following attempts of finding a species that shares better homology with human than the dog, based on biophysiological parameters. However, miniaturization, standardized breeding, and health status control were required before the pig could find a broader than niche application in pharmaceutical industry. During the years of experience with minipigs in pharmaceutical research and the science evolving rapidly, the selection of a nonrodent animal species for preclinical safety testing became primarily driven by pharmacological (target expression homologous function), pharmacokinetic, and biophysiological considerations. This offered a broad field of application for the minipig, besides the well-established use in dermal projects in all areas of drug development but also in novel approaches including genetically modified animals. In this article, we look at recent approaches and requirements in the optimal selection of a nonrodent model in pharmaceutical development and critically ask how good a choice the minipig offers for the scientist, how did the testing environment evolve, and what are the key requirements for a broader use of the minipig compared to the other well-established nonrodent species like dog or monkey. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Quantitative computed tomography bone mineral density measurements in irradiated and non-irradiated minipig alveolar bone: an experimental study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonck, H.W.; Meijer, G.J.; Nieman, F.H.; Stoll, C.; Riediger, D.; Baat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of irradiation on bone mineral density (BMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All maxillary and mandibular pre-molars and molars of six minipigs were extracted. After a 3-month healing period, the maxilla and mandibles of three minipigs

  16. Improvement of cloning efficiency in minipigs using post-thawed donor cells treated with roscovitine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seongsoo; Oh, Keon Bong; Kwon, Dae-Jin; Ock, Sun-A; Lee, Jeong-Woong; Im, Gi-Sun; Lee, Sung-Soo; Lee, Kichoon; Park, Jin-Ki

    2013-11-01

    Massachusetts General Hospital miniature pigs (MGH minipigs) have been established for organ transplantation studies across the homozygous major histocompatibility complex, but cloning efficiency of MGH minipigs is extremely low. This study was designed to increase the productivity of MGH minipigs by nuclear transfer of post-thaw donor cells after 1 h co-incubation with roscovitine. The MGH minipig cells were genetically modified with GT KO (alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase knock-out) and hCD46 KI (human CD46 knock-in) and used as donor cells. The GT KO/hCD46 KI donor cells were cultured for either 3 days (control group) or 1 h after thawing with 15 μM roscovitine (experimental group) prior to the nuclear transfer. The relative percentage of the transgenic donor cells that entered into G0/G1 was 93.7 % (±2.54). This was different from the donor cells cultured for 1 h with the roscovitine-treated group (84.6 % ±4.6) (P cloning efficiency ranged from 0.74 to 2.54 %. In conclusion, gene-modified donor cells can be used for cloning of MGH minipigs if the cells are post-thawed and treated with roscovitine for 1 h prior to nuclear transfer.

  17. Characterisation of Gut Microbiota in Ossabaw and Göttingen Minipigs as Models of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rebecca; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Sturek, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiota is an important contributing factor to obesity and obesity related metabolic disorders, known as the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to characterise the intestinal microbiota in two pig models of obesity namely Göttingen mi...... obese Göttingen and Ossabaw minipigs. In both pig models diet seems to be the defining factor that shapes the gut microbiota as observed by changes in different bacteria divisions between lean and obese minipigs....... minipigs and the Ossabaw minipigs. Methods and Findings The cecal, ileal and colonic microbiota from lean and obese Osabaw and Göttingen minipigs were investigated by Illumina-based sequencing and by high throughput qPCR, targeting the 16S rRNA gene in different phylogenetic groups of bacteria. The weight...

  18. Diabetes with poor glycaemic control does not promote atherosclerosis in genetically modified hypercholesterolaemic minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Mashhadi, Rozh H; Bjørklund, Martin M; Mortensen, Martin B

    2015-01-01

    atherogenesis in a novel pig model of atherosclerosis, the D374Y-PCSK9 (+) transgenic minipig. METHODS: Nineteen minipigs were fed a cholesterol-enriched, high-fat diet; ten of these pigs were injected with streptozotocin to generate a model of diabetes. Restricted feeding was implemented to control the pigs......' weight gain and cholesterol intake. After 49 weeks of high-fat feeding, the major arteries were harvested for a detailed analysis of the plaque burden and histological plaque type. RESULTS: Stable hyperglycaemia was achieved in the diabetic minipigs, while the plasma total and LDL......-cholesterol and creatinine levels were unaffected. Diabetes failed to increase atherosclerosis in any of the vessels examined. The plaque burden in the aorta and right coronary artery was comparable between the groups, and was even reduced in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary and iliofemoral arteries...

  19. Brain Serotonin Transporter Binding In a Minipig Model of Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillethorup, Thea Pinholt; Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Sørensen, Jens Christian Hedemann

    minipigs were implanted in the cisterna magna with a catheter connected to a subcutaneous titanium injection port under sterile conditions. Six-eight weeks after recovery from the catheter implant, and after injections of sterile saline alone to verify patency, minipigs were scanned at baseline with [11C......]-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile (11C-DASB), a label of SERT availability. Four pigs then received eight weekly injections of lactacystin dissolved in sterile saline, and one pig received saline alone, directly into the CSF through the access port. They were scanned...... with DASB again after a cumulative dose of 200μg lactacystin. PET data were registered to an average minipig MRI atlas and processed using PMOD software. The binding potential (BPND) of DASB was obtained with the Logan graphical analysis and cerebellum activity as a region of non-displaceable binding...

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility in SPF mini-pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun-Yeob [College of Animal Life Sciences , Kangwon National University, 192-1 Kangwon Avenue 1, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung-Back [Swine Science Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Cheonan, Chungcheongnam-do 330-801 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoo-Yong [College of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ohh, Sang-Jip, E-mail: sjohh@kangwon.ac.k [College of Animal Life Sciences , Kangwon National University, 192-1 Kangwon Avenue 1, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on nutrient digestibility of either soy-based or milk-based diet for specific pathogen-free (SPF) mini-pigs. Gamma irradiation of the diets was done at dosage of 10 kGy with {sup 60}Co whereas autoclaving was executed at 121 {sup o}C for 20 min. Apparent crude protein digestibilities of gamma irradiated diets were higher (p<0.05) than those of autoclaved diets regardless of diet type. Digestibilities of dry matter, gross energy and total carbohydrate in the irradiated diet were higher than those of the autoclaved diet. From the results of nutrient digestibility of mini-pig diets in this study, 10 kGy gamma radiation was suggested as a convenient diet radicidation method that can minimize the decrease in nutrient digestibility on feeding to SPF mini-pigs.

  1. Characterisation of gut microbiota in Ossabaw and Göttingen minipigs as models of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Pedersen

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiota is an important contributing factor to obesity and obesity related metabolic disorders, known as the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to characterise the intestinal microbiota in two pig models of obesity namely Göttingen minipigs and the Ossabaw minipigs.The cecal, ileal and colonic microbiota from lean and obese Osabaw and Göttingen minipigs were investigated by Illumina-based sequencing and by high throughput qPCR, targeting the 16S rRNA gene in different phylogenetic groups of bacteria. The weight gain through the study was significant in obese Göttingen and Ossabaw minipigs. The lean Göttingen minipigs' cecal microbiota contained significantly higher abundance of Firmicutes (P<0.006, Akkermensia (P<0.01 and Methanovibribacter (P<0.01 than obese Göttingen minipigs. The obese Göttingen cecum had higher abundances of the phyla Spirochaetes (P<0.03, Tenericutes (P<0.004, Verrucomicrobia (P<0.005 and the genus Bacteroides (P<0.001 compared to lean minipigs. The relative proportion of Clostridium cluster XIV was 7.6-fold higher in cecal microbiota of obese Göttingen minipigs as compared to lean. Obese Ossabaw minipigs had a higher abundance of Firmicutes in terminal ileum and lower abundance of Bacteroidetes in colon than lean Ossabaw minipigs (P<0.01. Obese Ossabaws had significantly lower abundances of the genera Prevotella and Lactobacillus and higher abundance of Clostridium in their colon than the lean Ossabaws. Overall, the Göttingen and Ossabaw minipigs displayed different microbial communities in response to diet-induced obesity in the different sections of their intestine.Obesity-related changes in the composition of the gut microbiota were found in lean versus obese Göttingen and Ossabaw minipigs. In both pig models diet seems to be the defining factor that shapes the gut microbiota as observed by changes in different bacteria divisions between lean and obese

  2. Direct gene transfer in the Gottingen minipig CNS using stereotaxic lentiviral microinjections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GLUD, AN; Hedegaard, Claus; Nielsen, Mette Slot

    2010-01-01

    We aim to induce direct viral mediated gene transfer in the substantia nigra (SN) of the Gottingen minipig using MRI guided stereotaxic injections of lentiviral vectors encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Nine female Gottingen minipigs were injected unilaterally into the SN with 6...... per 2.5 microliters lentivirus capable of transducing cells and mediating expression of recombinant EGFP. The animals were euthanized after four (n=3) or twenty weeks (n=6). Fresh brain tissue from three animals was used for PCR. The remaining six brains were cryo- or paraffin...

  3. The minipig as an animal model to study Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and natural transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infants and children with tuberculosis (TB) account for more than 20% of cases in endemic countries. Current animal models study TB during adulthood but animal models for adolescent and infant TB are scarce. Here we propose that minipigs can be used as an animal model to study adult, adolescent and ...

  4. Behavioral testing of minipigs transgenic for the Huntington gene-A three-year observational study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schuldenzucker, V.; Schubert, R.; Muratori, L. M.; Freisfeld, F.; Rieke, L.; Matheis, T.; Schramke, S.; Motlík, Jan; Kemper, N.; Radespiel, U.; Reilmann, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 10 (2017), č. článku e0185970. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington´s disease * minipigs Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Behavioral sciences biology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  5. Ethical implications of using the minipig in regulatory toxicology studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webster, John; Bollen, Peter; Grimm, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    patients are the laboratory animals, both breeding stock held by the animal supplier, and experimental animals in laboratories. In considering these animals it cannot be assumed that dogs, monkeys and minipigs differ with regard to the pain and suffering that they may experience and undergo when treated...

  6. Endothelial cell death and intimal foam cell accumulation in the coronary artery of infected hypercholesterolemic minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Saraste, Antti; Hyttel, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Apoptosis of endothelial cells (ECs) has been suggested to play a role in atherosclerosis. We studied the synergism of hypercholesterolemia with Chlamydia pneumoniae and influenza virus infections on EC morphology and intimal changes in a minipig model. The coronary artery was excised at euthanasia...

  7. PARKINSON’S DISEASE MODELS OF ABNORMAL PROTEIN AGGREGATION IN THE GOTTINGEN MINIPIG CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Andreas Nørgaard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) animal models are important translational steps toward clinical applications. The Göttingen minipig(GM) has a large gyrencephalic brain (6x5x4cm) that can be examined using conventional scanning modalities. Preclinical neuromodulatory devices can be evaluated ...

  8. Chronic Spinal Compression Model in Minipigs: A Systematic Behavioral, Qualitative, and Quantitative Neuropathological Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navarro, R.; Juhás, Štefan; Keshavarzi, S.; Juhásová, Jana; Motlík, Jan; Johe, K.; Marsala, S.; Scadeng, M.; Lazar, P.; Tomori, Z.; Schulteis, G.; Beattie, M.; Ciacci, J. D.; Marsala, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2012), s. 499-513 ISSN 0897-7151 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538; GA TA ČR TA01011466 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : axonal loss * chronic spinal injury * minipig Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.295, year: 2012

  9. Discriminations, reversals, and extra-dimensional shifts in the Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moustgaard, A.; Arnfred, S. M.; Lind, N. M.

    2004-01-01

    Göttingen minipigs were trained on a set-shifting procedure involving discriminations, reversals, and extra-dimensional shifts. The discriminations used were black-white discriminations and right-left discriminations. The initial visual and spatial discrimination seemed equally difficult, and only...

  10. Neuroimaging of a minipig model of Huntington's disease: Feasibility of volumetric, diffusion-weighted and spectroscopic assessments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schubert, R.; Frank, F.; Nagelmann, N.; Liebsch, L.; Schuldenzucker, V.; Schramke, S.; Wirsig, M.; Johnson, H.; Young Kim, E.; Ott, S.; Hölzner, E.; Demokritov, S. O.; Motlík, Jan; Faber, C.; Reilmann, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 265, S1 (2016), s. 46-55 ISSN 0165-0270 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : animal models * minipig * MRI * brain atlas * preclinical research Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.554, year: 2016

  11. The vaginal microbiome is stable in prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen Minipigs throughout an estrous cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Kudirkiene, Egle; Gutman, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    in prepubertal and sexually mature Göttingen Minipigs during an estrous cycle. The dominating phyla in the vaginal microbiota consisted of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Tenericutes. The most abundant bacterial families were Enterobacteriaceae, unclassified families from...

  12. Anaesthesia, analgesia, and post-surgery care of Göttingen minipigs used for stereotaxic brain surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Meier, Kaare

    2017-01-01

    Our two laboratories have performed PET scannings and neurosurgery using Göttingen minipigs for more than 20 years. While PET scans can be performed with only minimal effects on animal welfare, neurosurgery is mostly a welfare challenge. We would like to present data and manuals, using neurosurgi...... neurosurgical modalities on Göttingen minipigs: How to improve animal welfare to minimize the risk of euthanasia....

  13. The Yucatan Minipig Temporomandibular Joint Disc Structure-Function Relationships Support Its Suitability for Human Comparative Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapniarsky, Natalia; Aryaei, Ashkan; Arzi, Boaz; Hatcher, David C; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2017-11-01

    Frequent involvement of the disc in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders warrants attempts to tissue engineer TMJ disc replacements. Physiologically, a great degree of similarity is seen between humans and farm pigs (FPs), but the pig's rapid growth confers a significant challenge for in vivo experiments. Minipigs have a slower growth rate and are smaller than FPs, but minipig TMJ discs have yet to be fully characterized. The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of the minipig for TMJ studies by extensive structural and functional characterization. The properties of minipig TMJ discs closely reproduced previously reported morphological, biochemical, and biomechanical values of human and FP discs. The width/length dimension ratio of the minipig TMJ disc was 1.95 (1.69 for human and 1.94 for FP). The biochemical evaluation revealed, on average per wet weight, 24.3% collagen (22.8% for human and 24.9% for FP); 0.8% glycosaminoglycan (GAG; 0.5% for human and 0.4% for FP); and 0.03% DNA (0.008% for human and 0.02% for FP). Biomechanical testing revealed, on average, compressive relaxation modulus of 50 kPa (37 kPa for human and 32 kPa for FP), compressive instantaneous modulus of 1121 kPa (1315 kPa for human and 1134 kPa for FP), and coefficient of viscosity of 13 MPa·s (9 MPa·s for human and 3 MPa·s for FP) at 20% strain. These properties also varied topographically in accordance to those of human and FP TMJ discs. Anisotropy, quantified by bidirectional tensile testing and histology, again was analogous among minipig, human, and FP TMJ discs. The minipig TMJ's ginglymoarthrodial nature was verified through cone beam computer tomography. Collectively, the similarities between minipig and human TMJ discs support the use of minipig as a relevant model for TMJ research; considering the practical advantages conferred by its growth rate and size, the minipig may be a preferred model over FP.

  14. The incidence of congenital malformations and variations in Göttingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellemann-Laursen, S; Marsden, E; Peter, B; Downes, N; Coulby, D; Grossi, A B

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of the incidence of spontaneous congenital abnormalities is critical for the accurate interpretation of findings in teratogenicity studies in any species. In this paper, results of the examination of 1739 neonatal Göttingen Minipigs are presented. Over the 2-year period under consideration, the incidence of external and visceral malformations was less than 0.2 and 0.1%, respectively. The most common external malformations were syndactyly, limb hyperflexion, domed head and scoliosis. The most common internal malformations were undescended testes, ventricular septal defect, diaphragmatic hernia and atrial septal defects. Pentadactyly and variation in the aortic arch's bifurcation (absent truncus bicaroticus) were the most common variations. These data will help support the use of the Göttingen Minipig as a non-rodent species in embryofetal development studies where concerns persist about the availability of background data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. PARKINSON’S DISEASE MODELS OF ABNORMAL PROTEIN AGGREGATION IN THE GOTTINGEN MINIPIG CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Landau, Anne M.; Lillethorup, Thea Pinholt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) animal models are important translational steps toward clinical applications. The Göttingen minipig(GM) has a large gyrencephalic brain (6x5x4cm) that can be examined using conventional scanning modalities. Preclinical neuromodulatory devices can be evaluated...... and histological signs of PD including aSYN accumulation. Discussion: We predict that these animal models will be beneficial in the understanding of pathological mechanisms of human PD and in the testing of novel therapeutic strategies....

  16. The telencephalon of the Göttingen minipig, cytoarchitecture and cortical surface anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarkam, Carsten R; Glud, Andreas N; Orlowski, Dariusz; Sørensen, Jens Christian H; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola

    2017-07-01

    During the last 20 years pigs have become increasingly popular in large animal translational neuroscience research as an economical and ethical feasible substitute to non-human primates. The anatomy of the pig telencephalon is, however, not well known. We present, accordingly, a detailed description of the surface anatomy and cytoarchitecture of the Göttingen minipig telencephalon based on macrophotos and consecutive high-power microphotographs of 15 μm thick paraffin embedded Nissl-stained coronal sections. In 1-year-old specimens the formalin perfused brain measures approximately 55 × 47 × 36 mm (length, width, height) and weighs around 69 g. The telencephalic part of the Göttingen minipig cerebrum covers a large surface area, which can be divided into a neocortical gyrencephalic part located dorsal to the rhinal fissure, and a ventral subrhinal part dominated by olfactory, amygdaloid, septal, and hippocampal structures. This part of the telencephalon is named the subrhinal lobe, and based on cytoarchitectural and sulcal anatomy, can be discerned from the remaining dorsally located neocortical perirhinal/insular, pericallosal, frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. The inner subcortical structure of the minipig telencephalon is dominated by a prominent ventricular system and large basal ganglia, wherein the putamen and the caudate nucleus posterior and dorsally are separated into two entities by the internal capsule, whereas both structures ventrally fuse into a large accumbens nucleus. The presented anatomical data is accompanied by surface renderings and high-power macrophotographs illustrating the telencephalic sulcal pattern, and the localization of the identified lobes and cytoarchitectonic areas. Additionally, 24 representative Nissl-stained telencephalic coronal sections are presented as supplementary material in atlas form on http://www.cense.dk/minipig_atlas/index.html and referred to as S1-S24 throughout the manuscript.

  17. Minipig Model of Huntington's Disease: H-1 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Brain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jozefovičová, M.; Herynek, V.; Jírů, F.; Dezortová, M.; Juhásová, Jana; Juhás, Štefan; Motlík, Jan; Hájek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 1 (2016), s. 155-163 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01011466; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington´s disease * minipigs * magnetic resonance spectroscopy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  18. Long Term Outcome after Application of the Angio-Seal Vascular Closure Device in Minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Kabelitz

    Full Text Available Minipigs are frequently used in (neuro-interventional research. Longitudinal experiments may require repeated vessel access via the femoral artery. Anticoagulation and incompliance of the animals necessitates the use of a vascular closure device (VCD. The effects of the Angio-Seal VCD in minipigs were longitudinally assessed. Minipig (42±8.4 kg body weight femoral arteries were sealed using the 8F (n = 6 or 6F (n = 7 Angio-Seal VCD. The pre-interventional femoral artery diameter was 5.1±0.4 mm (4.3-5.8 mm. Sealed puncture sites were analysed angiographically as well as by computed tomography angiography (CTA for a mean period of 14.1±8.0 weeks (1-22 weeks. All animals were constantly treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASS (450 mg/d (n = 7 or 100 mg/d (n = 1 and clopidogrel (75 mg/d (n = 8. Non-instrumented (n = 2 and arteries sealed using the VCD (n = 2 were examined histologically. No postoperative hemorrhagic complications were observed. Three arteries were occluded after VCD placement (1 animal diagnosed after 4 weeks (8F, 2 animals after 1 week (6F and remained so until the end of the experiments after 22, 12 and 4 weeks, respectively. In one artery a 50% stenosis 8 weeks after application of a 6F Angio-Seal was detected. In 69.2% (n = 9 the VCD was applied without complications. Histopathological analysis of the sealed arterial segments showed subtotal obliteration of the vessel lumen, formation of collagenous tissue and partial damage of the internal elastic lamina. The Angio-Seal VCD prevents relevant hemorrhagic complications in minipigs treated with dual platelet inhibition, but is associated with increased vessel occlusion rates.

  19. Intraocular distribution of melanin in human, monkey, rabbit, minipig and dog eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairaj, Chandrasekar; Chastain, James E; Kompella, Uday B

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the melanin pigment content in sclera, choroid-RPE, and retina, three tissues encountered during transscleral drug delivery to the vitreous, in human, rabbit, monkey, minipig, and dog models. Strain differences were assessed in NZW × NZR F1 and Dutch belted rabbits and Yucatan and Gottingen minipigs. The choroid-RPE and retina tissues were divided into central (posterior pole area) and peripheral (away from posterior pole) regions while the sclera was analyzed without such division. Melanin content in the tissues was analyzed using a colorimetric assay. In all species the rank order for pigment content was: choroid-RPE >retina ≥ sclera, except in humans, where scleral melanin levels were higher than retina and central choroid. The melanin content in a given tissue differed between species. Further, while the peripheral tissue pigment levels tended to be generally higher compared to the central regions, these differences were significant in human in the case of choroid-RPE and in human, monkey, and dogs in the case of retina. Strain difference was observed only in the central choroid-RPE region of rabbits (NZW × NZR F1 >Dutch Belted). Species, strain, and regional differences exist in the melanin pigment content in the tissues of the posterior segment of the eye, with Gottingen minipig being closest to humans among the animals assessed. These differences in melanin content might contribute to differences in drug binding, delivery, and toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Safety and function of a new clinical intracerebral microinjection instrument for stem cells and therapeutics examined in the Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarkam, Carsten R; GLUD, AN; Margolin, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Safety and function of a new clinical intracerebral microinjection instrument for stem cells and therapeutics examined in the Göttingen minipig......Safety and function of a new clinical intracerebral microinjection instrument for stem cells and therapeutics examined in the Göttingen minipig...

  1. The vaginal microbiome is stable in prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen Minipigs throughout an estrous cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Kudirkiene, Egle; Gutman, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Although the pig has been introduced as an advanced animal model of genital tract infections in women, almost no knowledge exists on the porcine vaginal microbiota, especially in barrier-raised Göttingen Minipigs. In women, the vaginal microbiota plays a crucial role for a healthy vaginal...... environment and the fate of sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Therefore, knowledge on the vaginal microbiota is urgently needed for the minipig model. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbiota of the anterior vagina by 16 s rRNA gene sequencing...... in prepubertal and sexually mature Göttingen Minipigs during an estrous cycle. The dominating phyla in the vaginal microbiota consisted of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Tenericutes. The most abundant bacterial families were Enterobacteriaceae, unclassified families from...

  2. Caisson disease of bone: a study of the Göttingen mini-pig as an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, P J; Walder, D N; Rannie, I

    1980-02-01

    Investigation of the exact aetiology, early diagnosis and prevention of caisson disease of bone has been hindered by the inability to produce, by the use of realistic compression/decompression exposures, truly comparable lesions in animals. Four Gottingen mini-pigs were subjected to repeated exposures to pressures of 27 p.s.i.g. for 6 h over a period of 9 months and decompressed according to standard tables. Two mini-pigs acted as controls. In one animal radiological changes were recognised in the left lower femoral shaft 19 weeks after the exposures were started and subsequent examination of that bone confirmed the presence, at that site, of a lesion which macroscopically and microscopically resembled, in every way, the appearances of those seen in the shafts of long bones in man. It is concluded therefore that, properly used, the mini-pig may be a suitable animal model for the study of this condition in man.

  3. Cognitive performance of Göttingen minipigs is affected by diet in a spatial hole-board discrimination test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Klein, Anders Bue; Ettrup, Anders

    2013-01-01

    by both diets relative to a standard minipig diet high in carbohydrate, low in fat and sugar. The different diets did not impact levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain tissue and neither did they affect circulatory inflammation measured by concentrations of C-reactive protein and haptoglobin......Consumption of a high energy diet, containing high amounts of saturated fat and refined sugar has been associated with impairment of cognitive function in rodents and humans. We sought to contrast the effect of a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet and a low fat, high carbohydrate....../sucrose diet, relative to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet on spatial cognition with regards to working memory and reference memory in 24 male Göttingen minipigs performing in a spatial hole-board discrimination test. We found that both working memory and reference memory were impaired...

  4. Intrauterine inoculation of minipigs with Chlamydia trachomatis during diestrus establishes a longer lasting infection compared to vaginal inoculation during estrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Secher, Jan O

    2017-01-01

    Advanced animal models, such as minipigs, are needed for the development of a globally requested human Chlamydia vaccine. Previous studies have shown that vaginal inoculation of sexually mature Göttingen minipigs with Chlamydia trachomatis resulted in an infection lasting only 3-5 days. The aim...... resulted in a longer lasting infection (at least 10 days) compared to estrus (3-5 days). Furthermore, we found a significant C. trachomatis specific IFN-γ response in pigs inoculated during estrus correlating with the accelerated clearance of infection in these pigs. These findings suggest...

  5. [In vivo digestibility of rice genetically modified with CpTI in WZS mini-pig].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiong; Liu, Haibo; Zhi, Yuan; Gao, Peng; Yy, Zhou; Liu, Shan; Xu, Haibin

    2011-11-01

    To establish a stable in vivo gastrointestinal model of WZS mini-pig to evaluate the digestibility of rice genetically modified with CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor). METHODS; Three WZS mini-pigs were surgically fitted with O-stomach cannula and T-ileum cannula, and fed with soybean (positive control), CpTI rice and its parental rice meals. The pH value of gastric and intestinal fluid was monitored at different time points. The digested protein products were measured with protein gel electrophoresis at different time points. The pH value of gastric contents was rapidly neutralized by the meal to approximately 6.0, then the pH was reduced by HCl secretion,and it subsequently was increased after 4-6 hours. Compared with rice,the increase or decrease of pH after soybean being fed was later. Soybean protein segments 13kD,17kD, 34kD and 50kD could be highly detected in gastric and intestinal fluid at 5-6h after soybean being introduced. The segment 13kD was digested in intestine. However, no any protein segment was found in the gastric fluid 0.25h after rice being fed. There was no any difference in digestibility between the rice genetically modified with CpTI and its parental rice. It is practicable to establish a in vivo model of WZS mini-pig for digestibility. The digestibility of CpTI rice and its parental rice in gastric and intestinal tract in vivo is equivalent.

  6. Persistent DNA damage after high dose in vivo gamma exposure of minipig skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A Ahmed

    Full Text Available Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation (IR can lead to localized radiation injury of the skin and exposed cells suffer dsDNA breaks that may elicit cell death or stochastic changes. Little is known about the DNA damage response after high-dose exposure of the skin. Here, we investigate the cellular and DNA damage response in acutely irradiated minipig skin.IR-induced DNA damage, repair and cellular survival were studied in 15 cm(2 of minipig skin exposed in vivo to ~50 Co-60 γ rays. Skin biopsies of control and 4 h up to 96 days post exposure were investigated for radiation-induced foci (RIF formation using γ-H2AX, 53BP1, and active ATM-p immunofluorescence. High-dose IR induced massive γ-H2AX phosphorylation and high 53BP1 RIF numbers 4 h, 20 h after IR. As time progressed RIF numbers dropped to a low of 3-fold elevated at all subsequent time points. Replicating basal cells (Ki67+ were reduced 3 days post IR followed by increased proliferation and recovery of epidermal cellularity after 28 days.Acute high dose irradiation of minipig epidermis impaired stem cell replication and induced elevated apoptosis from 3 days onward. DNA repair cleared the high numbers of DBSs in skin cells, while RIFs that persisted in <1% cells marked complex and potentially lethal DNA damage up to several weeks after exposure. An elevated frequency of keratinocytes with persistent RIFs may thus serve as indicator of previous acute radiation exposure, which may be useful in the follow up of nuclear or radiological accident scenarios.

  7. Minipig and beagle animal model genomes aid species selection in pharmaceutical discovery and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamathevan, Jessica J., E-mail: jessica.j.vamathevan@gsk.com [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Hall, Matthew D.; Hasan, Samiul; Woollard, Peter M. [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Xu, Meng; Yang, Yulan; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiaoli [BGI-Shenzen, Shenzhen (China); Kenny, Steve [Safety Assessment, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Ware (United Kingdom); Brown, James R. [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA (United States); Huxley-Jones, Julie [UK Platform Technology Sciences (PTS) Operations and Planning, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Lyon, Jon; Haselden, John [Safety Assessment, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Ware (United Kingdom); Min, Jiumeng [BGI-Shenzen, Shenzhen (China); Sanseau, Philippe [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    Improving drug attrition remains a challenge in pharmaceutical discovery and development. A major cause of early attrition is the demonstration of safety signals which can negate any therapeutic index previously established. Safety attrition needs to be put in context of clinical translation (i.e. human relevance) and is negatively impacted by differences between animal models and human. In order to minimize such an impact, an earlier assessment of pharmacological target homology across animal model species will enhance understanding of the context of animal safety signals and aid species selection during later regulatory toxicology studies. Here we sequenced the genomes of the Sus scrofa Göttingen minipig and the Canis familiaris beagle, two widely used animal species in regulatory safety studies. Comparative analyses of these new genomes with other key model organisms, namely mouse, rat, cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque, two related breeds (S. scrofa Duroc and C. familiaris boxer) and human reveal considerable variation in gene content. Key genes in toxicology and metabolism studies, such as the UGT2 family, CYP2D6, and SLCO1A2, displayed unique duplication patterns. Comparisons of 317 known human drug targets revealed surprising variation such as species-specific positive selection, duplication and higher occurrences of pseudogenized targets in beagle (41 genes) relative to minipig (19 genes). These data will facilitate the more effective use of animals in biomedical research. - Highlights: • Genomes of the minipig and beagle dog, two species used in pharmaceutical studies. • First systematic comparative genome analysis of human and six experimental animals. • Key drug toxicology genes display unique duplication patterns across species. • Comparison of 317 drug targets show species-specific evolutionary patterns.

  8. Minipig and beagle animal model genomes aid species selection in pharmaceutical discovery and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamathevan, Jessica J.; Hall, Matthew D.; Hasan, Samiul; Woollard, Peter M.; Xu, Meng; Yang, Yulan; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiaoli; Kenny, Steve; Brown, James R.; Huxley-Jones, Julie; Lyon, Jon; Haselden, John; Min, Jiumeng; Sanseau, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Improving drug attrition remains a challenge in pharmaceutical discovery and development. A major cause of early attrition is the demonstration of safety signals which can negate any therapeutic index previously established. Safety attrition needs to be put in context of clinical translation (i.e. human relevance) and is negatively impacted by differences between animal models and human. In order to minimize such an impact, an earlier assessment of pharmacological target homology across animal model species will enhance understanding of the context of animal safety signals and aid species selection during later regulatory toxicology studies. Here we sequenced the genomes of the Sus scrofa Göttingen minipig and the Canis familiaris beagle, two widely used animal species in regulatory safety studies. Comparative analyses of these new genomes with other key model organisms, namely mouse, rat, cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque, two related breeds (S. scrofa Duroc and C. familiaris boxer) and human reveal considerable variation in gene content. Key genes in toxicology and metabolism studies, such as the UGT2 family, CYP2D6, and SLCO1A2, displayed unique duplication patterns. Comparisons of 317 known human drug targets revealed surprising variation such as species-specific positive selection, duplication and higher occurrences of pseudogenized targets in beagle (41 genes) relative to minipig (19 genes). These data will facilitate the more effective use of animals in biomedical research. - Highlights: • Genomes of the minipig and beagle dog, two species used in pharmaceutical studies. • First systematic comparative genome analysis of human and six experimental animals. • Key drug toxicology genes display unique duplication patterns across species. • Comparison of 317 drug targets show species-specific evolutionary patterns

  9. DNA damage focus analysis in blood samples of minipigs reveals acute partial body irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lamkowski

    Full Text Available Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated γH2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI with 49 Gy (± 6% Co-60 γ-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1-8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly γ-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-γH2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using γH2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-γH2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available

  10. Analysis of dosing regimen and reproducibility of intraspinal grafting of human spinal stem cells in immmunosuppressed minipigs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Usvald, Dušan; Vodička, Petr; Hlučilová, Jana; Procházka, Radek; Motlík, Jan; Kuchorova, K.; Johe, K.; Marsala, S.; Scadeng, M.; Kakinohana, O.; Navarro, R.; Santa, M.; Hefferan, M. P.; Yaksh, T.L.; Marsala, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 9 (2010), s. 1103-1122 ISSN 0963-6897 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : minipigs * human spinal stem cells * analysis Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 6.204, year: 2010

  11. Novel Techniques for Retroperitoneal Implantation of Telemetry Transmitters for Physiologic Monitoring in Gottingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    that this procedure permitted effective monitoring of complex physiologic data, including transthoracic impedance, without negatively affecting the...retroperitoneal implantation of the telemetry device permitted effective monitoring of complex physiologic data, including transthoracic impedance...nerve agent and cyanide poisoning in minipigs after intraosseous administration. Ann Emerg Med 60:424–430. 26. Ngawhirunpat T, Opanasopit P

  12. Behavioral and motoric testing of transgenic minipigs - focus on F0, F1, and F2 generations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohuslavová, Božena; Kučerová, S.; Mačáková, Monika; Ellederová, Zdeňka; Motlík, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 16-16 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. 08.11.2015-10.11.2015, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : minipig Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  13. Hematological Changes as Prognostic Indicators of Survival: Similarities Between Gottingen Minipigs, Humans, and Other Large Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    terms of mutations, the proportional dwarfism characteristic of the Gottingen minipig, referred to as ‘‘pituitary dwarfism ’’, is found in a number of...farm animal breeds, i.e. Dexter cattle, Shetland pony and, unlike the ‘‘achondroplasia’’ type of dwarfism , is a genetically fixed trait and not

  14. Intrauterine inoculation of minipigs with Chlamydia trachomatis during diestrus establishes a longer lasting infection compared to vaginal inoculation during estrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Secher, Jan O; Goericke-Pesch, Sandra; Hansen, Mette S; Zakariassen, Hannah; Olsen, Anja W; Andersen, Peter; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2017-06-01

    Advanced animal models, such as minipigs, are needed for the development of a globally requested human Chlamydia vaccine. Previous studies have shown that vaginal inoculation of sexually mature Göttingen minipigs with Chlamydia trachomatis resulted in an infection lasting only 3-5 days. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of targeting the upper porcine genital tract by transcervical and transabdominal intrauterine inoculation, compared to previously performed vaginal inoculation. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of the hormonal cycle, estrus vs. diestrus, on the establishment of a C. trachomatis infection in the minipig. Targeting the upper genital tract (transcervical inoculation) resulted in a longer lasting infection (at least 7 days) compared to vaginal inoculation (3-5 days). When comparing intrauterine inoculation during estrus and diestrus, inoculation during diestrus resulted in a longer lasting infection (at least 10 days) compared to estrus (3-5 days). Furthermore, we found a significant C. trachomatis specific IFN-γ response in pigs inoculated during estrus correlating with the accelerated clearance of infection in these pigs. These findings suggest that for implementation of an optimal model of C. trachomatis in minipigs, inoculation should bypass the cervix and preferable be performed during diestrus. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  15. Sudden death related to advanced coronary atherosclerosis in mini-pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, L.; Lundholm, L.; Wingren, G.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced coronary atherosclerosis was produced in 30 mini-pigs by a combination of a hypercholesterolaemic diet and X-irradiation to the precordial region. Within 11-25 weeks after the irradiation, 13 of the 30 animals died a sudden death probably caused by coronary atherosclerosis. The contents of free and ester-bound cholesterol in the right coronary artery were significantly higher in the animals which died spontaneously than in surviving animals. In an untreated group of 12 animals 7 died whereas in a group treated with β-pyridylcarbinol only 1 out of 5 died. In the coronary arteries, the contents of both free and ester-bound cholesterol were significantly lower in the β-pyridylcarbinol-treated animals. In a sulfinpyrazontreated group 3 out of 8, and in a metoprolol-treated group 2 out of 5 animals died. None of these drugs reduced the accumulation of cholesterol in the coronary arteries. The rate of sudden death was 26 +- 6% (P<0.05) lower in the combined group of treated animals than in the untreated ones. By regular ECG recordings, signs which could predict the fatal outcome of the experiment were looked for. Although depressed ST segments were present before death in a few animals, this was not a regular phenomenon. It is concluded that advanced coronary atherosclerosis in mini-pigs often leads to sudden death and that this animal model seems suitable for testing the potential therapeutic effects of drugs. (author)

  16. Granuloma encapsulation is a key factor for containing tuberculosis infection in minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Olga; Díaz, Ivan; Vilaplana, Cristina; Tapia, Gustavo; Díaz, Jorge; Fort, María; Cáceres, Neus; Pinto, Sergio; Caylà, Joan; Corner, Leigh; Domingo, Mariano; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2010-04-06

    A transthoracic infection involving a low dose of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been used to establish a new model of infection in minipigs. The 20-week monitoring period showed a marked Th1 response and poor humoral response for the whole infection. A detailed histopathological analysis was performed after slicing the formalin-fixed whole lungs of each animal. All lesions were recorded and classified according to their microscopic aspect, their relationship with the intralobular connective network and their degree of maturity in order to obtain a dissemination ratio (DR) between recent and old lesions. CFU counts and evolution of the DR with time showed that the proposed model correlated with a contained infection, decreasing from week 9 onwards. These findings suggest that the infection induces an initial Th1 response, which is followed by local fibrosis and encapsulation of the granulomas, thereby decreasing the onset of new lesions. Two therapeutic strategies were applied in order to understand how they could influence the model. Thus, chemotherapy with isoniazid alone helped to decrease the total number of lesions, despite the increase in DR after week 9, with similar kinetics to those of the control group, whereas addition of a therapeutic M. tuberculosis fragment-based vaccine after chemotherapy increased the Th1 and humoral responses, as well as the number of lesions, but decreased the DR. By providing a local pulmonary structure similar to that in humans, the mini-pig model highlights new aspects that could be key to a better understanding tuberculosis infection control in humans.

  17. Sudden death related to advanced coronary atherosclerosis in mini-pigs. Influence of some drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsson, L.; Lundholm, L.; Wingren, G. (Department of Pharmacology, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping, Sweden)

    1984-01-01

    Advanced coronary atherosclerosis was produced in 30 mini-pigs by a combination of a hypercholesterolaemic diet and X-irradiation to the precordial region. Within 11-25 weeks after the irradiation, 13 of the 30 animals died a sudden death probably caused by coronary atherosclerosis. The contents of free and ester-bound cholesterol in the right coronary artery were significantly higher in the animals which died spontaneously than in surviving animals. In an untreated group of 12 animals 7 died whereas in a group treated with ..beta..-pyridylcarbinol only 1 out of 5 died. In the coronary arteries, the contents of both free and ester-bound cholesterol were significantly lower in the ..beta..-pyridylcarbinol-treated animals. In a sulfinpyrazontreated group 3 out of 8, and in a metoprolol-treated group 2 out of 5 animals died. None of these drugs reduced the accumulation of cholesterol in the coronary arteries. The rate of sudden death was 26 +- 6% (P<0.05) lower in the combined group of treated animals than in the untreated ones. By regular ECG recordings, signs which could predict the fatal outcome of the experiment were looked for. Although depressed ST segments were present before death in a few animals, this was not a regular phenomenon. It is concluded that advanced coronary atherosclerosis in mini-pigs often leads to sudden death and that this animal model seems suitable for testing the potential therapeutic effects of drugs.

  18. An Adipose Segmentation and Quantification Scheme for the Abdominal Region in Minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Rasmus; Dubinskiy, Aleks; Larsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    of three steps. First, the subcutaneous fat is removed with a modified active contour approach. The energy formulation of the active contour exploits the homogeneous nature of the subcutaneous fat and the smoothness of the boundary. Subsequently the retroperitoneal fat located around the abdominal cavity......This article describes a method for automatic segmentation of the abdomen into three anatomical regions: subcutaneous, retroperitoneal and visceral. For the last two regions the amount of adipose tissue (fat) is quantified. According to recent medical research, the distinction between...... retroperitoneal and visceral fat is important for studying metabolic syndrome, which is closely related to diabetes.1 However previous work has neglected to address this point, treating the two types of fat together. We use T1-weighted three-dimensional magnetic resonance data of the abdomen of obese minipigs...

  19. Feasibility of simultaneous PET/MR in diet-induced atherosclerotic minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune F; Ludvigsen, Trine P; Johannesen, Helle H

    2014-01-01

    Novel hybrid 18-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) based positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown promise for characterization of atherosclerotic plaques clinically. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the method in a pre-clinical model of diet......-induced atherosclerosis, based on the Göttingen minipig. Using (18)F-FDG PET/MRI the goal was to develop and create a new imaging method in an in vivo animal model for translational studies of atherosclerosis. We used a strategy of multisequence MRI for optimal anatomical imaging of the abdominal aortas of the pigs (n=4...... glycolysis as given by standardized uptake values (SUV). Ex vivo en face evaluation of aortas from an atherosclerotic animal illustrated plaque distribution macroscopically, compared to a lean control animal. Although T2-TSE weighted imaging was most consistent, no one MRI sequence was preferable...

  20. Oral toxicity of Miglyol 812(®) in the Göttingen(®) minipig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bars, G; Dion, S; Gauthier, B; Mhedhbi, S; Pohlmeyer-Esch, G; Comby, P; Vivan, N; Ruty, B

    2015-12-01

    Miglyol 812(®), a mixture of medium-chain triglycerides, has been identified as an oral vehicle that could improve the solubility and possibly the bioavailability of orally administered drugs during the non-clinical safety assessment. The toxicity of Miglyol was assessed in Göttingen(®) minipigs upon daily oral administration (gavage) for six weeks, at dosing-volumes of 0.5 and 2 mL/kg/day, compared to controls receiving 0.5% CarboxyMethylCellulose/0.1% Tween(®) 80 in water at 2 mL/kg/day. The control vehicle did not induce any findings. Miglyol at 0.5 and 2 mL/kg/day induced transient tremors, abnormal color of feces and increase in triglycerides. Miglyol at 2 ml/kg/day also induced reduced motor activity, decreased food intake, respiratory signs (2/6 animals) and increased total and LDL-cholesterol. At necropsy, the lung of 3/6 animals treated at 2 mL/kg/day presented abnormal color and/or irregular surface correlated with a chronic bronchiolo-alveolar inflammation. This finding is probably due to aspiration pneumonia in relation to the administration method and the high viscosity of Miglyol. Overall, the oral administration of pure Miglyol 812(®) for six weeks up to 2 mL/kg was less tolerated than that of the control vehicle. Miglyol as vehicle for sub-chronic oral toxicity studies in minipigs should be used with a limited dosing-volume. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Minipig model of maxillary distraction osteogenesis: immunohistochemical and histomorphometric analysis of the sequence of osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Maria E; Kaban, Leonard B; Troulis, Maria J

    2012-11-01

    To document the sequence of bone formation in a minipig model of Le Fort I distraction osteogenesis (DO) using immunohistochemistry and histomorphometry. Female Yucatan minipigs (N = 9) in the mixed-dentition stage underwent bilateral maxillary DO. The distraction protocol was 0 days of latency, with a distraction rate of 1 mm/d for 12 days and 24 days of fixation. Specimens were harvested and divided between the central incisors (18 hemi-maxillae) at the end of DO (n = 6), at mid-fixation (n = 6), and at the end of fixation (n = 6). Sections, including the advancement zone, were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, collagen II, CD34, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Light and fluorescence microscope images (original magnification ×200) were obtained, and percentage of surface area (PSA) of the advancement zone occupied by fibrous tissue, vessels, proliferating cells, osteoid, and bone was determined. An intact maxilla served as the control. At the end of DO, in the advancement zone, the PSA (mean values) of proliferating cells was 33.16%; fibrous tissue, 52%; vessels, 4.35%; and new bone, 5.45%. At the end of fixation, the PSA of proliferating cells decreased to 10.53%, fibrous tissue to 2.3%, and vessels to 1.5% whereas the PSA of new bone increased to 44.9%. The results of this study indicate that the progression of osteogenesis in the maxillary DO wound begins with intense cellular proliferation and vascular fibrous tissue formation and progresses to mature, cancellous bone by the end of fixation. The PSA occupied by mature bone is significantly less than in the control maxilla at the end of fixation. This is consistent with the sequence in the mandibular DO wound. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Slower eating rate is independent to gastric emptying in obese minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Laillet, D; Guérin, S; Malbert, C H

    2010-11-02

    The aim of our study was to investigate whether the altered eating behavior observed in the context of a diet-induced metabolic syndrome is related to changes of the gastric emptying and autonomic balance. Eight adult male Göttingen minipigs were subjected during 5months to ad libitum Western diet (WD). Several factors were compared between the lean (before WD) and obese conditions: general activity and eating behavior, gastric emptying, adiposity, glycemia and insulinemia during IVGTT, and heart rate variability (HRV). In our model, obesity did not alter the gastric emptying (258±26 vs. 256±14 min, P>0.10) but induced insulin resistance: increased basal insulinemia (12.6±0.8 to 36.6±6.1 mU/l, P5E-4±0.7E-4 to 2.5E-4±0.2E-4 min(-1) per mU.l(-1) of insulin, P0.10). Fed ad libitum with WD, animals overate durably (P<0.001). During a 30-min meal test though, the ingestion speed, the food ingested (1076±48 vs. 520±52 g) and energy intake decreased in the obese condition (P<0.05), which can be explained by the fragmentation of the daily caloric intake. These data suggest that the slower eating rate and increased number of meals observed in obese minipigs without neuropathy is independent to gastric emptying. The explanation may be sought rather in central modifications induced by obesity that might modify the food perception and/or motivation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Highly efficient generation of GGTA1 biallelic knockout inbred mini-pigs with TALENs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jige Xin

    Full Text Available Inbred mini-pigs are ideal organ donors for future human xenotransplantations because of their clear genetic background, high homozygosity, and high inbreeding endurance. In this study, we chose fibroblast cells from a highly inbred pig line called Banna mini-pig inbred line (BMI as donor nuclei for nuclear transfer, combining with transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs and successfully generated α-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1 gene biallelic knockout (KO pigs. To validate the efficiency of TALEN vectors, in vitro-transcribed TALEN mRNAs were microinjected into one-cell stage parthenogenetically activated porcine embryos. The efficiency of indel mutations at the GGTA1-targeting loci was as high as 73.1% (19/26 among the parthenogenetic blastocysts. TALENs were co-transfected into porcine fetal fibroblasts of BMI with a plasmid containing neomycin gene. The targeting efficiency reached 89.5% (187/209 among the survived cell clones after a 10 d selection. More remarkably 27.8% (58/209 of colonies were biallelic KO. Five fibroblast cell lines with biallelic KO were chosen as nuclear donors for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Three miniature piglets with biallelic mutations of the GGTA1 gene were achieved. Gal epitopes on the surface of cells from all the three biallelic KO piglets were completely absent. The fibroblasts from the GGTA1 null piglets were more resistant to lysis by pooled complement-preserved normal human serum than those from wild-type pigs. These results indicate that a combination of TALENs technology with SCNT can generate biallelic KO pigs directly with high efficiency. The GGTA1 null piglets with inbred features created in this study can provide a new organ source for xenotransplantation research.

  4. The prefrontal cortex in the Göttingen minipig brain defined by neural projection criteria and cytoarchitecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsing, J; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Dyrby, Tim

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to delineate the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the Gottingen minipig brain the distribution of reciprocal thalamocortical projections was investigated using anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques and evaluated in relation to the specific cytoarchitectonic organization. Tracers...... the medial and rostral pole of the frontal lobe as well as the anterior cingulate, anterior insular and dorsomedial frontal cortices. Subsequently, the reciprocity and specificity of these connections were tested from injections into the traced frontal cortices indicating that the PFC has cortical...... connections to different parts of the MD nucleus. Although the granular layer IV, characteristic of primate PFC could not be identified, both cytoarchitectonic and connectional data suggests that the Gottingen minipig has a structurally divided prefrontal cortex. Stereological estimates of PFC volume showed...

  5. Anaesthesia and analgesia in Göttingen minipigs - examples of protocols used for neurosurgery and scanning procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    Neurosurgery in Göttingen minipigs is often a welfare challenge, and therefore, the main goal of my talk will be to discuss how to improve animal welfare during brain surgery and the days following surgery. A combination of inhalation/infusion anaesthesia with opioids such as injections with bupr......Neurosurgery in Göttingen minipigs is often a welfare challenge, and therefore, the main goal of my talk will be to discuss how to improve animal welfare during brain surgery and the days following surgery. A combination of inhalation/infusion anaesthesia with opioids such as injections......, especially ensuring sufficient analgesia and water/food intake during the first hours and days. Compared to neurosurgery, scanning procedures are normally unproblematic from a welfare point of view. However, anaesthesia may influence the results of brain scans, particularly functional scans, such as positron...

  6. Mortality Due to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Immunocompromised G?ttingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica)

    OpenAIRE

    Pils, Marina C; Dreckmann, Karla; Jansson, Katharina; Glage, Silke; Held, Nadine; Sommer, Wiebke; L?nger, Florian; Avsar, Murat; Warnecke, Gregor; Bleich, Andr?

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection was diagnosed in 6 G?ttingen minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica) with severe interstitial pneumonia. The virus was defined as a North American (NA) subtype virus, which is common in the commercial pig population and might be derived from a widely used attenuated live-virus vaccine in Europe. The ORF5 sequence of the isolated PRRSV was 98% identical to the vaccine virus. The affected pigs were part of a lung transplantation mode...

  7. Different Forms of Huntingtin in the Most 
Affected Organs; Brain and Testes of Transgenic Minipigs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vidinská, Daniela; Motlík, Jan; Ellederová, Zdeňka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 66-69 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Disease s /3./. Liblice, 08.11.2015-10.11.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington´s disease * transgenic minipig model * mutant huntingtin Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 0.209, year: 2015

  8. [Gene clone and expression of Barx1 in different tooth of the mini-pig at embryonic day 40].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yin, Ji-rong; Yang, Kai

    2012-10-01

    To partially clone and compare the quantitative expression of tooth development-related gene Barx1 in different teeth of the mini-pig embryo at embryonic day 40, and to investigate the relationship between Barx1 spatial quantitative expression and tooth morphogenesis. The mini-pig Barx1 genes was partially cloned and the mRNA sequences of human Barx1 genes was aligned with expressed sequence tags (EST) of pig by basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), which were assembled with DNAman v5.2.2. With designed primers, Barx1 was partially cloned in use of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and tested by BLAST with all the species in NCBI database and confirmed as one part of target gene. Laser capture microdissection was used to collect tooth samples from frozen sections which were prepared before in -80°C freezer. Real-time PCR was carried out to analyze quantitative expression in different teeth. Partial mini-pig Barx1 gene of 698 bp was cloned. Real-time PCR showed that, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase used as loading control, the figures of 2(-ΔCT) of lower deciduous incisor, canine, the third premolar and molar were 0.000 249, 0.000 715, 0.026 096 and 0.112 656, respectively. There was a trend of increasing expression from anterior to posterior teeth. Barx1 gene could be related to the number or differentiation of tooth cusps.

  9. Correlation Analysis Between Expression Levels of Hepatic Growth Hormone Receptor, Janus Kinase 2, Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Genes and Dwarfism Phenotype in Bama Minipig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haowen; Jiang, Qinyang; Wu, Dan; Lan, Ganqiu; Fan, Jing; Guo, Yafen; Chen, Baojian; Yang, Xiurong; Jiang, Hesheng

    2015-02-01

    Animal growth and development are complex and sophisticated biological metabolic processes, in which genes plays an important role. In this paper, we employed real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) to analyze the expression levels of hepatic GHR, JAK2 and IGF-I genes in 1, 30, 180 day of Bama minipig and Landrace with attempt to verify the correlation between the expression of these growth-associated genes and the dwarfism phenotype of Bama minipig. The results showed that the expression levels of these 3 genes in Bama minipigs were down-regulated expressed from 1 day to 30 day, and which was up-regulated expressed in Landrace. The expression levels of the 3 genes on 1, 30, 180 day were prominently higher in Landrace than in Bama minipigs. The significant differences of the 3 genes expression levels on 1 day between this two breeds indicate that different expressions of these genes might occur before birth. It is speculated that the down-regulated expression of the 3 genes may have a close correlation with the dwarfism phenotype of Bama minipig. More investigations in depth of this study is under progress with the help of biochip nanotechnology.

  10. Hydrolysis of a series of parabens by skin microsomes and cytosol from human and minipigs and in whole skin in short-term culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewell, Christopher; Prusakiewicz, Jeffery J.; Ackermann, Chrisita; Payne, N. Ann; Fate, Gwendolyn; Voorman, Richard; Williams, Faith M.

    2007-01-01

    Parabens are esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and used as anti-microbial agents in a wide variety of toiletries, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. It is of interest to understand the dermal absorption and hydrolysis of parabens, and to evaluate their disposition after dermal exposure and their potential to illicit localised toxicity. The use of minipig as a surrogate model for human dermal metabolism and toxicity studies, justifies the comparison of paraben metabolism in human and minipig skin. Parabens are hydrolysed by carboxylesterases to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. The effects of the carboxylesterase inhibitors paraoxon and bis-nitrophenylphosphate provided evidence of the involvement of dermal carboxylesterases in paraben hydrolysis. Loperamide, a specific inhibitor of human carboxylesterase-2 inhibited butyl- and benzylparaben hydrolysis in human skin but not methylparaben or ethylparaben. These results show that butyl- and benzylparaben are more selective substrates for human carboxylesterase-2 in skin than the other parabens examined. Parabens applied to the surface of human or minipig skin were absorbed to a similar amount and metabolised to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid during dermal absorption. These results demonstrate that the minipig is a suitable model for man for assessing dermal absorption and hydrolysis of parabens, although the carboxylesterase profile in skin differs between human and minipig

  11. Object recognition as a measure of memory in 1–2 years old transgenic minipigs carrying the APPsw mutation for Alzheimer’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lene Vammen; Ladewig, Jan; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a disabling, fatal disease, where animal models potentially can enable investigation of aetiology and treatment. The first litter of Göttingen minipigs carrying a mutation for human AD was born in 2007, showing transgene expression. In human AD patients, memory...... impairment is the most striking and consistent feature. The aim of the present study was to examine effects of the APPsw transgene on memory of AD minipigs compared with non-transgenic controls at two ages (1–2 years) using the spontaneous object recognition test (SORT), which is based on behavioural...... using the SORT, we were not able to show memory impairment in APPsw carrying minipigs. Being an age-dependent disease, the transgene is expected to cause AD-like symptoms in this porcine model, and the SORT should be repeated at older ages...

  12. Functional network analysis of obese and lean Göttingen minipigs elucidates changes in oxidative and inflammatory networks in obese pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boonen, Harrie C. M.; Moesgaard, Sophia G.; Birck, Malene M.

    2014-01-01

    animals mainly for known physical traits. On the other hand, functional network analysis revealed new co-segregations, particularly in the domain of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in the obese animals that were not present in the lean. Functional networks of lean or obese minipigs could......The Göttingen minipig model of obesity is used in pre-clinical research to predict clinical outcome of new treatments for metabolic diseases. However, treatment effects often remain unnoticed when using single parameter statistical comparisons due to the small numbers of animals giving rise...... to large variation and insufficient statistical power. The purpose of this study was to perform a correlation matrix analysis of multiple multi-scale parameters describing co-segregation of traits in order to identify differences between lean and obese minipigs. More than 40 parameters, ranging from...

  13. Autologous adipocyte derived stem cells favour healing in a minipig model of cutaneous radiation syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Forcheron

    Full Text Available Cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS is the delayed consequence of localized skin exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation. Here we examined for the first time in a large animal model the therapeutic potential of autologous adipose tissue-derived stroma cells (ASCs. For experiments, Göttingen minipigs were locally gamma irradiated using a (60Co source at the dose of 50 Gy and grafted (n = 5 or not (n = 8. ASCs were cultured in MEM-alpha with 10% fetal calf serum and basic fibroblast growth factor (2 ng.mL(-1 and post irradiation were intradermally injected on days 25, 46, 67 and finally between days 95 and 115 (50 × 10(6 ASCs each time into the exposed area. All controls exhibited a clinical evolution with final necrosis (day 91. In grafted pigs an ultimate wound healing was observed in four out of five grafted animals (day 130 +/- 28. Immunohistological analysis of cytokeratin expression showed a complete epidermis recovery. Grafted ASCs accumulated at the dermis/subcutis barrier in which they attracted numerous immune cells, and even an increased vasculature in one pig. Globally this study suggests that local injection of ASCs may represent a useful strategy to mitigate CRS.

  14. Nanomechanical properties of bone around cement-retained abutment implants. A minipig study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R.M. de Barros

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim The nanomechanical evaluation can provide additional information about the dental implants osseointegration process. The aim of this study was to quantify elastic modulus and hardness of bone around cemented-retained abutment implants positioned at two different crestal bone levels. Materials and methods The mandibular premolars of 7 minipigs were extracted. After 8 weeks, 8 implants were inserted in each animal: crestally on one side of the mandible and subcrestally on the other (crestal and subcrestal groups. Functional loading were immediately provided with abutments cementation and prostheses installation. Eight weeks later, the animals euthanasia was performed and nanoindentation analyses were made at the most coronal newly formed bone region (coronal group, and below in the threaded region (threaded group of histologic sections. Results The comparisons between subcrestal and crestal groups did not achieve statistical relevance; however the elastic modulus and hardness levels were statistically different in the two regions of evaluation (coronal and threaded. Conclusions The crestal and subcrestal placement of cement-retained abutment implants did not affect differently the nanomechanical properties of the surrounding bone. However the different regions of newly formed bone (coronal and threaded groups were extremely different in both elastic modulus and hardness, probably reflecting their differences in bone composition and structure.

  15. Evaluation of contiguous implants with cement-retained implant-abutment connections. A minipig study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rezende Martins de Barros

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The presence of a microgap at the implant-abutment interface may permit bacterial contamination and lead to bone resorption, interfering with papillae formation. The present study evaluated adjacent implants with cement-retained abutments as an option to control such deleterious effects. Materials and methods Seven minipigs had their bilateral mandibular premolars previously extracted. After 8 weeks, four implants were installed in each hemi-mandible of each animal. The adjacent implants were randomly inserted on one side at the crestal bone level and on the other, 1.5 mm subcrestally. Immediately, a non-submerged healing and functional loading were provided with the abutments cementation and prostheses installation. Clinical examination and histomorphometry served to analyze the implant success. Results A total of 52 implants were evaluated at the end of the study. The subcrestal group achieved statistical better results when compared to the crestal group, clinically in papillae formation (1.97 x 1.57 mm and histomorphometrically in crestal bone remodeling (1.17 x 1.63 mm, bone density (52.39 x 45.22% and bone-implant contact (54.13 x 42.46%. Conclusion The subcrestal placement of cement-retained abutment implants showed better indexes of osseointegration and also improved papillae formation and crestal bone remodeling at the interimplant area after immediate loading, making them a promising option for the treatment of esthetic regions.

  16. Cholesterol-lowering properties of Ganoderma lucidum in vitro, ex vivo, and in hamsters and minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajjaj H

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction There has been renewed interest in mushroom medicinal properties. We studied cholesterol lowering properties of Ganoderma lucidum (Gl, a renowned medicinal species. Results Organic fractions containing oxygenated lanosterol derivatives inhibited cholesterol synthesis in T9A4 hepatocytes. In hamsters, 5% Gl did not effect LDL; but decreased total cholesterol (TC 9.8%, and HDL 11.2%. Gl (2.5 and 5% had effects on several fecal neutral sterols and bile acids. Both Gl doses reduced hepatic microsomal ex-vivo HMG-CoA reductase activity. In minipigs, 2.5 Gl decreased TC, LDL- and HDL cholesterol 20, 27, and 18%, respectively (P Conclusions Overall, Gl has potential to reduce LDL cholesterol in vivo through various mechanisms. Next steps are to: fully characterize bioactive components in lipid soluble/insoluble fractions; evaluate bioactivity of isolated fractions; and examine human cholesterol lowering properties. Innovative new cholesterol-lowering foods and medicines containing Gl are envisioned.

  17. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mößeler, Anne; Vagt, Sandra; Beyerbach, Martin; Kamphues, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n = 3) or without (n = 3) pancreatic duct ligation (PL) were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD) of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea) were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C), there was an almost complete pcD (>92%) except for potato starch (61.5%) which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%). Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions.

  18. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mößeler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI, enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n=3 or without (n=3 pancreatic duct ligation (PL were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C, there was an almost complete pcD (>92% except for potato starch (61.5% which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%. Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions.

  19. Prececal digestibility of various sources of starch in minipigs with or without experimentally induced exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mösseler, A; Kramer, N; Becker, C; Gregory, P C; Kamphues, J

    2012-12-01

    Low prececal digestibility of starch leads to a higher starch flux into the hindgut, causing a forced microbial fermentation, energy losses, and meteorism. For exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI), lack of pancreatic amylase can be compensated mostly by hindgut fermentation of starch. Even in pigs with complete loss of pancreatic secretion, starch digestibility over the entire tract is reaching levels of controls. To optimize diets for human patients with EPI, the proportion of starch that is digested by the ileum is important. Minipigs were fitted with an ileocecal reentrant fistula (n = 8) to determine prececal digestibility of starch. In 5 minipigs the pancreatic duct was ligated (PL) to induce EPI; 3 minipigs served as controls (Con). Various starch sources were tested in a 1-d screening test; therefore, disappearance rate (DR) instead of digestibility was used. Test meals consisted of 169 g DM of a basal diet plus 67.5 g DM of the starch (without thermal treatment; purified; starch content of 89 to 94.5%) and Cr(2)O(3). The test meal contained (% of DM) starch, 67; crude fat, 1.69; CP, 15; crude fiber, 2.0; and Cr(2)O(3), 0.25. In PL, prececal DR of starch was lower than in Con (P 90%) but was lower (P < 0.05) for potato (Solanum tuberosum) starch (75.4%). In PL, prececal DR of starch was higher (P < 0.05) for wheat (Triticum aestivum) starch (61.2%) than corn (Zea mays) starch (43.0%) and rice (Oryza sativa) starch (29.2%) and intermediate for potato and field pea (Pisum sativum) starch. For patients with EPI, wheat starch seems favorable due to the higher prececal digestibility whereas raw corn and rice starch should be avoided.

  20. PKD1 Mono-Allelic Knockout Is Sufficient to Trigger Renal Cystogenesis in a Mini-Pig Model

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jin; Li, Qiuyan; Fang, Suyun; Guo, Ying; Liu, Tongxin; Ye, Jianhua; Yu, Zhengquan; Zhang, Ran; Zhao, Yaofeng; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Bai, Xueyuan; Chen, Xiangmei; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    PKD1 and PKD2 mutations could lead to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), which afflicts millions of people worldwide. Due to the marked differences in the lifespan, size, anatomy, and physiology from humans, rodent ADPKD models cannot fully mimic the disease. To obtain a large animal model that recapitulates the disease, we constructed a mini-pig model by mono-allelic knockout (KO) of PKD1 using zinc finger nuclease. The mono-allelic KO pigs had lower PKD1 expression than t...

  1. Gastric mucosal electrical potential difference and blood flow during high FFA/albumin ratios in anaesthetized Göttingen mini-pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Bülow, J B; Madsen, J

    1988-01-01

    The gastric blood flow and the gastric mucosal potential difference (p.d.) was studied in anaesthetized Göttingen mini-pigs under normal conditions and during increased FFA/albumin ratios. The antrum mucosal p.d. was measured continuously with a newly developed intragastric microelectrode principle...

  2. Evaluation of the use of Göttingen minipigs to predict food effects on the oral absorption of drugs in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Martin Lau; Müllertz, Anette; Garmer, Mats

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the oral absorption of drugs in minipigs to predict food effects in man. The protocol was based on a previously described model in dogs and further investigated the food source (i.e., US FDA breakfast or a nutritional drink) and food quantities. Two poorly soluble compounds...

  3. Transfer of the pheromone-inducible plasmid pCF10 among Enterococcus faecalis microorganisms colonizing the intestine of mini-pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Laugesen, D.; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2002-01-01

    A new animal model, the streptomycin-treated mini-pig, was developed in order to allow colonization of defined strains of Enterococcus faecalis in numbers sufficient to study plasmid transfer. Transfer of the pheromone-inducible pCF10 plasmid between streptomycin-resistant strains of E. faecalis OG...

  4. Familial hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in cloned minipigs created by DNA transposition of a human PCSK9 gain-of-function mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Mashhadi, Rozh Husain; Sørensen, Charlotte Brandt; Kragh, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    dominant hypercholesterolemia and accelerates atherosclerosis in humans. Using Sleeping Beauty DNA transposition and cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer, we created Yucatan minipigs with liver-specific expression of human D374Y-PCSK9. D374Y-PCSK9 transgenic pigs displayed reduced hepatic low...

  5. Angiogenesis PET Tracer Uptake (68Ga-NODAGA-E[(cRGDyK]2 in Induced Myocardial Infarction in Minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rasmussen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is part of the healing process following an ischemic injury and is vital for the post-ischemic repair of the myocardium. Therefore, it is of particular interest to be able to noninvasively monitor angiogenesis. This might, not only permit risk stratification of patients following myocardial infarction, but could also facilitate development and improvement of new therapies directed towards stimulation of the angiogenic response. During angiogenesis endothelial cells must adhere to one another to form new microvessels. αvβ3 integrin has been found to be highly expressed in activated endothelial cells and has been identified as a critical modulator of angiogenesis. 68Ga-NODAGA-E[c(RGDyK]2 (RGD has recently been developed by us as an angiogenesis positron-emission-tomography (PET ligand targeted towards αvβ3 integrin. In the present study, we induced myocardial infarction in Göttingen minipigs. Successful infarction was documented by 82Rubidium-dipyridamole stress PET and computed tomography. RGD uptake was demonstrated in the infarcted myocardium one week and one month after induction of infarction by RGD-PET. In conclusion, we demonstrated angiogenesis by noninvasive imaging using RGD-PET in minipigs hearts, which resemble human hearts. The perspectives are very intriguing and might permit the evaluation of new treatment strategies targeted towards increasing the angiogenetic response, e.g., stem-cell treatment.

  6. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah; Erneholm, Karin; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggests that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general. PMID:26734002

  7. The biological importance of cadmium and the absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by laying hens, minipigs and monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anke, M.; Hoffmann, G.; Hennig, A.; Groppel, B.; Kronemann, H.; Gruen, M.

    Absorption, incorporation and distribution of /sup 115m/Cd have been studied in laying hens, minipigs and rhesus monkeys for 96 hours. 4 days after oral /sup 115m/Cd application hens stored 2.3%, minipigs 1.9% and monkeys 4% outside the digestive tract. 45 minutes after administration the hens accumulated 11% with returning to the normal 2.3% within 6 hours and up to 4 days. Skeleton, muscles, lungs, blood and feathers stored the highest Cd amounts shortly after intake. Liver, kidneys and ovaries accumulated Cd slowly with the highest amount after 96 hours. 45 minutes after intake skeleton (53%), muscles (34%) and feathers(9%) stored 96% of the totally incorporated Cd; after 96 hours only 22% of the Cd were localized in these organs, while 50% were stored in the liver and 27% in the kidneys. Per gram organ dry substance 100% were accumulated in the kidneys, 20% in the liver, 10% in the pancreas and 2% in the lungs. All other organs stored < 1% Cd with the lowest amount in the brain. Eggs and meat stored low Cd amounts not being dangerous for man. In Cd-polluted areas animals can really be used as filters for Cd if kidneys and livers are excluded from food-stuffs

  8. Long-term implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes in the pontine micturition centre of the Göttingen minipig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kristian N; Deding, Dorthe; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Bjarkam, Carsten R

    2009-07-01

    To implant deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes in the porcine pontine micturition centre (PMC) in order to establish a large animal model of PMC-DBS. Brain stems from four Göttingen minipigs were sectioned coronally into 40-mum-thick histological sections and stained with Nissl, auto-metallographic myelin stain, tyrosine hydroxylase and corticotrophin-releasing factor immunohistochemistry in order to identify the porcine PMC. DBS electrodes were then stereotaxically implanted on the right side into the PMC in four Göttingen minipigs, and the bladder response to electrical stimulation was evaluated by subsequent cystometry performed immediately after the operation and several weeks later. A paired CRF-dense area homologous to the PMC in other species was encountered in the rostral pontine tegmentum medial to the locus coeruleus and ventral to the floor of the fourth ventricle. Electrical stimulation of the CRF-dense area resulted in an increased detrusor pressure followed by visible voiding in some instances. The pigs were allowed to survive between 14 and 55 days, and electrical stimulation resulting in an increased detrusor pressure was performed on more than one occasion without affecting consciousness or general thriving. None of the pigs developed postoperative infections or died prematurely. DBS electrodes can be implanted for several weeks in the identified CRF-dense area resulting in a useful large animal model for basic research on micturition and the future clinical use of this treatment modality in neurogenic supra-pontine voiding disorders.

  9. Comparison of minipig, dog, monkey and human drug metabolism and disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the drug metabolism and disposition (ADME) characteristics of the most common non-rodent species used in toxicity testing of drugs (minipigs, dogs, and monkeys) and compares these to human characteristics with regard to enzymes mediating the metabolism of drugs and the transport proteins which contribute to the absorption, distribution and excretion of drugs. Literature on ADME and regulatory guidelines of relevance in drug development of small molecules has been gathered. Non-human primates (monkeys) are the species that is closest to humans in terms of genetic homology. Dogs have an advantage due to the ready availability of comprehensive background data for toxicological safety assessment and dogs are easy to handle. Pigs have been used less than dogs and monkeys as a model in safety assessment of drug candidates. However, when a drug candidate is metabolised by aldehyde oxidase (AOX1), N-acetyltransferases (NAT1 and NAT2) or cytochrome (CYP2C9-like) enzymes which are not expressed in dogs, but are present in pigs, this species may be a better choice than dogs, provided that adequate exposure can be obtained in pigs. Conversely, pigs might not be the right choice if sulfation, involving 3-phospho-adenosyl-5-phosphosulphate sulphotransferase (PAPS) is an important pathway in the human metabolism of a drug candidate. In general, the species selection should be based on comparison between in vitro studies with human cell-based systems and animal-cell-based systems. Results from pharmacokinetic studies are also important for decision-making by establishing the obtainable exposure level in the species. Access to genetically humanized mouse models and highly sensitive analytical methods (accelerator mass spectrometry) makes it possible to improve the chance of finding all metabolites relevant for humans before clinical trials have been initiated and, if necessary, to include another animal species before long term toxicity studies are

  10. In vivo degradation of a new concept of magnesium-based rivet-screws in the minipig mandibular bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, Benoit; Saulacic, Nikola; Beck, Stefan; Imwinkelried, Thomas; Goh, Bee Tin; Nakahara, Ken; Hofstetter, Willy; Iizuka, Tateyuki

    2016-01-01

    Self-tapping of magnesium screws in hard bone may be a challenge due to the limited torsional strength of magnesium alloys in comparison with titanium. To avoid screw failure upon implantation, the new concept of a rivet-screw was applied to a WE43 magnesium alloy. Hollow cylinders with threads on the outside were expanded inside drill holes of minipig mandibles. During the expansion with a hexagonal mandrel, the threads engaged the surrounding bone and the inside of the screw transformed into a hexagonal screw drive to allow further screwing in or out of the implant. The in vivo degradation of the magnesium implants and the performance of the used coating were studied in a human standard-sized animal model. Four magnesium alloy rivet-screws were implanted in each mandible of 12 minipigs. Six animals received the plasmaelectrolytically coated magnesium alloy implants; another six received the uncoated magnesium alloy rivet-screws. Two further animals received one titanium rivet-screw each as control. In vivo radiologic examination was performed at one, four, and eight weeks. Euthanasia was performed for one group of seven animals (three animals with coated, three with uncoated magnesium alloy implants and one with titanium implant) at 12 weeks and for the remaining seven animals at 24 weeks. After euthanasia, micro-computed tomography and histological examination with histomorphometry were performed. Significantly less void formation as well as higher bone volume density (BV/TV) and bone-implant contact area (BIC) were measured around the coated implants compared to the uncoated ones. The surface coating was effective in delaying degradation despite plastic deformation. The results showed potential for further development of magnesium hollow coated screws for bone fixation. - Highlights: • A new concept of rivet screws as an alternative to classical screws is presented • The rivet screw concept was tested in vivo in a mini-pig pilot study • Un-coated and

  11. In vivo degradation of a new concept of magnesium-based rivet-screws in the minipig mandibular bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaller, Benoit [Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland); National Dental Centre Singapore, 168938 (Singapore); Saulacic, Nikola [Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland); Beck, Stefan, E-mail: SBECK2@its.jnj.com [Synthes Biomaterials, Eimattstr. 3, CH-4436 Oberdorf (Switzerland); Imwinkelried, Thomas [RMS Foundation, Bischmattstr. 12, CH-2544 Bettlach (Switzerland); Goh, Bee Tin [National Dental Centre Singapore, 168938 (Singapore); Nakahara, Ken [Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland); Hofstetter, Willy [Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland); Iizuka, Tateyuki [Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-12-01

    Self-tapping of magnesium screws in hard bone may be a challenge due to the limited torsional strength of magnesium alloys in comparison with titanium. To avoid screw failure upon implantation, the new concept of a rivet-screw was applied to a WE43 magnesium alloy. Hollow cylinders with threads on the outside were expanded inside drill holes of minipig mandibles. During the expansion with a hexagonal mandrel, the threads engaged the surrounding bone and the inside of the screw transformed into a hexagonal screw drive to allow further screwing in or out of the implant. The in vivo degradation of the magnesium implants and the performance of the used coating were studied in a human standard-sized animal model. Four magnesium alloy rivet-screws were implanted in each mandible of 12 minipigs. Six animals received the plasmaelectrolytically coated magnesium alloy implants; another six received the uncoated magnesium alloy rivet-screws. Two further animals received one titanium rivet-screw each as control. In vivo radiologic examination was performed at one, four, and eight weeks. Euthanasia was performed for one group of seven animals (three animals with coated, three with uncoated magnesium alloy implants and one with titanium implant) at 12 weeks and for the remaining seven animals at 24 weeks. After euthanasia, micro-computed tomography and histological examination with histomorphometry were performed. Significantly less void formation as well as higher bone volume density (BV/TV) and bone-implant contact area (BIC) were measured around the coated implants compared to the uncoated ones. The surface coating was effective in delaying degradation despite plastic deformation. The results showed potential for further development of magnesium hollow coated screws for bone fixation. - Highlights: • A new concept of rivet screws as an alternative to classical screws is presented • The rivet screw concept was tested in vivo in a mini-pig pilot study • Un-coated and

  12. Fat and carbohydrate content in the diet induces drastic changes in gene expression in young Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Caroline M.Junker; Figueiredo Cardoso, Tainã; Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul

    2017-01-01

    In human health, there is interest in developing specific diets to reduce body weight. These studies are mainly focused on phenotypic changes induced in blood measurements, i.e., triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and insulin, and on physical changes, i.e., body weight and BMI. To evaluate the biological i....... The new knowledge gained in this study could potentially be of value for considering direct modulation of gene expression by nutrient content in the diet....

  13. Effect of genetic homogeneity on behavioural variability in an object recognition test in cloned Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lene Vammen; Herskin, Mette S.; Ladewig, Jan

    2012-01-01

    effects of genetic homogeneity on variability of cloned minipigs compared with non-cloned controls regarding behavioural variables in a cognitive test, namely the spontaneous object recognition test. Significant differences in the variability between the cloned and control pigs were found in five out...... was numerically greater for the control group compared to the cloned group, indicating that variation may be less in cloned animals, but not demonstrable with the small group size of the present study (n = 6 for each of the two groups tested). Overall, this study failed to show unambiguously that variability......The number of animals used in research should be limited as much as possible. Among cloned animals, genetic variation is minimal and to the extent that behaviour is genetically determined inter-individual variability is expected to be higher among naturally bred animals. However, the cloning...

  14. Evaluation of the novel 5-HT4 receptor PET ligand [11C]SB207145 in the Gottingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, B.R.; Lind, N.M.; Gillings, N.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 (5-HT(4)) receptor binding in the minipig brain with positron emission tomography (PET), tissue homogenate-binding assays, and autoradiography in vitro. The cerebral uptake and binding of the novel 5-HT(4) receptor radioligand [(11)C]SB207145 in vivo...... was modelled and the outcome compared with postmortem receptor binding. Different models for quantification of [(11)C]SB207145 binding were evaluated: One-tissue and two-tissue compartment kinetic modelling, Logan arterial input, and three different reference tissue models. We report that the pig...... model provides stable and precise estimates of the binding potential in all regions. The binding potentials calculated for striatum, midbrain, and cortex from the PET data were highly correlated with 5-HT(4) receptor concentrations determined in brain homogenates from the same regions, except...

  15. Dimensional Ridge Preservation with a Novel Highly Porous TiO 2 Scaffold: An Experimental Study in Minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Tiainen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being considered noncritical size defects, extraction sockets often require the use of bone grafts or bone graft substitutes in order to facilitate a stable implant site with an aesthetically pleasing mucosal architecture and prosthetic reconstruction. In the present study, the effect of novel TiO2 scaffolds on dimensional ridge preservation was evaluated following their placement into surgically modified extraction sockets in the premolar region of minipig mandibles. After six weeks of healing, the scaffolds were wellintegrated in the alveolar bone, and the convex shape of the alveolar crest was preserved. The scaffolds were found to partially preserve the dimensions of the native buccal and lingual bone walls adjacent to the defect site. A tendency towards more pronounced vertical ridge resorption, particularly in the buccal bone wall of the nongrafted alveoli, indicates that the TiO2 scaffold may be used for suppressing the loss of bone that normally follows tooth extraction.

  16. Bone Composition in Male and Female Göttingen Minipigs Fed Variously Restrictedly and near ad Libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollen, P. J. A.; Lemmens, A. G.; Beynen, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    diet 2 was a high fat, low fibre diet. A higher level of feed intake led to a significant increase in the following parameters: body weight development, bone size (length and width of rib and femur), bone volume (rib), bone (rib) dry matter and ash content (mg), as well as bone density (femur...... development, bone volume, and dry matter and ash content of the rib (mg) as compared to males. Also bone mineral concentrations in the femur, expressed as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in mg/cm3, were significantly higher in females as compared to males, as was the Ca:Pi ratio. Bone density measurements...... of the femur’s proximal and distal segment, and total femur bone density (g/cm2) were significantly higher in females as compared to males. Feed conversion in females was significantly lower than in males. This study illustrates that female and male minipigs show distinct differences in body and bone...

  17. [Expression and distribution of xenoantigen alpha-Gal in intervertebral disk of Chinese banna minipig inbred line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Jian-guo; Mi, Jian-hong; Ying, Da-jun

    2002-09-01

    To investigate the expression and distribution of xenoantigen in intervertebral disk of Chinese banna minipig inbred line, and to study the availability of xenograft transplantation of intervertebral disk. Samples of intervertebral disk were collected from six Banna pigs of 8 to 11-month-old. The fixation, embedment and slice were performed. alpha-Gal specific binding lection (BSI-B4) were used as affinity reagents and affinity-immunohistochemistry assays (SABC methods and DAB stain) were conducted to detect the expression and distribution of xenoantigen (alpha-Gal). alpha-Gal was found in chondrocyte cell and chondrocyte-like cell in intervertebral disk which have the positive yellow-stained particulate aggradation. There was no stain in the matrix, elastic fiber and collagen fiber. The distribution of xenoantigen is locally in the tissue of intervertebral disk and its expression is weak. This suggests that the intervertebral disk of Banna pig may be alternative donor for xenotransplantation.

  18. Effects of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome on Steroidogenesis and Folliculogenesis in the Female Ossabaw Mini-Pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie E Newell-Fugate

    Full Text Available The discrete effects of obesity on infertility in females remain undefined to date. To investigate obesity-induced ovarian dysfunction, we characterized metabolic parameters, steroidogenesis, and folliculogenesis in obese and lean female Ossabaw mini-pigs. Nineteen nulliparous, sexually mature female Ossabaw pigs were fed a high fat/cholesterol/fructose diet (n=10 or a control diet (n=9 for eight months. After a three-month diet-induction period, pigs remained on their respective diets and had ovarian ultrasound and blood collection conducted during a five-month study period after which ovaries were collected for histology, cell culture, and gene transcript level analysis. Blood was assayed for steroid and protein hormones. Obese pigs developed abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome, including hyperglycemia, hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Obese pigs had elongated estrous cycles and hyperandrogenemia with decreased LH, increased FSH and luteal phase progesterone, and increased numbers of medium, ovulatory, and cystic follicles. Theca cells of obese, compared to control, pigs displayed androstenedione hypersecretion in response to in vitro treatment with LH, and up-regulated 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4 transcript levels in response to in vitro treatment with LH or LH + insulin. Granulosa cells of obese pigs had increased 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 transcript levels. In summary, obese Ossabaw pigs have increased transcript levels and function of ovarian enzymes in the delta 4 steroidogenic pathway. Alterations in LH, FSH, and progesterone, coupled with theca cell dysfunction, contribute to the hyperandrogenemia and disrupted folliculogenesis patterns observed in obese pigs. The obese Ossabaw mini-pig is a useful animal model in which to study the effects of obesity and metabolic syndrome on ovarian function and steroidogenesis. Ultimately, this animal model may be

  19. Is growth influencing diameter and function of laparoscopic TESA hepaticojejunostomy? A comparison of adult minipigs and juvenile domestic swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inderbitzin, D; Schmid, R A; Hetzer, F H; Zucker, K A; Schöb, O M

    1998-01-01

    Current treatment of obstructive jaundice includes endoscopic stenting and open surgical bypass. To combine the advantages of surgical bypass with the minimal invasive approach of endoscopic stenting we developed a laparoscopic technique, transient endoluminally stented anastomosis (TESA). As shown previously, small-diameter anastomoses (e.g., hepaticojejunostomy) by TESA technique can be performed reliably in growing domestic swine. This further preclinical trial was designed to exclude growth of the animals as the main reason for these excellent results. After ligation of the common bile duct, a laparoscopic Roux-en-y hepaticojejunostomy was performed 7 days later by TESA with a reabsorbable radiopaque polyglycolic acid stent. In group A (n = 7) growing domestic pigs and in group B (n = 5) adult minipigs were operated on. Laboratory parameters were controlled weekly. Stent degradation was followed by weekly abdominal x-ray. At necropsy 6 months after surgery, cholangiography was performed and the anastomoses were measured. Mean weight gain was 140.7 +/- 10.9 kg in domestic pigs versus 5.8 +/- 1.6 kg in minipigs. Cholestasis normalized within 7 days postoperatively. Duration of stenting was not significantly different between groups. Cholangiography at necropsy showed immediate runoff through the anastomoses in both groups. The diameter of the anastomosis was 4.7 +/- 0.5 mm in group A versus 3.0 +/- 0.4 mm in group B (p = 0.03). In conclusion, functionality of the small-diameter TESA hepaticojejunostomy is not related to age and growing factors in pigs, justifying its application in human as the next step of investigation.

  20. The influence of direct laser metal sintering implants on the early stages of osseointegration in diabetic mini-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Naiwen; Liu, Xiangwei; Cai, Yanhui; Zhang, Sijia; Jian, Bo; Zhou, Yuchao; Xu, Xiaoru; Ren, Shuai; Wei, Hongbo; Song, Yingliang

    2017-01-01

    High failure rates of oral implants have been reported in diabetic patients due to the disruption of osseointegration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether direct laser metal sintering (DLMS) could improve osseointegration in diabetic animal models. Surface characterizations were carried out on two types of implants. Cell morphology and the osteogenic-related gene expression of MG63 cells were observed under conditions of DLMS and microarc oxidation (MAO). A diabetes model in mini-pigs was established by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (150 mg/kg), and a total of 36 implants were inserted into the mandibular region. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histologic evaluations were performed 3 and 6 months after implantation. The Ra (the average of the absolute height of all points) of MAO surface was 2.3±0.3 µm while the DLMS surface showed the Ra of 27.4±1.1 µm. The cells on DLMS implants spread out more podia than those on MAO implants through cell morphology analysis. Osteogenic-related gene expression was also dramatically increased in the DLMS group. Obvious improvement was observed in the micro-CT and Van Gieson staining analyses of DLMS implants compared with MAO at 3 months, although this difference disappeared by 6 months. DLMS implants showed a higher bone-implant contact percentage (33.2%±11.2%) at 3 months compared with MAO group (18.9%±7.3%) while similar results were showed at 6 months between DLMS group (42.8%±10.1%) and MAO group (38.3%±10.8%). The three-dimensional environment of implant surfaces with highly porous and fully interconnected channel and pore architectures can improve cell spreading and accelerate the progress of osseointegration in diabetic mini-pigs.

  1. Joint profiling of miRNAs and mRNAs reveals miRNA mediated gene regulation in the Göttingen minipig obesity model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Caroline M. Junker; Alkan, Ferhat; Keinicke, Helle

    2016-01-01

    . In contrast, pigs are emerging as an excellent animal model for obesity studies, due to their similarities in their metabolism, their digestive tract and their genetics, when compared to humans. The Göttingen minipig is a small sized easy-to-handle pig breed which has been extensively used for modeling human...... obesity, due to its capacity to develop severe obesity when fed ad libitum. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed of protein-coding genes and miRNAs in a Göttingen minipig obesity model. Liver, skeletal muscle and abdominal adipose tissue were sampled from 7 lean and 7 obese...... and skeletal muscle). miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which have important regulatory roles in a wide range of biological processes, including obesity. Rodents are widely used animal models for human diseases including obesity. However, not all research is applicable for human health or diseases...

  2. Extensive changes in innate immune gene expression in obese Göttingen minipigs do not lead to changes in concentrations of circulating cytokines and acute phase proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Moesgaard, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    not been studied in Göttingen minipigs. Therefore, we studied the expression of innate immune genes in liver and adipose tissues as well as serum concentrations of cytokines and acute phase proteins in obese vs. lean Göttingen minipigs. In the liver, of 35 investigated genes, the expression of nine...... was significantly different in obese pigs (three up-regulated, six down-regulated). Of 33 genes in adipose tissues, obesity was associated with changed expression of 12 genes in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (three up-regulated), 11 in the abdominal retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT) (seven of these up......-regulated) and eight in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from the neck (five of which were up-regulated). Obesity-associated expression changes were observed for three genes in all adipose tissues, namely chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3-like 1 (up-regulated), CD200 molecule (down-regulated) and interleukin 1...

  3. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers

    2015-01-01

    in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference...... is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs...... is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary...

  4. Extended Microbiological Characterization of Göttingen Minipigs in the Context of Xenotransplantation: Detection and Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A Morozov

    Full Text Available Xenotransplantation has been proposed as a solution to the shortage of suitable human donors. Pigs are currently favoured as donor animals for xenotransplantation of cells, including islet cells, or organs. To reduce the xenotransplantation-associated risk of infection of the recipient the pig donor should be carefully characterised. Göttingen minipigs from Ellegaard are often used for biomedical research and are regularly tested by their vendor for the presence of numerous bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites. However, screening for some pathogens transmittable to humans had not been performed.The presence of microorganisms was examined in Göttingen Minipigs by PCR methods. Since zoonotic transmission of porcine hepatitis E virus HEV to humans has been demonstrated, extended search for HEV was considered as a priority. RNA from sera, islet and other cells from 40 minipigs were examined for HEV using different real-time reverse transcription (RT-PCRs, among them two newly established. In addition, sera were examined by Western blot analysis using two recombinant capsid proteins of HEV as antigens. HEV RNA was not detected in pigs older than one year including gilts, but it was detected in the sera of three of ten animals younger than 1 year. Furthermore, HEV was also detected in the sera of three sows six days after delivery and their offspring, indicating vertical transmission of the virus. PCR amplicons were cloned, sequenced and the viruses were found to belong to the HEV genotype (gt 3/4. Anti-HEV immunoglobulins G were detected in one sow and maternal antibodies in her six day old piglet. Since Göttingen minipigs were negative for many xenotransplantation-relevant microorganisms, they can now be classified as safe. HEV may be eliminated from the Ellegaard herd by selection of negative animals and/or by treatment of the animals.

  5. Mitochondrial alterations in tissues with high energetic demand in minipig model transgenic for N-terminal part of human mutated huntingtin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hansíková, H.; Spáčilová, J.; Kratochvílová, H.; Ondrušková, M.; Rodinová, M.; Juhás, Štefan; Juhásová, Jana; Ellederová, Zdeňka; Motlík, Jan; Zeman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 14-14 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. 08.11.2015-10.11.2015, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : mitochondria * respiratory chain * transgenic minipig model Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  6. Refining experimental dental implant testing in the Göttingen Minipig using 3D computed tomography-A morphometric study of the mandibular canal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano M Corte

    Full Text Available This study reports morphometric and age-related data of the mandibular canal and the alveolar ridge of the Göttingen Minipig to avoid complications during in vivo testing of endosseus dental implants and to compare these data with the human anatomy. Using 3D computed tomography, six parameters of the mandibular canal as well as the alveolar bone height and the alveolar ridge width were measured in Göttingen Minipigs aged 12, 17 and 21 months. Our null hypothesis assumes that the age and the body mass have an influence on the parameters measured. The study found that the volume, length and depth of the mandibular canal all increase with age. The width of the canal does not change significantly with age. The body mass does not have an influence on any of the measured parameters. The increase in canal volume appears to be due to loss of deep spongy bone in the posterior premolar and molar regions. This reduces the available space for dental implantations, negatively affecting implant stability and potentially the integrity of the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle. Dynamic anatomical changes occur until 21 months. On ethical grounds, using minipigs younger than 21 months in experimental implant dentistry is inadvisable. Paradoxically the measurements of the 12 months old pigs indicate a closer alignment of their mandibular anatomy to that of humans suggesting that they may be better models for implant studies. Given the variability in mandibular canal dimensions in similar age cohorts, the use of imaging techniques is essential for the selection of individual minipigs for dental prosthetic interventions and thus higher success rates.

  7. Development and validation of brain and spinal cord vector and cell-delivery techniques in pre-clinical minipig models of neurodegenerative disorders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juhás, Štefan; Juhásová, Jana; Klíma, Jiří; Maršala, M.; Maršala, S.; Atsushi, Y.; Johe, K.; Motlík, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 9-10 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. 08.11.2015-10.11.2015, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : minipig models of neurodegenerative disorders * brin and spinal cord cell delivery techniques Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  8. Transgenic Wuzhishan minipigs designed to express a dominant-negative porcine growth hormone receptor display small stature and a perturbed insulin/IGF-1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feida; Li, Yong; Liu, Huan; Zhang, Xingju; Liu, Chuxin; Tian, Kai; Bolund, Lars; Dou, Hongwei; Yang, Wenxian; Yang, Huanming; Staunstrup, Nicklas Heine; Du, Yutao

    2015-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic mitogen with widespread influence on cellular growth and differentiation as well as on glucose and lipid metabolism. GH binding to the growth hormone receptor (GHR) on hepatocytes prompts expression of insulin growth factor I (IGF-1) involved in nutritionally induced compensatory hyperplasia of pancreatic β-cell islets and insulin release. A prolonged hyperactivity of the IGF-1/insulin axis in the face of insulinotropic nutrition, on the other hand, can lead to collapse of the pancreatic islets and glucose intolerance. Individuals with Laron syndrome carry mutations in the GHR gene resulting in severe congenital IGF-1 deficiency and elevated GH serum levels leading to short stature as well as perturbed lipid and glucose metabolism. However, these individuals enjoy a reduced prevalence of acne, cancer and possibly diabetes. Minipigs have become important biomedical models for human conditions due to similarities in organ anatomy, physiology, and metabolism relative to humans. The purpose of this study was to generate transgenic Wuzhishan minipigs by handmade cloning with impaired systemic GHR activity and assess their growth profile and glucose metabolism. Transgenic minipigs featuring overexpression of a dominant-negative porcine GHR (GHR(dm)) presented postnatal growth retardation and proportionate dwarfism. Molecular changes included elevated GH serum levels and mild hyperglycemia. We believe that this model may prove valuable in the study of GH functions in relation to cancer, diabetes and longevity.

  9. Development of a new auxiliary heterotopic partial liver transplantation technique using a liver cirrhosis model in minipigs: Preliminary report of eight transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, JUN-JING; NIU, JIAN-XIANG; YUE, GEN-QUAN; ZHONG, HAI-YAN; MENG, XING-KAI

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a new auxiliary heterotopic partial liver transplantation (AHPLT) technique in minipigs using a model of liver cirrhosis. Based on our previous study, 14 minipigs were induced to cirrhosis by administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) through intraperitoneal injection. All of the cirrhotic animals were utilized as recipients. The donor’s liver was placed on the recipient’s splenic bed, and the anastomosis was performed as follows: end-to-end anastomosis between the donor’s portal vein and the recipient’s splenic vein, end-to-side anastomosis between the donor’s suprahepatic vena cava and the recipient’s suprahepatic vena cava, and end-to-end anastomosis between the donor’s hepatic artery and the recipient’s splenic artery. The common bile duct of the donor was intubated and bile was collected with an extracorporeal bag. Vital signs, portal vein pressure (PVP), hepatic venous pressure (HVP) and portal vein pressure gradient (PVPG) were monitored throughout the transplantation. All 8 minipigs that developed liver cirrhosis were utilized to establish the new AHPLT; 7 cases survived. Following the surgical intervention, the PVP and PVPG of the recipients were lower than those prior to the operation (P<0.05), whereas the PVP and PVPG of the donors increased significantly compared to those of the normal animals (P<0.05). A new operative technique for AHPLT has been successfully described herein using a model of liver cirrhosis. PMID:22969983

  10. Survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in the Terminal Ileum of Fistulated Göttingen Minipigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lick, Sonja; Drescher, Karsten; Heller, Knut J.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus administered in yogurt to survive the passage through the upper gastrointestinal tract was investigated with Göttingen minipigs that were fitted with ileum T-cannulas. After ingestion of yogurt containing viable microorganisms, ileostomy samples were collected nearly every hour beginning 3 h after food uptake. Living L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were detected in the magnitude of 106 to 107 per gram of intestinal contents (wet weight) in all animals under investigation. A calculation of the minimum amount of surviving bacteria that had been administered is presented. Total DNA extracted from ileostomy samples was subjected to PCR, which was species specific for L. delbrueckii and S. thermophilus and subspecies specific for L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. All three bacterial groups could be detected by PCR after yogurt uptake but not after uptake of a semisynthetic diet. One pig apparently had developed an endogenous L. delbrueckii flora. When heat-treated yogurt was administered, L. delbrueckii was detected in all animals. S. thermophilus or L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was not detected, indicating that heat-inactivated cells and their DNAs had already been digested and their own L. delbrueckii flora had been stimulated for growth. PMID:11526016

  11. Pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle eye-blink in the Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, S. M.; Lind, N. M.; Hansen, A. K.

    2004-01-01

    Pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response is a measure of sensorimotor gating which has been frequently shown to be deficient in schizophrenic patients. In humans it is typically measured as the attenuation of the startle eye-blink reflex EMG when a startle eliciting noise is preceded...... by a weak white noise pre-pulse (PP), the interval between the PP and the startle noise stimulus (SNS) determining the degree of inhibition. Aiming at developing a new animal model of schizophrenia, we have investigated the acoustic startle eye-blink and PPI in 10 Göttingen minipigs. The stimuli......, and three other pigs did not have a startle response of a sufficient magnitude to demonstrate the PPI seen in the other six pigs at the expected PP intervals of 60, 120, and 220 ms. Maximal inhibition was seen at the 220 ms interval (mean PPI 58.6%, range -18.4 to 94.6%, N = 9). Most of the results...

  12. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Collagen IV and Laminin Expression in Spontaneous Melanoma Regression in the Melanoma-Bearing Libechov Minipig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planska, Daniela; Burocziova, Monika; Strnadel, Jan; Horak, Vratislav

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous regression (SR) of human melanoma is a rare, well-documented phenomenon that is not still fully understood. Its detailed study cannot be performed in patients due to ethical reasons. Using the Melanoma-bearing Libechov Minipig (MeLiM) animals of various ages (from 3 weeks to 8 months) we implemented a long-term monitoring of melanoma growth and SR. We focused on immunohistochemical detection of two important extracellular matrix proteins, collagen IV and laminin, which are associated with cancer. We showed that SR of melanoma is a highly dynamic process. The expression of collagen IV and laminin correlated with changes in population of melanoma cells. Tumours of 3-week-old animals consisted primarily of melanoma cells with a granular expression of collagen IV and laminin around them. Thereafter, melanoma cells were gradually destroyed and tumour tissue was rebuilt into the connective tissue. Collagen IV expression slightly increased in tumours of 10-week-old pigs showing extracellular fibrous appearance. In tumours of older animals, areas lacking melanoma cells demonstrated a low expression and areas still containing melanoma cells a high expression of both proteins. We considered the age of 10 weeks as a turning point in the transition between tumour growth and SR of the MeLiM melanoma

  13. Biocompatibility and Systemic Safety of a Novel Implantable Annuloplasty Ring for the Treatment of Mitral Regurgitation in a Minipig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramot, Yuval; Rousselle, Serge D; Yellin, Nadav; Willenz, Udi; Sabag, Itai; Avner, Avi; Nyska, Abraham

    2016-07-01

    Prosthetic annuloplasty rings are a common treatment modality for mitral regurgitation, and recently, percutaneous implantation techniques have gained popularity due to their favorable safety profile. Although in common use, biocompatibility of annuloplasty rings has been reported only sparsely in the literature, and none of these reports used the percutaneous technique of implantation. We report on the biocompatibility and the systemic safety of a novel transcatheter mitral valve annuloplasty ring (AMEND™) in 6 minipigs. This device is composed of a nitinol tube surrounded by a braided polyethylene terephthalate fabric tube. The device produced no adverse inflammatory response, showing gradual integration between the metal ring and the fabric by normal host fibrocellular response, leading to complete neoendocardium coverage. There was no evidence for adverse reactions, rejection, or intolerance in the valvular structure. In 2 animals, hemopericardium resulted from the implantation procedure, leading to right-sided cardiac insufficiency with pulmonary edema and liver congestion. The findings reported herein can serve as a case study for the expected healing pathology reactions after implantation of transcatheter mitral valve annuloplasty rings. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Comparative 3D micro-CT and 2D histomorphometry analysis of dental implant osseointegration in the maxilla of minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, Oliver; Probst, Florian Andreas; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Jeschke, Anke; Weitz, Jochen; Deppe, Herbert; Kolk, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The bone implant contact (BIC) has traditionally been evaluated with histological methods. Thereupon, strong correlations of two-dimensional (2D) BIC have been detected between μCT and destructive histology. However, due to the high intra-sample variability in BIC values, one histological slice is not sufficient to represent 3D BIC. Therefore, our aim has been to correlate the averaged values of 3-4 histological sections to 3D μCT. Fifty-four implants inserted into the maxilla of 14 minipigs were evaluated. Two different time points were selected to assess the 3D BIC (distance to implant: 2-5 voxels), an inner ring (6-30 voxels) and an outer ring (55-100 voxels) using μCT (voxel size: 10 μm) and to correlate the values to histomorphometry. Strong correlations (p implant, μCT values were higher compared with histomorphometry. Although 3-4 histological slices per implant seem to predict the 3D BIC, μCT might be advantageous because of its non-destructive 3D character. The healing time may not impact on the comparability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Adiponectin induced AMP-activated protein kinase impairment mediates insulin resistance in Bama mini-pig fed high-fat and high-sucrose diet

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    Miaomiao Niu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Adipose tissue is no longer considered as an inert storage organ for lipid, but instead is thought to play an active role in regulating insulin effects via secretion adipokines. However, conflicting reports have emerged regarding the effects of adipokines. In this study, we investigated the role of adipokines in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in obese Bama mini-pigs. Methods An obesity model was established in Bama mini-pigs, by feeding with high-fat and high-sucrose diet for 30 weeks. Plasma glucose and blood biochemistry levels were measured, and intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed. Adipokines, including adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6, resistin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and glucose-induced insulin secretion were also examined by radioimmunoassay. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, which is a useful insulin resistance marker, was examined by immunoblotting. Additionally, associations of AMPK phosphorylation with plasma adipokines and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index were assessed by Pearce’s correlation analysis. Results Obese pigs showed hyperglycemia, high triglycerides, and insulin resistance. Adiponectin levels were significantly decreased (p<0.05 and IL-6 amounts dramatically increased (p<0.05 in obese pigs both in serum and adipose tissue, corroborating data from obese mice and humans. However, circulating resistin and TNF-α showed no difference, while the values of TNF-α in adipose tissue were significantly higher in obese pigs, also in agreement with data from obese humans but not rodent models. Moreover, strong associations of skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation with plasma adiponectin and HOMA-IR index were obtained. Conclusion AMPK impairment induced by adiponectin decrease mediates insulin resistance in high-fat and high-sucrose diet induction. In addition, Bama mini-pig has the possibility of a conformable

  16. Conscious and anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs as an in-vivo model for buccal absorption - pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from bioadhesive tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Jacobsen, Jette; Andersen, Morten B; Jespersen, Mads L; Karlsson, Jens-Jacob; Garmer, Mats; Jørgensen, Erling B; Holm, René

    2014-05-01

    The potential of buccal mucosa as a site for systemic absorption has attracted increased attention in recent years creating a need for new predictive in-vivo models. The aim of this study was to evaluate anaesthetised and conscious Göttingen mini-pigs as a model for buccal drug absorption by testing pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from a solid dosage form. Buccal tablets buffered to pH 6.2 and pH 8.9, oral liquid and intravenous injection were tested in four conscious and anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs in a non-randomised cross-over study. Blood samples were collected and processed before analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. An ex-vivo flow retention model was applied to study release and retention of the bioadhesive buccal tablets. The Tmax obtained from the two buccal conscious groups (55 ± 5 and 35 ± 5 min) were significantly different to the buccal anaesthetised groups (120 ± 0 and 165 ± 15 min) for buccal tablet pH 6.2 and pH 8.9, respectively. Also, the absolute bioavailability from the anaesthetised buccal tablet pH 8.9 (20.7 ± 4.0%) had a significant increase compared to all other buccal tablet groups. In conclusion, this study showed a pH-dependent absolute bioavailability of metoprolol when administrated as bioadhesive buccal tablets to anaesthetised mini-pigs. The anaesthesia was found to delay the time to reach maximal plasma concentration of metoprolol as compared to the conscious pig model when administrated as buccal tablets.

  17. Improvement in the repair of defects in maxillofacial soft tissue in irradiated minipigs by a mixture of adipose-derived stem cells and platelet-rich fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanzheng; Niu, Zhanguo; Xue, Yan; Yuan, Fukang; Fu, Yanjie; Bai, Nan

    2014-10-01

    To find out if adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), alone or combined, had any effect on the repair of maxillofacial soft tissue defects in irradiated minipigs, ASC were isolated, characterised, and expanded. Twenty female minipigs, the right parotid glands of which had been irradiated, were randomly divided into 4 groups of 5 each: those in the first group were injected with both ASC and PRF (combined group), the second group was injected with ASC alone (ASC group), the third group with PRF alone (PRF group), and the fourth group with phosphate buffer saline (PBS) (control group). Six months after the last injection, the size and depth of each defect were assessed, and subcutaneous tissues were harvested, stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and examined immunohistologically and for apoptosis. Expanded cells were successfully isolated and identified. Six months after injection the defects in the 3 treated groups were significantly smaller (p<0.001) and shallower (p<0.001) than those in the control group. Those in the combined group were the smallest and shallowest. Haematoxylin and eosin showed that the 3 treated groups contained more subcutaneous adipose tissue than the control group, and also had significantly greater vascular density (p<0.001) and fewer apoptotic cells (p<0.001). Both ASC and PRF facilitate the repair of defects in maxillofacial soft tissue in irradiated minipigs, and their combined use is more effective than their use as single agents. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ(+) CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig...... animal model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a multi-subunit vaccine formulated in the strong Th1-inducing adjuvant CAF01. We evaluated a mixture of two fusion proteins (Hirep1 and CTH93) designed to promote either neutralizing antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Hirep1...

  19. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ(+) CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig...... trachomatis SvD bacteria (UV-SvD/CAF01) or CAF01. The Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine induced a strong CMI response against the vaccine antigens and high titers of antibodies, particularly against the VD4 region of MOMP. Sera from Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 immunized pigs neutralized C. trachomatis SvD and SvF infectivity...

  20. Quantitative autoradiography of ligands for dopamine receptors and transporters in brain of Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minuzzi, Luciano; Olsen, Aage Kristian; Bender, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    The pig has been used as animal model for positron emission tomography (PET) studies of dopamine (DA) receptors and pharmacological perturbations of DA neurotransmission. However, the binding properties of DA receptors and transporters in pig brain have not been characterized in vitro. Therefore...... in young and old pigs, and were close to those reported for rat and human brain. Furthermore, gradients in the concentrations of D1 and D2/3 sites in striatum measured in vitro agreed with earlier findings in PET studies. However, the dopamine transporter (DAT) ligand [3H]GBR12935 did not bind in pig brain...

  1. The influence of direct laser metal sintering implants on the early stages of osseointegration in diabetic mini-pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan NW

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Naiwen Tan,1–3,* Xiangwei Liu,1,2,* Yanhui Cai,4 Sijia Zhang,1,2 Bo Jian,1,2 Yuchao Zhou,1,2 Xiaoru Xu,1,2 Shuai Ren,1,2 Hongbo Wei,1,2 Yingliang Song1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Shaanxi Engineering Research Center for Dental Materials and Advanced Manufacture, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China; 2Department of Implant Dentistry, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China; 3Department of Stomatology, Hospital 463 of PLA, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China; 4Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: High failure rates of oral implants have been reported in diabetic patients due to the disruption of osseointegration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether direct laser metal sintering (DLMS could improve osseointegration in diabetic animal models. Methods: Surface characterizations were carried out on two types of implants. Cell morphology and the osteogenic-related gene expression of MG63 cells were observed under conditions of DLMS and microarc oxidation (MAO. A diabetes model in mini-pigs was established by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (150 mg/kg, and a total of 36 implants were inserted into the mandibular region. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT and histologic evaluations were performed 3 and 6 months after implantation. Results: The Ra (the average of the absolute height of all points of MAO surface was 2.3±0.3 µm while the DLMS surface showed the Ra of 27.4±1.1 µm. The cells on DLMS implants spread out more podia than those on MAO implants through cell morphology analysis. Osteogenic-related gene expression was also dramatically increased in the DLMS group. Obvious improvement was observed in the micro-CT and Van Gieson staining analyses of DLMS implants compared with MAO at 3 months

  2. Tissue content of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 in minipigs after cutaneous synthesis, supplementation and deprivation of vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burild, Anders; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Poulsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    storages of vitamin D3 two studies were carried out in Göttingen minipigs. In study 1 one group of minipigs (n=2) was daily exposed to UV light corresponding to 10–20min of midday sun and another group (n=2) of pigs were fed up to 60μg vitamin D3/day corresponding to 3.7–4.4μg/kg body weight.Study 1......-hydroxy vitamin D3 in serum and skin- and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were repeatedly monitored. Vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 were eliminated from the skin and the adipose tissue after UV-exposure was ceased. Supplementation of 13C-vitamin D3 did not seem to affect the decline...... demonstrated that daily UV-exposure of minipigs stimulated the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3 and resulted in increasing serum vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, but also carcasses containing vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3. The vitamin D3 content in adipose tissue from the UV-exposed minipigs...

  3. Time-course changes in circulating branched-chain amino acid levels and metabolism in obese Yucatan minipig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polakof, Sergio; Rémond, Didier; David, Jérémie; Dardevet, Dominique; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle

    2018-06-01

    High-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHS) overfeeding is one of the main factors responsible for the increased prevalence of metabolic disorders. Elevated levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including insulin resistance (IR). The aim of this study was to elucidate whether elevated BCAA levels are the cause or the consequence of IR and to determine the mechanisms and tissues involved in such a phenotype. We performed a 2-mo follow-up on minipigs overfed an HFHS diet and focused on kinetics fasting and postprandial (PP) BCAA levels and BCAA catabolism in key tissues. The study of the fasting BCAA elevation reveals that BCAA accumulation in the plasma compartment is well correlated with IR markers and body weight. Furthermore, the PP excursion of BCAA levels after the last HFHS meal was exacerbated when compared with that of the first meal, suggesting a reduced amino acid oxidation potential. Although only minor changes in BCAA metabolism were observed in liver, muscle, and the visceral adipose tissue, the oxidative deamination potential of the subcutaneous adipose tissue was blunted after 60 d of HFHS feeding. To our knowledge, the present results demonstrated for the first time in a swine model of obesity and IR, the existence of a phenotype related to high-circulating BCAA levels and metabolic dysregulation. The oxidative BCAA capacity reduction specifically in the subcutaneous adipose tissue emerges, at least in the present swine model, as the more plausible metabolic explanation for the elevated blood BCAA phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impaired APP activity and altered Tau splicing in embryonic stem cell-derived astrocytes obtained from an APPsw transgenic minipig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa J. Hall

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of familial juvenile onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD often fail to produce diverse pathological features of the disease by modification of single gene mutations that are responsible for the disease. They can hence be poor models for testing and development of novel drugs. Here, we analyze in vitro-produced stem cells and their derivatives from a large mammalian model of the disease created by overexpression of a single mutant human gene (APPsw. We produced hemizygous and homozygous radial glial-like cells following culture and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs isolated from embryos obtained from mated hemizygous minipigs. These cells were confirmed to co-express varying neural markers, including NES, GFAP and BLBP, typical of type one radial glial cells (RGs from the subgranular zone. These cells had altered expression of CCND1 and NOTCH1 and decreased expression of several ribosomal RNA genes. We found that these cells were able to differentiate into astrocytes upon directed differentiation. The astrocytes produced had decreased α- and β-secretase activity, increased γ-secretase activity and altered splicing of tau. This indicates novel aspects of early onset mechanisms related to cell renewal and function in familial AD astrocytes. These outcomes also highlight that radial glia could be a potentially useful population of cells for drug discovery, and that altered APP expression and altered tau phosphorylation can be detected in an in vitro model of the disease. Finally, it might be possible to use large mammal models to model familial AD by insertion of only a single mutation.

  5. Effects of coconut oil on glycemia, inflammation, and urogenital microbial parameters in female Ossabaw mini-pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie E Newell-Fugate

    Full Text Available Forty percent of American women are obese and at risk for type II diabetes, impaired immune function, and altered microbiome diversity, thus impacting overall health. We investigated whether obesity induced by an excess calorie, high fat diet containing hydrogenated fats, fructose, and coconut oil (HFD altered glucose homeostasis, peripheral immunity, and urogenital microbial dynamics. We hypothesized that HFD would cause hyperglycemia, increase peripheral inflammation, and alter urogenital microbiota to favor bacterial taxonomy associated with inflammation. We utilized female Ossabaw mini-pigs to model a 'thrifty' metabolic phenotype associated with increased white adipose tissue mass. Pigs were fed HFD (~4570 kcal/pig/day or lean (~2000 kcal/pig/day diet for a total of 9 estrous cycles (~6 months. To determine the effect of cycle stage on cytokines and the microbiome, animals had samples collected during cycles 7 and 9 on certain days of the cycle: D1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 18. Vaginal swabs or cervical flushes assessed urogenital microbiota. Systemic fatty acids, insulin, glucose, and cytokines were analyzed. Pig weights and morphometric measurements were taken weekly. Obese pigs had increased body weight, length, heart and belly girth but similar glucose concentrations. Obese pigs had decreased cytokine levels (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10, arachidonic acid and plasma insulin, but increased levels of vaccenic acid. Obese pigs had greater urogenital bacterial diversity, including several taxa known for anti-inflammatory properties. Overall, induction of obesity did not induce inflammation but shifted the microbial communities within the urogenital tract to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. We postulate that the coconut oil in the HFD oil may have supported normal glucose homeostasis and modulated the immune response, possibly through regulation of microbial community dynamics and fatty acid metabolism. This animal model holds promise for the study of

  6. Effects of Chronic Consumption of Sugar-Enriched Diets on Brain Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity in Adult Yucatan Minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Ochoa

    Full Text Available Excessive sugar intake might increase the risk to develop eating disorders via an altered reward circuitry, but it remains unknown whether different sugar sources induce different neural effects and whether these effects are dependent from body weight. Therefore, we compared the effects of three high-fat and isocaloric diets varying only in their carbohydrate sources on brain activity of reward-related regions, and assessed whether brain activity is dependent on insulin sensitivity. Twenty-four minipigs underwent 18FDG PET brain imaging following 7-month intake of high-fat diets of which 20% in dry matter weight (36.3% of metabolisable energy was provided by starch, glucose or fructose (n = 8 per diet. Animals were then subjected to a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp to determine peripheral insulin sensitivity. After a 7-month diet treatment, all groups had substantial increases in body weight (from 36.02±0.85 to 63.33±0.81 kg; P<0.0001, regardless of the diet. All groups presented similar insulin sensitivity index (ISI = 1.39±0.10 mL·min-1·μUI·kg. Compared to starch, chronic exposure to fructose and glucose induced bilateral brain activations, i.e. increased basal cerebral glucose metabolism, in several reward-related brain regions including the anterior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the caudate and putamen. The lack of differences in insulin sensitivity index and body weight suggests that the observed differences in basal brain glucose metabolism are not related to differences in peripheral insulin sensitivity and weight gain. The differences in basal brain metabolism in reward-related brain areas suggest the onset of cerebral functional alterations induced by chronic consumption of dietary sugars. Further studies should explore the underlying mechanisms, such as the availability of intestinal and brain sugar transporter, or the appearance of addictive-like behavioral

  7. The stress response and exploratory behaviour in Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa): Relations to sex and social rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Sarah J J; Martin, Gerard M; Walsh, Carolyn J

    2015-12-01

    According to the coping styles hypothesis, an individual demonstrates an integrated behavioural and physiological response to environmental challenge that is consistent over time and across situations. Individual consistency in behavioural responses to challenge has been documented across the animal kingdom. Comparatively few studies, however, have examined inter-individual variation in the physiological response, namely glucocorticoid and catecholamine levels, the stress hormones secreted by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system, respectively. Variation in coping styles between individuals may be explained in part by differences in social rank and sex. Using 20 Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa) we: (1) investigated the existence of consistent inter-individual variation in exploratory behaviour and the hormonal stress response, and tested for correlations as predicted by the coping styles hypothesis; and (2) evaluated whether inter-individual behavioural and hormonal variation is related to social rank and sex. Salivary stress biomarkers (cortisol, alpha-amylase, chromogranin A) were assessed in the presence and absence of a stressor consisting of social isolation in a crate for 10 min. Principal components analysis on a set of behavioural variables revealed two traits, which we labelled exploratory tendency and neophobia. Neither exploratory tendency nor neophobia predicted the physiological stress response. Subordinate pigs exhibited higher catecholamine levels compared to dominant conspecifics. We observed sex differences in the repeatability of salivary stress markers and reactivity of the stress systems. The results do not provide support for the existence of behavioural-physiological coping styles in pigs. Sex is an important determinant of the physiological stress response and warrants consideration in research addressing behavioural and hormonal variation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of coconut oil on glycemia, inflammation, and urogenital microbial parameters in female Ossabaw mini-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell-Fugate, Annie E; Lenz, Katherine; Skenandore, Cassandra; Nowak, Romana A; White, Bryan A; Braundmeier-Fleming, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Forty percent of American women are obese and at risk for type II diabetes, impaired immune function, and altered microbiome diversity, thus impacting overall health. We investigated whether obesity induced by an excess calorie, high fat diet containing hydrogenated fats, fructose, and coconut oil (HFD) altered glucose homeostasis, peripheral immunity, and urogenital microbial dynamics. We hypothesized that HFD would cause hyperglycemia, increase peripheral inflammation, and alter urogenital microbiota to favor bacterial taxonomy associated with inflammation. We utilized female Ossabaw mini-pigs to model a 'thrifty' metabolic phenotype associated with increased white adipose tissue mass. Pigs were fed HFD (~4570 kcal/pig/day) or lean (~2000 kcal/pig/day) diet for a total of 9 estrous cycles (~6 months). To determine the effect of cycle stage on cytokines and the microbiome, animals had samples collected during cycles 7 and 9 on certain days of the cycle: D1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 18. Vaginal swabs or cervical flushes assessed urogenital microbiota. Systemic fatty acids, insulin, glucose, and cytokines were analyzed. Pig weights and morphometric measurements were taken weekly. Obese pigs had increased body weight, length, heart and belly girth but similar glucose concentrations. Obese pigs had decreased cytokine levels (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10), arachidonic acid and plasma insulin, but increased levels of vaccenic acid. Obese pigs had greater urogenital bacterial diversity, including several taxa known for anti-inflammatory properties. Overall, induction of obesity did not induce inflammation but shifted the microbial communities within the urogenital tract to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. We postulate that the coconut oil in the HFD oil may have supported normal glucose homeostasis and modulated the immune response, possibly through regulation of microbial community dynamics and fatty acid metabolism. This animal model holds promise for the study of how different

  9. Experimental Evaluation of Early and Long-Term Effects of Microparticle Embolization in Two Different Mini-Pig Models. Part II: Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stampfl, S.; Stampfl, U.; Rehnitz, C.; Schnabel, Ph.; Satzl, S.; Christoph, P.; Henn, C.; Thomas, F.; Richter, G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate trisacryl-gelatin microspheres (40-120 μm) for acute and chronic tissue embolization in mini-pig livers. Methods. Thirteen animals were divided into four groups: group 1 (n = 3), total arterial bed occlusion with acute procedure; groups 2 to 4, chronic superselective embolization with follow-up of 1 week (group 2, n = 1), 4 weeks (group 3, n 4) or 14 weeks (group 4, n = 5). Key endpoints were homogeneity and particle distribution in acute embolizations (group 1) and necrosis and inflammation in chronic embolizations (groups 2-4) as assessed microscopically and angiographically. Results. After liver embolization, parenchymal necrosis did not occur; only signs of vessel wall disintegration were evident. The bile ducts remained intact. A distinct foreign body reaction with sparse leukocytic infiltration and giant cells was found at 14 weeks, but no signs of major inflammation were found. Particles were seen at the presinusoidal level, but no particle transportation into the sinusoids was observed. Conclusions. Embolization in mini-pig livers, using small trisacryl-gelatin microspheres, results in vessel fibrosis without parenchymal or bile duct necrosis. The most likely explanation for preservation of the parenchyma is portal inflow. Small trisacryl-gelatin microspheres may be ideal as an adjunct for chemoembolization

  10. Cartilage Repair Using Composites of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel in a Minipig Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Chul-Won; Park, Yong-Beom; Chung, Jun-Young; Park, Yong-Geun

    2015-09-01

    The cartilage regeneration potential of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) with a hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel composite has shown remarkable results in rat and rabbit models. The purpose of the present study was to confirm the consistent regenerative potential in a pig model using three different cell lines. A full-thickness chondral injury was intentionally created in the trochlear groove of each knee in 6 minipigs. Three weeks later, an osteochondral defect, 5 mm wide by 10 mm deep, was created, followed by an 8-mm-wide and 5-mm-deep reaming. A mixture (1.5 ml) of hUCB-MSCs (0.5×10(7) cells per milliliter) and 4% HA hydrogel composite was then transplanted into the defect on the right knee. Each cell line was used in two minipigs. The osteochondral defect created in the same manner on the left knee was untreated to act as the control. At 12 weeks postoperatively, the pigs were sacrificed, and the degree of subsequent cartilage regeneration was evaluated by gross and histological analysis. The transplanted knee resulted in superior and more complete hyaline cartilage regeneration compared with the control knee. The cellular characteristics (e.g., cellular proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation capacity) of the hUCB-MSCs influenced the degree of cartilage regeneration potential. This evidence of consistent cartilage regeneration using composites of hUCB-MSCs and HA hydrogel in a large animal model could be a stepping stone to a human clinical trial in the future. To date, several studies have investigated the chondrogenic potential of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs); however, the preclinical studies are still limited in numbers with various results. In parallel, in the past several years, the cartilage regeneration potential of hUCB-MSCs with a hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel composite have been investigated and remarkable results in rat and rabbit models have been attained. (These

  11. Low antigen dose formulated in CAF09 adjuvant Favours a cytotoxic T-cell response following intraperitoneal immunization in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Nana Haahr; Frøsig, Thomas Mørch; Jakobsen, Jeanne Toft

    2017-01-01

    in order to generate a certain type of immune response. To investigate this area further, we used Göttingen minipigs asan animal model especially due to the similar body size and high degree of immunome similarity between humans and pigs. In this study, we show that both a humoral and a cell......-dose immunization. Independent of antigen dose, intraperitoneal administration of antigen increased the amount of TT-specific cytotoxic CD8β+ T cells within the cytokine-producing T-cell pool when compared to the non-cytokine producing T-cell compartment. Taken together, these results demonstrate that a full...... protein formulated in the CAF09 adjuvant and administered to pigs via the intraperitoneal route effectively generates a cytotoxic T-cell response. Moreover, we confirm the inverse relationship between the antigen dose and the induction of polyfunctional T cells in a large animal model. These finding can...

  12. Evaluation of the novel 5-HT4 receptor PET ligand [11C]SB207145 in the Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Lind, Nanna M; Gillings, Nic

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 (5-HT(4)) receptor binding in the minipig brain with positron emission tomography (PET), tissue homogenate-binding assays, and autoradiography in vitro. The cerebral uptake and binding of the novel 5-HT(4) receptor radioligand [(11)C]SB207145 in vivo...... was modelled and the outcome compared with postmortem receptor binding. Different models for quantification of [(11)C]SB207145 binding were evaluated: One-tissue and two-tissue compartment kinetic modelling, Logan arterial input, and three different reference tissue models. We report that the pig...... model provides stable and precise estimates of the binding potential in all regions. The binding potentials calculated for striatum, midbrain, and cortex from the PET data were highly correlated with 5-HT(4) receptor concentrations determined in brain homogenates from the same regions, except...

  13. Osseointegration of KrF laser hydroxylapatite films on Ti6A14V alloy by mini-pigs: loaded osseointegration of dental implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinek, Miroslav; Himmlova, Lucia; Grivas, Christos

    1999-05-01

    Aim of study was to evaluate osseointegration of the KrF laser hydroxyapatite coated titanium alloy Ti6Al4V dental implants. For deposition KrF excimer laser in stainless- steel deposition chamber was used. Thickness of HA films were round 1 μm . Mini-pigs were used in this investigation. Implants were placed vertically into the lower jaw. After 14 weeks unloaded osseointegration the metal ceramic crowns were inserted. the experimental animals were sacrificed (1 year post insertion). The vertical position of implants was controlled with a radiograph. Microscopical sections were cut and ground. Sections were viewed using microscope with CCD camera. 1 year osseointegration in lower jaw confirmed by all implants presence of newly formed bone around the all implants. Laser-deposited coating the layer of fibrous connective tissue was seen only seldom. In the control group (titamium implant without cover) the fibrous connective tissue was seen between implant and newly formed bone.

  14. Preliminary study of the safety and efficacy of medium-chain triglycerides for use as an intraocular tamponading agent in minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Vincent J; Laurent, Camille; Sakr, Frédéric; Regnier, Alain; Tricoire, Cyrielle; Cases, Olivier; Kozyraki, Renata; Douet, Jean-Yves; Pagot-Mathis, Véronique

    2017-08-01

    To date, only silicone oils and gases have the appropriate characteristics for use in vitreo-retinal surgery as vitreous substitutes with intraocular tamponading properties. This preliminary study evaluated the safety and efficacy of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) for use as a tamponading agent in minipigs. In 15 minipigs, 15 right eyes underwent vitrectomies followed by injection of MCT tamponade (day 1). Two groups were defined. In Group A (ten eyes), the surgical procedure before MCT injection included induced rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), retina flattening, and retinopexy. In Group B (five eyes), MCT was injected without inducing RRD; in these eyes, MCT was removed on day 90. Pigs were sacrificed on day 45 (Group A) or 120 (Group B). Eyes were examined on days 1, 5, 15, and 45 in both groups and on days 90 and 120 in Group B. In Group B only, we performed bilateral electroretinography examinations on days 1 and 120, and histological examinations of MCTs and controlateral eyes were performed after sacrifice. In Group A eyes (n = 9; one eye was non-assessable), on day 45, the retina was flat in seven eyes and two RRD detachments were observed in insufficiently MCT-filled eyes. In Group B, electroretinography showed no significant differences between MCT eyes and controls on days 1 or 120. Histological analyses revealed no signs of retinal toxicity. This study showed that MCT tamponade seems to be effective and safe; however, additional studies are needed before it becomes commonly used as a tamponading agent in humans.

  15. TLR4 and TLR7/8 Adjuvant Combinations Generate Different Vaccine Antigen-Specific Immune Outcomes in Minipigs when Administered via the ID or IN Routes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F McKay

    Full Text Available The induction of high levels of systemic and mucosal humoral immunity is a key goal for many prophylactic vaccines. However, adjuvant strategies developed in mice have often performed poorly in the clinic. Due to their closer similarity to humans, minipigs may provide a more accurate picture of adjuvant performance. Based on their complementary signalling pathways, we assessed humoral immune responses to model antigens after co-administration with the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 stimulator glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA-AF or the TLR7/8 agonist resiquimod (R848 (alone and in combination via the intradermal (ID, intranasal (IN or combined routes in the Gottingen minipig animal model. Surprisingly, we discovered that while GLA-AF additively enhanced the adjuvant effect of R848 when injected ID, it abrogated the adjuvant activity of R848 after IN inoculation. We then performed a route comparison study using a CN54 gp140 HIV Envelope model antigen adjuvanted with R848 + GLA-AF (ID or R848 alone (IN. Animals receiving priming inoculations via one route were then boosted by the alternate route. Although differences were observed in the priming phase (IN or ID, responses converged upon boosting by the alternative route with no observable impact resultant from the order of administration (ID/IN vs IN/ID. Specific IgG responses were measured at a distal mucosal site (vaginal, although there was no evidence of mucosal linkage as these closely reflected serum antibody levels. These data indicate that the complex in vivo cross-talk between innate pathways are likely tissue specific and cannot be predicted by simple in vitro models.

  16. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2015-09-28

    Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

  17. The Goettingen nuclear law catalogue 1976. Pt. B: bibliography - sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieger, G.; Bauer, G.; Bischof, W.; Pelzer, N.

    1976-01-01

    In volume 26, the bibliography covering domestic and foreign publications on atomic energy law is continued. 2,930 publications are cited on: bibliographies, collections of texts, treatises, handbooks, commentaries, reference, books and dictionaries, concept of atomic energy law, organization, radiation protection and reactor safety, liability and insurance, licence and control, nuclear fuels, other radioactive substances and wastes, nuclear installations, nuclear ships, transport, investions and information, economic law, criminal law, mining law, research, training, documentation, environmental protection, and other special subjects. (orig./LN) [de

  18. Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor causes esophageal epithelial hyperplasia in pigs and rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, C O; Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important factor for maintaining the esophageal functional integrity. Goettingen minipigs were treated with either placebo or subcutaneous EGF (30 micrograms/kg/day) for four weeks. Wistar rats were treated with either placebo or subcutaneous EGF (150 microgram...

  19. Göttingen minipig model of diet-induced atherosclerosis: influence of mild streptozotocin-induced diabetes on lesion severity and markers of inflammation evaluated in obese, obese and diabetic, and lean control animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, Trine Pagh; Kirk, Rikke Kaae; Christoffersen, Berit Østergaard

    2015-01-01

    in human patients, inclusion of this disease aspect in the characterization of a such model, is highly relevant. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of mild streptozotocin-induced diabetes on ex- and in vivo end-points in a diet-induced atherosclerotic minipig model. Castrated male...... Göttingen minipigs were fed standard chow (CD), atherogenic diet alone (HFD) or with superimposed mild streptozotocin-induced diabetes (HFD-D). Circulating markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, lipid and glucose......From a pharmacological perspective, readily-available, well-characterized animal models of cardiovascular disease, including relevant in vivo markers of atherosclerosis are important for evaluation of novel drug candidates. Furthermore, considering the impact of diabetes mellitus on atherosclerosis...

  20. The Gottingen minipig is a model of the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome: G-colony stimulating factor stimulates hematopoiesis and enhances survival from lethal total-body γ-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Maria; Ngudiankama, Barbara F; Christensen, Christine; Olsen, Cara H; Owens, Rossitsa; Lombardini, Eric D; Holt, Rebecca K; Whitnall, Mark H

    2013-08-01

    We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome: G-Colony Stimulating Factor Stimulates Hematopoiesis and Enhances Survival From Lethal Total-Body γ-Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroni, Maria, E-mail: maria.moroni@usuhs.edu [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Ngudiankama, Barbara F. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Christensen, Christine [Division of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Olsen, Cara H. [Biostatistics Consulting Center, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Owens, Rossitsa [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Lombardini, Eric D. [Veterinary Medicine Department, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok (Thailand); Holt, Rebecca K. [Veterinary Science Department, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Whitnall, Mark H. [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials: Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results: The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions: These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes.

  2. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome: G-Colony Stimulating Factor Stimulates Hematopoiesis and Enhances Survival From Lethal Total-Body γ-Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroni, Maria; Ngudiankama, Barbara F.; Christensen, Christine; Olsen, Cara H.; Owens, Rossitsa; Lombardini, Eric D.; Holt, Rebecca K.; Whitnall, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials: Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results: The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions: These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes

  3. LARGE ANIMAL PARKINSONS DISEASE MODELS USING VIRAL VECTORS AND INOCULATION OF PREFORMED FIBRILS TO MEDIATE ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN OVEREXPRESSION AND MISFOLDING IN THE GOTTINGEN MINIPIG CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Landau, A.M.; Johnsen, Erik Lisbjerg

    2015-01-01

    Animal models towards understanding and treating Parkinson’s disease (PD) are important translational steps toward clinical applications. The Göttingen minipig(GM), fits progressional neurological models due to an relative low adult weight between 20-40 kg, and has a large gyrencephalic brain (6x...... such as antiaggreganttreatment, induced pluripotent stem cells or immunotherapy and development of novel radioligands for early diagnosis and assess disease progression....... x 4 cm) that can be examined at sufficient resolution using both conventional clinical scanning modalities and preclinical testing of deep brain stimulation, stem cell grafting and other neuromodulatory devices. Aim: Using inoculating of human or pig alpha-synuclein(aSYN) fibrils or overexpressing a......SYN using Lenti virus(LV) and Adeno Assosiated Virus(AAV) vectors in the nigrostriatal system, we hope to create a new porcine model for PD. Methods: Using conventional human-intended stereotaxic neurosurgery methods, we apply aSYN in the catecholamine nigrostriatal system of 13 GM. The changes...

  4. Genital tract lesions in sexually mature Göttingen minipigs during the initial stages of experimental vaginal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erneholm, Karin; Lorenzen, Emma; Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Andersen, Peter; Cassidy, Joseph P; Follmann, Frank; Jensen, Henrik E; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2016-09-10

    Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in humans worldwide, causing chronic lesions in the reproductive tract. Due to its often asymptomatic course, there is limited knowledge about the initial changes in the genital tract following infection. This study employs a novel sexually mature minipig model to investigate the initial histopathological changes following vaginal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D. A vaginal inoculation resulted in an infection primarily affecting the lower genital tract. The histopathological changes were characterized by a subepithelial inflammation consisting of neutrophils and mononuclear cells, followed by an increase in the number of plasma cells within the sub-epithelial stroma of the vagina. Detection of Chlamydia was associated with expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-8 by superficial epithelial cells. The infection was self-limiting, with a duration of 7 days. Neutrophils, plasma cells and IL-8 have been linked with Chlamydia genital infection of unknown duration in human patients. In this study, we observe a similar pattern of local immune response/inflammation following experimental inoculation suggesting this porcine model shows promise as a model for translational chlamydia research.

  5. Osseointegration of loaded dental implant with KrF laser hydroxylapatite films on Ti6Al4V alloy by minipigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Himmlova, Lucia; Jelinek, Miroslav; Grivas, Christos

    2001-04-01

    This study was performed with the objective of evaluating osseointegration of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V dental implants coated with hydroxylapatite (HA) deposited by a KrF laser. For this a KrF excimer laser and stainless-steel deposition chamber were used. The thickness of the HA films was approximately 1 micrometers . IN this investigation experimental animals minipigs were used; the implants were placed vertically into the lower jaw. After 14 weeks of unloaded osseointegration, metal-ceramic crowns were inserted and, at the same time, fluorescent solution was injected into the experimental animals. Six months after insertion of crowns the animals were sacrificed. The vertical position of the implants was checked by a radiograph. Microscopic sections were cut and ground, and the sections were examined under polarized and fluorescent light using a microscope with a charge coupled device camera. The six month long osseointegration in the lower jaw has confirmed the presence of newly formed bone around all the implants. In the experimental group, which had a laser-deposited coating, the layer of fibrous connective tissue was seen only randomly. In the control group (titanium implant without a cover) the fibrous connective tissue between the implant and the newly formed bone was observed more frequently, but this difference was not significant.

  6. Accuracy of Bone Measurements in the Vicinity of Titanium Implants in CBCT Data Sets: A Comparison of Radiological and Histological Findings in Minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gröbe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this animal study was the determination of accuracy of bone measurements in CBCT (cone-beam computed tomography in close proximity to titanium implants. Material and Methods. Titanium implants were inserted in eight Göttingen minipigs. 60 implants were evaluated histologically in ground section specimen and radiologically in CBCT in regard to thickness of the buccal bone. With random intercept models, the difference of histologic measurements and CBCT measurements of bone thickness was calculated. Results. The mean histological thickness of the buccal bone was 5.09 mm (CI 4.11–6.08 mm. The four raters measured slightly less bone in CBCT than it was found in histology. The random effect was not significant (p value 1.000. Therefore, the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC was 98.65% (CI 100.00–96.99%. Conclusion. CBCT is an accurate technique to measure even thin bone structures in the vicinity of titanium implants.

  7. Young Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard Obling, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Book review of: Kevin Roose: "Young Money: Inside the Hidden World of Wall Street's Post-Crash Recruits". New York: Grand Central Publishing, 2014. 320 pp.......Book review of: Kevin Roose: "Young Money: Inside the Hidden World of Wall Street's Post-Crash Recruits". New York: Grand Central Publishing, 2014. 320 pp....

  8. Young Love

    OpenAIRE

    Regmi, Pramod; Simkhada, Padam; Van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    Your article on love and relationship deals with a very important issue (“Love makes the world go round,” Feb. 15, Page 1).It is now widely accepted that romantic relationships and dating are normative among adolescents and young people in Nepal. In our qualitative study of urban and rural young males and females using same sex researchers — in perhaps the first study of dating practice among Nepali youth — almost all of our respondents reported that young people in Nepal form partnerships wi...

  9. Osteoarthritis in the Knee Joints of Göttingen Minipigs after Resection of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament? Missing Correlation of MRI, Gene and Protein Expression with Histological Scoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Reisig

    Full Text Available The Göttingen Minipig (GM is used as large animal model in articular cartilage research. The aim of the study was to introduce osteoarthritis (OA in the GM by resecting the anterior cruciate ligament (ACLR according to Pond and Nuki, verified by histological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scoring as well as analysis of gene and protein expression.The eight included skeletally mature female GM were assessed after ACLR in the left and a sham operation in the right knee, which served as control. 26 weeks after surgery the knee joints were scanned using a 3-Tesla high-field MR tomography unit with a 3 T CP Large Flex Coil. Standard proton-density weighted fat saturated sequences in coronal and sagittal direction with a slice thickness of 3 mm were used. The MRI scans were assessed by two radiologists according to a modified WORMS-score, the X-rays of the knee joints by two evaluators. Osteochondral plugs with a diameter of 4mm were taken for histological examination from either the main loading zone or the macroscopic most degenerated parts of the tibia plateau or condyle respectively. The histological sections were blinded and scored by three experts according to Little et al. Gene expression analysis was performed from surrounding cartilage. Expression of adamts4, adamts5, acan, col1A1, col2, il-1ß, mmp1, mmp3, mmp13, vegf was determined by qRT-PCR. Immunohistochemical staining (IH of Col I and II was performed. IH was scored using a 4 point grading (0-no staining; 3-intense staining.Similar signs of OA were evident both in ACLR and sham operated knee joints with the histological scoring result of the ACLR joints with 6.48 ± 5.67 points and the sham joints with 6.86 ± 5.84 points (p = 0.7953 The MRI scoring yielded 0.34 ± 0.89 points for the ACLR and 0.03 ± 0.17 for the sham knee joints. There was no correlation between the histological and MRI scores (r = 0.10021. The gene expression profiles as well as the immunohistochemical findings

  10. Cell source-dependent in vivo immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stem cells derived from the bone marrow and synovial fluid of minipigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won-Jae [College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Hah, Young-Sool [Biomedical Research Institute, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Ock, Sun-A. [Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Suwon 441-706, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Hoon; Jeon, Ryong-Hoon; Park, Ji-Sung [College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Il [Department of Internal Medicine and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Na-Young [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 4S7 (Canada); Rho, Gyu-Jin [College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung-Lim, E-mail: sllee@gnu.ac.kr [College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Gyeongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    The in vitro differentiation and immunosuppressive capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from synovial fluid (SF-MSCs) and bone marrow extract (BM-MSCs) in an isogenic background of minipigs were comparatively analyzed in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The proliferation capacity and expression of pluripotent transcription factors (Oct3/4 and Sox2) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in SF-MSCs than in BM-MSCs. The differentiation capacity of SF-MSCs into adipocytes, osteocytes and neurocytes was significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of BM-MSCs, and the differentiation capacity of SF-MSCs into chondrocytes was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of BM-MSCs. Systemic injection of BM- and SF-MSCs significantly (P<0.05) ameliorated the clinical symptoms of CIA mice, with SF-MSCs having significantly (P<0.05) higher clinical and histopathological recovery scores than BM-MSCs. Furthermore, the immunosuppressive properties of SF-MSCs in CIA mice were associated with increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, and decreased levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and osteoclast-related sRANKL. In conclusion, SF-MSCs exhibited eminent pluripotency and differentiation capacity into chondrocytes, addition to substantial in vivo immunosuppressive capacity by elevating IL-10 and reducing IL-1β levels in CIA mice. - Highlights: • Immunosuppressive capacity of BM-, SM-, and SF-MSCs was evaluated in an RA model. • Proliferation, pluripotency and chondrogenic differentiation capacity were higher in SF-MSCs. • SF-MSCs exhibited improved therapeutic effects than BM-MSCs. • SF-MSCs may have applications as immunosuppressive therapy in autoimmune diseases.

  11. In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo examination of buccal absorption of metoprolol with varying pH in TR146 cell culture, porcine buccal mucosa and Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Meng-Lund, Emil; Andersen, Morten B.

    2013-01-01

    This work studied the buccal absorption of metoprolol in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo as a function of buffered pH at 7.4, 8.5, 9.0 and 9.5. Permeability studies showed a correlation (r(2)=0.92) between in vitro TR146 cell culture and ex vivo porcine buccal mucosa in a modified Ussing chamber...... was obtained after buccal dosing (58-107%) compared to oral (3%) administration, ranging 58-107% and 3%, respectively. Macroscopically, no local toxic effects were observed by visual inspection of mini-pig cheeks. A very clear level C in vitro in vivo correlation (r(2)=0.98) was obtained between the observed....... A higher apparent permeability was observed at higher pH values, i.e. the more compound that was unionised the higher the permeability. In vivo studies were conducted in anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs. A clear influence of pH on the absorption was seen and a significant higher absolute bioavailability...

  12. Young Murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, James

    1999-01-01

    Reflects on the moral world of children who have committed acts of lethal violence. Young killers do not see any positive alternatives at the moment of violence. When they kill, they are seeking justice--as they see it. Emphasizes the importance of adults stimulating the development of empathy and spirituality. (SLD)

  13. Transcriptome analysis on the inflammatory cell infiltration of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in bama minipigs induced by a long-term high-fat, high-sucrose diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihan Xia

    Full Text Available Long-term adherence to a high-fat, high-calorie diet influences human health and causes obesity, metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Inflammation plays a key role in the development of NASH; however, the mechanism of inflammation induced by over-nutrition remains largely unknown. In this study, we fed Bama minipigs a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHSD for 23 months. The pigs exhibited characteristics of metabolic syndrome and developed steatohepatitis with greatly increased numbers of inflammatory cells, such as lymphocytes (2.27-fold, P<0.05, Kupffer cells (2.59-fold, P<0.05, eosinophils (1.42-fold, P<0.05 and neutrophils (2.77-fold, P<0.05. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq was performed to explore the systemic transcriptome of the pig liver during inflammation. Approximately 18.2 gigabases of raw sequence data were generated, and over 303 million high-quality reads were assembled into 21,126 unigenes. RNA-seq data analysis showed that 822 genes were differentially expressed in liver (P<0.05 between the HFHSD and control groups. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis showed that the process of inflammation involved the inflammatory signal transduction-related toll-like receptor, MAPK, and PPAR signaling pathways; the cytokine-related chemokine signaling, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and IL2, IL4, IL6, and IL12 signaling pathways; the leukocyte receptor signaling-related T cell, B cell, and natural killer cell signaling pathways; inflammatory cell migration and invasion- related pathways; and other pathways. Moreover, we identified several differentially expressed inflammation-related genes between the two groups, including FOS, JUN, TLR7, MYC, PIK3CD, VAV3, IL2RB and IL4R, that could be potential targets for further investigation. Our study suggested that long-term HFHSD induced obesity and liver inflammation, providing basic insight into the molecular mechanism of this condition and

  14. Radiological and micro-computed tomography analysis of the bone at dental implants inserted 2, 3 and 4 mm apart in a minipig model with platform switching incorporated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elian, Nicolas; Bloom, Mitchell; Dard, Michel; Cho, Sang-Choon; Trushkowsky, Richard D; Tarnow, Dennis

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of inter-implant distance on interproximal bone utilizing platform switching. Analysis of interproximal bone usually depends on traditional two-dimensional radiographic assessment. Although there has been increased reliability of current techniques, there has been an inability to track bone level changes over time and in three dimensions. Micro-CT has provided three-dimensional imaging that can be used in conjunction with traditional two-dimensional radiographic techniques. This study was performed on 24 female minipigs. Twelve animals received three implants with an inter-implant distance of 3 mm on one side of the mandible and another three implants on the contra-lateral side, where the implants were placed 2 mm apart creating a split mouth design. Twelve other animals received three implants with an inter-implant distance of 3 mm on one side of the mandible and another three implants on the contra-lateral side, where the implants were placed 4 mm apart creating a split mouth design too. The quantitative evaluation was performed comparatively on radiographs taken at t 0 (immediately after implantation) and at t 8 weeks (after termination). The samples were scanned by micro-computed tomography (μCT) to quantify the first bone to implant contact (fBIC) and bone volume/total volume (BV/TV). Mixed model regressions using the nonparametric Brunner-Langer method were used to determine the effect of inter-implant distance on the measured outcomes. The change in bone level was determined using radiography and its mean was 0.05 mm for an inter-implant distance of 3 and 0.00 mm for a 2 mm distance (P = 0.7268). The mean of this outcome was 0.18 mm for the 3 mm and for 4 mm inter-implant distance (P = 0.9500). Micro-computed tomography showed that the fBIC was always located above the reference, 0.27 and 0.20 mm for the comparison of 2-3 mm (P = 0.4622) and 0.49 and 0.34 mm for the inter-implant distance of 3 and 4 mm (P

  15. Nutrition for Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Aging Nutrition for Young Men Print Email Nutrition for Young Men Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, ... 2017 XiXinXing/iStock/Thinkstock For many young men, nutrition isn't always a focus. There are many ...

  16. Empowering young people/ young adults to action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Birgitte Gade

    Research questions: How do the young students relate to their community? How do young students position themselves as agents in their own lives and in the places they live – which discourse is used?......Research questions: How do the young students relate to their community? How do young students position themselves as agents in their own lives and in the places they live – which discourse is used?...

  17. ADHD in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips ADHD in Young Children Use recommended treatment first Language: ... The recommended first treatment for young children with ADHD is underused. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends ...

  18. The use of light/chemically hardened polymethylmethacrylate, polyhydroxylethylmethacrylate, and calcium hydroxide graft material in combination with polyanhydride around implants and extraction sockets in minipigs: Part II: histologic and micro-CT evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasturk, Hatice; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Ghattas, Mazen; Dangaria, Smit J; Abdallah, Rima; Morgan, Elise F; Diekwisch, Thomas G H; Ashman, Arthur; Van Dyke, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    This report is the second part of the previously published study on the impact of light/chemical hardening technology and a newly formulated composite graft material for crestal augmentation during immediate implant placement. A total of 48 implants were placed into the sockets of the mesial roots of freshly extracted mandibular premolar teeth in three minipigs. Crestal areas and intrabony spaces were randomly augmented with light-hardened graft materials including a composite graft consisting of polymethylmethacrylate, polyhydroxylethylmethacrylate, and calcium hydroxide (PPCH) plus polyanhydride (PA); PPCH graft; and PA graft, or left untreated. Distal sockets not receiving implants and the sockets of first molars (n = 60) were randomly treated with one of the graft materials or left empty. In addition, two molar sockets were treated with the original PPCH graft material. Quantitative microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) was used to assess alveolar bone structure and tissue compositions. Histologic evaluations included descriptive histology to assess the peri-implant wound healing, as well as histomorphometric measurements to determine bone-to-implant contact (BIC). Both trabecular and cortical bone measurements by micro-CT did not reveal any significant differences among the groups. Sites augmented with PPCH+PA resulted in significantly greater BIC surface than PPCH alone and no-graft-treated implants (P sockets with an intact crestal cortical bone. Histologic evaluations supported the previous findings on implant stability and function and confirmed that PPCH+PA provides a greater BIC with a well-organized implant-bone interface and is useful in crestal augmentation during immediate implant placement.

  19. The Use of Light/Chemically Hardened Polymethylmethacrylate, Polyhydroxylethylmethacrylate, and Calcium Hydroxide Graft Material in Combination With Polyanhydride Around Implants and Extraction Sockets in Minipigs: Part II: Histologic and Micro-CT Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasturk, Hatice; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Ghattas, Mazen; Dangaria, Smit J.; Abdallah, Rima; Morgan, Elise F.; Diekwisch, Thomas G.H.; Ashman, Arthur; Van Dyke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background This report is the second part of the previously published study on the impact of light/chemical hardening technology and a newly formulated composite graft material for crestal augmentation during immediate implant placement. Methods A total of 48 implants were placed into the sockets of the mesial roots of freshly extracted mandibular premolar teeth in three minipigs. Crestal areas and intrabony spaces were randomly augmented with light-hardened graft materials including a composite graft consisting of polymethylmethacrylate, polyhydroxylethylmethacrylate, and calcium hydroxide (PPCH) plus polyanhydride (PA); PPCH graft; and PA graft, or left untreated. Distal sockets not receiving implants and the sockets of first molars (n = 60) were randomly treated with one of the graft materials or left empty. In addition, two molar sockets were treated with the original PPCH graft material. Quantitative microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) was used to assess alveolar bone structure and tissue compositions. Histologic evaluations included descriptive histology to assess the peri-implant wound healing, as well as histomorphometric measurements to determine bone-to-implant contact (BIC). Results Both trabecular and cortical bone measurements by micro-CT did not reveal any significant differences among the groups. Sites augmented with PPCH+PA resulted in significantly greater BIC surface than PPCH alone and no-graft-treated implants (P implant surface in the PPCH+PA group, whereas sites without augmentation showed large gaps between bone and implant surfaces, indicating a slower bone apposition and less BIC surface compared to all other groups. Similar to implant sections, all materials showed positive outcome on trabecular and cortical bone formation in extraction sockets with an intact crestal cortical bone. Conclusion Histologic evaluations supported the previous findings on implant stability and function and confirmed that PPCH+PA provides a greater BIC with a

  20. [Vulvovaginitis in young girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejek, Anita; Kellas-Sleczka, Sylwia; Kozak-Darmas, Iwona; Bilska, Anna; Zamłyński, Jacek; Horak, Stanisław; Nowak, Leszek

    2009-12-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the most common cause of gynecological complaints in young girls. Factors which cause vulvovaginitis include, among other things, low level of sexual hormones (hypoestrogenism), the anatomical proximity of the rectum and delicate vulvar skin and vaginal mucosa. Usually vulvovaginitis in young girls is caused by non-specific factors. The aim of the study was to present the most frequent causes of vulvovaginitis in young girls.

  1. Evolution for Young Victorians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightman, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Evolution was a difficult topic to tackle when writing books for the young in the wake of the controversies over Darwin's "Origin of Species." Authors who wrote about evolution for the young experimented with different ways of making the complex concepts of evolutionary theory accessible and less controversial. Many authors depicted presented…

  2. Young novice drivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    In The Netherlands, young novice drivers (18-24 years of age) show a crash rate that is five times higher than that of experienced drivers (30-59 years of age). The rate of young males is even seven times as high. The main reasons are lack of driving experience and hazardous behaviour typical of

  3. Young-Old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simpson, Deane

    Young-Old examines contemporary architectural and urban mutations that have emerged as a consequence of one of the key demographic transformations of our time: aging populations. Distinguishing between different phases of old age, the book identifies the group known as the “young old” as a remark...

  4. Young Scientist Wetenschapskalender 2018

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen-Oskam, K.H.; van Zundert, Joris J.; Koolen, Corina

    2017-01-01

    Bijdragen scheurkalender Young Scientist Wetenschapskalender 2018. Karina van Dalen-Oskam, Belangrijk woord: Wat is het belangrijkste woord in de Nederlandse taal? In: Young Scientist Wetenschapskalender 2018, 1 september Corina Koolen, Op naar het boekenbal: Hoe wordt je beroemd als schrijver? In:

  5. Young skateboarders their everyday

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rampazzo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we focus on young people and their daily lives, bringing elements discussing leisure, family, education and work. Research conducted with a group of young skaters in a public track skating in the city of Porto Alegre - RS. In a total nine months of direct observation, each reported in Field Diaries. We seek to understand how the leisure of young people who gave the practice of skateboarding, was related to other aspects of their daily lives. After completing the work, we consider that - to remain in practice the skateboard - young people needed to reconcile the charges of their families, in addition to labels and stereotypes imposed from "outside" the universe of practitioners of this sport. We noticed also that young people go through all this in order to keep their "projects" on the skateboard.

  6. Young drivers and their young passengers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    More than one-third of all fatalities among car passengers occurs in the 10-24-year age group. The majority of these young passengers die in a car driven by an 18 to 24-year old. Compared with the composition of the population, these are high proportions, yet the exposure (for example in distance

  7. Young Adult Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Connie C.

    1987-01-01

    Considers the similarities between science fiction writing and young adult literature, and points out that several well-known authors, such as Robert Heinlein and Jane Yolen, write in both genres. (NKA)

  8. Reintegration of young mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Worthen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Young mothers seeking reintegration after periods of time spent livingwith fighting forces and armed groups face exclusion and stigmarather than the support they and their children badly need.

  9. Experimental Young's modulus calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Jayakumar, R.; Yu, K.

    1994-01-01

    Coil is a very important magnet component. The turn location and the coil size impact both mechanical and magnetic behavior of the magnet. The Young's modulus plays a significant role in determining the coil location and size. Therefore, Young's modulus study is essential in predicting both the analytical and practical magnet behavior. To determine the coil Young's modulus, an experiment has been conducted to measure azimuthal sizes of a half quadrant QSE101 inner coil under different loading. All measurements are made at four different positions along an 8-inch long inner coil. Each measurement is repeated three times to determine the reproducibility of the experiment. To ensure the reliability of this experiment, the same measurement is performed twice with a open-quotes dummy coil,close quotes which is made of G10 and has the same dimension and similar azimuthal Young's modulus as the inner coil. The difference between the G10 azimuthal Young's modulus calculated from the experiments and its known value from the manufacturer will be compared. Much effort has been extended in analyzing the experimental data to obtain a more reliable Young's modulus. Analysis methods include the error analysis method and the least square method

  10. Young Stars with SALT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, Adric R. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Alam, Munazza K.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L. [Department of Astrophysics, The American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Henry, Todd J., E-mail: arr@caltech.edu [RECONS Institute, Chambersburg, PA (United States)

    2017-05-10

    We present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of 79 nearby M dwarfs in 77 systems. All of these dwarfs are low-proper-motion southern hemisphere objects and were identified in a nearby star survey with a demonstrated sensitivity to young stars. Using low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Red Side Spectrograph on the South African Large Telescope, we have determined radial velocities, H-alpha, lithium 6708 Å, and potassium 7699 Å equivalent widths linked to age and activity, and spectral types for all of our targets. Combined with astrometric information from literature sources, we identify 44 young stars. Eighteen are previously known members of moving groups within 100 pc of the Sun. Twelve are new members, including one member of the TW Hydra moving group, one member of the 32 Orionis moving group, 9 members of Tucana-Horologium, one member of Argus, and two new members of AB Doradus. We also find 14 young star systems that are not members of any known groups. The remaining 33 star systems do not appear to be young. This appears to be evidence of a new population of nearby young stars not related to the known nearby young moving groups.

  11. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millan, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  12. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, Miguel [INITEC Nuclear- Westinghouse, Padilla 17, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  13. ECNS '99 - Young scientists forum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceretti, M.; Janssen, S.; McMorrow, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    The Young Scientists Forum is a new venture for ECNS and follows the established tradition of an active participation by young scientists in these conferences. At ECNS '99 the Young Scientists Forum brought together 30 young scientists from 13 European countries. In four working groups, they disc......The Young Scientists Forum is a new venture for ECNS and follows the established tradition of an active participation by young scientists in these conferences. At ECNS '99 the Young Scientists Forum brought together 30 young scientists from 13 European countries. In four working groups......, they discussed emerging scientific trends in their areas of expertise and the instrumentation required to meet the scientific challenges. The outcome was presented in the Young Scientists Panel on the final day of ECNS '99. This paper is a summary of the four working group reports prepared by the Group Conveners...

  14. LMC clusters: young

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, K.C.

    1980-01-01

    The young globular clusters of the LMC have ages of 10 7 -10 8 y. Their masses and structure are similar to those of the smaller galactic globular clusters. Their stellar mass functions (in the mass range 6 solar masses to 1.2 solar masses) vary greatly from cluster to cluster, although the clusters are similar in total mass, age, structure and chemical composition. It would be very interesting to know why these clusters are forming now in the LMC and not in the Galaxy. The author considers the 'young globular' or 'blue populous' clusters of the LMC. The ages of these objects are 10 7 to 10 8 y, and their masses are 10 4 to 10 5 solar masses, so they are populous enough to be really useful for studying the evolution of massive stars. The author concentrates on the structure and stellar content of these young clusters. (Auth.)

  15. Young Artists@ CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In view of 50th anniversary of CERN, about 20 young artists will be visiting CERN from 26 to 31 January to learn about the laboratory's research and the mysterious world of particle physics. The impressions they take home will be the main inspiration for the artwork they will then produce for an exhibition to be inaugurated in October 2004 as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebration. We are looking for scientists who are interested in the Art-Science synergy and who can volunteer to discuss their work at CERN to these young artists during this week (25-31/01). Please contact renilde.vanden.broeck@cern.ch if you are interested. The project is called Young Artists@ CERN and for more information look at this website: http://www.hep.ucl.ac.uk/~andy/CERNart/

  16. Young child formula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojsak, Iva; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Young child formulae (YCF) are milk-based drinks or plant protein-based formulae intended to partially satisfy the nutritional requirements of young children ages 1 to 3 years. Although widely available on the market, their composition is, however, not strictly regulated and health effects have...... not been systematically studied. Therefore, the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition (CoN) performed a systematic review of the literature to review the composition of YCF and consider their role in the diet of young children...... for the routine use of YCF in children from 1 to 3 years of life, but they can be used as part of a strategy to increase the intake of iron, vitamin D, and n-3 PUFA and decrease the intake of protein compared with unfortified cow's milk. Follow-on formulae can be used for the same purpose. Other strategies...

  17. Young generation actions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanskanen, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Finnish Young Generation was established in 1998 as a working group of the Finnish Nuclear Society to tackle the declining of the nuclear expertise. The objectives of the Young Generation are to attract more young students to the nuclear field, motivate and train young employees, enhance the transfer of knowledge between the generations, and to enable the young students and employees in nuclear field to build a personal network of contacts. This paper summarizes the results of the Finnish Young Generation program. (orig.)

  18. Communicating with Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Harrelson, Peggy O'Neill, 1947-

    2009-01-01

    Communicating positively with young children helps them develop confidence, feelings of self-worth, and good relationships with others. Adults sometimes have difficulty communicating positively with children when feelings are involved-either their own or the child's. This publication explores ways for parents to improve their communication with children.

  19. Drugs and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug abuse is a serious public health problem. It affects almost every community and family in some way. Drug abuse in children and teenagers may pose a ... of young people may be more susceptible to drug abuse and addiction than adult brains. Abused drugs ...

  20. Takayasu arteritis in young male

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-23

    Sep 23, 2012 ... The study, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in the young constitute one of the major ... neck and hypertension. Key words: Hypertension, takayasu arteritis, young adults .... Pregnancy-induced hypertension. Drugs and ...

  1. VX Toxicity in the Gottingen Minipig

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    animals were fed twice daily in accordance with vendor/breeder recommendations and given a small amount of fruit or vegetable enrichment (e.g., string...beans, kale ) each afternoon. Procedure The 24 h intramuscular LD50 of VX was determined using the up-and-down dosing method (Dixon and Massey

  2. Early morphogenesis of heterodont dentition in minipigs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štembírek, Jan; Buchtová, Marcela; Král, T.; Matalová, Eva; Lozanoff, S.; Míšek, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 6 (2010), s. 547-558 ISSN 0909-8836 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP304/08/P289 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : dental lamina * epithelial pearls * odontogenesis Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.890, year: 2010

  3. Young men using pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Flood, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Most everyday users of pornography are heterosexual men. Looking at, and masturbating to, pornography is the routine practice of large numbers of men. And most of the commercial pornographic industry caters to heterosexual men. These men – and their consumption of pornography – are the subject of a growing body of research. This chapter offers an overview of what we can learn about heterosexual boys' and young men's use of pornography, focusing particularly on quantitative studies of the exte...

  4. Young physicists' forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.

    2001-01-01

    The Young Physicists' Forum was an opportunity for the younger members of the particle-physics community to gather at Snowmass 2001 and to study and debate major issues that face the field over the next twenty years. Discussions were organized around three major topics: outreach and education, the impact of globalization, and building a robust and balanced field. We report on the results of these discussions, as presented on July 17, 2001

  5. Young children's harmonic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2003-11-01

    Harmony and tonality are two of the most difficult elements for young children to perceive and manipulate and are seldom taught in the schools until the end of early childhood. Children's gradual harmonic and tonal development has been attributed to their cumulative exposure to Western tonal music and their increasing experiential knowledge of its rules and principles. Two questions that are relevant to this problem are: (1) Can focused and systematic teaching accelerate the learning of the harmonic/tonal principles that seem to occur in an implicit way throughout childhood? (2) Are there cognitive constraints that make it difficult for young children to perceive and/or manipulate certain harmonic and tonal principles? A series of studies specifically addressed the first question and suggested some possible answers to the second one. Results showed that harmonic instruction has limited effects on children's perception of harmony and indicated that the drastic improvement in the perception of implied harmony noted approximately at age 9 is due to development rather than instruction. I propose that young children's difficulty in perceiving implied harmony stems from their attention behaviors. Older children have less memory constraints and more strategies to direct their attention to the relevant cues of the stimulus. Younger children focus their attention on the melody, if present in the stimulus, and specifically on its concrete elements such as rhythm, pitch, and contour rather than its abstract elements such as harmony and key. The inference of the abstract harmonic organization of a melody required in the perception of implied harmony is thus an elusive task for the young child.

  6. Prison and young convicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Linowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Penalty, including imprisonment comprises one of the basic forms of reaction to crime. It differs from other possible penalties in the degree of discomfort and in the legal consequences. There are also different goals in case of criminal penalty as a legal and social consequence of a crime or misconduct. Imprisonment aims at taking different actions which consequently, should lead to the situation where the criminal does not return to committing crimes. It is so called penitentiary rehabilitation which is a multidimensional phenomenon and it should be considered from the modern society point of view. Its range includes correction of inadequate individual’s behavior and his or her adaptation of norms and values shared by the general public, as well as taking and being persistent in the process of designing oneself, own personality and consistent implementation of the self- vision in the future, organized hierarchically for the given time periods. Therefore, different means and action are taken under the implementation of imprisonment. Moreover, convicted prisoners are divided into different groups in penitentiaries. One of the groups is the group of young convicts. The goal of this article is to examine and describe the opinion of the young convicts on the penitentiary as a penal and rehabilitation institution. To perform the study, sixty young convicts were selected. In the test method, the diagnostic survey was applied. The original authoring questionnaire was used in the study. The study was performed in the Penitentiary in Radom, in December 2012.

  7. Young Journalists in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljana Milinkov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available According to a recent study entitled, ”Professional Status of Young Journalists in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina”, the primary complaints of journalists thirty-years old and younger are overtime,small salaries, uneducated executives, censorship, and the infl uence of politics and advertisers on editorial policy. Most of the interviewees are not permanently employed, receiving some 200€ honoraria,and as they have mentioned, executives and editors do not suffi ciently trust them, nor are they aff orded adequate space to express themselves. While Serbia has enacted nominal steps toward democracy over the past ten years, and in the process has reduced the number of persecutions and arrests of journalists and punishments and cancellations of media, more than half of the young journalists surveyed have experienced restraints in freedom of speech while doing their job. Further, ten percent of those surveyed state that they are often censored. The basis of this examination emanates from research on the professional status of ”eternal freelancers”, conducted in 2009 by the Youth Development Fund (Razvojni fond za mlade – RFM expert team, with the support from the Provincial Secretariat for Sport and Youth. In addition, a questionnaire has been filled out by over 50 young journalists from Vojvodina.

  8. Young module multiplicities and classifying the indecomposable Young permutation modules

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    We study the multiplicities of Young modules as direct summands of permutation modules on cosets of Young subgroups. Such multiplicities have become known as the p-Kostka numbers. We classify the indecomposable Young permutation modules, and, applying the Brauer construction for p-permutation modules, we give some new reductions for p-Kostka numbers. In particular we prove that p-Kostka numbers are preserved under multiplying partitions by p, and strengthen a known reduction given by Henke, c...

  9. Flexicurity, the Crisis & Young

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Mark; Leschke, Janine; Villa, Paola

    ‘Flexicurity’ is a controversial concept but at the core is the delicate balancing act between matching labourmarket security and flexibility. Labour market flexibility is usually captured by contractual flexibility but canalso relate to internal flexibility through adaptation of working time. On...... of “flexicurity” policies on young people’s objective andsubjective insecurity and their well-being. Finally, we explored developments in employment policy makingbefore, during and after the crisis with a particular focus on ‘flexicurity’ and youth....

  10. Egalitarianism in young children

    OpenAIRE

    Fehr, Ernst; Bernhard, Helen; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Human social interaction is strongly shaped by other-regarding preferences. These preferences are key for a unique aspect of human sociality – large scale cooperation with genetic strangers – but little is known about their developmental roots. We show here that young children’s other-regarding preferences assume a particular form – inequality aversion – that develops strongly between the ages of 3 and 8. At age 3-4, the overwhelming majority of children behave selfishly, while the vast major...

  11. PAs: Fifty years young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Ellen D; North, Shannon

    2017-10-01

    The PA profession is 50 years young. Practicing PAs and current students hail from several generational categories ranging from Builders to Generation Z. This article reviews how different generations may have experienced PA program expansion, professional identity, state licensing, and prescription delegation. The authors sampled a cohort of PA program applicants about their views on what evokes optimism and concern for the PA profession. These themes mirror the recently paved professional road, while posing the all-important question: What construction lies on the horizon?

  12. Burnout and young workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Batista Chaves Azevedo de Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This article intends to conduct an analysis of the dimensions of the a model about the burnout syndrome, from the reality of young workers who are doing some vocational courses in the city of Recife/PE. Objective: Description of characteristics of a predetermined population. Still, the research is in a field of research and using content analysis method to discuss the data obtained through interviews that had their questions based on the original questionnaire that were validity (Maslach Burnout Inventory. Method: The study is characterized as exploratory and descriptive, given the need to provide greater familiarity with the relationship between the phenomenon to be studied and the target audience that was wanted to interview. Results: The results indicated that the size of the professional fulfillment is committed to moderate level, the size of depersonalization is not compromised and emotional exhaustion is present in youth work routine. Thus, although not found the burnout itself, there are remarkable risk behaviors that could be generate the syndrome on the future. Conclusion: The results may indicate the need for intervention in the company, in order to allow greater enrichment activities developed by young learners, as well as prevent the emergence of situations that may lead to suffering at work .

  13. Sexting among young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Methods Using an adapted web version of Respondent-Driven Sampling (webRDS) we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (ages 18 to 24; N=3447). We examined participant sexting behavior using 4 categories of sexting: 1) Non-Sexters, 2) Receivers, 3) Senders, and 4) Two-way Sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Results Over half (57%) of respondents were Non-Sexters, 28.2% of the sample were Two-way Sexters, 12.6% were Receivers, and 2% were Senders. Males were more likely to be Receivers than females. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be Two-way Sexters than non-sexually active respondents. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in number of sexual partners, or number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Conclusions Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting. PMID:23299018

  14. Sexing young snowy owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidensticker, M.T.; Holt, D.W.; Detienne, J.; Talbot, S.; Gray, K.

    2011-01-01

    We predicted sex of 140 Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus) nestlings out of 34 nests at our Barrow, Alaska, study area to develop a technique for sexing these owls in the field. We primarily sexed young, flightless owls (3844 d old) by quantifying plumage markings on the remiges and tail, predicting sex, and collecting blood samples to test our field predictions using molecular sexing techniques. We categorized and quantified three different plumage markings: two types of bars (defined as markings that touch the rachis) and spots (defined as markings that do not touch the rachis). We predicted sex in the field assuming that males had more spots than bars and females more bars than spots on the remiges and rectrices. Molecular data indicated that we correctly sexed 100% of the nestlings. We modeled the data using random forests and classification trees. Both models indicated that the number and type of markings on the secondary feathers were the most important in classifying nestling sex. The statistical models verified our initial qualitative prediction that males have more spots than bars and females more bars than spots on flight feathers P6P10 for both wings and tail feathers T1 and T2. This study provides researchers with an easily replicable and highly accurate method for sexing young Snowy Owls in the field, which should aid further studies of sex-ratios and sex-related variation in behavior and growth of this circumpolar owl species. ?? 2011 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  15. Young Nearby Loose Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, C. A. O.; Quast, G. R.; Melo, C. H. F.; Sterzik, M. F.

    2008-12-01

    A significant population of stars with ages younger than the Pleiades exists in the solar neighborhood. They are grouped in loose young associations, sharing similar kinematical and physical properties, but, due to their vicinity to the Sun, they are dispersed in the sky, and hard to identify. Their strong stellar coronal activity, causing enhanced X-ray emission, allows them to be identified as counterparts of X-ray sources. The analysis presented here is based mainly on the SACY project, aimed to survey in a systematic way counterparts of ROSAT all-sky X-ray sources in the Southern Hemisphere for which proper motions are known. We give the definition, main properties, and lists of high-probability members of nine confirmed loose young associations that do not belong directly to the well-known Oph-Sco-Cen complex. The youth and vicinity of many members of these new associations make them ideal targets for follow-up studies, specifically geared towards the understanding of planetary system formation. Searches for very low-mass and brown dwarf companions are ongoing, and it will be promising to search for planetary companions with next generation instruments.

  16. Young Migrants and Discourses on Young Migrants in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Debby; Maier, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the perspectives of young migrants in the Netherlands with the dominant discourse on "migrants" at present. The integration of young "migrants" have been studied in the European research projects TRESEGY and PROFACITY with the help of a number of ethnographic studies and a questionnaire in the Netherlands.…

  17. Effective Communication with Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Patrick; Elliott, David

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Government established the Office for Youth (the Office) in September 2008 in an effort to engage with the young people of Australia. The Office will work with other government agencies to help young people reach their full potential; make effective transitions to adulthood as they continue to learn, start work, make decisions that…

  18. Young Children and Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Sloane, Douglas M.

    1992-01-01

    Used data from General Social Surveys to examine effect of young children on job satisfaction of men and women. Findings suggest that young children have no effect on job satisfaction of male or female workers regardless of time period, work status, or marital status. This was true for women working in labor market as well as in home. (Author/NB)

  19. Report on the Young 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elke Zeijl; Marianne Beker; Koen Breedveld; Andries van den Broek; Jos de Haan; Lex Herweijer; Frank Huysmans; Karin Wittebrood

    2003-01-01

    Original title: Rapportage jeugd 2002. Policymakers have always devoted a lot of attention to the way in which young people spend their leisure time. More recently, they have increasingly pointed out that activities in the areas of sport, ICT or politics have a positive influence on young

  20. Young Children's Understanding of Denial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Keith; Theakston, Anna; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although a fair amount is known about young children's production of negation, little is known about their comprehension. Here, we focus on arguably the most complex basic form, denial, and how young children understand denial, when it is expressed in response to a question with gesture, single word, or sentence. One hundred twenty-six children in…

  1. Young people and sexual orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisette Kuyper

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Young people and sexual orientation The Netherlands Institute for Social Research ¦ SCP carries out regular research on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals. In this report, the focus is on young people in the Netherlands. The report addresses two issues:

  2. Unemployment of the Young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Mrgole

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The article treats the social dimensions and paradox of the ideological perceptions related to the unemployment of the young. In the paper, Mrgole focuses on the presentation and analysis of rhetorical models and argumentative constructions constituting the basic set of accepted social perceptions about vocation vocational education, work and emploment. He proceeds by criticizing the fundamental premises of functionalist conceptions serving as the basis for predominant ideological models. Postulating linguistic conceptualisation as the basis, Mrgole derives the logic of perceiving employment. as a socially normative category, and Iilustrates the problem of juvenile unemployment in this light. The interpretation is founded on the results of the evaluation obtained by the experimental project entitled Centres for Younger Adults, in which Mrgole, as an associate of the Centre for Adult Education, has participated since 1995.

  3. MAGMADIM: Young Explainers Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paltiel, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:Physics teachers and educators constantly face the problem of inspiring their students to major in physics. On the other hand, science museums are designed to provide a pleasant environment which will stimulate and encourage a science associated experience to the general public. Typically, there is no intention to teach science as such in science museums. One may, however, use the science museum to teach and inspire certain groups of students in a much deeper sense. In fact they may actually enthusiastically learn much of the school physics curriculum at the museum. This report discusses the Magmadim program through which 10th graders are trained to be young explainers at the Weizmann Institutes Clore Garden of Science. To this end they study the physics underlying its exhibits in an after-school course. The ultimate goal is for the 'magmadim' to become the best possible explainers and be able to face all sorts of museum visitors. Along with learning how to instruct visitors, they must learn the physics behind the exhibits to give a full explanation of the exhibit and be able to answer any question that may arise. Our 5 year experience with the program shows that its self-selected participants not only study a lot of science, but also like it and learn how to explain the content to other people. This program, along with similar programs at the Bloomfield Science Museum and the Madatzim (young physics tutors) program of Ort, help in promoting the interest in science in general and physics in particular among school students. Various ways to expand the programs will also be discussed

  4. Sexting among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc

    2013-03-01

    Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Using an adapted Web version of respondent-driven sampling, we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (aged 18-24 years, N = 3,447). We examined participant sexting behavior using four categories of sexting: (1) nonsexters, (2) receivers, (3) senders, and (4) two-way sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, and psychological well-being. More than half (57%) of the respondents were nonsexters, 28.2% were two-way sexters, 12.6% were receivers, and 2% were senders. Male respondents were more likely to be receivers than their female counterparts. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be two-way sexters than non-sexually active ones. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in the number of sexual partners or the number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Media life of the young

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlund, Oscar; Bjur, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    This is a thorough investigation into contemporary young people and their media life. The article conceptualizes a typology of media life, drawing on a theoretical body involving the sociology of generations, life course research, media life and individualization. This empirically derived typology...... makes a strong instrument for an understanding of the media life of the young, furnishing insights into how they have constructed their use of media. The investigation is based on a robust national survey with Swedes born 1994–2001, conducted in 2010, and focusing on four media: television, gaming......, the Internet and mobile devices. Two of the findings are particularly surprising. Firstly, the results reveal that the young generally lead heterogeneous media lives, varying with age and sex. Secondly, although some young people literarily live their life in media, there are also de facto young who live...

  6. Annual report 34-37 on the activities of the Institute for International Law of the University of Goettingen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The report reviews the scientific activities of the institute from 1982 to 1985. The Department for Atomic Energy Law continued with research and documentation dealing with all legal questions concerning the peaceful use of nuclear energy and the protection against ionising radiation, including international law agreements and the safeguards system. The subjects of all seminars held are listed, the theses and other publications, and also other scientific activities outside the institute. (HSCH) [de

  7. Irreducible Specht modules are signed Young modules

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmer, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently Donkin defined signed Young modules as a simultaneous generalization of Young and twisted Young modules for the symmetric group. We show that in odd characteristic, if a Specht module $S^\\lambda$ is irreducible, then $S^\\lambda$ is a signed Young module. Thus the set of irreducible Specht modules coincides with the set of irreducible signed Young modules. This provides evidence for our conjecture that the signed Young modules are precisely the class of indecomposable self-dual module...

  8. Young people in adult education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Mrgole

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of young people participating in adult education programmes has, in the recent years, raised the question of transfer from regular education system to labour market where a large proportion of young people remain socially marginalized and isolated. Young people in adult education are a special target group; in order to plan educational programmes properly, we need to be familiar with their specific characteristics. The article, on the level of a statistical data outline and its paradoxes, introduces the category of young people in adult education as an impact of system factors, and defines related problems in the register, which - for more thorough understanding - dictates sociologically and anthropologically directed analytical approach. The first effect of this, not solely pedagogical view, is presented in the second part of the article, where Mrgole proposes an analysis of educational needs definition and its dangerous consequences in original planning of educational programmes. The concluding part takes a wider perspective and treats the factors of early school-leaving of young people, taking into consideration direct experience in experimental educational programmes for the young. The article ends with an outline of basic elements which the planners of andragogical educational programmes intended for young people should consider in their planning to achieve effective curricula.

  9. The Young and the Stressed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leppink, Eric W.; Odlaug, Brian L.; Lust, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    among college students, are limited. This study examined potential associations between perceived stress, academic achievement, physical/mental health, and impulse control disorders in young adults. A total of 1805 students completed an online survey and were included in the analysis. Responders were...... stress and numerous aspects of mental/physical health in young adults, which could be an important consideration for individuals working with college students.......High levels of stress are common among young adults, particularly those enrolled in college. These degrees of stress have shown numerous deleterious effects across both academic and health variables. Findings regarding the role of stress in the presentation of impulse control disorders, particular...

  10. Egalitarianism in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Ernst; Bernhard, Helen; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2008-08-28

    Human social interaction is strongly shaped by other-regarding preferences, that is, a concern for the welfare of others. These preferences are important for a unique aspect of human sociality-large scale cooperation with genetic strangers-but little is known about their developmental roots. Here we show that young children's other-regarding preferences assume a particular form, inequality aversion that develops strongly between the ages of 3 and 8. At age 3-4, the overwhelming majority of children behave selfishly, whereas most children at age 7-8 prefer resource allocations that remove advantageous or disadvantageous inequality. Moreover, inequality aversion is strongly shaped by parochialism, a preference for favouring the members of one's own social group. These results indicate that human egalitarianism and parochialism have deep developmental roots, and the simultaneous emergence of altruistic sharing and parochialism during childhood is intriguing in view of recent evolutionary theories which predict that the same evolutionary process jointly drives both human altruism and parochialism.

  11. YOUNG ATHLETES' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week

  12. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Traumatic Events (3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Development of the Young Brain May 2, 2011 For ... designed to learn through example. Dr. Giedd: This learning by example is very powerful and that parents ...

  13. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Development of the Young Brain May 2, 2011 For more than twenty ... Announcer: Our brains have been challenged by the effects of multi-tasking in many ways brought on ...

  14. Development of the Young Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute Announcements (24 items) Development of the Young Brain May 2, 2011 For more than twenty years, ... Giedd has studied the development of the adolescent brain. Decades of imaging work have led to remarkable ...

  15. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Traumatic Events (3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Development of the Young Brain May 2, 2011 For ... Health neuroscientist Dr. Jay Giedd has studied the development of the adolescent brain. Decades of imaging work ...

  16. Letters to a Young Writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Anne; Becker, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Presents words of encouragement to a young poet. Includes empathetic words and motivating ideas. Presents a letter including a quote from "Tintern Abbey" by William Wordsworth and ideas about that quote. (SG)

  17. Young Adolescents' Beliefs Concerning Menstruation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Anne E.; Ruble, Diane N.

    1978-01-01

    A sample of 54 young adolescent girls (both pre- and postmenarcheal) and boys responded to a questionnaire assessing evaluative attitudes toward menstruation, expected symptomatology, perceived effects on moods and activities, and sources of information for these beliefs. (Author/JMB)

  18. The diversion of young offenders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young people who are exposed to such incidents of violence .... keeping in mind the 'best interest of the child'.26 .... behaviour with positive behaviour, understanding the impact of ..... Counselors, Teachers, Psychologists and Human Service.

  19. YOUNG ADULTS (20 - 35 YEARS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    Young adults are especially distressed by skin conditions that are uncomfortable, ... treatment are as for teenage acne. ... sive cases are treated with low to medium ... This is usually mild and self-limiting, ... loss of confidence, and depression,.

  20. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Institute Announcements (24 items) Development of the Young Brain May 2, 2011 For more than twenty years, ... Giedd has studied the development of the adolescent brain. Decades of imaging work have led to remarkable ...

  1. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Development of the Young Brain May 2, 2011 For more than twenty ... are our children handing multi-tasking in a digital age that changes, seemingly, by the hour? Early ...

  2. Nutrition for young soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Umaña Alvarado, Mónica

    2005-01-01

    El artículo también se encuentra escrito en español. The growing participation of young people in soccer is a motivation so that the trainers, physical educators and parents know which are the special requirements to practice this sport in a safe manner, specially the nutritional requirements. The present revision includes generalities on the physiological demands of soccer, the differences between young people and adults when making prolonged exercise, the necessities ...

  3. Young People with a Twist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bo Wagner; Madsen, Diana Højlund

    The report is based on group interviews with 33 young people with ethnic minority backgrounds. They have been asked about their educational and vocational wishes and also touch on a number of issues such as family, gender equality, discrimination and integration.......The report is based on group interviews with 33 young people with ethnic minority backgrounds. They have been asked about their educational and vocational wishes and also touch on a number of issues such as family, gender equality, discrimination and integration....

  4. Young People Volunteering in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Riiser, Nina Milling

    2011-01-01

    Socio economic conditions in Uganda causes the youth to be caught between childhood and adulthood. They are young people moving towards adulthood, with no option of becoming independent. How does volunteering affect the youth and why does the youth volunteer? Does the youth get closer to adulthood by volunteering and what di they gain? Socio economic conditions in Uganda causes the youth to be caught between childhood and adulthood. They are young people moving towards adulthood, with no o...

  5. YOUNG INVESTIGATOR SPECIAL ISSUE (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Eils

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the first Young Investigator Special Issue of the Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (JSSM. The JSSM family is proud to start this new service to the Sport Science community and to young researchers. The background in starting this issue was the observation that large amounts of high-quality research is conducted every year by students and young investigators, but often remains solely in local university libraries and never reaches the scientific community or databases. In addition, most international journals have a high threshold in accepting papers, and it is often hard to reach this level for junior scientists because of lack of experience, supervision or confidence. These are major reasons that delay or in some cases stop young researchers from publishing their valuable work. We all received help from senior colleagues in the beginning of our career. Now it is our turn to help youngsters. With this special issue, the JSSM is now serving young researchers as a channel for publishing their work. Our goal is to motivate young researchers to submit their work to JSSM, but we also aim to motivate supervisors and expert referees to be supportive and constructive towards these young scientists at the very beginning of their career. The Young Investigator Special Issue followed a normal peer-review process, except that there were no straight rejections in the first phase of review. We advised the reviewers of the Young Investigator Special Issue to proceed with constructive advice and remarks for all manuscripts. This offered a great opportunity for the Young Investigators to revise the manuscript, while at the same time contributing to the learning process. Thereafter, if the revisions were properly conducted according to the remarks from reviewers, the manuscripts were accepted for publication. We have received many manuscripts from young researchers with a lot of potential. There has been plenty of evidence of great talent

  6. Eating behaviours among young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, S F; Mira, M; Beumont, P J; Sowerbutts, T D; Llewellyn-Jones, D

    1983-09-03

    Disordered eating and weight-control behaviour is becoming increasingly common among adolescent girls. We studied four groups of young women aged between 15 and 27 years (106 school and university students, 50 ballet school students, 22 patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and 44 patients with bulimia). Our results suggest that most young women diet at some time and lose more than three kg in weight; that they may experience episodes of binge eating and "picking" behaviour; and that they wish to be thinner irrespective of their current body weight. Twenty per cent of young women may fulfil the criteria for an eating disorder (bulimia or anorexia nervosa) at some stage, however briefly, and about 7% abuse laxatives or diuretics in order to achieve a fashionably slim figure. We suggest that most young women may pass through a phase of what is currently called disordered eating, and that this is part of normal development and may not necessarily require treatment. The incidence of disordered eating is greater in those young women who are under pressure to maintain a low body weight.

  7. Prayer practices among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Jennifer G; Quinn Griffin, Mary T; McNulty, Sister Rita; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2010-01-01

    Prayer is the most common complementary and alternative intervention used by most Americans. Yet, little is known about the prayer practices of young adults. In this exploratory study, 4 types of prayer practices of 62 young adults (21-30 years old) are described. The 4 different categories of prayer were: contemplative-meditative, ritualistic, petitionary, and colloquial. Participants most often used colloquial prayer practice, that is, asking God to provide guidance or talking to God in their own words. Recommendations for future research are included.

  8. Multicultural Monologues for Young Actors. The Young Actors Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaight, Craig, Ed.; Sharrar, Jack, Ed.

    This book presents 62 monologue selections from diverse cultures for young actors to perform. The book's selections offer "quality literature by significant writers." Some of the writers represented in the book are George C. Wolfe, Miguel Pinero, Lorraine Hansberry, Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones), John M. Synge, Yukio Mishima, Reynolds…

  9. Young Scientist in Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Rosa

    simulate experiments, in order to spark young people’s interest in science and in following scientific careers.

  10. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frances B.

    2008-01-01

    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  11. Sex Education with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblinsky, Sally; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discusses guidelines (developed by the Oregon State University Early Childhood Sex Education Project) for developing teacher-parent cooperation in providing sex education to young children. The guidelines concern how to talk about body differences and body functions; how to deal with masturbation, sex play and obscene language; and how to involve…

  12. Teaching Chess to Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankauskas, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Presents suggestions for teaching chess to young children as part of the problem-solving component of a kindergarten mathematics curriculum. Discusses the introduction of pairs of chess characters, playing challenge games with teachers to enhance skill development, and writing down the rules of the game. Notes that children's problem-solving and…

  13. Financial planning for young households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Boiden; Weissensteiner, Alex; Poulsen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the financial planning problems of young households whose main decisions are how to finance the purchase of a house (liabilities) and how to allocate investments in pension savings schemes (assets). The problems are solved using a multi-stage stochastic programming model where...

  14. Positive Psychology: Transforming Young Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    To reach responsible independence, young people must become invested in setting their life course. A rich history of research and practice shows that democratic group climates foster autonomy and prosocial behavior. This article explores principles and practices for creating positive peer cultures to develop strengths and help youth meet their…

  15. Young Women, Sports, and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines young women's access to two traditionally male domains, sport and science, from two perspectives. The structural approach suggests that sport and science are stratified by gender and have historically been chilly climates for women. The Critical approach argues that structure and agency are important in understanding sources…

  16. Kenyan Young Generation in Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesori, R.

    2017-01-01

    KYGN Educates, informs, promotes and facilitate transfer of knowledge on peaceful, safe and secure uses of nuclear science and technology in Kenya. A network of young scientists and students with special interest in the nuclear science and allied fields. It is an affiliate of the IYNC whose membership is drawn from member states of United Nations

  17. Recognizing Young Readers' Spoken Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Mostow, Jack; Aist, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Free-form spoken input would be the easiest and most natural way for young children to communicate to an intelligent tutoring system. However, achieving such a capability poses a challenge both to instruction design and to automatic speech recognition. To address the difficulties of accepting such input, we adopt the framework of predictable…

  18. Injury prevalence in young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Maria dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The injuries in young athletes are becoming more frequent, due to the wade dissemination of sports and the excessive training aimed at high performance. The requirements in sports can lead to the development of pathologies and injuries that could be prevented if the young athlete's training was well oriented. We emphasize the importance of professional and competition calendar planning always seeking the recovery of the athlete. It’s also important to have knowledge of injuries, training load, the previous history of the athlete, and correction of improper movement technique.Objective: To identify the most common injuries in young athletes of different sports. Material and Methods: The study included 36 athletes, aged 12-17 years, of both sexes, the Athletics rules, futsal, swimming and volleyball. An interview that contained information about age, practice time and sport was initially applied. Then two questionnaires were applied, the first consisting of a pain distribution table by body region and the second by a pain scale and this interference in daily activities. Results:Obtained results as mean age 13.86 years. Among the participants, 66.7% reported practicing sports or other physical activities, 55.6% reported that they have suffered injury in some cases with recurrence and 50% who have had any treatment for pain.Conclusion: Based on the results we conclude the importance of knowledge about sports injury prevention strategies in young athletes as a way to ensure longevity in the sport.

  19. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  20. Young engineers of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beyers, R

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The Young Engineers of South Africa Programme (YESA) also endorses the e-Education and the Science and Technology White Papers. The main focus area will be on Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in education and the way that they can impact...

  1. Young British Art / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    1990ndate kunsti muutumisest. Inglise kunstniku Peter Daviese maalist "Kuum esimene sada" (1996), Gavin Turki vahakujuna valminud autoportreest "Pop". "Young British Art'i" uuskunstist ja Jasper Zoova installatsioonist "F1". Eri analüüsivõimalusi pakkuvatest töödest (Marko Laimre & Ene-Liis Semperi 2000. a. novembri ühisnäituse osa töid).

  2. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Training (1 item) Other Treatments (15 items) Alzheimer’s Disease (2 items) Coping with Traumatic Events (3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Development of the Young Brain May 2, 2011 For more than twenty years, National Institute of Mental Health neuroscientist Dr. Jay Giedd has studied the ...

  3. Breast cancer in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radecka, Barbara; Litwiniuk, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) in young women is rare, affecting only 4-6% of women under the age of 40. Regardless, BC remains the most common malignancy among younger patients. Recently, a significant increase in BC rates has been observed among pre-menopausal subjects. Breast cancer in young women requires special attention due to its specific morphologic and prognostic characteristics and unique aspects, including fertility preservation and psychosocial issues (e.g. its impact on family life and career). Young women are more likely to have tumors with higher incidence of negative clinicopathologic features (higher histological grade, more lymph node positivity, lower estrogen receptor (ER) positivity, higher rates of Her2/neu overexpression). Also, they tend to be diagnosed at more advanced stages of the disease. That, in turn, contributes to less favorable prognosis as compared to older women. Young women are generally treated similarly to older patients. Surgical management includes mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery, followed by radiation therapy (younger women have higher local recurrence rates than older women, especially after breast-conserving therapy). Although the basics of chemotherapy are the same for patients of all ages, younger women have some special considerations. It is important to consider options for fertility preservation before starting systemic treatment. Patients should have access to genetic testing as their results may affect the choice of therapy. Younger women and their families should receive adequate psychological support and counselling.

  4. Young Children's Language of Togetherness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Dorian; Singer, Elly

    2001-01-01

    Discusses verbal strategies used by young children to express and construct a sense of togetherness. Presents the case study of one child, 3-5 years old, in his interactions with other children and teachers. Describes three general mechanisms for expressing togetherness: expression of common ground, of cooperation, and of care. (JPB)

  5. Energy outlooks of young members of parliament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolonen, P.

    1999-01-01

    Pekka Tolonen Energy outlooks of young members of parliament The main theme is 'youth and nuclear energy'. This article presents opinions of young opinion leaders over energy policy and nuclear energy

  6. Signed Young Modules and Simple Specht Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Danz, Susanne; Lim, Kay Jin

    2015-01-01

    By a result of Hemmer, every simple Specht module of a finite symmetric group over a field of odd characteristic is a signed Young module. While Specht modules are parametrized by partitions, indecomposable signed Young modules are parametrized by certain pairs of partitions. The main result of this article establishes the signed Young module labels of simple Specht modules. Along the way we prove a number of results concerning indecomposable signed Young modules that are of independent inter...

  7. Young generation network: facing the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, R.

    1997-01-01

    The future of the nuclear industry lies with the young generation. That's why in 1995, ENS supported the creation of the Young Generation Network (YGN). The YGN aims to fulfill the needs and interests of young people working in the nuclear business by organizing special programs with interesting opportunities and activities. (author)

  8. Raising "Hot Topics" through Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenke, Susan; Maples, Joellen; Henderson, Jill

    2010-01-01

    While young adult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read young adult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching young adult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their…

  9. 78 FR 32116 - TRICARE Young Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...-HA-0029] TRICARE Young Adult AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This... 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult (TYA) program to provide an extended... TRICARE Program coverage made available for purchase worldwide. TYA is similar to young adult coverage...

  10. Helping Young People Engage with Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Maggie; Sykes, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    There can be multiple benefits of scientists engaging with young people, including motivation and inspiration for all involved. But there are risks, particularly if scientists do not consider the interests and needs of young people or listen to what they have to say. We argue that "dialogue" between scientists, young people and teachers…

  11. Moving On: Young People and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain…

  12. Selected Films for Young Adults, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top of the News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This 22-item filmography of 16mm films recommended for use in programs planned for young adults was compiled by the Selected Films for Young Adults Committee, Young Adult Services Division, American Library Association. Producers, directors, distributors, length, price, and brief annotations are provided. Addresses for 12 distributors are…

  13. New morbidity of the young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Biljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present phase of epidemiological transition, the most frequent causes of youth morbidity are disorders in reproductive health, mental disorders and injuries which are not life threatening. This, so-called new youth morbidity, is most often caused by their risky behavior, which in the field of sexuality often leads to unplanned pregnancies and abortions, as well as sexually transmitted infections. Misuse of tobacco, alcohol and narcotics, which is most commonly started in adolescence, has an unfavorable short-term and long-term influence on the psycho-physical health of the young. All research, in the world and in our country, indicate gradual yet constant growth of sexual activity of the youth and the age decrease of its starting point, especially when girls are in question. Due to insufficient maturity and inadequate knowledge and consciousness on the necessity of protecting reproductive health, sexual behavior of young people can often be characterized as insufficiently responsible and not supplemented with the usage of adequate protective measures. The result is frequently abortion, which terminates 90% of unplanned and unwanted pregnancies in this age. This creates health and psychosocial risks, as well as giving birth in adolescence which is contrary to the modern health concepts that giving birth should not be performed too early, while the young are still developing. A significant increase in the frequency of sexually transmitted diseases is also present, to which the youth are especially susceptible due to the specific development period in which they are in. A serious medical and sociopathological problem of contemporary society represents the greater and greater misuse of psychoactive substances among the young people, with a tendency of decreasing the average age they are consumed for the first time, as well as the use of drugs and alcohol. With the increase of the anti-smoking campaign and restrictive measures in highly

  14. Young women's use of medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dana Lee; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2009-01-01

    as the norms for medicine use at home and among peers, and how these perceptions are reflected in their own use of medicine. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 young Danish women between the ages of 16 and 20. During the interviews, participants described their perceptions regarding usual medicine...... taking practices and ideas about appropriate medicine use within their family and peer group. Young women possessed a keen awareness of medicine-related norms, although medicine use was a topic only rarely discussed with others. At the interface of these themes pertaining to family and peer norms......, a unifying concept involving growing autonomy in medicine use emerged. This concept consisted of three parts: the great influence of family norms when autonomy was limited, growing autonomy under changing influences and assertion of autonomy and positioning of own behaviour relative to the norm. This study...

  15. A young woman's atomic future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outa, S.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear energy industry has traditionally been a masculine playground, created and heretofore also controlled by men. However, the recent changes in social thinking have created a more heterogeneous group of young nuclear engineers. The experience and knowledge of the pioneers need to be dealt out and shared, in order to build an engineer population capable of responding to the future challenges. These challenges include the tightened safety requirements, modernization and decommissioning of present nuclear plants, waste management, and the intensified debate over environmental issues. The construction of new power plant units will also be a task which requires co-operation across generations. The question of weather or not women can find their places in the nuclear industry is irrelevant - the present share of female students and young engineers speaks for itself. It is not only the female population which has learned to follow its interests, but also the modern male has accepted the positive change. (author)

  16. Thyroid functions in young diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiez, A.A.; Ismail, A.A.; Awadeen, M.R.; Abbas, E.Z.; Farag, M.S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Assessment of the thyroid-pituitary axis was performed in uncontrolled (20 cases) and controlled (22 cases) insulin-dependent young diabetics who were university students attending the university hospital. A third age-matching group (21 normal subjects) was also investigated. The plasma glucose level was determined after fasting as well as 2 hours after an oral glucose meal (50 g). Thyroxine (T 4 ), triiodeothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were assayed by RIA. The data obtained showed a lowered level of T 3 and T 4 and a raised level of TSH in uncontrolled young diabetics as compared to corresponding values for age matching normals. The group of controlled diabetics showed near normal T 3 and increased T 4 levels, but still lower than normal. TSH levels dropped significantly to the normal level. (author)

  17. Being Young and Getting Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Cecilie; Petersen, Gitte Stentebjerg; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Cancer is the leading cause of nonaccidental deaths among adolescents and young adults (AYAs). In Denmark, there are substantial gaps in knowledge concerning how AYAs with cancer perceive their diagnostic and therapeutic trajectory and report health-related outcomes. The aim of this study......) “Time before treatment,” (2) “Being told about your illness,” (3) “Being a young patient,” (4) “Your treatment,” (5) “Receiving help living with and after Cancer,” and (6) “How are you feeling today?.” One hundred one items were specifically developed for this study, while 50 were standardized validated...... is to describe the development of a questionnaire targeting AYAs with cancer aiming to evaluate treatment and survivorship from the perspective of the patients. Methods: Identification of themes and development of items included in the questionnaire were based on a synthesis of literature and qualitative...

  18. Water Loss from Young Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng; Güdel, Manuel; Johnstone, Colin P.; Lammer, Helmut; Luger, Rodrigo; Odert, Petra

    2018-04-01

    Good progress has been made in the past few years to better understand the XUV evolution trend of Sun-like stars, the capture and dissipation of hydrogen dominant envelopes of planetary embryos and protoplanets, and water loss from young planets around M dwarfs. This chapter reviews these recent developments. Observations of exoplanets and theoretical works in the near future will significantly advance our understanding of one of the fundamental physical processes shaping the evolution of solar system terrestrial planets.

  19. EPS Young Physicist Prize - CORRECTION

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The original text for the article 'Prizes aplenty in Krakow' in Bulletin 30-31 assigned the award of the EPS HEPP Young Physicist Prize to Maurizio Pierini. In fact he shared the prize with Niki Saoulidou of Fermilab, who was rewarded for her contribution to neutrino physics, as the article now correctly indicates. We apologise for not having named Niki Saoulidou in the original article.

  20. Working with young black people.

    OpenAIRE

    Sallah, Momodou; Howson, Carlton

    2007-01-01

    This is an important collection, integrating research with messages for practitioners in an area where there has as yet been insufficient material published. This book also formed the focal point for a major international conference in the Summer of 2006. As well as jointly editing the publication, the author contributed a chapter to it. Bringing together this work's different dimensions and perspectives, this book seeks to challenge both the accepted status quo of Black young people s neg...

  1. Young children as Internet users

    OpenAIRE

    Daramola, O. (Oladipo)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the current available research concerning the real usage of the internet among the young children, most researchers particularly emphases on the risk and opportunities regarding the active use of the internet. Limited experimental research emphases on the role-based and impact of the parent guidelines in the context. In the current studies, internet parenting methods are well-defined and operationalized to study...

  2. Examining Young's modulus for wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkalskis, Benjamin S; Freeman, J Reuben; Suhov, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Symmetry considerations, dimensional analysis and simple approximations are used to derive a formula for Young's modulus of a simple anisotropic system, a straight-layer wood bar whose fibre axis makes an angle with respect to the bar's longitudinal axis. Agreement between the derived formula and experiment (carried out in far from ideal conditions) is within 10%. Improvements and extensions are suggested for this undergraduate physics experiment

  3. Literacy for all young learners

    CERN Document Server

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2015-01-01

    Literacy for All Young Learners offers 65 strategies to support literacy learning with children from preschool through the third grade. Each strategy is designed to be simple to use with all of the children in your classroom-from the not-yet-readers to the fluent readers-and each strategy is tied to the Common Core State Standards for kindergarten through third grade.

  4. Careers of young Polish chemists

    OpenAIRE

    Kosmulski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Typical young Polish scientist is an alumnus of doctoral studies at the same university and department where he/she completed his/her Master degree. The career is continued by receiving a habilitation at the same university and department. Then a holder of habilitation is promoted to a tenured position at the same university and department. Detailed analysis of scientific careers of 154 recent Ph.D. recipients and of 16 habilitation candidates in chemistry from University of Warsaw is present...

  5. Measuring young children's language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, I; Schaerlaekens, A

    2000-01-01

    This article deals with the new challenges put on language diagnosis, and the growing need for good diagnostic instruments for young children. Particularly for Dutch, the original English Reynell Developmental Language Scales were adapted not only to the Dutch idiom, but some general ameliorations and changes in the original scales resulted in a new instrument named the RTOS. The new instrument was standardized on a large population, and psychometrically evaluated. In communicating the experiences with such a language/cultural/psychometric adaptation, we hope that other language-minority groups will be encouraged to undertake similar adaptations.

  6. Rock in Rio: forever young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark of past festivals around the world. Thus, the musical expands the possibilities of growth for the brand.

  7. Give Young Scientists a Break

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. S.

    2009-11-01

    There has been much concern about the impact of tight funding on the careers of young scientists. When only a small percentage of grants are approved, even the smallest problem or error with an application can push it out of the funding range. Unfortunately, the relative lack of grant writing skills by new investigators often has this effect. To avoid a situation where only experienced investigators with polished writing skills are funded, the National Institutes of Health has instituted a more generous ranking scale for new investigators. Not surprisingly, some senior investigators have protested, calling it reverse discrimination. I say that their anger is misplaced. New investigators do deserve a break.

  8. Motivating young people for education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The article explores the issue of motivation in policy and practice. The argument is that the folk high schools and the tradition of liberal education offer a learning environment where a number of psychological needs are satisfied among the young people leading to a motivation for learning whereas...... policy is based primarily on controlling forms of regulation counterproductive to the political objective of making 95% of a youth cohort complete upper secondary education. Liberal education may in other words be a case of good practice worth emulating in youth education policy....

  9. On imitation among young and blind children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Campello Rodrigues

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the imitation among young and blind children. The survey was conducted as a mosaic in the time since the field considerations were taken from two areas: a professional experience with early stimulation of blind babies and a workshop with blind and low vision young between 13-18 years. By statingthe situated trace of knowledge, theresearch indicates that imitation among blind young people can be one of the ways of creating a common world among young blind and sighted people. Imitation among blind young is a multi-sensory process that requires a body experience, including both blind and people who see. The paper concludes with an indication of the unique character of imitation and at the same time, with the affirmation of its relevance to the development and inclusion process of both the child and the young blind.

  10. ROMANIAN YOUNG ENTREPRENEURS FEATURES: AN EMPIRICAL SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceptureanu Sebastian Ion

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies linking entrepreneurship and economic development. For specialists and public decision makers, developing entrepreneurship seems to be an easy policy action, even though actions and results are rather debatable. Unfortunately the relevant literature is not so generous concerning youth entrepreneurship. Youth is one of the most vulnerable groups in society, especially in the current economic and demographic situation in European Union and worldwide. At the same time, youth is the period when most people engage in their first job, are gaining financial independence and are assuming new responsibilities and roles shaping their identity. With respect to this, starting their own business is a natural choice for many young people. When considering entrepreneurial potential of young Romanians, there is almost not any data available. This paper aims to disseminate the results of a survey focused on young entrepreneurs, designed to fill the gap in the literature about Romanian young entrepreneurs’ features. The empirical study was divided in five parts: A. Personality of young entrepreneurs, highlighting the main features of behaviour and personality of young entrepreneurs. B. Professional background, focusing on young entrepreneurs’ background and how it influences their interest and performance improvement. C. Risk and crisis acceptance, highlighting the ability of young entrepreneurs to deal with critical situations. D. Business and business environment, focusing on internal and environmental aspects of the business. E. Social - cultural attitude, highlighting the attitude of society (incentives and disincentives to entrepreneurial initiatives of young people. This are excerpts of results from the first part, regarding personality of Romanian young entrepreneurs, concerning issues like level of independence, capacity for innovation, self-confidence, decision making process, level of persistence flexibility of young

  11. Socialization and Instrumental Competence in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1970-01-01

    Discusses relationships between parental authority patterns by which children are influenced and the development of socially responsible and independent behavior in young children (especially girls). (NH)

  12. Controlling young people through treatment and punishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt

    2015-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates how both treatment and punishment is part of controlling young people involved in crime in the Danish welfare state. Lately there has been an increase in the use of confinement in young offenders institutions and thus a turn towards stricter punishments for crime. However......, treatment aiming at rehabilitation is still an integrated part of the system and the organization of the young offenders institutions. For the young people subjected to control both treatment and punishment are regarded as effective means of risk-control but there are also limitations and unintended results...

  13. Bioanalysis Young Investigator: Sadagopan Krishnan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Sadagopan

    2011-05-01

    Supervisor's supporting comments. I am pleased to recommend Sadagopan Krishnan for the Bioanalysis Young Investigator award. Sadagopan is a bright, creative and highly-motivated young bioanalytical chemist. His theses in our laboratory involved the development of electrochemiluminescent arrays for chemical toxicity screening utilizing cytochrome P450 metalloenzymes. He was senior author of a paper in Analytical Chemistry on this that was featured on the cover. He also investigated fundamental properties of human metabolic cytochrome P450s - research was carried out at his own initiative, and explains for the first time the role of iron spin state on enzyme electron transfer rates. He then developed thin films that mimic the natural cytochrome P450 redox cycle for the first time. He worked with several other group members to develop a superparamagnetic labeling scheme for immunosensing of proteins by surface plasmon resonance at unprecedented low levels, down to 10 fg/ml. Sadagopan has also demonstrated strong leadership skills. After his PhD, Sadagopan joined the group of Fraser Armstrong at Oxford University, UK, as a postdoctoral fellow. He is currently expanding his research horizons into the area of biofuel cells. His eventual goal is to join the faculty of a major university and build a world-class research group in bioanalytical chemistry.

  14. Sports Specialization in Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397

  15. Motor Proficiency in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Venetsanou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine motor proficiency in young children, focusing on potential gender differences. For that purpose, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency–Long Form (BOTMP-LF was administered to 540 children (272 boys, 4½ to 6 years old. First, the 2 (sex × 4 (age groups ANOVA computed on children’s total BOTMP-LF scores showed that age had a statistically significant effect, whereas gender did not. Second, the one-way MANCOVA applied on subtest scores, with age as covariate, revealed statistical significant gender differences; however, η2 values were found to be small or moderate. Finally, the MANCOVA applied on items where significant gender differences have been reported showed a significant effect of gender. Nonetheless, η2 values exceeded the limit of practical significance only on two items (“standing on preferred leg on floor”, “throwing a ball at a target with preferred hand” that are associated with gender-stereotyped activities. It can be concluded that (a besides statistical significance, effect sizes should be examined for the results of a study to be adequately interpreted; (b young boys’ and girls’ motor proficiency is similar rather than different. Gender differences in specific skills should be used for movement programs to be individualized.

  16. 7th Young Researcher Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Young Researcher Meeting, Torino 2016 F Agostini, C Antolini, A Avella, G Cattani, R Cuccaro, A Cultrera, M Di Stefano, G Fragione, L Lolli, M Migliaccio, L Pagnanini, E Pessana, F Piacentini, D Pietrobon, E Pusceddu, R Romeo, M Serra, E Simonetto, F Stellato Preface The Young Researcher Meeting (www.yrmr.it) has been established as a forum for students, postdoctoral fellows and young researchers determined to play a proactive role in the scientific progress. Since 2009 we run itinerant yearly meetings to discuss the most recent developments and achievements in Physics, as we are firmly convinced that sharing expertise and experience is the foundation of the research activity. One of the main purposes of the conference is actually to create an international network of young researchers, both experimentalists and theoreticians, and fruitful collaborations across the different branches of Physics. The format we chose is an informal meeting primarily aimed at students and researchers at the beginning of their scientific career, who are encouraged to present their work in brief presentations able to provide genuine engagement of the audience and cross-pollination of ideas. The 7 th edition of the Young Researcher Meeting was held at the Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM) in Turin, the Italian National Metrology Institute responsible for the national standards of the International System of Units. The conference took place from Monday 24 th to Wednesday 26 th October 2016. This edition gathered 120 participants belonging to universities and research centres from all over the world. The plenary talk sessions covered several areas of pure and applied Physics, and they were complemented by an extremely rich and interactive poster session, which was also extended to the coffee breaks. The programme included a “poster and wine” session on the first evening, a guided tour at the Turin Astrophysical Observatory and a very enjoyable and friendly conference

  17. Strokes in young adults: epidemiology and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajlović D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dževdet Smajlović Department of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Tuzla, School of Medicine, University of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Abstract: Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%–15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more

  18. The Musical Taste of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozgot, V. G.

    2014-01-01

    Data from a longitudinal survey of the musical tastes of young people distinguish five basic vectors of its development: an orientation toward the Western paradigm; young people's unlimited amount of time spent in the consumption of music; the indiscriminate nature of their music interests; the influence that a person's membership in a particular…

  19. Increasing Employment Opportunities for Disadvantaged Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Farhana; Terwelp, Emily

    2015-01-01

    In the past four decades, profound changes in the U.S. economy--including falling wages, widening inequality, and the polarization of jobs at the top and bottom of the education and wage distributions--have had dramatic implications for the labor-market fortunes of young adults. Only about half of young people ages 16 to 24 held jobs in 2014, and…

  20. Living arrangements of young adults in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwanitz, Katrin; Mulder, Clara H.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative research suggests that there are great cross-national and cross-temporal differences in living arrangements of young adults aged 18-34 in Europe. In this paper, we examine young adults’ living arrangements (1) across several European countries and different national contexts, and (2) by

  1. Young Children and Families Experiencing Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Allison B.; Squires, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of homelessness among young children and families in the United States is described, as is the developmental impact on young children and cost to society. Although services are mandated for this population under the McKinney­-Vento Act, Education of Homeless Children and Youth Program, and the Individuals With…

  2. Caring for Young Children in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birckmayer, Jennifer; And Others

    Group leaders of 10- to 13-year-olds may use this program guide to help the preteens interact with young children through six discussion meetings and five visits with a preschool child at home. Discussion topics concern (1) the family environment of young children, (2) children's play; (3) children's play areas at home, (4) safety at home, (5)…

  3. Seven Myths about Young Children and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, Lydia; McPake, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Parents and educators tend to have many questions about young children's play with computers and other technologies at home. They can find it difficult to know what is best for children because these toys and products were not around when they were young. Some will say that children have an affinity for technology that will be valuable in their…

  4. Group Theory, Computational Thinking, and Young Mathematicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadanidis, George; Clements, Erin; Yiu, Chris

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the artistic puzzle of designing mathematics experiences (MEs) to engage young children with ideas of group theory, using a combination of hands-on and computational thinking (CT) tools. We elaborate on: (1) group theory and why we chose it as a context for young mathematicians' experiences with symmetry and…

  5. Exploring Behavioral Intentions among Young Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Howard M.; Conway, Pat; Plummer, Pam; Adkins, Samuel E.; Hudson, George Cliff; McLeod, David A.; Zafaroni, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between young mothers' individual characteristics (demographics and self-efficacy), social support, and behavioral intentions regarding education and child bearing. Using a home visiting model, the program recruited 141 teen mothers to participate. Young mothers completed an initial assessment, measuring…

  6. Noticing Young Children's Mathematical Strengths and Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockett, Sue; Goff, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    This paper promotes the importance of noticing young children's mathematical strengths. It draws on the philosophical positions of children's rights and competence to propose a shift in the ways in which all involved might notice the mathematical engagement, understandings, experiences and practices of young children. Noticing children's…

  7. The State of Young Children in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosher, Hanita, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    This document, based on the statistical yearbook, "Children in Israel 2014," presents data on the population of young children in Israel. The document presents a current picture of the well-being of young children in Israel intended to assist policy-makers and practitioners to understand the situation of this group of children and to…

  8. Psychological characteristics of aggressors of young couple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Hernández Jiménez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Violence against women in relationships young people has become in recent years a public health problem of major social. This article, with a view to the prevention, seeks to address the psychological characteristics of the perpetrator of pair in young relations. An initial review of the personality features investigated in previous studies and their influence on violent behaviour was carried out. Following this, an empirical study on a sample of young people was performed. Methods: We conducted a study with 100 young people of Valencia. Of these, 50 are young offenders and 50 couple, young students of compulsory secondary education. Data are obtained and analyzed psychological characteristics differences between groups. Results: The study conducted shows that in general, young offenders have one hand high scores on neuroticism, impulsivity, external locus of control, psychoticism and antisocial behavior. Furthermore show low scores on self-control, empathy, selfesteem and frustration tolerance. Conclusions: The results of this paper make it abundantly clear that violence in young relationships is important enough to be considered from different sectors of society and justifies the need to develop and implement prevention programs adapted adolescents and their characteristics.

  9. Film and the Young Adult Novel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Harold M.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses films based on young adult novels and why they are often considered failures. Describes various films about young adults and their problems that have proven to be artistic successes. Gives close attention to film versions of S. E. Hinton's novels and of Robert Cormier's "The Chocolate War." (HB)

  10. Young Men, Masculinities and Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on focus group and interview data from 45 young men from the north of England to explore the barriers to effective sex and relationships education (SRE). Recent policy debates in relation to establishing statutory SRE in schools provide an opportunity to revisit how it is currently delivered to, and received by, young men. The…

  11. Embodied Subjectivities: Nine Young Women Talking Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, Gabrielle; Pryor, Zoe; Gray, Tonia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine nine Australian young women's embodied experiences of dance. The young women were all amateur dancers involved in weekly jazz, tap, and ballet dance classes at the same dance studio. In this paper, embodiment is defined as multidimensional (Burkitt 1999). The authors explore the ways the corporeal and the…

  12. Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Doctor and Hospital View this video on YouTube. Experts in the field of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers and cancer survivors answer the ... trials. Fertility Preservation Options View this video on YouTube. ... on fertility is a special concern for young cancer patients. It is important to talk with ...

  13. Young EIROforum prizewinner visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    On 27 to 31 July, CERN welcomed Paul Clarke, an 18-year-old Irish mathematician who won a CERN EIROforum prize (second place) at EUCYS 2014 (European Union Contest for Young Scientists).   Paul Clarke, visiting the new Microcosm exhibit. In addition to a €5000 prize, Paul visited the Laboratory and its experiments, meeting and speaking with CERN physicists and computer scientists. Paul's winning project is entitled "Contributions to cyclic graph theory." As the summary of the project suggests, graph theory is an area of pure mathematics which studies properties of linkages and networks. It has applications in several areas including computing, molecular structure, neuroscience, search engines, engineering etc. This project makes a profound contribution to the study of graphs. It identifies key concepts and provides the methodology to apply them to some long-standing major problems in the subject with great success. Paul has just finished high sc...

  14. Spondylolysis in young tennis players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz‐Cotorro, A; Balius‐Matas, R; Estruch‐Massana, A; Angulo, J Vilaró

    2006-01-01

    The general aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of spondylolysis, a bone defect in the pars interarticularis of the vertebra, are reviewed. A retrospective study of young tennis players diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 with spondylolysis with or without spondylolisthesis, assessed by radiography and planar bone scintigraphy, is described. If the radiographic results were negative, computed tomography was performed. Sixty six cases were evaluated: 53 L5 lesions, eight L4 lesions, two L3 lesions, and one bilateral lesion at the L2 level. Two more lesions at two levels were found (bilateral L5 and unilateral L4 and L3 on the right side). Classification, treatment, and outcome of the cases are reported. A combination of radiography, planar bone scintigraphy, and SPECT is useful for evaluating spondylolysis in tennis players and recommending treatment. Use of a brace did not appear to achieve significant results. PMID:16632576

  15. The Young Visual Binary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Lisa; Avilez, Ian; Lindstrom, Kyle; Graham, Sean; Sullivan, Kendall; Biddle, Lauren; Skiff, Brian; Nofi, Larissa; Schaefer, Gail; Simon, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Differences in the stellar and circumstellar properties of the components of young binaries provide key information about star and disk formation and evolution processes. Because objects with separations of a few to a few hundred astronomical units share a common environment and composition, multiple systems allow us to control for some of the factors which play into star formation. We are completing analysis of a rich sample of about 100 pre-main sequence binaries and higher order multiples, primarily located in the Taurus and Ophiuchus star forming regions. This poster will highlight some of out recent, exciting results. All reduced spectra and the results of our analysis will be publicly available to the community at http://jumar.lowell.edu/BinaryStars/. Support for this research was provided in part by NSF award AST-1313399 and by NASA Keck KPDA funding.

  16. The young child in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, A

    1974-01-01

    4 surveys were undertaken in Yemen through interviews with women in their homes in an effort to obtain information on the sociological and psychological aspects of young children and their mothers, the conditions of working mothers with young children, and traditional midwives and midwifery practices. The survey on child socialization and upbringing included 30 families. The survey on working mothers included 54 women selected at random among more than 300 women employed in a textile factory. 40 midwives were also interviewed; most were of the traditional type but the group also included 6 with 4 years of nursing school training and some hospital and midwifery experience. Focus is on ecological and economic background; social organization; housing, water supply and sanitation; the role of women; family planning; pregnancy and delivery; infant feeding and care; childhood; attitude of parents to education; weaning foods; swaddling babies; working mothers; health conditions and services; education; and the future for families in Yemen. There is a marked preference for sons in Yemen which is explained by the patriarchal character of the society and the place of defense in tribal unity and integration. Childbearing and rearing are heavy physical burdens for women. Among the families interviewed, 70% of the mothers did not want more children after the 4th child. During pregnancy mothers did not receive supplementary nutrition nor did they change their pattern of work or take any other special precautions. The social environment for child bearing is favorable, but conditions of delivery are primitive and even dangerous in the event of complications.

  17. The Young Solar Analogs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Richard O.; Saken, J. M.; Corbally, C. J.; Fuller, V.; Kahvaz, Y.; Lambert, R.; Newsome, I.; Seeds, M.

    2013-01-01

    We are carrying out a long-term project of measuring chromospheric activity and brightness variations in 31 young solar analogs (YSAs) using facilities at the Dark Sky Observatory (DSO - Appalachian State University) and the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT). These YSAs are solar-type (spectral types F8 - K2) stars with ages ranging from 0.3 - 1.5 Gyr. The goal of this project is to gain better understanding of the magnetic activity of the early Sun, and especially how that activity may have impacted the development of life on the Earth. This project will also yield insights into the space environments experienced by young Earth analogs. We are currently in the 6th year of spectroscopic measurements of these stars: these data include Ca II H & K chromospheric flux measurements, and narrow-band measurements in the photospheric G-band, both obtained with the G/M spectrograph on the DSO 32-inch telescope. We will present evidence of activity cycles in a number of our stars, as well as periods determined from rotational modulation of the spectroscopic indices. The relationship between the Ca II activity index and the G-band index will be explored. NSF support for our project has provided funds for the construction of a robotic photometric telescope to monitor the program stars in a 5-passband system (Strömgren-v, Johnson-Cousins B, V, and R, and a 3-nm wide Hα filter). The robotic telescope has been functional since April 2012 and observes the program stars on every clear night; combined with the Piggy-back telescope attached to the DSO 32-inch, we now have photometric observations on over 130 nights stretching over nearly 2 years. We will examine the relationships between variations in the Ca II H & K index, the G-band index and the photometric bands. This project is supported by the National Science Foundation, grant AST-1109158.

  18. The Young Solar Analogs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Richard O.; Saken, J. M.; Corbally, C. J.; Seeds, M. F.; Morrison, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    We are carrying out a long-term project of measuring chromospheric activity and brightness variations in 31 young solar analogs (YSAs) using the Dark Sky Observatory (DSO -- Appalachian State University) 32-inch telescope and the G/M spectrograph. These YSAs are solar-type (spectral types F8 - K2) stars with ages ranging from 0.3 - 1.5 Gyr. The goal of this project is to gain better understanding of the magnetic activity of the early Sun, and especially how that activity may have impacted the development of life on the Earth. This project will also yield insights into the space environments experienced by young Earth analogs. We are currently in our 5th year of obtaining Ca II K & H chromospheric flux measurements, and are beginning to see signs of long-term activity cycles in a number of our stars. In addition, rotational modulation of the chromospheric fluxes is detectable in our data, and we have determined rotational periods for many of our stars. Short timescale increases in the K & H fluxes have been observed in a number of our stars; these events may be related to stellar flares. VATTSpec, a new moderate-resolution spectrograph on the 1.8-m Vatican Telescope in Arizona, has recently become involved with the project. This spectrograph will increase our ability to detect short-term changes in stellar activity on timescales of hours to minutes. We have been monitoring the program stars for one year in a multi-band photometric system consisting of Stromgren-v, and Johnson B, V, and R filters. We will soon add a narrow-band H-alpha filter to the system. Photometry is being carried out with a small piggy-back telescope on the 32-inch, but a robotic photometric telescope is currently being installed at DSO for this purpose. This project is supported by the National Science Foundation.

  19. Universe Awareness For Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, C.; Miley, G.; Ödman, C.; Madsen, C.

    2006-08-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an international programme that will expose economically disadvantaged young children aged between 4 and 10 years to the inspirational aspects of modern astronomy. The programme is motivated by the premise that access to simple knowledge about the Universe is a basic birth right of everybody. These formative ages are crucial in the development of a human value system. This is also the age range in which children can learn to develop a 'feeling' for the vastness of the Universe. Exposing young children to such material is likely to broaden their minds and stimulate their world-view. The goals of Universe Awareness are in accordance with two of the United Nations Millennium goals, endorsed by all 191 UN member states, namely (i) the achievement of universal primary education and (ii) the promotion of gender equality in schools. We propose to commence Universe Awareness with a pilot project that will target disadvantaged regions in about 4 European countries (possibly Spain, France, Germany and The Netherlands) and several non-EU countries (possibly Chile, Colombia, India, Tunisia, South Africa and Venezuela). There will be two distinct elements in the development of the UNAWE program: (i) Creation and production of suitable UNAWE material and delivery techniques, (ii) Training of educators who will coordinate UNAWE in each of the target countries. In addition to the programme, an international network of astronomy outreach will be organised. We present the first results of a pilot project developed in Venezuela, where 670 children from different social environments, their teachers and members of an indigenous tribe called Ye´kuana from the Amazon region took part in a wonderful astronomical and cultural exchange that is now being promoted by the Venezuelan ministry of Education at the national level.

  20. Young Adults Failure to Thrive Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren C. Sanderson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many young working age adults in developed countries are failing to thrive in economic, demographic and social terms. Their failure to thrive is a relatively new phenomenon that has not been widely recognized, but it affects young adults in virtually all the more developed countries for which we have relevant data. Young adults nowadays are more often in poverty. They are leaving their parental homes at ever later ages and in some countries the frequency of psychological problems increased. The seriousness of failure to thrive syndrome is reflected in the relationship between relative economic conditions and increased suicide rates. The syndrome is important because young adults are at the prime ages for finding employment, establishing long-run career paths and building an economic basis for founding a family. Developing strategies to arrest the spread of failure to thrive syndrome among young adults, in order to keep them vibrant contributors to our societies, should be a priority for policy makers.

  1. Molecular basis of young ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersano, Anna; Borellini, Linda; Motto, Cristina; Lanfranconi, Silvia; Pezzini, Alessandro; Basilico, Paola; Micieli, Giuseppe; Padovani, Alessandro; Parati, Eugenio; Candelise, Livia

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and family studies have provided evidence on the role of genetic factors in stroke, particularly in stroke occurring at young age. However, despite its impact, young stroke continues to be understudied. This article reviews the existing literature on the most investigated monogenic disorders (CADASIL, Fabry disease, MELAS, RVCL, COL4A1, Marfan and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes) causing stroke in young and a number of candidate genes associated with stroke occurring in patients younger than 50 years. Although our study failed in identifying strong and reliable associations between specific genes and young stroke, our detailed literature revision on the field allowed us to compile a panel of genes possibly generating a susceptibility to stroke, which could be a starting point for future research. Since stroke is a potentially preventable disease, the identification of genes associated with young stroke may promote novel prevention strategies and allow the identification of therapeutic disease targets.

  2. Development of Young Coconut (Cocos nucifera Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polemer M. Cuarto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to develop wine from young coconut water. This investigated the acceptability of the quality attributes of young coconut wine compared with commercial wine. Using a 5 - point hedonic scale, sensory evaluation test was done by the panelists (N=30 to evaluate the accep tability of the product quality attributes such as color, aroma and taste. Results of the sensory evaluation showed that young coconut wine has a pale light color, powerful aroma and sweet taste. Results also showed that panelists choose the color and tast e of the young coconut wine as its desirable attributes. Statistical analysis (p<0.05 showed significant difference in the color and aroma between young coconut wine and commercial wine but no significant difference in terms of taste.

  3. Childhood Origins of Young Adult Environmental Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Otto, Siegmar; Kaiser, Florian G

    2018-05-01

    Prospective, longitudinal analyses revealed that over a 12-year period from ages 6 to 18, individuals who grew up with mothers with more proenvironmental attitudes engaged in more proenvironmental behavior as young adults. A similar marginal association was uncovered between mothers' proenvironmental behaviors and the proenvironmental behavior of their young adult offspring. Maternal educational attainment, but not political ideology, was also associated with more proenvironmental behavior as children matured. Moreover, childhood time spent outdoors was positively associated with increased environmentally responsible behavior in young adulthood. Interestingly, one's own childhood proenvironmental behavior and attitude, at least as assessed at age 6, bear little on one's eventual proenvironmental behavior as a young adult. Finally, among this set of childhood factors, maternal education and childhood time spent outdoors were independent predictors of positive changes in environmental behavior from early childhood to young adulthood.

  4. Do juveniles bully more than young offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L

    2002-04-01

    This study compares bullying behaviour among juvenile and young offenders and incorporates two different methods to measure bullying. Ninety-five male juvenile and 196 male young offenders completed two questionnaires, one that measured bullying directly and one that measured behaviours indicative of "being bullied" or of "bullying others". Juveniles perceived a higher extent of bullying than young offenders. Juveniles reported significantly more physical, psychological or verbal and overall direct forms of bullying behaviour than young offenders. A number of differences were found between juveniles and young offenders with regard to the types of prisoners likely to become victims, who they would advise a victim to speak to and how bullying could be prevented. The results are discussed in relation to developmental theories of aggression and how bullying behaviour can be defined and measured among prisoners. Copyright 2002 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Motions in Digital Young Adult Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Ayoe Qvist

    Abstract (in English): The digital turn brings about not only changes in young adult literature considered as aesthetic artifacts and literary works but also changes in the perception and reception of the reader. Digital young adult literature is increasingly multimodal and interactive...... will be the focal point here. The pivotal point of this paper will be exploring how transgressing analytical categories, e.g. rhythm, sequentiality, time, space and dialogue with the reader, can shed light on the formation of meaning in a specific digital young adult literary work, i.e. Tavs (Camilla Hübbe, Rasmus......, the paper will investigate the ‘denaturalization’ of the reading process and it will attempt to investigate and offer analytical categories which can be used also by young readers so that they can become competent cross media readers of young adult literature in a digitalized and medialized landscape...

  6. MARRIAGE AND MENTAL HEALTH AMONG YOUNG ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E.

    2012-01-01

    Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this relationship may vary across the life course. Early marriage—which is non-normative—could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 11,743), I find that married young adults exhibit similar levels of psychological distress as young adults who are in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults report lower rates of drunkenness than others. Married young adults—especially those who first married at age 22–26—report higher life satisfaction than those in other types of relationships or no relationship at all, as well as those who married at younger ages. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed. PMID:22328171

  7. Women Young Scientists of INSA | Women in Science | Initiatives ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Initiatives; Women in Science; Women Young Scientists of INSA. Women Young Scientists of INSA. INSA - Indian National Science Academy .... Charusita Chakravarty, one of the stars of our community of women scientists, at a young ...

  8. Young adult smoking behavior: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Neilands, Torsten B; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-05-01

    Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18-25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR=4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking.

  9. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndel J. Bates

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  10. Heart diseases and strokes in young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Pizova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the relevance of the problem associated with the diagnosis and treatment of stroke in young patients aged 15-45 years. It considers the major causes of acute cerebrovascular accidents in young people, including pregnant women. Diseases, such patent foramen ovale, mitral valve prolapse, infective endocarditis, and postpartum cardiomyopathy, are described in detail. The basic principles of the diagnosis and therapy of ischemic stroke at a young age are given. The mainstay of therapy for acute ischemic stroke is stated to include two procedures: reperfusion and neuronal protection.

  11. Experimental articular cartilage repair in the Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjørn Borsøe; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Olesen, Morten Lykke

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A gold standard treatment for articular cartilage injuries is yet to be found, and a cost-effective and predictable large animal model is needed to bridge the gap between in vitro studies and clinical studies. Ideally, the animal model should allow for testing of clinically relevant...

  12. (RBKS) from Chinese Banna mini-pig i

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-03

    Jan 3, 2012 ... midbrain, kidney and fat, while almost silent in other five tissues. Four microRNA ..... from human, orangutan, monkey, BMI-pig, cattle, horse and mouse. .... ribokinase, and galactokinase families of sugar kinases. Protein Sci.

  13. Mutated Huntingtin Causes Testicular Pathology in Transgenic Minipig Boars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mačáková, Monika; Bohuslavová, Božena; Vochozková, Petra; Pavlok, Antonín; Sedláčková, M.; Vidinská, Daniela; Vochyánová, Klára; Lišková, Irena; Valeková, Ivona; Baxa, Monika; Ellederová, Zdeňka; Klíma, Jiří; Juhás, Štefan; Juhásová, Jana; Kloučková, J.; Haluzík, M.; Klempíř, J.; Hansíková, H.; Spáčilová, J.; Collins, R.; Blumenthal, I.; Talkowski, M.; Gusella, J. F.; Howland, D. S.; DiFiglia, M.; Motlík, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, 3-4 (2016), s. 245-259 ISSN 1660-2854 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1609; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington´s disease * pig model * mutant huntingtin Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.842, year: 2016

  14. Alcohol and the young child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, D E

    1984-01-01

    With the increasing availability of alcohol in modern times, the child neglect and abuse portrayed in Hogarth's engraving Gin Lane may once again be witnessed. Reports occur occasionally of alcohol being given deliberately to infants to quieten them, but alcohol poisoning in the slightly older child is not uncommon. The introduction of child-proof containers has altered poisoning figures recently. However, alcohol poisoning tends to occur at ages 3 and 4, that is, about 2 years after the peak of all poisonings in children. This difference may be an indication that alcohol is taken in imitation of parents' drinking, a suggestion which has some support from reported cases of mouthwash poisoning. Holidays and high days where children and alcohol mix, are potentially dangerous periods. Since alcohol poisoning can be fatal, yet if recognised is relatively easily managed, every child with the slightest degree of drowsiness should be suspect until proven or not by blood alcohol. The prevention of alcohol poisoning in the young child consists in protecting the alcohol by lock and key, not setting an example by drinking or gargling in front of children. Many substances such as mouthwash and perfume should also be under supervision. Once actual poisoning has occurred blood sugar is probably more important than the level of blood ethanol and blood sugar levels should be monitored frequently and the child treated with glucose, preferably intravenously.

  15. Compound Odontoma in young girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwahida Nurwahida

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Odontomas are the most common type of odontogenic tumors and generally they are asymptomatic. These tumors are formed from enamel and dentin, and can have variable amounts of cement and pulp tissues. According to radiographic, microscopic, and clinical features, two types of odontomas are recognized: Complex and compound odontomas. Complex odontomas occur mostly in the posterior part of the mandible and compound odontomas in the anterior maxilla. Case Report. A young girl patient, 9 years old came to Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery with a slow growing and asymptomatic swelling in her left posterior mandible for 5 years in his history taking. The panoramic radiograph show  a radioopacity and radiolucent lesion at the lower second molar region, with well-corticated limits. An insisional biopsi   confirmed  as compound odontoma. The surgery  performed with simple enucleation and curettage under general anaesthesia. Discussion. Compound odontomas are usually located in the anterior maxilla, over the crowns of unerupted teeth, or between the roots of erupted teeth. In this case report, Compound odontomas are found in the posterior mandible. Conclusion. Compound odontomas in the posterior mandible is a rare. The treatment of odontomas depends on the size of the lesion. The early diagnosis, the treatment of choice is conservative surgical enucleation and curettage and prognosis is excellent.

  16. Young Women With Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Dahlborg Lyckhage

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe how young women living with self-identified anorexia narrate about their lives by blogging. Thirteen Swedish blogs were chosen and analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis. The results described falling ill, the illness itself, and the path to recovery. Low self-esteem, depressed state of mind, and self-destructive behavior were typical signs at the start of the illness. The women’s lives were characterized by a need for controlling their body by tormenting it and by the illness demanding all their concentration and energy. The women suffered from the feeling of being a disappointment to their family members. The illness was like an enemy that had to be defeated with the help of family members, health care professionals, and by means of therapy. A turning point occurred when the women felt at their worst or had tired of the illness and could concentrate on something other than their body and the eating disorder. Suffering from self-identified anorexia was described as experiencing low self-esteem. The illness took all of the women’s time and energy. For a turning point to be reached, the women needed support from family, friends, and health care professionals, including the use of distractions.

  17. HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transmitted Diseases (STDs) HPV Vaccine Information For Young Women Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... warts at any point in time. Which girls/women should receive HPV vaccination? HPV vaccination is recommended ...

  18. Lung function measurement in awake young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Klug, B

    1995-01-01

    ) and transcutaneous measurements of oxygen tension (Ptc,O2) were compared with concomitant measurements of specific airway resistance (sRaw) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) by whole body plethysmography and spirometry, respectively, during methacholine challenge in 21 young children aged 4-6 yrs...... to methacholine in young children aged 4-6 yrs. This implies that ZIOS, Rint and Ptc,O2 provide convenient indices of changes in lung function. Their combined use will be useful for monitoring airway diseases of young children.......The aim of the study was to evaluate methods applicable in a clinical setting for monitoring of changes in lung function in awake young children. Impedance measurements by the impulse oscillation technique (ZIOS), respiratory resistance measurements by the interrupter technique (Rint...

  19. Introduction to Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer researchers, advocates, and a cancer survivor introduce the topic of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers, covering distinct aspects of cancer in these patients and research questions to answer.

  20. Teething & Dental Hygiene for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Dental Health & Hygiene for Young Children Page Content Article ... and lead to future dental problems. Teaching Good Dental Habits The best way to protect your child's ...

  1. Reading for national development: Catching them young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reading for national development: Catching them young. ... It also discussed the impact of illiteracy and inefficient use of reading skills in an era of world's advanced technology. Some agencies that ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  2. Genetics of ischaemic stroke in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Terni

    2015-06-01

    General significance: This review focuses on the main causes of genetically-based ischemic stroke in young adults, often classified as indeterminate, investigating also the recent findings of the GWAS, in order to improve diagnostic and therapeutic management.

  3. Consultation for Parents of Young Gifted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Joan S.

    1989-01-01

    The article describes private evaluation and consultation services provided to parents of young gifted children, and discusses the benefits of private consultation and the potential role of school personnel in meeting the needs of this population. (Author/JDD)

  4. Social representation of wine among young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Simonnet-Toussaint

    2004-06-01

    It finally seems that wine suffers from its nearly sacred image. The young seem not to allow themselves to consume this product, whose image is associated with coded practices that obviously, are different from those of other spirits.

  5. Consequences of Fatherhood for Young Men's Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Taillade, Jaslean J; Hofferth, Sandra; Wight, Vanessa R

    2010-04-01

    This paper examined how the onset and timing of the transition to fatherhood affects the type and quality of young men's relationships with partners and parents. Data are drawn from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - Young Adult Survey and included young men (ages 18-31 years old in 2006) who varied on residential status with their children and timing of fatherhood (N = 1,931). Results indicated the effects of fatherhood varied across types of fathers, with residential fathers more likely to be in a committed but less satisfactory relationship regardless of timing of fatherhood. Nonresidential fathers were more likely to have close relationships with their mothers and fathers, but findings varied by timing of fatherhood and gender of parent. Implications of these findings are framed in terms of young men's developmental readiness for multiple demands of first-time fatherhood.

  6. Supporting Young Dads' Journeys through Fatherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundy, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    While the recent Coalition government committed to some initiatives supporting the role of parents, relationships and the early years, there remains a lack of focus on fathers as a distinct policy area. This is reflected at local government level, as lead professionals for young fathers are rare and data on the number of young fathers in each local area are not routinely collected. Barnardo's was funded by the Department for Education in 2012, as part of the Family Strategic Partnership, to highlight the needs and experiences of young fathers in England, and the joint role of statutory and voluntary services in supporting them (fully reported by Barnardo's in Cundy, 2012). Based on selected case studies drawn from research and a range of practice organisations, this article presents the journeys of five young fathers and their experience of maternity services, children's centres, schools, housing services and the secure estate.

  7. Release From Proactive Interference with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Linda F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This demonstration of release from proactive interference with young children confirms the suggestion that the technique is appropriate for the study of developmental changes in the encoding of information. (Authors/CB)

  8. Teaching Time Concepts to Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Sharon Pray

    1986-01-01

    Presents many activity ideas for teaching young children about time using chronological events, clocks, and calendars. Jerome Bruner's enactive-iconic-symbolic sequence of concept development is used as a guide for these learning experiences. (LP)

  9. Hopf Structures on Standard Young Tableaux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loday, Jean-Louis; Popov, Todor

    2010-01-01

    We review the Poirier-Reutenauer Hopf structure on Standard Young Tableaux and show that it is a distinguished member of a family of Hopf structures. The family in question is related to deformed parastatistics.

  10. The quest for young eyes. Attention to news among young people in the Low Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Van Cauwenberge, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation started off with the observation that attention for news among young people decreases. More precisely, previous survey studies outlined a triple shift in the current young generation’s use of news: from more to less news, from offline to online news, and from professional to non-professional news sources. Underlying these three trends, was the finding that news does not constitute a substantial part of the daily routines of young people. This finding is disturbing given news...

  11. Factors Associated with Young Adults’ Pregnancy Likelihood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsantas, Panagiota; Lindley, Lisa L.; Wu, Huichuan

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES While progress has been made to reduce adolescent pregnancies in the United States, rates of unplanned pregnancy among young adults (18–29 years) remain high. In this study, we assessed factors associated with perceived likelihood of pregnancy (likelihood of getting pregnant/getting partner pregnant in the next year) among sexually experienced young adults who were not trying to get pregnant and had ever used contraceptives. METHODS We conducted a secondary analysis of 660 young adults, 18–29 years old in the United States, from the cross-sectional National Survey of Reproductive and Contraceptive Knowledge. Logistic regression and classification tree analyses were conducted to generate profiles of young adults most likely to report anticipating a pregnancy in the next year. RESULTS Nearly one-third (32%) of young adults indicated they believed they had at least some likelihood of becoming pregnant in the next year. Young adults who believed that avoiding pregnancy was not very important were most likely to report pregnancy likelihood (odds ratio [OR], 5.21; 95% CI, 2.80–9.69), as were young adults for whom avoiding a pregnancy was important but not satisfied with their current contraceptive method (OR, 3.93; 95% CI, 1.67–9.24), attended religious services frequently (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.52–5.94), were uninsured (OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.31–5.26), and were likely to have unprotected sex in the next three months (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.04–3.01). DISCUSSION These results may help guide future research and the development of pregnancy prevention interventions targeting sexually experienced young adults. PMID:25782849

  12. Young Children in Deep Poverty. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekono, Mercedes; Jiang, Yang; Smith, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    A U.S. family of three living in deep poverty survives on an annual income below $9,276, or less than $9.00 a day per family member. The struggle to raise children on such a meager income is not a rare circumstance among U.S. families, especially those with young children. Currently, 11 percent of young children (0-9 years) live in households with…

  13. Young British readers' engagement with manga

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Yi-Shan

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents young British readers’ engagement with manga regarding literary, aesthetic, social, and cultural dimensions. The study explores young readers’ points of views of their reading preference – manga. I investigated how children interpreted manga, with respect to the artistic techniques, the embedded ideologies, and the cultural elements therein. I also looked into children’s participation in manga fandom and its social meanings. This allowed me to explore what attracted Briti...

  14. Art messaging to engage homeless young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Thomas, Alexandra; Hudson, Angela; Kahilifard, Farinaz; Avila, Glenna; Orser, Julie; Cuchilla, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and young adults. However, little is known how homeless young adults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to solicit perspectives of homeless, drug-using young adults as to how art can be used to design messages for their peers about the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Qualitative methodology via focus group discussions was utilized to engage 24 homeless young adults enrolled from a drop-in site in Santa Monica, California. The findings revealed support for a myriad of delivery styles, including in-person communication, flyers, music, documentary film, and creative writing. The young adults also provided insight into the importance of the thematic framework of messages. Such themes ranged from empowering and hopeful messages to those designed to scare young homeless adults into not experimenting with drugs. The findings indicate that in addition to messages communicating the need to prevent or reduce drug and alcohol use, homeless young adults respond to messages that remind them of goals and dreams they once had for their future, and to content that is personal, real, and truthful. Our research indicates that messages that reinforce protective factors such as hope for the future and self-esteem may be as important to homeless young adults as information about the risks and consequences of drug use.

  15. Thomas Young's contributions to geometrical optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, David A; Charman, W Neil

    2011-07-01

    In addition to his work on physical optics, Thomas Young (1773-1829) made several contributions to geometrical optics, most of which received little recognition in his time or since. We describe and assess some of these contributions: Young's construction (the basis for much of his geometric work), paraxial refraction equations, oblique astigmatism and field curvature, and gradient-index optics. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2011 Optometrists Association Australia.

  16. [Initiating psychiatric care for young, isolated foreigners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestelandt, Laure; Touhami, Fatima; Radjack, Rahmeth; Moro, Marie Rose; Lachal, Jonathan

    The various traumatic events experienced by young isolated foreigners can weaken them psychologically and cause psychiatric decompensation. A qualitative study, carried out by the Maison de Solenn and the Avicenne hospital, aimed to provide better understanding of the conditions for initiating psychiatric care with these adolescents. The different results show that this type of care for these young migrants must be cross-cultural and multi-disciplinary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Random Young diagrams in a Rectangular Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Dan; Boutillier, Cédric; Enriquez, Nathanaël

    We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape.......We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape....

  18. CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE CONSIDERATIONS FOR YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Montfort-Steiger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes

  19. The young and the clueless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Kerry A; Kram, Kathy E; Ting, Sharon

    2002-12-01

    It's natural to promote your best and brightest, especially when you think they may leave for greener pastures if you don't continually offer them new challenges and rewards. But promoting smart, ambitious young managers too quickly often robs them of the chance to develop the emotional competencies that come with time and experience--competencies like the ability to negotiate with peers, regulate emotions in times of crisis, and win support for change. Indeed, at some point in a manager's career--usually at the vice president level--raw talent and ambition become less important than the ability to influence and persuade, and that's the point at which the emotionally immature manager will lose his effectiveness. This article argues that delaying a promotion can sometimes be the best thing a senior executive can do for a junior manager. The inexperienced manager who is given time to develop his emotional competencies may be better prepared for the interpersonal demands of top-level leadership. The authors recommend that senior executives employ these strategies to help boost their protégés' people skills: sharpen the 360-degree feedback process, give managers cross-functional assignments to improve their negotiation skills, make the development of emotional competencies mandatory, make emotional competencies a performance measure, and encourage managers to develop informal learning partnerships with peers and mentors. Delaying a promotion can be difficult given the steadfast ambitions of many junior executives and the hectic pace of organizational life. It may mean going against the norm of promoting people almost exclusively on smarts and business results. It may also mean contending with the disappointment of an esteemed subordinate. But taking the time to build people's emotional competencies isn't an extravagance; it's critical to developing effective leaders.

  20. Suicide Risk at Young Adulthood: Continuities and Discontinuities from Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooven, Carole; Snedker, Karen A.; Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2012-01-01

    Young adult suicide is an important social problem, yet little is known about how risk for young adult suicide develops from earlier life stages. In this study the authors report on 759 young adults who were potential high school dropouts as youth. At both adolescence and young adulthood, measures of suicide risk status and related suicide risk…

  1. Young and Waltzing Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    ADONIS Observes Low-mass Eclipsing System in Orion Summary A series of very detailed images of a binary system of two young stars have been combined into a movie . In merely 3 days, the stars swing around each other. As seen from the earth, they pass in front of each other twice during a full revolution, producing eclipses during which their combined brightness diminishes . A careful analysis of the orbital motions has now made it possible to deduce the masses of the two dancing stars . Both turn out to be about as heavy as our Sun. But while the Sun is about 4500 million years old, these two stars are still in their infancy. They are located some 1500 light-years away in the Orion star-forming region and they probably formed just 10 million years ago . This is the first time such an accurate determination of the stellar masses could be achieved for a young binary system of low-mass stars . The new result provides an important piece of information for our current understanding of how young stars evolve. The observations were obtained by a team of astronomers from Italy and ESO [1] using the ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS) on the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. PR Photo 29a/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before primary eclipse PR Photo 29b/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-primary eclipse PR Photo 29c/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after primary eclipse PR Photo 29d/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before secondary eclipse PR Photo 29e/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-secondary eclipse PR Photo 29f/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after secondary eclipse PR Video Clip 06/01 : Video of the RXJ 0529.4+0041 system Binary stars and stellar masses Since some time, astronomers have noted that most stars seem to form in binary or multiple systems. This is quite fortunate, as the study of binary stars is the only way in which it is possible to measure directly one of the most fundamental quantities of a star, its mass. The mass of a

  2. Young and Exotic Stellar Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Summary Super star clusters are groups of hundreds of thousands of very young stars packed into an unbelievably small volume. They represent the most extreme environments in which stars and planets can form. Until now, super star clusters were only known to exist very far away, mostly in pairs or groups of interacting galaxies. Now, however, a team of European astronomers [1] have used ESO's telescopes to uncover such a monster object within our own Galaxy, the Milky Way, almost, but not quite, in our own backyard! The newly found massive structure is hidden behind a large cloud of dust and gas and this is why it took so long to unveil its true nature. It is known as "Westerlund 1" and is a thousand times closer than any other super star cluster known so far. It is close enough that astronomers may now probe its structure in some detail. Westerlund 1 contains hundreds of very massive stars, some shining with a brilliance of almost one million suns and some two-thousand times larger than the Sun (as large as the orbit of Saturn)! Indeed, if the Sun were located at the heart of this remarkable cluster, our sky would be full of hundreds of stars as bright as the full Moon. Westerlund 1 is a most unique natural laboratory for the study of extreme stellar physics, helping astronomers to find out how the most massive stars in our Galaxy live and die. From their observations, the astronomers conclude that this extreme cluster most probably contains no less than 100,000 times the mass of the Sun, and all of its stars are located within a region less than 6 light-years across. Westerlund 1 thus appears to be the most massive compact young cluster yet identified in the Milky Way Galaxy. PR Photo 09a/05: The Super Star Cluster Westerlund 1 (2.2m MPG/ESO + WFI) PR Photo 09b/05: Properties of Young Massive Clusters Super Star Clusters Stars are generally born in small groups, mostly in so-called "open clusters" that typically contain a few hundred stars. From a wide range of

  3. Promoting Protective Factors for Young Adolescents: ABCD Parenting Young Adolescents Program Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kylie; Brennan, Leah; Cann, Warren

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a program for parents of young adolescents combining behavioral family intervention with acceptance-based strategies. 180 parents were randomly allocated to a 6-session group ABCD Parenting Young Adolescent Program or wait-list condition. Completer analysis indicated parents in the intervention reported…

  4. Needs of Adolescents and Young Adults with Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Comparisons of Young People and Parent Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Hanna; Findon, James; Cadman, Tim; Hayward, Hannah; Murphy, Declan; Asherson, Philip; Glaser, Karen; Xenitidis, Kiriakos

    2018-01-01

    This study used the Camberwell Assessment of Need for adults with Developmental and Intellectual Disabilities (CANDID) to examine the social, physical health and mental health needs of 168 young people (aged 14-24 years) with neurodevelopmental disorders and compared young person and parent ratings of need. Agreement was poor in 21 out of 25…

  5. Young Researchers Advancing Computational Science: Perspectives of the Young Scientists Conference 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukhanovsky, A.V.; Ilyin, V.A; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Athanassoulis, G.A.; Klimentov, A.A.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    We present an annual international Young Scientists Conference (YSC) on computational science http://ysc.escience.ifmo.ru/, which brings together renowned experts and young researchers working in high-performance computing, data-driven modeling, and simulation of large-scale complex systems. The

  6. [Ischemic stroke in the young adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, D

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is not rare in young adults since one in ten stroke patients are less than 50 years old. This incidence increased over the past last years, mainly due to the rise in the prevalence of traditional vascular risk factors in this sub-group of age but also of illegal drug use. Even though both survival and functional outcome of young stroke patients are better than those observed in older patients, socio-economic and quality of life consequences make this disease a main objective in terms of primary and secondary prevention. Identifying the cause of ischemic stroke in young adults is of major importance to prevent stroke recurrence. However, given the wide variety of potential underlying causes, the etiologic work-up of stroke in young adults requires a different approach from that in the elderly. In this context, a sequential diagnostic work-up is needed in order to optimize the yield of diagnostic tests, to reduce their cost and risks for the patient. Arterial dissection is the most frequent cause of stroke in young adults but other less frequent causes are numerous. Despite a comprehensive work-up, about one third of cases remains unexplained leading to the diagnosis of cryptogenic ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. The consumer competence of young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2007-01-01

    of consumer competence in actual consumption decisions, however more competent approaches were reported when respondents were faced with hypothetical purchase situations. The young consumers' own understanding of what consumer competence requires showed some degree of correspondence with traditional notions...... of 'desirable consumer socialization', but also added a fundamental consumer competence to the list: to carefully consider one's need to make a purchase. Research limitations/implications The study included only a certain segment of young consumers. Future studies of consumer competence may include consumers......, particularly with respect to how new, complex buying decisions are managed. Findings Guidance from family and friends was found to be of major significance as regards complex consumer decisions made in the transition period from home to first household. The young adults did not display very high levels...

  8. Nutrition support programs for young adult athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, N

    1998-12-01

    After graduating from college and entering the work force, young adult athletes often struggle with the task of fueling themselves optimally for top performance and weight control. The stresses and time constraints of work, family, and social responsibilities often result in eating fast foods on the run. These young adults can benefit from nutrition education programs in the worksite, at health clubs, in the community, and via the media. Dietitians who specialize in sport nutrition have particular appeal to these athletes, who are struggling to each well, exercise well, and stay lean yet put little time or effort into their food program. This article includes two case studies of young adults and the dietary recommendations that taught them how to make wise food choices, fuel themselves well for high energy, and control their weight.

  9. Being young in a boom town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Christopher

    2011-08-15

    Fort McMurray is a booming town, having grown from small town to big city in a short time. A study was conducted to determine how this change affected young people. Results show they felt the changing environment required them to adapt all the time, which was a challenge but also a source of opportunities. Fort McMurray, with a labour shortage, afforded young people a lot of well-paid, flexible part time jobs during high school. These jobs were important to fund their post-secondary education. Although most of the young people saw themselves living elsewhere in 10 years, they could possibly stay if local challenges in the city were addressed.

  10. Young people's participation in physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Frydendal; Ottesen, Laila; Thing, Lone Friis

    regarding physical activity. 469 students participated in the survey. It is carried out through the online program SurveyXact. The data is processed in SPSS, and subsequently discussed. The primary results reveal that spare time jobs have a large impact on young people’s participation in physical activity......; Shame has an immense influence on the girls’ participation in physical activity; The offers regarding physical activity, provided by the school, appeal more to the boys and the students who are already physically active. Consequently, the students express a wish to have more influence on physical...... of young people today. This means that participation in physical activity cannot be discussed independently, but must always be viewed within the context of the lives of young people today....

  11. Sudden cardiac death in the young

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Michael; Atkins, Dianne L; Triedman, John K

    2016-01-01

    Although the occurrence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in a young person is a rare event, it is traumatic and often widely publicized. In recent years, SCD in this population has been increasingly seen as a public health and safety issue. This review presents current knowledge relevant to the epidemiology of SCD and to strategies for prevention, resuscitation and identification of those at greatest risk. Areas of active research and controversy include the development of best practices in screening, risk stratification approaches and post-mortem evaluation, and identification of modifiable barriers to providing better outcomes after resuscitation of young SCD victims. Institution of a national registry of SCD in the young will provide data that will help to answer these questions. PMID:26951821

  12. Digital Earth - Young generation's comprehension and ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrova, T.; Konecny, M.

    2014-02-01

    The authors are experienced in working with children and students in the field of early warning and crises management and cartography. All these topics are closely connected to Digital Earth (DE) ideas. On the basis of a questionnaire, the young generation's comprehension of DE concept is clarified. Students from different age groups (from 19 to 36) from different countries and with different social, cultural, economical and political backgrounds are asked to provide definition of DE and describe their basic ideas about meaning, methodology and applications of the concept. The questions aim to discover the young generation's comprehension of DE ideas. They partially cover the newest trends of DE development like social, cultural and environmental issues as well as the styles of new communications (Google Earth, Facebook, LinkedIn, etc.). In order to assure the future development of the DE science, it is important to take into account the young generation's expectations. Some aspects of DE development are considered in the Conclusions.

  13. Simulation Frames: Young Adult Dystopian Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Tedman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the ways in which Young Adult dystopian film Divergent (2014 successfully repurposes dystopia for a young demographic, making dystopia an aesthetically appealing space for heroic adventure. The film recombines Young Adult literary tropes with film conventions including those of science fiction. Divergent and other Young Adult dystopian films modify the potential for social critique associated with canonic dystopian fiction. The article’s critical framework includes theories of dystopia and of Young Adult dystopian literature, the Freudian uncanny, studies of the post-apocalyptic film city and new media theory. In Divergent, the dystopian division of society into factions is made enjoyable through production design, particularly in ‘Dauntless’, the faction joined by heroine Tris. This extends to transmedia marketing. The book’s violence is reduced to increase audience engagement, while lack of contextual detail precludes a critical dystopia. In Divergent, the spaces and ideologies of the post-apocalyptic film city are reframed as youth culture. Chicago is gamified, connoting an adventure playground. The space of the Dauntless ‘Pit’ offers symbolic rebirth, community and romance, yet its appeal is uncanny, as with communal spaces in The Host (2013 and The Maze Runner (2014. Divergent’s mirror simulation foregrounds spectacle but other simulations construct immediacy, appearing dream-like not immersive. Like the visions in Young Adult dystopian adaptations How I Live Now (2013 and Ender’s Game (2013, simulations convey individual awareness and supernatural communication. The film combines pleasurable classification and a divergence motif with its heroine’s development, revising dystopian cinematic space. Divergent represents a new form of dystopian cinema.

  14. Mood and Performance in Young Malaysian Karateka

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Rebecca S. K.; Thung, Jin Seng; Pieter, Willy

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to test the conceptual model by Lane and Terry, the purposes of this study were 1) to assess mood states in non-depressed and depressed young karate athletes; 2) to assess mood states in relation to performance in young karate athletes. The participants were recruited from the 2004 Malaysian Games (72 males, 19.20 ± 1.16 years; 37 females, 18.78 ± 0.88 years). The athletes were divided into winners (medalists) and losers. The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) was administered prior to t...

  15. Young Voters’ Responses to Polemical Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    I will present an authentic case: 24 young voters in a Danish “Folk high school” watching a televised, very polemical debate between the two contenders for the office of Prime Minister of Denmark shortly before the parliamentary election in 2015. I asked this group to note down all their evaluative...... of alert young voters like or dislike debaters to do in a mediated polemical debate to which they are spectators: what speech act types, rhetorical maneuvers, argument types, etc., make them—metaphorically speaking—either cheer or hiss? This picture, in turn, may be held against various normative...

  16. Counselling young cannabis users by text message

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Ditte

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study of two SMS services aimed at providing young people with information on cannabis and helping them to reduce their consumption of the drug. The attitude of the 12 participants in the study towards the SMS services is generally positive, but they prefer...... factual information to advice and counselling. The messages prompt reflection and awareness among the recipients, and their repetitive, serial nature plays a significant part in the process of change. This is especially true of the young people whose use of cannabis is recreational. For them, the SMS...

  17. TEACHING ENGLISH TO YOUNG LEARNERS THROUGH SONGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliana Yuliana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English to Young Learners has become a trend nowadays. In every school, English is taught as one of the main subjects. In teaching young learners is not like teaching adults, children have their own way of learning. Since children like to play and have fun, the learning and teaching process should be suited with the nature of the children themselves. One of the forms of fun activities for children is through music, and songs are the common form of music that children know. Through this paper, the writer wants to show that through songs, children could enhance their language skills, such as speaking, listening and writing.

  18. Calaveras reversed: westward younging is indicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, P.C.; Harris, A.G.; Kistler, R.W.; Krauskopf, K.B.

    1985-01-01

    Samples of limestone collected from strata in the southern part of the western metamorphic belt of the Sierra Nevada, which traditionally have been assigned to the Calaveras Formation, have yielded Early Triassic conodonts, and samples of metavolcanic rock indicate an Early Jurassic Rb-Sr age. These ages, together with general westward younging of units rather than with eastward younging as has been assumed until recently by many workers, chiefly on the basis of sparse oservations of bedding facings. The rocks are strongly deformed, and the possibility that tectonism rather than stratigraphic succession accounts for the age pattern cannot be dismissed.-Authors

  19. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of young sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anni Tindahl; Murray, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    of OSL dating, outlines the problems specific to the dating of young material, and then uses recent applications to young sediments to illustrate the greatly increased scope and potential of the method in geomorphology and the geology of recent deposits. The overall reliability of this new generation...... for determining the time of deposition of water-lain sediments from the coastal zone, and aeolian deposits from both coastal and inland environments. Our conclusion is supported by the growing popularity of OSL dating in geomorphology and geology...

  20. Teaching English to Young Learners Through Songs

    OpenAIRE

    Yuliana, Yuliana

    2003-01-01

    Teaching English to Young Learners has become a trend nowadays. In every school, English is taught as one of the main subjects. In teaching young learners is not like teaching adults, children have their own way of learning. Since children like to play and have fun, the learning and teaching process should be suited with the nature of the children themselves. One of the forms of fun activities for children is through music, and songs are the common form of music that children know. Through th...

  1. Plasma concentration of acetylcholine in young women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, K.; Oohata, H.; Fujimoto, K.; Suzuki, T.

    1987-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay was applied to the determination of acetylcholine (ACh) in plasma. The concentration of ACh in plasma sampled from 32 young women was 456.1+-53.1 (mean +-S.E.M.) pg/ml. No significant correlations were observed between plasma concentrations of ACh and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, or gonadal hormones. These data demonstrate that an amount of ACh measurable by radioimmunoassay is present in plasma and plasma ACh is not regulated by AChE activity and the menstrual cycle in young women. The origin and physiological as well as pathophysiological significance of ACh in plasma remain to be clarified. 13 refs. (Author)

  2. Jobless. Unemployment and young people's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, S L; Taylor, R J; Kerr, C B

    1998-03-02

    Morrell, Taylor and Kerr, from the University of Sydney's Department of Public Health, review the evidence of an association between unemployment and psychological and physical ill-health in young people aged 15-24 years. Aggregate data show youth unemployment and youth suicide to be strongly associated. Youth unemployment is also associated with psychological symptoms, such as depression and loss of confidence. Effects on physical health have been less extensively studies; however, there is some evidence for an association with raised blood pressure. Finally, the prevalence of lifestyle risk factors (cannabis use and, less consistently, tobacco and alcohol consumption) is higher in unemployed compared with employed young people.

  3. Young females in the athletic arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, A L

    1998-10-01

    There are factors that uniquely affect young females in sports. The sociologic aspects of female youth sports can be understood from a historical perspective. Athletics have an influence on the development of young girls, from gender identity and sexual orientation to the foundations of self-esteem and moral development. There is a relationship between certain psychopathologic conditions common in girls and athletics, including eating disorders, depression, and anxiety disorders. Although involvement in sports may engender some of these problems, others may be successfully treated through physical exercise.

  4. 3rd Bayesian Young Statisticians Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzarone, Ettore; Villalobos, Isadora; Mattei, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    This book is a selection of peer-reviewed contributions presented at the third Bayesian Young Statisticians Meeting, BAYSM 2016, Florence, Italy, June 19-21. The meeting provided a unique opportunity for young researchers, M.S. students, Ph.D. students, and postdocs dealing with Bayesian statistics to connect with the Bayesian community at large, to exchange ideas, and to network with others working in the same field. The contributions develop and apply Bayesian methods in a variety of fields, ranging from the traditional (e.g., biostatistics and reliability) to the most innovative ones (e.g., big data and networks).

  5. Endomorphism Rings of Some Young Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Kochhar, Jasdeep Singh

    2014-01-01

    Let $\\Sigma_r$ be the symmetric group acting on $r$ letters, $K$ be a field of characteristic 2 and $\\lambda$ and $\\mu$ be partitions of $r$ in at most two parts. Denote the permutation module corresponding to the Young subgroup $\\Sigma_\\lambda$ in $\\Sigma_r$ by $M^\\lambda$, and the indecomposable Young module by $Y^\\mu$. We give an explicit presentation of the endomorphism algebra ${\\rm End}_{K[\\Sigma_r]}(Y^\\mu)$, using the idempotents found by Doty, Erdmann and Henke in [1].

  6. Young people’s own museum views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drotner, Kirsten; Knudsen, Line Vestergaard; Mortenesen, Christian Hviid

    2017-01-01

    Taking a mixed-methods, visitor-focused approach to views on museums, this article examines what views young Danes aged 13–23 years (n = 2,350) hold on museums and how these views can be categorized and articulated. Arguing that studying views of museums as socially situated meaning-making practi......Taking a mixed-methods, visitor-focused approach to views on museums, this article examines what views young Danes aged 13–23 years (n = 2,350) hold on museums and how these views can be categorized and articulated. Arguing that studying views of museums as socially situated meaning...

  7. Airflow obstruction in young adults in Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Hazmi, Manal; Wooldrage, Kate; Anthonisen, Nicholas R.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Airflow obstruction is relatively uncommon in young adults, and may indicate potential for the development of progressive disease. The objective of the present study was to enumerate and characterize airflow obstruction in a random sample of Canadians aged 20 to 44 years. SETTING: The ...

  8. Supporting young entrepreneurs | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 mars 2015. Image. GRAHAM HOLLIDAY / NVTC. A conference held in Kigali, Rwanda, recommended establishing technical schools in every district to ... To capture youth perspectives, research looked at the types of business activities they engage in, how the experiences of young men and women differ, how they ...

  9. Enumeration of diagonally colored Young diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Gyenge, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    In this note we give a new proof of a closed formula for the multivariable generating series of diagonally colored Young diagrams. This series also describes the Euler characteristics of certain Nakajima quiver varieties. Our proof is a direct combinatorial argument, based on Andrews' work on generalized Frobenius partitions. We also obtain representations of these series in some particular cases as infinite products.

  10. Cogan's anterior internuclear ophthalmoplegia in young Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Isolated reversible internuclear ophthalmoplegia in a previously healthy young patient could be an initial manifestation of a serious illness like multiple sclerosis. Though the incidence of multiple sclerosis in non-white population near the equator is low, high index of suspicion and close follow up are warranted.

  11. The Resiliency Scale for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince-Embury, Sandra; Saklofske, Donald H.; Nordstokke, David W.

    2017-01-01

    The Resiliency Scale for Young Adults (RSYA) is presented as an upward extension of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA). The RSYA is based on the "three-factor model of personal resiliency" including "mastery," "relatedness," and "emotional reactivity." Several stages of scale…

  12. Physical Fitness in Young Adults Born Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Kaseva, Nina; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Miettola, Satu; Eriksson, Johan G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Kajantie, Eero

    2016-01-01

    Young adults born preterm have higher levels of cardiometabolic risk factors than their term-born peers. Muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness have important cardiometabolic and other health benefits. We assessed muscular, cardiorespiratory, and self-rated fitness in preterm-born young adults. We studied unimpaired participants of the ESTER (Ennenaikainen syntymä ja aikuisiän terveys [Preterm Birth and Early-Life Programming of Adult Health and Disease]) birth cohort study at age 23.3 (SD: 1.2) years: 139 born early preterm (EPT; Young adults born EPT (-0.8; 95% confidence interval: -1.5 to -0.1; adjusted for gender, age, and source cohort) and LPT (-0.8; -1.4 to -0.3) performed fewer modified push-ups than controls. Handgrip strength was 23.8 (0.9-46.8) N lower in EPT participants. Cardiorespiratory fitness, measured by submaximal step test, was similar. On a self-rated fitness scale (1-5), the EPT adults reported 0.2 (0.0-0.4) lower scores than controls. After adjustment for early-life confounders, the results remained. They attenuated after further adjustment for mediating factors. Young adults born EPT and LPT had lower muscular fitness than controls, which may predispose them to cardiometabolic and other chronic diseases. Adults born EPT also perceived themselves as less fit than controls. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Sudden cardiac death in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maiken K; Nissen, Peter H; Kristensen, Ingrid B

    2012-01-01

    pathogenic mutations. Lipid profiles and genetic testing for FH could be considered when autopsy reveals significant atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries in young adults. First-degree family members are advised to seek medical advice and testing to determine their own risks of atherosclerosis to prevent...

  14. Metaphor Comprehension by Deaf Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Rinat; Segal, Osnat

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we compared the processing of both conventional and novel metaphors by deaf versus hearing young adults. Eighteen deaf participants with severe-to-profound hearing loss and 18 controls matched for age, sex, and years of education were presented with word pairs of 4 types (literal, conventional metaphors, novel metaphors, and…

  15. Exploring Linguistic Identity in Young Multilingual Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Roswita

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the linguistic identity of young multilingual learners through the use of a Language Portrait Silhouette. Examples from a research study of children aged 6-8 years in a German bilingual program in Canada provide teachers with an understanding that linguistic identity comprises expertise, affiliation, and inheritance. This…

  16. Young Children's Drawings in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Way, Jennifer; Bobis, Janette

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores young children's drawings (6 years old) in early number and addition activities in Malaysia. Observation, informal interviews and analysis of drawings revealed two types of drawing, and gave insight into the transitional process required for children to utilise drawings in problem solving. We argue the importance of valuing and…

  17. Credibility in Mindfulness Training for Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Harriet

    2018-01-01

    Providing the evidence-base to establish whether mindfulness for young people is beneficial is undoubtedly more challenging than it has been for adults. First of all there are the practical difficulties in training teachers to deliver mindfulness well. Yet this is what needs to be done; teachers with the class management and pedagogical expertise…

  18. Supporting young entrepreneurs | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-03-13

    Mar 13, 2015 ... A conference held in Kigali, Rwanda, recommended establishing technical schools in every district to address the youth unemployment challenge. INSIGHT | INCLUSIVE GROWTH. ​New entrants to the labour force are often “the last hired, first fired.” As an alternative, many young people launch their own ...

  19. Young People in Britain. CRE Factsheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet provides information about young people from ethnic minorities in Britain. In spring 1997, 48% of the ethnic minority population of Britain was under 24 years of age, in comparison with 31% of the White population. Twenty-two percent of the ethnic minority population was of compulsory school age, compared with 14% of the White…

  20. BRIDGES for Young Adolescents in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Mary McDonnell

    The BRIDGES Project was initiated to explore ways for North Dakota to provide young people with stronger bridges from childhood to adulthood. This report summarizes recommendations of the 1990-91 Governor's Task Force on Early Adolescence. The recommendations concern practical actions for the building of bridges by the following groups: (1)…

  1. Living Arrangements of Young Adults in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Schwanitz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative research suggests that there are great cross-national and cross-temporal differences in living arrangements of young adults aged 18-34 in Europe. In this paper, we examine young adults’ living arrangements (1 across several European countries and different national contexts, and (2 by taking into account cross-time variability. In doing so, we pay careful attention to a comprehensive conceptualisation of living arrangements (including extended and non-family living arrangements. The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of family structure and household arrangements in Europe by examining and mapping the cross-national and cross-temporal variety of young adults’ living arrangements. For our analysis we use data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series International (IPUMSi for the census rounds 1980, 1990, and 2000 for eight European countries (Austria, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal, Romania, and Switzerland. We employ log-linear models to ascertain the influence of individual and contextual factors on living arrangements. The analyses lend further support to a North/West – South/East divide in living arrangements and general gender differentials in extended family living. Other interesting results are the heterogeneity in the living arrangements of single mothers across geographic areas, and the upward trend of extended household living for young men and women between 1980 and 2000.

  2. Radiation nephropathy in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of bilateral kidney irradiation were compared in young and adult rats. During a 1 year period after a single dose of 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, or 15 Gy on both kidneys, renal function (glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow), urine composition, and systolic blood pressure were measured periodically. The first changes after irradiation were observed in the glomerular filtration rate and urine osmolality. One month after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine osmolality had declined below control values in the young rats. After this initial decline, renal function increased at control rate or even more during the third and fourth month after irradiation but decreased progressively thereafter. In the adult rats, GFR and urine osmolality started to decrease 3 months after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy. A rise in systolic blood pressure and proteinuria started 2-3 months after 12.5 and 15 Gy in both age groups. Early changes in the glomerular filtration rate with a drop in urine osmolality in young rats, occurring during a period of rapid renal development indicated an irradiation-induced inhibition of glomerular and tubular development. Although renal function deteriorated at a later time in adult rats, dose-response relationships obtained in young and adult rats did not show significant differences

  3. Coding & Robotics for Young Children? You Bet!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzikowski, Ann

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) revised its position statement regarding the appropriate use of technology in early childhood classrooms. The increased accessibility of touch screens on tablets and smart phones led to this revision, which moves the conversation from the question of "When shall we…

  4. What Do Young Children Dream about?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Nealis, Arlene L.

    2012-01-01

    Young children's dreams can be a way for teachers and caregivers to share with children and an opportunity for children to describe and even draw dreams. In two different preschool settings, in two different geographical locales, 94 children, aged 3-5 years, shared 266 dreams with a trusted, familiar teacher. Dreams were coded anonymously. The…

  5. Do the Young Mirror New Values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helve, Helena

    1992-01-01

    Although about 90 percent of the children in Finland are christened in the Evangelical-Lutheran church, the sets of values and views of the world that adolescents cherish are not uniformly based in Christianity, nor does Marxism have much relevance to today's young people. (Author/JOW)

  6. Young adult conservation jobs and worker health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen L. Wolf; Elizabeth Housley

    2017-01-01

    Decades of research studies demonstrate links between healthy environment, healthy lifestyles, and healthy people. This study evaluated the correlations between young adult conservation workers’ perceived stress, personal effectiveness, and nature experience using quantitative and qualitative social science methods. The study cohort numbered nearly 300 individuals...

  7. Book Ownership and Young Children's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Selamawit; Washington, Patsy

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that there are positive effects when young children read and explore books for pleasure, as such activities help build the skills and knowledge that are critical to schooling. Reading for pleasure is facilitated when children have access to books in their own homes. There are great variations in children's book ownership…

  8. Iris Marion Young and Political Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This paper will focus on Young's theories of heterogeneity, as they have developed from the essays in "Throwing Like a Girl" (1990) to those in "Inclusion and Democracy" (2000). Reading her theories of heterogeneity together with recent developments in political theory which seek to reclaim the agonistic and frictional aspects of polity and…

  9. Researching Oral Production Skills of Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpotowicz, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the development of young learners' ability to communicate in a foreign language. An empirical study was carried out to determine whether, after four years of learning English as a compulsory school subject, children are ready to engage in oral interaction in a semi-controlled task and produce answers and questions in…

  10. Sociodemographic Characteristics Of Young Adults Screened For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: HIV screening was performed on all (n = 673) young adults referred to the retrovirology unit of the Haematology Department of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January 2003 to December 2003 comprising of 205 males and 432 females were screened for HIV using a double ELISA ...

  11. Developmental Antecedents of Young Adult Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradovic, Jelena; Masten, Ann S.

    2007-01-01

    Civic engagement was studied in relation to overall development in adolescence, emerging adulthood, and young adulthood to examine how earlier activity involvement and success in prior and concurrent age-salient domains of competence may contribute to 2 forms of civic engagement in adulthood (citizenship and volunteering). Data on 163 youth were…

  12. Methodological Reflections on Working with Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides methodological reflections on an evolutionary and participatory software development process for designing interactive systems with children of very young age. The approach was put into practice for the design of a software environment for self-directed project management...

  13. Slang Usage of French by Young Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensz, Kathleen Y.

    1985-01-01

    Describes reactions of native French speakers to usage of French slang by young American students. French-speaking participants rated 30 tape-recorded slang expressions. Their reactions were evaluated in relation to the sex, profession, age, and residence of the respondents. Results show attitudes critical of the use of slang in general. (SED)

  14. Family History in Young Patients With Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Vincent; Grittner, Ulrike; Dichgans, Martin; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Giese, Anne-Katrin; Kessler, Christof; Kolodny, Edwin; Kropp, Peter; Martus, Peter; Norrving, Bo; Ringelstein, Erich Bernd; Rothwell, Peter M; Schmidt, Reinhold; Tanislav, Christian; Tatlisumak, Turgut; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Rolfs, Arndt

    2015-07-01

    Family history of stroke is an established risk factor for stroke. We evaluated whether family history of stroke predisposed to certain stroke subtypes and whether it differed by sex in young patients with stroke. We used data from the Stroke in Fabry Patients study, a large prospective, hospital-based, screening study for Fabry disease in young patients (aged stroke in whom cardiovascular risk factors and family history of stroke were obtained and detailed stroke subtyping was performed. A family history of stroke was present in 1578 of 4232 transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke patients (37.3%). Female patients more often had a history of stroke in the maternal lineage (P=0.027) than in the paternal lineage. There was no association with stroke subtype according to Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment nor with the presence of white matter disease on brain imaging. Patients with dissection less frequently reported a family history of stroke (30.4% versus 36.3%; P=0.018). Patients with a parental history of stroke more commonly had siblings with stroke (3.6% versus 2.6%; P=0.047). Although present in about a third of patients, a family history of stroke is not specifically related to stroke pathogenic subtypes in patients with young stroke. Young women with stroke more often report stroke in the maternal lineage. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00414583. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Sexting and Young People: Experts' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Shelley; Sanci, Lena; Temple-Smith, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    Young people's "sexting"--defined by the "Macquarie Dictionary Online" (2010) as the sending and receiving of sexually explicit images via mobile phones--has become a focus of much media reporting; however, research regarding the phenomenon is in its infancy. This paper reports on the first phase of a study to understand this activity more…

  16. Prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries among young squash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries sustained by young squash players in Malaysia. This study was conducted retrospectively by using. Standardized Nordic Questionnaire (NSQ) during SUKMA 2016 at Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia. The questionnaires were distributed to the ...

  17. Political consumerism, young citizens and the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, J.; de Vreese, C.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that purchasing products for ethical or political reasons−also known as political consumerism−may be gaining in importance. With (young) people’s declining voting rates and a general disinterest in political institutions, scholars and political elites alike are speculating on the

  18. Measuring the environmental awareness of young farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountios, G.; Ragkos, A.; Padadavid, G.; Hadjimitsis, D.

    2017-09-01

    Young farmers in Europe, especially the beneficiaries of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) funding schemes, are considered as the ones who could ensure the sustainability of the European Model of Agriculture. Economic efficiency and competitiveness, aversion of depopulation of rural areas and environmental protection constitute some of the key objectives of the CAP and young farmers are expected to play a role to all of them. This study proposes a way of measuring the potential of young farmers to contribute to the latter objectives of the CAP by estimating their environmental attitudes. Data from a questionnaire survey of 492 Greek young farmers were used to design a latent construct measuring their environmental attitudes. The latent construct was designed by means of an Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFA) using the responses to a set of 12 Likert-scale items. The results the EFA yielded a latent construct with three factors related to "Environmental pollution and policies (EPP)", "Environmental factors and food quality (EFF)" and "Farming practices and the environment". These results were validated through a CFA where 8 items in total were categorized in the three factors (latent variables). The utilization of the latent construct for the effective implementation of CAP measures could ameliorate the relationships of agriculture and environment in general.

  19. Young Scientists Discuss Recent Advances, Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rudy M.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a National Academy of Science forum at which a group of outstanding young researchers in astronomy, molecular and developmental biology, physics, chemistry, mathematics, atmospheric science, and materials science met for three days of formal presentations and informal conversations. Provides a short synopsis of major speakers. (MVL)

  20. Guiding Young Readers to Multicultural Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton-Johnson, KaaVonia; Dickinson, Gail

    2005-01-01

    Stocking the shelves of library media centers with multicultural literature is not enough, it is important that children are helped to choose the ones that would interest them as reading about various cultures is of great benefit to young readers. The importance of accurately representing to children a multicultural society is emphasized and…

  1. Young Adult Literature and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Jacqueline; Choate, Laura Hensley; Parker, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    As the body of high quality young adult literature (YAL) continues to grow, what role might these texts play in professional development for educators? This article describes ways in which schools can develop book study programs that use this literature to promote meaningful dialogue and understanding of contemporary adolescent issues. Based on…

  2. The nuclear industry and the young generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanti, A.

    2000-01-01

    The European Nuclear Society was founded in 1975. It is a federation of 25 nuclear societies from 24 countries-stretching from the Atlantic to the Urals and on across Russia to the Pacific. Through Russia's membership in the Pacific Nuclear Council. ENS is directly linked to that area, too. ENS comprises more than 20 000 professionals from industry, power stations, research centers and authorities, working to advance nuclear energy. ENS has three Member Societies in Australia, Israel and Morocco. Also it has collaboration agreements with the American Nuclear Society, the Argentinean Nuclear Energy Association, the Canadian and the Chinese Nuclear Societies. ENS is doing pioneering work with its Young Generation Network, standing for positive measures to recruit and educate young people as engineers, technicians and skilled staff ion the nuclear field: from school to university and in industry. The goals of the YGN are: to promote the establishment of national Young Generation networks; to promote the exchange of knowledge between older and younger generation cross-linked all over Europe; to encourage young people in nuclear technology to provide a resource for the future; to communicate nuclear issues to the public (general public, media, politicians). (N.C.)

  3. Helping Young Children in Frightening Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Children, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents ways parents and other adults can help young children deal with tragedy and violence in the wake of terrorist attacks on the United States. Suggests giving reassurance and physical comfort, providing structure and stability, expecting a range of reactions, helping children to talk if they are ready, turning off the television, and…

  4. Health-Related Fitness and Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; LeBlanc, Betty

    Because research indicates that American youth have become fatter since the 1960's, the development of fitness among young children should not be left to chance. Simple games, rhythms, and dance are not sufficient to insure fitness, for, during the regular free play situation, children very seldom experience physical activity of enough intensity…

  5. Nutrition, bone health, and the young dancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, D.D.; Solomon, R.; Solomon, J.; Micheli, L.

    2017-01-01

    Optimized bone health is a dynamic process that utilizes hormonal, nutritional, and biomechanical balance. For those who dance recreationally and in particular as young professionals, healthy bones become especially important given the demands of dance training. An imbalance in one of the areas

  6. Sudden cardiac arrest risk in young athletes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to accentuate the importance of using PPE to prevent SCA in young athletes. S Afr J SM ... His resting blood pressure was 110/68 mmHg. His first heart ... the intraventricular septum of the left ventricle was 0.99 cm in the ... the medial cusp of the anterior mitral valve leaflet associated with ... assessed as being functional.

  7. Background reduction in a young interferometer biosensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H. K P; Subramaniam, V.; Kanger, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated optical Young interferometer (IOYI) biosensors are among the most sensitive label-free biosensors. Detection limits are in the range of 20 fg/mm2. The applicability of these sensors is however strongly hampered by the large background that originates from both bulk refractive index

  8. Abstracts of European Young Investigator Conference 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The conference specially aim at the active participation of all European young investigators, typically consisting of graduate students and postdocs below the age of 35. All participants share an interest in free radical chemistry, radiation chemistry and physics, photochemistry, radiobiology, life sciences and environmentally related topics that cover experimental and theoretical aspects

  9. Quasars: Active nuclei of young galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komberg, B. V.

    1980-01-01

    The hypothetical properties of 'young' galaxies and possible methods of observing them are discussed. It is proposed that star formation first takes place in the central regions of protogalaxies which may appear as quasar-like objects. An evolutionary scheme is outlined in which the radio quasars are transformed in time into the nuclei of radio galaxies.

  10. Providing Career Guidance for Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Pamela G.

    This module is directed at personnel working or planning to work in the areas of guidance, counseling, placement and follow-through in junior and senior high school settings, grades 7-12. The module topic is career guidance for young women of junior and senior high school age, aand the focus will be on providing nonbiased career guidance which…

  11. Polarization modulation in Young's interference experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tervo, Jani

    2008-01-01

    Polarization properties at the observation screen in Young's interference experiment are examined. Several recent results on the modulation of Stokes parameters, including the minimum number of modulated parameters, are reviewed. The theory is then applied to find out the relation between the Stokes parameters at the pinholes and the Pancharatnam-Berry phase at the screen.

  12. Neighborhood Context and Immigrant Young Children's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Tama; Shuey, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how neighborhood social processes and resources, relevant to immigrant families and immigrant neighborhoods, contribute to young children's behavioral functioning and achievement across diverse racial/ethnic groups. Data were drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, a neighborhood-based,…

  13. Young Danes' experiences with unsafe sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Andersen, Berit; Olesen, Frede

    2013-01-01

    were identified: 1) alcohol consumption which was associated with lack of condom use, 2) one-night stands after a night out partying, at festivals or on vacations, 3) low self-esteem which increased the risk of pushing one's personal boundaries, thus resulting in promiscuous sexual behaviour, 4...... pregnancies among adolescents and young adults....

  14. Young Danes' experiences with unsafe sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne J; Andersen, Berit; Olesen, Frede

    2013-01-01

    were identified: 1) alcohol consumption which was associated with lack of condom use, 2) one-night stands after a night out partying, at festivals or on vacations, 3) low self-esteem which increased the risk of pushing one's personal boundaries, thus resulting in promiscuous sexual behaviour, 4...... pregnancies among adolescents and young adults. FUNDING: Not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not relevant....

  15. Generation NXT: Building Young Engineers with LEGOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, T.; Gale, R.; Lowe, L. A.; Medina, V.; Beutlich, E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes key success factors for the implementation and development of a LEGO robotics engineering outreach program for elementary school students in West Texas. The outreach program not only aims at getting young students excited about engineering but at the same time aims at improving retention rates among electrical and computer…

  16. How the Project Approach Challenges Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Marcia V.; Lewis, Alisha L.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, educators at University Primary School in Champaign, Illinois, share examples and understandings of the ways The Project Approach challenges young children to think critically about topics of importance in their world. Project investigations that provoke academic and social challenges for individuals and classroom communities of…

  17. Internet Usage among Children and Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karayagiz Muslu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Computers have occupied increasingly central roles in children’s world with the advance of technology. They have proved to be an ideal companion for children in developing and developed countries who spend most of their time at school or home with computers. As a measure of development and modernization, technology has made people’s lives easier and contributed positively to social well-being so far while it has also brought about some problems and threats stemming from irresponsible use of Internet. Unmonitored use of Internet may cause damages in children’s and young people’s physical, psychological, social and cognitive development. It seems imperative to assure that children and young people can benefit from computers and Internet resources effectively and productively while measures for appropriate and safe use of Internet are to be taken into serious consideration. Therefore, the government offices and institutions should lay stress upon the issue; education professionals and parents should be well-informed and regularly updated; and finally children and young people should be educated and monitored to achieve a better and efficient use of Internet. In this paper, has been mentioned to negative effect of internet usage on physical, psychosocial and cognitive health of children and young people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 445-450

  18. Young Children's Learning with Digital Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Debra A.; Bates, Cynthia H.; So, Jiyeon

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews a selection of studies on digital media and learning for young children ages 3 to 6. The range of digital media for this age group is growing and includes computer-delivered and online activities; console video games; handheld media, occasionally with GPS or an accelerometer, in cell phones and other wireless mobile devices;…

  19. Young Adult Outcome of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, Linda C.; Ho, Helena H.

    2008-01-01

    To learn about the lives of young adults with ASD, families with children born 1974-1984, diagnosed as preschoolers and followed into adolescence were contacted by mail. Of 76 eligible, 48 (63%) participated in a telephone interview. Global outcome scores were assigned based on work, friendships and independence. At mean age 24, half had good to…

  20. First interactive conference of young scientists. Posters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-05-01

    This interactive conference of young scientists was realised on the Internet. Conference proceeded in five sections: (1) Cellular metabolism, physiology, molecular biology and genetics; (2) Biotechnology and food technology; (3) The use of instrumental methods in the analysis of biologically important substances; (4) Ecology and environmental science; (5) Open section for students. Relevant posters were included into the database INIS.

  1. How the Arts Develop the Young Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, David A.

    2006-01-01

    The arts play an important role in human development, enhancing the growth of cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor pathways. Neuroscience research reveals the impressive impact of arts instruction, such as, music, drawing and physical activity, on students' cognitive, social and emotional development. Much of what young children do as…

  2. Commentary Examination of young people's attitudes towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young people's attitude towards entrepreneurship contributes tremendously to the rapid increase in innovation. Income and social economic status of people also have strong effect on innovation because in developing countries, stronger payment ability and higher income level enables more people to spend more on a ...

  3. Socialization Agents and Activities of Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Sara; Shamai, Shmuel; Ilatov, Zinaida

    2008-01-01

    Research examined the relative importance of peer groups for young adolescents as compared with diverse adult socialization agents--family, school, and community. The factors involved were teenagers' activities, preferences, feelings, and thoughts as to how they spend their leisure time, their preferences for help providers, and their sense of…

  4. Design Methods for Young Sustainable Architecture Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauslin, D.; Drexler, H.; Curiel, F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces landscape aesthetics as an innovative design method for sustainable architecture. It is based on the framework of a recent paper where the young and unfamous authors criticized three of the most prominent? architects today in regard to sustainable architecture and its

  5. Young-minds.net/ lessons learnt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, V.; Jensen, Bjarne Bruun

    I bogen præsenteres de vigtigste forskningsresultater fra projektet "Young Minds - exploring links between youth, cultura and alcohol consumption". Bogen rummer desuden en præsentation af selve udviklingsprojektet (herunder de vigtigste grundbegreber i en handlings-orienteret og participatorisk...

  6. The Young Drinking Driver: Cause or Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Patricia F.; Waller, Marcus B.

    Drunk driving is a major public health problem and young people suffer disproportionately high rates of morbidity and mortality as a result of drinking and driving. Motor vehicle injuries are the leading cause of death for persons aged 15-24 in this country, and alcohol is implicated in many of these deaths. Countermeasures to drinking and driving…

  7. Evaluating growth performance of young stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. L. Roe; R. E. Benson

    1966-01-01

    A simple procedure for evaluating the diameter growth of young stands in relation to potential growth is described. A comparison technique is developed which contrasts relative diameter of crop trees to the relative diameter growth of the last decade to show the condition and trend of growth in the stand. The method is objective, easy to use, and has several...

  8. Specific phobia predicts psychopathology in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trumpf, J.; Margraf, J.; Vriends, N.; Meyer, A.H.; Becker, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young

  9. Young Children's Responses to Guilt Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Amrisha; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Displaying guilt after a transgression serves to appease the victim and other group members, restore interpersonal relationships, and indicate the transgressors' awareness of and desire to conform to the group's norms. We investigated whether and when young children are sensitive to these functions of guilt displays. In Study 1, after 4- and…

  10. SUICIDAL ATTEMPTS AMONG YOUNG RURAL INHABITANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Brzeski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years changes have been noted in the motivations for acute suicidal poisonings among young people from various environments, which are due to psychosocial changes both in the urban and rural environments. Suicidal attempts are accompanied – especially in the rural environment – by low social status, difficulties with adapting to a free market economy, emotional tension within the family, at school, in the environment of young people, addiction to alcohol, drug overuse, including psychotropes. Based on clinical material concerning rural inhabitants hospitalized due to suicidal poisonings, the authors performed the analysis of attitudes, motivations and causes of acute poisonings among the young rural population. Among rural adolescents who continued school or university education the dominant causes of undertaking a suicidal attempt were: adolescent period problems, conflicts within the family, conflicts with mates, and disappointment in love. Among young adults the motivations were as follows: difficulties with finding employment in the place of residence, conflicts within the family, overuse of stimulants, and sometimes states of depression during the period of aggravation of a disease.

  11. Financial Management and Young Australian Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki; Hoiles, Lauren; Corney, Tim; Clark, David

    2008-01-01

    In two studies of young Australian workers, participants generally displayed positive attitudes towards financial management practices; however, a substantial proportion failed to display positive financial management practices, experienced financial problems and dissatisfaction, and reported low rates of seeking financial assistance, particularly…

  12. Protecting Against Influenza (Flu): Advice for Caregivers of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Protecting Against Influenza (Flu): Advice for Caregivers of Young Children Language: English ( ... from the flu. Advice on How to Prevent Flu for Caregivers of Young Children 1. Take Time ...

  13. Improving Work Participation of Young Adults with Physical Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.C. Verhoef (Joan)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work

  14. Breast cancer in young women in Ibadan, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    should pay serious attention to breast lumps in young females and free health care services for these patients can promote early access to ... work/business, lack of employment, high cost of .... percentage of youths and young adults than the.

  15. Accounting for violence in Eastern Congo: Young people's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In these accounts, the voices of young people have been largely absent. Although ... in eastern Congo from September to December 2009 as part of the author's doctoral ..... More rarely, young Congolese recognised the contribution made by ...

  16. Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adult (13 to 21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adults KidsHealth / For Parents / Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adults What's in this article? ...

  17. E-Cigarettes and Young People: A Public Health Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails E-Cigarettes and Young People: A Public Health Concern Language: ... young adults you know about the dangers of e-cigarette use. E-cigarettes, devices that typically deliver nicotine, ...

  18. Young Costa Ricans and refugees working together for integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Duque Echeverri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available When given the opportunity, young people can work effectively together to promote local integration. A new Network of Young People Without Borders is undertaking a variety of sensitisation and integration activities in Costa Rica.

  19. Sudden Death in Young People--Heart Problems Often Blamed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death in young people: Heart problems often blamed Sudden death in young people is rare, but those at ... causes and treatments. By Mayo Clinic Staff Sudden death in people younger than 35, often due to ...

  20. Attending to others: how digital technologies direct young people's nightlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Truong

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It is a growing phenomenon that young people use mobile information and communication technologies during their nightlife. This article offers an empirical examination of how young people's nightlife is shaped by engagement with the mobile phone application WhatsApp. Drawing on Sara Ahmed's phenomenological concept of orientation, I examine how WhatsApp extends young people's nightlife and how young people become orientated therein. On the one hand, I show that nightlife acquires new boundaries and fixities that encourage young people to direct their attention towards missing social relations and absent nightlife places. On the other hand, I find that young people create new perceptions of how to inhabit and spend leisure time and space. I argue that digital technologies reorientate young people, which I suggest offers novel means of addressing young people's contemporary nightlife practices, places, spaces, and social relations.

  1. Improving safety of teenage and young adult drivers in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Statistics show that young drivers have higher motor vehicle crash rates compared to other age groups. This study investigated : characteristics, contributory causes, and factors which increase injury severity of young driver crashes in Kansas by com...

  2. Young Researchers Advancing Computational Science: Perspectives of the Young Scientists Conference 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Boukhanovsky, Alexander V; Krzhizhanovskaya, Valeria V; Athanassoulis, Gerassimos A; Klimentov, Alexei A; Sloot, Peter M A

    2015-01-01

    We present an annual international Young Scientists Conference (YSC) on computational science http://ysc.escience.ifmo.ru/, which brings together renowned experts and young researchers working in high-performance computing, data-driven modeling, and simulation of large-scale complex systems. The first YSC event was organized in 2012 by the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands and ITMO University, Russia with the goal of opening a dialogue on the present and the future of computational science and its applications. We believe that the YSC conferences will strengthen the ties between young scientists in different countries, thus promoting future collaboration. In this paper we briefly introduce the challenges the millennial generation is facing; describe the YSC conference history and topics; and list the keynote speakers and program committee members. This volume of Procedia Computer Science presents selected papers from the 4th International Young Scientists Conference on Computational Science held on 25 ...

  3. Strokes In Young Adults And Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Iranmanesh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is in second place on a mortality list in the world. Also, stroke is a leading cause of disability. Approximately 20% of all strokes occur in Children and young adults. The etiology of stroke in Children and young adults is different from that in older patients, and has an influence on diagnostic evaluation and treatment, so knowledge about older patients cannot always be applied to these patients. The list of stroke etiologies among young adults and children is extensive. Ischemic stroke are more frequent than hemorrhagic strokes in both groups. Stroke in young adults had been thought to be associated with   risk factors, including arterial (such as dissection, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, inflammatory arteritis ,moyamoya ,migraine - induced stroke, genetic or inherted arteriopathy, premature atherosclerosis cardiac (such as patent foramen ovale, cardiomyopathy , congenital heart disease and   hematologic (such as  deficiencies of protein S,protein C,or antithrombin;factor V lieden mutation . Common risk factors for stroke in children include: Sickle-cell disease, diseases of the arteries, abnormal blood clotting, head or neck trauma. There are no specific recommendations or guidelines for primary or secondary stroke prevention in young adults. Primary prevention focused on identifying and managing known vascular risk factors, such as hypertension, disorders of lipid metabolism, and diabetes, and non-drug strategies and lifestyle changes, including smoking, reducing body weight, increasing regular aerobic physical activity, and adopting a healthy diet with more fruit and vegetables and less salt. For secondary stroke prevention, identification of the etiologic mechanism of the initial stroke and the presence of any additional risk factors is most important. It consists of optimal treatment of vascular risk factors administering antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy, and if indicated, invasive surgical or

  4. Colour Vision Impairment in Young Alcohol Consumers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alódia Brasil

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test to test subject's ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test to measure subject's colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to

  5. Priorities for children and young people - opportunities and challenges for children and young people's nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fiona

    2016-05-09

    Across Europe children's nurses today face many challenges, including rising childhood obesity, the soaring incidence of issues with the mental health of children and young people, the effects of social media, child maltreatment and the impact of poverty, war and conflict on children and families. There are opportunities for children's nurses to undertake new roles and to influence both policy and practice to improve the health outcomes of children and young people, and thereby the future health of the population.

  6. Improving Work Participation of Young Adults with Physical Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, J.A.C.

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work participation in these young adults and the support they need to achieve suitable employment is needed. Interventions to improve the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities were lacking. The...

  7. Attitudes of Kuwaiti Young Adults toward Marriage and Divorce:

    OpenAIRE

    Humoud Alqashan; Hayfaa Alkandari

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates whether parental marital status affects young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce. There exists a vast amount of literature on the impact of divorce on young adults in Western cultures; however, no previous empirical studies have been conducted on the attitudes of young adults from intact and divorced families in the Gulf region or in Arab countries in the Middle East. The sample of the study consisted of 661 young adults from Kuwait University (from divorced...

  8. Social Media: Support for Survivors and Young Adults With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, AnnMarie L; Albrecht, Tara A; Lux, Lauren; Judge Santacroce, Sheila

    2017-10-01

    Social media use is ubiquitous among young adults. Young adults with cancer must make important decisions about where, what, and how to share information on social media. Oncology nurses are in a unique position to start conversations about the risks and benefits of social media use. This column aims to review a variety of social media platforms that may be used by young adults with cancer and provide guidance to nurses on initiating open dialogue with young adults about social media usage. 
.

  9. Health of children and young people in secure settings

    OpenAIRE

    Mooney, Ann; Statham, J.; Storey, P.

    2007-01-01

    This small-scale descriptive study was commissioned by the Children and Young People's Public Health team within the Department of Health, in partnership with Offender Health, in order to inform preparation and implementation of an Offender Health Strategy document for children and young people. The overall aim was to review what is currently known about healthcare for children and young people in the secure estate, covering all three types of settings (Young Offender Institution, Secure Trai...

  10. Complex young lives: a collective qualitative case study analysis of young fatherhood and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayton, Jennifer; Hansen, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Of all births in Australia, 10 % are to young fathers aged less than 24 years. How young fathers experience any breastfeeding and how this is shaped by their social context is poorly understood. Our aim is to increase understanding of the lived experience of young fathers (aged less than 24 years) and to explore the way they speak about breastfeeding in the context of their lives and parenting. This collective case study analysis uses qualitative data from interviews and focus groups with young fathers (aged less than 24 years) and community support staff. The research was undertaken in Tasmania, Australia, March to December 2013. Young fathers in our study had complex social and emotional circumstances that meant breastfeeding was not a high priority despite them valuing the health benefits of breastfeeding for their babies. If supported by peers and their community they appear to have a more positive parenting experience. Breastfeeding although understood by the young fathers in our study as healthy and desirable is not a priority in their lives. Learning to be a parent and support their partners to breastfeed may be more effectively gained through mentoring and father-to-father localized community based support services.

  11. Noor eesti teater ja Noor-Eesti. Young Estonian Theatre and Young Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Aaslav-Tepandi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article begins by examining points of intersection between two professional theatres, ”Estonia” and ”Vanemuine” (both established in 1906, their young directors – Karl Menning, Paul Pinna, Theodor Altermann, and Karl Jungholz, and the literary movement Young Estonia. Subsequently, we will consider Young Estonia’s theatrical ideals and the influence of these ideas on later Estonian theatrical life. Since not much information has survived regarding direct personal contacts between ”movers and shakers” in the theatre world and Young Estonians, the main focus here shall be on indirect creative connections and influences. One such context is education: like the Young Estonians, theatre activists of the younger generation aspired to place themselves on the larger map of European culture. Thus, their artistic beliefs and goals shall be examined in relation to those of Young Estonians’ quest for modern culture. Pinna, Altermann, Menning, Jungholz, and others went on study tours to Germany and France, where they were energized and inspired by innovative German and Russian theatres, by naturalistic staging, and by psychological realism, both in acting and in performance style. Among their models were A. Antoine’s Théâtre- Libre in Paris, K. Stanislavski’s Art Theatre in Moscow, O. Brahm’s Lessing-Theater, and M. Reinhardt’s Deutsches Theater in Berlin. These models were likewise known to the Young Estonians, but if theatre activists oriented themselves more fundamentally to German naturalist and realist dramatic art, Young Estonians were more taken with ”theatrical theatre” with its symbolist and impressionist influences. The Young Estonians attended performances at both theatres, ”Vanemuine” and ”Estonia”, and wrote numerous theatre reviews. Yet in the Young Estonia albums (yearbooks and in the magazine Young Estonia, theatre topics have a relatively modest representation. Young Estonians did not have direct

  12. Connecting the Canon to Current Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakova, Katie; Roccanti, Rikki

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the respective roles of young adult literature and literary texts in the secondary level English Language Arts classroom and explore the connections that can be made between popular young adult books and the traditional canon. We provide examples showing how young adult literature bestsellers such as "The Book…

  13. Improving Work Participation of Young Adults with Physical Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. J.A.C. Verhoef

    2015-01-01

    This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work participation in these young adults and the

  14. Parental Attitudes and Young People's Online Sexual Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbring, Emma; Hallberg, Jonas; Bohlin, Margareta; Skoog, Therése

    2015-01-01

    Parental attitudes towards young people's sexuality in traditional (i.e. non-online media) settings have been associated with young people's sexual activities. In this study, we explored the association between key parent and youth characteristics and parental attitudes towards young people's online sexual activities. We also examined the…

  15. Stroke Among Young Adults at the LAUTECH Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stroke Among Young Adults at the LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. AF Mustapha, EO Sanya, TO Bello. Abstract. Background: Stroke in young adults is relatively rare and there are very few hospital reports about it in Nigeria. The aetiologic mechanisms of stoke among young adults are quite distinct from ...

  16. Long-term prognosis of young breast cancer patients (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M.H.E. Dackus (Gwen); N.D. ter Hoeve (Natalie); M. Opdam (Mark); W. Vreuls (Willem); Z. Varga (Zsuzsanna); E. Koop (Esther); S.M. Willems (Stefan Martin); C.H.M. van Deurzen (Carolien); E.J. Groen (Emilie); A. Cordoba (Alicia); J. Bart (Jos); A.L. Mooyaart (Antien); J.G. van den Tweel (Jan); V. Zolota (Vicky); J. Wesseling (Jelle); A. Sapino (Anna); E. Chmielik (Ewa); A. Ryska (Ales); F. Amant (Frédéric); A. Broeks (Annegien); R.M. Kerkhoven (Ron); N. Stathonikos (Nikolas); M. Veta (Mitko); A.C. Voogd (Adri); K. Jóźwiak (Katarzyna); M. Hauptmann (Michael); M. Hoogstraat (Marlous); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); G.S. Sonke (Gabe); E. van der Wall (Elsken); S. Siesling (Sabine); P.J. van Diest (Paul); S.C. Linn (Sabine)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Introduction__ Currently used tools for breast cancer prognostication and prediction may not adequately reflect a young patient’s prognosis or likely treatment benefit because they were not adequately validated in young patients. Since breast cancers diagnosed at a young age are

  17. 18- to 24-year-olds : young drivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    The fatality rate (fatalities per distance travelled) of young drivers (18- to 24-year-olds) is more than five times higher than that of drivers between the ages of 30 and 59 years. The fatality rate of young males is even as much as ten times higher. The high risk of young drivers is due to both

  18. Reducing casualties involving young drivers and riders in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atchison, L.

    2017-01-01

    Young drivers and riders aged 15-25 are more likely to be killed on Europe’s roads than their older counterparts, despite continued improvements in road safety. Road collisions remain one of the highest external causes of death for young people. The risks are especially high for young males and for

  19. Financial Literacy of Young Adults: The Importance of Parental Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Bryce L.; Savla, Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of young adults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence young adults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which young adults' financial attitudes mediated financial…

  20. Young Adults Deserve the Best: YALSA's Competencies in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    As high school enrollment continues to rise, the need for effective librarianship serving young adults is greater than ever before. "Young Adults Deserve the Best: Competencies for Librarians Serving Youth," developed by Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), is a document outlining areas of focus for providing quality library service…

  1. Young Children Surfing: Gender Differences in Computer Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmani, Mubina Hassanali; Davis, Marcia H.; Kalyanpur, Maya

    2009-01-01

    Computers have become an important part of young children's lives, both as a source of entertainment and education. The National Association for the Education of Young Children's (NAEYC) position statement on Technology and Young Children (2006) supports the need for equal access to technology for all children with attention to eliminating gender…

  2. Supportive Housing in Foster Care: The Views of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Kyttälä, Minna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Finnish young people's experiences of supportive housing. Supportive housing is an after-care programme that should support the transition from foster care to independent adulthood. It is directed mainly at young people who have been taken into foster care by social workers. The sample consisted of 39 young people (23…

  3. 2010 YALSA Fabulous Films and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Journal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2010 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the list of titles that were released in January 2010 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Boston,…

  4. 2009 YALSA Fabulous Films & Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Journal, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2009 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the titles that were released in January 2009 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Denver,…

  5. Online Games for Young Learners' Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Yuko Goto; Someya, Yuumi; Fukuhara, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Young learners' use of instructional games in foreign language learning is not yet well understood. Using games that were part of the learning tools for an online assessment, Jido-Eiken, a standardized English proficiency test for young learners in Japan, we examined young learners' game-playing behaviours and the relationship of these behaviours…

  6. Young Women and the Co-Construction of Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNae, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Young women's leadership is an area frequently overlooked in educational leadership development. This paper aims to bring young women's voices into educational leadership conversations and illustrate an alternative approach to young women's leadership development. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative action research study was…

  7. A CLINICAL STUDY OF STROKE IN YOUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbha Thulasi Ram

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available NTRIDUCTION : Stroke is one of the important causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Incidence of stroke steadily increases with age. Experts are concerned of the emerging stroke epidemic in India. Stroke affecting the young has potentially devastating consequence son the individual and his family. Certain risk factors are unique to the young. I t needs more studies for identification and modification of risk factors. The study aims to evaluate clinical features, risk factors, etiology and mortality of stroke in young patients. METHODS : 74 young patients satisfying the inclusion criteria were included in this study. A detailed history was taken from young stroke patients, systemic examination and required investigations were done. Data was collected in standardized proforma and analysed. RESULTS: Stroke in young accounts for 7.95% of stroke cases of all age groups. The mean age of the patients was 34.66 ± 7.48 years. Among 74 patients, 47(63.51% were male and 27(36.49% were female. Seizures, decreased consciousness, speech involvement and motor deficit were observed in 33.78%, 44.59%, 22.97% and 100% of cases respectively. 82.43% patients had ischemic and 17.57% patients had hemorrhagic stroke. Among ischemic stroke, large artery atherosclerosis was 16.21%, tuberculous meningoencephalitis with vasculitis was 16.21%, lacunar stroke was 10.81%, CVT was 10.81% and cardio embolic stroke was 6.76%. Smoking (59.45%, alcoholism (58.10%, hypertension (43.24%, coronary artery disease (8.10%, diabetes mellitus (10.81%, elevated total cholesterol (25.67%, elevated low density lipo proteins (22.97%, elevated triglycerides (27.02% and low HDL (22.97% were important risk factors. Carotid doppler was abnormal in 9.45% of patients. 6.76% patients had mitral stenosis in echocardiogram. Low protein C and protein S were found in 1.35% of patients. Eight (10.81% patients died during the hospital stay. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The major risk

  8. Young Adults, Technology, and Weight Loss: A Focus Group Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Janna; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have ver...

  9. Postural stability in young and old women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Grønbech

    at an early stage, good knowledge and sensitive measurements of postural stability are essential. In addition, in order to develop effective intervention strategies such knowledge is of major importance. However, no single postural stability parameter has effectively been able to identify individuals at risk...... of falling. Hence, there is a strong need for development and identification of sensitive postural sway parameters in various demographic groups. The aim of this study was to explore differences in postural stability between physically active old (O) and young (Y) women using newly developed sway parameters....... METHODS AND MATERIALS: Center of pressure (CoP) excursion was measured (100 Hz) by force plate (AMTI) analysis in old (72.5±6.3 years) and young (25.8±1.6 years) women during static 2-leg (bilateral) and 1-leg (unilateral) standing (15-s) with eyes opened. RESULTS: O demonstrated elevated CoP sway length...

  10. Personality-Relationship transaction in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyer, F J; Asendorpf, J B

    2001-12-01

    Personality and social relationships were assessed twice across a 4-year period in a general population sample of 489 German young adults. Two kinds of personality-relationship transaction were observed. First, mean-level change in personality toward maturity (e.g., increase in Conscientiousness and decrease in Neuroticism) was moderated by the transition to partnership but was independent of other developmental transitions. Second, individual differences in personality traits predicted social relationships much better than vice versa. Specifically, once initial correlations were controlled for, Extraversion, Shyness, Neuroticism, self-esteem, and Agreeableness predicted change in various qualities of relationships (especially with friends and colleagues), whereas only quality of relationships with preschool children predicted later Extraversion and Neuroticism. Consequences for the transactional view of personality in young adulthood are discussed.

  11. MAJOR INJURIES MUSCULOSKELETALS IN YOUNG ATHLETES BASKETBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Simão Rodrigues Filho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth of participation of youth in sports is accompanied by an increase in the number of musculoskeletal injuries, especially in contact sports. Basketball gained prominence among contact sports not only for its plastic and beauty of their games, but because it is a sport that demands much of its practitioners, and in the case of young athletes, this requirement can endanger children and adolescents are not properly monitored for health professionals sports. In this study we can see that the ankle is the most affected, followed by knee and fingers and wrists. The mechanisms of injury most frequently reported were sprains, after the bruises and fractures. Highlight for disturbances dorsolumbar, pointed out by many authors. The prevention programs and pre-competition oriented properly treated as paramount by all the authors investigated, in order to reduce the number of injuries in young athletes.

  12. Minimally invasive aesthetic procedures in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollina U

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Uwe Wollina1, Alberto Goldman21Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande du Sul, BrazilAbstract: Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asymmetries, correction after body modifying procedures, and facial sculpturing are important issues for young adults. The implication of aesthetic medicine as part of preventive medicine is a major ethical challenge that differentiates aesthetic medicine from fashion.Keywords: acne scars, ice pick scars, boxcar scars, fillers 

  13. Quark Matter 2017: Young Scientist Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evdokimov, Olga [University of Illinois at Chicago

    2017-07-31

    Quark Matter conference series are amongst the major scientific events for the Relativistic Heavy Ion community. With over 30 year long history, the meetings are held about every 1½ years to showcase the progress made in theoretical and experimental studies of nuclear matter under extreme conditions. The 26th International Conference on Ultra-relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (Quark Matter 2017) was held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in downtown Chicago from Sunday, February 5th through Saturday, February 11th, 2017. The conference featured about 180 plenary and parallel presentations of the most significant recent results in the field, a poster session for additional presentations, and an evening public lecture. Following the tradition of previous Quark Matter meetings, the first day of the conference was dedicated entirely to a special program for young scientists (graduate students and postdoctoral researchers). This grant will provided financial support for 235 young physicists facilitating their attendance of the conference.

  14. Characterizing the Atmosphere of a Young Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the young, directly imaged planet 51 Eri b, its emergent spectrum has proved challenging to interpret. The initial discovery paper (Macintosh et al. 2015) interpreted the spectrum as indicative of a low mass (few Jupiter masses), effective temperature near 700 degrees Kelvin, and partial cloudiness. Subsequent observations in the K band, however, seem to invalidate the early models. In addition, newly improved photochemical data point to the likely presence of exotic haze species in the atmosphere. In my presentation I will explore the photochemistry of the atmosphere and discuss whether disequilibrium chemistry, hazes, clouds, or non-solar abundances of heavy elements may be responsible for the unusual spectrum of this planet. The implications for the interpretation of other young Jupiters in this mass and effective temperature range will also be considered.

  15. Young Africans Tackle Their Continent's Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olwoch, Jane Mukarugwiza

    2008-11-01

    Young African Scientists Session at the Fourth International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress; Cape Town, South Africa, 7 May 2008; Africa is often described as a unique and diverse continent. This is reflected in its biodiversity, economic and social circumstances, and diversity in culture and environment. The Young African Scientists (YAS) session at the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress was one of the congress's highlights. Global environmental change research in Africa was presented to an audience that included visiting international and national scientists, policy makers, and a group of schoolchildren. From the uniqueness of Africa's paleoclimate to the diversity and complexity of current and future impacts of environmental change on Africa, the session not only provided an overview of current projects but also highlighted the problems that are intertwined with poverty. This session was sponsored by the Global Change System for Analysis, Research, and Training (START).

  16. Young endothelial cells revive aging blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Vivian Y; Termini, Christina M; Chute, John P

    2017-11-01

    The hematopoietic system declines with age, resulting in decreased hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal capacity, myeloid skewing, and immune cell depletion. Aging of the hematopoietic system is associated with an increased incidence of myeloid malignancies and a decline in adaptive immunity. Therefore, strategies to rejuvenate the hematopoietic system have important clinical implications. In this issue of the JCI, Poulos and colleagues demonstrate that infusions of bone marrow (BM) endothelial cells (ECs) from young mice promoted HSC self-renewal and restored immune cell content in aged mice. Additionally, delivery of young BM ECs along with HSCs following total body irradiation improved HSC engraftment and enhanced survival. These results suggest an important role for BM endothelial cells (ECs) in regulating hematopoietic aging and support further research to identify the rejuvenating factors elaborated by BM ECs that restore HSC function and the immune repertoire in aged mice.

  17. Retirement Planning: Young Professionals in Private Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zazili Ainol Sarin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the factors influencing retirement planning among young professionals in private sector. There are three factors identified in this research which includes financial literacy, job satisfaction and savings behavior. Data used for this study are primary and secondary data such as from journal articles, periodicals and textbooks. A questionnaire is distributed and administered to extract data from the respondents consist of executives, non-executives and managers around Klang Valley, aged between 20 - 34 years old. The data is analyzed using frequency analysis, reliability test and Pearson correlation in order to obtain a clear findings and results. The findings show that financial literacy, job satisfaction and savings behavior has a positive association towards retirement planning. Furthermore, it is shown that financial literacy and saving behavior have a significant relationship with retirement planning. It is hope that this study will inform and encourage the young professionals to save and invest for the retirement.

  18. WHY WOULD YOUNG STUDENTS CHOOSE ENTREPRENEURSHIP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntean Andreea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The entrepreneurship is widely considered as a solution for economic problems. The number of young people who start a new business is in increasing. The students’ motivation for choosing entrepreneurship is the research purpose of this paper. A survey developed in Alba Iulia, on a number of 100 students’ points out the relevant motivation why young people choose entrepreneurial alternative. The results showed that most of the actual students would choose to be entrepreneurs because they want to improve their life standards, to explore new business opportunities and to have a social status. In conclusion, the teachers, the governmental authorities and all the others interested in stimulating the entrepreneurial motivation should their words and actions affect potential entrepreneurs’ perceptions of entrepreneurial feasibility and net desirability.

  19. Determinants of persistent asthma in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Lisbet Krogh; Halling, Anders; Bælum, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate determinants for the prognosis of asthma in a population-based cohort of young adults. Design: The study was a nine-year clinical follow up of 239 asthmatic subjects from an enriched population-based sample of 1,191 young adults, aged 20-44 years, who...... participated in an interviewer-administered questionnaire and clinical examination at baseline in 2003-2006. From the interview, an asthma score was generated as the simple sum of affirmative answers to five main asthma-like symptoms in order to analyse symptoms of asthma as a continuum. The clinical...... examination comprised spirometry, bronchial challenge or bronchodilation, and skin prick test. Results: Among the 239 individuals with asthma at baseline 164 (69%) had persistent asthma at follow up, while 68 (28%) achieved remission of asthma and seven (3%) were diagnosed with COPD solely. Determinants...

  20. Upper functional gastrointestinal disorders in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Peyman; Behzad, Ebrahim; Shafieeyan, Mohammad; Toghiani, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Functional Gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are common disorders in gastroenterology which are common in young adults. The aim of this study is evaluating the prevalence of upper FGID in iranian young adults. This was a cross-sectional study which was on 995 persons who were going to marry. A ROME III based questionnaire was used to determine the frequency of upper GI Syndromes among the sample population. Our results determined 74 subjects had functional dyspepsia (36 subjects diagnosed as postprandial distress syndrome patient and Epigastric pain syndrome was seen in 38 subjects). Functional heartburn was diagnosed in 52 participants. Globus was seen in 35 subjects and 41 had unspecified excessive belching. Many epidemiologic studies were done all around the world but there are different reports about prevalence and incidence of FGIDs. Our results were agreed with reported prevalence of FGIDs in Iran in adults. And our findings were agreed with some other Asian studies.