WorldWideScience

Sample records for young early generation

  1. Young generation actions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanskanen, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Finnish Young Generation was established in 1998 as a working group of the Finnish Nuclear Society to tackle the declining of the nuclear expertise. The objectives of the Young Generation are to attract more young students to the nuclear field, motivate and train young employees, enhance the transfer of knowledge between the generations, and to enable the young students and employees in nuclear field to build a personal network of contacts. This paper summarizes the results of the Finnish Young Generation program. (orig.)

  2. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millan, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  3. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, Miguel [INITEC Nuclear- Westinghouse, Padilla 17, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  4. Digital Earth - Young generation's comprehension and ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrova, T.; Konecny, M.

    2014-02-01

    The authors are experienced in working with children and students in the field of early warning and crises management and cartography. All these topics are closely connected to Digital Earth (DE) ideas. On the basis of a questionnaire, the young generation's comprehension of DE concept is clarified. Students from different age groups (from 19 to 36) from different countries and with different social, cultural, economical and political backgrounds are asked to provide definition of DE and describe their basic ideas about meaning, methodology and applications of the concept. The questions aim to discover the young generation's comprehension of DE ideas. They partially cover the newest trends of DE development like social, cultural and environmental issues as well as the styles of new communications (Google Earth, Facebook, LinkedIn, etc.). In order to assure the future development of the DE science, it is important to take into account the young generation's expectations. Some aspects of DE development are considered in the Conclusions.

  5. Young generation network: facing the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, R.

    1997-01-01

    The future of the nuclear industry lies with the young generation. That's why in 1995, ENS supported the creation of the Young Generation Network (YGN). The YGN aims to fulfill the needs and interests of young people working in the nuclear business by organizing special programs with interesting opportunities and activities. (author)

  6. Kenyan Young Generation in Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesori, R.

    2017-01-01

    KYGN Educates, informs, promotes and facilitate transfer of knowledge on peaceful, safe and secure uses of nuclear science and technology in Kenya. A network of young scientists and students with special interest in the nuclear science and allied fields. It is an affiliate of the IYNC whose membership is drawn from member states of United Nations

  7. Uganda Early Generation Seed Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, A.; Ntare, Bonny

    2016-01-01

    One of the major bottlenecks limiting farmers’ access to good quality seed for food crops in Uganda is the shortage of early generation seed (EGS - breeder and foundation) to produce sufficient quantities of certified and/or quality declared) to satisfy the needs of farmers. A national study was

  8. The nuclear industry and the young generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanti, A.

    2000-01-01

    The European Nuclear Society was founded in 1975. It is a federation of 25 nuclear societies from 24 countries-stretching from the Atlantic to the Urals and on across Russia to the Pacific. Through Russia's membership in the Pacific Nuclear Council. ENS is directly linked to that area, too. ENS comprises more than 20 000 professionals from industry, power stations, research centers and authorities, working to advance nuclear energy. ENS has three Member Societies in Australia, Israel and Morocco. Also it has collaboration agreements with the American Nuclear Society, the Argentinean Nuclear Energy Association, the Canadian and the Chinese Nuclear Societies. ENS is doing pioneering work with its Young Generation Network, standing for positive measures to recruit and educate young people as engineers, technicians and skilled staff ion the nuclear field: from school to university and in industry. The goals of the YGN are: to promote the establishment of national Young Generation networks; to promote the exchange of knowledge between older and younger generation cross-linked all over Europe; to encourage young people in nuclear technology to provide a resource for the future; to communicate nuclear issues to the public (general public, media, politicians). (N.C.)

  9. The association between early generative concern and caregiving with friends from early to middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, Heather L; Doyle, Anna-Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy

    2013-12-01

    Generativity, defined as concern for future generations, is theorized to become a priority in midlife, preceded by a stage in which intimacy is the central issue. Recent research, however, has found evidence of generativity even in adolescence. This longitudinal study explored the associations between caregiving in friendships, closely related to intimacy, and early generative concern in a young adolescent sample. Given the importance of close friendships in adolescence, it was hypothesized that responsive caregiving in early adolescent friendships would predict later generative concern. Approximately 140 adolescents (56 % female, aged 14 at Time 1) completed questionnaires regarding generative concern and responsive caregiving with friends yearly across 2 years. Structural equation modeling revealed that caregiving predicted generative concern 1 year later but generative concern did not predict later caregiving. These results suggest that caregiving in close friendships plays an important role in the development of adolescents' motivation to contribute to future generations.

  10. Generation of Interpersonal Stressful Events: The Role of Poor Social Skills and Early Physical Maturation in Young Adolescents--The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2011-01-01

    This study developed two specifications of the social skills deficit stress generation hypothesis: the "gender-incongruence" hypothesis to predict peer victimization and the "need for autonomy" hypothesis to predict conflict with authorities. These hypotheses were tested in a prospective large population cohort of 2,064 Dutch…

  11. Generation of Interpersonal Stressful Events : The Role of Poor Social Skills and Early Physical Maturation in Young Adolescents-The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2011-01-01

    This study developed two specifications of the social skills deficit stress generation hypothesis: the "gender-incongruence" hypothesis to predict peer victimization and the "need for autonomy" hypothesis to predict conflict with authorities. These hypotheses were tested in a prospective large

  12. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  13. Early detection and assertive community treatment of young psychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P; Nordentoft, M; Abel, M B

    2000-01-01

    Recent research indicates that early detection of young persons suffering from psychosis and subsequent intensive intervention enhances treatment response and prognosis, but the data are only preliminary and suggestive....

  14. Young Children's Enactments of Human Rights in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which human rights become part of and affect young children's everyday practices in early childhood education and, more particularly, how very young children enact human rights in the preschool setting. The study is conducted in a Swedish preschool through observations of the everyday practices of a group of children…

  15. Generation NXT: Building Young Engineers with LEGOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, T.; Gale, R.; Lowe, L. A.; Medina, V.; Beutlich, E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes key success factors for the implementation and development of a LEGO robotics engineering outreach program for elementary school students in West Texas. The outreach program not only aims at getting young students excited about engineering but at the same time aims at improving retention rates among electrical and computer…

  16. Do young adults with bipolar disorder benefit from early intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether young adults with bipolar disorder are able to benefit from early intervention combining optimised pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation. The aim of the present report was to compare the effects of early intervention among patients with bipolar...... disorder aged 18-25 years to that of patients aged 26 years or older. METHODS: Patients were randomised to early treatment in a specialised outpatient mood disorder clinic versus standard care. The primary outcome was risk of psychiatric re-hospitalisation. RESULTS: A total of 158 patients with mania/bipolar...... different, the observed differences of the point estimates was surprisingly larger for young adults suggesting that young adults with bipolar disorder may benefit even more than older adults from early intervention combining pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation....

  17. Characterization of Generalized Young Measures Generated by Symmetric Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Philippis, Guido; Rindler, Filip

    2017-06-01

    This work establishes a characterization theorem for (generalized) Young measures generated by symmetric derivatives of functions of bounded deformation (BD) in the spirit of the classical Kinderlehrer-Pedregal theorem. Our result places such Young measures in duality with symmetric-quasiconvex functions with linear growth. The "local" proof strategy combines blow-up arguments with the singular structure theorem in BD (the analogue of Alberti's rank-one theorem in BV), which was recently proved by the authors. As an application of our characterization theorem we show how an atomic part in a BD-Young measure can be split off in generating sequences.

  18. Promotion of public awareness relating nuclear power in young generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Although nuclear power presents problems of waste, safety and non-proliferation, many people understand that it is an essential energy for addressing the global climate and reducing CO2. However, a vague negative-image to the radiation and nuclear power is deep-rooted among the public. Young generation is not an exception. It is very important to transfer many information from the experienced generation in the industry to young generations. In this paper, the research that applied the information intelligence to nuclear power, which involves of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the communication related activities for the social acceptance and improvement. (author)

  19. [Generation Y in ENT: leading a young generation of doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K; Meyer, J; Liebeneiner, J; Schmidt, C E; Hüttenbrink, K B

    2012-11-01

    The shortage of qualified doctors and nurses has led to a competition between hospitals. Analyzing the circumstances of the competition, nurses and doctors of so-called generation Y are important. These employees are mainly female and have different requirements compared to previous generations. Therefore, knowledge of these requirements will become a critical success factor for hospitals in the future. We interviewed medical students in Kiel and Hannover from 2005 to 2011 about the clinical department chosen, the criteria for choosing a specific clinic, and the importance of MD and PhD programs. In addition, we conducted an internet and Medline search for scientific studies on labor shortage, generation Y, and demographics. The data were sorted by main categories and relevance for hospitals. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive measures. We received 1,097 answers which represents approx. 75% of all students. Sixty-seven percent of the students were female, 33% male. Preferences for departments revealed internal medicine, pediatrics, and anesthesiology as the top three. ENT followed at rank 10. The main criteria for choosing a clinic were working climate, structure and broadness of education, family friendliness, and respect. MD programs were rated 2.6, while PhD programs were rated 3.6. Staff members of Generation Y "live while working" and disagree with hierarchies. Internet and computers are part of their daily routine. Employees of Generation Y challenge leadership in hospitals by increasing demands. However, Generation Y can increase professionalization and competitiveness for hospitals significantly.

  20. Early Childhood Dental Caries. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.

    As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…

  1. Enhancing early engagement with mental health services by young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jane Burns, Emma Birrell Young and Well Cooperative Research Centre, Abbotsford, VIC, Australia Abstract: International studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness, and the fundamental contribution it make to the overall disease burden, is greatest in children and young people. Despite this high burden, adolescents and young adults are the least likely population group to seek help or to access professional care for mental health problems. This issue is particularly problematic given that untreated, or poorly treated, mental disorders are associated with both short- and long-term functional impairment, including poorer education and employment opportunities, potential comorbidity, including drug and alcohol problems, and a greater risk for antisocial behavior, including violence and aggression. This cycle of poor mental health creates a significant burden for the young person, their family and friends, and society as a whole. Australia is enviably positioned to substantially enhance the well-being of young people, to improve their engagement with mental health services, and – ultimately – to improve mental health. High prevalence but potentially debilitating disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are targeted by the specialized youth mental health service, headspace: the National Youth Mental Health Foundation and a series of Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centres, will provide early intervention specialist services for low prevalence, complex illnesses. Online services, such as ReachOut.com by Inspire Foundation, Youthbeyondblue, Kids Helpline, and Lifeline Australia, and evidence-based online interventions, such as MoodGYM, are also freely available, yet a major challenge still exists in ensuring that young people receive effective evidence-based care at the right time. This article describes Australian innovation in shaping a comprehensive youth mental health system, which is informed by an evidence

  2. The young generation and their communication with the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Petra Britt; Broy, Yvonne

    2001-01-01

    In 2001 contradictory trends concerning nuclear power can be observed in different parts of the world: in Germany nuclear phase-out was consolidated whereas in the US a nuclear revival by lifetime extension and plans for new nuclear power plants can be recognised. Especially in Asia nuclear power is necessary to satisfy the increasing power demand by a growing population. Since autumn 1998 following the election in Germany the discussion about nuclear energy has there been becoming louder. For more than three years the young generation in Germany has been working in the frame of a difficult political situation. Due to the current discussions, the communication with the public and public perception have been intensified in the last three years and are a special request by the German young generation. This paper clearly demonstrates: There is a young generation in the nuclear industry who is ready to fight for the future of nuclear energy. We - the Young Generation working in the nuclear field in Germany - believe: The future of nuclear energy in Germany has not finally been decided and it is not to late for affecting this future. In the public we should discuss the important role of nuclear energy in solving the environmental and energy problems. Nuclear energy must play a role in the future world energy mix. We are already doing this with a lot of activities because we know: The role of young professionals in the future of the nuclear industry will largely depend on the initiative we take ourselves. And to emphasise this again: We must be visible, go out and meet the people as well as participate in all available debates and other forums. The main goal and our main request for the future should also be: Nuclear Power for Generations. We - the young members of the staff in the nuclear field - are going to work for more than 30 years. But we need a following Young Generation to whom we will transfer once our knowledge and our experiences assuring nuclear competence

  3. Early Generation Seed Production and Supply in Ethiopia: Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Karta K. Kalsa

    the institutionalization of early generation seed production in Ethiopia. .... (Bishaw and van Gastel, 2007) and cross-pollinated crops (Maize Program, 1999).The .... Louwaars, 1999) have been suggested to address some critical gaps in early ...

  4. Early Educational Intervention, Early Cumulative Risk, and the Early Home Environment as Predictors of Young Adult Outcomes within a High-Risk Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment,…

  5. Marketing, Credit & Consumerism: impacts on early debt of young brazilian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Flávio Messias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the consumption profile of young people, seeking to address the main factors that influence the choice of certain products and if there is some kind of budget control that can mark out the purchase, since several studies show a higher degree of indebtedness and default on the part of families and individuals in general. The relevance is justified by the identification of an excess of marketing campaigns targeted at these children conveyed in the media, which, combined with the ease of financing provided by the retailers and also the financial system in general, have contributed to get them to early debt.

  6. Starting young: sexual initiation and HIV prevention in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Mueller, Ruth

    2009-02-01

    The rising numbers of new HIV infections among young people ages 15-24 in many developing countries, especially among young women, signal an urgent need to identify and respond programmatically to behaviors and situations that contribute to the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in early adolescence. Quantitative and qualitative studies of the sexual knowledge and practices of adolescents age 14 and younger reveal that substantial numbers of boys and girls in many countries engage in unprotected heterosexual vaginal intercourse--by choice or coercion--before their 15th birthdays. Early initiation into male-male or male-female oral and/or anal sex is also documented in some populations. Educational, health, and social programs must reach 10-14-year-olds as well as older adolescents with the information, skills, services, and supplies (condoms, contraceptives) they need to negotiate their own protection from unwanted and/or unsafe sexual practices and to respect the rights of others.

  7. THE ROMANIAN YOUNG GENERATION'S WILLINGNESS TO CONSUME GREEN HOSPITALITY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUȚA ADINA BĂLTESCU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hospitality industry generates environmental degradation through the construction of buildings, waste disposal, and water usage. Nowadays, a large number of customers show increased environmental awareness, being willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products/services. In Romania institutional arrangements to generate awareness of the necessity of sustainable development were numerous, exemplifying in this respect the actions carried out by the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development for introducing the european eco-label for tourist accommodation services and the camping services, as well as for promoting the use of the eco-label in Romania among interested hotels and guesthouses. Based on these aspects, the article presents the results of a quantitative marketing research conducted among the young generation from Brașov county. The main objectives of the research consist in identifying the level of information among Romanian young consumers of accommodation services from Brasov county regarding the eco-certification and environmental management systems applied in the Romanian hospitality industry and, also, to identify their intentions to consume the green accommodation products.

  8. Young generation: carrying the inheritance into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisbertz, A.

    1999-01-01

    Decisions in energy policy, which are now being made, define the environment we live in and the quality of life of our children for the next fifty years. Nuclear technology should therefore not be buried like a dinosaur as the plaything of political and economic ideologists. The danger is great of simply missing out on know how transfer in a technology that today already meets 17% of the power demand worldwide. However, past mistakes need not be repeated if the young scientists and engineers, make the knowledge of the experts their own and continue to develop it jointly in a well understood generation agreement. (N.C.)

  9. Early Care and Education for Young Children Experiencing Homelessness. Best Practices in Homeless Education Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Given the number of young children experiencing homelessness and its devastating impacts on development, preschool programs play a critical role in meeting these children's need for quality early care and education; yet, most young homeless children do not receive early childhood services. Many barriers limit access to early childhood programs for…

  10. Partnerships Generating a Workforce Pipeline: Empowering Young People, from Diverse Backgrounds, to Become Tomorrow's Scientific Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T.; Goodwin, L.; Talley, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    There is a critical need to build students' scientific understanding and prepare them to fill the roles of future decision-makers and the scientific workforce. In particular, efforts are needed to reach the underserved communities, which represent the greatest untapped talent pool in the sciences. In order to build future leadership in this arena, we must employ innovative approaches that generate young peoples' interest and develop their capabilities early in their education so that an increased number will enter college interested in and prepared to pursue careers in scientific fields. Partnerships between early and informal education providers and scientists from academia, industry, and government agencies are essential to generate a pipeline of students able to and interested in making this transition. Ocean Discovery Institute's partnership model uses authentic scientific discovery to generate the spark that makes young people, from the most urban and diverse backgrounds, eager to learn. As these young people work alongside science mentors to discover the world around them, they discover themselves and their future as scientific leaders. The success of this model includes increasing students' science performance, attendance in college, selection of science and conservation majors, and contributions directly to the field of geoscience. Content assessments, surveys, interviews, and tracking data demonstrate 73% of student graduates declaring majors in science and conservation fields, higher scores on standardized tests relative to their peers, and contributions to science research including 10 publications and more than 30 scientific presentations. In addition, robust and long-term partnerships have been established with institutions including the University of San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Sempra Energy, and the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration. We will share lessons learned from over ten years of experience in partnering with

  11. Digital Earth – Young generation's comprehension and ideas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandrova, T; Konecny, M

    2014-01-01

    The authors are experienced in working with children and students in the field of early warning and crises management and cartography. All these topics are closely connected to Digital Earth (DE) ideas. On the basis of a questionnaire, the young generation's comprehension of DE concept is clarified. Students from different age groups (from 19 to 36) from different countries and with different social, cultural, economical and political backgrounds are asked to provide definition of DE and describe their basic ideas about meaning, methodology and applications of the concept. The questions aim to discover the young generation's comprehension of DE ideas. They partially cover the newest trends of DE development like social, cultural and environmental issues as well as the styles of new communications (Google Earth, Facebook, LinkedIn, etc.). In order to assure the future development of the DE science, it is important to take into account the young generation's expectations. Some aspects of DE development are considered in the Conclusions

  12. Early life trauma exposure and stress sensitivity in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Damion J; Ford, Julian D; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2013-01-01

    The current study replicates and extends work with adults that highlights the relationship between trauma exposure and distress in response to subsequent, nontraumatic life stressors. The sample included 213 2-4-year-old children in which 64.3% had a history of potential trauma exposure. Children were categorized into 4 groups based on trauma history and current life stress. In a multivariate analysis of variance, trauma-exposed children with current life stressors had elevated internalizing and externalizing problems compared with trauma-exposed children without current stress and nontrauma-exposed children with and without current stressors. The trauma-exposed groups with or without current stressors did not differ on posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity. Accounting for number of traumatic events did not change these results. These findings suggest that early life trauma exposure may sensitize young children and place them at risk for internalizing or externalizing problems when exposed to subsequent, nontraumatic life stressors.

  13. The Dynamics of the Aspirations and Demands of Different Generations of Russia's Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotkina, Z. A.

    2013-01-01

    Survey data comparing the life aspirations of three generations of Russians show an increase from the level of the Soviet generation of young people to the perestroika generation, followed by a decline in the generation of young people who were born and grew up in today's "market" Russia. One chief cause of the downward dynamic of their…

  14. Early numerical foundations of young children's mathematical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Felicia W; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C

    2015-04-01

    This study focused on the relative contributions of the acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) and knowledge of quantitative symbols to young children's early mathematical learning. At the beginning of preschool, 191 children (Mage=46 months) were administered tasks that assessed ANS acuity and explicit knowledge of the cardinal values represented by number words, and their mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of the school year. Children's executive functions, intelligence, and preliteracy skills and their parents' educational levels were also assessed and served as covariates. Both the ANS and cardinality tasks were significant predictors of end-of-year mathematics achievement with and without control of the covariates. As simultaneous predictors and with control of the covariates, cardinality remained significantly related to mathematics achievement, but ANS acuity did not. Mediation analyses revealed that the relation between ANS acuity and mathematics achievement was fully mediated by cardinality, suggesting that the ANS may facilitate children's explicit understanding of cardinal value and in this way may indirectly influence early mathematical learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Investing in Young Children: A Fact Sheet on Early Care and Education Participation, Access, and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Stephanie; Matthews, Hannah; Smith, Sheila; Robbins, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Across the U.S., large numbers of young children are affected by one or more risk factors that have been linked to academic failure and poor health. High quality early care and education can play a critical role in promoting young children's early learning and success in life, while also supporting families' economic security. Young…

  16. Combing Ability Analysis ofamong Early Generation Maize Inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dagne.cimdom

    estimate combining ability effects of locally developed and introduced early generation maize inbred lines for grain yield, yield .... mass selection followed by self-pollination for generating inbred lines. The inbred lines ... for the experiment was an alpha (0, 1) lattice (Patterson and Williams, 1996) with two replications at each ...

  17. Can environmental conditions experienced in early life influence future generations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Tim; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2014-06-22

    The consequences of early developmental conditions for performance in later life are now subjected to convergent interest from many different biological sub-disciplines. However, striking data, largely from the biomedical literature, show that environmental effects experienced even before conception can be transmissible to subsequent generations. Here, we review the growing evidence from natural systems for these cross-generational effects of early life conditions, showing that they can be generated by diverse environmental stressors, affect offspring in many ways and can be transmitted directly or indirectly by both parental lines for several generations. In doing so, we emphasize why early life might be so sensitive to the transmission of environmentally induced effects across generations. We also summarize recent theoretical advancements within the field of developmental plasticity, and discuss how parents might assemble different 'internal' and 'external' cues, even from the earliest stages of life, to instruct their investment decisions in offspring. In doing so, we provide a preliminary framework within the context of adaptive plasticity for understanding inter-generational phenomena that arise from early life conditions.

  18. Early Childhood Teachers as Socializers of Young Children's Emotional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Zinsser, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Young children's emotional competence--regulation of emotional expressiveness and experience when necessary, and knowledge of their own and other's emotions--is crucial for social and academic (i.e., school) success. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms of how young children develop emotional competence. Both parents and teachers are…

  19. Predicting early adoption of successive video player generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsoever, F.J. van; Oppewal, H.

    2012-01-01

    Early adopters play an important role in the innovation diffusion process. Over the past decades, many factors have been identified as predictors for earlyadoption of innovations. Less attention has been paid to the relationship between the earlyadoption of one generation of a specific product and

  20. Combing Ability Analysis ofamong Early Generation Maize Inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dagne.cimdom

    estimate combining ability effects of locally developed and introduced early generation maize inbred lines for grain ... variance revealed significant difference among the hybrids for all studied traits. General ... Guto LMS5, L15 x SC22 and L20 x TSC22) gave significantly higher grain yield advantage over the two standard ...

  1. The young generation - guarantors for the future of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broy, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of the 'Young Generation' has been meeting with considerable interest in many European countries for a number of years already. On the basis of the Young Generation Network initiated by Jan Runermark, Sweden, Young Generation networks have been created in a number of European countries, including Germany. Since October 1998, Germany's Young Generation has worked in a changed political environment: As a result of the outcome of the elections to the federal parliament in 1998 and the establishment of a federal government by SPD (the Social Democratic Party) and Alliance 90/The Greens, opting out of the peaceful uses of nuclear power has become one of the guiding principles and goals. Hence, the qualified and highly motivated young employees of nuclear companies are bound to ask themselves whether there is any future for them in nuclear engineering. The Young Generation will work for the future of nuclear technology by embarking on a series of activities. Discussions with the public, transfer of know-how, and also an intensification of contacts among all companies active in the nuclear field are only some of the items of their agenda. The purpose of the activities, and the principle, of the Young Generation is this: The Young Generation is aware of its responsibility for the future, and is ready to meet the challenges. (orig.) [de

  2. Mental health: early intervention and prevention in children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membride, Heather

    It is estimated that 10% of children and young people have mental health problems so significant that they impact not only on their day-to-day life but, if left untreated, they will continue into adulthood. In this article, the author discusses mental health issues affecting children and young people and examines evidence-based early intervention and prevention programmes that have been shown to support better outcomes for children, young people and their families.

  3. Assessment of early bronchiectasis in young children with cystic fibrosis is dependent on lung volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P.L. Bard (Martin); K. Graniel (Karla); J. Park (Judy); N.H. de Klerk (Nicholas); P.D. Sly; C.P. Murray (Conor); H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm); S. Stick

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The aim of this study was to determine whether assessment of early CT scan-detected bronchiectasis in young children with cystic fibrosis (CF) depends on lung volume. Methods: This study, approved by the hospital ethics committee, included 40 young children with CF from a

  4. Bringing ABA into Early Childhood Routines to Meet the Needs of Young Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Debra

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that applied behavior analysis (ABA) approaches to intervention for young children with ASD have a strong evidence-base. Although federal special education law mandates that early intervention services and supports be implemented within the natural environment to the maximum extent appropriate, many young children with ASD…

  5. Improving Early Numeracy of Young Children with Special Education Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Luit, Johannes E. H.; Schopman, Esther A.

    2000-01-01

    Sixty-two students from special needs kindergartens were given early mathematics intervention. The early numeracy program was developed for children with disabilities and early numeracy difficulties by basing instruction on perceptual gestalt theory. Children performed better at posttest than controls but failed to transfer their knowledge to…

  6. The young generation - guarantors for the future of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broy, Y.

    2001-01-01

    For several years the 'YOUNG GENERATION' has been attracting great interest all over Europe. Based on the Young Generation Network of the European Nuclear Society (ENS) founded by Jan Runermark, in a lot of European countries a national Young Generation Network has been established, as well in Germany. Since October 1998 the Young Generation in Germany has been working in the frame of a difficult political situation after the decision was made about the phasing out of nuclear energy in Germany. Nowadays, our highly qualified and motivated young people who have been working for a couple of years in the nuclear field and already took over a lot of knowledge and experiences, have to decide: Is there a future for us in the nuclear industry? The paper will briefly summarise the wide range of activities of the German Young Generation. A selection of them will be chosen to highlight our fight for the future of nuclear energy in Germany, e.g. communication with the public, know-how-transfer, improvement of links between the fuel vendor and their customers. The main purpose is to point out: There is a young generation who is ready to take over the knowledge and the responsibility for the future. (author)

  7. Social Confidence in Early Adulthood among Young People with and without a History of Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Toseeb, Umar; Botting, Nicola; Pickles, Andrew; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to test the predictions that lower self-esteem and higher shyness in individuals with a history of language impairment (LI) would continue from adolescence into early adulthood and that those with LI would have lower social self-efficacy in early adulthood. Method: Participants were young people with a…

  8. Relationships between Early Child Factors and School Readiness Skills in Young Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Marjorie; DesJardin, Jean L.; Shea, Lynn C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this longitudinal study is to examine the relationships between early child factors (i.e., age at identification, enrollment in early intervention, oral language skills) and school readiness skills (i.e., conceptual knowledge) in a group of young children with hearing loss (HL). Standardized language, cognition, and conceptual…

  9. Business challenges for the young generation. Panel Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolis, Robert; Shoop, Undine; Umstadter, Karl; Plies, Christina; Allen, Todd; Sackett, John; Klein, Dale; Gates, W. Gary; Simmons, Sonja

    2001-01-01

    This special panel session will capture the views of senior professionals on how to address the need to attract new talent to the nuclear profession. Young professionals will express their views on how to attract new talent to the nuclear profession. (authors)

  10. Young Generation of OAO 'Mashinostroitelny Zavod' Specialists Trends and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khryashchev, D.

    2008-01-01

    The paper brings forth the information related to the youth organizations acting at the factory, their policies, provisions of youth incentives, intake of employees to the company, labor motivation. There is also the information on the events, which take place on site, on the arrangements of the young employees' leisure, as well as on the creative and productive potential of the factory. (author)

  11. Revisiting the Early Use of Technology: A Critical Shift from "How Young Is Too Young?" to "How Much Is 'Just Right'?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, C. Lorelle; Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju; Gruner, Bridget

    2014-01-01

    The conversation about young children and their use of technology has dramatically changed over the past ten years in the early childhood education community and in the general public. It appears the debate has moved forward from the question posed by Vail (2001) in her article titled, "How Young Is Too Young? When It Comes to Computer Use,…

  12. How can Portugal attract more China´S young generation tourists?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yujing

    2017-01-01

    Portugal as a tourism destination has great potential to be further developed, however it is still not well known by the Chinese outbound tourists, especially the young generation who would stay longer and spend more in Portugal. This paper describe the current situation of Portugal tourism in Chinese outbound market, after analyzing explained why Portugal should aim at the young generation, and finally gave some recommendations of how to attract them, mainly through social media platforms.

  13. Young Generation Network appearance on the job opportunity fair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovac, Marko; Zagar, Tomaz; Giacomelli, M; Bergant, R; Lengar, Igor [Institut ' Jozef Stefan' , Jamova 39, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Knez, Simona [Agencija za radioaktivne odpadke, Parmova 53, 1113 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2002-07-01

    We describe the way in which we have appeared on a job-fair, organised for the connection between employers and students. We have offered jobs in the nuclear branch and by gaining the interest of the participants (mainly students) were able to popularise nuclear energy. In this way we dealt with two big problems: the lack of new young professionals in the field and the public opinion, not generally in favour of the use of nuclear energy. (author)

  14. Young Generation Network appearance on the job opportunity fair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, Marko; Zagar, Tomaz; Giacomelli, M.; Bergant, R.; Lengar, Igor; Knez, Simona

    2002-01-01

    We describe the way in which we have appeared on a job-fair, organised for the connection between employers and students. We have offered jobs in the nuclear branch and by gaining the interest of the participants (mainly students) were able to popularise nuclear energy. In this way we dealt with two big problems: the lack of new young professionals in the field and the public opinion, not generally in favour of the use of nuclear energy. (author)

  15. Early marriage and intimate partner violence among adolescents and young adults in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong Le, Minh Thi; Tran, Thach Duc; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Fisher, Jane

    2014-03-01

    Research about the association between early marriage and intimate partner violence (IPV) in low-income countries has yielded conflicting evidence. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of and associations between early marriage, and IPV among adolescents and young adults in Viet Nam. Secondary analysis of data from the national Survey Assessment of Viet Namese Youth-Round II (SAVY-II) conducted in 2009-2010, which assessed a representative cohort of people aged 14 to 25 years recruited via a systematic household survey was undertaken. Prevalence was established using descriptive statistics. The association between early marriage and IPV was examined using multiple logistic regressions, adjusting for potential risk factors. Of 10,044 participants, 1,701 had ever married and were included in analyses. Early marriage (before age 18), and experiences of verbal, physical, or sexual IPV were more common among females than males. More young married men than women reported experiences of controlling behaviors by their partners. Early marriage, being illiterate, and exposure to sexual abuse were associated with experience of IPV among young females, but not among young males. Poverty and exposure to family violence was associated with IPV in both sexes. Addressing early marriage, low educational opportunities for girls, childhood sexual abuse, family violence, and poverty should be considered in strategies to reduce IPV in Viet Nam.

  16. Early adversity and brain response to faces in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieslehto, Johannes; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Mäki, Pirjo; Koivukangas, Jenni; Nordström, Tanja; Miettunen, Jouko; Barnett, Jennifer H; Jones, Peter B; Murray, Graham K; Moilanen, Irma; Paus, Tomáš; Veijola, Juha

    2017-09-01

    Early stressors play a key role in shaping interindividual differences in vulnerability to various psychopathologies, which according to the diathesis-stress model might relate to the elevated glucocorticoid secretion and impaired responsiveness to stress. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that individuals exposed to early adversity have deficits in emotion processing from faces. This study aims to explore whether early adversities associate with brain response to faces and whether this association might associate with the regional variations in mRNA expression of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1). A total of 104 individuals drawn from the Northern Finland Brith Cohort 1986 participated in a face-task functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. A large independent dataset (IMAGEN, N = 1739) was utilized for reducing fMRI data-analytical space in the NFBC 1986 dataset. Early adversities were associated with deviant brain response to fearful faces (MANCOVA, P = 0.006) and with weaker performance in fearful facial expression recognition (P = 0.01). Glucocorticoid receptor gene expression (data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas) correlated with the degree of associations between early adversities and brain response to fearful faces (R 2  = 0.25, P = 0.01) across different brain regions. Our results suggest that early adversities contribute to brain response to faces and that this association is mediated in part by the glucocorticoid system. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4470-4478, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Genetic moderation of multiple pathways linking early cumulative socioeconomic adversity and young adults' cardiometabolic disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Kandauda A S; Lee, Tae Kyoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2018-02-01

    Recent research suggests that psychosocial resources and life stressors are mediating pathways explaining socioeconomic variation in young adults' health risks. However, less research has examined both these pathways simultaneously and their genetic moderation. A nationally representative sample of 11,030 respondents with prospective data collected over 13 years from the National Study of Adolescent to Adult Health was examined. First, the association between early cumulative socioeconomic adversity and young adults' (ages 25-34) cardiometabolic disease risk, as measured by 10 biomarkers, through psychosocial resources (educational attainment) and life stressors (accelerated transition to adulthood) was examined. Second, moderation of these pathways by the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR) was examined. There was evidence for the association between early socioeconomic adversity and young adults' cardiometabolic disease risk directly and indirectly through educational attainment and accelerated transitions. These direct and mediating pathways were amplified by the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. These findings elucidate how early adversity can have an enduring influence on young adults' cardiometabolic disease risk directly and indirectly through psychosocial resources and life stressors and their genetic moderation. This information suggests that effective intervention and prevention programs should focus on early adversity, youth educational attainment, and their transition to young adulthood.

  18. Stress and resource pathways connecting early socioeconomic adversity to young adults' physical health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; Lee, Tae Kyoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Kwon, Josephine A

    2015-05-01

    Although research has established the impact of early stress, including stressful life contexts, and early resources, such as educational attainment, on various adolescent health outcomes, previous research has not adequately investigated "integrative models" incorporating both stress and resource mediational pathways to explain how early socioeconomic adversity impacts physical health outcomes, particularly in early life stages. Data on early childhood/adolescent stress and socioeconomic resources as well as biomarkers indicating physical health status in young adulthood were collected from 11,798 respondents (54 % female) over a 13-year period from youth participating in the National Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Physical health risk in young adulthood was measured using a composite index of nine regulatory biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Heterogeneity in stress and socioeconomic resource pathways was assessed using latent class analysis to identify clusters, or classes, of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectories. The influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk, as measured by biomarkers, was estimated, and the role of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes as linking mechanisms was assessed. There was evidence for the influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk directly and indirectly through stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes over the early life course. These findings suggest that health models should be broadened to incorporate both stress and resource experiences simultaneously. Furthermore, these findings have prevention and intervention implications, including the importance of early socioeconomic adversity and key intervention points for "turning" the trajectories of at-risk youth.

  19. Perspectives on Early Power Mobility Training, Motivation, and Social Participation in Young Children with Motor Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Han Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of traditional training programs (e.g., neurodevelopmental therapy in promoting independent mobility and early child development across all three International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health levels lacks rigorous research support. Therefore, early power mobility training needs to be considered as a feasible intervention for very young children who are unlikely to achieve independent mobility. This perspective article has three aims: (1 to provide empirical evidence of differences in early independent mobility, motivation, daily life activities, and social participation between young children with typical development and motor disabilities; (2 to discuss the contemporary concepts of and approaches to early power mobility training for young children with motor disabilities and the current need for changes to such training; and (3 to provide recommendations for early power mobility training in pediatric rehabilitation. Independent mobility is critical for social participation; therefore, power mobility can be accessible and implemented as early as possible, specifically for infants who are at risk for mobility or developmental delay. To maximize the positive effects of independent mobility on children’s social participation, early power mobility training must consider their levels of functioning, the amount of exploration and contextual factors, including individual and environmental factors.

  20. Early Mars Climate Modeling and the Faint Young Sun Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Today Mars is a cold, dry, desert planet. Liquid water is not stable on its surface. There are no lakes, seas, or oceans, and precipitation falls as snowfall. Yet early in its history during the Noachian epoch, there is geological and mineralogical evidence that liquid water from rainfall flowed on its surface creating drainage systems, lakes, and - possibly - seas and oceans. More recent observations by Curiosity in Gale crater hint that such conditions may have persited into the Hesperian. The implication is that early Mars had a wamer climate than it does today as a result of a thicker atmosphere with a more powerful greenhouse effect capable of producing an active hydrological cycle with rainfall, runoff, and evaporation. Since Mariner 9 began accumulating such evidence, researchers have been trying to understand what kind of a climate system could have created greenhouse conditions favorable for liquid water. Unfortunately, the problem is not yet solved.

  1. The impact of arthritis on the early employment experiences of young adults: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetha, Arif

    2015-07-01

    Young adulthood is an important transitional life phase that can determine a person's career trajectory. To date, little research has examined the influence of arthritis on early work experiences. This literature review aims at examining the impact of arthritis on the early career phase of young adults and identifying the barriers to employment. Two independent reviewers searched bibliographic databases for arthritis conditions and a series of employment-related keywords and subject headings. Information on authors, publication year; study design, sample characteristics (e.g., number of participants, age, gender, arthritis type); work outcomes measured; and specific barriers to employment was recorded. Nine studies were uncovered in the review. All studies examined young people with juvenile arthritis (9 of 9 studies) and consisted of sample sizes with less then 150 participants (6 of 9 studies) who were primarily recruited from clinics (7 of 9 studies). All were cross-sectional designs. Employment status was primarily examined and ranged from 11% to 71%. Although not always statistically significant, young adults with arthritis were less likely to be employed when compared to their healthy peers. Greater disease severity, less educational attainment and being female were related to not participating in paid work. This review brings to light the paucity of studies examining the early employment experiences of young adults with arthritis. There is a need to expand research to contribute to recommendations for sustained and productive employment across the working life course. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Young Learners: An Examination of the Psychometric Properties of the Early Literacy Knowledge and Skills Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Man Ching Esther

    2015-01-01

    The Early Literacy Knowledge and Skills (ELKS) instrument was informed by the work of Ferreiro and Teberosky based on the notion that young children could be differentiated according to levels of sophistication in their understanding of the rules of written language. As an initial step to evaluate the instrument for teaching purposes, the present…

  3. "Where Do Babies Come from?" Barriers to Early Sexuality Communication between Parents and Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicole; Ingham, Roger; Gibbins, Katie

    2013-01-01

    "Where do babies come from?" "Why do boys have willies?" "What does gay mean?" Probably all parents have faced such "innocent" questions from young children, and many have found them challenging to answer. Access to sexuality education at an early age is frequently considered controversial; however, there…

  4. Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Young isiZulu-Speaking Children in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Nola J.; Wetherby, Amy M.; Stronach, Sheri T.; Njongwe, Nonyameko; Kauchali, Shuaib; Grinker, Richard R.

    2017-01-01

    Culturally appropriate tools are needed for detecting symptoms of autism spectrum disorder in young South African children. The objectives of this study were to (1) adapt and translate into isiZulu existing measures for detecting early signs of autism spectrum disorder, (2) use the measures to characterize and compare behavioural profiles of young…

  5. UNESCO Launches Open Access Curriculum for Young and Early Career Researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Anup-Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This article narrates the background of UNESCO Curriculum titled "Open Access for Researchers" which was launched on 16th March 2015. This Open Access Curriculum contains five modules for capacity building, awareness raising and sensitizing young and early career researchers affiliated to research laboratories or higher educational institutions across the world.

  6. Promoting an "Active Start" for Young Children: Developing Competent and Confident Early Movers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Wall, Sarah; Getchell, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    With childhood obesity and physical inactivity at an all-time high, parents and physical educators alike must look to the early years to promote competent and confident young movers. Popular opinion believes that children are naturally active and motor skill development progresses as a normal function of getting older. However, if one looks at…

  7. Parenting begets parenting: A neurobiological perspective on early adversity and the transmission of parenting styles across generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomanowska, A M; Boivin, M; Hertzman, C; Fleming, A S

    2017-02-07

    The developing brains of young children are highly sensitive to input from their social environment. Nurturing social experience during this time promotes the acquisition of social and cognitive skills and emotional competencies. However, many young children are confronted with obstacles to healthy development, including poverty, inappropriate care, and violence, and their enhanced sensitivity to the social environment means that they are highly susceptible to these adverse childhood experiences. One source of social adversity in early life can stem from parenting that is harsh, inconsistent, non-sensitive or hostile. Parenting is considered to be the cornerstone of early socio-emotional development and an adverse parenting style is associated with adjustment problems and a higher risk of developing mood and behavioral disorders. Importantly, there is a growing literature showing that an important predictor of parenting behavior is how parents, especially mothers, were parented themselves. In this review, we examine how adversity in early-life affects mothering behavior in later-life and how these effects may be perpetuated inter-generationally. Relying on studies in humans and animal models, we consider evidence for the intergenerational transmission of mothering styles. We then describe the psychological underpinnings of mothering, including responsiveness to young, executive function and affect, as well as the physiological mediators of mothering behavior, including hormones, brain regions and neurotransmitters, and we consider how development in these relevant domains may be affected by adversity experienced in early life. Finally, we explore how genes and early experience interact to predict mothering behavior, including the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms. Understanding how adverse parenting begets adverse parenting in the next generation is critical for designing interventions aimed at preventing this intergenerational cycle of early adversity

  8. Managing Early Childhood Caries for Young Children in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitty Jieyi Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The latest national survey found that 70% of 5-year-old children in China had dental caries. The prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC may not only be attributed to poor oral hygiene and unhealthy diet, but also to limited access to and availability of dental care. The prevailing preventive measures adopted by industrialised countries for ECC management are neither practical nor affordable in China. Hence, an alternative approach to ECC management is necessary. Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART has been advocated because the simple and short operative time renders ART affordable. However, the success rate of ART in restoring anterior primary teeth is unfavourable. Although there is no water fluoridation in China, topical fluorides may be used to manage ECC. Tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste is effective for caries control, but not all toothpastes in China are fluoridated. Professionally applied fluorides such as sodium fluoride varnish can be a cost-effective treatment for managing the high prevalence of ECC in China. Silver diamine fluoride (SDF at 38% is suggested to be effective in arresting ECC in China. It can be a simple, non-invasive and low-cost treatment. However, it stains caries black. Children and their parents must be well informed before SDF treatment.

  9. Dental complications of rickets in early childhood: case report on 2 young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davit-Béal, Tiphaine; Gabay, Julie; Antoniolli, Pauline; Masle-Farquhar, Jeanne; Wolikow, Maryse

    2014-04-01

    Vitamin D is an essential hormone for calcium gut absorption. It is also involved in child growth, cancer prevention, immune system responses, and tooth formation. Due to inadequate vitamin D intake and/or decreased sunlight exposure, vitamin D deficiency has resurfaced in developed countries despite known inexpensive and effective preventive methods. Vitamin D deficiency is a common cause of rickets, a condition that affects bone development in children and that can have serious dental complications. Deficiency during pregnancy can cause enamel hypoplasia of primary teeth. Enamel regeneration is currently impossible; hypoplasia is therefore irreversible, and once affected, teeth are prone to fast caries development. Deficiency during early childhood can affect permanent teeth and ensuing caries can sometimes lead to tooth loss at a young age. Oral manifestations of rickets should be diagnosed early by both physicians and dentists to prevent severe dental complications. This case study presents 2 young girls with rickets in early childhood who suffered from subsequent serious tooth decay.

  10. Impact of early adolescent anxiety disorders on self-esteem development from adolescence to young adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16 and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Results Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size (ES) =−0.35, pself-esteem (ES=−0.30, pself-esteem from adolescence to young-adulthood ( =−0.1, pself-esteem development. Conclusions All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. PMID:23648133

  11. Impact of early adolescent anxiety disorders on self-esteem development from adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2013-08-01

    To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence through young adulthood. Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16, and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size [ES] = -.35, p self-esteem (ES = -.30, p self-esteem from adolescence to young adulthood (β = -.1, p self-esteem development. All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. European Association of Young Neurologists and Trainees: position paper on teaching courses for Generation Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struhal, Walter; Falup-Pecurariu, Cristian; Sztriha, Laszlo K; Grisold, Wolfgang; Sellner, Johann

    2011-01-01

    The European Association of Young Neurologists and Trainees (EAYNT) is a non-profit organization which acts on behalf of young neurologists in Europe and concertedly exerts influence on the formation of a new generation of neurologists [Struhal et al.: Eur J Neurol 2009;16:e146-e148]. This concerns particularly the Generation Y (Gen Y), also known as Millennial Generation, Digital Natives or Generation Next, a demographic cohort defined by birth between 1981 and 1999 [Elkind: Neurology 2009;72:657-663]. A unifying feature is the increased use and familiarity with online media and digital technologies. Online social networks and interactive communication have not only shaped this cohort but necessitate a different approach towards educational matters. This position paper aims to address the changing needs for Gen Yers in the context of education. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. An Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment: identifying young Australian Indigenous children's patterning skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papic, Marina

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an Early Mathematical Patterning Assessment (EMPA) tool that provides early childhood educators with a valuable opportunity to identify young children's mathematical thinking and patterning skills through a series of hands-on and drawing tasks. EMPA was administered through one-to-one assessment interviews to children aged 4 to 5 years in the year prior to formal school. Two hundred and seventeen assessments indicated that the young low socioeconomic and predominantly Australian Indigenous children in the study group had varied patterning and counting skills. Three percent of the study group was able to consistently copy and draw an ABABAB pattern made with coloured blocks. Fifty percent could count to six by ones and count out six items with 4 % of the total group able to identify six items presented in regular formations without counting. The integration of patterning into early mathematics learning is critical to the abstraction of mathematical ideas and relationships and to the development of mathematical reasoning in young children. By using the insights into the children's thinking that the EMPA tool provides, early childhood educators can better inform mathematics teaching and learning and so help close the persistent gap in numeracy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children.

  14. Risk of Breast Cancer among Young Women and Importance of Early Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Zahid Ali; Kanwal, Noureen; Sami, Munam; Larik, Parsa Azam; Farooq, Mohammad Zain

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women throughout the world. However, in comparison with Western women, it presents relatively early in women of Asian ethnicity. Early menarche, late menopause, use of OCP's, family history of benign or malignant breast disease, exposure to radiation and BMI in the under-weight range are well known risk factors for the development of breast cancer in premenopausal women. Early detection with the use of breast self-examination (BSE) and breast cancer screening programs can lead to a reduction in the mortality rates due to breast cancer. The aim of our study was to assess the risk factors for breast cancer among young women and to emphasize the importance of early screening among them. We conducted a cross-sectional study among women aged 18 to 25 using a self- administered questionnaire. Data was collected over a period of 6 months from June to December, 2014. A total of 300 young women selected randomly from Dow Medical College and various departments of Karachi University successfully completed the survey. Respondents were 18-25 years of age (mean age=21.5). Out of the 300 young females, 90 (30%) had at least one risk factor, 90 (30%) had two, 40 (13%) had three, 8 (2.7%) had four, 2 (0.7%) had five while one female was found to have six positive risk factors for breast cancer. Some 66 women (22%) experienced symptoms of breast cancer such as non-cyclical pain and lumps. While 222 women (74%) had never performed breast self-examination, 22 (7.3%) had had a breast examination done by a health professional while 32 (10.7%) had participated in breast screening programs. A total of 223 (74.3%) women considered breast cancer screening important for young women. The percentage of young women with risk factors for breast cancer was found to be alarmingly high. Therefore, screening for breast cancer should start at an early age especially in high risk groups. Awareness about breast self-examination should be emphasized

  15. Approaching the young generation. How to transfer knowledge to future professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Laruelo, J.; Vinusa Carretero, A.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main goals of Spanish Young Generation Network (in Spanish Jovenes Nucleares) is the dissemination of nuclear science and technology knowledge to the students and general public. From this point of view, we approach the younger students, our future professionals, in order to teach them this science and to answer the main questions society has about this sector. (Author)

  16. Are Young Generations in Secondary School Digitally Competent? A Study on Italian Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, Aomina; Fini, Antonio; Ranieri, Maria; Picci, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    Digital competences amongst the younger generations and the role of schools faced with the spread of new youth practices are topics of increasing interest. Some commentators state that, thanks to the intensive use of digital media, young people are developing significant competences that also correspond to important cognitive processes and new…

  17. Close Friends’ Psychopathology as a Pathway from Early Adversity to Young Adulthood Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Past research has highlighted the negative impact of early adverse experiences on childhood social functioning, including friendship selection, and later mental health. The current study explored the long-term effects of early adversity on young adults’ close friends’ psychological symptoms, and the impact of these close friendships on later depressive symptoms. Method A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine 816 youth from a large community-based sample, who were followed from birth through age 25. Participants’ mothers provided contemporaneous information about adversity exposure prior to age 5, and participants completed questionnaires about their own depressive symptoms at age 20 and in their early 20’s. Youth also nominated a best friend to complete questionnaires about their own psychopathology at age 20. Results Individuals who experienced more early adversity by age 5 had best friends with higher rates of psychopathology at age 20. Moreover, best friends’ psychopathology predicted target youth depressive symptoms two to five years later. Conclusions Results indicate that early adversity continues to affect social functioning throughout young adulthood, and that best friendships marked by elevated psychopathology in turn negatively affect mental health. Findings have implications for clinical interventions designed to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in youth who have been exposed to early adversity. PMID:24871609

  18. 'Do I care?' Young adults' recalled experiences of early adolescent overweight and obesity: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E; Sweeting, H; Wright, C

    2013-02-01

    Individual behaviour change to reduce obesity requires awareness of, and concern about, weight. This paper therefore describes how young adults, known to have been overweight or obese during early adolescence, recalled early adolescent weight-related awareness and concerns. Associations between recalled concerns and weight-, health- and peer-related survey responses collected during adolescence are also examined. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with young adults; data compared with responses to self-report questionnaires obtained in adolescence. A total of 35 participants, purposively sub-sampled at age 24 from a longitudinal study of a school year cohort, previously surveyed at ages 11, 13 and 15. Physical measures during previous surveys allowed identification of participants with a body mass index (BMI) indicative of overweight or obesity (based on British 1990 growth reference) during early adolescence. Overall, 26 had been obese, of whom 11 had BMI99.6th centile, whereas 9 had been overweight (BMI=95th-97.9th centile). Qualitative interview responses describing teenage life, with prompts for school-, social- and health-related concerns. Early adolescent self-report questionnaire data on weight-worries, self-esteem, friends and victimisation (closed questions). Most, but not all recalled having been aware of their overweight. None referred to themselves as having been obese. None recalled weight-related health worries. Recollection of early adolescent obesity varied from major concerns impacting on much of an individual's life to almost no concern, with little relation to actual severity of overweight. Recalled concerns were not clearly patterned by gender, but young adult males recalling concerns had previously reported more worries about weight, lower self-esteem, fewer friends and more victimisation in early adolescence; no such pattern was seen among females. The popular image of the unhappy overweight teenager was not borne out. Many obese

  19. Early results of metal on metal articulation total hip arthroplasty in young patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, J A; Kwan, M K; Merican, A M; Abbas, A A; Kamari, Z H; Hisa, M K; Ismail, Z; Idrus, R M

    2004-12-01

    We report our early experience of 20 cases of metal on metal articulation total hip arthroplasty in 19 young patients. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (63%) was the commonest diagnosis for patients undergoing this procedure, followed by osteoarthritis (21%). In general, most of the patients were young and physically active with an average age of 43.1 years (range, 25 to 58 years). The average follow-up period was 18 months (range, 7 to 46 months). The mean total Harris Hip Score preoperatively and at final follow-up was 31 points and 89 points respectively. The mean total Pain Score improved from an average of 11.5 to 41.1 points at final follow-up. Sixteen (84%) of the patients had a good to excellent hip score. There was one dislocation, which stabilized after reduction and conservative management. One case of early infection underwent a two-staged revision.

  20. A Prediction Method of Tensile Young's Modulus of Concrete at Early Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Yoshitake

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the tensile Young's modulus of concrete at early ages is important for estimating the risk of cracking due to restrained shrinkage and thermal contraction. However, most often, the tensile modulus is considered equal to the compressive modulus and is estimated empirically based on the measurements of compressive strength. To evaluate the validity of this approach, the tensile Young's moduli of 6 concrete and mortar mixtures are measured using a direct tension test. The results show that the tensile moduli are approximately 1.0–1.3-times larger than the compressive moduli within the material's first week of age. To enable a direct estimation of the tensile modulus of concrete, a simple three-phase composite model is developed based on random distributions of coarse aggregate, mortar, and air void phases. The model predictions show good agreement with experimental measurements of tensile modulus at early age.

  1. The Effect of Childcare and Early Education Arrangements on Developmental Outcomes of Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Lefebvre; Philip Merrigan

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between child care arrangements and developmental outcomes of young children using data from Cycle 1 of the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Models of the determinants of Motor and Social Development (MSD) scores for children aged 0-47 months, and of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test assessment scores (PPVT-R) for children aged 4-5 years are estimated controlling for a variety of non-parental childcare and early education ...

  2. Young People Engaging in Volunteering: Questioning a Generational Trend in an Individualized Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Jardim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today young people experience a world that is being significantly changed by large-scale transformations in education and labour markets. Youth, as a generation, is most affected by those changes, since they are more likely to reshape their ways of living in response to the conditions they face, which inevitably produce inequalities in their lives. Volunteering is one of their responses. This paper aims to discuss the generational motivations and attitudes of a group of 11 European young people to participate in a European Voluntary Service project during a period of one year. The data was collected through an ethnographic methodological approach conducted between 2013 and 2014 in a Youth Centre in northern Portugal. Results clearly indicate that young people have an instrumental relationship with volunteering, which is mainly focused on the individual benefits that they believe they will acquire in their personal and professional life. Volunteering emerges as an opportunity to escape and to overcome the persisting challenges and constraints posed by our society; namely unemployment and precariousness, both of which are on the rise amongst young generations around the world.

  3. A Review of Early Sport Specialization in Relation to the Development of a Young Athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Michael Normand

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The overall physical and psychological development of a young athlete is crucial for the enjoyment of physical activity for a lifetime. Children, as well as parents, tend to focus on individual accomplishment in sport despite any other aspect of physical development or appropriate training. Objective: the pressure to excel in sport has all too often brought about negative consequences through specialization at an early age. Method: A review and commentary report on the impact of early sport specialization on the physical and psychological development of a young athlete. Conclusion: A long-term, activity and age-appropriate developmental model is essential to those involved in training young athletes. Sport specialization may be appropriate in unique situations but only after the development of specific skills, abilities, and psychological maturity. As sport professionals, parents and coaches should be educated the pros/cons of early sport specialization. Ultimately, the focus on sport participation should be to increase physical activity, psychological development, and appreciation for a lifetime.

  4. Replication RCT of Early Universal Prevention Effects on Young Adult Substance Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda; Redmond, Cleve; Shin, Chungyeol

    2014-01-01

    Objective For many substances, more frequent and problematic use occurs in young adulthood; these types of use are predicted by the timing of initiation during adolescence. We replicated and extended an earlier study examining whether delayed substance initiation during adolescence, resulting from universal preventive interventions implemented in middle school, reduces problematic use in young adulthood. Method Participants were middle school students from 36 Iowa schools randomly assigned to the Strengthening Families Program plus Life Skills Training (SFP 10–14 + LST), LST-only, or a control condition. Self-report questionnaires were collected at 11 time points, including four during young adulthood. The intercept (average level) and rate of change (slope) in young adult frequency measures (drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, cigarettes, and illicit drugs) across ages 19–22 were modeled as outcomes influenced by growth factors describing substance initiation during adolescence. Analyses entailed testing a two-step hierarchical latent growth curve model; models included the effects of baseline risk, intervention condition assignment, and their interaction. Results Analyses showed significant indirect intervention effects on the average levels of all young adult outcomes, through effects on adolescent substance initiation growth factors, along with intervention by risk interaction effects favoring the higher-risk subsample. Additional direct effects on young adult use were observed in some cases. Relative reduction rates were larger for the higher-risk subsample at age 22, ranging from 5.8% to 36.4% on outcomes showing significant intervention effects. Conclusions Universal preventive interventions implemented during early adolescence have the potential to decrease the rates of substance use and associated problems, into young adulthood. PMID:24821095

  5. YOUNG GENERATION OF NOWA HUTA INHABITANTS. SOCIOLOGICAL STUDY OF THEIR LOCAL COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dargiewicz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Author describes phenomenon of local society among young residents of Nowa Huta - postindustrial district of Crakow. Researcher portrays it by considering four elements:1 degree of identification with the society of Nowa Huta;2 social relationships of people;3 the knowledge about neighbourhood (as well as historical as recent;4 social activity (actions targeted at youth of Nowa Huta and activities of young adults themselves.Author analyses every element of the phenomenon of local society based on participant observation and performance of quality research which includes interviews with young people of the district and experts that deal with the youn generation og Nowa Huta. Writer also analysed two newspaper sources, looking for relevant information about the adolescent residents of Nowa Huta.

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of a Social Skills Training and Facilitated Play Early Intervention Programme for Extremely Shy Young Children in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Coplan, Robert J.; Wang, Yuemin; Yin, Jingtong; Zhu, Jingjing; Gao, Zhuqing; Li, Linhui

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide a preliminary evaluation of a social skills and facilitated play early intervention programme to promote social interaction, prosocial behaviours and socio-communicative skills among young extremely shy children in China. Participants were a sample of n = 16 extremely shy young children attending kindergarten…

  7. Analysis of the early development in first and backcross generations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the performance difference of reciprocal hybrids and backcrosses between Paralichthys olivaceus and Paralichthys dentatus. The fertilization and hatching rates, combined fitness measure, early developmental characteristics and chromosome number were analyzed. The crosses of P. olivaceus ...

  8. Generation Rx.com. What are young people really doing online?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Victoria

    2002-01-01

    The Kaiser Family Foundation examined the ways Generation Xers use the Web to find health information and found some surprising results. Not only do young adults access online health information, but they seek it more often than they check sports scores, purchase merchandise, or participate in a chat room. They're also likely to be influenced by what they find online, and many report that they've changed their behavior based on what they've learned.

  9. The Influence of Social Network on Consumer Purchase Intention of Young Generation in Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Tumewu, Ferdinand; Korompis, Prycilia Novita

    2014-01-01

    Social network now is very prevalent in the society. Today, many small enterprises sell and promote their product through social network and also many people are likely to make an online purchase especially for young generation. Social network is play a vital role in increasing someone intention to buy a product. This research is designed because there are some factor in social network that influence someone purchase intention. The original purpose of this research is to know the influence of...

  10. The acquisition of new consumers of the young generation for traditional Czech brand

    OpenAIRE

    Javořík, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with the acquisition of new customers from among the young generation. In the theoretical part thesis deals with the purchase of consumer behavior, the methods used in the practical part and especially the coffee market. Firstly, the work focuses on coffee and coffee market in general then the emphasis is put mainly on the coffee market in the Czech Republic. In the practical part comes introduction of the particular company, the subsequent analysis of market data and consum...

  11. The European Nuclear Society Young Generation Network: Five years of networking experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskens, Gaston

    2000-01-01

    In 1995, Mr Jan Runermark (Sweden), aware of a need for an exchange of knowledge from the older to the younger generation, came up with the idea of starting a European Nuclear Society Young Generation Network. A first network was formed with Sweden, the Netherlands, Spain, Finland, Germany and Belgium. The ENSYGN is now affiliated to the European Nuclear Society and brings together young students and professionals from 21 member countries Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, and United Kingdom, The ENSYGN Core group meets (at least) twice a year and elects its own chair and co chair for a term of two years. The ENSYGN chair has a seat in the ENS Steering Committee and in the ENS Board. The ENSYGN works closely together with other young generation networks from the US, Australia, Japan and South America. ENSYGN organises workshops and courses on European level, takes part in international meetings (fl. UNFCCC, OECD) and stimulates networking on national level

  12. Knowledge Transfer and Leadership Development in Coordination with Young Generation in Nuclear (YGN) Societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Chirayu; Janin, Denis

    2017-01-01

    IYNC in a Nutshell: The mission - IYNC (International Youth Nuclear Congress) is the global network of a new generation of nuclear professionals to: •Communicate the benefits of nuclear science and applications •Promote the peaceful use of nuclear power •Provide a platform for networking •Facilitate knowledge transfer between generations and across boundaries; The structure - IYNC is a non-profit organization run by: •11 Officers •Board of Directors •50 National Representatives (e.g. YGN) •20 Members at Large •Dedicated committees and team for projects (30+) → more than 80 volunteers; The activities - •Biannual Congress (IYNCWiN18) •Grants Committee •YGN Startup & Support •Bulletin, Newsletter – sign up www.iync.org •Innovation4Nuclear (I4N) •Nuclear4Climate •Annual Board of Directors. YGN (Young Generation Network): What is a YGN? • A group of young professionals and students interested in nuclear science and technology; Benefits: •Knowledge transfer •Train the future international leaders •Networking •Attracts, develops and retains young professionals

  13. ALEKSANDRA PODHORECKA - A GREAT ACTIVIST IN PRESERVING NATIONAL IDENTITY OF YOUNG POLES’ GENERATION ABROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zamecka-Zalas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bringing up the generation of young Poles, who were born and educated in free democratic world in the spirit of patriotism, who were aware of their roots, who spoke Polish and knew the Polish culture, was a very difficult task to undertake by the Polish community in exile after the Second World War. This task was tackled by many Polish people residing in Great Britain with Aleksandra Podhorecka among them. As the title implies the article describes the issue of upbringing of young Poles abroad which is still relevant. The aim of the article is to introduce Aleksandra Podhorecka as an educator, a teacher, and a journalist, who has been involved and still plays an important role in the educating Polish children and young people in the UK. The article outlines the main facts of Aleksandra Podhorecka’s life and activities. She was a teacher, an education activist and a long-standing headmistress of Polish School Motherland, an organization which ran schools of mother tongue for Polish emigrants’ children. In addition, she was a journalist for a number of magazines for children such as “Dziatwa” (“Children” and “Razem Młodzi Przyjaciele” (“Together Young Friends”. She also published curriculums, textbooks, journals, information bulletins, methodological tutorials for teachers and parents. She tried to make young people closer to each other so that they could be proud of being Poles. The main task of PSM was to bring up young Poles on the principles of Christianity and it has been unchangeable for many years. PSM works in different branches which include Polish Saturday School, meetings and competitions, a bookshop in POSK in London. Thanks to Aleksandra Podhorecka the popularity of PSM increased. Every year about twenty thousand of Polish children are born in the UK. Due to Aleksandra Podhorecka’s activities they have an opportunity to learn the Polish language and take an active part in the life of their native country.

  14. Does early training improve driving skills of young novice French drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freydier, Chloé; Berthelon, Catherine; Bastien-Toniazzo, Mireille

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this research was to study drivers' performances and divided attention depending on their initial training. The performances of young novice drivers who received early training, traditionally trained drivers and more experienced drivers were compared during a dual task consisting of a simulated car-following task and a number' parity judgment task. It was expected that, due to their limited driving experience, the young novice drivers would have more difficulty in adequately distributing their attention between the two tasks. Poorer performances by novice drivers than experienced drivers were therefore expected. The results indicate that traditionally trained drivers had more difficulties in speed regulation and maintaining their position in the lane than drivers with early training and experienced drivers. Performance impairment linked to driving inexperience was also found in the secondary task. The results were interpreted regarding the attentional resources involved in driving with a secondary task and supported the positive effects of French early training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Early childhood experiences, parenting and the process of drug dependency among young people in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlashari, Jila; Demirkol, Apo; Salsali, Mahvash; Rafiey, Hassan; Jahanbani, Jahanfar

    2012-06-01

    Substance abuse has become a major public health problem in Iran. The process of developing an addiction is complex and multifaceted. Early childhood experiences are thought to be one of the important determinants of addictive behaviour. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the early childhood experiences, especially the experiences within the immediate family, of current substance-using young adults in Iran. The study is qualitative in nature. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 young men and women who were either in treatment for their addiction or were active drug users at the time of the interviews. Moreover, four interviews have been conducted with family members of participants. The majority of the participants experienced traumatic events during childhood and came from dysfunctional families. There appears to be a significant disconnect between these individuals and their families. An obedience-instilling parenting style and parents' knowledge and attitude toward drug using and prevention were also identified as important determinants of substance use. The results of this research point out the need for early interventions for at-risk families as well as at-risk individuals. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. Ultra high risk of psychosis on committal to a young offender prison: an unrecognised opportunity for early intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, Darran

    2012-08-01

    The ultra high risk state for psychosis has not been studied in young offender populations. Prison populations have higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and substance use disorders. Due to the age profile of young offenders one would expect to find a high prevalence of individuals with pre-psychotic or ultra-high risk mental states for psychosis (UHR). Accordingly young offender institutions offer an opportunity for early interventions which could result in improved long term mental health, social and legal outcomes. In the course of establishing a mental health in-reach service into Ireland\\'s only young offender prison, we sought to estimate unmet mental health needs.

  17. The young generation and communication with the public: First feed-back

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grevin, Estelle; Avezou, Florence

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this non-professional paper is to describe the first steps being taken by the Young Generation network of the French Nuclear Society in the communication field, i.e. what they already have learned, and what actions they intend to conduct in the near future. From experiences conducted in France in the recent past, we can build a map of public expectations as far as nuclear information is concerned. From the numerous questions asked to COGEMA representatives at the Paris Fair in 1998, we can identify five categories of public concerns. 1- Self-centred attitude: Health radioactivity impact; Local curiosity (neighbouring nuclear plant). 2 - Unselfish curiosity: - General curiosity what is nuclear, what is nuclear future, Technological curiosity visits, how does it work? 3 - Social Attitude: Economics nuclear, reprocessing and recycling; Politics trade with Russia, non-proliferation, terrorism, comparison of French and others strategies...; Environment: waste toxicity. 4 - Already developed awareness: - Precise and technological curiosity. 5 - The category of people that have not asked any question should not be forgotten or set apart. To answer the first four people profile questions means to fill a gap they feel exists in their 'nuclear knowledge', and the challenge is really to find the right words, the right level of communication. From category 1 to category 4 the technical level of the answer must increase, and, profile 4 will need to consult an expert. The others expect simple explanations, in relation with their everyday life, because they recognise the fact that nuclear is part of it, and they just want to know better the actual consequences of this fact. The fifth category did not come and ask. Does it mean these people are not interested in the subject or these people do not care about nuclear at all? It may mean they believed they would not understand the answers. The first reason why a young person involved in nuclear would at first glance

  18. Prebiotic chemistry and atmospheric warming of early Earth by an active young Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, V. S.; Glocer, A.; Gronoff, G.; Hébrard, E.; Danchi, W.

    2016-06-01

    Nitrogen is a critical ingredient of complex biological molecules. Molecular nitrogen, however, which was outgassed into the Earth’s early atmosphere, is relatively chemically inert and nitrogen fixation into more chemically reactive compounds requires high temperatures. Possible mechanisms of nitrogen fixation include lightning, atmospheric shock heating by meteorites, and solar ultraviolet radiation. Here we show that nitrogen fixation in the early terrestrial atmosphere can be explained by frequent and powerful coronal mass ejection events from the young Sun--so-called superflares. Using magnetohydrodynamic simulations constrained by Kepler Space Telescope observations, we find that successive superflare ejections produce shocks that accelerate energetic particles, which would have compressed the early Earth’s magnetosphere. The resulting extended polar cap openings provide pathways for energetic particles to penetrate into the atmosphere and, according to our atmospheric chemistry simulations, initiate reactions converting molecular nitrogen, carbon dioxide and methane to the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide as well as hydrogen cyanide, an essential compound for life. Furthermore, the destruction of N2, CO2 and CH4 suggests that these greenhouse gases cannot explain the stability of liquid water on the early Earth. Instead, we propose that the efficient formation of nitrous oxide could explain a warm early Earth.

  19. Young stellar populations in early-type galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Louisa A.; Raychaudhury, Somak; Kabán, Ata

    2007-02-01

    We use a purely data-driven rectified factor analysis to identify early-type galaxies with recent star formation in Data Release 4 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Spectroscopic Catalogue. We compare the spectra and environment of these galaxies with those of `normal' early-type galaxies, and a sample of independently selected E+A galaxies. We calculate the projected local galaxy surface density from the nearest five and 10 neighbours (Σ5 and Σ10) for each galaxy in our sample, and find that the dependence on projected local density, of the properties of E+A galaxies, is not significantly different from that of early-type galaxies with young stellar populations, dropping off rapidly towards denser environments, and flattening off at densities ~10 per cent of the stellar mass in these galaxies. This, together with the similarity of the environments in which this `E+F' population and the E+A galaxy sample are found, suggests that E+F galaxies used to be E+A galaxies, but have evolved by a further ~ one to a few Gyr. Our rectified factor analysis is sensitive enough to identify this hidden population, which allows us to study the global and intrinsic properties of early-type galaxies created in major mergers or interactions, and compare them with those early-types which have had the bulk of their stars in place since a much earlier epoch.

  20. Prebiotic Chemistry and Atmospheric Warming of Early Earth by an Active Young Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, V. S.; Glocer, A.; Gronoff, G.; Hebrard, E.; Danchi, W.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is a critical ingredient of complex biological molecules. Molecular nitrogen, however, which was outgassed Into the Earth's early atmosphere, is relatively chemically inert and nitrogen fixation into more chemically reactive compounds requires high temperatures. Possible mechanisms of nitrogen fixation include lightning, atmospheric shock heating by meteorites, and solar ultraviolet radiation. Here we show that nitrogen fixation in the early terrestrial atmosphere can be explained by frequent and powerful coronal mass ejection events from the young Sun -- so-called superflares. Using magnetohydrodynamic simulations constrained by Kepler Space Telescope observations, we find that successive superflare ejections produce shocks that accelerate energetic particles, which would have compressed the early Earth's magnetosphere. The resulting extended polar cap openings provide pathways for energetic particles to penetrate into the atmosphere and, according to our atmospheric chemistry simulations, initiate reactions converting molecular nitrogen, carbon dioxide and methane to the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide as well as hydrogen cyanide, an essential compound for life. Furthermore, the destruction of N2, C02 and CH, suggests that these greenhouse gases cannot explain the stability of liquid water on the early Earth. Instead, we propose that the efficient formation of nitrous oxide could explain a warm early Earth.

  1. The Orthodox Church and the Young Generation – Today’s Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucă Nicuşor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lately, the Orthodox Church has been very concerned by the issue of the youngster's migration into a multicultural and pluri-religious area. Migration is an objective reality that we can notice but we are not able to stop. We emphasize the fact that the young generation needs to be seen in the light of hope and of the future, as resources and not as problems. Under these circumstances, the Church needs to find a new way of working and adequate pastoral means for people to be able to live a normal life from a spiritual and religious perspective as well. We need to find means of awakening and of shaping the youngstersř moral conscience, of guiding them towards Christian holiness and perfection. It is only by having such a perspective, the perspective of those who want to give the young generation the chance to discover Christ our Redeemer, that a correct spiritual guidance for the young can be realized, able to save them from the mirage of the contemporary temptations.

  2. A Pilot Study of a Culturally Adapted Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Yang, Jian; Yao, Jing; Chen, Jun; Zhuang, Xiangxiang; Wang, Wenxiang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Lee, Gabrielle T.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to pilot test the effects of a culturally adapted early intervention influenced by the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) on reduction of autism symptoms and severity categorization for young children with autism spectrum disorders in China. Participants were randomly assigned to either the control or intervention…

  3. Korean Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Importance and Implementation of Strategies to Address Young Children's Social-Emotional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Kay H.; Cheatham, Gregory A.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Noh, Jina

    2014-01-01

    In South Korea, there has been a rapid increase in challenging behaviors and other social-emotional difficulties at the early childhood level. Korean early childhood educators' perspectives and strategies to address young children's social-emotional competencies and challenging behaviors were investigated. Overall, results suggest that many Korean…

  4. Sustaining Young Forest Communities: Ecology and Management of Early Successional Habitats in the Central Hardwood Region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Beverly S. Collins; Frank R. Thompson III

    2011-01-01

    There is a rising concern among natural resource scientists and managers about decline of the many plant and animal species associated with early ­successional habitats. There is no concise definition of early successional habitats. However, all have a well developed ground cover or shrub and young tree component, lack a closed, mature tree canopy, and are created or...

  5. Effectiveness of self-generated cues in early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinska, B; Bäckman, L; Mäntylä, T; Viitanen, M

    1994-12-01

    The ability to utilize cognitive support in the form of self-generated cues in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the factors promoting efficient cue utilization in this group of patients, were examined in two experiments on memory for words. Results from both experiments showed that normal old adults as well as AD patients performed better with self-generated cues than with experimenter-provided cues, although the latter type of cues resulted in gains relative to free recall. The findings indicate no qualitative differences in patterns of performance between the normal old and the AD patients. For both groups of subjects, cue effectiveness was optimized when (a) there was self-generation activity at encoding, and (b) encoding and retrieval conditions were compatible.

  6. Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Show Early Atypical Neural Activity during Emotional Face Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. Leung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition is impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The ability to perceive and interpret affect is integral to successful social functioning and has an extended developmental course. However, the neural mechanisms underlying emotional face processing in ASD are unclear. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG, the present study explored neural activation during implicit emotional face processing in young adults with and without ASD. Twenty-six young adults with ASD and 26 healthy controls were recruited. Participants indicated the location of a scrambled pattern (target that was presented alongside a happy or angry face. Emotion-related activation sources for each emotion were estimated using the Empirical Bayes Beamformer (pcorr ≤ 0.001 in Statistical Parametric Mapping 12 (SPM12. Emotional faces elicited elevated fusiform, amygdala and anterior insula and reduced anterior cingulate cortex (ACC activity in adults with ASD relative to controls. Within group comparisons revealed that angry vs. happy faces elicited distinct neural activity in typically developing adults; there was no distinction in young adults with ASD. Our data suggest difficulties in affect processing in ASD reflect atypical recruitment of traditional emotional processing areas. These early differences may contribute to difficulties in deriving social reward from faces, ascribing salience to faces, and an immature threat processing system, which collectively could result in deficits in emotional face processing.

  7. Early Years Education: Are Young Students Intrinsically or Extrinsically Motivated Towards School Activities? A Discussion about the Effects of Rewards on Young Children's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodotou, Evgenia

    2014-01-01

    Rewards can reinforce and at the same time forestall young children's willingness to learn. However, they are broadly used in the field of education, especially in early years settings, to stimulate children towards learning activities. This paper reviews the theoretical and research literature related to intrinsic and extrinsic motivational…

  8. Early vascular aging in young and middle-aged ischemic stroke patients: the Norwegian Stroke in the Young Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahrai Saeed

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke survivors have high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality even at young age, suggesting that early arterial aging is common among such patients.We measured aortic stiffness by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV in 205 patients (69% men aged 15-60 years with acute ischemic stroke in the prospective Norwegian Stroke in the Young Study. High for age carotid-femoral PWV was identified in the reference normogram.Patients were on average 49 ± 10 years old, 34% had a history of hypertension and 37% had metabolic syndrome (MetS. In the total study population, higher PWV was associated with history of hypertension (β = 0.18, higher age (β = 0.34, systolic blood pressure (BP (β = 0.28 and serum creatinine (β = 0.18 and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (β = -0.10, all p < 0.01 in multivariate linear regression analysis (multiple R2 = 0.42, p < 0.001. High for age PWV was found in 18% of patients. In univariate analyses, known hypertension was associated with a 6-fold, MetS with a 4-fold and presence of carotid plaque with a 3.7-fold higher risk for high for age PWV (all p < 0.01. In multiple logistic regression analysis higher systolic BP (odds ratio [OR] 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.06; p < 0.01, history of hypertension (OR 3.59; 95% CI 1.52-8.51; p < 0.01, low HDL cholesterol (OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.00-9.09; p = 0.05 and higher serum creatinine (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.06; p < 0.01 were associated with high for age PWV.Higher PWV is common in younger and middle-aged ischemic stroke patients and associated with a clustering of classical cardiovascular risk factors. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01597453.

  9. Ozone generation by rock fracture: Earthquake early warning?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baragiola, Raul A.; Dukes, Catherine A.; Hedges, Dawn [Engineering Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2011-11-14

    We report the production of up to 10 ppm ozone during crushing and grinding of typical terrestrial crust rocks in air, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} at atmospheric pressure, but not in helium or nitrogen. Ozone is formed by exoelectrons emitted by high electric fields, resulting from charge separation during fracture. The results suggest that ground level ozone produced by rock fracture, besides its potential health hazard, can be used for early warning in earthquakes and other catastrophes, such as landslides or land shifts in excavation tunnels and underground mines.

  10. Early development influences ontogeny of personality types in young laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödel, Heiko G; Meyer, Susann

    2011-09-01

    Features of an individual's early development are frequently reported to alter the postnatal ontogeny in litter-bearing mammals with respect to various physiological parameters. We hypothesized that such effects might also apply to the ontogeny of personality types. On the one hand, litter size effects by means of more contacts with littermates, might lead to the development of more offensive types. On the other hand, smaller and less developed young from larger litters might be less offensive due to their lower physical capabilities to deal with challenging situations. We studied these contrasting hypotheses in young rats, which we tested in a battery of emotionality tests. There were clear indications for the existence of distinct behavioral types by means of consistencies in behavioral responses within and across contexts. Based on these responses, we calculated three new variables by PCA, which we interpreted to mainly reflect boldness, exploration, and anxiety. Overall, our results strongly suggest that the early development alters the ontogeny of personality types, with heavier individuals being bolder and more explorative. Furthermore, body mass and litter size influenced the changes in the behavioral responses in successive tests, further supporting the importance of the litter size-dependent body mass for the ontogeny of personalities. Anxiety also depended on litter size, however, in a nonlinear way. Animals born to litters of small or large sizes had higher scores, whereas individuals from medium-sized litters were less anxious. This optimum curve indicates that opposing effects of litter size are involved in shaping personalities in young rats. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Controversies and Generational Differences: Young People’s Identities in Some European States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Ross

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how young people (aged 12–18 in the four Visegrad states of Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and the Czech Republic are constructing their identities, particularly their sense of attachment to their country and to Europe. This generation is of particular significance, in that they are the first generation for many years to have been born and socialised in wholly independent states that are in a relatively peaceful and stable state. Data was collected through 41 focus groups, conducted in 11 different locations in the different states, and were analysed in terms of the degree of enthusiasm expressed for civic institutions and cultural practices related to the country and to Europe. Two particular areas were identified: the sense of generational difference and the ways in which different groups created “other” communities, within and without their country’s borders. These parameters allow us to distinguish the significant communities that these young people are creating in order to make sense of their social and political worlds.

  12. Blood pressure in young adulthood and residential greenness in the early-life environment of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijnens, Esmée M; Nawrot, Tim S; Loos, Ruth Jf; Gielen, Marij; Vlietinck, Robert; Derom, Catherine; Zeegers, Maurice P

    2017-06-05

    Previous research shows that, besides risk factors in adult life, the early-life environment can influence blood pressure and hypertension in adults. However, the effects of residential traffic exposure and residential greenness in the early-life on blood pressure in young adulthood are currently unknown. Ambulatory (24-h) blood pressures of 278 twins (132 pairs) of the East Flanders Prospective Twins Study were obtained at the age of 18 to 25 years. Prenatal and adulthood residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign prenatal and postnatal traffic and greenness indicators. Mixed modelling was performed to investigate blood pressure in association with greenness while adjusting for potential confounding factors. Night-time systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with greenness at the residential address in twins living at the same address their entire life (non-movers, n = 97, 34.9%). An interquartile increase in residential greenness exposure (1000 m radius) was associated with a 3.59 mmHg (95% CI: -6.0 to -1.23; p = 0.005) lower adult night systolic blood pressure. Among twins who were living at a different address than their birth address at time of the measurement (n = 181, 65.1%), night-time blood pressure was inversely associated with residential surrounding greenness at adult age as well as with residential greenness in early-life. However after additional adjustment for residential greenness exposure in adulthood, only residential greenness exposure in early-life was significantly associated with night systolic blood pressure. While no significant effect of adult residential greenness with adult blood pressure was observed, while accounting for the early-life greenness exposure. Lower residential greenness in the early-life environment was independently associated with a higher adult blood pressure. This indicates that residential greenness has persistent effects on blood pressure.

  13. EDUCATION OF PATRIOTICALLY ORIENTED YOUNG GENERATION BY MEANS OF UKRAINIAN HANDICRAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadiella Galambosh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the problem of educating young generation’s patriotism under modern conditions is substantiated in the article. The concept of the terms «patriotism» and «patriotic education» is considered. The concept of national-patriotic education of children and youth is analyzed. Much attention is paid to Ukrainian handicrafts educational influence on patriotic upbringing of younger generation. Work experience of the Faculty of Technology and Design оf V. G. Korolenko Poltava National Pedagogical University is presented.

  14. Sport Specialization, Part I: Does Early Sports Specialization Increase Negative Outcomes and Reduce the Opportunity for Success in Young Athletes?

    OpenAIRE

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...

  15. NUTRITIONAL IMBALANCE – BEHAVIOR TENDENCY OF THE YOUNG GENERATION OF CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria GRIGORAS

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The food consumption habits of mankind have been developed over many historical periods to become true nutritional systems conditioned by the natural factor, social hierarchy, cultural exchanges, and religious orientation. The post-World War II technological progress has contributed to the development of a strong food industry, to the appearance of fast food and to the use of additives and emulsifiers. These factors have also acted on Moldovan food behaviour that has undergone changes due to the mobility of consumers abroad, to the lack of free time and to psychological frustrations. The aim of the research was to determine the type of food behaviour of the young generation, the factors that generate it and to highlight a possible mutation with a positive impact on the health of individuals.

  16. Gender, coping strategies, homelessness stressors, and income generation among homeless young adults in three cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kristin M; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J

    2015-06-01

    This study examined gender differences among homeless young adults' coping strategies and homelessness stressors as they relate to legal (e.g., full-time employment, selling personal possessions, selling blood/plasma) and illegal economic activity (e.g., selling drugs, theft, prostitution). A sample of 601 homeless young adults was recruited from 3 cities (Los Angeles, CA [n = 200], Austin, TX [n = 200], and Denver, CO [n = 201]) to participate in semi-structured interviews from March 2010 to July 2011. Risk and resilience correlates of legal and illegal economic activity were analyzed using six Ordinary Least Squares regression models with the full sample and with the female and male sub-samples. In the full sample, three variables (i.e., avoidant coping, problem-focused coping, and mania) were associated with legal income generation whereas eight variables (i.e., social coping, age, arrest history, transience, peer substance use, antisocial personality disorder [ASPD], substance use disorder [SUD], and major depressive episode [MDE]) were associated with illegal economic activity. In the female sub-sample, three variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, race/ethnicity, and transience) were correlated with legal income generation whereas six variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, social coping, age, arrest history, peer substance use, and ASPD) were correlated with illegal economic activity. Among males, the model depicting legal income generation was not significant yet seven variables (i.e., social coping, age, transience, peer substance use, ASPD, SUD, and MDE) were associated with illegal economic activity. Understanding gender differences in coping strategies and economic activity might help customize interventions aimed at safe and legal income generation for this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. EARLY ONSET OF DELINQUENCY AND THE TRAJECTORY OF ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING AMONG YOUNG MALES*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Building upon the literature in developmental and life-course criminology, the present study assesses the possible association of age onset of delinquency with the trajectory of alcohol-impaired driving using data collected from the three waves of the Buffalo Longitudinal Survey of Young Men (BLSYM). It is argued that as a unique form of delinquency, alcohol-impaired driving among adolescents may be better understood in a broad context of adolescent delinquency involvement. The study adopts the general approach for the analysis of early onset of delinquency and criminal careers in developmental and life-course criminology and hypothesizes that early onset of delinquency is associated with a higher growth of alcohol-impaired driving over time among adolescents when age onsets of alcohol-impaired driving, drinking, and drug use are controlled. Our analysis with the HLM growth modeling method provides support for the hypothesis. Respondents who had an early start in delinquency were likely to have a faster growth of alcohol-impaired driving over the three waves of BLSYM, which implies that these respondents were likely to have a longer path of alcohol-impaired driving in their transition to adulthood. The implication of this finding is discussed. PMID:21831528

  18. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement With Early- and New-Generation Devices in Bicuspid Aortic Valve Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Sung Han; Lefèvre, Thierry; Ahn, Jung Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated the clinical outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with bicuspid aortic valve stenosis (AS). Particularly, limited data exist comparing the results of TAVR with new-generation devices versus early-generation devices.  Objectives...... This study sought to evaluate the clinical outcomes of TAVR for bicuspid AS with early- and new-generation devices.  Methods The Bicuspid TAVR Registry is an international multicenter study enrolling consecutive patients with bicuspid AS undergoing TAVR between April 2005 and May 2015.  Results Of 301...... patients, 199 patients (71.1%) were treated with early-generation devices (Sapien XT [Edwards Lifesciences Corporation, Irvine, California]: n = 87; CoreValve [Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minnesota]: n = 112) and 102 with new-generation devices (Sapien 3 [Edwards Lifesciences Corporation]: n = 91; Lotus...

  19. Basal cell carcinoma with halo phenomenon in a young female: Significance of dermatoscopy in early diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Yuksel Basak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Halo phenomenon of nevus may be observed as a circular reaction, although it is unusual around tumors. A 29-year-old woman presented with a pigmented lesion on the cheek since three years. She noted whitening of the skin around the lesion almost after a year following its appearance. Dermatologic examination revealed a pigmented nodular lesion with a hypopigmented halo on the left infraorbital region. The clinical impression was halo nevus, whereas basal cell carcinoma (BCC was considered in dermatoscopic differential diagnosis. The diagnosis was infiltrative-type BCC histopathologically. The persistence of a perilesional halo around an enlarging pigmented lesion should be carefully examined with accompanying dermatoscopic findings even in young patients for early diagnosis of tumoral lesions.

  20. DD 13 - A very young and heavily reddened early O star in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Peter S.; Fitzpatrick, Edward L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates the Large Magellanic Cloud star DD 13, which is likely the major ionizing source of the nebula N159A. New optical spectroscopy and new estimates of the broadband photometric properties of DD 13 are obtained. A spectral type of O3-O6 V, E(B-V) = 0.64, and M(V) = -6.93 is found. The spectral type cannot be more precisely defined due to contamination of the spectral data by nebular emission, obliterating the important He I classification lines. These results, plus a published estimate of the Lyman continuum photon injection rate into N159A, suggest that DD 13 actually consists of about 2-4 young, early O stars still enshrouded by their natal dust cloud. The star DD 13 may be a younger example of the type of tight cluster represented by the LMC 'star' Sk-66 deg 41, recently revealed to be composed of six or more components.

  1. Effects of Early Smoking Habits on Young Adult Female Voices in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafiadis, Dionysios; Toki, Eugenia I; Miller, Kevin J; Ziavra, Nausica

    2017-11-01

    Cigarette use is a preventable cause of mortality and diseases. The World Health Organization states that Europe and especially Greece has the highest occurrence of smoking among adults. The prevalence of smoking among women in Greece was estimated to be over 30% in 2012. Smoking is a risk factor for many diseases. Studies have demonstrated the association between smoking and laryngeal pathologies as well as changes in voice characteristics. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of early smoking habit on young adult female voices and if they perceive any vocal changes using two assessment methods. The Voice Handicap Index and the acoustic analyses of voice measurements were used, with both serving as mini-assessment protocols. Two hundred and ten young females (110 smokers and 100 nonsmokers) attending the Technological Educational Institute of Epirus in the School of Health and Welfare were included. Statistically significant increases for physical and total scores of the Voice Handicap Index were found in the smokers group (P smoking habits. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary fatty acids early in life affect lipid metabolism and adiposity in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Paula S; Guimarães, Daniella E D; Mizurini, Daniella M; Maia, Ingrid C; Ortiz-Costa, Susana; Sardinha, Fátima L; do Carmo, Maria G Tavares

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four isoenergetic diets of differing fat composition on blood lipid profile and adiposity in young rats. Diets containing different lipid sources--partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (PHVO), palm oil (PO), canola oil (CO), and soy oil (SO)--were fed to lactating rats during the 21 days of lactation, and then fed to young males following weaning until the 45th day of life. In vivo lipogenesis rate (LR), lipid content (LC), relative level of FA, and the activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) enzyme were measured in epididymal adipose tissue (EPI). Fasting blood lipoproteins and LC in the carcass were also appraised. Body weight of PO and PHVO groups was significantly higher than CO and SO groups from day 14 of lactation to day 45, despite the lower food intake in the PHVO group. PO and PHVO groups presented higher LR and LC in EPI than SO and CO groups. Carcass fat content was significantly higher in PHVO and PO groups than in CO and SO groups. The LPL activity in EPI was unaffected by dietary lipids. PHVO group had increased total cholesterol and TAG concentrations in comparison with the PO group, and significantly lower HDL level compared with the other groups. These results show that the kind of FA in the dietary lipid offered early in life can affect lipid metabolism and adiposity.

  3. The Socioculturally Constructed Multivoiced Self as a Framework for Christian Education of Second-Generation Korean American Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S. Steve

    2002-01-01

    This article proposes a new framework for theory and practice of Christian education for second-generation Korean American young adults using the literature of sociocultural constructionism and the multivoiced self. This framework can provide holistic nurture and future trajectories in which to encourage a reflexive, praxis-generating faith. The…

  4. Early antihepatitis C virus response with second-generation C200/C22 ELISA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, C. L.; Bresters, D.; Reesink, H. W.; Plaisier, A. A.; Schaasberg, W.; Leentvaar-Kuypers, A.; Choo, Q. L.; Quan, S.; Polito, A.; Houghton, M.

    1992-01-01

    Detection of early antibody to hepatitis C virus (HCV) by a new second-generation C200/C22 anti-HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a four-antigen recombinant immunoblot assay (4-RIBA) was compared with the first-generation anti-HCV C100 ELISA using sequential serum samples of 9

  5. Does high optimism protect against the inter-generational transmission of high BMI? The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serlachius, Anna; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Juonala, Markus; Sabin, Matthew; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Elovainio, Marko

    2017-09-01

    The transmission of overweight from one generation to the next is well established, however little is known about what psychosocial factors may protect against this familial risk. The aim of this study was to examine whether optimism plays a role in the intergenerational transmission of obesity. Our sample included 1043 participants from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young FINNS Study. Optimism was measured in early adulthood (2001) when the cohort was aged 24-39years. BMI was measured in 2001 (baseline) and 2012 when they were aged 35-50years. Parental BMI was measured in 1980. Hierarchical linear regression and logistic regression were used to examine the association between optimism and future BMI/obesity, and whether an interaction existed between optimism and parental BMI when predicting BMI/obesity 11years later. High optimism in young adulthood demonstrated a negative relationship with high BMI in mid-adulthood, but only in women (β=-0.127, p=0.001). The optimism×maternal BMI interaction term was a significant predictor of future BMI in women (β=-0.588, p=0.036). The logistic regression results confirmed that high optimism predicted reduced obesity in women (OR=0.68, 95% CI, 0.55-0.86), however the optimism × maternal obesity interaction term was not a significant predictor (OR=0.50, 95% CI, 0.10-2.48). Our findings supported our hypothesis that high optimism mitigated the intergenerational transmission of high BMI, but only in women. These findings also provided evidence that positive psychosocial factors such as optimism are associated with long-term protective effects on BMI in women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Role of Marital Burnout and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Marital Satisfaction between Young Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghavan Kebritchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the fundamental role of the family structure and the importance of proper marriages in modern society as well as the important role of childhood and its effect on marital relations in adulthood, this study aimed to investigate the role of burnout, early maladaptive schemas and style in marital satisfaction among young couples. This study is a correlation (multiple regressions and descriptive research. The sample consisted of 100 couples (100 females and 100 males, couples aged 20 to 35 years with a high school diploma or higher education who were randomly chosen from student couples of Tehran and Karaj Kharazmi university or other couples out of university which filled out four questionnaires. Following questionnaires were used as research tools: Pines’ Couple Burnout Measure (CBM, Enrich’s Marital Satisfaction (Enrich, Yang’s early maladaptive schemas (EMSQ-R.[6][8]. Results showed that there were three interactive relationships among these variables, so that all three variables were investigated and separately explained concerning marital satisfaction. There was a significant negative correlation between marital burnout and all other subscales and marital satisfaction, and a significant positive correlation between marital burnout and all maladaptive schemas except emotional deprivation schema.

  7. Early Life Factors, Obesity Risk, and the Metabolome of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschert, Sebastian; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Jacoby, Peter; Uhl, Olaf; Koletzko, Berthold; Oddy, Wendy H; Hellmuth, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases such as obesity have become a serious global public health epidemic. This study aimed to examine whether there was an association between early life factors (with a special focus on breastfeeding) BMI, waist circumference, and the metabolome in offspring at 20 years. Data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study were analyzed using 1,024 plasma samples from the 20-year follow-up. A liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry metabolomics approach was used to measure metabolites. Multiple linear regression models were performed and adjusted for relevant confounders. Inverse probability weighting was used to adjust the 20-year data for differences in socioeconomic variables between participants and nonparticipants since the commencement of the study. An inverse association between breastfeeding and BMI or waist circumference at 20 years was lost after adjusting for parental prepregnancy BMI and maternal smoking during pregnancy. There was no significant effect of breastfeeding on metabolite concentrations at 20 years. Although other studies have shown associations between breastfeeding, obesity, and metabolite concentrations at younger ages, this was not evident in our study in young adults. We found no association of metabolites previously associated with waist circumference at 20 years and breastfeeding in early life. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  8. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18-24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  9. Young Generation in Nuclear Initiative to Promote Nuclear Science and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilavi Ndege, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    The Kenyan Young Generation in Nuclear (KYGN) is a recently founded not to profit organization. Its mandate is to educate, inform, promote and transfer knowledge on the peaceful, safe and secure users of nuclear science and technology in Kenya. It brings on board all scientist and students with special interest in nuclear science and related fields. KYGN is an affiliate of International Youth Nuclear Congress (YNC) whose membership with IYNC whose membership is drawn from member state of United Nations. Through our membership with IYNC, KYGN members have been able to participate in different forums. In this paper, we discuss KYGN’s prime roles opportunities as well as the challenges of the organization

  10. Become Related: FIAS, an Intensive Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbrecht, Evelyn; Kievit, Esther; Spiegel, René; Dima, Diana; Goth, Kirstin; Schmeck, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    In autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), impairments in fundamental social abilities and a lack of interest in social stimuli become apparent early in life. These impairments are thought to negatively affect further brain and behavioural development. Early intensive interventions can help to attenuate social-development and other risk factors and, thus, to ameliorate the deficits associated with ASDs. We present FIAS, an intensive early intervention approach for young children with ASD, which aims at developing children's social motivation. During 18 days, therapists work continuously for 6 h a day with the affected child, involving the whole family in a day care setting. Follow-up care at home over 1 year as well as fresh-up interventions and inclusion in kindergarten or a play group should stabilise the effects and help to respond to further challenges. Here, we present observations from the first 12 patients (25-48 months of age) treated according to the FIAS approach. We evaluated changes in core autistic symptoms and level of functioning after the 18 days of intensive intervention. Beyond standardised assessment, two innovative video-based instruments (Autism Behaviour Coding System and Evaluationsfragebogen) have been developed to assess autistic symptoms and interaction parameters during intervention. Improvements were noted in most core autistic symptom domains, with the highest effect sizes in domains like eye contact, communication, repetitive behaviour, imitation, motivation and reciprocity. In addition, the level of functioning significantly improved. The first evaluation of the FIAS approach shows promising results, as the FIAS intervention appears to improve core autistic symptom domains as well as the level of everyday functioning. Limitations of this study are the small sample size and the lack of a control group. A more comprehensive and longitudinal evaluation is in progress; this will focus on the stability of the observed effects and will attempt to

  11. Bone Characteristics and Their Determinants in Adolescents and Young Adults with Early-Onset Severe Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljakainen, H T; Valta, H; Lipsanen-Nyman, M; Saukkonen, T; Kajantie, E; Andersson, S; Mäkitie, O

    2015-10-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with compromised bone health. We studied bone characteristics and their determinants in obese young adults. The study included 68 subjects with early-onset severe obesity and 73 normal-weight controls. Data on physical activity (PA), diet and smoking were collected. Bone characteristics were measured using peripheral QCT. The obese and control subjects were similar in age (mean 19.6 ± 2.6 years) and height but BMIs differed (39.7 and 22.6 kg/m(2)). A clustering of unhealthy lifestyles was marked: Obese subjects reported less supervised PA in childhood, adolescence and currently (p obese women, all crude bone characteristics were higher than in controls; in men, the differences were smaller. Associations of lifestyle factors with bone characteristics were tested using partial correlations. Independently of BMI, supervised PA in adolescence and alcohol consumption were related positively to bone characteristics in both groups. HEI associated positively with bone characteristics only in controls, while smoking was a positive determinant of bone characteristics only in obese subjects. The multivariate model showed that the contribution of lifestyle factors to bone characteristics was minimal compared with BMI. Early-onset obesity is accompanied by poor dietary quality, sedentary lifestyle, and more frequent smoking, but the overall contribution of these lifestyle factors to bone strength is limited. Bone strength is more likely to be compromised in men and in unloaded bone sites in subjects with early-onset severe obesity. The impact of obesity-related endocrine changes on bone characteristics need to be evaluated in future studies.

  12. Testicular function in young men in long-term remission after treatment for the early stages of Hodgkin's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Geisler, C; Hansen, M M

    1984-01-01

    16 young men in long-term remission after standard treatment for the early stages of Hodgkin's disease were examined for testicular function 48 to 125 months after termination of therapy. The patients had received mantle field irradiation, plus either irradiation of infradiaphragmatic lymph nodes...... to chemotherapy, especially including alkylating agents....

  13. Media Culture and Media Violence: Making the Television Work for Young Children, Early Childhood Educators, and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Wayne

    This paper provides an overview of the impact of television on young children, with a special emphasis on the relationship among TV, childhood, and violence, and on developmentally appropriate television. Further, the paper provides strategies for parents and early childhood educators to use in taking control of the television. The paper is…

  14. The Longitudinal Relation Between Accumulation of Adverse Life Events and Body Mass Index From Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenburg, Leonie K.; Smidt, Nynke; Liefbroer, Aart C.

    Objective: Stressors, such as adverse life events, can cause weight changes through behavioral and biological mechanisms. Whether the accumulation of adverse life events is related to body mass index (BMI) across multiple time points from early adolescence to young adulthood has not been

  15. The longitudinal relation between accumulation of adverse life events and body mass index from early adolescence to young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenburg, Leonie K.; Smidt, Nynke; Liefbroer, Aart C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Stressors, such as adverse life events, can cause weight changes through behavioral and biological mechanisms. Whether the accumulation of adverse life events is related to body mass index (BMI) across multiple time points from early adolescence to young adulthood has not been

  16. The Effectiveness of Synthetic Phonics in the Development of Early Reading Skills among Struggling Young ESL Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, Khairul Azhar; Alias, Norlidah; Mohd Khir, Roselina Johari; DeWitt, Dorothy; Kenayathula, Husaina Banu

    2016-01-01

    A quasi-experimental research design was used to investigate the effectiveness of synthetic phonics in the development of early reading skills among struggling young English as a second language (ESL) readers in a rural school. The pretest and posttest, adapted from the Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening (PALS) for Preschool Students and…

  17. The Longitudinal Relation Between Accumulation of Adverse Life Events and Body Mass Index From Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenburg, L.; Smidt, N.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Stressors, such as adverse life events, can cause weight changes through behavioral and biological mechanisms. Whether the accumulation of adverse life events is related to body mass index (BMI) across multiple time points from early adolescence to young adulthood has not been

  18. Body Mass Index Trajectories from Adolescence to Early Young Adulthood : Do Adverse Life Events Play a Role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenburg, Leonie K.; Smidt, Nynke; Hoek, Hans W.; Liefbroer, Aart C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are different classes of body mass index (BMI) development from early adolescence to young adulthood and whether these classes are related to the number of adverse life events children experienced. Methods: Data were from the TRAILS

  19. Relations of Early Motor Skills on Age and Socialization, Communication, and Daily Living in Young Children With Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Ross, Samantha; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Tepfer, Amanda

    2017-04-01

    Young children with developmental disabilities experience known deficits in salient child behaviors, such as social behaviors, communication, and aspects of daily living, behaviors that generally improve with chronological age. The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effects of motor skills on relations of age and salient child behaviors in a group of young children with developmental disabilities, thus tapping into the potential influences of motor skills in the development of salient child behaviors. One hundred thirteen young children with developmental disabilities participated in this study. Independent mediation analysis, with gender as a moderator between the mediating and outcome variable, indicated that motor skills meditated relations between age and socialization, communication, and daily living skills in young male children with developmental disabilities, but not female participants. Findings suggest motor skill content needs to be considered in combination with other child behaviors commonly focused on in early intervention.

  20. Early detection and integrated care for adolescents and young adults with severe psychotic disorders: rationales and design of the Integrated Care in Early Psychosis Study (ACCESS III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Martin; Schöttle, Daniel; Sengutta, Mary; Ruppelt, Friederike; Rohenkohl, Anja; Luedecke, Daniel; Nawara, Luise Antonia; Galling, Britta; Falk, Anne-Lena; Wittmann, Linus; Niehaus, Vivien; Sarikaya, Gizem; Handwerk, Ute; Rothländer, Wiebke; Rietschel, Liz; Gagern, Charlotte; Lange, Benjamin; Meigel-Schleiff, Christina; Naber, Dieter; Schulte-Markwort, Michael; Krüger, Helmut; Unger, Hans-Peter; Sippel, Sven; Ott, Sabine; Romer, Georg; Daubmann, Anne; Wegscheider, Karl; Correll, Christoph U; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Bock, Thomas; Gallinat, Jürgen; Karow, Anne

    2018-02-01

    The Integrated Care in Early Psychosis (ACCESS III) Study examined the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a combined intervention consisting of strategies to improve early detection and quality of care (integrated care including therapeutic assertive community treatment) in adolescents and young adults in the early phase of a severe psychotic disorder from 2011 to 2014. This is a prospective, single-centre, 1-year cohort study comparing an intervention condition (early detection plus integrated care, n = 120) to the historical control condition (standard care, SC, n = 105) for adolescents and young adults aged 12-29 years suffering from a severe, early-phase psychotic disorder (i.e. within 2 years of treatment). Primary outcome is the rate of combined symptomatic (i.e. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) criteria) and functional (i.e. Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF) ≥ 60 points criterion) remission over at least 6 months at study endpoint. Secondary outcome comprises the comparison of the reduction in the duration of untreated psychosis within the 4-year study duration between integrated care and SC, course of psychopathology, functioning, quality of life, satisfaction with care, cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in comparison to a historical control group. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study assessing the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a combined intervention consisting of early detection strategies and strategies to improve quality of care in both adolescents and young adults with early-phase psychosis. The results will be published in 2016. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Developmental trends in auditory processing can provide early predictions of language acquisition in young infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Tardif, Twila; Mai, Xiaoqin; Xu, Lin; Li, Mingyan; Kaciroti, Niko; Kileny, Paul R; Shao, Jie; Lozoff, Betsy

    2013-03-01

    Auditory processing capabilities at the subcortical level have been hypothesized to impact an individual's development of both language and reading abilities. The present study examined whether auditory processing capabilities relate to language development in healthy 9-month-old infants. Participants were 71 infants (31 boys and 40 girls) with both Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) and language assessments. At 6 weeks and/or 9 months of age, the infants underwent ABR testing using both a standard hearing screening protocol with 30 dB clicks and a second protocol using click pairs separated by 8, 16, and 64-ms intervals presented at 80 dB. We evaluated the effects of interval duration on ABR latency and amplitude elicited by the second click. At 9 months, language development was assessed via parent report on the Chinese Communicative Development Inventory - Putonghua version (CCDI-P). Wave V latency z-scores of the 64-ms condition at 6 weeks showed strong direct relationships with Wave V latency in the same condition at 9 months. More importantly, shorter Wave V latencies at 9 months showed strong relationships with the CCDI-P composite consisting of phrases understood, gestures, and words produced. Likewise, infants who had greater decreases in Wave V latencies from 6 weeks to 9 months had higher CCDI-P composite scores. Females had higher language development scores and shorter Wave V latencies at both ages than males. Interestingly, when the ABR Wave V latencies at both ages were taken into account, the direct effects of gender on language disappeared. In conclusion, these results support the importance of low-level auditory processing capabilities for early language acquisition in a population of typically developing young infants. Moreover, the auditory brainstem response in this paradigm shows promise as an electrophysiological marker to predict individual differences in language development in young children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Early socioeconomic adversity and young adult physical illness: the role of body mass index and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, K A S; Kwon, Josephine A; Oshri, Assaf; Lee, Tae Kyoung

    2014-10-01

    The present study investigated the psychophysiological inter- and intra-individual processes that mediate the linkage between childhood and/or adolescent socioeconomic adversities and adult health outcomes. Specifically, the proposed model examined the roles of youth depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) trajectories as mediators that explain the link between early adversity and young adults' general health and physical illnesses after controlling for gender, race or ethnicity, and earlier general health reports. Using a nationally representative sample of 12,424 from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), this study used growth curve modeling to consider both the severity (initial level) and the change over time (deterioration or elevation) as psychophysiological mediators, thereby acknowledging multiple facets of depressive symptoms and BMI trajectories as psychophysiological mediators of early adversity to adult health. Results provide evidence for (1) the influence of early childhood and early adolescent cumulative socioeconomic adversity on both the initial levels and changes over time of depressive symptoms and BMI and (2) the independent influences depressive symptoms and BMI trajectories on the general health and the physical illnesses of young adults. These findings contribute valuable knowledge to existing research by elucidating how early adversity exerts an enduring long-term influence on physical health problems in young adulthood; furthermore, this information suggests that effective intervention and prevention programs should incorporate multiple facets (severity and change over time) of multiple mechanisms (psychological and physiological). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Systematic assessment of noise amplitude generated by toys intended for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Hossein; Oliaei, Sepehr; Badran, Karam W; Ziai, Kasra; Chang, Janice; Zardouz, Shawn; Shahriari, Shawn; Djalilian, Hamid R

    2013-06-01

    To systematically evaluate the noise generated by toys targeted for children and to compare the results over the course of 4 consecutive holiday shopping seasons. Experimental study. Academic medical center. During 2008-2011, more than 200 toys marketed for children older than 6 months were screened for loudness. The toys with sound output of more than 80 dBA at speaker level were retested in a soundproof audiometry booth. The generated sound amplitude of each toy was measured at speaker level and at 30 cm away from the speaker. Ninety different toys were analyzed. The mean (SD) noise amplitude was 100 (8) dBA (range, 80-121 dBA) at the speaker level and 80 (11) dBA (range, 60-109 dBA) at 30 cm away from the speaker. Eighty-eight (98%) had more than an 85-dBA noise amplitude at speaker level, whereas 19 (26%) had more than an 85-dBA noise amplitude at a 30-cm distance. Only the mean noise amplitude at 30 cm significantly declined during the studied period (P toys specified for different age groups. Our findings demonstrate the persistence of extremely loud toys marketed for very young children. Acoustic trauma from toys remains a potential risk factor for noise-induced hearing loss in this age group, warranting promotion of public awareness and regulatory considerations for manufacture and marketing of toys.

  4. Sport Specialization, Part I: Does Early Sports Specialization Increase Negative Outcomes and Reduce the Opportunity for Success in Young Athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kiefer, Adam W; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J

    2015-01-01

    There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Nonsystematic review. Clinical review. Level 4. Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. C. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. Family poverty over the early life course and recurrent adolescent and young adult anxiety and depression: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad R; Clavarino, Alexandra; Bor, William; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Williams, Gail M

    2010-09-01

    We determined whether exposure to family poverty over a child's early life course predicts adolescent and young adult anxiety and depression. We used a birth cohort study of a sample of women in Brisbane, Australia, who were recruited in early pregnancy and whose children were followed up on at ages 14 and 21 years. Some 2609 mothers and adolescents provided usable data at the 14- and 21-year follow-ups. After adjustment for poverty at other phases, poverty at the 14-year follow-up was the strongest predictor of adolescent and young adult anxiety and depression. The more frequently the child was exposed to poverty, the greater was the risk of that individual being anxious and depressed at both the 14- and 21-year follow-ups. Family poverty predicts higher rates of adolescent and young adult anxiety and depression. Increased frequency of child exposure to poverty is a consistent predictor of adolescent and young adult anxiety and depression. Repeated experiences of poverty over a child's early life course are associated with increased levels of poor mental health.

  6. Rapid growth in early childhood associated with young adult overweight and obesity--evidence from a community based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutharsan, Ratneswary; O'Callaghan, Michael J; Williams, Gail; Najman, Jake M; Mamun, Abdullah A

    2015-08-08

    Rapid weight gain in early life may increase the risk of overweight and obesity in adulthood. We investigated the association between the rate of growth during early childhood and the development of overweight and obesity in young adults. We used a prospective cohort study of 2077 young adults who were born between 1981 and 1984 in Brisbane, Australia and had anthropometry measurements available at birth, 6 months, 5 years, 14 years and 21 years of age. The associations of rate of early growth with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and their categories at 21 years were studied using multivariate analysis. We found that rapid weight gain [> + 0.67 standard deviation score (SDS)] in the first 5 years of life was associated with young adults' overweight status (BMI: adjusted OR = 2.35, 95% CI, 1.82-3.03; WC: adjusted OR = 2.20, 95% CI, 1.65-2.95). We also observed that slow weight gain in the first 5 years of age (young adulthood, in contrast slow weight gain was inversely associated with weight status at 21 years.

  7. Ultra high risk of psychosis on committal to a young offender prison: an unrecognised opportunity for early intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn Darran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ultra high risk state for psychosis has not been studied in young offender populations. Prison populations have higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and substance use disorders. Due to the age profile of young offenders one would expect to find a high prevalence of individuals with pre-psychotic or ultra-high risk mental states for psychosis (UHR. Accordingly young offender institutions offer an opportunity for early interventions which could result in improved long term mental health, social and legal outcomes. In the course of establishing a mental health in-reach service into Ireland’s only young offender prison, we sought to estimate unmet mental health needs. Methods Every third new committal to a young offenders prison was interviewed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS to identify the Ultra High Risk (UHR state and a structured interview for assessing drug and alcohol misuse according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, the Developmental Understanding of Drug Misuse and Dependence - Short Form (DUNDRUM-S. Results Over a twelve month period 171 young male offenders aged 16 to 20 were assessed. Of these 39 (23%, 95% confidence interval 18% to 30% met UHR criteria. UHR states peaked at 18 years, were associated with lower SOFAS scores for social and occupational function and were also associated with multiple substance misuse. The relationship with lower SOFAS scores persisted even when co-varying for multiple substance misuse. Conclusions Although psychotic symptoms are common in community samples of children and adolescents, the prevalence of the UHR state in young offenders was higher than reported for community samples. The association with impaired function also suggests that this may be part of a developing disorder. Much more attention should be paid to the relationship of UHR states to substance misuse and to the health needs of young offenders.

  8. Influence of early stress on social abilities and serotonergic functions across generations in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara B Franklin

    Full Text Available Exposure to adverse environments during early development is a known risk factor for several psychiatric conditions including antisocial behavior and personality disorders. Here, we induced social anxiety and altered social recognition memory in adult mice using unpredictable maternal separation and maternal stress during early postnatal life. We show that these social defects are not only pronounced in the animals directly subjected to stress, but are also transmitted to their offspring across two generations. The defects are associated with impaired serotonergic signaling, in particular, reduced 5HT1A receptor expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus, and increased serotonin level in a dorsal raphe projection area. These findings underscore the susceptibility of social behaviors and serotonergic pathways to early stress, and the persistence of their perturbation across generations.

  9. In vivo skin fluorescence imaging in young Caucasian adults with early malignant melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piérard GE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gérald E Piérard,1 Trinh Hermanns-Lê,2 Sébastien L Piérard,3 Lucas Dewalque,4 Corinne Charlier,4 Claudine Piérard-Franchimont,2 Philippe Delvenne2 1Laboratory of Skin Bioengineering and Imaging (LABIC, Department of Clinical Sciences, Liège University, 2Department of Dermatopathology, Unilab Lg, University Hospital of Liège, 3INTELSIG Laboratory, Montefiore Institute, University of Liège, 4Department of Clinical, Forensic and Environmental Toxicology, University Hospital of Liège, Liège, Belgium Background: Human cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM is an aggressive cancer showing a dramatic worldwide increase in incidence over the past few decades. The most prominent relative epidemiological increase has been disclosed in young women. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of chronic sun exposures in order to rate the extend of melanocytic stimulations in the vicinity of CMM. Methods: The study was designed to evaluate the melanin distribution and density using ultraviolet light illumination. The present study was performed on surgical excision specimens of thin CMM lesion removed from the upper limbs of 55 Caucasian adults (37 women and 18 men. Two control groups comprised 23 men and 21 women of similar ages who had medium-size congenital melanocytic nevi, also present on the upper limbs. The peritumoral skin was scrutinized using a Visioscan® VC98 device, revealing the faint mosaic melanoderma (FMM pattern that grossly indicates early signs of chronic photodamage in epidermal melanin units. Results: The median extent of relative FMM was significantly higher in the CMM male group. By contrast, the CMM female group showed a reverse bimodal distribution in FMM size. Only 12/37 (32.5% of the CMM female group had an increased FMM size, whereas 25/37 (67.5% of females with CMM had a global FMM extent in the normal range, relative to the controls. Conclusion: Thin CMM supervening in young women appear unrelated to repeat

  10. UNICEF report Generation 2030 Africa calls upon investing in and empowering girls and young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Danzhen; Hug, Lucia; Anthony, David

    2015-03-17

    UNICEF's Generation 2030 Africa report released in August 2014, focusing exclusively on Africa, provides an in-depth analysis of child demographic trends. The report highlights the marked increase that Africa population has experienced in the last few decades and the rapid population expansion that is set to continue, with its inhabitants doubling from 1.2 billion to 2.4 billion between 2015 and 2050. A factor driving Africa's population increase is that the number of women of reproductive age has risen fivefold from 54 million in 1950 to 280 million in 2015 and is set to further increase to 407 million in 2030 and 607 million by 2050. The increasing number of women of reproductive age in Africa will lead to an increasing number of births in Africa even under the assumption of large declines in fertility levels. Adolescent fertility remains high in many African countries and it is estimated that almost one fifth of women in Africa have an unmet need for family planning. The report calls upon investing in and empowering girls and young women and on improving reproductive health of African adolescents.

  11. Meta-Analysis of Studies Incorporating the Interests of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders into Early Intervention Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Hamby, Deborah W.

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating the interests and preferences of young children with autism spectrum disorders into interventions to promote prosocial behavior and decrease behavior excesses has emerged as a promising practice for addressing the core features of autism. The efficacy of interest-based early intervention practices was examined in a meta-analysis of 24 studies including 78 children 2 to 6 years of age diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Effect size analyses of intervention versus noninterve...

  12. A New Space for a New Generation: The Rise of Co-operatives Amongst Young People in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, Sally Ann

    2011-01-01

    One of the most pressing challenges for the co-operative movement today is how it can engage with and support the aspirations of young people. A new paper, A New Space For a New Generation: The Rise of Co-operatives Amongst Young People in Africa, by doctoral researcher Sally Hartley, highlights some of the innovative ways in which this engagement is being fostered in Africa today and how co-operatives provide not just opportunities for gaining an income but play a vital educational role. \\ud...

  13. Reduced right frontal fractional anisotropy correlated with early elevated plasma LDL levels in obese young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohui Lou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the underlying physiological mechanisms of the structural differences in gray matter (GM and white matter (WM associated with obesity in young Chinese adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 49 right-handed obese or overweight (n = 22, mean age 31.72±8.04 years and normal weight (n = 27, mean age 29.04±7.32 years Han Chinese individuals were recruited. All participants underwent voxel-based morphometry analysis of T1-weighted MRI and tract-based spatial statistics analysis of diffusion tensor imaging. Partial correlation analysis was performed between the physiological data obtained and the abnormal structural alterations. RESULTS: In the OO group, GM atrophy occurred in the left prefrontal cortex, bilateral cingulate gyrus, and the right temporal lobe, while enlargement was observed in the bilateral putamen. WM atrophy was observed predominantly in the regions that regulate food intake, such as the bilateral basal ganglia, the right amygdala, and the left insula. The OO group exhibited lower fractional anisotropy (FA in bilateral frontal corticospinal tracts and the right brainstem. Significant negative correlations were observed between FA values of those three clusters and BMI, and waist circumference, while the volume of bilateral putamen positively correlated with both BMI and waist circumference. High plasma LDL levels were correlated with low FA values in the right frontal corticospinal tract. Interestingly, the negative correlation was limited to male participants. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related alterations of GM and WM volumes were observed predominantly in food reward circuit, which may motivate abnormal dietary intake. Further, early elevated plasma LDL might contribute to low right frontal FA values of male adults, which requires further demonstration by larger-scale and longitudinal studies.

  14. Perspectives on Early Childhood Education: Growing with Young Children toward the 21st Century. NEA Early Childhood Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind, David, Ed.

    The introductory chapter in this book provides a historical overview of the family and schools in the premodern, modern, and postmodern eras in the United States. The introduction also reviews the contributions of several important figures in early childhood education and suggests that the battle in early childhood education in the postmodern…

  15. A century of nuclear science. Important contributions of early generation Chinese physicist to nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Chunkai; Xu Furong

    2003-01-01

    The great discoveries and applications of nuclear science have had tremendous impact on the progress and development of mankind over the last 100 years. In the 1920's to 1940's, many young Chinese who yearned to save the country through science and education went to west Europe and north America to study science, including physics. Studying and working with famous physicists throughout the world, they made many important contributions and discoveries in the development of nuclear science. This paper describes the historical contributions of the older generation of Chinese physicists to nuclear science

  16. Nuclear Energy In Switzerland: It's going ahead. Challenges For The Swiss Nuclear Society Young Generation Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, Marco; Bichsel, Thomas; Fassbender, Andre; Horvath, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Swiss energy policy is focused on generating domestic electric power without combusting fossil fuels for already four decades. Roughly 60% of the electricity is generated in hydroelectric plants, which is possible due to the country's favourable topography; the remaining 40% are produced by the country's five nuclear power plants (NPPs). As in any other country nuclear power has its enemies in Switzerland. Due to the direct democracy system in Switzerland the nuclear opposition has a lot of possibilities to disturb the energy policy. Since 1969, when the first Swiss nuclear power plant went online, four plebiscites were held on the issue of civil use of nuclear energy. Four times Swiss citizens voted in favour of further operation of the existing plants also in the latest battle for nuclear energy, which was won in 2003. In 2005 and 2006 several Swiss studies about the future energy situation, especially the electricity situation, have been published. All off them show clearly that there will be a big gab around the year 2020 when the oldest three nuclear power plants will fade out. A public debate was started, how to solve the problem. Beside others, building new nuclear power plants was mentioned and discussed rationally. In 2007 the energy police of the Swiss government changed into a more nuclear friendly position and at the end of the same year some electricity companies lunched a new build program. Hosting the International Youth Nuclear Congress 2008 (IYNC 2008) in Switzerland seems to be just the right moment for the nuclear industry in our country. The slightly changed surroundings effected the organization of Swiss Nuclear Society (SNS) and SNS Young Generation Group (SNSYG) and enlarged the fields of activities for SNSYG. Those activities mentioned in the previous chapters will be developed in the future. The discussion about new builds in Switzerland has started and because of that more nuclear activities in Switzerland will occur. And surely there will

  17. Alcohol use initiation is associated with changes in personality trait trajectories from early adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonigen, Daniel M; Durbin, C Emily; Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2015-11-01

    Recent work has demonstrated the codevelopment of personality traits and alcohol use characteristics from early adolescence to young adulthood. Few studies, however, have tested whether alcohol use initiation impacts trajectories of personality over this time period. We examined the effect of alcohol use initiation on personality development from early adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were male (nmen = 2,350) and female (nwomen = 2,618) twins and adoptees from 3 community-based longitudinal studies conducted at the Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research. Data on personality traits of Positive Emotionality (PEM; Well-being), Negative Emotionality (NEM; Stress Reaction, Alienation, and Aggression), and Constraint (CON; Control and Harm Avoidance)-assessed via the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ)-and age of first drink were collected for up to 4 waves spanning ages 10 to 32. Alcohol use initiation was associated with significant decreases in levels of Well-being and CON traits, most notably Control; and significant increases in levels of all NEM traits, particularly Aggression. In general, the effects of alcohol use initiation on personality traits were moderated by gender and enhanced among those with earlier age of first drink. From early adolescence to young adulthood, alcohol use initiation predicts deviations from normative patterns of personality maturation. Such findings offer a potential mechanism underlying the codevelopment of personality traits and alcohol use characteristics during this formative period of development. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Do early unemployment and health status among young men and women affect their chances of later employment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, A; Janlert, U

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this 5-year prospective study was to investigate the risk of future unemployment among young people who had experienced early unemployment, and to examine whether this risk was influenced by their health status. A total of 1,083 pupils in the final year of compulsory schooling were included in the cohort. The non-participation rate was 2%. At the time of a five-year follow-up, of those who were unemployed during the first two-year period, 71% of the men and 49% of the women were unemployed, had recent experience of unemployment, or were outside the labour market. The relative risk of being unemployed was 2.39 for men (95% CI 1.85-3.10) and 1.76 for women (95% CI 1.25-2.48) among those who had experienced early unemployment compared with those who had been in Youth Opportunities Programmes (YOP) or in work. Young women in YOP had the same risk of later unemployment as those who had experienced early unemployment, while young men in YOP did not have increased risk. Health status and health behaviour had only a minor influence on the risk of unemployment.

  19. Improving Outcomes for Teenage Pregnancy and Early Parenthood for Young People in Out-of-Home Care: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Young people leaving out-of-home care are overrepresented among teenage parents. This paper examines the research literature and identifies key factors that contribute to early pregnancy and parenthood for care leavers, the challenges of early parenting and the positive effects of early parenting. The implications for out-of-home care policy and…

  20. Brief oral health promotion intervention among parents of young children to reduce early childhood dental decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe untreated dental decay affects a child’s growth, body weight, quality of life as well as cognitive development, and the effects extend beyond the child to the family, the community and the health care system. Early health behavioural factors, including dietary practices and eating patterns, can play a major role in the initiation and development of oral diseases, particularly dental caries. The parent/caregiver, usually the mother, has a critical role in the adoption of protective health care behaviours and parental feeding practices strongly influence children’s eating behaviours. This study will test if an early oral health promotion intervention through the use of brief motivational interviewing (MI) and anticipatory guidance (AG) approaches can reduce the incidence of early childhood dental decay and obesity. Methods The study will be a randomised controlled study with parents and their new-born child/ren who are seen at 6–12 weeks of age by a child/community health nurse. Consenting parents will complete a questionnaire on oral health knowledge, behaviours, self-efficacy, oral health fatalism, parenting stress, prenatal and peri-natal health and socio-demographic factors at study commencement and at 12 and 36 months. Each child–parent pair will be allocated to an intervention or a standard care group, using a computer-generated random blocks. The standard group will be managed through the standard early oral health screening program; “lift the lip”. The intervention group will be provided with tailored oral health counselling by oral health consultants trained in MI and AG. Participating children will be examined at 24, and 36 months for the occurrence of dental decay and have their height and weight recorded. Dietary information obtained from a food frequency chart will be used to determine food and dietary patterns. Data analysis will use intention to treat and per protocol analysis and will use tests of independent

  1. Brief oral health promotion intervention among parents of young children to reduce early childhood dental decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrow, Peter; Raheb, Joseph; Miller, Margaret

    2013-03-20

    Severe untreated dental decay affects a child's growth, body weight, quality of life as well as cognitive development, and the effects extend beyond the child to the family, the community and the health care system. Early health behavioural factors, including dietary practices and eating patterns, can play a major role in the initiation and development of oral diseases, particularly dental caries. The parent/caregiver, usually the mother, has a critical role in the adoption of protective health care behaviours and parental feeding practices strongly influence children's eating behaviours. This study will test if an early oral health promotion intervention through the use of brief motivational interviewing (MI) and anticipatory guidance (AG) approaches can reduce the incidence of early childhood dental decay and obesity. The study will be a randomised controlled study with parents and their new-born child/ren who are seen at 6-12 weeks of age by a child/community health nurse. Consenting parents will complete a questionnaire on oral health knowledge, behaviours, self-efficacy, oral health fatalism, parenting stress, prenatal and peri-natal health and socio-demographic factors at study commencement and at 12 and 36 months. Each child-parent pair will be allocated to an intervention or a standard care group, using a computer-generated random blocks. The standard group will be managed through the standard early oral health screening program; "lift the lip". The intervention group will be provided with tailored oral health counselling by oral health consultants trained in MI and AG.Participating children will be examined at 24, and 36 months for the occurrence of dental decay and have their height and weight recorded. Dietary information obtained from a food frequency chart will be used to determine food and dietary patterns. Data analysis will use intention to treat and per protocol analysis and will use tests of independent proportions and means. Multivariate

  2. The sixth generation of Chinese cinema : marginalized urban young in contemporary China

    OpenAIRE

    Linder, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine the Sixth Generation of Chinese cinema. Specifically what constitutes the Sixth generation, and what the generational designation implies for the Sixth Generation. Central issues are whether there is a Sixth Generation, and how it differs from the preceding generations. In order to understand the debate about the Sixth Generation it is necessary to first look at the discourse on the Generation, and to illuminate what constitutes a generation in Chinese...

  3. Performance and Surveillance in an Era of Austerity: Schooling the Reflexive Generation of Muslim Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin; Haywood, Chris

    2018-01-01

    The last 15 years have seen a remarkable shift in the educational representation of British-born Muslim young men. In the media-led reclassification of them, from South Asian to Muslim, they have moved from ideal student to potential jihadist. This article draws upon a three-year ethnographic study with young Muslim men located within the West…

  4. Television and Media Literacy in Young Children: Issues and Effects in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoff, Kamaruzaman; Sahimi, Nurul Nadiah

    2009-01-01

    Television viewing among young children has been an on going issue as it is found to effect their development in various areas. This problem is getting more worrisome as the percentage and amount of hours of television exposure among young children is increasing, especially with the growing production of children television programs. Studies have…

  5. Self-Generated Motives for Not Gambling Among Young Adult Non-gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, Christina L; McGrath, Daniel S

    2017-09-01

    Motivational models have been shown to usefully describe reasons for engaging in addictive behaviors including gambling disorder. Although most scales designed to measure motives have been derived statistically, self-generated open-ended responses have also shown utility for identifying unique motives for gambling. While the motivational structure for gambling disorder has been extensively explored, there has been a paucity of research examining motives for choosing not to gamble. This is not the case for other addictive behaviors such as alcohol use where motives for abstaining from drinking have been well defined. The primary goal of this study was to qualitatively explore and identify motives for not gambling in a sample of young adult non-gamblers using open-ended responses. A sample (N = 196) of undergraduate current non-gamblers, defined as no gambling activity over the previous 12 months, completed a series of questionnaires on demographics, gambling behavior, and alcohol consumption. Furthermore, they were asked to provide their top three reasons for not gambling in rank order. The results revealed eight specific motives for why participants chose not to gamble: 'financial reasons and risk aversion'; 'disinterest and other priorities'; 'personal and religious convictions'; 'addiction concerns'; 'influence of others' values'; 'awareness of the odds'; 'lack of access, opportunity, or skill'; and 'emotional distress'. Personal and religious convictions reasons were also related to lifetime non-drinking, suggesting that these motives are associated with decreased addictive behaviors in general. Ultimately, these results may help to inform the design of prevention strategies for gambling disorder.

  6. Sonora: A New Generation Model Atmosphere Grid for Brown Dwarfs and Young Extrasolar Giant Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Morley, Caroline; Lupu, Roxana Elena; Freedman, Richard; Visscher, Channon

    2017-01-01

    Brown dwarf and giant planet atmospheric structure and composition has been studied both by forward models and, increasingly so, by retrieval methods. While indisputably informative, retrieval methods are of greatest value when judged in the context of grid model predictions. Meanwhile retrieval models can test the assumptions inherent in the forward modeling procedure. In order to provide a new, systematic survey of brown dwarf atmospheric structure, emergent spectra, and evolution, we have constructed a new grid of brown dwarf model atmospheres. We ultimately aim for our grid to span substantial ranges of atmospheric metallilcity, C/O ratios, cloud properties, atmospheric mixing, and other parameters. Spectra predicted by our modeling grid can be compared to both observations and retrieval results to aid in the interpretation and planning of future telescopic observations. We thus present Sonora, a new generation of substellar atmosphere models, appropriate for application to studies of L, T, and Y-type brown dwarfs and young extrasolar giant planets. The models describe the expected temperature-pressure profile and emergent spectra of an atmosphere in radiative-convective equilibrium for ranges of effective temperatures and gravities encompassing 200 less than or equal to T(sub eff) less than or equal to 2400 K and 2.5 less than or equal to log g less than or equal to 5.5. In our poster we briefly describe our modeling methodology, enumerate various updates since our group's previous models, and present our initial tranche of models for cloudless, solar metallicity, and solar carbon-to-oxygen ratio, chemical equilibrium atmospheres. These models will be available online and will be updated as opacities and cloud modeling methods continue to improve.

  7. MYRRHA a fast reactor to be operated by the young generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelen, J.; Ait Abderrahim, H.; Baeten, P.; De Bruyn, D.

    2015-01-01

    MYRRHA, the Multi-purpose hybrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications, is an innovative research facility that is able to carry out a wide variety of applications: 1) transmutation of minor actinides, 2) qualification of fuel for new reactors, 3) material testing for Gen IV and fusion reactors, 4) production of medical radio-isotopes and 5) silicon doping for renewable electrical power. By means of these applications MYRRHA is the successor of BR2, it will validate the ADS (Accelerator Driven System) full concept and the use of heavy metal coolants (particularly the lead-bismuth eutectic - LBE). The MYRRHA plant consists of 3 main parts being the primary systems, the accelerator and the balance of plant which groups all structures, systems and components that are not included in the first two items. The scientific and technological knowledge that will be acquired with MYRRHA will be the basis for new lead cooled reactors having a higher performance and for industrial transmutation facilities capable of significantly reducing the amount and the burden time of high-level waste produced in power plants. It is the responsibility of the young and next generations to operate these upcoming facilities but our duty to obtain the crucial data. To profit from nuclear applications in the coming decades, the safety of these systems obviously has to be guaranteed. The safety approach of MYRRHA is based on the defence-in-depth principle. Initiating events are grouped in probability classes in order to determine the number of lines of defence needed to mitigate their consequences. Initiating events are preferably prevented, certainly those with potentially severe consequences or difficult to mitigate. For the design of MYRRHA we consider events up to a probability of occurrence of 10 -6 /year. This article describes the present state of the MYRRHA design. The article is followed by the slides of the presentation

  8. The Young Generation at UNICEF COP6 ... and other flexibility mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskens, Gaston; Avezou, Florence

    2001-01-01

    Climate change and long term energy strategies are world-scale common concerns, and decisions taken now will have an important impact on the quality of life of our future generations. As electricity production is one of the major CO 2 sources (next to transport and domestic use of energy), nuclear can play a role when it comes to agree on policies and measures to cut global warming - even with regard to sensitive topics such as joint implementation, clean development mechanisms and trading. The Sixth Conference of the Parties (COP6) on the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change met in The Hague (Netherlands) on November 13-24, 2000. It was expected that the final details on the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol would be determined during this conference, so that developed countries can start the process of ratification of the accords. It turned out different. For the nuclear industry, there is optimism. The conference was a success because no agreement is better than exclusion. The industry received a lot of attention, that was more negative than positive, but still, it is open for discussion. COP6 was very different from the previous COP's and SB's. There has never been a bigger difference in perception of nuclear between 'buzz in the corridors' (based on actual positive evolutions in some countries) on the one hand, and references in the official talks on the other hand. This also means that the negotiations are becoming more and more complicated and that a lot of diplomacy is necessary. Given the sensitiveness of the topic, the nuclear representatives decided to keep 'low profile' at COP6. For what the impact of the Young Generation (YG) contacts with the pressure group are concerned, we foresaw COP6 to be the turning point, and we were right. The surprise effect (COP3) is gone, the period of curiosity and 'sympathy' (COP4) and neglect (COP5) is passed and, now that the green groups see that our attendance has an effect, they start to take us seriously

  9. European Nuclear Young Generation. Position Paper on Nuclear Energy and the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    predictable and provides base-load electricity with high reliability to the end-user. It is not subject to variations in fuel availability as uranium is largely available from diverse politically stable countries that secure its supply. Nuclear power is therefore a key asset for energy security and independence. Nuclear energy is part of the solution. The European Nuclear Society Young Generation Network believes that nuclear is part of the solution. Current nuclear power plants operate safely with negligible CO 2 emissions and provide energy to millions of people. Existing and future nuclear reactors will help humanity to overcome energy challenges whilst respecting the environment. Research is still on-going for more efficient use of nuclear fuel and the transmutation of high activity long-term waste. These objectives are carried out by the promising implementation of Generation IV of nuclear power plants with commercial prospects by 2030-2040. Research on nuclear fusion such as the ITER project aims to provide an almost inexhaustible source of energy while suppressing the issue of handling long-lived radioactive waste. This is the future of the nuclear industry. Our belief is that fighting climate change cannot discard, on ideological background and judgment, such promising technologies. It is our duty to inform the public in an objective and scientific way of the benefits of nuclear power. COP21 is a unique opportunity to internationally develop a low-carbon society in which nuclear power will have a key role to play. (authors)

  10. A revision of Sanpasaurus yaoi Young, 1944 from the Early Jurassic of China, and its relevance to the early evolution of Sauropoda (Dinosauria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair W. McPhee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Early Jurassic of China has long been recognized for its diverse array of sauropodomorph dinosaurs. However, the contribution of this record to our understanding of early sauropod evolution is complicated by a dearth of information on important transitional taxa. We present a revision of the poorly known taxon Sanpasaurus yaoi Young, 1944 from the late Early Jurassic Ziliujing Formation of Sichuan Province, southwest China. Initially described as the remains of an ornithopod ornithischian, we demonstrate that the material catalogued as IVPP V156 is unambiguously referable to Sauropoda. Although represented by multiple individuals of equivocal association, Sanpasaurus is nonetheless diagnosable with respect to an autapomorphic feature of the holotypic dorsal vertebral series. Additional material thought to be collected from the type locality is tentatively referred to Sanpasaurus. If correctly attributed, a second autapomorphy is present in a referred humerus. The presence of a dorsoventrally compressed pedal ungual in Sanpasaurus is of particular interest, with taxa possessing this typically ‘vulcanodontid’ character exhibiting a much broader geographic distribution than previously thought. Furthermore, the association of this trait with other features of Sanpasaurus that are broadly characteristic of basal eusauropods underscores the mosaic nature of the early sauropod–eusauropod transition. Our revision of Sanpasaurus has palaeobiogeographic implications for Early Jurassic sauropods, with evidence that the group maintained a cosmopolitan Pangaean distribution.

  11. The Prognostic Impact of Molecular Subtypes and Very Young Age on Breast Conserving Surgery in Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Kandace; Alco, Gul; Nur Pilanci, Kezban; Koksal, Ulkuhan I; Elbüken, Filiz; Erdogan, Zeynep; Agacayak, Filiz; Ilgun, Serkan; Sarsenov, Dauren; Öztürk, Alper; İğdem, Şefik; Okkan, Sait; Eralp, Yeşim; Dincer, Maktav; Ozmen, Vahit

    2016-01-01

    Background Premenopausal breast cancer with a triple-negative phenotype (TNBC) has been associated with inferior locoregional recurrence free survival (LRFS) and overall survival (OS) after breast conserving surgery (BCS). The aim of this study is to analyze the association between age, subtype, and surgical treatment on survival in young women (≤40 years) with early breast cancer in a population with a high rate of breast cancer in young women. Methods Three hundred thirty-two patients ≤40 years old with stage I-II invasive breast cancer who underwent surgery at a single institution between 1998 and 2012 were identified retrospectively. Uni- and multivariate analysis evaluated predictors of LRFS, OS, and disease free survival (DFS). Results Most patients (64.2%) underwent BCS. Mean age and follow-up time were 35 (25 ± 3.61) years, and 72 months (range, 24–252), respectively. In multivariate analysis, multicentricity/multifocality and young age (<35 years) independently predicted for poorer DFS and OS. Those aged 35–40 years had higher LRFS and DFS than those <35 in the mastectomy group (p=0.007 and p=0.039, respectively). Patients with TNBC had lower OS compared with patients with luminal A subtype (p=0.042), and those who underwent BCS had higher OS than patients after mastectomy (p=0.015). Conclusion Young age (< 35 years) is an independent predictor of poorer OS and DFS as compared with ages 35–40, even in countries with a lower average age of breast cancer presentation. In addition, TNBC in the young predicts for poorer OS. BCS can be performed in young patients with TNBC, despite their poorer overall survival. PMID:27433412

  12. Reengaging New York City's Disconnected Youth through Work: Implementation and Early Impacts of the Young Adult Internship Program. OPRE Report 2017-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemer, Melanie; Sherman, Arielle; Williams, Sonya; Cummings, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    This report presents implementation and early impact results from a random assignment evaluation of the Young Adult Internship Program (YAIP), a subsidized employment program for young people in New York City who have become disconnected from school and work. Operated by various provider agencies, YAIP offers disconnected youth between the ages of…

  13. Socio-economic position early in life, cognitive development and cognitive change from young adulthood to middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examine the influence of social circumstances early in life on changes in cognitive function from young adulthood to middle age, and we explore the impact of birth characteristics, childhood activities, education and adult social class on the expected relationship. METHODS: A cohort...... of 11 532 men born in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1953-7906, 10 246 and 2483 participants-had completed assessments of cognitive function at ages 12, 18 and 57 years, respectively. Linear regression was used to investigate the association of early-life characteristics with cognitive test scores at these ages...... and with score changes from early to mid-adulthood. RESULTS: The cognitive scores at age 57 years had high correlations with scores at ages 12 (r = 0.67) and 18 years (r = 0.70), and these two scores also showed bivariate correlation (r = 0.69). Having a father from the working class at birth was associated...

  14. Determinants of early-stage hearing loss among a cohort of young workers with 16-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlenga, Barbara; Berg, Richard L; Linneman, James G; Wood, Douglas J; Kirkhorn, Steven R; Pickett, William

    2012-07-01

    The authors had a unique opportunity to study the early impacts of occupational and recreational exposures on the development of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in a cohort of 392 young workers. The objectives of this study were to estimate strength of associations between occupational and recreational exposures and occurrence of early-stage NIHL and to determine the extent to which relationships between specific noise exposures and early-stage NIHL were mitigated through the use of hearing protection. Participants were young adults who agreed to participate in a follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. While the follow-up study was designed to observe long-term effects (up to 16 years) of a hearing conservation intervention for high school students, it also provided opportunity to study the potential aetiology of NIHL in this worker cohort. Study data were collected via exposure history questionnaires and clinical audiometric examinations. Over the 16-year study period, the authors documented changes to hearing acuity that exceeded 15 dB at high frequencies in 42.8% of men and 27.7% of women. Analyses of risk factors for NIHL were limited to men, who comprised 68% of the cohort, and showed that risks increased in association with higher levels of the most common recreational and occupational noise sources, as well as chemical exposures with ototoxic potential. Use of hearing protection and other safety measures, although not universal and sometimes modest, appeared to offer some protection. Early-stage NIHL can be detected in young workers by measuring high-frequency changes in hearing acuity. Hearing conservation programmes should focus on a broader range of exposures, whether in occupational or non-occupational settings. Priority exposures include gunshots, chainsaws, power tools, smoking and potentially some chemical exposures.

  15. Response to social challenge in young bonnet (Macaca radiata) and pigtail (Macaca nemestrina) macaques is related to early maternal experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ann; Richardson, Rebecca; Worlein, Julie; De Waal, Frans; Laudenslager, Mark

    2004-04-01

    Previous experience affects how young primates respond to challenging social situations. The present retrospective study looked at one aspect of early experience, the quality of the mother-infant relationship, to determine its relationship to young bonnet and pigtail macaques' responses to two social challenges: temporary maternal separation at 5-6 months and permanent transfer to an unfamiliar peer group at 16-17 months. Relationship quality was measured quantitatively on 30 macaque mother-infant pairs with the Relationship Quality Index (RQI), the ratio of relative affiliation to relative agonism as previously applied to capuchin monkeys. Infants with high RQI values had amicable mother-infant relationships and infants with low RQI values had agonistic mother-infant relationships. Young monkeys with amicable and agonistic relationships showed consistent differences in behavior before, during, and after each social challenge, supporting the hypothesis that juveniles from amicable mother-infant relationships based on the RQI coped more effectively with social challenges than did juveniles from agonistic mother-infant relationships. Results suggest 1) characteristic amicability or agonism in early mother-offspring macaque relationships has the potential to influence offspring behavior in tense social contexts and 2) the RQI is useful as one of a coordinated suite of methods for studying the development of social skills. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Depression in early adulthood: Prevalence and psychosocial correlates among young Swiss men

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Jürgen; Hofmann, Karen; Schori, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    QUESTION UNDER STUDY Depression in young adults is common, but data from Switzerland are scarce. Our study gives a point prevalence estimate of depression in young Swiss men, and describes the association between depression and education, material and social resources, and job/school satisfaction. METHODS We used data from the cross-sectional Swiss Federal Surveys of Adolescents (ch-x) from 2010 to 2011 comprising 9,066 males aged between 18 and 25 years. Depression was assessed b...

  17. Building the Next Generation of Earth Scientists: the Deep Carbon Observatory Early Career Scientist Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, K.; Fellowes, J.; Giovannelli, D.; Stagno, V.

    2016-12-01

    Building a network of collaborators and colleagues is a key professional development activity for early career scientists (ECS) dealing with a challenging job market. At large conferences, young scientists often focus on interacting with senior researchers, competing for a small number of positions in leading laboratories. However, building a strong, international network amongst their peers in related disciplines is often as valuable in the long run. The Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) began funding a series of workshops in 2014 designed to connect early career researchers within its extensive network of multidisciplinary scientists. The workshops, by design, are by and for early career scientists, thus removing any element of competition and focusing on peer-to-peer networking, collaboration, and creativity. The successful workshops, organized by committees of early career deep carbon scientists, have nucleated a lively community of like-minded individuals from around the world. Indeed, the organizers themselves often benefit greatly from the leadership experience of pulling together an international workshop on budget and on deadline. We have found that a combination of presentations from all participants in classroom sessions, professional development training such as communication and data management, and field-based relationship building and networking is a recipe for success. Small groups within the DCO ECS network have formed; publishing papers together, forging new research directions, and planning novel and ambitious field campaigns. Many DCO ECS also have come together to convene sessions at major international conferences, including the AGU Fall Meeting. Most of all, there is a broad sense of camaraderie and accessibility within the DCO ECS Community, providing the foundation for a career in the new, international, and interdisciplinary field of deep carbon science.

  18. The object classification task for children: A new measure of concept generation and mental flexibility in early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Smidts, D.P.; Jacobs, R.; Anderson, V.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the development of concept generation and mental flexibility was investigated in 84 Australian children between 3 and 7 years of age, using the Object Classification Task for Children (OCTC), a newly developed executive function test for use with young children. On this task, which was adapted from the Concept Generation Test (Levine, Stuss, & Milberg, 1995) and the Concept Generation Test for Children (Jacobs, Anderson, & Harvey, 2001), children were asked to categorize 6 plas...

  19. Making the Case for Early Identification and Intervention for Young Children at Risk for Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Marcee M.

    2004-01-01

    The early identification of children with learning disabilities (LD) is difficult but can be accomplished. Observation of key behaviors which are indicators of LD by preschool and kindergarten teachers can assist in this process. This early identification facilitates the use of intervention strategies to provide a positive early experience for…

  20. Molecular Memory of Morphologies by Septins during Neuron Generation Allows Early Polarity Inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubakar, Leila; Falk, Julien; Ducuing, Hugo; Thoinet, Karine; Reynaud, Florie; Derrington, Edmund; Castellani, Valérie

    2017-08-16

    Transmission of polarity established early during cell lineage history is emerging as a key process guiding cell differentiation. Highly polarized neurons provide a fascinating model to study inheritance of polarity over cell generations and across morphological transitions. Neural crest cells (NCCs) migrate to the dorsal root ganglia to generate neurons directly or after cell divisions in situ. Using live imaging of vertebrate embryo slices, we found that bipolar NCC progenitors lose their polarity, retracting their processes to round for division, but generate neurons with bipolar morphology by emitting processes from the same locations as the progenitor. Monitoring the dynamics of Septins, which play key roles in yeast polarity, indicates that Septin 7 tags process sites for re-initiation of process growth following mitosis. Interfering with Septins blocks this mechanism. Thus, Septins store polarity features during mitotic rounding so that daughters can reconstitute the initial progenitor polarity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Homogeneous Subgroups of Young Children with Autism Improve Phenotypic Characterization in the Study to Explore Early Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Lisa D; Tian, Lin H; Levy, Susan E; Rice, Catherine; Lee, Li-Ching; Schieve, Laura; Pandey, Juhi; Daniels, Julie; Blaskey, Lisa; Hepburn, Susan; Landa, Rebecca; Edmondson-Pretzel, Rebecca; Thompson, William

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify homogenous classes of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to improve phenotypic characterization. Children were enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development between 2 and 5 years of age. 707 children were classified with ASD after a comprehensive evaluation with strict diagnostic algorithms. Four classes of children with ASD were identified from latent class analysis: mild language delay with cognitive rigidity, mild language and motor delay with dysregulation, general developmental delay, and significant developmental delay with repetitive motor behaviors. We conclude that a four-class phenotypic model of children with ASD best describes our data and improves phenotypic characterization of young children with ASD. Implications for screening, diagnosis, and research are discussed.

  2. Social Inequalities in Young Children's Meal Skipping Behaviors: The Generation R Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne I Wijtzes

    Full Text Available Regular meal consumption is considered an important aspect of a healthy diet. While ample evidence shows social inequalities in breakfast skipping among adolescents, little is known about social inequalities in breakfast skipping and skipping of other meals among young school-aged children. Such information is crucial in targeting interventions aimed to promote a healthy diet in children.We examined data from 4704 ethnically diverse children participating in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Information on family socioeconomic position (SEP, ethnic background, and meal skipping behaviors was assessed by parent-reported questionnaire when the child was 6 years old. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the associations of family SEP (educational level, household income, employment status, family composition and ethnic background with meal skipping behaviors, using high SEP children and native Dutch children as reference groups.Meal skipping prevalence ranged from 3% (dinner to 11% (lunch. The prevalence of meal skipping was higher among low SEP children and ethnic minority children. Maternal educational level was independently associated with breakfast skipping ([low maternal educational level] OR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.24,3.94. Paternal educational level was independently associated with lunch skipping ([low paternal educational level] OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.06,2.20 and dinner skipping ([mid-high paternal educational level] OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.20,0.76. Household income was independently associated with breakfast skipping ([low income] OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.40,4.22 and dinner skipping ([low income] OR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.22,4.91. In general, ethnic minority children were more likely to skip breakfast, lunch, and dinner compared with native Dutch children. Adjustment for family SEP attenuated the associations of ethnic minority background with meal skipping behaviors

  3. Prevention and early intervention of anxiety problems in young children: A pilot evaluation of Cool Little Kids Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J. Morgan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are common, debilitating, and begin early in life. Early intervention to prevent anxiety disorders in children who are at risk could have long-term impact. The ‘Cool Little Kids’ parenting group program has previously been shown to be efficacious in preventing anxiety disorders in temperamentally inhibited young children. Wider dissemination of the program could be achieved with an internet-based delivery platform, affording greater accessibility and convenience for parents. The aim of this study was to evaluate ‘Cool Little Kids Online’, a newly developed online version of the existing parenting group program. Fifty-one parents of children aged 3–6 years were recruited to evaluate the online program's acceptability and preliminary efficacy in reducing inhibited young children's anxiety problems. Parents were randomized to receive either a clinician-supported version or an unsupported version of the program. Parents had 10 weeks to access the program and completed questionnaires at baseline and post-intervention. Both groups showed medium-to-large reductions in children's anxiety symptoms, emotional symptoms, number of child anxiety diagnoses, and improvements in life interference from anxiety. The effect of clinician support was inconsistent and difficult to interpret. Parents reported high levels of satisfaction with the program. These encouraging results indicate that the online version is acceptable and useful for parents with temperamentally inhibited young children. Cool Little Kids Online may be a promising direction for improving access to an evidence-based prevention and early intervention program for child anxiety problems. A large randomized trial is warranted to further evaluate efficacy.

  4. Demonstration tokamak fusion power plant for early realization of net electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiwatari, R.; Okano, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Shinya, K.; Ogawa, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A demonstration tokamak fusion power plant Demo-CREST is proposed as the device for early realization of net electric power generation by fusion energy. The plasma configuration for Demo-CREST is optimized to satisfy the electric breakeven condition (the condition for net electric power, P e net = 0 MW) with the plasma performance of the ITER reference operation mode. This optimization method is considered to be suitable for the design of a demonstration power plant for early realization of net electric power generation, because the demonstration power plant has to ensure the net electric generation. Plasma performance should also be more reliably achieved than in past design studies. For the plasma performance planned in the present ITER programme, net electric power from 0 to 500 MW is possible with Demo-CREST under the following engineering conditions: maximum magnetic field 16 T, thermal efficiency 30%, NBI system efficiency 50% and NBI current drive power restricted to 200 MW. By replacing the blanket system with one of higher thermal efficiency, a net electric power of about 1000 MW is also possible so that the performance of the commercial plant with Demo-CREST can also be studied from the economic point of view. The development path from the experimental reactor 'ITER' to the commercial plant 'CREST' through the demonstration power plant 'Demo-CREST' is proposed as an example of the fast track concept. (author)

  5. Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichow, Brian; Barton, Erin E; Boyd, Brian A; Hume, Kara

    2012-10-17

    The rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) increases the need for evidence-based behavioral treatments to lessen the impact of symptoms on children's functioning. At present, there are no curative or psychopharmacological therapies to effectively treat all symptoms of the disorder. Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI), a treatment based on the principles of applied behavior analysis delivered for multiple years at an intensity of 20 to 40 hours per week, is one of the more well-established treatments for ASD. To systematically review the evidence for the effectiveness of EIBI in increasing the functional behaviors and skills of young children with ASD. We searched the following databases on 22 November 2011: CENTRAL (2011 Issue 4), MEDLINE (1948 to November Week 2, 2011), EMBASE (1980 to Week 46, 2011), PsycINFO (1806 to November Week 3, 2011), CINAHL (1937 to current), ERIC (1966 to current), Sociological Abstracts (1952 to current), Social Science Citation Index (1970 to current), WorldCat, metaRegister of Controlled Trials, and Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations. We also searched the reference lists of published papers. Randomized control trials (RCTs), quasi-randomized control trials, or clinical control trials (CCTs) in which EIBI was compared to a no-treatment or treatment-as-usual control condition. Participants must have been less than six years of age at treatment onset and assigned to their study condition prior to commencing treatment. Two authors independently selected and appraised studies for inclusion and assessed the risk of bias in each included study. All outcome data were continuous, from which standardized mean difference effect sizes with small sample correction were calculated. We conducted random-effects meta-analysis where possible, which means we assumed individual studies would provide different estimates of treatment effects. One RCT and four CCTs with a total of 203 participants were included

  6. Learning to Learn: An Analysis of Early Learning Behaviours Demonstrated by Young Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing Children with High/Low Mathematics Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaro, Claudia M.; Kritzer, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Using a multiple case-study design, this study compares the early learning behaviours of young deaf/hard-of-hearing (d/hh) children with high/low mathematics ability (as defined by test score on the Test of Early Mathematics Ability-3). Children's simultaneous use of multiple learning behaviours was also examined as were contributing adult…

  7. It's Special and It's Specific: Understanding the Early Childhood Education Experiences and Expectations of Young Indigenous Australian Children and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Karen L.

    2017-01-01

    Whilst early childhood education is regarded as important for young Indigenous Australians and it has been a feature of policy since the 1960s, it does not receive the same attention as compulsory schooling for Indigenous Australian students. A serious lack of large-scale research contributes to the devaluing of early childhood education for young…

  8. Generation of complete coherence in Young's interference experiment with random mutually uncorrelated electromagnetic beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, G. S.; Dogariu, A.; Visser, T.D.; Wolf, E.

    2005-01-01

    The recently developed theory that unifies the treatments of polarization and coherence of random electro-magnetic beams is applied to study field correlations in Young's interference experiment. It is found that at certain pairs of points the transmitted field is spatially fully coherent,

  9. From Fiction to Fact to Potential Action: Generating Prosocial Attitudes and Behaviors Using Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Alice

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the impact reading Young Adult Literature (YAL) has on students' empathetic responses as well as their capacity to take action regarding a social justice issue chosen by the student. Drawing on data from a 10th grade honors classroom at a Title 1 school in the Southwest, this ethnographic case study investigates how…

  10. Helping Parents of Young Children with Disabilities Become Consumers of Early Intervention: A Marketing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugate, Douglas L.; Fugate, Janet M.

    1995-01-01

    This article suggests the use of marketing techniques to disseminate information products to parents of young children with disabilities. A marketing plan might include the following steps: determination of market needs, market segmentation and target marketing, marketing goals and objectives, marketing strategy, marketing mix tactics, and control…

  11. Development and application of a framework for comparing early-design methods for young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis - Thiescheffer, R.J.W.; Bekker, M.M.; Eggen, J.H.; Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Ridder, de H.

    2011-01-01

    When designing with young children, designers usually select user centred design methods based on the children’s required level of engagement and the inspiration expected to be created according to the designer. User centred design methods should be selected for their suitability for children and

  12. Authority and Agency in Young Children's Early Number Work: A Functional Linguistic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Carol

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of three six year-old children's use of functional language when engaging collaboratively on a mathematics task. The analysis is presented as an illustration of young children's authority and agency in mathematics as evidenced in their discourse. Modality, as a function of language, was seen to indicate…

  13. An Early Social Engagement Intervention for Young Children with Autism and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Ty W.; Koegel, Robert L.; Dauterman, Hayley; Stolen, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    The social vulnerabilities associated with young children with autism are recognized as important intervention targets due to their influence on subsequent development. Current research suggests that interventions that combine motivational and social components can create meaningful changes in social functioning. Simultaneously, it is hypothesized…

  14. Helping Early Childhood Educators to Understand and Assess Young Children's Mathematical Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Herbert P.

    2016-01-01

    This issue of "ZDM Mathematics Education" focuses on the formative assessment of young children's mathematical thinking, with an emphasis on computer-based approaches drawing upon on cognitive and educational research. The authors discuss several different assessment methods, including clinical interviewing, observation, and testing,…

  15. Televison Literacy: Making the T.V. Work for Young Children, Parents and Early Childhood Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Wayne

    Television plays a dominant role in our society; however, television on its own is neither bad nor good. It offers children benefits such as education and entertainment, but television can impact negatively on young lives by detracting children from other activities such as physical and dramatic play. The effect of television on children's…

  16. Severe gonadotoxic insult manifests early in young girls treated for Ewing sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mörse, Helena; Elfving, Maria; Turkiewicz, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    We prospectively investigated anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as a measure of ovarian insult in young females during and after treatment for Wilms tumor (WT), osteosarcoma (OS), and Ewing sarcoma (ES).Twenty-one female childhood cancer patients, with a mean age of 7.9 years (range 0.6-17), entered...

  17. Joint Engagement and Early Language in Young Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Laura J.; Brady, Nancy C.; Fleming, Kandace; Warren, Steven F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we examine joint engagement (JE) in young children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and its relationship to language abilities and autism spectrum disorder symptomatology at 24 to 36 months (toddler period) and 59 to 68 months (child period). Method: Participants were 28 children with FXS (24 boys, four girls) and their…

  18. Meta-Analysis of Studies Incorporating the Interests of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders into Early Intervention Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J. Dunst

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the interests and preferences of young children with autism spectrum disorders into interventions to promote prosocial behavior and decrease behavior excesses has emerged as a promising practice for addressing the core features of autism. The efficacy of interest-based early intervention practices was examined in a meta-analysis of 24 studies including 78 children 2 to 6 years of age diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Effect size analyses of intervention versus nonintervention conditions and high-interest versus low-interest contrasts indicated that interest-based intervention practices were effective in terms of increasing prosocial and decreasing aberrant child behavior. Additionally, interest-based interventions that focused on two of the three core features of autism spectrum disorders (poor communication, poor interpersonal relationships were found most effective in influencing child outcomes. Implications for very early intervention are discussed in terms addressing the behavior markers of autism spectrum disorders before they become firmly established.

  19. International Human Rights to Early Intervention for Infants and Young Children with Disabilities: Tools for Global Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sharan E.; Guralnick, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    With almost universal ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the growing number of States Parties that have signed or ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the majority of countries in the world have now committed to implementing the human rights articulated in these treaties. In this article we first provide an overview of both Conventions, highlight the articles in the treaties that are relevant to early intervention for infants and young children with disabilities, and describe the specific duties required of States Parties to ensure compliance including international cooperation. Second, a series of early intervention action principles are put forward that can help States Parties translate the underlying values of the Conventions into practice. PMID:26213446

  20. Generation rent’ and the ability to ‘settle down’ : Economic and geographical variation in young people’s housing transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoolachan, Jennifer; McKee, Kim; Moore, Tom; Soaita, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The term ‘Generation Rent’ denotes young people who are increasingly living in the private rented sector for longer periods of their lives because they are unable to access homeownership or social housing. Drawing on qualitative data from two studies with young people and key-actors, this paper

  1. Investing in the Early Childhood Mental Health Workforce Development: Enhancing Professionals' Competencies to Support Emotion and Behavior Regulation in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritblatt, Shulamit N; Hokoda, Audrey; Van Liew, Charles

    2017-09-19

    This paper delineates a preventive approach to early childhood mental health by preparing the workforce to provide relational, sensitive care to young children ages 0-5. One of the most prevalent issues in early childhood is behavioral challenges and the inability of young children to regulate themselves. This leads to an expulsion rate in early childhood (3-4 times higher than K-12 expulsion rate) and future mental health issues. The Early Childhood Social-Emotional and Behavior Regulation Intervention Specialist (EC-SEBRIS) graduate level certificate program was created to strengthen early care and education providers with the knowledge and practice of how to support emotion and behavior regulation in young children in their groups. Evaluation data provide evidence that early care and education professionals increased in their perception of self-efficacy and in their sensitivity of care and skills to support behavioral health in young children. Results indicated that the children in their care showed less challenging behaviors and increased social competencies. This manuscript highlights the importance of prevention and the dire need to provide young children with high-quality, appropriate care to support their mental health.

  2. Early Predictors of ASD in Young Children Using a Nationally Representative Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeans, Laurie M.; Santos, Rosa Milagros; Laxman, Daniel J.; McBride, Brent A.; Dyer, W. Justin

    2013-01-01

    Current clinical diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) occurs between 3 and 4 years of age, but increasing evidence indicates that intervention begun earlier may improve outcomes. Using secondary analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data set, the current study identifies early predictors prior to the diagnosis of…

  3. Canadian Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Young Children's Gender-Role Play and Cultural Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…

  4. Observing and Assessing Young Children's Digital Play in the Early Years: Using the Digital Play Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Susan; Bird, Jo

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood education settings are characterized by the use of play-based learning and the assessment of children's play by teachers to promote further learning. A problem with technology use in early childhood settings is that little is known about how children learn to use technologies through play. This lack of knowledge makes it difficult…

  5. Maternal Psychopathology and Early Child Temperament Predict Young Children's Salivary Cortisol 3 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Smith, Victoria C.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Rose, Suzanne A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine dysfunction is hypothesized to be an early emerging vulnerability marker for depression. We tested whether the main and interactive effects of maternal psychopathology and early child temperamental vulnerability for depression assessed at age three predicted offspring's basal cortisol function at age 6 years. 228 (122 males)…

  6. Ground based THz Spectroscopy of Obscured Starbursts in the Early Universe enabled by the 2nd generation Redshift (z) & Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwas, Amit; Stacey, Gordon; Nikola, Thomas; Ferkinhoff, Carl; Parshley, Stephen; Schoenwald, Justin; Lamarche, Cody James; Higdon, James; Higdon, Sarah; Brisbin, Drew; Güesten, Rolf; Weiss, Axel; Menten, Karl; Irwin, Kent; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Niemack, Michael; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Amiri, Mandana; Halpern, Mark; Wiebe, Donald; Hasselfield, Matthew; Ade, Peter; Tucker, Carole

    2018-01-01

    Galaxies were surprisingly dusty in the early Universe, with more than half of the light emitted from stars being absorbed by dust within the system and re-radiated into far infrared (FIR, ~50-150μm) wavelengths. Dusty star forming galaxies (DSFGs) dominate the co-moving star formation rate density of the Universe that peaks around redshift, z~2, making it compelling to study them in rest frame FIR bands. From galaxies at z > 1, the FIR line emission from abundant ions like [O III], [C II] and [N II], are redshifted into the short sub-mm telluric windows. My thesis work is based on building and deploying the 2nd Generation Redshift (z) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2), a long-slit, echelle grating spectrometer optimized to study broad (Δv = 300km/s) spectral lines from galaxies in the 200-650µm telluric windows using TES bolometers. These far-IR lines being extinction free and major coolants of the gas heated by (young) massive stars, are powerful probes of the physical conditions of the gas and the stellar radiation field. I present results from our survey of the [O III] 88µm line in galaxies at redshift, z ~ 2.8 to 4.6, with ZEUS-2 at the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) Telescope. To interpret our observations along with ancillary data from optical to radio facilities, we apply photoionization models for HII regions and Photo Dissociation Region (PDR) models and confirm that the galaxies host substantial ongoing obscured star formation. The presence of doubly ionized oxygen suggests hard radiation fields and hence, elevated ionization parameters that can only be accounted for by a large population of massive stars formed during the ongoing starburst, that contribute a large fraction of the infrared luminosity. This study highlights the use of FIR line emission to trace the assembly of current day massive galaxies, conditions of star formation and details of their stellar populations. The construction and operation of ZEUS-2 were funded by NSF ATI

  7. Retiring the Generation Gap: How Employees Young and Old Can Find Common Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Jennifer J.

    2007-01-01

    How different are the generations, really? Everybody knows that the "generation gap" between younger and older people causes stress and frustration at work. Are the differences people complain about just a big misunderstanding, or are they real? And most important, how can one use similarities and differences among the generations to be more…

  8. Early- and later-phases satellite cell responses and myonuclear content with resistance training in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damas, Felipe; Libardi, Cleiton A; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Vechin, Felipe C; Lixandrão, Manoel E; Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; Bacurau, Aline V; Brum, Patricia; Tricoli, Valmor; Roschel, Hamilton; Parise, Gianni; Phillips, Stuart M

    2018-01-01

    Satellite cells (SC) are associated with skeletal muscle remodelling after muscle damage and/or extensive hypertrophy resulting from resistance training (RT). We recently reported that early increases in muscle protein synthesis (MPS) during RT appear to be directed toward muscle damage repair, but MPS contributes to hypertrophy with progressive muscle damage attenuation. However, modulations in acute-chronic SC content with RT during the initial (1st-wk: high damage), early (3rd-wk: attenuated damage), and later (10th-wk: no damage) stages is not well characterized. Ten young men (27 ± 1 y, 23.6 ± 1.0 kg·m-2) underwent 10-wks of RT and muscle biopsies (vastus-lateralis) were taken before (Pre) and post (48h) the 1st (T1), 5th (T2) and final (T3) RT sessions to evaluate fibre type specific SC content, cross-sectional area (fCSA) and myonuclear number by immunohistochemistry. We observed RT-induced hypertrophy after 10-wks of RT (fCSA increased ~16% in type II, P phase of RT than muscle hypertrophy resulted from 10-wks RT in young men. Chronic elevated SC pool size with RT is important providing proper environment for future stresses or larger fCSA increases.

  9. A probability evaluation method of early deterioration condition for the critical components of wind turbine generator systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Y.; Li, H.; Liao, X

    2016-01-01

    method of early deterioration condition for critical components based only on temperature characteristic parameters. First, the dynamic threshold of deterioration degree function was proposed by analyzing the operational data between temperature and rotor speed. Second, a probability evaluation method...... of early deterioration condition was presented. Finally, two cases showed the validity of the proposed probability evaluation method in detecting early deterioration condition and in tracking their further deterioration for the critical components.......This study determines the early deterioration condition of critical components for a wind turbine generator system (WTGS). Due to the uncertainty nature of the fluctuation and intermittence of wind, early deterioration condition evaluation poses a challenge to the traditional vibration...

  10. The timing of family commitments in the early work career: Work-family trajectories of young adults in Flanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Koelet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article examines the diverse ways in which young adults develop both their professional career and family life in the years immediately after they complete their education. Building a career and starting a family often occur simultaneously in this stage of life. By studying the simultaneous developments in these life domains, we can gain a better understanding of this complex interplay. Methods: The data consist of a sample of 1,657 young adults born in 1976 who were interviewed as part of the SONAR survey of Flanders at ages 23, 26, and 29 about their education, their entry into and early years on the labour market, and their family life. Sequence analysis is used to study the timing of union formation and having children among these young adults, as well as how these events are related to their work career. Multinomial regression analysis is applied to help us gain a better understanding of the extent to which these life course patterns are determined by education and economic status at the start of the career. Results: The results reveal a set of work-family trajectories which vary in terms of the extent of labour market participation and the type and timing of family formation. Various aspects of the trajectory are found to be determined by different dimensions of an individual's educational career (duration, level, field of study. Education is more relevant for women than for men, as a man's trajectory is more likely than a woman's to be determined by the first job. Conclusions: By using a simultaneous approach which takes into account both family and work, this life course analysis confirms that men have a head start on the labour market, and examines the factors which influence the distinct trajectories of young women and men.

  11. Unpacking Early Work Experiences of Young Adults With Rheumatic Disease: An Examination of Absenteeism, Job Disruptions, and Productivity Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetha, Arif; Badley, Elizabeth; Beaton, Dorcas; Fortin, Paul R; Shiff, Natalie J; Gignac, Monique A M

    2015-09-01

    To examine work absenteeism, job disruptions, and perceived productivity loss and factors associated with each outcome in young adults living with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and juvenile arthritis (JA). One hundred forty-three young adults, ages 18-30 years with SLE (54.5%) and JA (45.5%), completed an online survey of work experiences. Demographic, health (e.g., fatigue, disease activity), psychosocial (e.g., independence, social support), and work context (e.g., career satisfaction, job control, self-disclosure) information was collected. Participants were asked about absenteeism, job disruptions, and perceived productivity loss in the last 6 months. Log Poisson regression analyses examined factors associated with work outcomes. A majority of participants (59%) were employed and reported a well-managed health condition. Employed respondents were satisfied with their career progress and indicated moderate job control. More than 40% of participants reported absenteeism, job disruptions, and productivity loss. Greater job control and self-disclosure, and less social support, were related to a higher likelihood of absenteeism. More disease activity was related to a greater likelihood of reporting job disruptions. Lower fatigue and higher job control were associated with a reduced likelihood of a productivity loss. Young adult respondents with rheumatic disease experienced challenges with employment, including absenteeism, job disruptions, and productivity loss. While related to greater absenteeism, job control could play a role in a young person's ability to manage their health condition and sustain productive employment. Greater attention should also be paid to understanding health factors and social support in early work experiences. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  12. The object classification task for children: A new measure of concept generation and mental flexibility in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidts, D.P.; Jacobs, R.; Anderson, V.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the development of concept generation and mental flexibility was investigated in 84 Australian children between 3 and 7 years of age, using the Object Classification Task for Children (OCTC), a newly developed executive function test for use with young children. On this task, which

  13. Young Generation of OAO 'Mashinostroitelny Zavod' Specialists Trends and Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khryashchev, D. [OAO ' Mashinostroitelny Zavod' , town of Elektrostal, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    The paper brings forth the information related to the youth organizations acting at the factory, their policies, provisions of youth incentives, intake of employees to the company, labor motivation. There is also the information on the events, which take place on site, on the arrangements of the young employees' leisure, as well as on the creative and productive potential of the factory. (author)

  14. Can superconducting cosmic strings piercing seed black holes generate supermassive black holes in the early universe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lake, Matthew J. [The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Naresuan University, Phitsanulok (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand); Harko, Tiberiu [Department of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Department of Mathematics, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-15

    The discovery of a large number of supermassive black holes (SMBH) at redshifts z > 6, when the Universe was only 900 million years old, raises the question of how such massive compact objects could form in a cosmologically short time interval. Each of the standard scenarios proposed, involving rapid accretion of seed black holes or black hole mergers, faces severe theoretical difficulties in explaining the short-time formation of supermassive objects. In this work we propose an alternative scenario for the formation of SMBH in the early Universe, in which energy transfer from superconducting cosmic strings piercing small seed black holes is the main physical process leading to rapid mass increase. As a toy model, the accretion rate of a seed black hole pierced by two antipodal strings carrying constant current is considered. Using an effective action approach, which phenomenologically incorporates a large class of superconducting string models, we estimate the minimum current required to form SMBH with masses of order M = 2 x 10{sup 9} M {sub CircleDot} by z = 7.085. This corresponds to the mass of the central black hole powering the quasar ULAS J112001.48+064124.3 and is taken as a test case scenario for early-epoch SMBH formation. For GUT scale strings, the required fractional increase in the string energy density, due to the presence of the current, is of order 10{sup -7}, so that their existence remains consistent with current observational bounds on the string tension. In addition, we consider an ''exotic'' scenario, in which an SMBH is generated when a small seed black hole is pierced by a higher-dimensional F-string, predicted by string theory. We find that both topological defect strings and fundamental strings are able to carry currents large enough to generate early-epoch SMBH via our proposed mechanism. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Hospitalisation with otitis media in early childhood and cognitive function in young adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marie; Nielsen, Rikke Beck; Fisker, Niels

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Otitis media (OM) is a very common condition in children and occurs during years that are critical to the development of learning, literacy, and math skills. Therefore, among a large cohort of Danish conscripts, we aimed to examine the association between hospitalisation with OM...... in early childhood and cognitive function and educational level in early adulthood. METHODS: We conducted a population-based prevalence study using linked data from healthcare databases and conscription records of Danish men born between 1977 and 1983. We identified all hospitalisations with OM before 8......% CI: 0.78-1.34)]. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found that hospitalisation with OM in early childhood was associated with a slightly lower cognitive function in early adulthood. Hospitalisation for OM did not seem to influence the prevalence of GSCE when level of BPP was taken into account....

  16. Early motor developmental milestones and level of neuroticism in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Revsbech, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    intelligence. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are the first of their kind and suggest that delays in early motor development may not only characterize psychopathological disorders such as schizophrenia, but may also be associated with the personality dimension of neuroticism in adulthood.......BACKGROUND: Studies investigating early developmental factors in relation to psychopathology have mainly focused on schizophrenia. The personality dimension of neuroticism seems to be a general risk factor for psychopathology, but evidence on associations between early developmental precursors...... and personality traits is almost non-existent. This study is therefore the first to investigate associations between early motor developmental milestones and neuroticism in adulthood. Method Mothers of 9125 children of the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort recorded 12 developmental milestones during the child's first...

  17. Evaluation of early changes of cartilage biomarkers following arthroscopic meniscectomy in young Egyptian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy Khamis Koryem

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Cartilage volume loss by MRI combined with changes in cartilage matrix turnover detected by molecular biomarkers may reflect the initial changes associated with cartilage degeneration that account for early OA.

  18. Young infants with severe tetralogy of Fallot: Early primary surgery versus transcatheter palliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Travis J; Van Arsdell, Glen S; Benson, Lee; Pham-Hung, Eric; Gritti, Michael; Page, Alexandra; Caldarone, Christopher A; Hickey, Edward J

    2017-11-01

    Infants with severe tetralogy of Fallot may undergo (1) early primary surgical repair (EARLY) or (2) early transcatheter palliation (CATH) before delayed surgical repair. We compared these strategies with (3) elective single-stage tetralogy of Fallot repair (IDEAL). From 2000 to 2012, 453 children underwent tetralogy of Fallot repair (excluding systemic-pulmonary shunts), including 383 in the IDEAL (75%), 42 in the EARLY (9%), and 28 in the CATH (6%) groups. IDEAL repair at The Hospital for Sick Children occurs after 3 months. Risk-adjusted hazard analysis compared freedom from surgical or catheter reintervention. Somatic size, branch pulmonary artery size, and right ventricle systolic pressure were modeled using 2780 echocardiogram reports via mixed-model regression. CATH involved right ventricular outflow tract stent in 18 patients, right ventricular outflow tract balloon in 9 patients, and ductal-stent in 1 patient. Three patients died (1 per group). Risk-adjusted freedom from surgical reoperation was 89% ± 4%, 88% ± 5%, and 85% ± 6% for the IDEAL, EARLY, and CATH groups, respectively, at 10 years. Patients in the EARLY and CATH groups had similar reoperation rates, except for neonates (tetralogy of Fallot. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Generation of global political priority for early childhood development: the challenges of framing and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawar, Yusra Ribhi; Shiffman, Jeremy

    2017-01-07

    Despite progress, early childhood development (ECD) remains a neglected issue, particularly in resource-poor countries. We analyse the challenges and opportunities that ECD proponents face in advancing global priority for the issue. We triangulated among several data sources, including 19 semi-structured interviews with individuals involved in global ECD leadership, practice, and advocacy, as well as peer-reviewed research, organisation reports, and grey literature. We undertook a thematic analysis of the collected data, drawing on social science scholarship on collective action and a policy framework that elucidates why some global initiatives are more successful in generating political priority than others. The analysis indicates that the ECD community faces two primary challenges in advancing global political priority. The first pertains to framing: generation of internal consensus on the definition of the problem and solutions, agreement that could facilitate the discovery of a public positioning of the issue that could generate political support. The second concerns governance: building of effective institutions to achieve collective goals. However, there are multiple opportunities to advance political priority for ECD, including an increasingly favourable political environment, advances in ECD metrics, and the existence of compelling arguments for investment in ECD. To advance global priority for ECD, proponents will need to surmount the framing and governance challenges and leverage these opportunities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Generation and Beaming of Early Hot Electrons onto the Capsule in Laser-Driven Ignition Hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewald, E. L.; Hartemann, F.; Michel, P.; Milovich, J.; Hohenberger, M.; Pak, A.; Landen, O. L.; Divol, L.; Robey, H. F.; Hurricane, O. A.; Döppner, T.; Albert, F.; Bachmann, B.; Meezan, N. B.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Callahan, D.; Edwards, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    In hohlraums for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions on the National Ignition Facility, suprathermal hot electrons, generated by laser plasma instabilities early in the laser pulse ("picket") while blowing down the laser entrance hole (LEH) windows, can preheat the capsule fuel. Hard x-ray imaging of a Bi capsule surrogate and of the hohlraum emissions, in conjunction with the measurement of time-resolved bremsstrahlung spectra, allows us to uncover for the first time the directionality of these hot electrons and infer the capsule preheat. Data and Monte Carlo calculations indicate that for most experiments the hot electrons are emitted nearly isotropically from the LEH. However, we have found cases where a significant fraction of the generated electrons are emitted in a collimated beam directly towards the capsule poles, where their local energy deposition is up to 10 × higher than the average preheat value and acceptable levels for ICF implosions. The observed "beaming" is consistent with a recently unveiled multibeam stimulated Raman scattering model [P. Michel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 055003 (2015)], where laser beams in a cone drive a common plasma wave on axis. Finally, we demonstrate that we can control the amount of generated hot electrons by changing the laser pulse shape and hohlraum plasma.

  1. Psychological morbidities in adolescent and young adult blood cancer patients during curative-intent therapy and early survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Lori S; Hlubocky, Fay J; Khan, Niloufer; Wroblewski, Kristen; Breitenbach, Katherine; Gomez, Joseline; McNeer, Jennifer L; Stock, Wendy; Daugherty, Christopher K

    2016-03-15

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer face unique psychosocial challenges. This pilot study was aimed at describing the prevalence of psychological morbidities among AYAs with hematologic malignancies during curative-intent therapy and early survivorship and at examining provider perceptions of psychological morbidities in their AYA patients. Patients aged 15 to 39 years with acute leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, or Hodgkin lymphoma who were undergoing curative-intent therapy (on-treatment group) or were in remission within 2 years of therapy completion (early survivors) underwent a semistructured interview that incorporated measures of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress (PTS). A subset of providers (n = 15) concomitantly completed a survey for each of the first 30 patients enrolled that evaluated their perception of each subject's anxiety, depression, and PTS. Sixty-one of 77 eligible AYAs participated. The median age at diagnosis was 26 years (range, 15-39 years), 64% were male, and 59% were non-Hispanic white. On-treatment demographics differed significantly from early-survivor demographics only in the median time from diagnosis to interview. Among the 61 evaluable AYAs, 23% met the criteria for anxiety, 28% met the criteria for depression, and 13% met the criteria for PTS; 46% demonstrated PTS symptomatology. Thirty-nine percent were impaired in 1 or more psychological domains. Psychological impairments were as frequent among early survivors as AYAs on treatment. Provider perceptions did not significantly correlate with patient survey results. AYAs with hematologic malignancies experience substantial psychological morbidities while they are undergoing therapy and during early survivorship, with more than one-third of the patients included in this study meeting the criteria for anxiety, depression, or traumatic stress. This psychological burden may not be accurately identified by their oncology providers. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  2. The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashper Stuart

    2010-02-01

    progression of early childhood caries from age 1-18 months. Discussion There is currently a lack of research describing the natural history of early childhood caries in very young children, or exploring the interactions between risk and protective factors that extend to include contemporary measures of socio-behavioural factors. This study will generate knowledge about pathways, prevalence and preventive opportunities for early childhood caries, the most prevalent child health inequality.

  3. Urinary NGAL and hematic ADMA levels: an early sign of cardio-renal syndrome in young adults born preterm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassareo, Pier Paolo; Fanos, Vassilios; Mussap, Michele; Flore, Giovanna; Noto, Antonio; Puddu, Melania; Saba, Luca; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Prematurity at birth is a known risk factor for the development of an early chronic renal disease. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a well established biomarker of kidney injury, while high blood levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are associated with the future development of adverse cardiovascular events and cardiac death. (1) to verify the presence of statistically significant differences between urinary NGAL and hematic ADMA levels in young adults born preterm at extremely low birth weight (<1000 g; ex-ELBW) and those of a control group of healthy adults born at term (C) (2) to seek correlations between NGAL and ADMA levels, which would indicate the presence of an early cardio-renal involvement in ex-ELBW. Twelve ex-ELBW subjects (six males and six female, mean age: 23.9 ± 3.2 years) were compared with 12 C (six males and six female). Urinary NGAL and hematic ADMA levels were assessed. Urinary NGAL levels were higher in ex- ELBW subjects compared to C (p < 0.05), as well as hematic ADMA concentrations (p < 0.05). A statistically significant correlation was found between urinary NGAL and ADMA (r = -0.60, p < 0.04). Our preliminary findings support the hypothesis that in ex-ELBW subjects the development of an early chronic kidney disease contributes towards inducing an increase in the atherosclerotic process and in the risk of future adverse cardiovascular events.

  4. Using Cartilage MRI T2-Mapping to Analyze Early Cartilage Degeneration in the Knee Joint of Young Professional Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldenmeier, Leonie; Evers, Christoph; Uder, Michael; Janka, Rolf; Hennig, Frank Friedrich; Pachowsky, Milena Liese; Welsch, Götz Hannes

    2018-02-01

    Objective To evaluate and characterize the appearance of articular cartilage in the tibiofemoral joint of young professional soccer players using T2-relaxation time evaluation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Design In this study, we included 57 male adolescents from the youth academy of a professional soccer team. The MRI scans were acquired of the knee joint of the supporting leg. An "early unloading" (minute 0) and "late unloading" (minute 28) T2-sequence was included in the set of images. Quantitative T2-analysis was performed in the femorotibial joint cartilage in 4 slices with each 10 regions of interest (ROIs). Statistical evaluation, using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, was primarily performed to compare the T2 values of the "early unloading" and "late unloading." Results When comparing "early unloading" with "late unloading," our findings showed a significant increase of T2-relaxation times in the weightbearing femoral cartilage of the medial ( P cartilage of the medial compartment ( P cartilage were found with a maximum in the medial condyle where the biomechanical load of the knee joint is highest, as well as where most of the chronic cartilage lesions occur. To avoid chronic damage, special focus should be laid on this region.

  5. Early Parturition: Is Young Maternal Age at First Birth Associated with Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchen, Loral; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Astone, Nan M

    2017-10-01

    Examine the association of age at first birth with body mass index (BMI), and explore the role of young maternal age and subsequent obesity. This study analyzed data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a nationally representative longitudinal study of US families. Analyses were conducted using a mixed effects longitudinal linear regression with a random intercept to examine the effect of aging, age at first birth, and minority status using nested data. Study criteria yielded a final sample of 146 women with 707 observations. BMI. Age at first birth exhibited a significant association with BMI. The association of age at first birth with BMI was greatest for women age 21 and younger. Overall, women who experienced their first birth at age 21 or younger had a BMI 5 units greater than women who delayed childbearing until at least age 30 (point estimate, 5.02; P = .02; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-9.40). Young maternal age at first birth might be associated with increased BMI. Minority women also experience their first birth at younger ages compared with white women, suggesting possible linkages between the timing of reproductive events and obesity disparities. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Tablet Computer for Young Children? Exploring Its Viability for Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couse, Leslie J.; Chen, Dora W.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the viability of tablet computers in early education by investigating preschool children's ease in acclimating to tablet technology and its defectiveness in engaging them to draw. A total of 41 three- to six-year-old children were videotaped while they used the tablets. The study found significant differences in level of tablet…

  7. Shedding Light: Private "For Profit" Training Providers and Young Early School Leavers. NCVER Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myconos, George; Clarke, Kira; te Riele, Kitty

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the oft-criticised segment of the vocational education and training (VET) sector in Australia--private, for-profit registered training organisations (RTOs)--with the aim of gaining a clearer understanding of the approaches they adopt in training 15 to 19-year-olds who have left school early. Through a nationwide survey…

  8. Early Start Denver Model for Young Children with Autism: Promoting Language, Learning, and Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Sally J.; Dawson, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    From leading authorities, this state-of-the-art manual presents the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), the first comprehensive, empirically tested intervention specifically designed for toddlers and preschoolers with autism. Supported by the principles of developmental psychology and applied behavior analysis, ESDM's intensive teaching interventions…

  9. Early Behavioral Intervention Is Associated with Normalized Brain Activity in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; Jones, Emily J. H.; Merkle, Kristen; Venema, Kaitlin; Lowy, Rachel; Faja, Susan; Kamara, Dana; Murias, Michael; Greenson, Jessica; Winter, Jamie; Smith, Milani; Rogers, Sally J.; Webb, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A previously published randomized clinical trial indicated that a developmental behavioral intervention, the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), resulted in gains in IQ, language, and adaptive behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder. This report describes a secondary outcome measurement from this trial, EEG activity. Method:…

  10. Use of early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomone, E.; Beranova, S.; Bonnet-Brilhault, F.; Lauritsen, M.; Budisteanu, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Canal-Bedia, R.; Felhosi, G.; Fletcher-Watson, S.; Freitag, C.; Fuentes, J.; Gallagher, L.; Primo, P. Garcia; Gliga, F.; Gomot, M.; Green, J.; Heimann, M.; Jonsdottir, S.L.; Kaale, A.; Kawa, R.; Kylliainen, A.; Lemcke, S.; Markovska-Simoska, S.; Marschik, P.B.; McConachie, H.; Moilanen, I.; Muratori, F.; Narzisi, A.; Noterdaeme, M.; Oliveira, G.; Oosterling, I.; Pijl, M.; Pop-Jordanova, N.; Poustka, L.; Roeyers, H.; Roge, B.; Sinzig, J.; Vicente, A.; Warreyn, P.; Charman, T.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about use of early interventions for autism spectrum disorder in Europe. Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder aged 7 years or younger (N = 1680) were recruited through parent organisations in 18 European countries and completed an online survey about the interventions

  11. Use of Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Erica; Beranová, Štepánka; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Briciet Lauritsen, Marlene; Budisteanu, Magdalena; Buitelaar, Jan; Canal-Bedia, Ricardo; Felhosi, Gabriella; Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Freitag, Christine; Fuentes, Joaquin; Gallagher, Louise; Garcia Primo, Patricia; Gliga, Fotinica; Gomot, Marie; Green, Jonathan; Heimann, Mikael; Jónsdóttir, Sigridur Loa; Kaale, Anett; Kawa, Rafal; Kylliainen, Anneli; Lemcke, Sanne; Markovska-Simoska, Silvana; Marschik, Peter B; McConachie, Helen; Moilanen, Irma; Muratori, Filippo; Narzisi, Antonio; Noterdaeme, Michele; Oliveira, Guiomar; Oosterling, Iris; Pijl, Mirjam; Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Poustka, Luise; Roeyers, Herbert; Rogé, Bernadette; Sinzig, Judith; Vicente, Astrid; Warreyn, Petra; Charman, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about use of early interventions for autism spectrum disorder in Europe. Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder aged 7?years or younger (N?=?1680) were recruited through parent organisations in 18 European countries and completed an online survey about the interventions their child received. There was considerable…

  12. The Needs and Difficulties in Socializing the Young in Contemporary China: Early Childhood Education Experts' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yeh; Hao, Jun; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    This study was the first of its kind in China to examine early childhood education experts' perspectives on the urgent educational needs of preschool-aged children. Twenty-one nationally and regionally recognized experts, including university professors, practitioners and government officials, participated in interviews. They offered critical…

  13. Parental Alcohol-Specific Rules and Alcohol Use from Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Suzanne H. W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Burk, William J.; van der Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several studies stress the importance of alcohol-specific rules during adolescence to prevent them from drinking early and heavily. However, most studies have short follow-up periods and do not cover the relevant developmental period in which direct parental control diminishes and adolescent alcohol use increases. The current study…

  14. Early Adolescent Family Experiences and Perceived Social Support in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayman, Mathew D.; Turner, R. Jay; Cislo, Andrew M.; Eliassen, A. Henry

    2011-01-01

    Although the protective role of social support is well established in the health literature, antecedents of perceived social support are not well understood. Research on family experiential factors during early adolescence, an important psychosocial developmental period in the life course, represents a promising line of inquiry. Using a sample of…

  15. "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years": A Proposed Framework of Young Children's Musical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyajolu, Angela; Ockelford, Adam

    2016-01-01

    "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years" explores the musical development of children from birth to five years of age. Observational evidence has been utilised together with key literature on musical development and core concepts of zygonic theory (Ockelford, 2013) to investigate the applicability of the original "Sounds of…

  16. Benefits of Early Childhood Interventions across the World: (Under) Investing in the Very Young

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nores, Milagros; Barnett, W. Steven

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the international (non-U.S.) evidence on the benefits of early childhood interventions. A total of 38 contrasts of 30 interventions in 23 countries were analyzed. It focuses on studies applying a quasi-experimental or random assignment. Studies were coded according to: the type of intervention (cash transfer, nutritional,…

  17. How Silent Is the "Silent Period" for Young Bilinguals in Early Years Settings in England?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Rose

    2013-01-01

    During the first decade of the twenty-first century there have been increasing numbers of bilingual children entering early years settings, many of whom are new to English. Twelve percent of school children in the UK are identified as having a mother tongue other than English and this number rises to 50% in urban areas such as inner London. In…

  18. From External Regulation to Self-Regulation: Early Parenting Precursors of Young Children's Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Annie; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Whipple, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    In keeping with proposals emphasizing the role of early experience in infant brain development, this study investigated the prospective links between quality of parent-infant interactions and subsequent child executive functioning (EF), including working memory, impulse control, and set shifting. Maternal sensitivity, mind-mindedness and autonomy…

  19. GC Side Event: Future of Nuclear Energy: Engaging the Young Generation. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This event presented the IAEA’s programmes for the education and training of a new generation of nuclear professionals. It also featured the annual European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering (EMSNE) award ceremony

  20. Endoscopic laser-induced steam generator: a new method of treatment for early gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takuya; Arai, Tsunenori; Tajiri, Hisao; Nogami, Yashiroh; Hino, Kunihiko; Kikuchi, Makoto

    1996-05-01

    The minimum invasive endoscopic treatment for early gastric cancer has been popular in Japan. The endoscopic mucosal resection and laser coagulation by Nd:YAG laser irradiation has been the popular treatment method in this field. However, the submucosal cancer has not been successfully treated by these methods. To treat the submucosal cancer endoscopically, we developed a new coagulation therapy using hot steam generated by Nd:YAG laser. The steam of which temperature was over 10 deg. in Celsius was generated by the laser power of 30 W with 5 ml/min. of saline. The steam was emitted to canine gastric wall under laparotomy or endoscopy for 50 s respectively. Follow up endoscopy was performed on 3, 7, 14, 28 days after the treatment. Histological examination was studied on 7, 28 days, and just after the emission. In the acute observation, the submucosal layer was totally coagulated. On the 7th day, ulceration with white coat was seen. The mucosal defect, submucosal coagulation, and marked edema without muscle degeneration were found by the histological study. On the 14th day, the ulcer advanced in the scar stage. On the 28th day, it completely healed into white scar with mucosal regeneration and mucosal muscle thickening. We could obtain reproducible coagulation up to deep submucosal layer with large area in a short operation time. Moreover there were no degeneration of proper muscle. This treatment effectiveness could be easily controlled by the steam temperature and emission duration. We think that this method can be applied to early gastric cancer including the submucosal cancer, in particular poor risk case for operation. Further study should be done to apply this method to clinical therapy.

  1. A novel intravital multi-harmonic generation microscope for early diagnosis of oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Chih-Feng; Shih, Ting-Fang; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2013-03-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed human cancers and leading causes of cancer death all over the world, but the prognosis and overall survival rate are still poor because of delay in diagnosis and lack of early intervention. The failure of early diagnosis is due to insufficiency of proper diagnostic and screening tools and most patients are reluctant to undergo biopsy. Optical virtual biopsy techniques, for imaging cells and tissues at microscopic details capable of differentiating benign from malignant lesions non-invasively, are thus highly desirable. A novel multi-harmonic generation microscope, excited by a 1260 nm Cr:forsterite laser, with second and third harmonic signals demonstrating collagen fiber distribution and cell morphology in a sub-micron resolution, was developed for clinical use. To achieve invivo observation inside the human oral cavity, a small objective probe with a suction capability was carefully designed for patients' comfort and stability. By remotely changing its focus point, the same objective can image the mucosa surface with a low magnification, illuminated by side light-emitting diodes, with a charge-coupled device (CCD) for site location selection before the harmonic generation biopsy was applied. Furthermore, the slow galvanometer mirror and the fast resonant mirror provide a 30 fps frame rate for high-speed real-time observation and the z-motor of this system is triggered at the same rate to provide fast 3D scanning, again ensuring patients' comfort. Focusing on the special cytological and morphological changes of the oral epithelial cells, our preliminary result disclosed excellent consistency with traditional histopathology studies.

  2. Hydrogen production in early generation fusion power plant and its socio-economic implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, S.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: This paper describes technical possibility of high temperature blanket for the early generation of fusion power plant and its application to hydrogen production. Its anticipated implication and strategy from the socio-economic aspects will be also discussed. Material and energy balances, such as fuel supply and delivery of product energy from fusion plants, as well as waste discharge and accident scenario that lead to environmental impact, are characterized by blanket concepts. Thus blankets are considered to dominate the feature of fusion energy that should respond to the requirements of the sponsors, i.e., public and future market. Fusion blanket concept based on the combinations of LiPb and SiC materials are regarded as a candidate for ITER/TBM, and at the same time, applied in various DEMO designs encompassing high temperature output. Recent developments of SiC-LiPb blanket in Japan, EU, US or China suggests staged development paths starting from TBMs and targeting high temperature blanket and efficient energy output from early generation plants. These strategies are strongly affected by the views of these parties on fusion energy, from the aspects of socio-economics. Hydrogen production process with the high temperature blanket is one of the most important issues, because temperature range much higher than is possible with current or near future fission plants are needed, suggesting market possibility different from that of fission. Fuel cycles, particularly lithium supply and TBR control will be also important. Self-sustained fusion fuel cycle requires technical capability to maintain the lithium contents. Liquid blanket has an advantage in continuous and real-time control TBR in a plant, but large amount of lithium-6 and initial tritium supply remains as issues. As for the environmental effect, normal operation release, assumed accidental scenario, and rad-waste will be the key issue to dominate social acceptance of fusion. (author)

  3. Hydrogen production in early generation fusion power plant and its socio-economic implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes technical possibility of high temperature blanket for the early generation of fusion power plant and its application to hydrogen production. Its anticipated implication and strategy from the socio-economic aspects will be also discussed. Material and energy balances, such as fuel supply and delivery of product energy from fusion plants, as well as waste discharge and accident scenario that lead to environmental impact, are characterized by blanket concepts. Thus blankets are considered to dominate the feature of fusion energy that should respond to the requirements of the sponsors, i.e., public and future market. Fusion blanket concept based on the combinations of LiPb and SiC materials are regarded as a candidate for ITER/TBM, and at the same time, applied in various DEMO designs encompassing high temperature output. Recent developments of SiC-LiPb blanket in Japan, EU, US or China suggests staged development paths starting from TBMs and targeting high temperature blanket and efficient energy output from early generation plants. These strategies are strongly affected by the views of these parties on fusion energy, from the aspects of socio-economics. Hydrogen production process with the high temperature blanket is one of the most important issues, because temperature range much higher than is possible with current or near future fission plants are needed, suggesting market possibility different from that of fission. Fuel cycles, particularly lithium supply and TBR control will be also important. Self-sustained fusion fuel cycle requires technical capability to maintain the lithium contents. Liquid blanket has an advantage in continuous and real-time control TBR in a plant, but large amount of lithium-6 and initial tritium supply remains as issues. As for the environmental effect, normal operation release, assumed accidental scenario, and rad-waste will be the key issue to dominate social acceptance of fusion. (author)

  4. A tale of two timescales: Mixing, mass generation, and phase transitions in the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Kost, Jeff; Thomas, Brooks

    2016-02-01

    Light scalar fields such as axions and string moduli can play an important role in early-universe cosmology. However, many factors can significantly impact their late-time cosmological abundances. For example, in cases where the potentials for these fields are generated dynamically—such as during cosmological mass-generating phase transitions—the duration of the time interval required for these potentials to fully develop can have significant repercussions. Likewise, in scenarios with multiple scalars, mixing amongst the fields can also give rise to an effective timescale that modifies the resulting late-time abundances. Previous studies have focused on the effects of either the first or the second timescale in isolation. In this paper, by contrast, we examine the new features that arise from the interplay between these two timescales when both mixing and time-dependent phase transitions are introduced together. First, we find that the effects of these timescales can conspire to alter not only the total late-time abundance of the system—often by many orders of magnitude—but also its distribution across the different fields. Second, we find that these effects can produce large parametric resonances which render the energy densities of the fields highly sensitive to the degree of mixing as well as the duration of the time interval over which the phase transition unfolds. Finally, we find that these effects can even give rise to a "reoverdamping" phenomenon which causes the total energy density of the system to behave in novel ways that differ from those exhibited by pure dark matter or vacuum energy. All of these features therefore give rise to new possibilities for early-universe phenomenology and cosmological evolution. They also highlight the importance of taking into account the time dependence associated with phase transitions in cosmological settings.

  5. The problematic of early diagnosis of breast cancer for young women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobodníkova, J.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy of the female population, the incidence is increasing mainly statistically between 50.a 60s, 60s and 70s. Recently, however, we meet more often with the occurrence of breast cancer in women in 30.roku a significantly between 30 and and 40 year. For women this age range is not preventive screening mammography, sonography and only clinical examination-examination by touch. In the period from 1.5. 2005 to 30.11. 2014 we performed mammographic and sonographic examinations (more than 56,000 mammograms, while more than 120,000 sonographic examination). The youngest patient was 8 years old, the oldest 94 years. The examinations we performed with the mammography by Siemens NovA 3000, sonographic examination by machine Siemens SG 50, BK Focus 400 and Philips HD 7. Patients were sent for examination by attending gynecologist, general practitioner. Preventive examination completed asymptomatic women without clinical findings. Young women and girls were examined by sonography, next if necessary mammografically too. During the monitored period, we diagnosed 328 new cases of breast cancer. In a retrospective study, we worked with a set of 328 patients. All cases are histologically verified. The age distribution of patients with newly diagnosed cancer we transparently stored in tables and graphs. We focused on women in the age group to 45 years old, we analyzed the different findings, especially with respect to the possibility of diagnosing palpable, clinically and clinically only. We retrospectively evaluated requests and copies of examinations. The patients presented were finally correctly diagnosed, treated with a relatively good prognosis. their diagnosis, however, could be faster and smaller tumors. However, despite the fact that Slovakia has enacted preventive investigation of the breast young women from the 20 to 40th of clinically and sonographically, encountered in practice, often with cases of breast cancer

  6. Evidence for the Implementation of the Early Start Denver Model for Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Kayce H

    2015-01-01

    The Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) is a manualized comprehensive therapy for toddlers with autism spectrum disorder. It emphasizes interpersonal engagement through synchrony, rhythms, and reciprocity to decrease symptom severity and accelerate cognitive, social-emotional, and language development. To systematically review evidence regarding the use of the ESDM as an intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder. PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, and CINAHL were searched from 2010-2015 using predetermined inclusion criteria. Study methodology, participant characteristics, and outcomes were evaluated and quality of evidence was assigned. Eight articles met inclusion criteria and consisted of two randomized controlled trials, four controlled trials, and two observational cohort studies. Evidence quality ranged from low to high. The ESDM is an effective intervention that improves cognition, language, and adaptive behavior. ESDM strategies delivered in community group settings and in the home by parents have potential to be efficacious and feasible. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. A longitudinal study on predictors of early calculation development among young children at risk for learning difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Namkung, Jessica M; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S; Patton, Samuel; Yen, Loulee; Compton, Donald L; Zhang, Wenjuan; Miller, Amanda; Hamlett, Carol

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore domain-general cognitive skills, domain-specific academic skills, and demographic characteristics that are associated with calculation development from first grade to third grade among young children with learning difficulties. Participants were 176 children identified with reading and mathematics difficulties at the beginning of first grade. Data were collected on working memory, language, nonverbal reasoning, processing speed, decoding, numerical competence, incoming calculations, socioeconomic status, and gender at the beginning of first grade and on calculation performance at four time points: the beginning of first grade, the end of first grade, the end of second grade, and the end of third grade. Latent growth modeling analysis showed that numerical competence, incoming calculation, processing speed, and decoding skills significantly explained the variance in calculation performance at the beginning of first grade. Numerical competence and processing speed significantly explained the variance in calculation performance at the end of third grade. However, numerical competence was the only significant predictor of calculation development from the beginning of first grade to the end of third grade. Implications of these findings for early calculation instructions among young at-risk children are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk of breast cancer in young women in relation to body size and weight gain in adolescence and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, R J; Uhler, R J; Hall, H I; Potischman, N; Brinton, L A; Ballard-Barbash, R; Gammon, M D; Brogan, D R; Daling, J R; Malone, K E; Schoenberg, J B; Swanson, C A

    1999-09-01

    Findings have been inconsistent on effects of adolescent body size and adult weight gain on risk of breast cancer in young women. These relations were examined in a population-based case control study of 1590 women less than 45 years of age newly diagnosed with breast cancer during 1990-1992 in three areas of the US and an age-matched control group of 1390 women. Height and weight were measured at interview and participants asked to recall information about earlier body size. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risk of breast cancer adjusted for other risk factors. Women who were either much heavier or lighter than average in adolescence or at age 20 were at reduced risk. Weight gain after age 20 resulted in reduced risk, but the effect was confined to early-stage and, more specifically, lower grade breast cancer. Neither the risk reduction nor the variation by breast cancer stage or grade was explained by the method of cancer detection or by prior mammography history. These findings suggest that relations between breast cancer risk in young women and body weight at different ages is complex and that the risk reduction with adult weight gain is confined to less aggressive cancers.

  9. Numerical morphology supports early number word learning: Evidence from a comparison of young Mandarin and English learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Mathieu Le; Li, Peggy; Huang, Becky H.; Jia, Gisela; Carey, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that children learning a language with an obligatory singular/plural distinction (Russian and English) learn the meaning of the number word for one earlier than children learning Japanese, a language without obligatory number morphology (Barner, Libenson, Cheung, & Takasaki, 2009; Sarnecka, Kamenskaya, Yamana, Ogura, & Yudovina, 2007). This can be explained by differences in number morphology, but it can also be explained by many other differences between the languages and the environments of the children who were compared. The present study tests the hypothesis that the morphological singular/plural distinction supports the early acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one by comparing young English learners to age and SES matched young Mandarin Chinese learners. Mandarin does not have obligatory number morphology but is more similar to English than Japanese in many crucial respects. Corpus analyses show that, compared to English learners, Mandarin learners hear number words more frequently, are more likely to hear number words followed by a noun, and are more likely to hear number words in contexts where they denote a cardinal value. Two tasks show that, despite these advantages, Mandarin learners learn the meaning of the number word for one three to six months later than do English learners. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that prior knowledge of the numerical meaning of the distinction between singular and plural supports the acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one. PMID:27423486

  10. Numerical morphology supports early number word learning: Evidence from a comparison of young Mandarin and English learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Mathieu; Li, Peggy; Huang, Becky H; Jia, Gisela; Carey, Susan

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies showed that children learning a language with an obligatory singular/plural distinction (Russian and English) learn the meaning of the number word for one earlier than children learning Japanese, a language without obligatory number morphology (Barner, Libenson, Cheung, & Takasaki, 2009; Sarnecka, Kamenskaya, Yamana, Ogura, & Yudovina, 2007). This can be explained by differences in number morphology, but it can also be explained by many other differences between the languages and the environments of the children who were compared. The present study tests the hypothesis that the morphological singular/plural distinction supports the early acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one by comparing young English learners to age and SES matched young Mandarin Chinese learners. Mandarin does not have obligatory number morphology but is more similar to English than Japanese in many crucial respects. Corpus analyses show that, compared to English learners, Mandarin learners hear number words more frequently, are more likely to hear number words followed by a noun, and are more likely to hear number words in contexts where they denote a cardinal value. Two tasks show that, despite these advantages, Mandarin learners learn the meaning of the number word for one three to six months later than do English learners. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that prior knowledge of the numerical meaning of the distinction between singular and plural supports the acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Early Adolescent Peer Foundations of Late Adolescent and Young Adult Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chango, Joanna M.; Allen, Joseph P.; Szwedo, David; Schad, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    The long-term impacts of failing to establish autonomy and relatedness within close friendships are poorly understood. Adolescent behaviors undermining autonomy and relatedness in friendships at 13 were examined as predictors of friendship competence at 18 and depressive symptoms and social withdrawal at 21. A diverse community sample of 184 adolescents participated in self, peer, and observational assessments. Teens’ inability to establish autonomy and connection with friends at 13 predicted decreases in friendship competence at 18 (ß=-.20, p=.02). Direct links to increases in depressive symptoms (ß=.34, p<.001) and social withdrawal (ß=.18, p=.03) were observed, with friendship competence partially mediating these relations. Results highlight the importance of problematic adolescent peer relationships as risk factors for the development of young adult internalizing symptoms. PMID:26640356

  12. An early social engagement intervention for young children with autism and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Ty W; Koegel, Robert L; Dauterman, Hayley; Stolen, Kathryn

    2012-12-01

    The social vulnerabilities associated with young children with autism are recognized as important intervention targets due to their influence on subsequent development. Current research suggests that interventions that combine motivational and social components can create meaningful changes in social functioning. Simultaneously, it is hypothesized that parent delivery of such strategies can invoke increases in these core social behaviors and parent engagement. This study examined the effects of teaching parents to implement a social engagement intervention with their children. The results indicated that the use of this parent-delivered social intervention led to (a) increases in their children's use of eye contact, directed positive affect, and verbal initiations, (b) increases in parent positive affect and synchronous engagement, and (c) generalized increases in parent and child behaviors.

  13. Early incidence of occupational asthma among young bakers, pastry-makers and hairdressers: design of a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémen, Thomas; Coevoet, Vincent; Acouetey, Dovi-Stéphanie; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Guéant-Rodriguez, Rosa-Maria; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2010-04-26

    Occupational exposures are thought to be responsible for 10-15% of new-onset asthma cases in adults, with disparities across sectors. Because most of the data are derived from registries and cross-sectional studies, little is known about incidence of occupational asthma (OA) during the first years after inception of exposure. This paper describes the design of a study that focuses on this early asthma onset period among young workers in the bakery, pastry making and hairdressing sectors in order to assess early incidence of OA in these "at risk" occupations according to exposure duration, and to identify risk factors of OA incidence. The study population is composed of subjects who graduated between 2001 and 2006 in these sectors where they experience exposure to organic or inorganic allergenic or irritant compounds (with an objective of 150 subjects by year) and 250 young workers with no specific occupational exposure. A phone interview focusing on respiratory and 'Ear-Nose-Throat' (ENT) work-related symptoms screen subjects considered as "possibly OA cases". Subjects are invited to participate in a medical visit to complete clinical and lung function investigations, including fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and carbon monoxide (CO) measurements, and to collect blood samples for IgE (Immunoglobulin E) measurements (total IgE and IgE for work-related and common allergens). Markers of oxidative stress and genetic polymorphisms exploration are also assessed. A random sample of 200 "non-cases" (controls) is also visited, following a nested case-control design. This study may allow to describ a latent period between inception of exposure and the rise of the prevalence of asthma symptoms, an information that would be useful for the prevention of OA. Such a time frame would be suited for conducting screening campaigns of this emergent asthma at a stage when occupational hygiene measures and adapted therapeutic interventions might be effective. Clinical trial

  14. Self-esteem and peer-perceived social status in early adolescence and prediction of eating pathology in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smink, Frédérique R E; van Hoeken, Daphne; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Deen, Mathijs; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Hoek, Hans W

    2018-04-27

    Self-esteem is implied as a factor in the development of eating disorders. In adolescence peers have an increasing influence. Support for the role of self-esteem in eating disorders is ambiguous and little is known about the influence of social status as judged by others. The present study investigates whether self-esteem and peer status in early adolescence are associated with eating pathology in young adulthood. This study is part of TRAILS, a longitudinal cohort study on mental health and social development from preadolescence into adulthood. At age 11, participants completed the Self-Perception Profile for Children, assessing global self-esteem and self-perceptions regarding social acceptance, physical appearance, and academic competence. At age 13, peer status among classmates was assessed regarding likeability, physical attractiveness, academic performance, and popularity in a subsample of 1,007 participants. The Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale was administered at age 22. The present study included peer-nominated participants with completed measures of self-perception at age 11 and eating pathology at age 22 (N = 732; 57.8% female). In a combined model, self-perceived physical attractiveness at age 11 and peer popularity at age 13 were inversely correlated with eating pathology at 22 years, while likeability by peers at age 13 was positively related to eating pathology. Both self-perceptions and peer status in early adolescence are significant predictors of eating pathology in young adults. Specific measures of self-esteem and peer-perceived status may be more relevant to the prediction of eating pathology than a global measure of self-esteem. © 2018 The Authors International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure and Early Cardiovascular Phenotypes in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie V Breton

    Full Text Available Exposure to ambient air pollutants increases risk for adverse cardiovascular health outcomes in adults. We aimed to evaluate the contribution of prenatal air pollutant exposure to cardiovascular health, which has not been thoroughly evaluated. The Testing Responses on Youth (TROY study consists of 768 college students recruited from the University of Southern California in 2007-2009. Participants attended one study visit during which blood pressure, heart rate and carotid artery arterial stiffness (CAS and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT were assessed. Prenatal residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign prenatal and postnatal air pollutant exposure estimates using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System (AQS database. The associations between CAS, CIMT and air pollutants were assessed using linear regression analysis. Prenatal PM10 and PM2.5 exposures were associated with increased CAS. For example, a 2 SD increase in prenatal PM2.5 was associated with CAS indices, including a 5% increase (β = 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.10 in carotid stiffness index beta, a 5% increase (β = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10 in Young's elastic modulus and a 5% decrease (β = 0.95, 95% CI 0.91-0.99 in distensibility. Mutually adjusted models of pre- and postnatal PM2.5 further suggested the prenatal exposure was most relevant exposure period for CAS. No associations were observed for CIMT. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to elevated air pollutants may increase carotid arterial stiffness in a young adult population of college students. Efforts aimed at limiting prenatal exposures are important public health goals.

  16. Early life stress and inflammatory mechanisms of fatigue in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyong Jin; Bower, Julienne E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Seeman, Teresa E; Irwin, Michael R

    2012-08-01

    Fatigue is highly prevalent and causes serious disruption in quality of life. Although cross-sectional studies suggest childhood adversity is associated with adulthood fatigue, longitudinal evidence of this relationship and its specific biological mechanisms have not been established. This longitudinal study examined the association between early life stress and adulthood fatigue and tested whether this association was mediated by low-grade systemic inflammation as indexed by circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). In the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a population-based longitudinal study conducted in 4 US cities, early life stress was retrospectively assessed in 2716 African-American and white adults using the Risky Families Questionnaire at Year 15 examination (2000-2001, ages 33-45 years). Fatigue as indexed by a loss of subjective vitality using the Vitality Subscale of the 12-item Short Form Health Survey was assessed at both Years 15 and 20. While CRP was measured at both Years 15 and 20, IL-6 was measured only at Year 20. Early life stress assessed at Year 15 was associated with adulthood fatigue at Year 20 after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, body-mass index, medication use, medical comorbidity, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, current stress, pain, sleep disturbance as well as Year 15 fatigue (adjusted beta 0.047, P=0.007). However, neither CRP nor IL-6 was a significant mediator of this association. In summary, early life stress assessed in adulthood was associated with fatigue 5 years later, but this association was not mediated by low-grade systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Best clinical practice guidance for management of early caries lesions in children and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühnisch, J; Ekstrand, K R; Pretty, I

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) encourages prevention and arrest of active dental caries. Therefore, the present guidance provides evidence- and clinically-based recommendations for detecting and diagnosing early/non-cavitated caries lesions, risk assessment......-invasively in the majority of cases. The spectrum of measures includes a low cariogenicity tooth-friendly diet, daily and appropriate management of the biofilm, home and within the dental office/surgery usage of fluorides as well as sealing techniques. CONCLUSION: The detection and management of non-cavitated caries...... is an essential aspect of preventive dentistry. Therefore, the EAPD encourages oral health care providers and caregivers to implement preventive practices that can arrest early caries and improve individual and public dental health....

  18. Variation in rates of early development in Haliotis asinina generate competent larvae of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Daniel J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Inter-specific comparisons of metazoan developmental mechanisms have provided a wealth of data concerning the evolution of body form and the generation of morphological novelty. Conversely, studies of intra-specific variation in developmental programs are far fewer. Variation in the rate of development may be an advantage to the many marine invertebrates that posses a biphasic life cycle, where fitness commonly requires the recruitment of planktonically dispersing larvae to patchily distributed benthic environments. Results We have characterised differences in the rate of development between individuals originating from a synchronised fertilisation event in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina, a broadcast spawning lecithotrophic vetigastropod. We observed significant differences in the time taken to complete early developmental events (time taken to complete third cleavage and to hatch from the vitelline envelope, mid-larval events (variation in larval shell development and late larval events (the acquisition of competence to respond to a metamorphosis inducing cue. We also provide estimates of the variation in maternally provided energy reserves that suggest maternal provisioning is unlikely to explain the majority of the variation in developmental rate we report here. Conclusions Significant differences in the rates of development exist both within and between cohorts of synchronously fertilised H. asinina gametes. These differences can be detected shortly after fertilisation and generate larvae of increasingly divergent development states. We discuss the significance of our results within an ecological context, the adaptive significance of mechanisms that might maintain this variation, and potential sources of this variation.

  19. Brief oral health promotion intervention among parents of young children to reduce early childhood dental decay

    OpenAIRE

    Arrow, Peter; Raheb, Joseph; Miller, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe untreated dental decay affects a child?s growth, body weight, quality of life as well as cognitive development, and the effects extend beyond the child to the family, the community and the health care system. Early health behavioural factors, including dietary practices and eating patterns, can play a major role in the initiation and development of oral diseases, particularly dental caries. The parent/caregiver, usually the mother, has a critical role in the adoption of prot...

  20. Socio-economic and demographic factors influencing nutritional status among early childbearing young mothers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ashraful; Islam, Nurul; Bharati, Premananda; Aik, Saw; Hossain, Golam

    2016-08-26

    Early childbearing influences women's health. This study aims to examine the effects of socio-demographic factors on nutritional status of early childbearing mothers in Bangladesh based on Body Mass Index (BMI) as the indicator. Data was extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS)-2011. The survey was performed on 17,842 married women aged 15-49. We focused on early childbearing mothers (age ≤ 24, and who had delivered their first child ≤ 20). Mothers who were underweight (BMI ≤ 18.5 kg/m(2)) would be further classified into various grades of chronic energy deficiency (CED): mild (17.0 ≤ BMI Bangladesh is very high (32.1 %), associated with the still common practice of teenage marriage. Education level, wealth index, occupation, place of residence, age at first marriage and parity were important predictors for their nutritional status. The government and non-government organizations should take initiatives to reduce the prevalence of underweight mothers in Bangladesh.

  1. Exogenous nitric oxide (NO) generated by NO-plasma treatment modulates osteoprogenitor cells early differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsaadany, Mostafa; Subramanian, Gayathri; Ayan, Halim; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether nitric oxide (NO) generated using a non-thermal plasma system can mediate osteoblastic differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells without creating toxicity. Our objective was to create an NO delivery mechanism using NO-dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma that can generate and transport NO with controlled concentration to the area of interest to regulate osteoprogenitor cell activity. We built a non-thermal atmospheric pressure DBD plasma nozzle system based on our previously published design and similar designs in the literature. The electrical and spectral analyses demonstrated that N 2 dissociated into NO under typical DBD voltage–current characteristics. We treated osteoprogenitor cells (MC3T3-E1) using NO-plasma treatment system. Our results demonstrated that we could control NO concentration within cell culture media and could introduce NO into the intracellular space using NO-plasma treatment with various treatment times. We confirmed that NO-plasma treatment maintained cell viability and did not create any toxicity even with prolonged treatment durations. Finally, we demonstrated that NO-plasma treatment induced early osteogenic differentiation in the absence of pro-osteogenic growth factors/proteins. These findings suggest that through the NO-plasma treatment system we are able to generate and transport tissue-specific amounts of NO to an area of interest to mediate osteoprogenitor cell activity without subsequent toxicity. This opens up the possibility to develop DBD plasma-assisted tissue-specific NO delivery strategies for therapeutic intervention in the prevention and treatment of bone diseases. (paper)

  2. Generational differences in young adults' life goals, concern for others, and civic orientation, 1966-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Campbell, W Keith; Freeman, Elise C

    2012-05-01

    Three studies examined generational differences in life goals, concern for others, and civic orientation among American high school seniors (Monitoring the Future; N = 463,753, 1976-2008) and entering college students (The American Freshman; N = 8.7 million, 1966-2009). Compared to Baby Boomers (born 1946-1961) at the same age, GenX'ers (born 1962-1981) and Millennials (born after 1982) considered goals related to extrinsic values (money, image, fame) more important and those related to intrinsic values (self-acceptance, affiliation, community) less important. Concern for others (e.g., empathy for outgroups, charity donations, the importance of having a job worthwhile to society) declined slightly. Community service rose but was also increasingly required for high school graduation over the same time period. Civic orientation (e.g., interest in social problems, political participation, trust in government, taking action to help the environment and save energy) declined an average of d = -.34, with about half the decline occurring between GenX and the Millennials. Some of the largest declines appeared in taking action to help the environment. In most cases, Millennials slowed, though did not reverse, trends toward reduced community feeling begun by GenX. The results generally support the "Generation Me" view of generational differences rather than the "Generation We" or no change views.

  3. Detection of Early Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Young Patients With Thalassemia Major Using Tissue Doppler Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornaun, Helen; Dedeoglu, Reyhan; Oztarhan, Kazim; Dedeoglu, Savas; Erfidan, Erkan; Gundogdu, Muge; Aydogan, Gonul; Cengiz, Dicle

    2016-01-01

    Background Myocardial iron overload is the most common cause of mortality in patients with thalassemia major (TM), also known as beta-thalassemia. T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best way of monitoring cardiac iron, and new echocardiographic techniques can be used to assess cardiac function. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the systolic and diastolic right ventricular (RV) function of patients with TM using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and to determine whether this echocardiographic technique is an adequate diagnostic tool for the screening and detection of subclinical cardiac dysfunction. Patients and Methods Eighty-four patients with TM were evaluated by conventional echocardiography and pulse-wave TDI. The data of the TM group (Group 1) were compared with that of 85 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (Group 2). Cardiovascular T2* MRI examinations were performed in 49 of the 85 patients. Results The patients with TM had significantly lower values for weight, height, body mass index, systolic arterial pressure, deceleration time, E’/A’, and ejection time (ET) than the controls. Group 1 also had significantly higher values for peak early diastolic velocity (E) over peak late diastolic velocity (A), peak early diastolic velocity of TDI (E’), peak late diastolic velocity of TDI (A’), E/E’, isovolumetric relaxation time, isovolumetric contraction time, and RV magnetic perfusion imaging (MPI) than Group 2. Conclusions RV diastolic dysfunction occurs before systolic deterioration in patients with TM and cannot be screened with conventional echocardiographic techniques. In routine practice, TDI measurements, MPI (for global function) and the E/E’ parameter (for diastolic function) can be used to screen and detect early RV dysfunction. PMID:27617076

  4. Early motor developmental milestones and level of neuroticism in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, T; Sørensen, H J; Revsbech, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    traits is almost non-existent. This study is therefore the first to investigate associations between early motor developmental milestones and neuroticism in adulthood. Method Mothers of 9125 children of the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort recorded 12 developmental milestones during the child's first year...... of life. A subsample of the cohort comprising 1182 individuals participated in a follow-up when they were aged 20-34 years and were administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Associations between motor developmental milestones and level of neuroticism, extraversion and psychoticism were...... analysed by multiple linear regression adjusting for for sex, single-mother status, parity, mother's age, father's age, parental social status and birth weight....

  5. An Evolutionarily Young Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus Endogenous Retrovirus Identified from Next Generation Sequence Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Tsangaras

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptome analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus tissues identified sequences with similarity to Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERV. Based on these sequences, four proviral copies and 15 solo long terminal repeats (LTRs of a newly described endogenous retrovirus were characterized from the polar bear draft genome sequence. Closely related sequences were identified by PCR analysis of brown bear (Ursus arctos and black bear (Ursus americanus but were absent in non-Ursinae bear species. The virus was therefore designated UrsusERV. Two distinct groups of LTRs were observed including a recombinant ERV that contained one LTR belonging to each group indicating that genomic invasions by at least two UrsusERV variants have recently occurred. Age estimates based on proviral LTR divergence and conservation of integration sites among ursids suggest the viral group is only a few million years old. The youngest provirus was polar bear specific, had intact open reading frames (ORFs and could potentially encode functional proteins. Phylogenetic analyses of UrsusERV consensus protein sequences suggest that it is part of a pig, gibbon and koala retrovirus clade. The young age estimates and lineage specificity of the virus suggests UrsusERV is a recent cross species transmission from an unknown reservoir and places the viral group among the youngest of ERVs identified in mammals.

  6. An Evolutionarily Young Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Endogenous Retrovirus Identified from Next Generation Sequence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Mayer, Jens; Alquezar-Planas, David E; Greenwood, Alex D

    2015-11-24

    Transcriptome analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissues identified sequences with similarity to Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERV). Based on these sequences, four proviral copies and 15 solo long terminal repeats (LTRs) of a newly described endogenous retrovirus were characterized from the polar bear draft genome sequence. Closely related sequences were identified by PCR analysis of brown bear (Ursus arctos) and black bear (Ursus americanus) but were absent in non-Ursinae bear species. The virus was therefore designated UrsusERV. Two distinct groups of LTRs were observed including a recombinant ERV that contained one LTR belonging to each group indicating that genomic invasions by at least two UrsusERV variants have recently occurred. Age estimates based on proviral LTR divergence and conservation of integration sites among ursids suggest the viral group is only a few million years old. The youngest provirus was polar bear specific, had intact open reading frames (ORFs) and could potentially encode functional proteins. Phylogenetic analyses of UrsusERV consensus protein sequences suggest that it is part of a pig, gibbon and koala retrovirus clade. The young age estimates and lineage specificity of the virus suggests UrsusERV is a recent cross species transmission from an unknown reservoir and places the viral group among the youngest of ERVs identified in mammals.

  7. An Evolutionarily Young Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Endogenous Retrovirus Identified from Next Generation Sequence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaras, Kyriakos; Mayer, Jens; Alquezar-Planas, David E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) tissues identified sequences with similarity to Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERV). Based on these sequences, four proviral copies and 15 solo long terminal repeats (LTRs) of a newly described endogenous retrovirus were characterized from the polar bear draft genome sequence. Closely related sequences were identified by PCR analysis of brown bear (Ursus arctos) and black bear (Ursus americanus) but were absent in non-Ursinae bear species. The virus was therefore designated UrsusERV. Two distinct groups of LTRs were observed including a recombinant ERV that contained one LTR belonging to each group indicating that genomic invasions by at least two UrsusERV variants have recently occurred. Age estimates based on proviral LTR divergence and conservation of integration sites among ursids suggest the viral group is only a few million years old. The youngest provirus was polar bear specific, had intact open reading frames (ORFs) and could potentially encode functional proteins. Phylogenetic analyses of UrsusERV consensus protein sequences suggest that it is part of a pig, gibbon and koala retrovirus clade. The young age estimates and lineage specificity of the virus suggests UrsusERV is a recent cross species transmission from an unknown reservoir and places the viral group among the youngest of ERVs identified in mammals. PMID:26610552

  8. Gender differences in masturbation and the relation of masturbation experience in preadolescence and/or early adolescence to sexual behavior and sexual adjustment in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitenberg, H; Detzer, M J; Srebnik, D

    1993-04-01

    A comparison of male and female masturbation practices was undertaken in a sample of university students to determine if the long-standing finding that young adult men in this country masturbate more than young adult women was still evident in the 1980s. Despite the efforts in the past quarter century to encourage women in our society to take greater responsibility for their own bodies and their own sexuality and to engage in more sexual self-exploration and self-stimulation, results show that women continue to masturbate much less than men. Twice as many men as women had ever masturbated and the men who masturbated did so three times more frequently during early adolescence and young adulthood than the women who masturbated during these same age periods. A second purpose of this study was to determine whether having masturbation experience during preadolescence and/or early adolescence was related to intercourse experience, sexual satisfaction, sexual arousal, or sexual difficulties in relationships during young adulthood. No such linkage was observed, suggesting that early masturbation experience is neither beneficial nor harmful to sexual adjustment in young adulthood.

  9. The correlates and consequences of early appearing social anxiety in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Murray; Coplan, Robert J; Kingsbury, Adam

    2009-10-01

    Social anxiety is the fear of social situations and being negatively evaluated by others. Most previous studies of childhood social anxiety have employed clinical samples of children aged 10 years and older. The current study explored the correlates of social anxiety in an unselected sample of young children. Participants were n=178 elementary school children in grade 2 (aged 7-8 years). Children were individually administered the Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised (SASC-R), as well as measures of socio-emotional adjustment. Teachers completed measures of children's socio-emotional problems and school adjustment. Results indicated that social anxiety was positively associated with self-reported loneliness, school avoidance, and internalizing coping, and negatively related to school liking. However, social anxiety was mostly unrelated to teacher-rated outcomes. Findings are discussed in terms of use of the SASC-R for this type of population and reasons for the disparity between child and teacher reports of adjustment outcomes.

  10. Young children's food brand knowledge. Early development and associations with television viewing and parent's diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Hennessy, Eilis; Dean, Moira; Hollywood, Lynsey

    2014-09-01

    Brand knowledge is a prerequisite of children's requests and choices for branded foods. We explored the development of young children's brand knowledge of foods highly advertised on television - both healthy and less healthy. Participants were 172 children aged 3-5 years in diverse socio-economic settings, from two jurisdictions on the island of Ireland with different regulatory environments. Results indicated that food brand knowledge (i) did not differ across jurisdictions; (ii) increased significantly between 3 and 4 years; and (iii) children had significantly greater knowledge of unhealthy food brands, compared with similarly advertised healthy brands. In addition, (iv) children's healthy food brand knowledge was not related to their television viewing, their mother's education, or parent or child eating. However, (v) unhealthy brand knowledge was significantly related to all these factors, although only parent eating and children's age were independent predictors. Findings indicate that effects of food marketing for unhealthy foods take place through routes other than television advertising alone, and are present before pre-schoolers develop the concept of healthy eating. Implications are that marketing restrictions of unhealthy foods should extend beyond television advertising; and that family-focused obesity prevention programmes should begin before children are 3 years of age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ibuprofen exposure in early neonatal life does not affect renal function in young adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Anke; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Levtchenko, Elena; Simons, Sinno Hp; Cauwenberghs, Nicholas; Heuvel, Lambertus P van den; Jacobs, Lotte; Staessen, Jan A; Allegaert, Karel

    2018-03-01

    Ibuprofen exposure results in acute transient renal dysfunction in preterm neonates, but we are unaware of data on long-term renal safety. In a previously studied cohort of extreme low birth weight (ELBW, ibuprofen. In this post hoc analysis, we linked markers of renal function in young adolescence in ELBW cases with their perinatal (prenatal maternal, setting at birth, treatment modalities including drug prescription during neonatal stay, neonatal creatinine values, postdischarge growth) characteristics, including but not limited to ibuprofen exposure during neonatal stay. Ibuprofen exposure was not associated with significant differences in renal length or eGFR cysC . Moreover, we were unable to identify any other risk factor (perinatal characteristics, postnatal creatinine trends, postdischarge growth) on renal outcome in this cohort. Neonatal exposure to ibuprofen did not affect renal function. Larger studies are needed to explore the confounders of variability in renal function in former ELBW cases. This matters since ELBW relates to risk for hypertension, cardiovascular events and renal disease in later life and identification of risk factors holds the promise of secondary prevention. NCT02147457. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Accuracy of early DMSA scan for VUR in young children with febrile UTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Xu, Hong; Zhou, Lijun; Cao, Qi; Shen, Qian; Sun, Li; Fang, Xiaoyan; Guo, Wei; Zhai, Yihui; Rao, Jia; Pa, Mier; Zhao, Ruifang; Bi, Yunli

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of an acute (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan in predicting dilating vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) among young children with a febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). The medical records of children (≤ 2 years of age), presenting with febrile UTI between January 2000 and December 2011, were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 523 children were included in this study, of whom 397 children (75.9%) had abnormal DMSA results and 178 children (34.0%) were identified as VUR on micturating cystourethrography (MCU). Among all the patients, the number of children with dilating VUR was 151 (28.9%). The rate of abnormal results on DMSA for the dilating VUR group was significantly higher than the rates for the non-VUR and low-grade VUR groups (P UTI, an acute DMSA scan is valuable in the exclusion of dilating VUR. The likelihood of the presence of dilating VUR on MCU is rather low when the result of DMSA is negative. DMSA should be conducted to assess the need for an MCU.

  13. The importance of anti corruption education teaching materials for the young generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmini; Made Swanda, I.; Nadiroh, Ulin

    2018-01-01

    Corruption is one of the most serious issues in many countries. The purpose of this paper is to identify the importance of anti-corruption education teaching materials for the younger generation. The research method used qualitative description with questionnaire as data collection tool. The sample in this research was 150 junior high school teachers in Surabaya. Data analysis technique used in this research was descriptive statistic with percentage technique. The result of this research was that Socisl Studies teachers in Surabaya realize that teaching materials on Anti-Corruption Education is very important in Social Studies learning activities. Recommendations for further research is to examine the antieducation teaching materials that contain the value of anti-corruption character. With anticorruption education is expected to give awareness and change to all the younger generation to understand and realize the importance of having the character of anti-corruption and can mengnglemlem in society.

  14. Properties of the stars of early generations in the scale covariant cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeder, A.

    1978-01-01

    We examine here some consequences of cosmological propositions which accept that further invariances exist in the theory of gravitation. Several astrophysical tests have already been performed, with the noticeable and worrying results that astrophysics only supports scale invariance if matter creation still occurs in the Universe. Within this cosmological framework, stars being very different from the present ones would have existed in the past with higher rate of nuclear transformation and higher luminosity per unit of mass. The basic properties of these stars at an early epoch (t = 1/5 t 0 ) are examined with numerical models: the zero-age sequence, the central conditions in stars, the various critical stellar masses, the mass- and gravity-luminosity relation, the paths in the HR diagram, the changes of lifetimes, the evolution in the log Tsub(c) vs log rhosub(c) diagram. Useful expressions are also given for deriving by scaling the above properties at epochs other than the one considered in numerical applications. A major change occurs for the problem of the helium synthesis. In the scale covariant cosmology, the big-bang He-synthesis seems to be only of very marginal importance and the essential of the present He-content of the Universe could be accounted by stellar processes at the early generations of stars. This has for consequence that the ratio ΔY/ΔZ of Helium to the metals synthetized during the history of the Galaxy would be much larger than as predicted by standard cosmology. (orig.) [de

  15. Cyber-Aggression as an Example of Dysfunctional Behaviour of the Young Generation in the Globalized World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prymak Tomasz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to try to identify the specificity and frequency of cyber-agression as a form of problem behaviour characteristic for the contemporary youth known as Generation Y. Analysis of the results of research conducted among schoolchildren aged 15–16 indicates that cyber-agression is a common phenomenon in the group. It raises the need for reconstruction and re-evaluation of practices and standards developed to date and implemented to address the problematic behaviour of young people through the global network. In the paper, proposals for solutions in this area are presented, which can be used to create future prevention programs aimed at constructive online behaviour and foster rational choice-making regarding the use of the Internet and modern media.

  16. Early improvement in obstructive sleep apnea and increase in orexin levels after bariatric surgery in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Raouf; Simakajornboon, Narong; Szczesniak, Rhonda; Inge, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) associated with obesity is known to improve after bariatric surgery, but little is known about early changes in this condition after surgery. To study the clinical course of OSA after bariatric surgery SETTING: Children's hospital in the United States METHODS: Adolescents and young adults with obstructive sleep apnea undergoing vertical sleeve gastrectomy (n = 6) or gastric bypass (n = 1) were enrolled in this prospective study. Participants underwent formal polysomnography before and at 3 and 5 weeks after bariatric surgery. Anthropometric measurements and assay for orexin and leptin were also performed at study visits. Thirty-one adolescents who underwent 2 polysomnography studies that were 4 weeks apart served as control patients. Baseline mean (range) age of participants was 17.8 (15.4-20.7) years, 71% were male, with body mass index of 55.2 (41.3-61.6) kg/m 2 and had a median apnea hypopnea index (AHI) of 15.8 (7.1-23.8) events/hour. Differences in least-square means from longitudinal analysis did not show significant differences in AHI in the control group but showed significant postoperative decline in AHI relative to baseline. AHI declined postoperatively from baseline by 9.2 events/hour (95% confidence interval: 3.8 to 14.5) at 3 weeks (P = .002) and 9.1 events/hour (95% confidence interval: 3.8 to 14.5) at 5 weeks (P = .002); there was no significant change from 3 to 5 weeks in AHI. Leptin decreased and orexin levels increased significantly by 3 weeks postoperatively. These observations suggest that OSA responds early and out of proportion to weight loss after metabolic and or bariatric surgery, thus weight independent factors may at least in part be responsible for early improvement in OSA postoperatively. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Randomised Controlled Trial of Two Early Intervention Programs for Young Children with Autism: Centre-Based with Parent Program and Home-Based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jacqueline; Williams, Katrina; Carter, Mark; Evans, David; Parmenter, Trevor; Silove, Natalie; Clark, Trevor; Warren, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This study compares outcomes of early intervention programs for young children with autism; an individualised home-based program (HB), a small group centre-based program for children combined with a parent training and support group (CB) and a non-treatment comparison group (WL). Outcome measures of interest include social and communication skill…

  18. Impacts of an In-Service Education Program on Promoting Language Development in Young Children: A Pilot Study with Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, Nerina; Rose, Tanya; Pee, Jerrine; Webb, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood educators (ECEs) play an important role in fostering language development in young children. In-service education, led by speech-language pathologists (SLPs), has a potential role in educating ECEs about language development. In this pilot study, 42 ECEs attended an in-service education program and completed pre- and…

  19. Moving Young Children's Play Away from TV Violence. A How-to Guide for Early Childhood Educators: Child Care Providers, Head Start Instructors, Preschool and Kindergarten Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diane

    Research concerning the effects of television violence on children--particularly young children under the age of six--has found that it tends to desensitize them to aggressive behavior and, in some children, promotes aggressive behavior in their play and other interactions with children and adults. This guide is designed to assist early childhood…

  20. Jugando en el Pidi: Active Learning, Early Child Development and Interactive Radio Instruction. Supporting Caregivers, Parents, and Young Children. LearnTech Case Study Series, No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Andrea; Crespo, Cecilia

    In 1993, Bolivia was selected as a site to pilot an interactive radio instruction (IRI) project that would provide practical support to adult caregivers and children around early childhood development. Through linkages with health and education networks, PIDI (Programa Integral de Desarrollo Infantil) provided young children under the age of six…

  1. The Effects of an Early Motor Skill Intervention on Motor Skills, Levels of Physical Activity, and Socialization in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcheson, Leah; Hauck, Janet; Ulrich, Dale

    2017-01-01

    Despite evidence suggesting one of the earliest indicators of an eventual autism spectrum disorder diagnoses is an early motor delay, there remain very few interventions targeting motor behavior as the primary outcome for young children with autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this pilot study was to measure the efficacy of an intensive motor…

  2. Extending the Life-Course Interdependence Model: Life Transitions and the Enduring Consequences of Early Self-Derogation for Young Adult Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, David; Taylor, John; Pih, Kay Kei-ho

    2010-01-01

    Few studies exploring the association between adolescent self-esteem and crime have considered whether the early adolescent self-esteem has any enduring consequences for young adult crime. Inspired by the life course and developmental criminology approaches, Arnett's notion of emerging adulthood, and Kaplan's self-derogation theory, this article…

  3. The effects of early prevention programs for families with young children at risk for physical child abuse and neglect : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geeraert, L; Van den Noortgate, W; Grietens, H; Onghena, P

    In this article, a meta-analysis is presented on 40 evaluation studies of early prevention programs for families with young children at risk for physical child abuse and neglect with mostly nonrandomized designs. The main aim of all programs was to prevent physical child abuse and neglect by

  4. Intra- and Trans-Generational Costs of Reduced Female Body Size Caused by Food Limitation Early in Life in Mites

    OpenAIRE

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Food limitation early in life may be compensated for by developmental plasticity resulting in accelerated development enhancing survival at the expense of small adult body size. However and especially for females in non-matching maternal and offspring environments, being smaller than the standard may incur considerable intra- and trans-generational costs. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we evaluated the costs of small female body size induced by food limitation early in life i...

  5. Early impairment of somatosensory evoked potentials in very young children with achondroplasia with foramen magnum stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornarino, Stefania; Rossi, Daniela Paola; Severino, Mariasavina; Pistorio, Angela; Allegri, Anna Elsa Maria; Martelli, Simona; Doria Lamba, Laura; Lanteri, Paola

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the contribution of somatosensory evoked potentials after median nerve (MN-SEPs) and posterior tibial nerve (PTN-SEPs) stimulation in functional assessment of cervical and lumbar spinal stenosis in children with achondroplasia. We reviewed MN-SEPs, PTN-SEPs, and spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations performed in 58 patients with achondroplasia (25 males, 33 females; age range 21d-16y 10mo; mean age 4y 3mo [SD 4y 1mo]). Patients were subdivided into four age categories: achondroplasia, the cortical component of PTN-SEPs is more sensitive than the cortical component and central conduction time of MN-SEPs in detection of cervical spinal cord compression at early ages. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  6. Neighborhood poverty and early transition to sexual activity in young adolescents: a developmental ecological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupéré, Véronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J Douglas; Leventhal, Tama; Tremblay, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how the link between neighborhood poverty and the timing of sexual initiation varies as a function of age, gender, and background characteristics. A sample of N = 2,596 predominately White Canadian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth was used. Sexual initiations occurring between 12 and 15 years old were considered. Results showed that younger adolescent females who lived in poor neighborhoods and who had a history of conduct problems were more likely to report early sexual activity. Peer characteristics partly accounted for this susceptibility. Among adolescent males, no direct neighborhood effects were found, but those who had combined risks at multiple levels appeared more vulnerable. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Young generation in Romanian nuclear system - Romanian nuclear organizations implication in nuclear knowledge management at University 'Politehnica' of Bucharest - Results and expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghizdeanu, E.N.; Dumitrescu, M.C.; Budu, A.R.; Pavelescu, A.O.

    2004-01-01

    The knowledge management should be assumed by the major players within the nuclear community: government, industry and university. Starting from these problems this article gives an overview about Romanian nuclear knowledge management and the Young Generation implications. In Romania there are many government and non-government nuclear institutions such: CNCAN (Romanian Regulatory Body), ROMATOM (Romanian Atomic Forum), AREN (Romanian 'Nuclear Energy' Association), and companies: SNN ('Nuclearelectrica' SA National Company), CITON (Centre of Technology and Engineering for Nuclear Projects), SCN (Institute for Nuclear Research), ROMAG - PROD (Romanian Heavy Water Plant). All these institutes and companies are sustaining the national nuclear program and promoting the new technologies in the nuclear industry according with CNCAN and ROMATOM regulations. University 'POLITEHNICA' of Bucharest - Power Engineering Faculty - through Nuclear Power Plant Department is the promoter of nuclear knowledge management. It is implied in assuring and maintaining a high-quality training for young staff. Young Generation is implicated in nuclear knowledge management through University 'Politehnica' of Bucharest - Power Engineering Faculty - Nuclear Power Plant Department and AREN (Romanian 'Nuclear Energy' Association). Young Generation Department has special educational programs for attracting and supporting students. It provides adequate information and interacts with potential students. Moreover the article gives results about Romanian nuclear engineers since 1970 till now. An analysis of these data is done. Also it is discussed how University 'Politehnica' of Bucharest, the Romanian Government and the Industry work together to co-ordinate more effectively their efforts to encourage the young generation. (author)

  8. Imidacloprid Exposure Suppresses Neural Crest Cells Generation during Early Chick Embryo Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Jie; Wang, Guang; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Meng; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; He, Xiao-Song; Lu, Da-Xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-06-15

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide that is widely used in the control pests found on crops and fleas on pets. However, it is still unclear whether imidacloprid exposure could affect early embryo development-despite some studies having been conducted on the gametes. In this study, we demonstrated that imidacloprid exposure could lead to abnormal craniofacial osteogenesis in the developing chick embryo. Cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) are the progenitor cells of the chick cranial skull. We found that the imidacloprid exposure retards the development of gastrulating chick embryos. HNK-1, PAX7, and Ap-2α immunohistological stainings indicated that cranial NCCs generation was inhibited after imidacloprid exposure. Double immunofluorescent staining (Ap-2α and PHIS3 or PAX7 and c-Caspase3) revealed that imidacloprid exposure inhibited both NCC proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, it inhibited NCCs production by repressing Msx1 and BMP4 expression in the developing neural tube and by altering expression of EMT-related adhesion molecules (Cad6B, E-Cadherin, and N-cadherin) in the developing neural crests. We also determined that imidacloprid exposure suppressed cranial NCCs migration and their ability to differentiate. In sum, we have provided experimental evidence that imidacloprid exposure during embryogenesis disrupts NCCs development, which in turn causes defective cranial bone development.

  9. THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF YOUNG, EARLY M-TYPE DWARF STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansdell, Megan; Baranec, Christoph; Gaidos, Eric; Mann, Andrew W.; Lépine, Sebastien; James, David; Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo; Petrucci, Romina; Law, Nicholas M.; Riddle, Reed

    2015-01-01

    Planets orbiting within the close-in habitable zones of M dwarf stars will be exposed to elevated high-energy radiation driven by strong magnetohydrodynamic dynamos during stellar youth. Near-ultraviolet (NUV) irradiation can erode and alter the chemistry of planetary atmospheres, and a quantitative description of the evolution of NUV emission from M dwarfs is needed when modeling these effects. We investigated the NUV luminosity evolution of early M-type dwarfs by cross-correlating the Lépine and Gaidos catalog of bright M dwarfs with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) catalog of NUV (1771-2831 Å) sources. Of the 4805 sources with GALEX counterparts, 797 have NUV emission significantly (>2.5σ) in excess of an empirical basal level. We inspected these candidate active stars using visible-wavelength spectra, high-resolution adaptive optics imaging, time-series photometry, and literature searches to identify cases where the elevated NUV emission is due to unresolved background sources or stellar companions; we estimated the overall occurrence of these ''false positives'' (FPs) as ∼16%. We constructed an NUV luminosity function that accounted for FPs, detection biases of the source catalogs, and GALEX upper limits. We found the NUV luminosity function to be inconsistent with predictions from a constant star-formation rate and simplified age-activity relation defined by a two-parameter power law

  10. Young Children's Thinking About Decomposition: Early Modeling Entrees to Complex Ideas in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ero-Tolliver, Isi; Lucas, Deborah; Schauble, Leona

    2013-10-01

    This study was part of a multi-year project on the development of elementary students' modeling approaches to understanding the life sciences. Twenty-three first grade students conducted a series of coordinated observations and investigations on decomposition, a topic that is rarely addressed in the early grades. The instruction included in-class observations of different types of soil and soil profiling, visits to the school's compost bin, structured observations of decaying organic matter of various kinds, study of organisms that live in the soil, and models of environmental conditions that affect rates of decomposition. Both before and after instruction, students completed a written performance assessment that asked them to reason about the process of decomposition. Additional information was gathered through one-on-one interviews with six focus students who represented variability of performance across the class. During instruction, researchers collected video of classroom activity, student science journal entries, and charts and illustrations produced by the teacher. After instruction, the first-grade students showed a more nuanced understanding of the composition and variability of soils, the role of visible organisms in decomposition, and environmental factors that influence rates of decomposition. Through a variety of representational devices, including drawings, narrative records, and physical models, students came to regard decomposition as a process, rather than simply as an end state that does not require explanation.

  11. Immigrant Caregivers of Young Children: Oral Health Beliefs, Attitudes, and Early Childhood Caries Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, Deborah A; Rainchuso, Lori; Jenkins, Susan; Kierce, Erin; Rothman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of early childhood caries (ECC) is a global public health concern. The oral health knowledge of a caregiver can affect a child's risk for developing ECC. An exploratory study of the oral health knowledge and behaviors among caregivers of children 6 years of age and younger was conducted with a convenience sample of adults (n = 114) enrolled in English language or high school equivalency examination courses. The majority of study participants were born in Asia (47 %). Other birth regions included South America (16 %), Caribbean (16 %), Africa (10 %), and Central America (6 %). Study findings showed caregivers with low oral health knowledge were more likely to engage in behaviors that increase a child's risk for developing ECC. A statistically significant relationship was found between participants' rating of their child's dental health as poor and the belief that children should not be weaned from the nursing bottle by 12 months of age (P = 0.002), brushing should not begin upon tooth eruption (P = 0.01), and fluoride does not strengthen teeth and prevent dental caries (P = 0.005). Subjects who pre-chewed their child's food also exhibited behaviors including sharing eating utensils or a toothbrush with their child (P oral health promotion programs are developed and implemented to raise awareness and reduce the risk of dental disease among immigrant populations.

  12. THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF YOUNG, EARLY M-TYPE DWARF STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansdell, Megan; Baranec, Christoph [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Gaidos, Eric [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Mann, Andrew W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lépine, Sebastien [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States); James, David [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603 La Serena (Chile); Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo; Petrucci, Romina [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Riddle, Reed [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Planets orbiting within the close-in habitable zones of M dwarf stars will be exposed to elevated high-energy radiation driven by strong magnetohydrodynamic dynamos during stellar youth. Near-ultraviolet (NUV) irradiation can erode and alter the chemistry of planetary atmospheres, and a quantitative description of the evolution of NUV emission from M dwarfs is needed when modeling these effects. We investigated the NUV luminosity evolution of early M-type dwarfs by cross-correlating the Lépine and Gaidos catalog of bright M dwarfs with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) catalog of NUV (1771-2831 Å) sources. Of the 4805 sources with GALEX counterparts, 797 have NUV emission significantly (>2.5σ) in excess of an empirical basal level. We inspected these candidate active stars using visible-wavelength spectra, high-resolution adaptive optics imaging, time-series photometry, and literature searches to identify cases where the elevated NUV emission is due to unresolved background sources or stellar companions; we estimated the overall occurrence of these ''false positives'' (FPs) as ∼16%. We constructed an NUV luminosity function that accounted for FPs, detection biases of the source catalogs, and GALEX upper limits. We found the NUV luminosity function to be inconsistent with predictions from a constant star-formation rate and simplified age-activity relation defined by a two-parameter power law.

  13. The Leading Edge of Early Childhood Education: Linking Science to Policy for a New Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K., Ed.; Jones, Stephanie M., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    "The Leading Edge of Early Childhood Education" aims to support the effort to simultaneously scale up and improve the quality of early childhood education by bringing together relevant insights from emerging research to provide guidance for this critical, fledgling field. It reflects the growing recognition that early childhood…

  14. Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Education MUST Begin in Early Childhood Education: A Systematic Analysis of Washington State Guidelines Used to Gauge the Development and Learning of Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briseno, Luis Miguel

    This paper reflects future direction for early Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education, science in particular. Washington State stakeholders use guidelines including: standards, curriculums and assessments to gauge young children's development and learning, in early childhood education (ECE). Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), and the Framework for K-12 programs (National Research Council, 2011) emphasizes the need for reconfiguration of standards: "Too often standards are a long list of detailed and disconnected facts... this approach alienates young people, it also leaves them with fragments of knowledge and little sense of the inherent logic and consistency of science and of its universality." NGSS' position elevates the concern and need for learners to experience teaching and learning from intentionally designed cohesive curriculum units, rather than as a series of unrelated and isolated lessons. To introduce the argument the present study seeks to examine Washington State early learning standards. To evaluate this need, I examined balance and coverage/depth. Analysis measures the level of continuum in high-quality guidelines from which Washington State operates to serve its youngest citizens and their families.

  15. Factors associated with early atherosclerosis and arterial calcifications in young subjects with a benign phenotype of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardini, Luisa; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Di Matteo, Silvia; Caffetto, Katherine; Croci, Marina; Girola, Andrea; Invitti, Cecilia

    2011-08-01

    We assessed (i) the association between early arterial disease and factors linked to adiposity, dietary habits, and family in a young cohort of 151 obese children and adolescents with less than or equal to one cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, (ii) whether in subjects with carotid calcifications there was an imbalance of calcium-phosphorus homeostasis. Measurement included: carotid ultrasound, oral glucose tolerance test, anthropometry, body composition, dietary history, white blood cells count, lipids, uric acid, adiponectin, insulin, C-reactive protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium and phosphorus. Obese children with carotid artery intima media thickness (cIMT) values >75° percentile (0.55 mm), compared to those with lower cIMT, were more obese, more often pubertal and had higher prevalence of family history of CV disease (CVD) (P < 0.05), higher plasma PAI-1 and uric acid (P < 0.001) and lower adiponectin (P < 0.05) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (P < 0.05). After adjustment for sex, age, puberty, obesity, and insulin levels, only PAI-I remained significantly different between the two groups (10.9 (7.2-29.8) vs. 6.2 (4.3-10.6) ng/ml, P < 0.001). Dietary intake did not affect cIMT values. Eight percent of subjects showed nonatherosclerotic carotid calcifications with patchy pattern. These children had a worse lipid profile (P < 0.05) and higher plasma PTH levels (48.6 ± 21.5 vs 38.5 ± 16.9 pg/ml, P < 0.05) that were inversely associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (r = 0.245, P < 0.01). Present results suggest that (i) several adiposity-related factors may play a role in promoting the development of early arterial diseases in young subjects with a benign phenotype of obesity, (ii) a PTH rise resulting from a subclinical imbalance in calcium-phosphorus homeostasis may affect the biological process of vascular calcifications.

  16. Early incidence of occupational asthma among young bakers, pastry-makers and hairdressers: design of a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guéant-Rodriguez Rosa-Maria

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational exposures are thought to be responsible for 10-15% of new-onset asthma cases in adults, with disparities across sectors. Because most of the data are derived from registries and cross-sectional studies, little is known about incidence of occupational asthma (OA during the first years after inception of exposure. This paper describes the design of a study that focuses on this early asthma onset period among young workers in the bakery, pastry making and hairdressing sectors in order to assess early incidence of OA in these "at risk" occupations according to exposure duration, and to identify risk factors of OA incidence. Methods/Design The study population is composed of subjects who graduated between 2001 and 2006 in these sectors where they experience exposure to organic or inorganic allergenic or irritant compounds (with an objective of 150 subjects by year and 250 young workers with no specific occupational exposure. A phone interview focusing on respiratory and 'Ear-Nose-Throat' (ENT work-related symptoms screen subjects considered as "possibly OA cases". Subjects are invited to participate in a medical visit to complete clinical and lung function investigations, including fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO and carbon monoxide (CO measurements, and to collect blood samples for IgE (Immunoglobulin E measurements (total IgE and IgE for work-related and common allergens. Markers of oxidative stress and genetic polymorphisms exploration are also assessed. A random sample of 200 "non-cases" (controls is also visited, following a nested case-control design. Discussion This study may allow to describ a latent period between inception of exposure and the rise of the prevalence of asthma symptoms, an information that would be useful for the prevention of OA. Such a time frame would be suited for conducting screening campaigns of this emergent asthma at a stage when occupational hygiene measures and adapted

  17. Generational changes in the meanings of sex, sexual identity and stigma among Latino young and adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, Nicolette; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Garcia, Jonathan; Perry, Ashley; Wilson, Patrick; Parker, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine the sexual identities of Latino men who have sex with men and women, in which an analysis was made of 150 sexual histories of Latino men aged 18-60. This study asks how the bisexual identity and experience of stigma is different for Latino men along the generational spectrum and how do these differences relate to kinship support and gender ideology? In the process of analysis, two main clusters of characteristics were identified to reflect this population: young men aged 18-25, whose open bisexual identity correlated positively with kinship/peer support and flexible gender and sexual roles, and men aged 26-60, who refused or were reluctant to identify as bisexual despite the fact that they were sexually active with both men and women. This group as a whole had less kinship and peer support, were more likely to identify with traditional gender roles and were less sexually versatile. Finally, a third group reflected Latino men across the generational divide who were less concerned with same-sex stigma, but who nevertheless felt the bisexual label to be confining, illegitimate or otherwise negative.

  18. The role of education in the culture of four pillar poverty to establish the nationalism of young generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmini; Warsono

    2018-01-01

    Globalization as an international integration process brings several positive and negative impacts due to the exchange of world views, products, thoughts, and other cultural aspects that can diminish the values of national identity. Four pillars of nationality are needed as a foundation to counteract the negative effects of globalization, therefore a culturally, educative, legal and structural approach is needed so that the younger generation can truly understand and safeguard the four pillars of our nationality. So far the government has also played little role in building the four pillars into an education. This research intends to see how the role of education can build young generation of nationalism by using research design in the form of content analysis. The population in this study is the Education Office of Sidoarjo Regency, which is the level of Junior High School Education Unit. However, given the scope and breadth of the district of Sidoarjo, a representative sample is determined using FGD (Focus Group Discussion) data collection techniques and questionnaires that will be analyzed using written policy descriptions or unwritten policies. Through a series of research stages, it can be concluded that there are still many principals who have not integrated the culture of the four pillars of nationalism into a written and unwritten document covering intracurricular, extracurricular, school culture and through community participation.

  19. Early Childhood Caries and Body Mass Index in Young Children from Low Income Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretti Queiroz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between early childhood caries (ECC and obesity is controversial. This cross-sectional survey investigated this association in children from low-income families in Goiania, Goias, Brazil and considered the role of several social determinants. A questionnaire examining the characteristics of the children and their families was administered to the primary caregiver during home visits. In addition, children (approximately 6 years of age had their height, weight, and tooth condition assessed. The primary ECC outcome was categorized as one of the following: caries experience (decayed, missing, filled tooth: “dmft” index > 0, active ECC (decayed teeth > 0, or active severe ECC (decayed teeth ≥ 6. Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The participants in the current study consisted of 269 caregiver-child dyads, 88.5% of whom were included in the Family Health Program. Caregivers were mostly mothers (67.7%, were 35.3 ± 10.0 years old on average and had 9.8 ± 3.1 years of formal education. The mean family income was 2.3 ± 1.5 times greater than the Brazilian minimum wage. On average, the children in the current study were 68.7 ± 3.8 months old. Of these, 51.7% were boys, 23.4% were overweight or obese, 45.0% had active ECC, and 17.1% had severe ECC. The average body mass index (BMI of the children was 15.9 ± 2.2, and their dmft index was 2.5 ± 3.2. BMI was not associated with any of the three categories of dental caries (p > 0.05. In contrast, higher family incomes were significantly associated with the lack of caries experience in children (OR 1.22, 95%CI 1.01–1.50, but the mother’s level of education was not significantly associated with ECC.

  20. Enhanced startle reflexivity during presentation of visual nurture cues in young adults who experienced parental divorce in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengesch, Xenia; Larra, Mauro F; Finke, Johannes B; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2017-10-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) may influence stress and affective processing in adulthood. Animal and human studies show enhanced startle reflexivity in adult participants with ACE. This study examined the impact of one of the most common ACE, parental divorce, on startle reflexivity in adulthood. Affective modulation of acoustically-elicited startle eye blink was assessed in a group of 23 young adults with self-reported history of parental divorce, compared to an age- and sex-matched control group (n=18). Foreground pictures were either aversive (e.g. mutilation and injury), standard appetitive (e.g. erotic, recreational sport), or nurture pictures (e.g. related to early life, parental care), intermixed with neutral pictures (e.g. household objects), and organized in three valence blocks delivered in a balanced, pseudo-randomized sequence. During picture viewing startle eye blinks were elicited by binaural white noise bursts (50ms, 105 dB) via headphones and recorded at the left orbicularis oculi muscle via EMG. A significant interaction of group×picture valence (p=0.01) was observed. Contrast with controls revealed blunted startle responsiveness of the ACE group during presentation of aversive pictures, but enhanced startle during presentation of nurture-related pictures. No group differences were found during presentation of standard appetitive pictures. ACE participants rated nurture pictures as more arousing (p=0.02) than did control participants. Results suggest that divorce in childhood led to altered affective context information processing in early adulthood. When exposed to unpleasant (vs. neutral) pictures participants with ACE showed less startle potentiation than controls. Nurture context, however, potentiated startle in ACE participants, suggesting visual cuing to activate protective behavioral responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. TRAVELLERS: a school-based early intervention programme helping young people manage and process change, loss and transition. Pilot phase findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Pauline; Coggan, Carolyn; Bennett, Sara

    2003-06-01

    This paper outlines the conceptual background and findings from the pilot phase of TRAVELLERS--an early intervention programme designed to enhance protective factors for young people experiencing change, loss and transition events and early signs of emotional distress. The pilot study aimed to determine whether TRAVELLERS was a feasible, acceptable and promising intervention for young people within secondary schools in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The conceptual origins of the TRAVELLERS programme are described in terms of: adolescent mental health concerns; emerging mental health promotion theory and practice; and prevention and early intervention models. The key elements of the TRAVELLERS programme are described. The programme was piloted in two secondary schools, one rural and one urban with 34 participants (females n = 24, males n = 10). Evaluation methods included: review of programme materials; identification of potential selection tools appropriate to Year 9 students; analysis of selection questionnaire; and conduct of feedback from participants, facilitators and parents/caregivers. The TRAVELLERS programme provides a means of identifying and selecting young people who may benefit from participating in an early intervention programme. The programme has achieved a statistically significant reduction in participants' distress (p Young people were overwhelmingly enthusiastic about most aspects of TRAVELLERS. School personnel reported that TRAVELLERS was an appropriate and acceptable programme to the school. Targeted interventions provided within a supportive school environment can contribute to enhancing protective factors such as personal and interpersonal coping strategies, increased help-seeking behaviour, and young people feeling more positive about themselves and their lives. The pilot programme has been amended and prepared for a two year trial phase in 10 secondary schools during 2002-2003.

  2. The Performance of Early-Generation Perennial Winter Cereals at 21 Sites across Four Continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Hayes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A network of 21 experiments was established across nine countries on four continents and spanning both hemispheres, to evaluate the relative performance of early generation perennial cereal material derived from wheat, rye, and barley and to inform future breeding strategies. The experimental lines were grown in replicated single rows, and first year production and phenology characteristics as well as yield and persistence for up to three years were monitored. The study showed that the existing experimental material is all relatively short-lived (≤3 years, with environments that are milder in summer and winter generally conferring greater longevity. No pedigree was superior across this diverse network of sites although better performing lines at the higher latitude sites were generally derived from Thinopyrum intermedium. By contrast, at lower latitudes the superior lines were generally derived from Th. ponticum and Th. elongatum parentage. The study observed a poor relationship between year 1 performance and productivity in later years, highlighting the need for perennial cereal material with greater longevity to underpin future experimental evaluation, and the importance for breeding programs to emphasize post-year 1 performance in their selections. Hybrid lines derived from the tetraploid durum wheat generally showed greater longevity than derivatives of hexaploid wheat, highlighting potential for greater use of Triticum turgidum in perennial wheat breeding. We advocate a model in future breeding initiatives that develops perennial cereal genotypes for specific target environments rather than a generic product for one global market. These products may include a diversity of cultivars derived from locally adapted annual and perennial parents. In this scenario the breeding program may have access to only a limited range of adapted perennial grass parents. In other situations, such as at very high latitude environments, perennial crops derived

  3. Common genetic variants are significant risk factors for early menopause: results from the Breakthrough Generations Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anna; Bennett, Claire E; Perry, John R B; Weedon, Michael N; Jacobs, Patricia A; Morris, Danielle H; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Jones, Michael; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Women become infertile approximately 10 years before menopause, and as more women delay childbirth into their 30s, the number of women who experience infertility is likely to increase. Tests that predict the timing of menopause would allow women to make informed reproductive decisions. Current predictors are only effective just prior to menopause, and there are no long-range indicators. Age at menopause and early menopause (EM) are highly heritable, suggesting a genetic aetiology. Recent genome-wide scans have identified four loci associated with variation in the age of normal menopause (40-60 years). We aimed to determine whether theses loci are also risk factors for EM. We tested the four menopause-associated genetic variants in a cohort of approximately 2000 women with menopause≤45 years from the Breakthrough Generations Study (BGS). All four variants significantly increased the odds of having EM. Comparing the 4.5% of individuals with the lowest number of risk alleles (two or three) with the 3.0% with the highest number (eight risk alleles), the odds ratio was 4.1 (95% CI 2.4-7.1, P=4.0×10(-7)). In combination, the four variants discriminated EM cases with a receiver operator characteristic area under the curve of 0.6. Four common genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies, had a significant impact on the odds of having EM in an independent cohort from the BGS. The discriminative power is still limited, but as more variants are discovered they may be useful for predicting reproductive lifespan.

  4. Improving the baking quality of bread wheat by genomic selection in early generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Sebastian; Kummer, Christian; Gallee, Martin; Hellinger, Jakob; Ametz, Christian; Akgöl, Batuhan; Epure, Doru; Löschenberger, Franziska; Buerstmayr, Hermann

    2018-02-01

    Genomic selection shows great promise for pre-selecting lines with superior bread baking quality in early generations, 3 years ahead of labour-intensive, time-consuming, and costly quality analysis. The genetic improvement of baking quality is one of the grand challenges in wheat breeding as the assessment of the associated traits often involves time-consuming, labour-intensive, and costly testing forcing breeders to postpone sophisticated quality tests to the very last phases of variety development. The prospect of genomic selection for complex traits like grain yield has been shown in numerous studies, and might thus be also an interesting method to select for baking quality traits. Hence, we focused in this study on the accuracy of genomic selection for laborious and expensive to phenotype quality traits as well as its selection response in comparison with phenotypic selection. More than 400 genotyped wheat lines were, therefore, phenotyped for protein content, dough viscoelastic and mixing properties related to baking quality in multi-environment trials 2009-2016. The average prediction accuracy across three independent validation populations was r = 0.39 and could be increased to r = 0.47 by modelling major QTL as fixed effects as well as employing multi-trait prediction models, which resulted in an acceptable prediction accuracy for all dough rheological traits (r = 0.38-0.63). Genomic selection can furthermore be applied 2-3 years earlier than direct phenotypic selection, and the estimated selection response was nearly twice as high in comparison with indirect selection by protein content for baking quality related traits. This considerable advantage of genomic selection could accordingly support breeders in their selection decisions and aid in efficiently combining superior baking quality with grain yield in newly developed wheat varieties.

  5. Early Life Psychosocial Stressors and Housing Instability among Young Sexual Minority Men: the P18 Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Kristen D; Kapadia, Farzana; Ompad, Danielle C; D'Avanzo, Paul A; Duncan, Dustin T; Halkitis, Perry N

    2016-06-01

    Homelessness and housing instability is a significant public health problem among young sexual minority men. While there is a growing body of literature on correlates of homelessness among sexual minority men, there is a lack of literature parsing the different facets of housing instability. The present study examines factors associated with both living and sleeping in unstable housing among n = 600 sexual minority men (ages 18-19). Multivariate models were constructed to examine the extent to which sociodemographic, interpersonal, and behavioral factors as well as adverse childhood experiences explain housing instability. Overall, 13 % of participants reported sleeping in unstable housing and 18 % had lived in unstable housing at some point in the 6 months preceding the assessment. The odds of currently sleeping in unstable housing were greater among those who experienced more frequent lack of basic needs (food, proper hygiene, clothing) during their childhoods. More frequent experiences of childhood physical abuse and a history of arrest were associated with currently living in unstable housing. Current enrollment in school was a protective factor with both living and sleeping in unstable housing. These findings indicate that being unstably housed can be rooted in early life experiences and suggest a point of intervention that may prevent unstable housing among sexual minority men.

  6. DOES FATHER INVOLVEMENT INFLUENCE THE AFFECT, LANGUAGE ACQUISITION, SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT AND BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG AUTISTIC CHILDREN? AN EARLY INTERVENTION STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Tabitha LOUIS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study adopts a randomized experimental design to evaluate the impact of a father-mediated therapy to improve the play skills, affect, language, social skills and behavior among 30 clinically diagnosed autistic children at the age of 3-5 years. Standardized inventories such as, The Play Based Observation (PBO, The Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS, The Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS and the Rendel Shorts Questionnaire were administered pre and post intervention. A special program that involved fathers in the caregiving and nurturing processes of these children was designed and implemented for 6 months after which the children were reassessed. Prior to the intervention, deficits in play skills and developmental delays across expressive and receptive language were observed Scores on the Vineland Social Maturity Scale and the Rendel Shorts revealed behavioral markers. Post intervention, we noticed significant differences in the play, language acquisition, social engagement and behavior in the treatment group in comparison to the control group. The results suggested that father-mediated therapeutic involvement significantly has proven to positively foster development in young autistic children and this is an important implication for practitioners in developing early intervention programs.

  7. Identification of Early Maladaptive Schemas Based on Young Questionnaire in High School Girls of Qom City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hamta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Schema is a cognitive and emotional pattern, which can affect individual behaviors. This study was performed to investigate mental health problems and personality characteristics in female students in Qom city. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 151 female students of Qom high schools in three disciplines of Mathematical Sciences, Humanities, and Experimental Sciences in 2011-2012 academic years. Sampling was performed in two steps; first cluster sampling and then stratified sampling with proportional allocation to each cluster. Participants answered a 75-question questionnaire, “Young Early Maladaptive Schemas”. Data were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis, spearman correlation coefficient, and Lambda statistics. Results: The mean age of the students was 15±1.5 years. Unrelenting standards schemas (in domain of over vigilance/inhibition, failure and dependency (in dimension of impaired autonomy, and defectiveness and shame (in dimension of disconnection and rejection had the highest mean scores, respectively. None of the mean scores had a significant difference according to three academic groups. But the correlation between the schemas was statistically significant in the academic groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: In this study, 2 out of the 4 schemas with the highest mean belonged to impaired performance domain. Given that this schema is formed by parental behavior during childhood, therefore, one of the strategies can be training of parents to improve children’s confidence and not over caring of them.  

  8. Risk and Resilience Factors Associated with Formal and Informal Income Generation among Homeless Young Adults in Three U.S. Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2018-01-01

    This study used the risk and resilience framework to examine predictors of formal and informal sources of income among homeless young adults. Formal sources of income generation consisted of full-time, part-time, or paid, temporary work. Informal sources included earning money from selling personal possessions, selling drugs, and theft. In all,…

  9. Approaching the young generation. How to transfer knowledge to future professionals; Acercarse a los mas jovenes. Como transmitir el conocimiento a los futuros profesionales?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Laruelo, J.; Vinusa Carretero, A.

    2016-08-01

    One of the main goals of Spanish Young Generation Network (in Spanish Jovenes Nucleares) is the dissemination of nuclear science and technology knowledge to the students and general public. From this point of view, we approach the younger students, our future professionals, in order to teach them this science and to answer the main questions society has about this sector. (Author)

  10. A Survey on Language Use, Attitudes, and Identity in Relation to Philippine English among Young Generation Filipinos: An Initial Sample from a Private University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlongan, Ariane Macalinga

    2009-01-01

    This study looks at the language use, attitudes, and identity in relation to Philippine English among young generation Filipinos through a questionnaire survey of a selected group of students from a Philippine private university. The survey findings would reveal that most domains of use and verbal activities are dominated by English as the…

  11. Evaluation of reciprocal cross populations for spike-related traits in early consecutive generations of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutlu Imren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breeding effort on increasing grain yield of wheat will incessantly continue because it is indispensable product. Obtaining the genetic information such as genotypic variation, heritability, genetic advance is the fundamental components of these studies. It is important that the maternal effects are put forward throughout successive generations because of genotypic and/or environmental effects as far as variation. This research was conducted to investigate changes of reciprocal crosses throughout successive generations and determine selection criteria for high yield in early generations. For this purpose, the populations were analyzed with regard to genotypic and phenotypic variation coefficient, heritability, genetic advance and Unweighted Pair Group Method (UPGMA cluster analysis for real crosses, reciprocals and all genotypes separately. According to the results, heritability and genetic advance values of traits investigated were highly varied throughout successive generations among real crosses, reciprocals and all genotypes. This finding indicated that non-additive gen effects or epitasis played a role in inheritance of all traits. Dissimilarity of crosses than their reciprocals indicated variation of successive generation. Dissimilarity value of each parent differed as generation progresses according to combination created. This condition suggested that there were maternal effects in this population throughout successive generations. Grain weight per spike, spike harvest index and spike density had high direct and indirect effects on the grain yield at all of three generations, it proved that these traits can be a selection criterion for early generations. Sana was the best parent and ‘Bezostaja x Krasunia’ and ‘Krasunia x Pehlivan’ were best performance in most of traits at all generations.

  12. Pacemaker implantation rate after transcatheter aortic valve implantation with early and new-generation devices: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rosendael, Philippe J; Delgado, Victoria; Bax, Jeroen J

    2018-02-06

    The incidence of new-onset conduction abnormalities requiring permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with new-generation prostheses remains debated. This systematic review analyses the incidence of PPI after TAVI with new-generation devices and evaluates the electrical, anatomical, and procedural factors associated with PPI. In addition, the incidence of PPI after TAVI with early generation prostheses was reviewed for comparison. According to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist, this systematic review screened original articles published between October 2010 and October 2017, reporting on the incidence of PPI after implantation of early and new-generation TAVI prostheses. Of the 1406 original articles identified in the first search for new-generation TAVI devices, 348 articles were examined for full text, and finally, 40 studies (n = 17 139) were included. The incidence of a PPI after the use of a new-generation TAVI prosthesis ranged between 2.3% and 36.1%. For balloon-expandable prostheses, the PPI rate remained low when using an early generation SAPIEN device (ranging between 2.3% and 28.2%), and with the new-generation SAPIEN 3 device, the PPI rate was between 4.0% and 24.0%. For self-expandable prostheses, the PPI rates were higher with the early generation CoreValve device (16.3-37.7%), and despite a reduction in PPI rates with the new Evolut R, the rates remained relatively higher (14.7-26.7%). When dividing the studies according to the highest (>26.0%) and the lowest (left ventricular outflow tract (anatomical factor), and balloon valvuloplasty and depth of implantation (procedural factors) were associated with increased risk of PPI. The rate of PPI after TAVI with new-generation devices is highly variable. Specific recommendations for implantation of each prosthesis, taking into consideration the presence of pre-existent conduction abnormalities and

  13. Early stages of wind wave and drift current generation under non-stationary wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Diaz, Lucia; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Branger, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    Generation and amplification mechanisms of ocean waves are well understood under constant wind speed or limited fetch conditions. Under these situations, the momentum and energy transfers from air to water are also quite well known. However during the wind field evolution over the ocean, we may observe sometime high wind acceleration/deceleration situations (e.g. Mexican Tehuano or Mediterranean Mistral wind systems). The evolution of wave systems under these conditions is not well understood. The purpose of these laboratory experiments is to better understand the early stages of water-waves and surface-drift currents under non-stationary wind conditions and to determine the balance between transfers creating waves and surface currents during non-equilibrium situations. The experiments were conducted in the Institut Pythéas wind-wave facility in Marseille-France. The wave tank is 40 m long, 2.7 m wide and 1 m deep. The air section is 50 m long, 3 m wide and 1.8 m height. We used 11 different resistive wave-gauges located along the tank. The momentum fluxes in the air column were estimated from single and X hot-film anemometer measurements. The sampling frequency for wind velocity and surface displacement measurements was 256 Hz. Water-current measurements were performed with a profiling velocimeter. This device measures the first 3.5 cm of the water column with a frequency rate of 100Hz. During the experiments, the wind intensity was abruptly modified with a constant acceleration and deceleration over time. We observed that wind drag coefficient values for accelerated wind periods are lower than the ones reported in previous studies for constant wind speed (Large and Pond 1981; Ocampo-Torres et al. 2010; Smith 1980; Yelland and Taylor 1996). This is probably because the turbulent boundary layer is not completely developed during the increasing-wind sequence. As it was reported in some theoretical studies (Miles 1957; Phillips 1957; Kahma and Donelan 1988), we

  14. Where It All Begins: The Impact of Preconceptional and Prenatal Care on Early Childhood Development. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Michael C.; Bragonier, Robert; Silver, Ellen R.; Bemis-Heys, Rose

    In 1998, California voters approved Proposition 10, the Children and Families First Act, which placed an additional tax on cigarette sales; monies generated will be used to improve early childhood development for birth to five. In terms of early childhood development, the starting point is not birth but long before; care of women of reproductive…

  15. Effect of early rehabilitation training on oxygen free radical generation and nerve injury in patients with cerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Shu Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of early rehabilitation training combined with edaravone on oxygen free radical generation and nerve injury in patients with cerebral hemorrhage. Methods: A total of 56 patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage who were treated in Zigong Third People’s Hospital between July 2014 and March 2017 were selected and randomly divided into early rehabilitation group and routine rehabilitation group, the early rehabilitation group began the rehabilitation training 2 d after cerebral hemorrhage condition was stabilized, and routine rehabilitation group began the rehabilitation training 14 d after cerebral hemorrhage. Serum contents of oxygen free radicals, nerve injury markers and neurotrophic molecules were detected 28 d and 56 d after cerebral hemorrhage. Results: 28 d and 56 d after cerebral hemorrhage, serum MDA, AOPP, 8-OHdG, GFAP, NSE, Tf, Ft and S100B levels of early rehabilitation group were significantly lower than those of routine rehabilitation group while BDNF, NGF, NTF-α and IGF-I levels were significantly higher than those of routine rehabilitation group. Conclusion: Early rehabilitation training combined with edaravone for cerebral hemorrhage can inhibit the oxygen free radical generation, reduce the degree of nerve injury and improve the neurotrophic state.

  16. THE FORMATION OF SECONDARY STELLAR GENERATIONS IN MASSIVE YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS FROM RAPIDLY COOLING SHOCKED STELLAR WINDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wünsch, R.; Palouš, J.; Ehlerová, S. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Boční II 1401, 141 31 Prague (Czech Republic); Tenorio-Tagle, G. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Optica y Electrónica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla, México (Mexico)

    2017-01-20

    We study a model of rapidly cooling shocked stellar winds in young massive clusters and estimate the circumstances under which secondary star formation, out of the reinserted winds from a first stellar generation (1G), is possible. We have used two implementations of the model: a highly idealized, computationally inexpensive, spherically symmetric semi-analytic model, and a complex, three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic, simulation; they are in a good mutual agreement. The results confirm our previous findings that, in a cluster with 1G mass 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙} and half-mass–radius 2.38 pc, the shocked stellar winds become thermally unstable, collapse into dense gaseous structures that partially accumulate inside the cluster, self-shield against ionizing stellar radiation, and form the second generation (2G) of stars. We have used the semi-analytic model to explore a subset of the parameter space covering a wide range of the observationally poorly constrained parameters: the heating efficiency, η {sub he}, and the mass loading, η {sub ml}. The results show that the fraction of the 1G stellar winds accumulating inside the cluster can be larger than 50% if η {sub he} ≲ 10%, which is suggested by the observations. Furthermore, for low η {sub he}, the model provides a self-consistent mechanism predicting 2G stars forming only in the central zones of the cluster. Finally, we have calculated the accumulated warm gas emission in the H30 α recombination line, analyzed its velocity profile, and estimated its intensity for super star clusters in interacting galaxies NGC4038/9 (Antennae) showing that the warm gas should be detectable with ALMA.

  17. Assessing "dangerous climate change": required reduction of carbon emissions to protect young people, future generations and nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J; Hearty, Paul J; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  18. Assessing “Dangerous Climate Change”: Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C.

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth’s measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today’s young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur “slow” feedbacks and eventual warming of 3–4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth’s energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels. PMID:24312568

  19. Assessing "dangerous climate change": required reduction of carbon emissions to protect young people, future generations and nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hansen

    Full Text Available We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  20. Assessing 'Dangerous Climate Change': Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Demotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; hide

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of approx.500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of approx.1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2 C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4 C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  1. Effects of comorbidity and early age of onset in young people with Bipolar Disorder on self harming behaviour and suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, Stephanie; Crowe, Marie; Luty, Sue; Carter, Janet; Joyce, Peter R

    2012-02-01

    The age of the first episode of illness in Bipolar Disorder has been shown to be an important predictor of outcome with early onset, particularly onset before puberty, associated with greater comorbidity, a poorer quality of life and greatest impairment in functioning. Baseline data from a psychotherapy study was used to examine the prevalence of other comorbid psychiatric conditions and the impact of onset at an early age on both self harming behaviour and suicide attempts in young people with Bipolar Disorder. This study of 100 adolescents and young adults (aged 15-36 years) with Bipolar Disorder showed that comorbid conditions were very common, even at the start of their bipolar illness. Comorbidity increased as the age of onset decreased with very early onset (self harmed and attempted suicide with high lethal intent. Self harming behaviour was predicted by having a lifetime diagnoses of Borderline Personality Disorder and Panic Disorder along with an early age of onset of Bipolar Disorder. In contrast, previous suicide attempts were predicted by greater comorbidity and not by very early (<13 years) age of onset. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inequitable Gender Norms From Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood in Uganda: Tool Validation and Differences Across Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lung; Pulerwitz, Julie; Burnett-Zieman, Brady; Banura, Cecily; Okal, Jerry; Yam, Eileen

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to describe and compare gender norms among 10- to 14-year-olds versus 15- to 24-year-olds and to conduct a rigorous evaluation of the GEM Scale's performance among these two age groups. We conducted a two-stage cluster-sampled survey among 387 females and 583 males, aged 10-24 years, in rural and urban communities near Kampala, Uganda. We applied, assessed, and adapted the GEM Scale (Pulerwitz and Barker, 2008), which measures views toward gender norms in four domains. We describe levels of support for (in)equitable norms, by gender and age, and associations with key health outcomes (partner violence). Confirmatory factor analysis and multi-group measurement invariance analysis were used to assess scale performance. All participants reported high levels of support for inequitable gender norms; 10- to 14-year-olds were less gender equitable than their older counterparts. For example, 74% of 10- to 14-year-olds and 67% of 15- to 24-year-olds agreed that "a woman should tolerate violence to keep her family together." Comparing responses from males and females indicated similar support for gender inequity. Analyses confirmed a one-factor model, good scale fit for both age groups, and that several items from the scale could be dropped for this sample. The ideal list of items for each age group differed somewhat but covered all four scale domains in either case. An 18-item adapted scale was used to compare mean GEM Scale scores between the two age groups; responses were significantly associated with early sexual debut and partner violence. Young people internalize gender norms about sexual and intimate relationships, and violence, at early ages. Programs to address negative health outcomes should explicitly address inequitable gender norms and more consistently expand to reach younger age groups. In this first application of the GEM Scale among 10- to 14-year-olds, we confirm that it is a valid measure in this setting. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent

  3. Bidirectional Associations Between Cannabis Use and Depressive Symptoms From Adolescence Through Early Adulthood Among At-Risk Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Sean R.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Weaver, Chelsea M.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have established a relationship between cannabis use and affective problems among adolescents and young adults; however, the direction of these associations remains a topic of debate. The present study sought to examine bidirectional associations between cannabis use and depressive symptoms, specifically testing the validity of two competing hypotheses: the cannabis effect hypothesis, which suggests that cannabis use contributes to the onset of later depressive symptoms; and the self-medication hypothesis, which posits that individuals increase their use of a substance to alleviate distressing psychological symptoms. Method: Participants in this study were 264 low-socioeconomic-status males assessed at ages 17, 20, and 22. Cross-lag panel models were fit to test bidirectional associations between cannabis use frequency and depressive symptoms across the transition from adolescence to early adulthood. In addition, analyses were conducted within two high-risk subsamples to examine whether associations between cannabis use frequency (ranging from never used to daily use) and depressive symptoms differed among regular cannabis users (used cannabis more than once per week) or subjects reporting at least mild levels of depressive symptoms. Results: Cannabis use and depressive symptoms were concurrently correlated. Cannabis use predicted increases in later depressive symptoms, but only among the mild-depression subsample. Depressive symptoms predicted only slight increases in later cannabis use, among the subsample of regular cannabis users. Conclusions: Temporal patterns of cannabis use and depressive symptoms provide evidence for the cannabis effect but limited evidence for the self-medication hypothesis. Adolescents higher in depressive symptoms may be vulnerable to the adverse psychological effects of using cannabis. Results are discussed in terms of implications for basic research, prevention, and intervention. PMID:26997187

  4. Bidirectional Associations Between Cannabis Use and Depressive Symptoms From Adolescence Through Early Adulthood Among At-Risk Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Sean R; Shaw, Daniel S; Weaver, Chelsea M; Forbes, Erika E

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have established a relationship between cannabis use and affective problems among adolescents and young adults; however, the direction of these associations remains a topic of debate. The present study sought to examine bidirectional associations between cannabis use and depressive symptoms, specifically testing the validity of two competing hypotheses: the cannabis effect hypothesis, which suggests that cannabis use contributes to the onset of later depressive symptoms; and the self-medication hypothesis, which posits that individuals increase their use of a substance to alleviate distressing psychological symptoms. Participants in this study were 264 low-socioeconomic-status males assessed at ages 17, 20, and 22. Cross-lag panel models were fit to test bidirectional associations between cannabis use frequency and depressive symptoms across the transition from adolescence to early adulthood. In addition, analyses were conducted within two high-risk subsamples to examine whether associations between cannabis use frequency (ranging from never used to daily use) and depressive symptoms differed among regular cannabis users (used cannabis more than once per week) or subjects reporting at least mild levels of depressive symptoms. Cannabis use and depressive symptoms were concurrently correlated. Cannabis use predicted increases in later depressive symptoms, but only among the mild-depression subsample. Depressive symptoms predicted only slight increases in later cannabis use, among the subsample of regular cannabis users. Temporal patterns of cannabis use and depressive symptoms provide evidence for the cannabis effect but limited evidence for the self-medication hypothesis. Adolescents higher in depressive symptoms may be vulnerable to the adverse psychological effects of using cannabis. Results are discussed in terms of implications for basic research, prevention, and intervention.

  5. Convergent and divergent validity of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning in young children with and without autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swineford, Lauren B; Guthrie, Whitney; Thurm, Audrey

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to report on the construct, convergent, and divergent validity of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), a widely used test of development for young children. The sample consisted of 399 children with a mean age of 3.38 years (SD = 1.14) divided into a group of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and a group of children not on the autism spectrum, with and without developmental delays. The study used the MSEL and several other measures assessing constructs relevant to the age range--including developmental skills, autism symptoms, and psychopathology symptoms--across multiple methods of assessment. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses revealed good overall fit and equal form of the MSEL 1-factor model across the ASD and nonspectrum groups, supporting the construct validity of the MSEL. However, neither full nor partial invariance of factor loadings was established because of the lower loadings in the ASD group compared with the nonspectrum group. Exploratory structural equation modeling revealed that other measures of developmental skills loaded together with the MSEL domain scores on a Developmental Functioning factor, supporting convergent validity of the MSEL. Divergent validity was supported by the lack of loading of MSEL domain scores on Autism Symptoms or Emotion/Behavior Problems factors. Although factor structure and loadings varied across groups, convergent and divergent validity findings were similar in the ASD and nonspectrum samples. Together, these results demonstrate evidence for the construct, convergent, and divergent validity of the MSEL using powerful data-analytic techniques. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The young generation network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, U.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The decline in nuclear science education in Europe has parallels in Australia. The author will address the impact of declining nuclear science educational opportunities on the outlook for nuclear research and industrial applications such as neutron scattering, radiotracing in environmental studies, the testing of industrial plant and equipment, nuclear medicine and research of basic and strategic relevance

  7. Nuclear Energy In Switzerland: It's going ahead. Challenges For The Swiss Nuclear Society Young Generation Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streit, Marco [Aare-Tessin Ltd for Electricity, Bahnhofquai 12, CH-4601 Olten (Switzerland); Bichsel, Thomas [BKW FMB Energie AG, NPP Muehleberg, CH-3203 Muehleberg (Switzerland); Fassbender, Andre [NPP Goesgen-Daeniken AG, CH-4658 Daeniken (Switzerland); Horvath, Matthias [National Emergency Operations Centre, CH-8044 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Swiss energy policy is focused on generating domestic electric power without combusting fossil fuels for already four decades. Roughly 60% of the electricity is generated in hydroelectric plants, which is possible due to the country's favourable topography; the remaining 40% are produced by the country's five nuclear power plants (NPPs). As in any other country nuclear power has its enemies in Switzerland. Due to the direct democracy system in Switzerland the nuclear opposition has a lot of possibilities to disturb the energy policy. Since 1969, when the first Swiss nuclear power plant went online, four plebiscites were held on the issue of civil use of nuclear energy. Four times Swiss citizens voted in favour of further operation of the existing plants also in the latest battle for nuclear energy, which was won in 2003. In 2005 and 2006 several Swiss studies about the future energy situation, especially the electricity situation, have been published. All off them show clearly that there will be a big gab around the year 2020 when the oldest three nuclear power plants will fade out. A public debate was started, how to solve the problem. Beside others, building new nuclear power plants was mentioned and discussed rationally. In 2007 the energy police of the Swiss government changed into a more nuclear friendly position and at the end of the same year some electricity companies lunched a new build program. Hosting the International Youth Nuclear Congress 2008 (IYNC 2008) in Switzerland seems to be just the right moment for the nuclear industry in our country. The slightly changed surroundings effected the organization of Swiss Nuclear Society (SNS) and SNS Young Generation Group (SNSYG) and enlarged the fields of activities for SNSYG. Those activities mentioned in the previous chapters will be developed in the future. The discussion about new builds in Switzerland has started and because of that more nuclear activities in Switzerland will occur. And surely

  8. Generation and associative encoding in young and old adults: the effect of the strength of association between cues and targets on a cued recall task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taconnat, Laurence; Froger, Charlotte; Sacher, Mathilde; Isingrini, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The generation effect (i.e., better recall of the generated items than the read items) was investigated with a between-list design in young and elderly participants. The generation task difficulty was manipulated by varying the strength of association between cues and targets. Overall, strong associates were better recalled than weak associates. However, the results showed different generation effect patterns according to strength of association and age, with a greater generation effect for weak associates in younger adults only. These findings suggest that generating weak associates leads to more elaborated encoding, but that elderly adults cannot use this elaborated encoding as well as younger adults to recall the target words at test.

  9. Influence of parental and grandparental major depressive disorder on behavior problems in early childhood: a three-generation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olino, Thomas M; Pettit, Jeremy W; Klein, Daniel N; Allen, Nicholas B; Seeley, John R; Lewinsohn, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    This aim of this study was to examine the influence of grandparental (G1) and parental (G2) major depressive disorder (MDD) and other forms of psychopathology on behavior problems in very young offspring (G3). Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (OADP) participants who had children over a 3-year period were invited to participate in a study of infant and child development. We attempted to collect diagnostic history from the original OADP (G2) participants, their coparents, the parents of the original OADP participants (G1), and the parents of the coparents. Child (G3) outcomes at 24 months of age were based on parent reports of behavior problems. Univariate correlations indicated that G1 and G2 familial loadings for MDD were associated with higher levels of G3 internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Multiple regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between G1 and G2 MDD on G3 internalizing (but not externalizing) behavior problems. A higher familial loading for MDD in either the parental or grandparental generation was associated with elevated grandchild internalizing problems, but higher loadings for MDD in both generations did not convey additional risk. Parental MDD and grandparental MDD are both associated with elevated levels of internalizing problems in young grandchildren, but MDD in both the G1 and G2 generations does not confer additional risk. One important implication is that MDD in the grandparental generation is associated with increased risk to grandchildren even in the absence of parental MDD. Future studies should examine the mechanisms through which grandparental psychopathology influences behavior problems in grandchildren.

  10. Normal personality traits, rumination and stress generation among early adolescent girls

    OpenAIRE

    Stroud, Catherine B.; Sosoo, Effua E.; Wilson, Sylia

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between personality and stress generation. Expanding upon prior work, we examined (a) the role of Positive Emotionality (PE), Negative Emotionality (NE), and Constraint (CON), and their lower-order facets, as predictors of acute and chronic interpersonal stress generation; (b) whether personality moderated effects of rumination on stress generation; and (c) whether personality increased exposure to independent (uncontrollable) stress. These questions were exam...

  11. The Perspectives of Young Men and Their Teenage Partners on Maternity and Health Services during Pregnancy and Early Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Nicola J.; Church, Stephanie; Hill, Malcolm; Seaman, Pete; Roberts, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This study discusses young couples' interactions with maternity and health services paying particular attention to men's perspectives. Findings are based on research conducted in Scotland with men (aged 16-25) and their teenage partners (aged 16-19). Most young men were very involved in their child's life and provided support and care to their…

  12. Predicting Early Fatherhood and Whether Young Fathers Live with Their Children: Prospective Findings and Policy Recommendations. Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Taylor, Alan; Dickson, Nigel

    This prospective, birth cohort study addressed three questions: Which individual and family-of-origin characteristics predict the age at which young men make the transition to fatherhood? Do these characteristics predict how long young men live with their children? Are individual differences in the amount of time fathers spend living with their…

  13. Early Determinants of Blood Pressure and Renal Function: Follow-up of very preterm born individuals until young adulcy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Keijzer-Veen (Mandy)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn summary, the studies described in this thesis suggest that premature birth affects renal function and blood pressure at (young) adult age, and especially when born both SGA and premature. Minor differences are already detectable at young adult age. The biological mechanism is

  14. Normal personality traits, rumination and stress generation among early adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Catherine B.; Sosoo, Effua E.; Wilson, Sylia

    2017-01-01

    This study examined associations between personality and stress generation. Expanding upon prior work, we examined (a) the role of Positive Emotionality (PE), Negative Emotionality (NE), and Constraint (CON), and their lower-order facets, as predictors of acute and chronic interpersonal stress generation; (b) whether personality moderated effects of rumination on stress generation; and (c) whether personality increased exposure to independent (uncontrollable) stress. These questions were examined in a one-year study of 126 adolescent girls (M age = 12.39 years) using contextual stress interviews. NE predicted increases in acute and chronic interpersonal stress generation, but not independent stress. NE, CON and affiliative PE each moderated the effect of rumination on chronic interpersonal stress generation. These effects were driven by particular lower-order traits. PMID:28845067

  15. Relationship between trusting behaviors and psychometrics associated with social network and depression among young generation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Motoki; Kato, Takahiro A; Teo, Alan R; Horikawa, Hideki; Tateno, Masaru; Hayakawa, Kohei; Shimokawa, Norihiro; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    Maladaptive social interaction and its related psychopathology have been highlighted in psychiatry especially among younger generations. In Japan, novel expressive forms of psychiatric phenomena such as "modern-type depression" and "hikikomori" (a syndrome of severe social withdrawal lasting for at least six months) have been reported especially among young people. Economic games such as the trust game have been utilized to evaluate real-world interpersonal relationships as a novel candidate for psychiatric evaluations. To investigate the relationship between trusting behaviors and various psychometric scales, we conducted a trust game experiment with eighty-one Japanese university students as a pilot study. Participants made a risky financial decision about whether to trust each of 40 photographed partners. Participants then answered a set of questionnaires with seven scales including the Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS)-6 and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9. Consistent with previous research, male participants trusted partners more than female participants. Regression analysis revealed that LSNS-family (perceived support from family) for male participants, and item 8 of PHQ-9 (subjective agitation and/or retardation) for female participants were associated with participants' trusting behaviors. Consistent with claims by social scientists, our data suggest that, for males, support from family was negatively associated with cooperative behavior toward non-family members. Females with higher subjective agitation (and/or retardation) gave less money toward males and high attractive females, but not toward low attractive females in interpersonal relationships. We believe that our data indicate the possible impact of economic games in psychiatric research and clinical practice, and validation in clinical samples including modern-type depression and hikikomori should be investigated.

  16. Relationship between trusting behaviors and psychometrics associated with social network and depression among young generation: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoki Watabe

    Full Text Available Maladaptive social interaction and its related psychopathology have been highlighted in psychiatry especially among younger generations. In Japan, novel expressive forms of psychiatric phenomena such as "modern-type depression" and "hikikomori" (a syndrome of severe social withdrawal lasting for at least six months have been reported especially among young people. Economic games such as the trust game have been utilized to evaluate real-world interpersonal relationships as a novel candidate for psychiatric evaluations. To investigate the relationship between trusting behaviors and various psychometric scales, we conducted a trust game experiment with eighty-one Japanese university students as a pilot study. Participants made a risky financial decision about whether to trust each of 40 photographed partners. Participants then answered a set of questionnaires with seven scales including the Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS-6 and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Consistent with previous research, male participants trusted partners more than female participants. Regression analysis revealed that LSNS-family (perceived support from family for male participants, and item 8 of PHQ-9 (subjective agitation and/or retardation for female participants were associated with participants' trusting behaviors. Consistent with claims by social scientists, our data suggest that, for males, support from family was negatively associated with cooperative behavior toward non-family members. Females with higher subjective agitation (and/or retardation gave less money toward males and high attractive females, but not toward low attractive females in interpersonal relationships. We believe that our data indicate the possible impact of economic games in psychiatric research and clinical practice, and validation in clinical samples including modern-type depression and hikikomori should be investigated.

  17. Early diagnosis of asthma in young children by using non-invasive biomarkers of airway inflammation and early lung function measurements: study protocol of a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kant, Kim DG; Klaassen, Ester MM; Jöbsis, Quirijn; Nijhuis, Annedien J; van Schayck, Onno CP; Dompeling, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Background Asthma is the most common chronic disease in childhood, characterized by chronic airway inflammation. There are problems with the diagnosis of asthma in young children since the majority of the children with recurrent asthma-like symptoms is symptom free at 6 years, and does not have asthma. With the conventional diagnostic tools it is not possible to differentiate between preschool children with transient symptoms and children with asthma. The analysis of biomarkers of airway inflammation in exhaled breath is a non-invasive and promising technique to diagnose asthma and monitor inflammation in young children. Moreover, relatively new lung function tests (airway resistance using the interrupter technique) have become available for young children. The primary objective of the ADEM study (Asthma DEtection and Monitoring study), is to develop a non-invasive instrument for an early asthma diagnosis in young children, using exhaled inflammatory markers and early lung function measurements. In addition, aetiological factors, including gene polymorphisms and gene expression profiles, in relation to the development of asthma are studied. Methods/design A prospective case-control study is started in 200 children with recurrent respiratory symptoms and 50 control subjects without respiratory symptoms. At 6 years, a definite diagnosis of asthma is made (primary outcome measure) on basis of lung function assessments and current respiratory symptoms ('golden standard'). From inclusion until the definite asthma diagnosis, repeated measurements of lung function tests and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath (condensate), blood and faeces are performed. The study is registered and ethically approved. Discussion This article describes the study protocol of the ADEM study. The new diagnostic techniques applied in this study could make an early diagnosis of asthma possible. An early and reliable asthma diagnosis at 2–3 years will have consequences for the management of

  18. Determinants of Growth, Adiposity and Bone Mass in Early Life : The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Heppe (Denise)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Environmental influences during fetal life and early infancy have been suggested to influence body composition throughout the life-course. Especially poor fetal nutrition and fetal growth restriction have been designated important risk factors for gaining high fat mass

  19. Child Development Laboratory Schools as Generators of Knowledge in Early Childhood Education: New Models and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Brent A.; Groves, Melissa; Barbour, Nancy; Horm, Diane; Stremmel, Andrew; Lash, Martha; Bersani, Carol; Ratekin, Cynthia; Moran, James; Elicker, James; Toussaint, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: University-based child development laboratory programs have a long and rich history of supporting teaching, research, and outreach activities in the child development/early childhood education fields. Although these programs were originally developed in order to conduct research on children and families to inform policy and…

  20. Perceived Importance of ICT in Preparing Early Childhood Education Teachers for the New Generation Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowe, Peter Kayode; Kutelu, Bukola Olaronke

    2014-01-01

    Children of the present age are born into the world that is highly driven by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). They begin to manipulate ICT materials as soon as they grow old enough to manipulate things. There is need therefore to provide ICT-learning experiences that can aid their holistic development. To do this, early childhood…

  1. Parental Family Stress during Pregnancy and Cognitive Functioning in Early Childhood: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Kok, Rianne; Ftitache, Bouchra; Schmidt, Henk G.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether parental family stress during pregnancy is associated with cognitive functioning in early childhood in a population-based cohort (n = 3139). Family stress was assessed using the Family Assessment Device at the 20th week of pregnancy and was reported by mothers and fathers. Mothers completed the MacArthur Communicative…

  2. Hyper-excitability and epilepsy generated by chronic early-life stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline M. Dubé

    2015-01-01

    In conclusion, CES of limited duration has long-lasting effects on brain excitability and may promote age-specific seizures and epilepsy. Whereas the mechanisms involved require further study, these findings provide important insights into environmental contributions to early-life seizures.

  3. Social inequalities in pregnancy outcomes and early childhood behaviour: the Generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. Jansen (Pauline)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractaim of this thesis was to extend the existing knowledge on the relation of social disadvantage with pregnancy outcomes and early childhood behaviour. More specifically, we aimed to identify the mechanisms underlying this association. In this thesis, several indicators of social

  4. Parental psychopathology and the early developing child: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Lambregtse-van den Berg (Mijke)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractUp to now research tradition particularly focused on the influence of maternal psychopathology on the early developing infant. There are two main reasons to focus on paternal psychopathology during pregnancy. Firstly, fathers contribute 50% of their children’s genes and depression and

  5. Early clinical experience in CT scanning of the abdomen using a third generation scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, L.; Churchill, R.J.; Reynes, C.J.; Marsan, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Five-second scanning offers an improvement over second generation scanners. There is no need for glucagon administration since there is virtually no objectionable artifact secondary to motion. Scans with the Photrax 4000 show resolution of structures such as gallbladder wall and renal fascia routinely. The anatomic structures visualized are more clearly identified than on second generation scans. Representative normal and pathological anatomy will be shown. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MB [de

  6. The Social Presences in Text-Based Collaborations Via Electronic Devices: Measuring the ‘Online-Self’ of the Young Generation in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoom Muhammad Rehan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The procedural revolution of technology making people more and more linked to virtual based lives, and providing an outline to live in online-based curriculums. However, not all the nations have the same level of access and equal opportunities to grip the fruit of communication technology, hence the social presence in cyberspace suppose to differ from nations to nations. The study tends to explore the facets of technology-mediated text-based correspondences of the young generation, who often apt to use their own technologically advanced telecommunication devices. To conceptualize the qualitative aspect of the study into quantitative findings, the key assumptions are tested in each step of the factor analysis process. Based on the scanned cases of the survey, the study concludes that the young generation of the nations, where technological advancement is yet to flourish is less formal, more emotionally sensitive and more open about their state of the mind compared to the technologically advanced nations.

  7. Early postnatal development of rat brain is accompanied by generation of lipofuscin-like pigments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wilhelm, J.; Ivica, J.; Kagan, Dmytro; Svoboda, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 347, 1-2 (2011), s. 157-162 ISSN 0300-8177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110606 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : brain * early development * lipofuscin-like pigments * fluorescence * rat Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.057, year: 2011

  8. Defining Quality in Visual Art Education for Young Children: Building on the Position Statement of the Early Childhood Art Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Marissa; Tarr, Patricia; Thompson, Christine Marmé; Eckhoff, Angela

    2017-01-01

    This article reflects the collective voices of four early childhood visual arts educators, each of whom is a member of the Early Childhood Art Educators (ECAE) Issues Group of the National Arts Educators Association. The authors frame the article around the ECAE position statement, "Art: Essential for Early Learning" (2016), which…

  9. Impact of Early Intervention on Expressive and Receptive Language Development among Young Children with Permanent Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Wiley, Susan; Choo, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    Along with early detection, early intervention (EI) is critical for children identified with hearing loss. Evidence indicates that many children with sensorineural hearing loss experience improved language abilities if EI services were initiated at an "early" age. The present study's objectives were to determine the impact of a state EI program on…

  10. One approach to accepting and transporting spent fuel from early-generation reactors with short fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.W.; Bentz, E.J. Jr.; Bentz, C.B.

    1993-01-01

    In the early days of development of commercial nuclear power reactors in the U.S., the overall length and uranium loading of the fuel assemblies were considerably less than those of later generation facilities. In turn, some of these early facilities were designed for handling shorter casks than currently-certified casks. The spent fuel assemblies from these facilities are nearly all standard fuel within the definition in the Standard Contract (10 CFR 961) between the utilities and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (the Big Rock Point fuel cross-section is outside the standard fuel dimension), and the utilities involved hold early delivery rights under DOE's oldest-fuel-first (OFF) allocation scenario. However, development of casks suitable for satisfying the acceptance and transportation requirements of some of these facilities is not currently underway in the DOE Cask System Development Program (CSDP). While the total MTU of these fuels is relatively small compared to the total program, the number of assemblies to be transported is significant, especially in the early years of operation according to the OFF allocation scenario. We therefore perceive a need for DOE to develop an approach and to implement plans to satisfy the unique acceptance and transportation requirements of these facilities. One such approach is outlined below. (author)

  11. Associations between Grawe's general mechanisms of change and Young's early maladaptive schemas in psychotherapy research: a comparative study of change processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Johannes V; Jacob, Gitta A; Götz, Lea; Sammet, Isa; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at analyzing associations between Grawe's general mechanisms of change and Young's early maladaptive schemas (EMS). Therefore, 98 patients completed the Scale for the Multiperspective Assessment of General Change Mechanisms in Psychotherapy (SACiP), the Young Shema Questionnaire-Short Form Revised (YSQ S3R), and diverse outcome measures at the beginning and end of treatment. Our results are important for clinical applications, as we demonstrated strong predictive effects of change mechanisms on schema domains using regression analyses and cross-lagged panel models. Resource activation experiences seem to be especially crucial in fostering alterations in EMS, as this change mechanism demonstrated significant associations with several schema domains. Future research should investigate these aspects in more detail using observer-based micro-process analyses.

  12. Pseudoscalar Fields in Torsionful Geometries of the Early Universe, the Baryon Asymmetry and Majorana Neutrino Mass Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromatos, Nick E.

    2015-11-03

    We discuss here a specific field-theory model, inspired from string theory, in which the generation of a matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Cosmos is due to the propagation of fermions in a non-trivial, spherically asymmetric (and hence Lorentz violating) gravitational background that may characterise the epochs of the early universe. The background induces different dispersion relations, hence populations, between fermions and antifermions, and thus CPT Violation (CPTV) already in thermal equilibrium. Species populations may freeze out leading to leptogenesis and baryogenesis. More specifically, after reviewing some generic models of background-induced CPTV in early epochs of the Universe, we consider a string-inspired scenario, in which the CPTV is associated with a cosmological background with torsion provided by the Kalb-Ramond (KR) antisymemtric tensor field of the string gravitational multiplet. In a four-dimensional space time this field is dual to a pseudoscalar ``axion-like'' field. The thermalising ...

  13. Quantitative T2 magnetic resonance imaging compared to morphological grading of the early cervical intervertebral disc degeneration: an evaluation approach in asymptomatic young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of quantitative T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for quantifying early cervical intervertebral disc (IVD degeneration in asymptomatic young adults by correlating the T2 value with Pfirrmann grade, sex, and anatomic level. METHODS: Seventy asymptomatic young subjects (34 men and 36 women; mean age, 22.80±2.11 yr; range, 18-25 years underwent 3.0-T MRI to obtain morphological data (one T1-fast spin echo (FSE and three-plane T2-FSE, used to assign a Pfirrmann grade (I-V and for T2 mapping (multi-echo spin echo. T2 values in the nucleus pulposus (NP, n = 350 and anulus fibrosus (AF, n = 700 were obtained. Differences in T2 values between sexes and anatomic level were evaluated, and linear correlation analysis of T2 values versus degenerative grade was conducted. FINDINGS: Cervical IVDs of healthy young adults were commonly determined to be at Pfirrmann grades I and II. T2 values of NPs were significantly higher than those of AF at all anatomic levels (P0.05. T2 values decreased linearly with degenerative grade. Linear correlation analysis revealed a strong negative association between the Pfirrmann grade and the T2 values of the NP (P = 0.000 but not the T2 values of the AF (P = 0.854. However, non-degenerated discs (Pfirrmann grades I and II showed a wide range of T2 relaxation time. T2 values according to disc degeneration level classification were as follows: grade I (>62.03 ms, grade II (54.60-62.03 ms, grade III (<54.60 ms. CONCLUSIONS: T2 quantitation provides a more sensitive and robust approach for detecting and characterizing the early stage of cervical IVD degeneration and to create a reliable quantitative in healthy young adults.

  14. Quantitative T2 magnetic resonance imaging compared to morphological grading of the early cervical intervertebral disc degeneration: an evaluation approach in asymptomatic young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Huang, Minghua; Han, Zhihua; Shao, Lixin; Xie, Yan; Wu, Jianhong; Zhang, Yan; Xin, Hongkui; Ren, Aijun; Guo, Yong; Wang, Deli; He, Qing; Ruan, Dike

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of quantitative T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantifying early cervical intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration in asymptomatic young adults by correlating the T2 value with Pfirrmann grade, sex, and anatomic level. Seventy asymptomatic young subjects (34 men and 36 women; mean age, 22.80±2.11 yr; range, 18-25 years) underwent 3.0-T MRI to obtain morphological data (one T1-fast spin echo (FSE) and three-plane T2-FSE, used to assign a Pfirrmann grade (I-V)) and for T2 mapping (multi-echo spin echo). T2 values in the nucleus pulposus (NP, n = 350) and anulus fibrosus (AF, n = 700) were obtained. Differences in T2 values between sexes and anatomic level were evaluated, and linear correlation analysis of T2 values versus degenerative grade was conducted. Cervical IVDs of healthy young adults were commonly determined to be at Pfirrmann grades I and II. T2 values of NPs were significantly higher than those of AF at all anatomic levels (P0.05). T2 values decreased linearly with degenerative grade. Linear correlation analysis revealed a strong negative association between the Pfirrmann grade and the T2 values of the NP (P = 0.000) but not the T2 values of the AF (P = 0.854). However, non-degenerated discs (Pfirrmann grades I and II) showed a wide range of T2 relaxation time. T2 values according to disc degeneration level classification were as follows: grade I (>62.03 ms), grade II (54.60-62.03 ms), grade III (T2 quantitation provides a more sensitive and robust approach for detecting and characterizing the early stage of cervical IVD degeneration and to create a reliable quantitative in healthy young adults.

  15. Dietary acid load in early life and bone health in childhood: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Audry H; Franco, Oscar H; Voortman, Trudy; de Jonge, Ester A L; Gordillo, Noelia G; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van den Hooven, Edith H

    2015-12-01

    Dietary contribution to acid-base balance in early life may influence subsequent bone mineralization. Previous studies reported inconsistent results regarding the associations between dietary acid load and bone mass. We examined the associations of dietary acid load in early life with bone health in childhood. In a prospective, multiethnic, population-based cohort study of 2850 children, we estimated dietary acid load as dietary potential renal acid load (dPRAL), based on dietary intakes of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and protein, and as a protein intake to potassium intake ratio (Pro:K) at 1 y of age and in a subgroup at 2 y of age : Bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), area-adjusted BMC, and bone area were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the median age of 6 y. Data were analyzed by using multivariable linear regression models. After adjusting for relevant maternal and child factors, dietary acid load estimated as either dPRAL or Pro:K ratio was not consistently associated with childhood bone health. Associations did not differ by sex, ethnicity, weight status, or vitamin D supplementation. Only in those children with high protein intake in our population (i.e., >42 g/d), a 1-unit increase in dPRAL (mEq/d) was inversely associated with BMC (difference: -0.32 g; 95% CI: -0.64, -0.01 g). Dietary acid load in early life was not consistently associated with bone health in childhood. Further research is needed to explore the extent to which dietary acid load in later childhood may affect current and future bone health. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Schema reliance for developmental goals increases from early to late adulthood: improvement for the young, loss prevention for the old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Natalie C; Riediger, Michaela; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2009-06-01

    People tend to encode and retrieve information in terms of schemata, especially when processing resources are low. This study argues that the life-span schema about developmental goals constitutes a generalized expectation about the life course that associates young adults with growth and older adults with loss prevention. Predictions were that young and older adults possess this schema; that both age groups rely on it when remembering age-associated information about goals; and that this schema reliance is particularly pronounced among older adults, due to age-related difficulties in overcoming schemata. In Experiment 1, participants assigned growth or loss-prevention orientations to young and older faces and adhered to the life-span schema. In Experiment 2, participants were presented young and older faces paired with growth or loss prevention. When later asked to recognize faces and remember goal orientations, participants were more likely to remember young faces with growth and older faces with loss prevention than vice versa. This effect was more pronounced among older adults. Conclusions are that reliance on life-span schemata when remembering developmentally relevant information increases with age. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Interstitial cells of the adult neocortical white matter are the remnant of the early generated subplate neuron population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, J.J.; Shatz, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    The postnatal fate of the first-generated neurons of the cat cerebral cortex was examined. These neurons can be identified uniquely by 3H-thymidine exposure during the week preceding the neurogenesis of cortical layer 6. Previous studies in which 3H-thymidine birthdating at embryonic day 27 (E27) was combined with immunohistochemistry have shown that these neurons are present in large numbers during fetal and early postnatal life within the subplate (future white matter), that they are immunoreactive for the neuron-specific protein MAP2 and for the putative neurotransmitters GABA, NPY, SRIF, and CCK. Here, the same techniques were used to follow the postnatal location and disappearance of the early generated subplate neuron population. At birth (P0), subplate neurons showing immunoreactivity for GABA, NPY, SRIF, or CCK are present in large numbers and at high density within the white matter throughout the neocortex, and the entire population can be observed as a dense MAP2-immunoreactive band situated beneath cortical layer 6. Between P0 and P401 (adulthood), the MAP2-immunostained band disappears so that comparatively few MAP2-immunoreactive neurons remain within the white matter. There is a corresponding decrease in the number and density of neurons stained with antibodies against neurotransmitters. In each instance, these neurons could be double-labeled by the administration of 3H-thymidine at E27, indicating that they are the remnants of the early generated subplate neuron population. The major period of decrease occurs during the first 4 postnatal weeks, and adult values are attained by 5 months. Within the white matter of the lateral gyrus (visual cortex), the density of immunostained neurons decreases dramatically: MAP2, 82%, SRIF, 81%, and NPY, 96%

  18. Implication of NADPH Oxidases in the Early Inflammation Process Generated by Cystic Fibrosis Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongnimitprasert, Nushjira; Hurtado, Margarita; Lamari, Foudil; El Benna, Jamel; Dupuy, Corinne; Fay, Michèle; Foglietti, Marie-José; Bernard, Maguy; Gougerot-Pocidalo, Marie-Anne; Braut-Boucher, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, pulmonary inflammation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to further investigate whether oxidative stress could be involved in the early inflammatory process associated with CF pathogenesis. We used a model of CFTR defective epithelial cell line (IB3-1) and its reconstituted CFTR control (S9) cell line cultured in various ionic conditions. This study showed that IB3-1 and S9 cells expressed the NADPH oxidases (NOXs) DUOX1/2 and NOX2 at the same level. Nevertheless, several parameters participating in oxidative stress (increased ROS production and apoptosis, decreased total thiol content) were observed in IB3-1 cells cultured in hypertonic environment as compared to S9 cells and were inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a well-known inhibitor of NOXs; besides, increased production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 by IB3-1 cells was also inhibited by DPI as compared to S9 cells. Furthermore, calcium ionophore (A23187), which upregulates DUOX and NOX2 activities, strongly induced oxidative stress and IL-8 and IL-6 overexpression in IB3-1 cells. All these events were suppressed by DPI, supporting the involvement of NOXs in the oxidative stress, which can upregulate proinflammatory cytokine production by the airway CFTR-deficient cells and trigger early pulmonary inflammation in CF patients. PMID:24049649

  19. Rapid growth, early maturation and short generation time in African annual fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blažek, Radim; Polačik, Matej; Reichard, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 24 (2013), s. 24 ISSN 2041-9139 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/0112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : extreme life history * annual fish * explosive growth * rapid maturation * generation time * killifish * diapause * vertebrate * reaction norm * Savanna Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.104, year: 2013 http://www.evodevojournal.com/content/4/1/24

  20. The neural coding of creative idea generation across adolescence and early adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sietske eKleibeuker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is considered key to human prosperity, yet the neurocognitive principles underlying creative performance, and their development, are still poorly understood. To fill this void, we examined the neural correlates of divergent thinking in adults (25-30 yrs and adolescents (15-17 yrs. Participants generated alternative uses (AU or ordinary characteristics (OC for common objects while brain activity was assessed using fMRI. Adults outperformed adolescents on the number of solutions for AU and OC trials. Contrasting neural activity for AU with OC trials revealed increased recruitment of left angular gyrus, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral middle temporal gyrus in both adults and adolescents. When only trials with multiple alternative uses were included in the analysis, participants showed additional left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG/middle frontal gyrus (MFG activation for AU compared to OC trials. Correspondingly, individual difference analyses showed a positive correlation between activations for AU relative to OC trials in left IFG/MFG and divergent thinking performance and activations were more pronounced in adults than in adolescents. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrated that creative idea generation involves recruitment of mainly left lateralized parietal and temporal brain regions. Generating multiple creative ideas, a hallmark of divergent thinking, shows additional lateral PFC activation that is not yet optimized in adolescence.

  1. A Rare Case of an Early Postoperative Obstructive Ileus in a Young Female Patient due to a Residual Trichobezoar Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Christopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichobezoar is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction, whereby a mass forms most commonly in the stomach and duodenum of young females, from ingestion of hair, a condition known as trichophagia. We present a case of recurrent small bowel obstruction due to a residual hair mass that was removed surgically in a young female patient who had a laparotomy and gastrotomy for removal of a large gastric trichobezoar just two weeks prior to the current admission. This case illustrates the importance of a thorough inspection of the whole bowel to ensure that no residual bezoars remain after surgery.

  2. Intra- and trans-generational costs of reduced female body size caused by food limitation early in life in mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Food limitation early in life may be compensated for by developmental plasticity resulting in accelerated development enhancing survival at the expense of small adult body size. However and especially for females in non-matching maternal and offspring environments, being smaller than the standard may incur considerable intra- and trans-generational costs. Here, we evaluated the costs of small female body size induced by food limitation early in life in the sexually size-dimorphic predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Females are larger than males. These predators are adapted to exploit ephemeral spider mite prey patches. The intra- and trans-generational effects of small maternal body size manifested in lower maternal survival probabilities, decreased attractiveness for males, and a reduced number and size of eggs compared to standard-sized females. The trans-generational effects of small maternal body size were sex-specific with small mothers producing small daughters but standard-sized sons. Small female body size apparently intensified the well-known costs of sexual activity because mortality of small but not standard-sized females mainly occurred shortly after mating. The disadvantages of small females in mating and egg production may be generally explained by size-associated morphological and physiological constraints. Additionally, size-assortative mate preferences of standard-sized mates may have rendered small females disproportionally unattractive mating partners. We argue that the sex-specific trans-generational effects were due to sexual size dimorphism - females are the larger sex and thus more strongly affected by maternal stress than the smaller males - and to sexually selected lower plasticity of male body size.

  3. Intra- and Trans-Generational Costs of Reduced Female Body Size Caused by Food Limitation Early in Life in Mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Food limitation early in life may be compensated for by developmental plasticity resulting in accelerated development enhancing survival at the expense of small adult body size. However and especially for females in non-matching maternal and offspring environments, being smaller than the standard may incur considerable intra- and trans-generational costs. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we evaluated the costs of small female body size induced by food limitation early in life in the sexually size-dimorphic predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Females are larger than males. These predators are adapted to exploit ephemeral spider mite prey patches. The intra- and trans-generational effects of small maternal body size manifested in lower maternal survival probabilities, decreased attractiveness for males, and a reduced number and size of eggs compared to standard-sized females. The trans-generational effects of small maternal body size were sex-specific with small mothers producing small daughters but standard-sized sons. Conclusions/Significance Small female body size apparently intensified the well-known costs of sexual activity because mortality of small but not standard-sized females mainly occurred shortly after mating. The disadvantages of small females in mating and egg production may be generally explained by size-associated morphological and physiological constraints. Additionally, size-assortative mate preferences of standard-sized mates may have rendered small females disproportionally unattractive mating partners. We argue that the sex-specific trans-generational effects were due to sexual size dimorphism – females are the larger sex and thus more strongly affected by maternal stress than the smaller males – and to sexually selected lower plasticity of male body size. PMID:24265745

  4. Intra- and trans-generational costs of reduced female body size caused by food limitation early in life in mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Walzer

    Full Text Available Food limitation early in life may be compensated for by developmental plasticity resulting in accelerated development enhancing survival at the expense of small adult body size. However and especially for females in non-matching maternal and offspring environments, being smaller than the standard may incur considerable intra- and trans-generational costs.Here, we evaluated the costs of small female body size induced by food limitation early in life in the sexually size-dimorphic predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Females are larger than males. These predators are adapted to exploit ephemeral spider mite prey patches. The intra- and trans-generational effects of small maternal body size manifested in lower maternal survival probabilities, decreased attractiveness for males, and a reduced number and size of eggs compared to standard-sized females. The trans-generational effects of small maternal body size were sex-specific with small mothers producing small daughters but standard-sized sons.Small female body size apparently intensified the well-known costs of sexual activity because mortality of small but not standard-sized females mainly occurred shortly after mating. The disadvantages of small females in mating and egg production may be generally explained by size-associated morphological and physiological constraints. Additionally, size-assortative mate preferences of standard-sized mates may have rendered small females disproportionally unattractive mating partners. We argue that the sex-specific trans-generational effects were due to sexual size dimorphism - females are the larger sex and thus more strongly affected by maternal stress than the smaller males - and to sexually selected lower plasticity of male body size.

  5. Deconstructing Digital Natives: Young People, Technology, and the New Literacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    There have been many attempts to define the generation of students who emerged with the Web and new digital technologies in the early 1990s. The term "digital native" refers to the generation born after 1980, which has grown up in a world where digital technologies and the internet are a normal part of everyday life. Young people…

  6. Generating demand and community support for sexual and reproductive health services for young people: A review of the Literature and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesterton, Amy J; Cabral de Mello, Meena

    2010-09-24

    This review investigates the effectiveness of interventions aimed at generating demand for and use of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services by young people; and interventions aimed at generating wider community support for their use. Reports and publications were found in the peer-reviewed and grey literature through academic search engines; web searches; the bibliographies of known conference proceedings and papers; and consultation with experts. The studies were reviewed against a set of inclusion criteria and those that met these were explored in more depth. The evidence-base for interventions aimed at both generating demand and community support for SRH services for young people was found under-developed and many available studies do not provide strong evidence. However, the potential of several methods to increase youth uptake has been demonstrated, this includes the linking of school education programs with youth friendly services, life skills approaches and social marketing and franchising. There is also evidence that the involvement of key community gatekeepers such as parents and religious leaders is vital to generating wider community support. In general a combined multi-component approach seems most promising with several success stories to build on. Many areas for further research have been highlighted and there is a great need for more rigorous evaluation of programmes in this area. In particular, further evaluation of individual components within a multi-component approach is needed to elucidate the most effective interventions.

  7. Generating demand and community support for sexual and reproductive health services for young people: A review of the Literature and Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabral de Mello Meena

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This review investigates the effectiveness of interventions aimed at generating demand for and use of sexual and reproductive health (SRH services by young people; and interventions aimed at generating wider community support for their use. Methods Reports and publications were found in the peer-reviewed and grey literature through academic search engines; web searches; the bibliographies of known conference proceedings and papers; and consultation with experts. The studies were reviewed against a set of inclusion criteria and those that met these were explored in more depth. Results The evidence-base for interventions aimed at both generating demand and community support for SRH services for young people was found under-developed and many available studies do not provide strong evidence. However, the potential of several methods to increase youth uptake has been demonstrated, this includes the linking of school education programs with youth friendly services, life skills approaches and social marketing and franchising. There is also evidence that the involvement of key community gatekeepers such as parents and religious leaders is vital to generating wider community support. In general a combined multi-component approach seems most promising with several success stories to build on. Conclusions Many areas for further research have been highlighted and there is a great need for more rigorous evaluation of programmes in this area. In particular, further evaluation of individual components within a multi-component approach is needed to elucidate the most effective interventions.

  8. Generating demand and community support for sexual and reproductive health services for young people: A review of the Literature and Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background This review investigates the effectiveness of interventions aimed at generating demand for and use of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services by young people; and interventions aimed at generating wider community support for their use. Methods Reports and publications were found in the peer-reviewed and grey literature through academic search engines; web searches; the bibliographies of known conference proceedings and papers; and consultation with experts. The studies were reviewed against a set of inclusion criteria and those that met these were explored in more depth. Results The evidence-base for interventions aimed at both generating demand and community support for SRH services for young people was found under-developed and many available studies do not provide strong evidence. However, the potential of several methods to increase youth uptake has been demonstrated, this includes the linking of school education programs with youth friendly services, life skills approaches and social marketing and franchising. There is also evidence that the involvement of key community gatekeepers such as parents and religious leaders is vital to generating wider community support. In general a combined multi-component approach seems most promising with several success stories to build on. Conclusions Many areas for further research have been highlighted and there is a great need for more rigorous evaluation of programmes in this area. In particular, further evaluation of individual components within a multi-component approach is needed to elucidate the most effective interventions. PMID:20863411

  9. Delineating the trajectories of social and occupational functioning of young people attending early intervention mental health services in Australia: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorfino, Frank; Hermens, Daniel F; Cross, Shane Pm; Zmicerevska, Natalia; Nichles, Alissa; Badcock, Caro-Anne; Groot, Josine; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2018-03-27

    Mental disorders typically emerge during adolescence and young adulthood and put young people at risk for prolonged socioeconomic difficulties. This study describes the longitudinal course of social and occupational functioning of young people attending primary care-based, early intervention services. A longitudinal study of young people receiving mental healthcare. Data were collected between January 2005 and August 2017 from a designated primary care-based mental health service. 554 young people (54% women) aged 12-32 years. A systematic medical file audit collected clinical and functional information at predetermined time intervals (ie, 3 months to 5+ years) using a clinical pro forma. Group-based trajectory modelling (GBTM) was used to identify distinct trajectories of social and occupational functioning over time (median number of observations per person=4; median follow-up time=23 months). Between first clinical contact and time last seen, 15% of young people had reliably deteriorated, 23% improved and 62% did not demonstrate substantive change in function. Of the whole cohort, 69% had functional scores less than 70 at time last seen, indicative of ongoing and substantive impairment. GBTM identified six distinct functional trajectories whereby over 60% had moderate-to-serious functional impairment at entry and remained chronically impaired over time; 7% entered with serious impairment and deteriorated further; a quarter were mildly impaired at entry and functionally recovered and only a small minority (4%) presented with serious impairments and functionally improved over time. Not being in education, employment or training, previous hospitalisation and a younger age at baseline emerged as significant predictors of these functional trajectories. Young people with emerging mental disorders have significant functional impairment at presentation for care, and for the majority, it persists over the course of clinical care. In addition to providing clinical care

  10. New generation of electrochemical immunoassay based on polymeric nanoparticles for early detection of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouffouk F

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fouzi Mouffouk,1 Sihem Aouabdi,2 Entesar Al-Hetlani,1 Hacene Serrai,3 Tareq Alrefae,4 Liaohai Leo Chen5 1Department of Chemistry, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait; 2King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Gent (UZG, Gent, Belgium; 4Department of Physics, Kuwait University, Safat, Kuwait; 5Surgical Precision Research Lab. Department of Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Screening and early diagnosis are the key factors for the reduction of mortality rate and treatment cost of cancer. Therefore, sensitive and selective methods that can reveal the low abundance of cancer biomarkers in a biological sample are always desired. Here, we report the development of a novel electrochemical biosensor for early detection of breast cancer by using bioconjugated self-assembled pH-responsive polymeric micelles. The micelles were loaded with ferrocene molecules as “tracers” to specifically target cell surface-associated epithelial mucin (MUC1, a biomarker for breast and other solid carcinoma. The synthesis of target-specific, ferrocene-loaded polymeric micelles was confirmed, and the resulting sensor was capable of detecting the presence of MUC1 in a sample containing about 10 cells/mL. Such a high sensitivity was achieved by maximizing the loading capacity of ferrocene inside the polymeric micelles. Every single event of binding between the antibody and antigen was represented by the signal of hundreds of thousands of ferrocene molecules that were released from the polymeric micelles. This resulted in a significant increase in the intensity of the ferrocene signal detected by cyclic voltammetry. Keywords: electrochemical immunoassay, polymeric nanoparticles, breast cancer biomarkers, biosensors 

  11. Endogenously generated gamma-band oscillations in early visual cortex: A neurofeedback study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Nina; Wibral, Michael; Bland, Gareth; Singer, Wolf

    2018-04-26

    Human subjects were trained with neurofeedback (NFB) to enhance the power of narrow-band gamma oscillations in circumscribed regions of early visual cortex. To select the region and the oscillation frequency for NFB training, gamma oscillations were induced with locally presented drifting gratings. The source and frequency of these induced oscillations were determined using beamforming methods. During NFB training the power of narrow band gamma oscillations was continuously extracted from this source with online beamforming and converted into the pitch of a tone signal. We found that seven out of ten subjects were able to selectively increase the amplitude of gamma oscillations in the absence of visual stimulation. One subject however failed completely and two subjects succeeded to manipulate the feedback signal by contraction of muscles. In all subjects the attempts to enhance visual gamma oscillations were associated with an increase of beta oscillations over precentral/frontal regions. Only successful subjects exhibited an additional marked increase of theta oscillations over precentral/prefrontal and temporal regions whereas unsuccessful subjects showed an increase of alpha band oscillations over occipital regions. We argue that spatially confined networks in early visual cortex can be entrained to engage in narrow band gamma oscillations not only by visual stimuli but also by top down signals. We interpret the concomitant increase in beta oscillations as indication for an engagement of the fronto-parietal attention network and the increase of theta oscillations as a correlate of imagery. Our finding support the application of NFB in disease conditions associated with impaired gamma synchronization. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Scientific reasoning in early and middle childhood: the development of domain-general evidence evaluation, experimentation, and hypothesis generation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekny, Jeanette; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-06-01

    According to Klahr's (2000, 2005; Klahr & Dunbar, 1988) Scientific Discovery as Dual Search model, inquiry processes require three cognitive components: hypothesis generation, experimentation, and evidence evaluation. The aim of the present study was to investigate (a) when the ability to evaluate perfect covariation, imperfect covariation, and non-covariation evidence emerges, (b) when experimentation emerges, (c) when hypothesis generation skills emerge, and (d), whether these abilities develop synchronously during childhood. We administered three scientific reasoning tasks referring to the three components to 223 children of five age groups (from age 4.0 to 13.5 years). Our results show that the three cognitive components of domain-general scientific reasoning emerge asynchronously. The development of domain-general scientific reasoning begins with the ability to handle unambiguous data, progresses to the interpretation of ambiguous data, and leads to a flexible adaptation of hypotheses according to the sufficiency of evidence. When children understand the relation between the level of ambiguity of evidence and the level of confidence in hypotheses, the ability to differentiate conclusive from inconclusive experiments accompanies this development. Implications of these results for designing science education concepts for young children are briefly discussed. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Social media as a space for support: Young adults' perspectives on producing and consuming user-generated content about diabetes and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergie, Gillian; Hunt, Kate; Hilton, Shona

    2016-12-01

    Social media offer opportunities to both produce and consume content related to health experiences. However, people's social media practices are likely to be influenced by a range of individual, social and environmental factors. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore how engagement with user-generated content can support people with long-term health conditions, and what limits users' adoption of these technologies in the everyday experience of their health condition. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with young adults, aged between 18 and 30 years, with experience of diabetes or a common mental health disorder (CMHD). We found that the online activities of these young adults were diverse; they ranged from regular production and consumption ('prosumption') of health-related user-generated content to no engagement with such content. Our analysis suggested three main types of users: 'prosumers'; 'tacit consumers' and 'non-engagers'. A key determinant of participants' engagement with resources related to diabetes and CMHDs in the online environment was their offline experiences of support. Barriers to young adults' participation in online interaction, and sharing of content related to their health experiences, included concerns about compromising their presentation of identity and adherence to conventions about what content is most appropriate for specific social media spaces. Based on our analysis, we suggest that social media do not provide an unproblematic environment for engagement with health content and the generation of supportive networks. Rather, producing and consuming user-generated content is an activity embedded within individuals' specific health experiences and is impacted by offline contexts, as well as their daily engagement with, and expectations, of different social media platforms. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Infection of Early and Young Callus Tissues of Indica Rice BPT 5204 Enhances Regeneration and Transformation Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. MANIMARAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and reproducible method to develop transgenic plants with enhanced transformation efficiency using Agrobacterium has been developed for the elite indica rice variety BPT 5204. Different rice calli aged from 3 to 30 d were co-cultivated with pre-incubated Agrobacterium suspension culture (LBA4404: pSB1, pCAMBIA1301 and incubated in dark for 3 d. Based on the transient GUS gene expression analysis, 6-day-old young calli showed high transformation frequency followed by 21-day-old ones. Thus, both 6- and 21-day-old calli were used for assessing the stable transformation efficiency. It was observed that the 6-day-old young transformed calli showed about 2-fold higher regeneration frequency when compared with 21-day-old calli. The transformation efficiency was enhanced for young calli to 5.9% compared with 0.8% of the 21-day-old calli. Molecular and genetic analysis of transgenic plants (T0 revealed the presence of 1–2 copies of T-DNA integration in transformants and it follows Mendalian ratio in T1 transgenic plants. From the present study, it was concluded that the development of transgenic rice plants in less duration with high regeneration and transformation efficiency was achieved in BPT 5204 by using 6-day-old young calli as explants.

  15. The timing of family commitments in the early work career : Work-family trajectories of young adults in Flanders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelet, S.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Glorieux, L.; Laurijssen, L.; Willaert, D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the diverse ways in which young adults develop both their professional career and family life in the years immediately after they complete their education. Building a career and starting a family often occur simultaneously in this stage of life. By studying the

  16. Patterns in Early Interaction between Young Preschool Children with Severe Speech and Physical Impairments and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Liliedahl, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether the asymmetrical pattern of communication usually found between people who use augmentative and alternative communication and their partners using natural speech was also found in the interaction between non-vocal young preschool children with cerebral palsy and their parents. Three parent-child dyads…

  17. When the Bough Breaks: The Effects of Homelessness on Young Children. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 3, Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy-Roth, Marci; Mackintosh, Bonnie B.; Murphey, David

    2012-01-01

    Living without permanent, long-term housing creates a number of stressors for children and families, but being homeless can be particularly detrimental to the healthy development of young children. The National Center on Family Homelessness reports that more than 1.6 million children--or one in 45 children--were homeless annually in America…

  18. The effect of early catch-up growth on health and well-being in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Pal-de Bruin, S.M. van der; Bennebroek Gravenhorst, J.; Walther, F.J.; Wit, J.M.; Pal, K.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of catch-up growth in the 1st year on cognition, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), problem behavior and growth in young adults. Methods: We included individuals without severe complications and born small for gestational age (SGA; n = 228 for weight, n = 203 for

  19. Early Social, Imitation, Play, and Language Abilities of Young Non-Autistic Siblings of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Karen; Dawson, Geraldine; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Greenson, Jessica; Fein, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Studies are needed to better understand the broad autism phenotype in young siblings of children with autism. Cognitive, adaptive, social, imitation, play, and language abilities were examined in 42 non-autistic siblings and 20 toddlers with no family history of autism, ages 18-27 months. Siblings, as a group, were below average in expressive…

  20. The timing of family commitments in the early work career: Work-family trajectories of young adults in Flanders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelet, S.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Glorieux, I.; Laurijssen, I.; Willaert, D.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This article examines the diverse ways in which young adults develop both their professional career and family life in the years immediately after they complete their education. Building a career and starting a family often occur simultaneously in this stage of life. By studying the

  1. A Clinical Translation of the Article Titled "Evidence for the Implementation of the Early Start Denver Model for Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Robin Adair

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer a clinical translation of a literature review titled "Evidence for the Implementation of the Early Start Denver Model for Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder" by Ryberg (2015). The literature review was conducted to determine the strength of the research evidence regarding the effectiveness of the Early Start Denver Model in improving cognitive, language, and behavioral functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder. In an effort to narrow the gap between evidence and practice, this clinical translation will discuss the components of the literature review in terms of its rationale for and objectives, methods, results, and implications for evidence-based nursing practice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Digital Disconnect or Digital Difference? A Socio-Ecological Perspective on Young Children's Technology Use in the Home and the Early Childhood Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Susan; Henderson, Michael; Gronn, Donna; Scott, Anne; Mirkhil, Moska

    2017-01-01

    A digital disconnect perspective is founded on an assumption that technology use in the home is frequent, creative and generative, and that technology use in the early childhood centre should be the same as that found in the home. However, such arguments divert our attention from understanding the nature of the setting and thereby from an…

  3. The Effect of Language Specific Factors on Early Written Composition: The Role of Spelling, Oral Language and Text Generation Skills in a Shallow Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfé, Barbara; Dockrell, Julie E.; De Bernardi, Bianca

    2016-01-01

    Spelling skills have been identified as one of the major barriers to written text production in young English writers. By contrast oral language skills and text generation have been found to be less influential in the texts produced by beginning writers. To date, our understanding of the role of spelling skills in transparent orthographies is…

  4. Nonmarital Fertility, Family Structure, and the Early School Achievement of Young Children from Different Race/Ethnic and Immigration Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Wildsmith, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Working from a life course perspective, this study examined the links between mothers' fertility and relationship statuses and children's early school achievement and how these links varied by race/ethnicity and immigration status. Analyses of nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort revealed…

  5. The effects of an early motor skill intervention on motor skills, levels of physical activity, and socialization in young children with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcheson, Leah; Hauck, Janet; Ulrich, Dale

    2017-05-01

    Despite evidence suggesting one of the earliest indicators of an eventual autism spectrum disorder diagnoses is an early motor delay, there remain very few interventions targeting motor behavior as the primary outcome for young children with autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this pilot study was to measure the efficacy of an intensive motor skill intervention on motor skills (Test of Gross Motor Development-2), physical activity (accelerometers), and socialization (Playground Observation of Peer Engagement) in young children with autism spectrum disorder. A total of 20 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 4-6 years participated. The experimental group ( n = 11) participated in an 8-week intervention consisting of motor skill instruction for 4 h/day, 5 days/week. The control group ( n = 9) did not receive the intervention. A repeated-measures analysis of covariance revealed statistically significant differences between groups in all three motor outcomes, locomotor ( F(1, 14) = 10.07, p intervention services delivered to young children with autism spectrum disorder.

  6. Early detection of testicular cancer: revisiting the role of self-efficacy in testicular self-examination among young asymptomatic males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Kanayo; Chadwick, Rebecca

    2016-02-01

    Research suggests that self-efficacy is an important factor in behaviors that facilitate the early-detection of various cancers. In general people with high self-efficacy are more likely to attend cancer screening sessions or perform bodily self-exams. However, there is a paucity of research focusing on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination (TSE). The effect of self-efficacy on TSE remains unclear especially given the relative obscurity of the testicular cancer threat, and appropriate clinical- and self-detection procedures, in the young asymptomatic male population. Thus, the present study tested the interaction of self-efficacy with young men's appraisals of the threat of testicular cancer. The study was based on 2 × 2 × 2 mixed factorial experimental design. Over 100 young asymptomatic men were exposed to a health warning about testicular cancer and randomly assigned to high/low self-efficacy, vulnerability, and severity conditions. High self-efficacy increased motivation to perform TSE given high vulnerability, but damaged attitudes to self-exams given low vulnerability and severity estimates. High self-efficacy also facilitated subsequent TSE. Overall, these findings support preexisting notions of self-efficacy but raise new questions about the moderating effects of threat appraisals.

  7. Can Targeted Intervention Mitigate Early Emotional and Behavioral Problems?: Generating Robust Evidence within Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla Doyle

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of a targeted Irish early intervention program on children's emotional and behavioral development using multiple methods to test the robustness of the results. Data on 164 Preparing for Life participants who were randomly assigned into an intervention group, involving home visits from pregnancy onwards, or a control group, was used to test the impact of the intervention on Child Behavior Checklist scores at 24-months. Using inverse probability weighting to account for differential attrition, permutation testing to address small sample size, and quantile regression to characterize the distributional impact of the intervention, we found that the few treatment effects were largely concentrated among boys most at risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. The average treatment effect identified a 13% reduction in the likelihood of falling into the borderline clinical threshold for Total Problems. The interaction and subgroup analysis found that this main effect was driven by boys. The distributional analysis identified a 10-point reduction in the Externalizing Problems score for boys at the 90th percentile. No effects were observed for girls or for the continuous measures of Total, Internalizing, and Externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the impact of this prenatally commencing home visiting program may be limited to boys experiencing the most difficulties. Further adoption of the statistical methods applied here may help to improve the internal validity of randomized controlled trials and contribute to the field of evaluation science more generally.ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN04631728.

  8. Potentially Low Cost Solution to Extend Use of Early Generation Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonna, Joseph E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In preparing a case report on Brown-Séquard syndrome for publication, we made the incidental finding that the inexpensive, commercially available three-dimensional (3D rendering software we were using could produce high quality 3D spinal cord reconstructions from any series of two-dimensional (2D computed tomography (CT images. This finding raises the possibility that spinal cord imaging capabilities can be expanded where bundled 2D multi-planar reformats and 3D reconstruction software for CT are not available and in situations where magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is either not available or appropriate (e.g. metallic implants. Given the worldwide burden of trauma and considering the limited availability of MRI and advanced generation CT scanners, we propose an alternative, potentially useful approach to imaging spinal cord that might be useful in areas where technical capabilities and support are limited. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(5:463-466.

  9. Massage therapy during early postnatal life promotes greater lean mass and bone growth, mineralization, and strength in juvenile and young adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Miller, S; Shaw, J; Moyer-Mileur, L

    2009-01-01

    The objects of this study were to investigate the effects of massage therapy during early life on postnatal growth, body composition, and skeletal development in juvenile and young adult rats. Massage therapy was performed for 10 minutes daily from D6 to D10 of postnatal life in rat pups (MT, n=24). Body composition, bone area, mineral content, and bone mineral density were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); bone strength and intrinsic stiffness on femur shaft were tested by three-point bending; cortical and cancellous bone histomorphometric measurements were performed at D21 and D60. Results were compared to age- and gender-matched controls (C, n=24). D21 body weight, body length, lean mass, and bone area were significantly greater in the MT cohort. Greater bone mineral content was found in male MT rats; bone strength and intrinsic stiffness were greater in D60 MT groups. At D60 MT treatment promoted bone mineralization by increasing trabecular mineral apposition rate in male and endosteal mineral surface in females, and also improved micro-architecture by greater trabeculae width in males and decreasing trabecular separation in females. In summary, massage therapy during early life elicited immediate and prolonged anabolic effects on postnatal growth, lean mass and skeletal developmental in a gender-specific manner in juvenile and young adult rats.

  10. Associations between nausea, vomiting, fatigue and health-related quality of life of women in early pregnancy: The generation r study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Bai (Guannan); I.J. Korfage (Ida); E.H.D. Hafkamp-De Groen (Esther); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); Mautner, E. (Eva); H. Raat (Hein)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate the independent associations between nausea, vomiting, fatigue and health-related quality of life of women in early pregnancy in the Generation R study, which is a prospective mother and child cohort. Analyses were based on 5079 women in early

  11. Thinking Across Generations: Unique Contributions of Maternal Early Life and Prenatal Stress to Infant Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah A O; Jones, Christopher W; Theall, Katherine P; Glackin, Erin; Drury, Stacy S

    2017-11-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a parasympathetic-mediated biomarker of self-regulation linked to lifespan mental and physical health outcomes. Intergenerational impacts of mothers' exposure to prenatal stress have been demonstrated, but evidence for biological embedding of maternal preconception stress, including adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), on infant RSA is lacking. We examine the independent effects of maternal ACEs and prenatal stress on infant RSA, seeking to broaden the understanding of the earliest origins of mental and physical health risk. Mothers reported on ACEs and prenatal stress. RSA was recorded in a sample of 167 4-month-old infants (49% female and 51% male) during a dyadic stressor, the Still Face Paradigm. Independent contributions of maternal ACEs and prenatal stress to infant RSA were observed. High maternal ACEs were associated with lower RSA, whereas prenatal stress was associated with failure to recover following the stressor. Sex but not race differences were observed. Prenatal stress was associated with higher RSA among boys but lower RSA among girls. Infants' RSA is affected by mothers' life course experiences of stress, with ACEs predicting a lower set point and prenatal stress dampening recovery from stress. For prenatal stress but not ACEs, patterns vary across sex. Findings underscore that stress-reducing interventions for pregnant women or those considering pregnancy may lead to decreased physical and mental health risk across generations. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of early life adversity on reward processing in young adults: EEG-fMRI results from a prospective study over 25 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Boecker

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway in altered brain function resulting from exposure to early adversity. The present study examined the impact of early life adversity on different stages of neuronal reward processing later in life and their association with a related behavioral phenotype, i.e. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. 162 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.4 years; 58% female from an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth participated in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study using a monetary incentive delay task. Early life adversity according to an early family adversity index (EFA and lifetime ADHD symptoms were assessed using standardized parent interviews conducted at the offspring's age of 3 months and between 2 and 15 years, respectively. fMRI region-of-interest analysis revealed a significant effect of EFA during reward anticipation in reward-related areas (i.e. ventral striatum, putamen, thalamus, indicating decreased activation when EFA increased. EEG analysis demonstrated a similar effect for the contingent negative variation (CNV, with the CNV decreasing with the level of EFA. In contrast, during reward delivery, activation of the bilateral insula, right pallidum and bilateral putamen increased with EFA. There was a significant association of lifetime ADHD symptoms with lower activation in the left ventral striatum during reward anticipation and higher activation in the right insula during reward delivery. The present findings indicate a differential long-term impact of early life adversity on reward processing, implicating hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation and hyperresponsiveness when receiving a reward. Moreover, a similar activation pattern related to lifetime ADHD suggests that the impact of early life stress on ADHD may possibly be mediated by a dysfunctional reward pathway.

  13. Early Social, Imitation, Play, and Language Abilities of Young Non-Autistic Siblings of Children with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Toth, Karen; Dawson, Geraldine; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Greenson, Jessica; Fein, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Studies are needed to better understand the broad autism phenotype in young siblings of children with autism. Cognitive, adaptive, social, imitation, play, and language abilities were examined in 42 non-autistic siblings and 20 toddlers with no family history of autism, ages 18–27 months. Siblings, as a group, were below average in expressive language and composite IQ, had lower mean receptive language, adaptive behavior, and social communication skills, and used fewer words, distal gestures,...

  14. Young Registered Nurses' Intention to Leave the Profession and Professional Turnover in Early Career: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanterä, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    In a time of global nursing shortages an alarming number of young registered nurses have expressed a willingness to leave the profession. In this qualitative case study we investigate in depth why young nurses leave nursing profession and reeducate themselves for a new career. The study is based on longitudinal interviews of three young registered nurses in Finland. These nurses were first interviewed between December 2006 and May 2007, when they were 29–32 years old and having an intention to leave the profession. The second interview took place four years later, from January 2011 to March 2011 when all of them had made the transition to a new career. Data were analyzed in two stages. In the first stage, comprehensive career story narratives were formed on the basis of the interviews. In the second stage, emerging themes in these stories were compared, contrasted, and interpreted in the context of the overall career histories. Nursing as a second career choice and demanding work content as well as poor practice environment and the inability to identify with the stereotypical images of nurses were main themes that emerged from these career stories. The results of this interpretative qualitative study reflect a shift toward insights into understanding professional turnover as a complex and long-lasting process. PMID:24027640

  15. Young registered nurses' intention to leave the profession and professional turnover in early career: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinkman, Mervi; Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka; Salanterä, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    In a time of global nursing shortages an alarming number of young registered nurses have expressed a willingness to leave the profession. In this qualitative case study we investigate in depth why young nurses leave nursing profession and reeducate themselves for a new career. The study is based on longitudinal interviews of three young registered nurses in Finland. These nurses were first interviewed between December 2006 and May 2007, when they were 29-32 years old and having an intention to leave the profession. The second interview took place four years later, from January 2011 to March 2011 when all of them had made the transition to a new career. Data were analyzed in two stages. In the first stage, comprehensive career story narratives were formed on the basis of the interviews. In the second stage, emerging themes in these stories were compared, contrasted, and interpreted in the context of the overall career histories. Nursing as a second career choice and demanding work content as well as poor practice environment and the inability to identify with the stereotypical images of nurses were main themes that emerged from these career stories. The results of this interpretative qualitative study reflect a shift toward insights into understanding professional turnover as a complex and long-lasting process.

  16. Early Experience with a Modern Generation Knee System: Average 2 Years’ Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Paszicsnyek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arthritis in the knee is a leading cause of pain and disability with total knee arthroplasty (TKA often the treatment of choice after failure of more conservative treatments. TKA has been demonstrated to be one of the most successful procedures performed.  However, despite the good long-term survivorship rates, patient satisfaction is still an issue post TKA with over 20% of patients exhibiting patient dissatisfaction most commonly due to anterior knee pain (over 18-28% patients and mediolateral or varus-valgus instability.  Recent studies have demonstrated that collateral ligament strains are altered post TKA which may lead to laxity and/or tightness of the ligaments resulting in patient discomfort, pain, stiffness and/or instability post TKA.  As a result, it may be beneficial to ensure ligamentous strains after TKA are similar or close to the native situation.  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic results of the Unity Knee™ Total Knee System (Corin Ltd, Cirencester, UK, a modern generation, single-radius total knee replacement (TKR and its accompanying instrumentation which is designed to help maintain proper ligament balance and restore the medial jointline.  A total of 89 knees (89 patients were implanted with the device in a single surgeon series.  All patients were assessed using the American Knee Society Score (AKSS, the Oxford Knee Score (OKS, and radiographs.  There was 1 revision due to infection and Kaplan-Meier survivorship was 98.9% at 2 years.  The mean AKSS knee score for the total cohort was 87.1 ± 7.98 and the mean Oxford Knee score was 45.89 + 3.69. Radiographic review found no signs of radiographic failure in any of the knees. This study demonstrates good survivorship, clinical, and radiographic results at 2 years for this TKR.

  17. The activities of the Institute of Nuclear Physics and Uzbekistan INIS Centre on attracting a young generation into the nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadirova, M.; Salimov, M.I.; Ananchenkov, V.I.; Gurvich, L.G.; Tillaev, T.S.; Trofimova, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    In order to attract young scientists to the research works in the field of nuclear physics the Institute of Nuclear Physics develop its own programme on education and training of staff and young generation. Leading researchers of the Institute are involved in the preparation of the masters, PhD and doctorate students. Scientists of the Institute deliver lectures in the National University of Uzbekistan, Tashkent State Pedagogical University, Tashkent State University of Arts, Tashkent State University of Economics, and give physics, mathematics and chemistry lessons in the lyceum classes of the school 286 of the Ulugbek village. The Small University organized to improve qualification of the young scientists continues its activities. The Institute computer center with e-mail and Internet services, Uzbekistan INIS Center and the Institute scientific technical library in cooperation create an united information complex to provide both scientists of the Institute and bachelor and masters and PhD students of the Tashkent Higher Education Institutions, as well as researches from the other scientific organization of the Republic the opportunity to access the INIS database, Internet and library information. INIS Database on CD-ROM is available on the institute's local network. IRBIS software is used for the automation of the library system

  18. Individual, Psychosocial, and Social Correlates of Unprotected Anal Intercourse in a New Generation of Young Men Who Have Sex With Men in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Farzana; Siconolfi, Daniel E.; Moeller, Robert W.; Figueroa, Rafael Perez; Barton, Staci C.; Blachman-Forshay, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations of individual, psychosocial, and social factors with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among young men who have sex with men in New York City. Methods. Using baseline assessment data from 592 young men who have sex with men participating in an ongoing prospective cohort study, we conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to examine the associations between covariates and likelihood of recently engaging in UAI with same-sex partners. Results. Nineteen percent reported recent UAI with a same-sex partner. In multivariable models, being in a current relationship with another man (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.87), an arrest history (AOR = 2.01), greater residential instability (AOR = 1.75), and unstable housing or homelessness (AOR = 3.10) was associated with recent UAI. Although high levels of gay community affinity and low internalized homophobia were associated with engaging in UAI in bivariate analyses, these associations did not persist in multivariable analyses. Conclusions. Associations of psychosocial and socially produced conditions with UAI among a new generation of young men who have sex with men warrant that HIV prevention programs and policies address structural factors that predispose sexual risk behaviors. PMID:23488487

  19. Early evaluation of a second generation information monitoring and diagnostic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Bourassa, Norman; Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Kinney, Kristopher; Shockman, Christine

    2002-03-25

    Private sector commercial office buildings are challenging environments for energy efficiency projects. This challenge is related to the complexity of business environments that involve ownership, operation, and tenant relationships. Whether it is poor quality design, inefficient operations, degradation of equipment over time, or merely the increasing use of energy by tenants and inattention from landlords, commercial office building energy use continues to increase. This research project was developed to examine the environment for building operations and identify causes of inefficient use of energy related to technical and organizational issues. This report discusses a second-generation Information Monitoring and Diagnostic System (IMDS) installed at a leased office building in Sacramento, California. The report begins with a brief summary of the IMDS research at the previous building, followed by a discussion of the building selection process, the IMDS design and installation, recent use of the IMDS, costs and benefits, and fault detection and diagnostic research using the IMDS. A web site describes the IMDS in detail (see imds.lbl.gov). The underlying principle of this research project is that high quality building performance data can help show where energy is being used and how buildings systems actually perform is an important first step toward improving building energy efficiency. The project utilizes a high-quality monitoring system that has been developed during the past decade by a partnership between LBNL and private industry. This research project has been successful in demonstrating that the IMDS is tremendously valuable to the building operators at the Sacramento site. The building operators not only accept the technology, but it has become the core of their day-to-day building control concepts. The innovative property management company, Jones Lang LaSalle, is interested in installing more sites to determine if the system could provide an economic

  20. Weaker masturbatory erection may be a sign of early cardiovascular risk associated with erectile dysfunction in young men without sexual intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Bin; Yao, Feng-Juan; Chen, Sheng-Fu; Ouyang, Bin; Deng, Chun-Hua; Huang, Yi-Ran

    2014-06-01

    Although increasing evidences emphasize the importance of early cardiovascular evaluation in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) of unexplained aetiology, impaired masturbation-induced erections in young men are usually overlooked and habitually presumed to be psychological origin. To evaluate the young men presenting weaker masturbatory erection with no sexual intercourse (WME-NS) and verify if this cohort have early cardiovascular risks associated with ED. Male subjects aged 18-40 years with WME-NS were screened by analyzing detailed sexual intercourse and masturbatory history. The age-matched ED and non-ED population were identified by using International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5). All subjects with acute and/or chronic diseases (including diagnosed hypertension and diabetes) and long-term pharmacotherapy were excluded. Nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity (NPTR), systemic vascular parameters and biochemical indicators related to metabolism were assessed. Comparison analysis and logistic regression analysis were conducted among WME-NS, ED and non-ED population. In total, 78 WME-NS cases (mean 28.99 ± 5.92 years), 179 ED cases (mean 30.69 ± 5.21 years) and 43 non-ED cases (mean 28.65 ± 4.30 years) were screened for analysis. Compared with non-ED group, WME-NS group had higher prevalence of early ED risk factors including endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, high level of glycosylated serum protein and abnormal NPTR. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis showed endothelia dysfunction (odds ratio: 8.83 vs. 17.11, both P benefits by targeting these formulated strategies. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. Alien DNA introgression and wheat DNA rearrangements in a stable wheat line derived from the early generation of distant hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lianquan; Liu, Dengcai; Yan, Zehong; Zheng, Youliang

    2005-10-01

    Polyploidy has been found to be common in plants. Bread or common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n=42) is a good example of allopolyploid made up of three diploid genomes A, B and D. In recent years, by the study of mimicking the origination of common wheat, it was found that changes of DNA sequence and gene expression occurred at the early stages of artificial allohexaploid between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii, which was probably favorable to genetic diploidization of new synthetic hexaploid wheat. Common wheat 99L2 is a new line stable in genetic, which was derived from the early self-pollinated generation of wide hybrids between common wheat and rye. In this study, it was found that at least two rye DNA segments had been introgressed into 99L2. This result suggested that a mechanism of alien DNA introgression may exist, which was different from the traditional mechanism of chromosome pairing and DNA recombination between wheat and alien species. Meanwhile, during the introgression process of alien rye DNA segments, the changes in DNA sequences of wheat itself occurred.

  2. Targeted next generation sequencing identifies functionally deleterious germline mutations in novel genes in early-onset/familial prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Paulo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering that mutations in known prostate cancer (PrCa predisposition genes, including those responsible for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer and Lynch syndromes, explain less than 5% of early-onset/familial PrCa, we have sequenced 94 genes associated with cancer predisposition using next generation sequencing (NGS in a series of 121 PrCa patients. We found monoallelic truncating/functionally deleterious mutations in seven genes, including ATM and CHEK2, which have previously been associated with PrCa predisposition, and five new candidate PrCa associated genes involved in cancer predisposing recessive disorders, namely RAD51C, FANCD2, FANCI, CEP57 and RECQL4. Furthermore, using in silico pathogenicity prediction of missense variants among 18 genes associated with breast/ovarian cancer and/or Lynch syndrome, followed by KASP genotyping in 710 healthy controls, we identified "likely pathogenic" missense variants in ATM, BRIP1, CHEK2 and TP53. In conclusion, this study has identified putative PrCa predisposing germline mutations in 14.9% of early-onset/familial PrCa patients. Further data will be necessary to confirm the genetic heterogeneity of inherited PrCa predisposition hinted in this study.

  3. Remembered parenting style and psychological well-being in young adults whose parents had experienced early child loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantke, Renate; Slade, Pauline

    2006-03-01

    Pre-, peri-, or postnatal childloss can have devastating consequences for bereaved families. This study explored the long-term sequelae of these experiences for the young adult siblings' psychological well-being and the perceived quality of parenting received during participants' first 16 years of life. A bereaved group of young adult siblings was compared to a non-bereaved group on the Parent Bonding Instrument, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Mental Health Index-5. The loss group reported their mothers, but not their fathers, to have been more protective/controlling than non-bereaved participants. No differences between the loss group and the comparison group were found for parental care, their own mental health or self-esteem. Those participants whose siblings died during the peri/post-natal period perceived their parents as more controlling than the miscarriage group as well as the non-bereaved group. Higher protection scores were evident among those born subsequent to the loss than those who were born before. Lower levels of protection were associated with better mental health across all groups. In the non-bereaved group lower levels of protection were associated with better self-esteem, but in the bereaved group a different even opposite pattern was shown. Young adults who lost a sibling when they themselves were under 5 recall their mothers as more protective/controlling than non-bereaved groups, although they do not report less care nor differ in mental health nor self-esteem. Higher levels of parental protection/control were found where the child was born subsequent to loss and for peri/post-natal loss rather than miscarriage. While high protection was associated with poorer mental health regardless of loss this may not be necessarily disadvantageous to the child's self-esteem. Differences with regard to parent gender were found.

  4. “The hope – the one hope – is that your generation will prove wiser and more responsible than mine.” Constructions of guilt in a selection of disaster texts for young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Braithwaite

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a range of definitions of guilt, and argues that fiction for young adults which is set after a major disaster that has been caused by humans has surprisingly little emphasis on guilt. Focusing on Brother in the Land by Robert Swindells, Nuclear War Diary by James E. Sanford (Jr, The Last Children by Gudrun Pausewang, The Carbon Diaries 2015 by Saci Lloyd and its sequel, The Carbon Diaries 2017, and Days Like This by Alison Stewart, the paper argues that in post-nuclear texts for young adults the emphasis tends to be on the perceived responsibility of the young adult reader's generation to work towards preventing the disaster from becoming reality, rather than on the guilt of the adult generation that caused the disaster. However, in texts dealing with environmental disaster, the young adult reader's generation can be seen to have some measure of culpability, and so the issues of guilt and responsibility become more complex.

  5. Mutations of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) genes in Thais with early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plengvidhya, Nattachet; Boonyasrisawat, Watip; Chongjaroen, Nalinee; Jungtrakoon, Prapaporn; Sriussadaporn, Sutin; Vannaseang, Sathit; Banchuin, Napatawn; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2009-06-01

    Six known genes responsible for maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) were analysed to evaluate the prevalence of their mutations in Thai patients with MODY and early-onset type 2 diabetes. Fifty-one unrelated probands with early-onset type 2 diabetes, 21 of them fitted into classic MODY criteria, were analysed for nucleotide variations in promoters, exons, and exon-intron boundaries of six known MODY genes, including HNF-4alpha, GCK, HNF-1alpha, IPF-1, HNF-1beta, and NeuroD1/beta2, by the polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) method followed by direct DNA sequencing. Missense mutations or mutations located in regulatory region, which were absent in 130 chromosomes of non-diabetic controls, were classified as potentially pathogenic mutations. We found that mutations of the six known MODY genes account for a small proportion of classic MODY (19%) and early-onset type 2 diabetes (10%) in Thais. Five of these mutations are novel including GCK R327H, HNF-1alpha P475L, HNF-1alphaG554fsX556, NeuroD1-1972 G > A and NeuroD1 A322N. Mutations of IPF-1 and HNF-1beta were not identified in the studied probands. Mutations of the six known MODY genes may not be a major cause of MODY and early-onset type 2 diabetes in Thais. Therefore, unidentified genes await discovery in a majority of Thai patients with MODY and early-onset type 2 diabetes.

  6. Functional ankle instability as a risk factor for osteoarthritis: using T2-mapping to analyze early cartilage degeneration in the ankle joint of young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golditz, T; Steib, S; Pfeifer, K; Uder, M; Gelse, K; Janka, R; Hennig, F F; Welsch, G H

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, using T2-mapping, the impact of functional instability in the ankle joint on the development of early cartilage damage. Ethical approval for this study was provided. Thirty-six volunteers from the university sports program were divided into three groups according to their ankle status: functional ankle instability (FAI, initial ankle sprain with residual instability); ankle sprain Copers (initial sprain, without residual instability); and controls (without a history of ankle injuries). Quantitative T2-mapping magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at the beginning ('early-unloading') and at the end ('late-unloading') of the MR-examination, with a mean time span of 27 min. Zonal region-of-interest T2-mapping was performed on the talar and tibial cartilage in the deep and superficial layers. The inter-group comparisons of T2-values were analyzed using paired and unpaired t-tests. Statistical analysis of variance was performed. T2-values showed significant to highly significant differences in 11 of 12 regions throughout the groups. In early-unloading, the FAI-group showed a significant increase in quantitative T2-values in the medial, talar regions (P = 0.008, P = 0.027), whereas the Coper-group showed this enhancement in the central-lateral regions (P = 0.05). Especially the comparison of early-loading to late-unloading values revealed significantly decreasing T2-values over time laterally and significantly increasing T2-values medially in the FAI-group, which were not present in the Coper- or control-group. Functional instability causes unbalanced loading in the ankle joint, resulting in cartilage alterations as assessed by quantitative T2-mapping. This approach can visualize and localize early cartilage abnormalities, possibly enabling specific treatment options to prevent osteoarthritis in young athletes. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Early Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuys, Ute Elisabeth

    1986-01-01

    Presents reviews of the following mathematics software designed to teach young children counting, number recognition, visual discrimination, matching, addition, and subtraction skills; Stickybear Numbers, Learning with Leeper, Getting Ready to Read and Add, Counting Parade, Early Games for Young Children, Charlie Brown's 1,2,3's, Let's Go Fishing,…

  8. Integrative and comparative genomics analysis of early hepatocellular carcinoma differentiated from liver regeneration in young and old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozand Pinar T

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third-leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. It is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, and hence typically has a poor prognosis. To identify distinct molecular mechanisms for early HCC we developed a rat model of liver regeneration post-hepatectomy, as well as liver cells undergoing malignant transformation and compared them to normal liver using a microarray approach. Subsequently, we performed cross-species comparative analysis coupled with copy number alterations (CNA of independent early human HCC microarray studies to facilitate the identification of critical regulatory modules conserved across species. Results We identified 35 signature genes conserved across species, and shared among different types of early human HCCs. Over 70% of signature genes were cancer-related, and more than 50% of the conserved genes were mapped to human genomic CNA regions. Functional annotation revealed genes already implicated in HCC, as well as novel genes which were not previously reported in liver tumors. A subset of differentially expressed genes was validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Concordance was also confirmed for a significant number of genes and pathways in five independent validation microarray datasets. Our results indicated alterations in a number of cancer related pathways, including p53, p38 MAPK, ERK/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, and TGF-β signaling pathways, and potential critical regulatory role of MYC, ERBB2, HNF4A, and SMAD3 for early HCC transformation. Conclusions The integrative analysis of transcriptional deregulation, genomic CNA and comparative cross species analysis brings new insights into the molecular profile of early hepatoma formation. This approach may lead to robust biomarkers for the detection of early human HCC.

  9. Smolensk State University`s implementation of the provisions of the national strategy in the field of education and upbringing of the young generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozikova I.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the strategies of state policy in the field of education and upbringing at the modern stage of the development of Russian society. Smolensk State University acts as a scientific and methodological center, which is actively implementing the provisions of the national strategy in the region. At Smolensk State University various forms of work for the implementation of the state policy in the field of young generation upbringing are used: research and educational projects, conferences, camps, etc. The article presents the results of the IX International Scientific-Practical Conference "Social and practical problems of mentality ", the projects of the Smolensk regional pedagogical unit "Winged" (the head – doctor of pedagogical Sciences, Prof. N.P. Senchenkov, the Summer school "Gifted children" and the prospects of research and educational projects for implementation of the strategy of the state policy in the field of education. It is shown that the main characteristic of these projects at Smolensk State University is the focusing on social partnership and practical orientation, cooperation with the Russian Academy of Education and educational organizations of the region. It is noted that they contribute to the formation of active civil position, to the development of needs of the young generation to participate in civic life, help to adapt to the social and political environment and to develop skills of cooperation with local authorities and other partners.

  10. Computationally-generated nuclear forensic characteristics of early production reactors with an emphasis on sensitivity and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redd, Evan M.; Sjoden, Glenn; Erickson, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •X-10 reactor is used as a case study for nuclear forensic signatures. •S/U analysis is conducted to derive statistically relevant markers. •Computationally-generated signatures aid with proliferation pathway identification. •Highest uncertainty in total plutonium production originates from 238 Pu and 242 Pu. -- Abstract: With nuclear technology and analysis advancements, site access restrictions, and ban on nuclear testing, computationally-generated nuclear forensic signatures are becoming more important in gaining knowledge to a reclusive country’s weapon material production capabilities. In particular, graphite-moderated reactors provide an appropriate case study for isotopics relevant in Pu production in a clandestine nuclear program due to the ease of design and low thermal output. We study the production characteristics of the X-10 reactor with a goal to develop statistically-relevant nuclear forensic signatures from early Pu production. In X-10 reactor, a flat flux gradient and low burnup produce exceptionally pure Pu as evident by the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio. However, these design aspects also make determining reactor zone attribution, done with the 242 Pu/ 240 Pu ratio, uncertain. Alternatively, the same ratios produce statistically differentiable results between Manhattan Project and post-Manhattan Project reactor configurations, allowing for attribution conclusions.

  11. High and Low Impact Aerobic Exercise as a Method of Early Prevention of Hypercholesterolaemia Development among Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Robert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Hypercholesterolaemia is a highly prevalent condition that has major health- and cost-related implications for the society. Aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in healthy young women. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the impact of 9 weeks of low-high aerobic-type exercise on the lipid profile among young women. Methods. On the basis of the lipid profile, 64 women (median age, 21.8 years; range, 19.0-24.7 years were divided into two groups: with low (LRH and intermediate (IRH risk of developing hypercholesterolaemia. The participants completed a 9-week-long low-high aerobic exercise programme. Before and after the training programme, we determined the lipid profile: triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, lipoprotein cholesterol: HDL-C and LDL-C, and glucose levels. Selected cardiorespiratory fitness variables and body composition were also determined. Results. It was found that aerobic-type fitness exercise in the IRH group caused statistically significant decreases in TC and TG levels in comparison with baseline values. Significant increase in maximum oxygen uptake and decrease in HDL-C in the LRH group were also observed. Conclusions. Aerobic fitness exercises, a combination of two alternating styles, could influence the blood lipid profile by decreasing plasma TC and TG levels. In non-athlete women, physical activity may be a good tool to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  12. The Y.E.S. Network: An IYPE legacy for engaging future generations of early-career geoscientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, L. M.; Govoni, D.; Micucci, L.; Gaines, S. M.; Venus, J.; Meng, W.

    2009-12-01

    The Y.E.S. Network, an association of early-career geoscientists who represent professional societies, geoscience companies, and geoscience departments from across the world, was formed as a direct result of the International Year of Planet Earth (IYPE). Currently the Y.E.S. Network has representatives in thirty-five countries from six continents. The goal of the network is to engage early-career representatives from geological associations and institutions, policy-makers, and delegates from administrative bodies to establish a worldwide network of future leaders, policy-makers and geoscientists who will work collaboratively to address the scientific challenges future generations will face. To this end, the Y.E.S. Network, in collaboration with IYPE and with the patronage of UNESCO, organized the first international Y.E.S. Congress which was hosted by the China University of Geosciences in Beijing. The conference focused on scientific and career challenges faced by early-career geoscientists, with a particular emphasis on how the Y.E.S. Network can work collaborative and internationally towards solving these challenges and furthering the IYPE motto of “Earth Sciences for Society”. The conference focused on the ten major themes of the IYPE (e.g. health, climate, groundwater, ocean, soils, deep earth, megacities, hazards, resources, and life) at its poster and oral sessions. Roundtable symposia engaged senior and early-career geoscientists via presentations, panel discussions, and working group sessions where strategies related to scientific challenges (i.e. climate change in the polar regions, natural hazards, natural resource sustainability) and academic and career pathway challenges (i.e. academic-industry linkages, gender parity in the geosciences, geoscience education sustainability, and international licensure issues) were developed. These strategies were then tasked to the Y.E.S. Network for further development and implementation. Future Y.E.S. Network

  13. Maternal Depression and Early Positive Parenting Predict Future Conduct Problems in Young Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis, Andrea M.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Williams, Stephanie Hall; Baumann, Barbara L.; Kipp, Heidi; Jones, Heather A.; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for adverse outcomes such as substance abuse and criminality, particularly if they develop conduct problems. Little is known about early predictors of the developmental course of conduct problems among children with ADHD, however. Parental psychopathology and parenting …

  14. Urban Advocates for Young Children with Special Needs: First-Year Early Childhood Teachers Enacting Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Victoria I.; Recchia, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    This article shares the ways new early childhood teachers carry forward the social justice principles emphasized in their teacher education program into their actual practice. Their participation in a university-sponsored mentoring group served as the context for this study. Through an emergent themes analysis, we explored how they prioritized…

  15. Early and late onset depression in young and middle aged adults : Differential symptomatology, characteristics and risk factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korten, Nicole C. M.; Comijs, Hannie C.; Lamers, Femke; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Early onset depression (EOD) and late onset depression (LOD) may be different phenomena. In this study, differences between EOD and LOD in symptomatology, psychiatric characteristics and psychosocial/somatic factors were examined. Methods: Baseline data were from 1104 participants with a

  16. Impact of growth patterns and early diet on obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in young children from developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalán, Camila; Kain, Juliana; Weisstaub, Gerardo; Uauy, Ricardo

    2009-08-01

    Non-communicable chronic diseases are now a worldwide epidemic. Diet and physical activity throughout life are among its main determinants. In countries undergoing the early stages of the nutrition transition weight gain from birth to 2 years of life is related to lean mass gain, while ponderal gain after age 2 years is related to adiposity and later diabetes and CVD risk. Evidence from developing countries undergoing the more advanced stages of the nutrition transition is limited. The early growth patterns of a cohort of Chilean children born in 2002 with normal birth weight who at 4 years had a high prevalence of obesity and CVD risk factors have been assessed. Results indicate that BMI gain in early life, particularly from 6 months to 24 months, is positively associated with adiposity and CVD risk status at 4 years. These results together with existing evidence suggest that actions to prevent obesity and nutrition-related chronic diseases in developing countries should start early in life, possibly after 6 months of age. This approach should consider assessing the effect of mode of feeding and the amount and type of energy fed, as well as the resulting growth patterns. The challenge for researchers addressing the nutrition transition is to define the optimal nutrition in early life, considering not only the short- and long-term health consequences but also taking into account the stage of the nutritional transition for the given population of interest. The latter will probably require redefining optimal postnatal growth based on the context of maternal size and fetal growth.

  17. The Prothrombin G20210A Mutation is Associated with Young-Onset Stroke: The Genetics of Early Onset Stroke Study and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Baijia; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Hamedani, Ali; Cheng, Yuching; Sparks, Mary J.; Koontz, Deborah; Bean, Christopher J.; Gallagher, Margaret; Hooper, W. Craig; McArdle, Patrick F.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Stine, O. Colin; Wozniak, Marcella A.; Stern, Barney J.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Kittner, Steven J.; Cole, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although the prothrombin G20210A mutation has been implicated as a risk factor for venous thrombosis, its role in arterial ischemic stroke is unclear, particularly among young-adults. To address this issue, we examined the association between prothrombin G20210A and ischemic stroke in a Caucasian case-control population and additionally performed a meta-analysis Methods From the population-based Genetics of Early Onset Stroke (GEOS) study we identified 397 individuals of European ancestry aged 15-49 years with first-ever ischemic stroke and 426 matched-controls. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios in the entire population and for subgroups stratified by gender, age, oral contraceptive use, migraine and smoking status. A meta-analysis of 17 case-control studies (n=2305 cases ischemic stroke did not achieve statistical significance (OR=2.5,95%CI=0.9-6.5,p=0.07). However, among adults aged 15-42 (younger than median age), cases were significantly more likely than controls to have the mutation (OR=5.9,95%CI=1.2-28.1,p=0.03), whereas adults ages 42-49 were not (OR=1.4,95%CI=0.4-5.1,p=0.94). In our meta-analysis, the mutation was associated with significantly increased stroke risk in adults ischemic stroke in young-adults and may have an even stronger association among those with earlier onset strokes. Our finding of a stronger association in the younger-young adult population requires replication. PMID:24619398

  18. Prothrombin G20210A mutation is associated with young-onset stroke: the genetics of early-onset stroke study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Baijia; Ryan, Kathleen A; Hamedani, Ali; Cheng, Yuching; Sparks, Mary J; Koontz, Deborah; Bean, Christopher J; Gallagher, Margaret; Hooper, W Craig; McArdle, Patrick F; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Stine, O Colin; Wozniak, Marcella A; Stern, Barney J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J; Cole, John W

    2014-04-01

    Although the prothrombin G20210A mutation has been implicated as a risk factor for venous thrombosis, its role in arterial ischemic stroke is unclear, particularly among young adults. To address this issue, we examined the association between prothrombin G20210A and ischemic stroke in a white case-control population and additionally performed a meta-analysis. From the population-based Genetics of Early Onset Stroke (GEOS) study, we identified 397 individuals of European ancestry aged 15 to 49 years with first-ever ischemic stroke and 426 matched controls. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) in the entire population and for subgroups stratified by sex, age, oral contraceptive use, migraine, and smoking status. A meta-analysis of 17 case-control studies (n=2305 cases ischemic stroke did not achieve statistical significance (OR=2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.9-6.5; P=0.07). However, among adults aged 15 to 42 years (younger than median age), cases were significantly more likely than controls to have the mutation (OR=5.9; 95% CI=1.2-28.1; P=0.03), whereas adults aged 42 to 49 years were not (OR=1.4; 95% CI=0.4-5.1; P=0.94). In our meta-analysis, the mutation was associated with significantly increased stroke risk in adults ≤55 years (OR=1.4; 95% CI=1.1-1.9; P=0.02), with significance increasing with addition of the GEOS results (OR=1.5; 95% CI=1.1-2.0; P=0.005). The prothrombin G20210A mutation is associated with ischemic stroke in young adults and may have an even stronger association among those with earlier onset strokes. Our finding of a stronger association in the younger young adult population requires replication.

  19. Hospitalisation with otitis media in early childhood and cognitive function in young adult life: a prevalence study among Danish conscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Otitis media (OM) is a very common condition in children and occurs during years that are critical to the development of learning, literacy, and math skills. Therefore, among a large cohort of Danish conscripts, we aimed to examine the association between hospitalisation with OM in early childhood and cognitive function and educational level in early adulthood. Methods We conducted a population-based prevalence study using linked data from healthcare databases and conscription records of Danish men born between 1977 and 1983. We identified all hospitalisations with OM before 8 years of age. Cognitive function was measured by the Boerge Prien validated group intelligence test (Danish Børge Prien Prøve, BPP). We adjusted for potential confounders with and without stratification by hearing impairment. Furthermore, we examined the association between hospitalisation with OM and the prevalence of having achieved a General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), stratified by quartiles of BPP scores. Results Of the 18 412 eligible conscripts aged 18–25 years, 1000 (5.5%) had been hospitalised with OM before age 8. Compared with conscripts without such a record, the adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for a BPP score in the bottom quartile was 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–1.33). There was no major difference in the proportion of men with a GCSE and those without among those hospitalised with OM in early childhood. For men in the bottom and upper quartiles of BPP scores, the PRs for early childhood hospitalisation with OM were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.59–1.33) and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.88–1.05), respectively. Among men with severe hearing impairment, the proportion with a BPP score in the bottom quartile did not differ between those with and without an OM hospitalisation [PR = 1.01 (95% CI: 0.78–1.34)]. Conclusions Overall, we found that hospitalisation with OM in early childhood was associated with a slightly lower cognitive function in early

  20. Internet-Delivered Parenting Program for Prevention and Early Intervention of Anxiety Problems in Young Children: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Amy J; Rapee, Ronald M; Salim, Agus; Goharpey, Nahal; Tamir, Elli; McLellan, Lauren F; Bayer, Jordana K

    2017-05-01

    The Cool Little Kids parenting group program is an effective intervention for preventing anxiety disorders in young children who are at risk because of inhibited temperament. The program has six group sessions delivered by trained psychologists to parents of 3- to 6-year-old children. An online adaptation (Cool Little Kids Online) has been developed to overcome barriers to its wide dissemination in the community. This study tested the efficacy of Cool Little Kids Online in a randomized controlled trial. A total of 433 parents of a child aged 3 to 6 years with an inhibited temperament were randomized to the online parenting program or to a 24-week waitlist. The online program has 8 interactive modules providing strategies that parents can implement with their child to manage their child's avoidant coping, reduce parental overprotection, and encourage child independence. Parents were provided telephone consultation support with a psychologist when requested. Parents completed self-report questionnaires at baseline and at 12 and 24 weeks after baseline. The intervention group showed significantly greater improvement over time in child anxiety symptoms compared to the control group (d = 0.38). The intervention group also showed greater reductions in anxiety life interference (ds = 0.33-0.35) and lower rates of anxiety disorders than the control group (40% versus 54%), but there were minimal effects on broader internalizing symptoms or overprotective parenting. Results provide empirical support for the efficacy of online delivery of the Cool Little Kids program. Online dissemination may improve access to an evidence-based prevention program for child anxiety disorders. Clinical trial registration information-Randomised Controlled Trial of Cool Little Kids Online: A Parenting Program to Prevent Anxiety Problems in Young Children; http://www.anzctr.org.au/; 12615000217505. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc

  1. Sex differences in perceived stress and early recovery in young and middle-aged patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Bao, Haikun; Strait, Kelly; Spertus, John A; Lichtman, Judith H; D'Onofrio, Gail; Spatz, Erica; Bucholz, Emily M; Geda, Mary; Lorenze, Nancy P; Bueno, Héctor; Beltrame, John F; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2015-02-17

    Younger age and female sex are both associated with greater mental stress in the general population, but limited data exist on the status of perceived stress in young and middle-aged patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction. We examined sex difference in stress, contributing factors to this difference, and whether this difference helps explain sex-based disparities in 1-month recovery using data from 3572 patients with acute myocardial infarction (2397 women and 1175 men) 18 to 55 years of age. The average score of the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale at baseline was 23.4 for men and 27.0 for women (Pstress in women was explained largely by sex differences in comorbidities, physical and mental health status, intrafamily conflict, caregiving demands, and financial hardship. After adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics, women had worse recovery than men at 1 month after acute myocardial infarction, with mean differences in improvement score between women and men ranging from -0.04 for EuroQol utility index to -3.96 for angina-related quality of life (Pstress reduced these sex-based differences in recovery to -0.03 to -3.63, which, however, remained statistically significant (Pstress at baseline was associated with significantly worse recovery in angina-specific and overall quality of life, as well as mental health status. The effect of baseline stress on recovery did not vary between men and women. Among young and middle-aged patients, higher stress at baseline is associated with worse recovery in multiple health outcomes after acute myocardial infarction. Women perceive greater psychological stress than men at baseline, which partially explains women's worse recovery. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Degenerative alterations of the cementum-periodontal ligament complex and early tooth loss in a young patient with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruţiu, S A; Buiga, Petronela; Roman, Alexandra; Danciu, Theodora; Mihu, Carmen Mihaela; Mihu, D

    2012-01-01

    Premature exfoliation of primary or permanent teeth in children or adolescents is extremely rare and it can be a manifestation of an underlying systemic disease. This study aims to present the histological aspects associated with early tooth loss in a case of periodontal disease developed without local inflammation and with minimal periodontal pockets and attachment loss. The maxillary left second premolar was extracted together with a gingival collar attached to the root surface. The histological analysis recorded the resorption of the cementum in multiple areas of the entire root surface with the connective tissue of the desmodontium invading the lacunae defects. The connective tissue rich in cells occupied the periodontal ligamentar space and the resorptive areas. No inflammation was obvious in the periodontal ligament connective tissue. This report may warn clinicians about the possibility of the association of cemental abnormalities with early tooth loss.

  3. Sex-specific effects of early life stress on social interaction and prefrontal cortex dendritic morphology in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, M R; Holland, F H; Shansky, R M; Brenhouse, H C

    2016-09-01

    Early life stress has been linked to depression, anxiety, and behavior disorders in adolescence and adulthood. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in stress-related psychopathology, is a target for stress hormones, and mediates social behavior. The present study investigated sex differences in early-life stress effects on juvenile social interaction and adolescent mPFC dendritic morphology in rats using a maternal separation (MS) paradigm. Half of the rat pups of each sex were separated from their mother for 4h a day between postnatal days 2 and 21, while the other half remained with their mother in the animal facilities and were exposed to minimal handling. At postnatal day 25 (P25; juvenility), rats underwent a social interaction test with an age and sex matched conspecific. Distance from conspecific, approach and avoidance behaviors, nose-to-nose contacts, and general locomotion were measured. Rats were euthanized at postnatal day 40 (P40; adolescence), and randomly selected infralimbic pyramidal neurons were filled with Lucifer yellow using iontophoretic microinjections, imaged in 3D, and then analyzed for dendritic arborization, spine density, and spine morphology. Early-life stress increased the latency to make nose-to-nose contact at P25 in females but not males. At P40, early-life stress increased infralimbic apical dendritic branch number and length and decreased thin spine density in stressed female rats. These results indicate that MS during the postnatal period influenced juvenile social behavior and mPFC dendritic arborization in a sex-specific manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Une approche générationnelle des jeunes militants frontistes Young activists in the French National Front : a generational approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Bouzama

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article vise à saisir l’évolution des jeunes au Front national (FN à différentes périodes de l'histoire du parti et à éclairer ces engagements juvéniles en repérant des moments clés constitutif de générations précises de militants, qui présentent des propriétés sociales différentes selon le contexte social. On se propose de caractériser les trois grandes vagues d'adhésion repérées, à partir de l'évolution partisane du FN mais également au regard des événements sociaux plus larges. De ce travail on retient notamment une clé de compréhension de la scission et de la façon dont les jeunes se sont positionnés en faveur de l'un ou l'autre leader. Finalement, l'approche générationnelle ne peut être efficiente que si on lui adjoint une étude sur les trajectoires des individus et donc une lecture en termes de socialisation.This article applies a generational approach to study young people entering politics. It allows us to diffirentiate between the situation in the 19705 and today. During the 1970s, the young members of the FNJ (the French National Front Youth Section mainly came from the declining middle class (their sociological profile was that of a shop employee’s son. They belonged to the post-Mai 1968 generation and were influenced by anticommunism, very strong at that time. From the point of view of the parry, they were the first generation of a very small group of extreme-right wingers in France. Their work as militants was to establish the party. Most of the young people entering the FNJ in the 1980s aimed to combat the movement led by « SOS Racisme ». Skinheads and hooligans reappeared on the scene. The French National Front was represented in Parliament in 1986 and in the 1990s, its influence grew, its members belonged to the working classes but the chief was part of the upper class. By examining a few examples of family socialization, we try to understand how the identity of NF youth was built and

  5. Early infections by myxoma virus of young rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) protected by maternal antibodies activate their immune system and enhance herd immunity in wild populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchandeau, Stéphane; Pontier, Dominique; Guitton, Jean-Sébastien; Letty, Jérôme; Fouchet, David; Aubineau, Jacky; Berger, Francis; Léonard, Yves; Roobrouck, Alain; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Peralta, Brigitte; Bertagnoli, Stéphane

    2014-03-04

    The role of maternal antibodies is to protect newborns against acute early infection by pathogens. This can be achieved either by preventing any infection or by allowing attenuated infections associated with activation of the immune system, the two strategies being based on different cost/benefit ratios. We carried out an epidemiological survey of myxomatosis, which is a highly lethal infectious disease, in two distant wild populations of rabbits to describe the epidemiological pattern of the disease. Detection of specific IgM and IgG enabled us to describe the pattern of immunity. We show that maternal immunity attenuates early infection of juveniles and enables activation of their immune system. This mechanism associated with steady circulation of the myxoma virus in both populations, which induces frequent reinfections of immune rabbits, leads to the maintenance of high immunity levels within populations. Thus, myxomatosis has a low impact, with most infections being asymptomatic. This work shows that infection of young rabbits protected by maternal antibodies induces attenuated disease and activates their immune system. This may play a major role in reducing the impact of a highly lethal disease when ecological conditions enable permanent circulation of the pathogen.

  6. Adolescent cannabis use, change in neurocognitive function, and high-school graduation: A longitudinal study from early adolescence to young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Séguin, Jean R

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this prospective longitudinal study was to investigate bidirectional associations between adolescent cannabis use (CU) and neurocognitive performance in a community sample of 294 young men from ages 13 to 20 years. The results showed that in early adolescence, and prior to initiation to CU, poor short-term and working memory, but high verbal IQ, were associated with earlier age of onset of CU. In turn, age of CU onset and CU frequency across adolescence were associated with (a) specific neurocognitive decline in verbal IQ and executive function tasks tapping trial and error learning and reward processing by early adulthood and (b) lower rates of high-school graduation. The association between CU onset and change in neurocognitive function, however, was found to be accounted for by CU frequency. Whereas the link between CU frequency across adolescence and change in verbal IQ was explained (mediated) by high school graduation, the link between CU frequency and tasks tapping trial and error learning were independent from high school graduation, concurrent cannabis and other substance use, adolescent alcohol use, and externalizing behaviors. Findings support prevention efforts aimed at delaying onset and reducing frequency of CU.

  7. Environmental characteristics of early childhood education and care centres and young children's weight status: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiguang; Pereira, João R; Sousa-Sá, Eduarda; Okely, Anthony D; Feng, Xiaoqi; Santos, Rute

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to summarize ECEC environmental correlates of weight status in children under the age of 6years. Six databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and Web of Science) were searched until March 2017. Observational studies examining the relationship between ECEC environmental characteristics and weight status in children aged 0-6years were included. Data was extracted using a predesigned form. Eight studies, representing 4862 children, met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-two environmental characteristics were identified and classified into four domains (physical, political, economic, and sociocultural); of these, six correlates were found. 'Active environment' 'sedentary opportunities', 'active play time', 'high sugar and high fat served', 'educators' weight' and 'educators' habitual physical activity level' were associated with weight status in young children. However, for most environmental characteristics examined, strong evidence is not available yet, due to variations across studies on the measures of environmental characteristics and analytical methodologies. Stronger empirical evidence in greater quantity is needed. Future studies in this area are recommended to investigate the environmental influence using an ecological approach and to examine the potential mediators, with a focus on the settings of family-based centres and samples representing toddlers and/or infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Do family and parenting factors in adolescence influence condom use in early adulthood in a multiethnic sample of young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Haas, Steven A; Kopak, Albert M; Robillard, Alyssa G

    2011-11-01

    Studies show that positive family factors help protect adolescents from engaging in risky sexual activities, but do they continue to protect adolescents as they transition to late adolescence/early adulthood? Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined whether family support, parent-child closeness, parental control/monitoring of adolescent behaviors and parent-child communication about sex, assessed in adolescence, were related to condom use in late adolescence/early adulthood among African American (n = 1,986), Chinese American (n = 163), Mexican American (n = 1,011) and White (n = 6,971) youth. Controlling for demographic variables and number of sex partners, the results showed that family support was positively related and parent-child communication was negatively related to condom use for the sample as a whole and for the white sample, but not for the other groups. Parent-child communication about sex and parental control were negatively related to condom use in the Chinese American sample. None of the family factors was related to condom use in the African American or Mexican American samples. Overall, parents talked more with daughters than sons about sexual matters. Condom use was most common among African Americans and among males. Greater attention to cultural expectations regarding sex and gender roles, as well as the causal ordering of effects, are important directions for future research.

  9. Early detection of myocardial dysfunction using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in a young cat with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Suzuki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 5-month-old intact female Scottish Fold cat was presented for cardiac evaluation. Careful auscultation detected a slight systolic murmur (Levine I/VI. The findings of electrocardiography, thoracic radiography, non-invasive blood pressure measurements and conventional echocardiographic studies were unremarkable. However, two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography revealed abnormalities in myocardial deformations, including decreased early-to-late diastolic strain rate ratios in longitudinal, radial and circumferential directions, and deteriorated segmental systolic longitudinal strain. At the follow-up examinations, the cat exhibited echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy and was diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using conventional echocardiography. Relevance and novel information This is the first report on the use of two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography for the early detection of myocardial dysfunction in a cat with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; the myocardial dysfunction was detected before the development of hypertrophy. The findings from this case suggest that two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography can be useful for myocardial assessment when conventional echocardiographic and Doppler findings are ambiguous.

  10. The workforce composition of young firms and product innovation - complementarities in the skills of founders and their early employees

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Bettina; Murmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which complementarities between technical and business skills of founders and employees matter for the generation of market novelties by new ventures. Using data about German start-ups, we find that there are no complementarities between technical and business skills within the group of founders, but that there are significant complementarities between technically trained founders and employees who have business skills. This suggests that the innovation potenti...

  11. Violent and non-violent methods of attempted and completed suicide in Swedish young men: the role of early risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbacka, Marlene; Jokinen, Jussi

    2015-08-14

    There is a paucity of studies on the role of early risk factors for the choice of methods for violent suicide attempts. Adolescent risk factors for the choice of violent or non-violent methods for suicide attempts and the risk of subsequent suicide were studied using a longitudinal design. A national Swedish cohort of 48 834 18-20-year-old young men conscripted for military service from 1969 to 1970 was followed through official registers during a 37-year period. Two questionnaires concerning their psychosocial background were answered by each conscript. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to estimate the risk for different methods of attempted suicide and later suicide. A total of 1195 (2.4 %) men had made a suicide attempt and of these, 133 (11.1 %) committed suicide later. The number of suicide victims among the non-attempters was 482 (1 %). Half of the suicides occurred during the same year as the attempt. Suicide victims had earlier onset of suicidal behaviour and had more often used hanging as a method of attempted suicide than those who did not later commit suicide. The early risk factors for both violent and non-violent methods of suicide attempt were quite similar. Violent suicide attempts, especially by hanging, are associated with a clearly elevated suicide risk in men and require special clinical and public health attention. The early risk factors related to the choice of either a violent or a non-violent suicide attempt method are interlinked and circumstantial factors temporally close to the suicide attempt, such as access to a specific method, may partly explain the choice of method.

  12. Young Persons' Education, Training and Employment Outcomes with Special Reference to Early School Leavers. A Report Prepared for the Business Council of Australia and Dusseldorp Skills Forum by Applied Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Australian researchers investigated the education training outcomes of young people (age 15-19 years), focusing on early school leavers. Data came from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and the National Center for Vocational and Educational Research. About one-third of the 270,000 students who leave school each year leave before 12th grade. The…

  13. Trajectories of Television Watching from Childhood to Early Adulthood and Their Association with Body Composition and Mental Health Outcomes in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Joanne; Smith, Anne; Howie, Erin; Straker, Leon

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies examining longitudinal patterns of television (TV) watching have tended to use analytical approaches which do not allow for heterogeneity in the variation of TV watching over time. In the current study, we used latent class analysis (LCA) to examine the relationships between television watching (from childhood to early adulthood) and body fat percentage (%) and mental health. Data were collected from 2411 participants (50% female) from the Raine Study, a prospective birth cohort study in Australia. Participants were followed up over 15 years and answered questions about hours of TV watching per week at six time-points (5, 8, 10, 14, 17 and 20yrs). Trajectories of television watching were estimated using LCA and appropriate regression models used to test the association of television watching class with percentage body fat (measured by DXA) and mental health (DASS-21) at age 20. Physical activity was used as a covariate. Three distinct trajectories of TV watching were identified. Class 1 (47.4%) had consistently high (>14 hrs/wk) levels of TV watching, Class 2 (37.9%) was characterised by an increase in TV watching over adolescence and Class 3 (14.7%) had consistently lower (0.05). TV watching from childhood to young adulthood appears to be a relatively stable behavior for around two thirds of participants, but not everyone tracks consistently. This study identified a subset of participants with low levels of TV watching in childhood and also that this group, despite an increase in TV watching over adolescence, maintained a lower level of body fat in young adulthood.

  14. Can early MRI distinguish between Kingella kingae and Gram-positive cocci in osteoarticular infections in young children?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanavaki, Aikaterini; Hanquinet, Sylviane; Merlini, Laura [Geneva University Hospital HUG, Unit of Pediatric Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland); Ceroni, Dimitri [Geneva University Hospital, Unit of Pediatric Orthopedics, Geneva (Switzerland); Tchernin, David [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-01-15

    K. kingae is a common causative organism in acute osteoarticular infections (OAIs) in children under 4 years of age. Differentiation between K. kingae and Gram-positive cocci (GPC) is of great interest therapeutically. Our aim was to identify early distinguishing MRI features of OAIs. Thirty-one children younger than 4 years of age with OAI underwent MRI at presentation. Of these, 21 were caused by K. kingae and ten by GPC. Bone and soft tissue reaction, epiphyseal cartilage involvement, bone and subperiosteal abscess formation were compared between the two groups. Interobserver agreement was measured. Bone reaction was less frequent (P=0.0066) and soft tissue reaction less severe (P=0.0087) in the K. kingae group. Epiphysis cartilage abscesses were present only in the K. kingae group (P=0.0118). No difference was found for bone abscess (P=0.1411), subperiosteal abscess (P=1) or joint effusion (P=0.4414). Interobserver agreement was good for all criteria. MRI is useful in differentiating K. kingae from GPC in OAI. Cartilaginous involvement and modest soft tissue and bone reaction suggest K. kingae. (orig.)

  15. Tropical anurans mature early and die young: Evidence from eight Afromontane Hyperolius species and a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Sinsch

    Full Text Available Age- and size-related life-history traits of anuran amphibians are thought to vary systematically with latitude and altitude. Because the available data base is strongly biased towards temperate-zone species, we provide new estimates on eight afrotropical Reed Frog species. A meta-analysis of the demographic traits in 44 tropical anuran species aims to test for the predicted clinal variation and to contrast results with variation detected in temperate-zone species. The small-sized reed frogs reach sexual maturity during the first or second year of life, but longevity does not exceed three to four years. Latitudinal effects on demographic life-history traits are not detectable in tropical anurans, and altitudinal effects are limited to a slight size reduction at higher elevations. Common features of anuran life-history in the tropics are early sexual maturation at small size and low longevity resulting in low lifetime fecundity. This pattern contrasts with that found in temperate-zone anurans which mature later at larger size and grow considerably older yielding greater lifetime fecundity than in the tropics. Latitudinal and altitudinal contraction of the yearly activity period shape the evolution of life-history traits in the temperate region, while trait variation in the tropics seems to be driven by distinct, not yet identified selective forces.

  16. The role of maternal early-life and later-life risk factors on offspring low birth weight: findings from a three-generational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Amelia R; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David; Maas, Carl

    2011-08-01

    This study examined three research questions: (1) Is there an association between maternal early-life economic disadvantage and the birth weight of later-born offspring? (2) Is there an association between maternal abuse in childhood and the birth weight of later-born offspring? (3) To what extent are these early-life risks mediated through adolescent and adult substance use, mental and physical health status, and adult socioeconomic status (SES)? Analyses used structural equation modeling to examine data from two longitudinal studies, which included three generations. The first generation (G1) and the second generation (G2) were enrolled in the Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP), and the third generation (G3) was enrolled in the SSDP Intergenerational Project. Data for the study (N = 136) focused on (G2) mothers enrolled in the SSDP and their children (G3). Analyses revealed that G2 low childhood SES predicted G3 offspring birth weight. Early childhood abuse among G2 respondents predicted G3 offspring birth weight through a mediated pathway including G2 adolescent substance use and G2 prenatal substance use. Birth weight was unrelated to maternal adult SES, depression, or obesity. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify the effect of maternal early-life risks of low childhood SES and child maltreatment on later-born offspring birth weight. These findings have far-reaching effects on the cumulative risk associated with early-life economic disadvantage and childhood maltreatment. Such findings encourage policies and interventions that enhance child health at birth by taking the mother's own early-life and development into account. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Mental health of children, adolescents and young adults--part 2: burden of illness, deficits of the German health care system and efficacy and effectiveness of early intervention services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karow, A; Bock, T; Naber, D; Löwe, B; Schulte-Markwort, M; Schäfer, I; Gumz, A; Degkwitz, P; Schulte, B; König, H H; Konnopka, A; Bauer, M; Bechdolf, A; Correll, C; Juckel, G; Klosterkötter, J; Leopold, K; Pfennig, A; Lambert, M

    2013-11-01

    Numerous birth-control studies, epidemiological studies, and observational studies investigated mental health and health care in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, treatment delay and course of illness. Moreover, the impact of the burden of illness, of deficits of present health care systems, and the efficacy and effectiveness of early intervention services on mental health were evaluated. According to these data, most mental disorders start during childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Many children, adolescents and young adults are exposed to single or multiple adversities, which increase the risk for (early) manifestations of mental diseases as well as for their chronicity. Early-onset mental disorders often persist into adulthood. Service use of children, adolescents and young adults is low, even lower than in adult patients. Moreover, there is often a long delay between onset of illness and first adequate treatment with a variety of linked consequences for poorer psychosocial prognosis. This leads to a large burden of illness with respect to disability and costs. As a consequence several countries have implemented so-called "early intervention services" at the border of child and adolescent and adult psychiatry. Emerging studies show that these health care structures are effective and efficient. Part 2 of the present review focuses on illness burden including disability and costs, deficits of the present health care system in Germany, and efficacy and efficiency of early intervention services. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Direct diabetes-related costs in young patients with early-onset, long-lasting type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bächle

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate diabetes-related direct health care costs in pediatric patients with early-onset type 1 diabetes of long duration in Germany. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data of a population-based cohort of 1,473 subjects with type 1 diabetes onset at 0-4 years of age within the years 1993-1999 were included (mean age 13.9 (SD 2.2 years, mean diabetes duration 10.9 (SD 1.9 years, as of 31.12.2007. Diabetes-related health care services utilized in 2007 were derived from a nationwide prospective documentation system (DPV. Health care utilization was valued in monetary terms based on inpatient and outpatient medical fees and retail prices (perspective of statutory health insurance. Multiple regression models were applied to assess associations between direct diabetes-related health care costs per patient-year and demographic and clinical predictors. RESULTS: Mean direct diabetes-related health care costs per patient-year were €3,745 (inter-quartile range: 1,943-4,881. Costs for glucose self-monitoring were the main cost category (28.5%, followed by costs for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (25.0%, diabetes-related hospitalizations (22.1% and insulin (18.4%. Female gender, pubertal age and poor glycemic control were associated with higher and migration background with lower total costs. CONCLUSIONS: Main cost categories in patients with on average 11 years of diabetes duration were costs for glucose self-monitoring, insulin pump therapy, hospitalization and insulin. Optimization of glycemic control in particular in pubertal age through intensified care with improved diabetes education and tailored insulin regimen, can contribute to the reduction of direct diabetes-related costs in this patient group.

  19. S-adenosyl methionine prevents ASD like behaviors triggered by early postnatal valproic acid exposure in very young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, Asher; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Tfilin, Matanel; Ergaz, Zivanit; Yanai, Joseph; Szyf, Moshe; Turgeman, Gadi

    2018-01-16

    A common animal model of ASD is the one induced by valproic acid (VPA), inducing epigenetic changes and oxidative stress. We studied the possible preventive effect of the methyl donor for epigenetic enzymatic reactions, S-adenosine methionine (SAM), on ASD like behavioral changes and on redox potential in the brain and liver in this model. ICR albino mice were injected on postnatal day 4 with one dose of 300 mg/kg of VPA, with normal saline (controls) or with VPA and SAM that was given orally for 3 days at the dose of 30 mg/kg body weight. From day 50, we carried out neurobehavioral tests and assessment of the antioxidant status of the prefrontal cerebral cortex, liver assessing SOD and CAT activity, lipid peroxidation and the expression of antioxidant genes. Mice injected with VPA exhibited neurobehavioral deficits typical of ASD that were more prominent in males. Changes in the activity of SOD and CAT increased lipid peroxidation and changes in the expression of antioxidant genes were observed in the prefrontal cortex of VPA treated mice, more prominent in females, while ASD like behavior was more prominent in males. There were no changes in the redox potential of the liver. The co-administration of VPA and SAM alleviated most ASD like neurobehavioral symptoms and normalized the redox potential in the prefrontal cortex. Early postnatal VPA administration induces ASD like behavior that is more severe in males, while the redox status changes are more severe in females; SAM corrects both. VPA-induced ASD seems to result from epigenetic changes, while the redox status changes may be secondary. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Second malignancy in young early-stage breast cancer patients with modern radiotherapy: A long-term population-based study (A STROBE-compliant study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liyi; Lin, Chen; Zhang, Huan; Bao, Xuhui

    2018-04-01

    Second cancer is a leading cause of death in long-term survivors of younger early-stage breast cancer patients. To date, relationship of age, receipt of radiotherapy (RT), and estimated doses received by target organs have not yet been well elucidated. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, patients aged 20 to 44, diagnosed with a first primary staging I-IIIA ipsilateral breast invasive ductal carcinoma, underwent surgery during 1988 to 2009 were identified, and those with a second malignancy at ≥1-year follow-up were analyzed to calculate cumulative incidences (CIs) of second malignancy in whole group and each subgroup. Subgroups were dichotomized by surgery type, axillary dissection, and axillary lymph node status. With a median follow-up of 11.8 years, 22,628 women including 1495 patients (6.6%) developing second malignancies (3.7% contralateral breast cancer, 2.9% non-breast second malignancies, and 0.7% high-dose site second malignancies) were identified. Three-dimensional coordinate systems with age at primary diagnosis, time after primary breast cancer diagnosis, and CI of second malignancy as 3 axes, for endpoints including all second malignancy, second primary contralateral breast cancer, and non-breast second malignancy were presented, along with the risk in RT and non-RT groups in overall group and subgroups. Five-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year all second malignancy-free survivals in RT and non-RT groups were 89.5% versus 85.4%, 80.1% versus 75.0%, 72.9% versus 67.9%, and 65.6% versus 61.8% (P < .0001). From the large national dataset, a broad visualized overview of second malignancy risk, including second contralateral breast cancer and non-breast second cancer, suggests generally beneficial therapeutic ratio for radiotherapy in young women with early-stage breast cancer.

  1. New CCD photometric investigation of the early-type overcontact binary BH Cen in the young star-forming Galactic cluster IC 2944

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Er-Gang; Qian, Sheng-Bang; Zejda, Miloslav; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Jia

    2018-05-01

    BH Cen is a short-period early-type binary with a period of 0.792d in the extremely young star-forming cluster IC 2944. New multi-color CCD photometric light curves in U, B, V, R and I bands are presented and are analyzed by using the Wilson-Devinney code. It is detected that BH Cen is a high-mass-ratio overcontact binary with a fill-out factor of 46.4% and a mass ratio of 0.89. The derived orbital inclination i is 88.9 degrees, indicating that it is a totally eclipsing binary and the photometric parameters can be determined reliably. By adding new eclipse times, the orbital period changes in the binary are analyzed. It is confirmed that the period of BH Cen shows a long-term increase while it undergoes a cyclic oscillation with an amplitude of A 3 = 0.024 d and a period of P 3 = 50.3 yr. The high mass ratio, overcontact configuration and long-term continuous increase in the orbital period all suggest that BH Cen is in the evolutionary state after the shortest-period stage of Case A mass transfer. The continuous increase in period can be explained by mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one at a rate of Ṁ 2 = 2.8 × 10‑6 M ⊙ per year. The cyclic change can be plausibly explained by the presence of a third body because both components in the BH Cen system are early-type stars. Its mass is determined to be no less than 2.2 M ⊙ at an orbital separation of about 32.5 AU. Since no third light was found during the photometric solution, it is possible that the third body may be a candidate for a compact object.

  2. Does objectively measured physical activity modify the association between early weight gain and fat mass in young adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolle, Elin; Horta, Bernardo L; Wells, Jonathan; Brage, Soren; Barros, Fernando C; Ekelund, Ulf; Hallal, Pedro C

    2017-11-25

    Substantial evidence suggests that weight gain in early life is associated with increased adiposity and other metabolic disorders later in life. It is, however, unknown whether physical activity (PA) may modify these associations. We aimed to examine whether objectively measured PA at 30 years modified the associations between conditional weight gain in infancy (0-2 y) and childhood (2-4 y) with fat mass index (FMI) and visceral abdominal fat measured at age 30 years. Prospective birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil, including 1874 participants with weight data at birth, two and four years of age, and measures of FMI, visceral abdominal fat and PA at a mean age of 30.2 years. At age 30, time spent (min/day) in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured objectively using a wrist-worn accelerometer worn for four to seven consecutive days.. Multiple linear regression analyses was performed to assess the associations between conditional weight gain and outcome variables at 30 years, adjusting for covariates. We examined whether PA modified the association between conditional weight gain and the outcomes of interest by introducing an interaction term (conditional weight gain × PA) in the models. Conditional weight gain in infancy and childhood were both positively associated with later FMI (infancy weight gain: β = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.88; P gain: β = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.70, 1.11; P gain and later FMI (β = -0.006, 95% CI: -0.011, -0.001; P = 0.029), suggesting stronger associations between weight gain and FMI in those with lower levels of MVPA. Conditional weight gain in childhood was also positively associated with visceral abdominal fat (β = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.15, 0424, P gain between 2 and 4 years of age is associated with increased FMI at age 30 years. However, higher levels of MVPA appear to attenuate this detrimental association.

  3. Maturity-associated variation in change of direction and dribbling speed in early pubertal years and 5-year developmental changes in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente-Dos-Santos, J; Coelho-E-Silva, M J; Vaz, V; Figueiredo, A J; Capranica, L; Sherar, L B; Elferink-Gemser, M T; Malina, R M

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the developmental changes in change of direction and dribbling speed in youth soccer players taking into account skeletal age (SA), maturity status, body size, estimated fat mass, aerobic endurance, lower limb explosive strength and annual volume of training. Eighty-three male soccer players aged 10-15 years (SA) at baseline were annually followed over 5 years, resulting in an average 4.4 observations per player. After testing for multicollinearity, multi-level regression modeling was used to examine the longitudinal developmental changes on change of direction and dribbling speed. Maturity-associated variability was significant in change of direction and also dribbling speed among young soccer players aged 12-14 years with better scores being performed by late maturers. Moreover, the predicted longitudinal scores for change of direction and dribbling speed improved with SA (Psoccer-specific skill, dibbling speed, was also explained by annual volume of training (Pperformances with and without the ball possession at early ages of participation in competitive soccer. The effects tend to persist across ages combined with longitudinal changes in body composition and functional fitness. In the particular case of the ball test, annual volume of training was also a longitudinal performance predictor.

  4. Reduced telomere length is not associated with early signs of vascular aging in young men born after intrauterine growth restriction: a paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laganovic, M.; Bendix, L.; Rubelj, I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The mechanisms that increase cardiovascular risk in individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are not well understood. Telomere shortening has been suggested to be a predictor of disease onset. Our aim was to determine whether impaired intrauterine growth is associated with earl...... of cardiovascular risk in SGA participants. Follow-up of this cohort will clarify hypothesis and validate telomere dynamics as indicators of future health risks.......Objective: The mechanisms that increase cardiovascular risk in individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) are not well understood. Telomere shortening has been suggested to be a predictor of disease onset. Our aim was to determine whether impaired intrauterine growth is associated with early......IMT, and a trend to increased SBP and heart rate in comparison to the AGA group. Interestingly, SGA men exhibited a 42% longer LTL than the AGA group. LTL was inversely associated with age, BMI, BP and birth parameters. In multiple regression analysis, BMI was the key determinant of SBP and cIMT. Conclusion: Young...

  5. Concurrent validity of the differential ability scales, second edition with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning in young children with and without neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Cristan; Golden, Christine; Thurm, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of intelligence in young children with neurodevelopmental disorders are critical for making diagnoses, in characterizing symptoms of disorders, and in predicting future outcomes. The limitations of standardized testing for children with developmental delay or cognitive impairment are well known: Tests do not exist that provide developmentally appropriate material along with norms that extend to the lower reaches of ability. Two commonly used and interchanged instruments are the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), a test of developmental level, and the Differential Ability Scales, second edition (DAS-II), a more traditional cognitive test. We evaluated the correspondence of contemporaneous MSEL and the DAS-II scores in a mixed sample of children aged 2-10 years with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), non-ASD developmental delays, and typically developing children across the full spectrum of cognitive ability. Consistent with published data on the original DAS and the MSEL, scores on the DAS-II and MSEL were highly correlated. However, curve estimation revealed large mean differences that varied as a function of the child's cognitive ability level. We conclude that interchanging MSEL and DAS-II scores without regard to the discrepancy in scores may produce misleading results in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of children with and without ASD, and, thus, this practice should be implemented with caution.

  6. EDA-EMERGE : An FP7 initial training network to equip the next generation of young scientists with the skills to address the complexity of environmental contamination with emerging pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brack, Werner; Govender, Selvan; Schulze, Tobias; Krauss, Martin; Hu, Meng; Muz, Melis; Hollender, Juliane; Schirmer, Kristin; Schollee, Jennifer; Hidasi, Anita; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Rabova, Zuzana; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Sonavane, Manoj; Carere, Mario; Lamoree, Marja; Leonards, Pim; Tufi, Sara; Ouyang, Xiyu; Schriks, Merijn; Thomas, Kevin; De Almeida, Ana Catarina; Froment, Jean; Hammers-Wirtz, Monika; Ahel, Marijan; Koprivica, Sanja; Hollert, Henner; Seiler, Thomas Benjamin; Di Paolo, Carolina; Tindall, Andrew; Spirhanzlova, Petra

    2013-01-01

    The initial training network consortium novel tools in effect-directed analysis to support the identification and monitoring of emerging toxicants on a European scale (EDA-EMERGE) was formed in response to the seventh EU framework program call to train a new generation of young scientists (13 PhD

  7. Early determinants of blood pressure and renal function : follow-up of very preterm born individuals young adulcy [vroege determinanten van bloeddruk en nierfunctie : follow-up van zeer prematuur geborenen tot in young volwassenheid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer-Veen, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    In summary, the studies described in this thesis suggest that premature birth affects renal function and blood pressure at (young) adult age, and especially when born both SGA and premature. Minor differences are already detectable at young adult age. The biological mechanism is likely to originate

  8. Early screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in young women for primary prevention of pelvic inflammatory disease (i-Predict): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarelle, Jeanne; Thiébaut, Anne C M; Sabin, Bénédicte; Bébéar, Cécile; Judlin, Philippe; Fauconnier, Arnaud; Rahib, Delphine; Méaude-Roufai, Layidé; Ravel, Jacques; Morré, Servaas A; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Delarocque-Astagneau, Elisabeth

    2017-11-13

    Genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection, especially among young women. Mostly asymptomatic, it can lead, if untreated, to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Recent data suggest that Ct infections are not controlled in France and in Europe. The effectiveness of a systematic strategy for Ct screening in under-25 women remains controversial. The main objective of the i-Predict trial (Prevention of Diseases Induced by Chlamydia trachomatis) is to determine whether early screening and treatment of 18- to-24-year-old women for genital Ct infection reduces the incidence of PID over 24 months. This is a randomised prevention trial including 4000 eighteen- to twenty-four-year-old sexually active female students enrolled at five universities. The participants will provide a self-collected vaginal swab sample and fill in an electronic questionnaire at baseline and at 6, 12 and 18 months after recruitment. Vaginal swabs in the intervention arm will be analysed immediately for Ct positivity, and participants will be referred for treatment if they have a positive test result. Vaginal swabs from the control arm will be analysed at the end of the study. All visits to general practitioners, gynaecologists or gynaecology emergency departments for pelvic pain or other gynaecological symptoms will be recorded to evaluate the incidence of PID, and all participants will attend a final visit in a hospital gynaecology department. The primary endpoint measure will be the incidence of PID over 24 months. The outcome status (confirmed, probable or no PID) will be assessed by two independent experts blinded to group assignment and Ct status. This trial is expected to largely contribute to the development of recommendations for Ct screening in young women in France to prevent PID and related complications. It is part of a comprehensive approach to gathering data to

  9. Molecular diagnosis of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) in Turkish children by using targeted next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anık, Ahmet; Çatlı, Gönül; Abacı, Ayhan; Sarı, Erkan; Yeşilkaya, Ediz; Korkmaz, Hüseyin Anıl; Demir, Korcan; Altıncık, Ayça; Tuhan, Hale Ünver; Kızıldağ, Sefa; Özkan, Behzat; Ceylaner, Serdar; Böber, Ece

    2015-11-01

    To perform molecular analysis of pediatric maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) patients by next-generation sequencing, which enables simultaneous analysis of multiple genes in a single test, to determine the genetic etiology of a group of Turkish children clinically diagnosed as MODY, and to assess genotype-phenotype relationship. Forty-two children diagnosed with MODY and their parents were enrolled in the study. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of the patients at the time of diagnosis were obtained from hospital records. Molecular analyses of GCK, HNF1A, HNF4A, HNF1B, PDX1, NEUROD1, KLF11, CEL, PAX4, INS, and BLK genes were performed on genomic DNA by using next-generation sequencing. Pathogenicity for novel mutations was assessed by bioinformatics prediction software programs and segregation analyses. A mutation in MODY genes was identified in 12 (29%) of the cases. GCK mutations were detected in eight cases, and HNF1B, HNF1A, PDX1, and BLK mutations in the others. We identified five novel missense mutations - three in GCK (p.Val338Met, p.Cys252Ser, and p.Val86Ala), one in HNF1A (p.Cys241Ter), and one in PDX1 (p.Gly55Asp), which we believe to be pathogenic. The results of this study showed that mutations in the GCK gene are the leading cause of MODY in our population. Moreover, genetic diagnosis could be made in 29% of Turkish patients, and five novel mutations were identified.

  10. Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line from a patient with maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3 carrying a hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha (HNF1A mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Griscelli

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Heterozygous non-synonymous (p.S142F mutation in HNF1A leads to maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY type 3, which is a subtype of dominant inherited young-onset non-autoimmune diabetes due to the defect of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from a patient with HNF1A p.S142F mutation. Cells from this patient, which were reprogrammed by non-integrative viral transduction had normal karyotype, harboured the HNF1A p.S142F mutation, expressed pluripotency hallmarks.

  11. Comparison of digital color fundus imaging and fluorescein angiographic findings for the early detection of diabetic retinopathy in young type 1 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsala, Z; Anastasakis, A; Mamoulakis, D; Maniadaki, I; Tsilimbaris, M

    2018-01-01

    To compare the findings from digital 7-field color fundus (CF) photography and fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) in young patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1 without known diabetic retinopathy. In this prospective, observational cohort study, 54 type 1 diabetic patients were recruited. Participants had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) for at least 6 years, had Best Corrected Visual Acuity of 20/25 or better and did not have any known retinal pathology. One hundred and seven eyes were analyzed. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmic examination in the Retina Service of a University Eye Clinic including digital CF imaging and FFA. The mean age of the patients was 18.6 years. Mean duration of DM was 11.3 years, and mean haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level was 8.6%. Of the 107 eyes, 8 eyes (7.5%) showed microvascular abnormalities on CF images, while FFA images revealed changes in 26 eyes (24.3%). Hence, 18 of the 26 eyes showing abnormalities on FFA did not show any abnormalities on CF images. Mean DM duration in the patient group with detectable microvascular changes was found to be significantly higher compared to patients without changes, while no difference in HbA1c levels, serum lipid levels or blood pressure was observed. Comparison of digital CF and FFA findings for the detection of diabetic microvascular changes in type 1 diabetic patients showed that FFA reveals more information about retinal vascular pathology for early detection of diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Young Children's Everyday Concepts of the Internet: A Platform for Cyber-Safety Education in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Susan; Nolan, Andrea; Henderson, Michael; Mantilla, Ana; Plowman, Lydia; Skouteris, Helen

    2018-01-01

    Young children from around the world are accessing the internet in ever increasing numbers. The rapid increase in internet activity by children aged 4-5 years in particular is due to the ease access enabled them by touchscreen internet-enabled tablet technologies. With young children now online, often independently of adult supervision, the need…

  13. Low interleukin-2 concentration favors generation of early memory T cells over effector phenotypes during chimeric antigen receptor T-cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaartinen, Tanja; Luostarinen, Annu; Maliniemi, Pilvi; Keto, Joni; Arvas, Mikko; Belt, Heini; Koponen, Jonna; Loskog, Angelica; Mustjoki, Satu; Porkka, Kimmo; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Korhonen, Matti

    2017-06-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy offers new options for cancer treatment. Clinical results suggest that T-cell persistence, depending on T-cell memory, improves efficacy. The use of interleukin (IL)-2 for in vitro T-cell expansion is not straightforward because it drives effector T-cell differentiation but does not promote the formation of T-cell memory. We have developed a cost-effective expansion protocol for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells with an early memory phenotype. Lymphocytes were transduced with third-generation lentiviral vectors and expanded using CD3/CD28 microbeads. The effects of altering the IL-2 supplementation (0-300 IU/mL) and length of expansion (10-20 days) on the phenotype of the T-cell products were analyzed. High IL-2 levels led to a decrease in overall generation of early memory T cells by both decreasing central memory T cells and augmenting effectors. T memory stem cells (T SCM , CD95 + CD45RO - CD45RA + CD27 + ) were present variably during T-cell expansion. However, their presence was not IL-2 dependent but was linked to expansion kinetics. CD19-CAR T cells generated in these conditions displayed in vitro antileukemic activity. In summary, production of CAR T cells without any cytokine supplementation yielded the highest proportion of early memory T cells, provided a 10-fold cell expansion and the cells were functionally potent. The number of early memory T cells in a T-cell preparation can be increased by simply reducing the amount of IL-2 and limiting the length of T-cell expansion, providing cells with potentially higher in vivo performance. These findings are significant for robust and cost-effective T-cell manufacturing. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Antibiotic prophylaxis using third generation cephalosporins can reduce the risk of early rebleeding in the first acute gastroesophageal variceal hemorrhage: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Chung-Hwan; Park, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Wan-Sik; Joo, Young-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun; Kim, Sei-Jong; Kim, Young-Dae

    2006-10-01

    Bacterial infection may be a critical trigger for variceal bleeding. Antibiotic prophylaxis can prevent rebleeding in patients with acute gastroesophageal variceal bleeding (GEVB). The aim of the study was to compare prophylactic third generation cephalosporins with on-demand antibiotics for the prevention of gastroesophageal variceal rebleeding. In a prospective trial, patients with the first acute GEVB were randomly assigned to receive prophylactic antibiotics (intravenous cefotaxime 2 g q 8 hr for 7 days, prophylactic antibiotics group) or to receive the same antibiotics only when infection became evident (on-demand group). Sixty-two patients in the prophylactic group and 58 patients in the on-demand group were included for analysis. Antibiotic prophylaxis decreased infection (3.2% vs. 15.5%, p=0.026). The actuarial rebleeding rate in the prophylactic group was significantly lower than that in the on-demand group (33.9% vs. 62.1%, p=0.004). The difference of rebleeding rate was mostly due to early rebleeding within 6 weeks (4.8% vs. 20.7%, p=0.012). On multivariate analysis, antibiotic prophylaxis (relative hazard: 0.248, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.067-0.919, p=0.037) and bacterial infection (relative hazard: 3.901, 95% CI: 1.053-14.448, p=0.042) were two independent determinants of early rebleeding. In conclusion, antibiotic prophylaxis using third generation cephalosporins can prevent bacterial infection and early rebleeding in patients with the first acute GEVB.

  15. A Study of Early Learning Services in Museums and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirinides, P.; Fink, R.; DuBois, T.

    2017-01-01

    Museums and libraries can play a role in providing opportunities for early learning, and there is clear momentum and infrastructure already in place to help make this happen. Researchers conducted a mixed-methods descriptive study to generate new evidence about the availability of services for young children in museums and libraries, and the…

  16. The bereavement experience of adolescents and early young adults with cancer: Peer and parental loss due to death is associated with increased risk of adverse psychological outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza-Marie Johnson

    Full Text Available Adolescents commonly experience loss due to death, and perceived closeness to the deceased can often increase the intensity of bereavement. Adolescents and early young adult (AeYA oncology patients may recall previous losses or experience new losses, possibly of other children with cancer, while coping with their own increased risk of mortality. The bereavement experiences of AeYA patients are not well described in the literature.This analysis of bereavement sought to describe the prevalence and types of losses, the support following a death, and the impact of loss on AeYAs aged 13-21 years with malignant disease (or a hematologic disorder requiring allogeneic transplant. Participants were receiving active oncologic therapy or had completed therapy within the past 3 years. Participants completed a bereavement questionnaire and inventories on depression, anxiety, and somatization. The cross-sectional study enrolled 153 AeYAs (95% participation, most (88% of whom had experienced a loss due to death. The most commonly reported losses were of a grandparent (58% or friend (37%. Peer deaths were predominantly cancer related (66%. Many participants (39% self-identified a loss as "very significant." As loss significance increased, AeYAs were more likely to report that it had changed their life "a lot/enormously" (P<0.0001, that they were grieving "slowly or never got over it" (P<0.0001, and that they felt a need for more professional help (P = 0.026. Peer loss was associated with increased risk of adverse psychological outcomes (P = 0.029, as was parental loss (P = 0.018.Most AeYAs with serious illness experience the grief process as slow or ongoing. Peer or parental loss was associated with increased risk of negative mental health outcomes. Given the high prevalence of peer loss, screening for bereavement problems is warranted in AeYAs with cancer, and further research on grief and bereavement is needed in AeYAs with serious illness.

  17. Scientific Reasoning in Early and Middle Childhood: The Development of Domain-General Evidence Evaluation, Experimentation, and Hypothesis Generation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekny, Jeanette; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    According to Klahr's (2000, 2005; Klahr & Dunbar, 1988) Scientific Discovery as Dual Search model, inquiry processes require three cognitive components: hypothesis generation, experimentation, and evidence evaluation. The aim of the present study was to investigate (a) when the ability to evaluate perfect covariation, imperfect covariation,…

  18. Fuel-cycle analysis of early market applications of fuel cells: Forklift propulsion systems and distributed power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, Amgad; Gaines, Linda; Wang, Michael [Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Forklift propulsion systems and distributed power generation are identified as potential fuel cell applications for near-term markets. This analysis examines fuel cell forklifts and distributed power generators, and addresses the potential energy and environmental implications of substituting fuel-cell systems for existing technologies based on fossil fuels and grid electricity. Performance data and the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model are used to estimate full fuel-cycle emissions and use of primary energy sources. The greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of fuel-cell forklifts using hydrogen from steam reforming of natural gas are considerably lower than those using electricity from the average U.S. grid. Fuel cell generators produce lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and alternative distributed combustion technologies. If fuel-cell generation technologies approach or exceed the target efficiency of 40%, they offer significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions compared to alternative combustion technologies. (author)

  19. Enabling all young Australians to grow up safe, happy, healthy and resilient: a Collaboration for Young People, Technology and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes a framework for a multi-disciplinary collaboration to investigate the role of technology for improving young Australians' mental health and wellbeing. The poor mental health of young Australians poses a significant challenge to Australia's future. Half of all Australians will experience a mental health difficulty in their lifetime and 75% of mental illness has its onset before age 25. Cross-sectoral collaboration is critical for meeting this challenge. In order to establish a world-first multi-partner collaboration, leading researchers and institutes, commercial, non-profit and end-user organization and young people were identified and invited to participate. Together we have developed an international research framework that explores the role of technologies in young people's lives, their potential and how this can be harnessed to address challenges facing young people. This research framework will: (i) conduct empirical research that tests the utility of technology across mental health promotion, prevention, early intervention and treatment and, (ii) translate existing and new knowledge into products and services that help create a generation of safe, happy, healthy and resilient young people. Research undertaken by the Collaboration will be the most comprehensive investigation of technologies' potential to improve the wellbeing of young people ever conducted, leading to significant benefits for Australian young people and their mental health.

  20. Early Effects of a Low Fat, Fructose-Rich Diet on Liver Metabolism, Insulin Signaling, and Oxidative Stress in Young and Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Crescenzo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the use of refined food, which is rich in fructose, is of particular concern in children and adolescents, since the total caloric intake and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome are increasing continuously in these populations. Nevertheless, the effects of high fructose diet have been mostly investigated in adults, by focusing on the effect of a long-term fructose intake. Notably, some reports evidenced that even short-term fructose intake exerts detrimental effects on metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the metabolic changes induced by the fructose-rich diet in rats of different age, i.e., young (30 days old and adult (90 days old rats. The fructose-rich diet increased whole body lipid content in adult, but not in young rats. The analysis of liver markers of inflammation suggests that different mechanisms depending on the age might be activated after the fructose-rich diet. In fact, a pro-inflammatory gene-expression analysis showed just a minor activation of macrophages in young rats compared to adult rats, while other markers of low-grade metabolic inflammation (TNF-alpha, myeloperoxidase, lipocalin, haptoglobin significantly increased. Inflammation was associated with oxidative damage to hepatic lipids in young and adult rats, while increased levels of hepatic nitrotyrosine and ceramides were detected only in young rats. Interestingly, fructose-induced hepatic insulin resistance was evident in young but not in adult rats, while whole body insulin sensitivity decreased both in fructose-fed young and adult rats. Taken together, the present data indicate that young rats do not increase their body lipids but are exposed to metabolic perturbations, such as hepatic insulin resistance and hepatic oxidative stress, in line with the finding that increased fructose intake may be an important predictor of metabolic risk in young people, independently of weight status. These results indicate the need of corrective

  1. Trans-generational transfer of early maladaptive schemas – a preliminary study performed on a non-clinical group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Mącik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The maladaptive schemas theory assumes the creation of schemas as a result of relationships with parents during childhood. The aim of the study was to answer questions about the relations between dysfunctional parents’ schemas and their parental attitudes and their children’s schemas. Participants and procedure Eighty people participated in the study: 20 full families with grown children: a daughter and a son. The Questionnaire of Retrospective Assessment of Parental Attitudes (KPR-Roc by Plopa and the Young Schema Questionnaire in its short form (YSQ-S3 were used. Results The results indicate that in the case of daughters the relationships between parental attitudes and schemas relate primarily to the perception of the mother’s attitudes. The strongest positive relationship between maladaptive daughter’s schemas were in relation to an excessively demanding attitude of the mother. There were no relations between the perception of the father’s attitudes and schemas of daughters. In the case of boys there were less significant correlations for both the perception of the mother and father. With regard to the relationship between parents’ schemas and children’s schemas, such mothers’ schemas as defectiveness, vulnerability to harm or illness and absolute severity and such fathers’ schemas as defectiveness, entanglement and self-sacrifice showed especially strong links with daughters’ schemas. The strongest relationships with sons’ schemas occurred in relation to the mother’s schema connected with pessimism and the father’s vulnerability to harm. Conclusions Young’s schemas theory seems to be significant from the perspective of understanding intergenerational transfers of beliefs and accompanying behaviours.

  2. Large-scale generation of human iPSC-derived neural stem cells/early neural progenitor cells and their neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aiuto, Leonardo; Zhi, Yun; Kumar Das, Dhanjit; Wilcox, Madeleine R; Johnson, Jon W; McClain, Lora; MacDonald, Matthew L; Di Maio, Roberto; Schurdak, Mark E; Piazza, Paolo; Viggiano, Luigi; Sweet, Robert; Kinchington, Paul R; Bhattacharjee, Ayantika G; Yolken, Robert; Nimgaonka, Vishwajit L; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based technologies offer an unprecedented opportunity to perform high-throughput screening of novel drugs for neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Such screenings require a robust and scalable method for generating large numbers of mature, differentiated neuronal cells. Currently available methods based on differentiation of embryoid bodies (EBs) or directed differentiation of adherent culture systems are either expensive or are not scalable. We developed a protocol for large-scale generation of neuronal stem cells (NSCs)/early neural progenitor cells (eNPCs) and their differentiation into neurons. Our scalable protocol allows robust and cost-effective generation of NSCs/eNPCs from iPSCs. Following culture in neurobasal medium supplemented with B27 and BDNF, NSCs/eNPCs differentiate predominantly into vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) positive neurons. Targeted mass spectrometry analysis demonstrates that iPSC-derived neurons express ligand-gated channels and other synaptic proteins and whole-cell patch-clamp experiments indicate that these channels are functional. The robust and cost-effective differentiation protocol described here for large-scale generation of NSCs/eNPCs and their differentiation into neurons paves the way for automated high-throughput screening of drugs for neurological and neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Between generative prototyping and work of synthesis in design: Interplay and adding value in the early concept development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Petersen, Claus Lundgaard

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes a case in which generative prototypes are applied as part of a participatory design methodology to elicit insights from practitioners, and how these insights are translated and represented, to inform the following work of synthesis in design. In literature, arguments are made...... iterations. The paper concludes, that the methodology can frame a process of eliciting explicit and implicit knowledge from different sources, but that the designer, as being part of the entire process, comes to hold ‘sticky’ knowledge that difficult to transfer, which implicitly influences the design...

  4. Early career experiences and perceptions - a qualitative exploration of the turnover of young registered nurses and intention to leave the nursing profession in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinkman, Mervi; Salanterä, Sanna

    2015-11-01

    To describe why young registered nurses (RNs) had previously left an organisation and why they intend to leave the profession. Currently, many young registered nurses, including those in Finland, are considering leaving their job or have an intention to leave the profession. An in-depth, descriptive approach was adopted. Data were collected in 2012 from interviews with 15 registered nurses (under the age of 30 years). The interviews were semi-structured and analysed using conventional content analysis. The main questions addressed were: 'Why had the young registered nurses left their previous organisation?' and 'Why do young registered nurses have an intention to leave the profession?' The findings centre on three themes: poor nursing practice environments; lack of support, orientation and mentoring, and nursing as a 'second best' or serendipitous career choice. The first years of nursing are particularly stressful for newly-graduated and inexperienced registered nurses. An in-depth, qualitative approach reveals more complex reasons behind the turnover of registered nurses and intention to leave the profession than questionnaire surveys. Young registered nurses need social support from nurse managers and experienced colleagues to successfully transition into nursing practice environments. Adequate orientation and mentoring programmes are needed to facilitate this transition. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. X-RAY PROPERTIES OF YOUNG EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES. I. X-RAY LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    2010-01-01

    We have compared the combined X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) detected in Chandra observations of young, post-merger elliptical galaxies with that of typical old elliptical galaxies. We find that the XLF of the 'young' sample does not present the prominent high-luminosity break at L X > 5 x 10 38 erg s -1 found in the old elliptical galaxy XLF. The 'young' and 'old' XLFs differ with a 3σ statistical significance (with a probability less than 0.2% that they derive from the same underlying parent distribution). Young elliptical galaxies host a larger fraction of luminous LMXBs (L X > 5 x 10 38 erg s -1 ) than old elliptical galaxies and the XLF of the young galaxy sample is intermediate between that of typical old elliptical galaxies and that of star-forming galaxies. This observational evidence may be related to the last major/minor mergers and the associated star formation.

  6. Studies of neutrino asymmetries generated by ordinary-sterile neutrino oscillations in the early Universe and implications for big bang nucleosynthesis bounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foot, R.; Volkas, R.R. [Research Centre for High Energy Physics, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, 3052 (Australia)

    1997-04-01

    Ordinary-sterile neutrino oscillations can generate a significant lepton number asymmetry in the early Universe. We study this phenomenon in detail. We show that the dynamics of ordinary-sterile neutrino oscillations in the early Universe can be approximately described by a single integrodifferential equation which we derive from both the density matrix and Hamiltonian formalisms. This equation reduces to a relatively simple ordinary first-order differential equation if the system is sufficiently smooth (static limit). We study the conditions for which the static limit is an acceptable approximation. We also study the effect of the thermal distribution of neutrino momenta on the generation of lepton number. We apply these results to show that it is possible to evade (by many orders of magnitude) the big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) bounds on the mixing parameters {delta}m{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 0} describing ordinary-sterile neutrino oscillations. We show that the large angle or maximal vacuum oscillation solution to the solar neutrino problem does not significantly modify BBN for most of the parameter space of interest, provided that the {tau} and/or {mu} neutrinos have masses greater than about 1 eV. We also show that the large angle or maximal ordinary-sterile neutrino oscillation solution to the atmospheric neutrino anomaly does not significantly modify BBN for a range of parameters. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Early life traits of farm and wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and first generation hybrids in the south coast of Newfoundland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoutene, D; Perez-Casanova, J; Burt, K; Lush, L; Caines, J; Collier, C; Hinks, R

    2017-06-01

    This study examined fertilization rates, survival and early life-trait differences of pure farm, wild and first generation (F1) hybrid origin embryos after crossing farm and wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Results show that despite a trend towards higher in vitro fertilization success for wild females, differences in fertilization success in river water are not significantly different among crosses. In a hatchery environment, wild females' progeny (pure wild and hybrids with wild maternal parent) hatched 7-11 days earlier than pure farm crosses and hybrids with farm maternal parents. In addition, pure wild progeny had higher total lengths (L T ) at hatch than pure farm crosses and hybrids. Directions in trait differences need to be tested in a river environment, but results clearly show the maternal influence on early stages beyond egg-size differences. Differences in L T were no longer significant at 70 days post hatch (shortly after the onset of exogenous feeding) showing the need to investigate later developmental stages to better assess somatic growth disparities due to genetic differences. Higher mortality rates of the most likely hybrids (farm female × wild male hybrids) at egg and fry stages and their delayed hatch suggest that these F1 hybrids might be less likely to survive the early larval stages than wild stocks. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of Fish Biology © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. SIRT3 Expression Decreases with Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Rat Cortical Neurons during Early Brain Injury Induced by Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sirtuin3 (SIRT3 is an important protein deacetylase which predominantly presents in mitochondria and exhibits broad bioactivities including regulating energy metabolism and counteracting inflammatory effect. Since inflammatory cascade was proved to be critical for pathological damage following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, we investigated the overall expression and cell-specific distribution of SIRT3 in the cerebral cortex of Sprague-Dawley rats with experimental SAH induced by internal carotid perforation. Results suggested that SIRT3 was expressed abundantly in neurons and endothelia but rarely in gliocytes in normal cerebral cortex. After experimental SAH, mRNA and protein expressions of SIRT3 decreased significantly as early as 8 hours and dropped to the minimum value at 24 h after SAH. By contrast, SOD2 expression increased slowly as early as 12 hours after experimental SAH, rose up sharply at the following 12 hours, and then was maintained at a higher level. In conclusion, attenuated SIRT3 expression in cortical neurons was associated closely with enhanced reactive oxygen species generation and cellular apoptosis, implying that SIRT3 might play an important neuroprotective role during early brain injury following SAH.

  9. Early language development in children with profound hearing loss fitted with a device at a young age: part I--the time period taken to acquire first words and first word combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Pauline; Cowan, Robert; Brown, P Margaret; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2009-10-01

    Increasing numbers of infants and young children are now presenting to implantation centers and early intervention programs as the impact of universal newborn hearing screening programs is felt worldwide. Although results of a number of studies have highlighted the benefit of early identification and early fitting of hearing devices, there is relatively little research on the impact of early fitting of these devices on first language milestones. The aim of this study was to investigate the early spoken language milestones of young children with hearing loss (HL) from two perspectives: first, the acquisition of the first lexicon (i.e., the first 100 words) and second, the emergence of the first word combinations. Two groups of participants, one comprising 24 participants with profound HL and a second comprising 16 participants with normal hearing, were compared. Twenty-three participants in the HL group were fitted with a cochlear implant and one with bilateral hearing aids. All of these were "switched-on" or fitted before 30 months of age and half at words and any word combinations produced while reaching this single-word target. Acquisition of single words was compared by using the time period (in days) taken to reach several single-word targets (e.g., 50 words, 100 words) from the date of production of the first word. The emergence of word combinations was analyzed from two perspectives: first, the time (in days) from the date of production of the first word to the emergence of the first word combinations and second, the size of the single-word lexicon when word combinations emerged. The normal-hearing group required a significantly shorter time period to acquire the first 50 (mean words than the HL group. Although both groups demonstrated acceleration in lexical acquisition, the hearing group took significantly fewer days to reach the second 50 words relative to the first 50 words than did the HL group. Finally, the hearing group produced word combinations

  10. Irradiation of rainbow trout at early life stages results in trans-generational effects including the induction of a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Richard W.; Seymour, Colin B.; Moccia, Richard D.; Mothersill, Carmel E.

    2016-01-01

    The bystander effect, a non-targeted effect (NTE) of radiation, which describes the response by non-irradiated organisms to signals emitted by irradiated organisms, has been documented in a number of fish species. However transgenerational effects of radiation (including NTE) have yet to be studied in fish. Therefore rainbow trout, which were irradiated as eggs at 48 h after fertilisation, eyed eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders, were bred to generate a F1 generation and these F1 fish were bred to generate a F2 generation. F1 and F2 fish were swam with non-irradiated bystander fish. Media from explants of F1 eyed eggs, F1 one year old fish gill and F1 two year old fish gill and spleen samples, and F2 two year old gill and spleen samples, as well as from bystander eggs/fish, was used to treat a reporter cell line, which was then assayed for changes in cellular survival/growth. The results were complex and dependent on irradiation history, age (in the case of the F1 generation), and were tissue specific. For example, irradiation of one parent often resulted in effects not seen with irradiation of both parents. This suggests that, unlike mammals, in certain circumstances maternal and paternal irradiation may be equally important. This study also showed that trout can induce a bystander effect 2 generations after irradiation, which further emphasises the importance of the bystander effect in aquatic radiobiology. Given the complex community structure in aquatic ecosystems, these results may have significant implications for environmental radiological protection. - Highlights: • We evaluated the transgenerational effect of early life irradiation in rainbow trout. • Trout irradiated as eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders were crossed. • A transgenerational effect was evident in two generations after irradiation. • F1 and F2 generation fish induced a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish. • The precise effects were tissue specific and dependent on

  11. Irradiation of rainbow trout at early life stages results in trans-generational effects including the induction of a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Richard W., E-mail: rich.wilson.smith@gmail.com [Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Seymour, Colin B. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Moccia, Richard D. [Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Mothersill, Carmel E. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    The bystander effect, a non-targeted effect (NTE) of radiation, which describes the response by non-irradiated organisms to signals emitted by irradiated organisms, has been documented in a number of fish species. However transgenerational effects of radiation (including NTE) have yet to be studied in fish. Therefore rainbow trout, which were irradiated as eggs at 48 h after fertilisation, eyed eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders, were bred to generate a F1 generation and these F1 fish were bred to generate a F2 generation. F1 and F2 fish were swam with non-irradiated bystander fish. Media from explants of F1 eyed eggs, F1 one year old fish gill and F1 two year old fish gill and spleen samples, and F2 two year old gill and spleen samples, as well as from bystander eggs/fish, was used to treat a reporter cell line, which was then assayed for changes in cellular survival/growth. The results were complex and dependent on irradiation history, age (in the case of the F1 generation), and were tissue specific. For example, irradiation of one parent often resulted in effects not seen with irradiation of both parents. This suggests that, unlike mammals, in certain circumstances maternal and paternal irradiation may be equally important. This study also showed that trout can induce a bystander effect 2 generations after irradiation, which further emphasises the importance of the bystander effect in aquatic radiobiology. Given the complex community structure in aquatic ecosystems, these results may have significant implications for environmental radiological protection. - Highlights: • We evaluated the transgenerational effect of early life irradiation in rainbow trout. • Trout irradiated as eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders were crossed. • A transgenerational effect was evident in two generations after irradiation. • F1 and F2 generation fish induced a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish. • The precise effects were tissue specific and dependent on

  12. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY XVI: THE ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF DWARF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM GLOBULAR CLUSTER SATELLITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toloba, Elisa; Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Li, Biao; Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hongxin [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Gwyn, Stephen [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Emsellem, Eric [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Boselli, Alessandro [Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Université d’Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR 7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [CEA/IRFU/SAP, Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Jordan, Andres [Instituto de Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Liu, Chengze, E-mail: toloba@ucolick.org [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-05-01

    We analyze the kinematics of six Virgo cluster dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) from their globular cluster (GC) systems. We present new Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy for three of them and re-analyze the data found in the literature for the remaining three. We use two independent methods to estimate the rotation amplitude ( V {sub rot}) and velocity dispersion ( σ {sub GC}) of the GC systems and evaluate their statistical significance by simulating non-rotating GC systems with the same number of GC satellites and velocity uncertainties. Our measured kinematics agree with the published values for the three galaxies from the literature and, in all cases, some rotation is measured. However, our simulations show that the null hypothesis of being non-rotating GC systems cannot be ruled out. In the case of VCC 1861, the measured V {sub rot} and the simulations indicate that it is not rotating. In the case of VCC 1528, the null hypothesis can be marginally ruled out, and thus it might be rotating although further confirmation is needed. In our analysis, we find that, in general, the measured V {sub rot} tends to be overestimated and the measured σ {sub GC} tends to be underestimated by amounts that depend on the intrinsic V {sub rot}/ σ {sub GC}, the number of observed GCs ( N {sub GC}), and the velocity uncertainties. The bias is negligible when N {sub GC} ≳ 20. In those cases where a large N {sub GC} is not available, it is imperative to obtain data with small velocity uncertainties. For instance, errors of ≤2 km s{sup −1} lead to V {sub rot} < 10 km s{sup −1} for a system that is intrinsically not rotating.

  13. The effect of productive classroom talk and metacommunication on young children's oral communicative competence and subject matter knowledge: An intervention study in early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, C.; de Mey, J.R.P.B.; van Kruistum, C.J.; van Oers, B.

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of productive classroom talk and metacommunication on the development of young children's oral communicative competence and subject matter knowledge. This study can be characterized as a quasi-experimental study with a

  14. Analytical tools and methodologies for evaluation of residual life of contacting pressure tubes in the early generation of Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S.K.; Madhusoodanan, K.; Rupani, B.B.; Sinha, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    In-service life of a contacting Zircaloy-2 pressure tube (PT) in the earlier generation of Indian PHWRs, is limited mainly due to the accelerated hydrogen pick-up and nucleation and growth of hydride blister(s) at the cold spot(s) formed on outside surface of pressure tube as a result of its contact with the calandria tube (CT). The activities involving development of the analytical models for simulating the degradation mechanisms leading to PT-CT contact and the methodologies for the revaluation of their safe life under such condition form the important part of our extensive programme for the life management of contacting pressure tubes. Since after the PT-CT contact, rate of hydrogen pick-up and nucleation and growth of hydride blisters govern the safe residual life of the pressure tube, two analytical models (a) hydrogen pick-up model ('HYCON') and (b) model for the nucleation and growth of hydride blister at the contact spot ('BLIST -2D') have been developed in-house to estimate the extent of degradation caused by them. Along with them, a methodology for evaluation of safe residual life has also been formulated for evaluating the safe residual life of the contacting channels. This paper gives the brief description of the models and the methodologies relevant for the contacting Zircaloy-2 pressure tubes. (author)

  15. Commissioning and early experience with a new-generation low-energy linear accelerator with advanced delivery and imaging functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogliata Antonella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new-generation low-energy linear accelerator (UNIQUE was introduced in the clinical arena during 2009 by Varian Medical Systems. The world's first UNIQUE was installed at Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland and put into clinical operation in June 2010. The aim of the present contribution was to report experience about its commissioning and first year results from clinical operation. Methods Commissioning data, beam characteristics and the modeling into the treatment planning system were summarized. Imaging system of UNIQUE included a 2D-2D matching capability and tests were performed to identify system repositioning capability. Finally, since the system is capable of delivering volumetric modulated arc therapy with RapidArc, a summary of the tests performed for such modality to assess its performance in preclinical settings and during clinical usage was included. Results Isocenter virtual diameter was measured as less than 0.2 mm. Observed accuracy of isocenter determination and repositioning for 2D-2D matching procedures in image guidance was Conclusions The results of the commissioning tests and of the first period of clinical operation, resulted meeting specifications and having good margins respect to tolerances. UNIQUE was put into operation for all delivery techniques; in particular, as shown by the pre-treatment quality assurance results, it enabled accurate and safe delivery of RapidArc plans.

  16. A probabilistic approach of the Flash Flood Early Warning System (FF-EWS) in Catalonia based on radar ensemble generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, David; Sempere-Torres, Daniel; Corral, Carles; Llort, Xavier; Velasco, Enrique

    2010-05-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWS) are commonly identified as the most efficient tools in order to improve the preparedness and risk management against heavy rains and Flash Floods (FF) with the objective of reducing economical losses and human casualties. In particular, flash floods affecting torrential Mediterranean catchments are a key element to be incorporated within operational EWSs. The characteristic high spatial and temporal variability of the storms requires high-resolution data and methods to monitor/forecast the evolution of rainfall and its hydrological impact in small and medium torrential basins. A first version of an operational FF-EWS has been implemented in Catalonia (NE Spain) under the name of EHIMI system (Integrated Tool for Hydrometeorological Forecasting) with the support of the Catalan Water Agency (ACA) and the Meteorological Service of Catalonia (SMC). Flash flood warnings are issued based on radar-rainfall estimates. Rainfall estimation is performed on radar observations with high spatial and temporal resolution (1km2 and 10 minutes) in order to adapt the warning scale to the 1-km grid of the EWS. The method is based on comparing observed accumulated rainfall against rainfall thresholds provided by the regional Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves. The so-called "aggregated rainfall warning" at every river cell is obtained as the spatially averaged rainfall over its associated upstream draining area. Regarding the time aggregation of rainfall, the critical duration is thought to be an accumulation period similar to the concentration time of each cachtment. The warning is issued once the forecasted rainfall accumulation exceeds the rainfall thresholds mentioned above, which are associated to certain probability of occurrence. Finally, the hazard warning is provided and shown to the decision-maker in terms of exceeded return periods at every river cell covering the whole area of Catalonia. The objective of the present work includes the

  17. Development of the 2nd generation z(Redshift) and early universe spectrometer & the study of far-IR fine structure emission in high-z galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl

    The 2nd generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2), is a long-slit echelle-grating spectrometer (R~1000) for observations at submillimeter wavelengths from 200 to 850 microm. Its design is optimized for the detection of redshifted far-infrared spectral lines from galaxies in the early universe. Combining exquisite sensitivity, broad wavelength coverage, and large (˜2.5%) instantaneous bandwidth, ZEUS-2 is uniquely suited for studying galaxies between z˜0.2 and 5---spanning the peaks in both the star formation rate and number of AGN in the universe. ZEUS-2 saw first light at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) in the Spring of 2012 and was commissioned on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) in November 2012. Here we detail the design and performance of ZEUS-2, first however we discuss important science results that are examples of the science enabled by ZEUS-2. Using the first generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-1) we made the first high-z detections of the [NII] 122 microm and [OIII] 88 microm lines. We detect these lines from starburst galaxies between z ˜2.5 and 4 demonstrating the utility of these lines for characterizing the properties of early galaxies. Specifically we are able to determine the most massive star still on the main sequence, the number of those stars and a lower limit on the mass of ionized gas in the source. Next we present ZEUS-2's first science result. Using ZEUS-2 on APEX we have detected the [CII] 158 microm line from the z = 1.78 galaxy H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 with a line flux of (6.44 +/- 0.42) ˜ 10-18 W m-2. Combined with its far-infrared luminosity and a new Herschel-PACS detection of the [OI] 63 microm line we are able to conclude that H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 is a high redshift analogue of a local ultra-luminous infrared galaxy, i.e. it is likely the site of a compact starburst due to a major merger. This detection, combined with the ZEUS-1 observations of the [NII

  18. Development of the Young Brain

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Development of the Young Brain May 2, 2011 For more than twenty ... are our children handing multi-tasking in a digital age that changes, seemingly, by the hour? Early ...

  19. Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…

  20. Operating parameters of a reactor for early demonstration of electric power generation and the expansion by realization of advanced tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Kunihiko; Asaoka, Yoshiyuki; Hiwatari, Ryoji

    2004-01-01

    Beam driven stable equilibria for a conceptual reactor, Demo-CREST, which was designed for early demonstration of electric power generation, has been investigated. Considering current profiles driven by neutral beams, the attainable normalized beta β N with a stabilization wall is about 3.4 with a normal shear (NS). With reversed shear (RS), a higher β N is attainable. The stable equilibria up to 4.0 can be sustained by a couple of On- and Off-axis beams. In the range of 1.9 N N = 1.9 which is the base design point of Demo-CREST. In the case of RS operation with β N 4.0, the density ratio to the Greenwald limit can be maintain at about unity if high temperature operation with T e > 20 kV is allowable. (author)

  1. Exploring the persona model as a tool to generate user insight through co-creation with users in the early phase of a design project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jane Holm; Haase, Louise Møller

    2017-01-01

    The persona model is a widely know tool for synthesizing user research. A persona is a hypothetical archetype based on actual users, which is typically created to create a shared understanding of the user in the design team. Previous research has focused on the personal model as a consensus......-making tool. However, in this paper the aim is to explore, whether the persona model can also be useful and valuable for collecting user insights. More specifically, the paper investigates the potentials and challenges of using the persona model as a generative tool to achieve user insight, when co......-creating with the user in the early phase of a design project. A modified persona template with fixed parameters has been introduced to users in two co-creation workshops. The users were asked to fill in the persona template based on their own experiences. This study is a first endeavor into exploring the persona model...

  2. Kinetic study on non-thermal volumetric plasma decay in the early afterglow of air discharge generated by a short pulse microwave or laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wei, E-mail: yangwei861212@126.com; Zhou, Qianhong; Dong, Zhiwei [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2016-08-28

    This paper reports a kinetic study on non-thermal plasma decay in the early afterglow of air discharge generated by short pulse microwave or laser. A global self-consistent model is based on the particle balance of complex plasma chemistry, electron energy equation, and gas thermal balance equation. Electron-ion Coulomb collision is included in the steady state Boltzmann equation solver to accurately describe the electron mobility and other transport coefficients. The model is used to simulate the afterglow of microsecond to nanosecond pulse microwave discharge in N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and air, as well as femtosecond laser filament discharge in dry and humid air. The simulated results for electron density decay are in quantitative agreement with the available measured ones. The evolution of plasma decay under an external electric field is also investigated, and the effect of gas heating is considered. The underlying mechanism of plasma density decay is unveiled through the above kinetic modeling.

  3. A Combined Omics Approach to Generate the Surface Atlas of Human Naive CD4+ T Cells during Early T-Cell Receptor Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graessel, Anke; Hauck, Stefanie M; von Toerne, Christine; Kloppmann, Edda; Goldberg, Tatyana; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schindler, Michael; Knapp, Bettina; Krause, Linda; Dietz, Katharina; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B; Suttner, Kathrin

    2015-08-01

    Naive CD4(+) T cells are the common precursors of multiple effector and memory T-cell subsets and possess a high plasticity in terms of differentiation potential. This stem-cell-like character is important for cell therapies aiming at regeneration of specific immunity. Cell surface proteins are crucial for recognition and response to signals mediated by other cells or environmental changes. Knowledge of cell surface proteins of human naive CD4(+) T cells and their changes during the early phase of T-cell activation is urgently needed for a guided differentiation of naive T cells and may support the selection of pluripotent cells for cell therapy. Periodate oxidation and aniline-catalyzed oxime ligation technology was applied with subsequent quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem MS to generate a data set describing the surface proteome of primary human naive CD4(+) T cells and to monitor dynamic changes during the early phase of activation. This led to the identification of 173 N-glycosylated surface proteins. To independently confirm the proteomic data set and to analyze the cell surface by an alternative technique a systematic phenotypic expression analysis of surface antigens via flow cytometry was performed. This screening expanded the previous data set, resulting in 229 surface proteins, which were expressed on naive unstimulated and activated CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, we generated a surface expression atlas based on transcriptome data, experimental annotation, and predicted subcellular localization, and correlated the proteomics result with this transcriptional data set. This extensive surface atlas provides an overall naive CD4(+) T cell surface resource and will enable future studies aiming at a deeper understanding of mechanisms of T-cell biology allowing the identification of novel immune targets usable for the development of therapeutic treatments. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Associations between Nausea, Vomiting, Fatigue and Health-Related Quality of Life of Women in Early Pregnancy: The Generation R Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guannan Bai

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the independent associations between nausea, vomiting, fatigue and health-related quality of life of women in early pregnancy in the Generation R study, which is a prospective mother and child cohort. Analyses were based on 5079 women in early pregnancy in the Rotterdam area, the Netherlands. The information on nausea, vomiting and fatigue in the previous three months was measured in the questionnaire at enrollment, as well as potential confounders (i.e., maternal/gestational age, ethnic background, educational level, parity, marital status, body mass index, tobacco and alcohol use, chronic/infectious conditions, uro-genital conditions/symptoms, sleep quality, headache, anxiety, and depression. Health-related quality of life was assessed by the 12-item Short Form Health Survey and physical and mental component summary scores were calculated. Multivariate regression models were performed to evaluate the independent associations of the presence of nausea, vomiting and fatigue with health-related quality of life, adjusting for potential confounders. 33.6% of women experienced daily presence of nausea, 9.6% for vomiting and 44.4% for fatigue. Comparing with women who never reported nausea, vomiting and fatigue, women with daily presence of at least one of these symptoms had significantly lower scores of physical component summary and mental component summary, after adjusting for potential confounders. Our study shows how common nausea, vomiting and fatigue are among women in early pregnancy and how much each of these symptoms negatively impact on health-related quality of life. We call for awareness of this issue from health care professionals, pregnant women and their families.

  5. Association of obesity in early adulthood and middle age with incipient left ventricular dysfunction and structural remodeling: the CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Satoru; Armstrong, Anderson C; Gidding, Samuel S; Colangelo, Laura A; Venkatesh, Bharath A; Jacobs, David R; Carr, J Jeffery; Terry, James G; Liu, Kiang; Goff, David C; Lima, João A C

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship of body mass index (BMI) and its 25-year change to left ventricular (LV) structure and function. Longstanding obesity may be associated with clinical cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Whether obesity relates to cardiac dysfunction during young adulthood and middle age has not been investigated. The CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adult) study enrolled white and black adults ages 18 to 30 years in 1985 to 1986 (Year-0). At Year-25, cardiac function was assessed by conventional echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). Twenty-five-year change in BMI (classified as low: obesity from young adulthood to middle age is associated with impaired LV systolic and diastolic function assessed by conventional echocardiography, TDI, and STE in a large biracial cohort of adults age 43 to 55 years. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  7. Children's eating behavior, feeding practices of parents and weight problems in early childhood: results from the population-based Generation R Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Pauline W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight problems that arise in the first years of life tend to persist. Behavioral research in this period can provide information on the modifiable etiology of unhealthy weight. The present study aimed to replicate findings from previous small-scale studies by examining whether different aspects of preschooler’s eating behavior and parental feeding practices are associated with body mass index (BMI and weight status -including underweight, overweight and obesity- in a population sample of preschool children. Methods Cross-sectional data on the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, Child Feeding Questionnaire and objectively measured BMI was available for 4987 four-year-olds participating in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Results Thirteen percent of the preschoolers had underweight, 8% overweight, and 2% obesity. Higher levels of children’s Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food and parental Restriction were associated with a higher mean BMI independent of measured confounders. Emotional Undereating, Satiety Responsiveness and Fussiness of children as well as parents’ Pressure to Eat were negatively related with children’s BMI. Similar trends were found with BMI categorized into underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. Part of the association between children’s eating behaviors and BMI was accounted for by parental feeding practices (changes in effect estimates: 20-43%, while children’s eating behaviors in turn explained part of the relation between parental feeding and child BMI (changes in effect estimates: 33-47%. Conclusions This study provides important information by showing how young children’s eating behaviors and parental feeding patterns differ between children with normal weight, underweight and overweight. The high prevalence of under- and overweight among preschoolers suggest prevention interventions targeting unhealthy weights should start early in life. Although

  8. Minding the Generation Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John

    2011-01-01

    Generational conflict is back. After years of relative silence, and mutual ignorance, the young and old are once more at war. With youth unemployment high on the political agenda, the fortunes of the "jobless generation" are being contrasted with those of the "golden generation" of baby boomers, but is one generation really…

  9. Preliminary report on the development of some indices of relative nutritive value (RNV) of cereal and legume samples, applicable in the early generations of selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, A.K.; Niemann, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    Rapid screening methods for biuret nitrogen determination and fluorometric lysine estimation are described. While the biuret method has been found to be suitable for early generation screening for peptide nitrogen determination, fluorescence estimation of dansylated grain meal could be taken as a good index of available lysine in cereal and legume samples. The necessity of rapid and inexpensive tests for the determination of Relative Nutritive Value (RNV) in the advance generations of screening, is discussed. Preliminary data available on two such tests, utilizing protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis W. and flour beetle Tribolium confusum Duval, indicated promise. Both techniques were tried on different cereal and legume samples. The relative lethality of beetle larvae and their nitrogen retention were taken as indices of RNV in legumes. Larval Nitrogen Retention Index (LNRI) of cereal samples was found to be dependent both on nitrogen content and on protein quality. It was concluded that both these organisms need to be further investigated for their potential as test animals for RNV determination in the advance segregating populations. (author)

  10. Polymorphisms in IL-10 and INF-γ genes are associated with early atherosclerosis in coronary but not in carotid arteries: A study of 122 autopsy cases of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos P. Esperança

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a complex disease, involving both genetic and environmental factors. However, the influence of genetic variations on its early development remains unclear. This study examined the association of 12 different polymorphisms with atherosclerosis severity in anterior descending coronary (DA, n = 103 and carotid arteries (CA, n = 66 of autopsied young adults (<30 years old. Histological sections (H-E were classified according to the American Heart Association. Polymorphisms in ACE, TNF-α (−308G/A and −238 G/A, IFN-γ (+874 A/T, MMP-9 (−1562 C/T, IL-10 (−1082 A/G and −819 C/T, NOS3 (894 G/T, ApoA1 (rs964184, ApoE (E2E3E4 isoforms, and TGF-β (codons 25 and 10 genes were genotyped by gel electrophoresis or automatic DNA sequencing. Firearm projectile or car accident was the main cause of death, and no information about classical risk factors was available. Histological analysis showed high prevalence of type III atherosclerotic lesions in both DA (69% and CA (39% arteries, while severe type IV and V lesions were observed in 14% (DA and 33% (CA. Allele frequencies and genotype distributions were determined. Among the polymorphisms studied, IFN-γ and IL-10 (−1082 A/G were related to atherosclerosis severity in DA artery. No association between genotypes and lesion severity was found in CA. In conclusion, we observed that the high prevalence of early atherosclerosis in young adults is associated with IFN-γ (p < 0.001 and IL-10 (p = 0.013 genotypes. This association is blood vessel dependent. Our findings suggest that the vascular system presents site specialization, and specific genetic variations may provide future biomarkers for early disease identification.

  11. International Musicological Conference Young Musicology Prague: Czech and European Avant-garde Music of the Early 20th Century, Kabinet hudební historie Etnologického ústavu AV ČR, Praha 5.–8. září 2016

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirner, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2017), s. 236-237 ISSN 0018-7003. [International Music ological Conference Young Music ology Prague: Czech and European Avant-garde Music of the Early 20th Century. Prague, 05.10.2016-08.10.2016] Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : 20th Century * Young Music ology * Conference Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Performing arts studies ( Music ology, Theater science, Dramaturgy)

  12. A generation at risk: a cross-sectional study on HIV/AIDS knowledge, exposure to mass media, and stigmatizing behaviors among young women aged 15-24 years in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamoah, Charity Konadu; Asamoah, Benedict Oppong; Agardh, Anette

    2017-01-01

    HIV/AIDS stigmatizing behaviors are a huge barrier to early detection and treatment of individuals with the AIDS virus. HIV/AIDS stigma and related consequences are debilitating, especially for vulnerable populations. This study sought to assess whether young women's HIV/AIDS knowledge levels and exposure to mass media (television and radio) have an influence on their stigmatizing behaviors and role as agents of stigma towards individuals living with HIV and AIDS. The data used for this study originated from the Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011. Binary and multiple (stepwise) logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between HIV/AIDS knowledge, frequency of exposure to mass media, and HIV/AIDS stigmatizing behaviors among young women aged 15-24 years in Ghana. Of the 3573 young women, 80% of 15-19-year-olds and 76% of 20-24-year-olds had at least one stigmatizing behavior towards persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Young women with increased knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS and frequent exposure to mass media (television and radio) had lesser tendency to stigmatize or act as agents of stigma towards PLHA (proportion with at least one stigmatizing behavior per subgroup - HIV/AIDS knowledge: those with highest knowledge score 579 [70.1%], those with lowest knowledge score 28 [90.3%]; mass media: those with daily exposure 562 [73.4%], those not exposed at all 249 [89.2%]). There was a graded negative 'exposure-response' association between the ranked variables: HIV/AIDS knowledge, mass media, and HIV/AIDS stigmatizing behaviors. The significant inverse association between HIV/AIDS knowledge, frequency of exposure to mass media, and HIV/AIDS stigmatizing behaviors persisted even after adjusting for all other covariates in the multiple logistic regression models. It is extremely important to increase HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and reduce stigma among young women in Ghana through targeted HIV/AIDS factual knowledge transfer. The

  13. R and D on early detection of the Total Instantaneous Blockage for 4. Generation Reactors - Inventory of non-nuclear methods investigated by the CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paumel, K.; Jeannot, J.-P.; Vanderhaegen, M.; Massacret, N.; Jeanne, T.; Laffont, G.

    2013-06-01

    In the safety analysis for the core of the 4. Generation Reactors, the Total Instantaneous Blockage (TIB) is a hypothetic accident scenario involving the melting of the blocked subassembly with a risk of propagation to the neighbouring subassemblies. To avoid this latter consequence a detection system has to scram the reactor. For Superphenix or EFR project a Delayed Neutron Detection Integrated (DND I) was considered as efficient to limit the melting to the first neighbouring subassemblies. Nonetheless for the CFV core the objective of improving the safety leads to limit the melting to the blocked subassembly. For this purpose, the CEA has launched a program development to find a new detection method. This paper provides a brief review of the feedback of R and D, progress and program on the various early non-nuclear detection methods investigated by the CEA: - Temperature measurement at the subassemblies outlet by thermocouples. The advantage of this method is that it will require no additional instrumentation to that already present for continuous monitoring. - Temperature measurement at the subassemblies outlet by Optical Fibers Bragg Grating (OFBG). This technology has the electromagnetic immunity, compactness and short response time. - Temperature measurement at the subassemblies outlet by ultrasound. The measuring point is located closer to the head subassembly and the response time could be shorter. - Acoustic detection of sodium boiling. Boiling occurs early in the accident progress and the area to be monitored may be covered by few sensors. - Subassemblies loss of flow detection by eddy-current flowmeters. This method seems logically the easiest and the most immediate method to detect a blockage. To date, none of these methods has been fully demonstrated to be feasible. It should be noted that temperature measurement methods will probably consist of the detection of a low increase rate using specific signal processing. These methods have been compared

  14. The Effectiveness of a Cross-Setting Complementary Staff- and Parent-Mediated Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Leonardo; Strauss, Kristin; Valeri, Giovanni; D'Elia, Lidia; Arima, Serena; Vicari, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effects of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) and eclectic intervention in children with ASD on autism severity, developmental performance, adaptive behavior, language skills and challenging behaviors. Twelve children received cross-setting staff- and parent-mediated EIBI of centre-based one-to-one and play sessions as…

  15. Exploring Daily Physical Activity and Nutrition Patterns in Early Learning Settings: Snapshots of Young Children in Head Start, Primary, and After-School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelin, Dolores A.; Anderson, Denise; Kemper, Karen; Wagner, Jennifer; Evans, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to gain a greater understanding of daily routines of 4-7 year olds regarding physical activity and nutrition practices in typical early learning environments. The settings selected for this observational study included Head Start, primary, and after-school learning environments in a city in the southeast.…

  16. Developments in early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G H Y; Hui, C L M; Wong, D Y; Tang, J Y M; Chang, W C; Chan, S K W; Lee, E H M; Xu, J Q; Lin, J J X; Lai, D C; Tam, W; Kok, J; Chung, D W S; Hung, S F; Chen, E Y H

    2012-09-01

    The year 2011 marked the 10-year milestone of early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong. Since 2001, the landscape of early psychosis services has changed markedly in Hong Kong. Substantial progress has been made in the areas of early intervention service implementation, knowledge generation, and public awareness promotion. Favourable outcomes attributable to the early intervention service are supported by solid evidence from local clinical research studies; early intervention service users showed improved functioning, ameliorated symptoms, and decreased hospitalisation and suicide rates. Continued development of early intervention in Hong Kong over the decade includes the introduction and maturation of several key platforms, such as the Hospital Authority Early Assessment Service for Young People with Psychosis programme, the Psychosis Studies and Intervention Unit by the University of Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Early Psychosis Intervention Society, the Jockey Club Early Psychosis Project, and the postgraduate Psychological Medicine (Psychosis Studies) programme. In this paper, we reviewed some of the major milestones in local service development with reference to features of the Hong Kong mental health system. We describe chronologically the implementation and consolidation of public early intervention services as well as recent progresses in public awareness work that are tied in with knowledge generation and transfer, and outline the prospects for early intervention in the next decade and those that follow.

  17. Early sugar-sweetened beverage consumption frequency is associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Hirota, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from Western countries shows that higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with lower quality of young children's diets, but little is known about these relations in non-Western countries with relatively low consumption levels of SSBs. We hypothesized that SSB consumption in infancy would be associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children. The study subjects were 493 Japanese mother-child pairs from a prospective birth cohort study. Dietary data on children were collected from the mothers using self-administered questionnaires when the children were aged 16-24 months and 41-49 months. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between SSB consumption frequency in infancy and later intake of foods and nutrients. At 16-24 months of age, more than half of the children (56.4%) consumed SSBs less than once a week, whereas 11.6% consumed SSBs at least once daily. More frequent consumption of SSBs in infancy was associated with higher intake of confectionaries and SSBs and lower intake of fruits and vegetables at 41-49 months of age. These associations were still evident after adjustment for maternal SSB consumption and socioeconomic status. At the nutrient level, SSB consumption frequency was positively associated with energy intake and inversely associated with intake of many nutrients, such as protein, dietary fiber, and most of the micronutrients examined. In conclusion, higher consumption frequency of SSBs at an early age is associated with poor quality of overall dietary intake among young Japanese children 1.5-2.5 years later. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Let's Dance the "Robot Hokey-Pokey!": Children's Programming Approaches and Achievement throughout Early Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Louise P.; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2013-01-01

    Young learners today generate, express, and interact with sophisticated ideas using a range of digital tools to explore interactive stories, animations, computer games, and robotics. In recent years, new developmentally appropriate robotics kits have been entering early childhood classrooms. This paper presents a retrospective analysis of one…

  19. Three exploratory studies of relations between young adults' preference for activities involving a specific sense modality and sensory attributes of early memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, A S; Stuve, M

    2001-04-01

    Three studies explored whether young adults' preference for using a sense modality, e.g., hearing, correlated with presence or clarity of attributes of that sense modality in earliest memories from childhood, elementary school, or high school. In Study 1, 75 graduates or seniors in fine arts, fashion merchandising, music, conducting, or dance showed no greater frequency or clarity of any modality's sensory attributes. In Study 2, 213 beginning university students' ratings of current importance of activities emphasizing a sense modality correlated with sensory contents of recollections only for smell and taste. In Study 3, 102 beginning students' ratings of current enjoyment in using a sense modality and sensory contents of recollections were correlated and involved every modality except vision.

  20. Early thymic T cell development in young transgenic mice overexpressing human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, a model of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Julien; Paly, Evelyne; Marche, Patrice N; London, Jacqueline

    2006-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that transgenic mice overexpressing Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, a model of Down syndrome, exhibit premature thymic involution. We have performed a flow cytometry analysis of the developing thymus in these homozygous transgenic mice (hSOD1/hSOD1: Tg-SOD). Longitudinal follow-up analysis from day 3 to day 280 showed an early thymic development in Tg-SOD mice compared with controls. This early thymic development was associated with an increased migration of mature T cells to peripheral lymphoid organs. BrdU labeling showed no difference between Tg-SOD and control mice, confirming that the greater number of peripheral T cells in Tg-SOD mice was not due to extensive proliferation of these cells but rather to a greater pool of emigrant T cells in Tg-SOD.