Sample records for young children hospitalized

  1. Improving outcomes from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in young children and adolescents. (United States)

    Atkins, Dianne L; Berger, Stuart


    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is an unusual but devastating occurrence in a young person. Years of life-lost are substantial and long-term health care costs of survivors can be high. However, there have been noteworthy improvements in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) standards, out-of hospital care, and postcardiac arrest therapies that have resulted in a several-fold improvement in resuscitation outcomes. Recent interest and research in resuscitation of children has the promise of generating improvements in the outcomes of these patients. Integrated and coordinated care in the out-of-hospital and hospital settings are required. This article will review the epidemiology of OHCA, the 2010 CPR guidelines, and developments in public access defibrillation for children.

  2. Assisted autogenic drainage in infants and young children hospitalized with uncomplicated pneumonia, a pilot study. (United States)

    Corten, Lieselotte; Jelsma, Jennifer; Human, Anri; Rahim, Sameer; Morrow, Brenda M


    Pneumonia is the most important respiratory problem in low-to-middle income countries. Airway clearance therapy continues to be used in children with pneumonia and secretion retention; however, there is lack of evidence to support or reject this treatment. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the efficacy and safety of assisted autogenic drainage (AAD) compared to standard nursing care in children hospitalized with uncomplicated pneumonia. A single-blinded pilot RCT was conducted on 29 children (median age 3.5 months, IQR 1.5-9.4) hospitalized with uncomplicated pneumonia. The intervention group received standard nursing care with additional bi-daily AAD, for 10 to 30 min. The control group only received standard nursing care, unless otherwise deemed necessary by the physician or physiotherapist. The primary outcome measure was duration of hospitalization. The secondary outcome measures included days of fever and supplemental oxygen support; respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate adjusted for age; RR and oxygen saturation pre-, post-, and 1-hr post-treatment; oxygen saturation; adverse events; and mortality. No difference was found for duration of hospitalization (median 7.5 and 7.0 days for the control and intervention groups, respectively); however, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a strong tendency towards a shorter time to discharge in the intervention group (p = .06). No significant differences were found for the other outcome measures at time of discharge. No adverse events were reported. Within the intervention group, a significant reduction in RR adjusted for age was found. As no adverse events were reported, and AAD did not prolong hospitalization; AAD might be considered as safe and effective in young children with uncomplicated pneumonia. However, a larger multicentred RCT is warranted to determine the efficacy of AAD compared to standard nursing care. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The epidemiology of burns in young children from Mexico treated at a U.S. hospital. (United States)

    Patel, Dipen D; Rosenberg, Laura; Rosenberg, Marta; Leal, Jesus; Andersen, Clark R; Foncerrada, Guillermo; Lee, Jong O; Jimenez, Carlos J; Branski, Ludwik; Meyer, Walter J; Herndon, David N


    Young children are the most vulnerable for sustaining burns. At this pediatric burn hospital we have provided medical care to young children with severe burns from Mexico for many years. This study identified modifiable risk factors that could be used to assist in prevention of burns in this age group. A retrospective chart review was performed with children Mexico who were injured from 2000 to 2013. The medical records of 447 acute patients were reviewed. There were 187 females and 260 males with large burns >20% total body surface area (TBSA) burned. Primary causes of burns were flame and scalds. Children with flame injuries were older (3.0±1.5 years of age) than those with scalds (2.6±1.2 years of age). Admissions attributed to flame burns were largely from explosions by propane tanks, gas line leaks, and house fires. Most admissions for scalds were predominantly from falling in large containers of hot water, food, or grease; and fewer were attributed to spills from hot liquids. Most cases reported to a social service agency were to find resources for families. Mortality rate for flame and scald burns was low. It is important take into account demographic, cultural, and socioeconomic variables when developing and implementing prevention programs. Burn prevention instruction for parents is crucial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Children of Parents Hospitalized for Mental Illness: II. The Evaluation of an Intervention Program for Mentally Ill Mothers of Young Children. (United States)

    Cohler, Bertram J.; Grunebaum, Henry


    Among three groups of disturbed mothers of young children studied, women hospitalized more often were found to be less able to differentiate between their own and their children's needs; this group showed greater life-event stress and more maternal role conflict. (Author/CMG)

  5. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in young children hospitalized with acute diarrhea

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    Rosenfeldt, Vibeke; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Jakobsen, Mogens


    intervention, the length of hospitalization was reduced by 48% (3.5 vs. 1.7 days, P = 0.03). At the end of the intervention, rotavirus antigen was found in 12% of patients from the treatment group vs. 46% from the control group (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The two probiotics, L. rhamnosus 19070-2 and L. reuteri...... DSM 12246, ameliorated acute diarrhea in hospitalized children and reduced the period of rotavirus excretion. Oral bacteriotherapy was associated with a reduced length of hospital stay. The beneficial effects were most prominent in children treated early in the diarrheal phase....

  6. Role of procalcitonin in predicting dilating vesicoureteral reflux in young children hospitalized with a first febrile urinary tract infection. (United States)

    Sun, Hai-Lun; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Chen, Shan-Ming; Chao, Yu-Hua; Ku, Min-Sho; Hung, Tong-Wei; Liao, Pen-Fen; Lue, Ko-Huang; Sheu, Ji-Nan


    The aim of this article was to assess the usefulness of procalcitonin (PCT) as a marker for predicting dilating (grades III-V) vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in young children with a first febrile urinary tract infection. Children ≤2 years of age with a first febrile urinary tract infection were prospectively evaluated. Serum samples were tested for PCT at the time of admission to a tertiary hospital. All children underwent renal ultrasonography (US), Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan, and voiding cystourethrography. The diagnostic characteristics of PCT test for acute pyelonephritis and dilating VUR were calculated. Of 272 children analyzed (168 boys and 104 girls; median age, 5 months), 169 (62.1%) had acute pyelonephritis. There was VUR demonstrated in 97 (35.7%), including 70 (25.7%) with dilating VUR. The median PCT value was significantly higher in children with VUR than in those without (P predictors of dilating VUR. PCT is useful for diagnosing acute pyelonephritis and predicting dilating VUR in young children with a first febrile urinary tract infection. A voiding cystourethrography is indicated only in children with high PCT values (≥1.0 ng/mL) and/or abnormalities found on a US.

  7. Influenza Vaccination in Young Children Reduces Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations in Older Adults, 2002–2006 (United States)

    Cohen, Steven A.; Chui, Kenneth K.H.; Naumova, Elena N.


    OBJECTIVES To assess how influenza vaccination coverage in children is related to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) in US seniors and if these associations are modified by sociodemographic factors. DESIGN We abstracted approximately 5 million hospitalization records from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for four influenza years, 2002–2006. We estimated a single year age distribution of rates of P&I hospitalization by state for each influenza season and observed an exponential acceleration in the P&I rates with age for each influenza season. State-and season-specific P&I rate accelerations were regressed against the percentage of vaccinated children, seniors, or both using mixed effects models. SETTING United States population, 2002–2006 PARTICIPANTS US population aged 65 and above MEASUREMENTS State-level influenza annual vaccination coverage data in children and seniors were obtained from the National Immunization Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respectively. RESULTS Child influenza vaccination coverage was negatively associated with age acceleration in P&I, whereas influenza vaccination in the seniors themselves was not significantly associated with P&I in seniors. CONCLUSION Vaccination of children against influenza may induce herd immunity against influenza for seniors and has the potential to be more beneficial to seniors than the existing policy to prevent influenza by vaccinating seniors themselves. PMID:21275932

  8. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics in hospitalized young children with acute gastroenteritis in southern Taiwan: According to major pathogens

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    Ning Chung


    Full Text Available Background: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE can be caused by a wide array of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. A prospective study to investigate the epidemiology and clinical presentation in young children hospitalized with AGE was conducted in a medical center in southern Taiwan. Methods: Patients aged less than 5 years who was hospitalized due to AGE in National Cheng Kung University Hospital were enrolled from July 2014 to June 2016. The demographic information, clinical features and laboratory data were collected by chart reviews, and stool samples were sent to Centers of Disease Control, Taiwan (Taiwan CDC for a panel of pathogen identification consisting of two viruses, nine bacteria, and five parasites. Results: Totally 441 patients were enrolled in this study. Salmonella spp. was the leading cause of disease (21.8%, followed by norovirus (17.0%, Clostridium difficile (9.5%, and rotavirus (9.3%. Norovirus identification rate was the highest among patients less than 6 months of age, while Salmonella was highest among patients between 2 and 3 years old. Patients with Salmonella infection frequently presented with fever, lethargy, bloody stool, and elevated serum level of C-reactive protein (CRP; norovirus and rotavirus infection frequently presented with vomiting. Salmonella gastroenteritis also resulted in longer hospitalization and more frequent antibiotics administration. C. difficile could be isolated from both gastroenteritis patients and control children. Conclusion: Salmonella spp. was the most common pathogen of AGE in hospitalized children in southern Taiwan during 2014–2016, followed by norovirus and rotavirus. Further monitoring of epidemiology characteristics among cardinal pathogens of pediatric gastroenteritis is necessary. Keywords: Acute gastroenteritis, Children, Epidemiology, Taiwan

  9. ADHD in Young Children (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips ADHD in Young Children Use recommended treatment first Language: ... The recommended first treatment for young children with ADHD is underused. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends ...

  10. Antipsychotic Polypharmacy among Children and Young Adults in Office-Based or Hospital Outpatient Department Settings

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    Minji Sohn


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was three-fold: (1 to estimate the national trends in antipsychotic (AP polypharmacy among 6- to 24-year-old patients in the U.S.; (2 to identify frequently used AP agents and mental disorder diagnoses related to AP polypharmacy; and (3 to assess the strength of association between AP polypharmacy and patient/provider characteristics. We used publicly available ambulatory health care datasets to evaluate AP polypharmacy in office-based or hospital outpatient department settings to conduct a cross-sectional study. First, national visit rates between 2007 and 2011 were estimated using sampling weights. Second, common diagnoses and drugs used in AP polypharmacy were identified. Third, a multivariate logistic regression model was developed to assess the strength of association between AP polypharmacy and patient and provider characteristics. Between 2007 and 2011, approximately 2% of office-based or hospital outpatient department visits made by 6- to 24-year-old patients included one or more AP prescriptions. Of these visits, 5% were classified as AP polypharmacy. The most common combination of AP polypharmacy was to use two or more second-generation APs. Also, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia were the two most frequent primary mental disorder diagnoses among AP polypharmacy visits. The factors associated with AP polypharmacy were: older age (young adults, black, having one or more non-AP prescriptions, and having schizophrenia or ADHD.

  11. Subanesthetic ketamine for pain management in hospitalized children, adolescents, and young adults: a single-center cohort study (United States)

    Sheehy, Kathy A; Lippold, Caroline; Rice, Amy L; Nobrega, Raissa; Finkel, Julia C; Quezado, Zenaide MN


    Background Subanesthetic doses of ketamine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist used as an adjuvant to opioid for the treatment of pain in adults with acute and chronic pain, have been shown, in some instances, to improve pain intensity and to decrease opioid intake. However, less is known about the role of ketamine in pain management in children, adolescents, and young adults. Purpose We examined the effects of subanesthetic ketamine on pain intensity and opioid intake in children, adolescents, and young adults with acute and chronic pain syndromes treated in an inpatient setting. Methods This is a longitudinal cohort study of patients treated with subanesthetic ketamine infusions in regular patient care units in a tertiary pediatric hospital. Primary outcomes included changes in pain scores and morphine-equivalent intake. Results The study cohort included 230 different patients who during 360 separate hospital admissions received subanesthetic ketamine infusions for pain management. Overall, ketamine infusions were associated with significant reductions in mean pain scores from baseline (mean pain scores 6.64 [95% CI: 6.38–6.90]) to those recorded on the day after discontinuation of ketamine (mean pain scores 4.38 [95% CI: 4.06–4.69]), pketamine on pain scores varied according to clinical diagnosis (p=0.011), infusion duration (p=0.004), and pain location (p=0.004). Interestingly, greater reductions in pain scores were observed in patients with cancer pain and patients with pain associated with pancreatitis and Crohn’s disease. There were no records of psychotomimetic side effects requiring therapy. Conclusion These data suggest that administration of subanesthetic ketamine for pain management is feasible and safe in regular inpatient care units and may benefit children, adolescents, and young adults with acute and chronic pain. This study is informative and can be helpful in determining sample and effect sizes when planning clinical trials to

  12. Subanesthetic ketamine for pain management in hospitalized children, adolescents, and young adults: a single-center cohort study

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    Sheehy KA


    Full Text Available Kathy A Sheehy,1,* Caroline Lippold,1,* Amy L Rice,1 Raissa Nobrega,1 Julia C Finkel,1 Zenaide MN Quezado1,2 1Division of Anesthesiology, Pain, and Perioperative Medicine, The Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children’s Research Institute, Children’s National Health System, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, 2Center for Neuroscience Research, Children’s Research Institute, Children’s National Health System, Washington, DC, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Subanesthetic doses of ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist used as an adjuvant to opioid for the treatment of pain in adults with acute and chronic pain, have been shown, in some instances, to improve pain intensity and to decrease opioid intake. However, less is known about the role of ketamine in pain management in children, adolescents, and young adults. Purpose: We examined the effects of subanesthetic ketamine on pain intensity and opioid intake in children, adolescents, and young adults with acute and chronic pain syndromes treated in an inpatient setting. Methods: This is a longitudinal cohort study of patients treated with subanesthetic ketamine infusions in regular patient care units in a tertiary pediatric hospital. Primary outcomes included changes in pain scores and morphine-equivalent intake. Results: The study cohort included 230 different patients who during 360 separate hospital admissions received subanesthetic ketamine infusions for pain management. Overall, ketamine infusions were associated with significant reductions in mean pain scores from baseline (mean pain scores 6.64 [95% CI: 6.38–6.90] to those recorded on the day after discontinuation of ketamine (mean pain scores 4.38 [95% CI: 4.06–4.69], p<0.001. Importantly, the effect of ketamine on pain scores varied according to clinical diagnosis (p=0.011, infusion duration (p=0.004, and pain location (p=0

  13. Younger children's nursing students are uniquely placed to provide emotional care for young people in hospital and promote for them a sense of normalcy. (United States)

    Shepherd, Jean M


    To highlight the emotional impact of being in the hospital for young people and to explore the impact of the care by younger student nurses on promoting a sense of "normalcy" for them. Adolescence is strongly influenced by peer relationships and is a unique period in life that requires the achievement of many developmental tasks. An important task of adolescent is developing relationships with peers and feeling part of a recognised peer group. Young people prefer engaging in conversation with people of their own age because they feel less likely to be judged by their peers. Heideggerian hermeneutic phenomenological study. A Heideggerian phenomenological study was undertaken. Individual unstructured interviews were conducted with eleven younger student nurses (aged l7 years and 5 months-l8 years and 11 months) and nine young people with a chronic illness (aged 13 years and 7 months-18 years and 1 month). The data was collected in 2009. Young people in the hospital with a chronic illness experienced moments in time when they had nothing to think about but the business of getting better. During unique caring interactions, younger children's nursing students were able to help them temporarily forget about their illness and promote for them a sense of normalcy. Younger children's nursing students are in a unique position to engage in ontological caring interactions with the young people due to their similarity in age and stage of development. They are uniquely placed to help the young people reintegrate back into their known "lifeworlds" and promote for them a sense of "normalcy". Clinical staff need to be alerted to the emotional distress caused to young people during long periods of time in the hospital. Practitioners and nurse educators should be facilitating younger student nurses to interact with the young people in a therapeutic way and the care delivered to young people in the hospital should promote a sense of normalcy for them. © 2013.

  14. Communicating with Young Children


    Harrelson, Peggy O'Neill, 1947-


    Communicating positively with young children helps them develop confidence, feelings of self-worth, and good relationships with others. Adults sometimes have difficulty communicating positively with children when feelings are involved-either their own or the child's. This publication explores ways for parents to improve their communication with children.

  15. Too young to be vaccinated: hospitalizations caused by varicella among children in the first year of life

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    Ewelina Gowin


    Conclusions: The main source of varicella virus among hospitalized children in the first year of life is home contact. An infant may become infected from its mother suffering from zoster. Children who are exclusively breastfed and are born of mothers who have previously had varicella may develop varicella with a severe course during the first year of life.

  16. Racemic epinephrine compared to salbutamol in hospitalized young children with bronchiolitis; a randomized controlled clinical trial [ISRCTN46561076

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    LeBlanc John C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchiolitis is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infancy, and hospital admission rates appear to be increasing in Canada and the United States. Inhaled beta agonists offer only modest short-term improvement. Trials of racemic epinephrine have shown conflicting results. We sought to determine if administration of racemic epinephrine during hospital stay for bronchiolitis improved respiratory distress, was safe, and shortened length of stay. Methods The study was a randomized, double-blind controlled trial of aerosolized racemic epinephrine compared to salbutamol every one to 4 hours in previously well children aged 6 weeks to ≤ 2 years of age hospitalized with bronchiolitis. The primary outcome was symptom improvement as measured by the Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument (RDAI; secondary outcomes were length of stay in hospital, adverse events, and report of symptoms by structured parental telephone interview one week after discharge. Results 62 children with a mean age of 6.4 months were enrolled; 80% of children had Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV. Racemic epinephrine resulted in significant improvement in wheezing and the total RDAI score on day 2 and over the entire stay (p 0.05. Adverse events were not significantly different in the two arms. At one week post-discharge, over half of parents reported that their child still had a respiratory symptom and 40% had less than normal feeding. Conclusion Racemic epinephrine relieves respiratory distress in hospitalized infants with bronchiolitis and is safe but does not abbreviate hospital stay. Morbidity associated with bronchiolitis as identified by parents persists for at least one week after hospital discharge in most infants.

  17. Mapping staff perspectives towards the delivery of hospital care for children and young people with and without learning disabilities in England: a mixed methods national study. (United States)

    Oulton, Kate; Gibson, Faith; Carr, Lucinda; Hassiotis, Angela; Jewitt, Carey; Kenten, Charlotte; Russell, Jessica; Whiting, Mark; Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Wray, Jo


    Children and young people (CYP) with learning disabilities (LD) are a vulnerable population with increased risk of abuse and accidental injury and whose parents have reported concerns about the quality, safety and accessibility of their hospital care. The Care Quality Commission's (CQC) view of best practice for this group of patients includes: access to senior LD nurse provision; a clearly visible flagging system for identifying them; the use of hospital passports; and defined communication strategies (Glasper, Comp Child Adolesc Nurs 40:63-67, 2017). What remains unclear is whether these recommendations are being applied and if so, what difference they are making. Furthermore, what we do not know is whether parental concerns of CYP with LD differ from parents of other children with long-term conditions. The aims of this study were to 1) describe the organisational context for healthcare delivery to CYP with LD and their families and 2) compare staff perceptions of their ability to identify the needs of CYP with and without LD and their families and provide high quality care to effectively meet these needs. Individual interviews (n = 65) and anonymised online survey (n = 2261) were conducted with hospital staff working with CYP in 15 children's and 9 non-children's hospitals in England. The majority of interviews were conducted over the telephone and recorded and transcribed verbatim. Health Research Authority was obtained and verbal or written consent for data collection was obtained from all interview participants. The nature and extent of organisational policies, systems and practices in place within hospitals to support the care of CYP with LD differs across England and some uncertainty exists within and across hospitals as to what is currently available and accessed. Staff perceived that those with LD were included less, valued less, and less safe than CYP without LD. They also reported having less confidence, capability and capacity to meet the needs

  18. Young children's harmonic perception. (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia


    Harmony and tonality are two of the most difficult elements for young children to perceive and manipulate and are seldom taught in the schools until the end of early childhood. Children's gradual harmonic and tonal development has been attributed to their cumulative exposure to Western tonal music and their increasing experiential knowledge of its rules and principles. Two questions that are relevant to this problem are: (1) Can focused and systematic teaching accelerate the learning of the harmonic/tonal principles that seem to occur in an implicit way throughout childhood? (2) Are there cognitive constraints that make it difficult for young children to perceive and/or manipulate certain harmonic and tonal principles? A series of studies specifically addressed the first question and suggested some possible answers to the second one. Results showed that harmonic instruction has limited effects on children's perception of harmony and indicated that the drastic improvement in the perception of implied harmony noted approximately at age 9 is due to development rather than instruction. I propose that young children's difficulty in perceiving implied harmony stems from their attention behaviors. Older children have less memory constraints and more strategies to direct their attention to the relevant cues of the stimulus. Younger children focus their attention on the melody, if present in the stimulus, and specifically on its concrete elements such as rhythm, pitch, and contour rather than its abstract elements such as harmony and key. The inference of the abstract harmonic organization of a melody required in the perception of implied harmony is thus an elusive task for the young child.

  19. Building Bridges Using the Shriners Hospitals for Children/American Burn Association Burn Outcome Questionnaires to Follow Teenagers and Young Adults Across the Age Spans. (United States)

    Kaat, Aaron J; Chen, Liang; Kazis, Lewis E; Lee, Austin F; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Sheridan, Robert L; Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeffrey C


    The Shriners Hospitals for Children/American Burn Association Burn Outcomes Questionnaires (BOQ) are well-established, reliable, and valid outcome measures. The adolescent (BOQ11-18 years) and young adult version (18-30 years) have similar overlapping domains, but the scores are not comparable. This study objective was to build bridges across these forms. Datasets were from the Multi-Center Benchmarking Study Group. The comparable subscales from the BOQ11-18 and the young adult version were bridged using item response theory cocalibration. The item response theory scale scores were then transformed into an expected raw score on the alternative form, from which normative scores are available. A sensitivity analysis using up to three time points, as opposed to one randomly selected occasion, was also conducted to ensure robust results. Data were available on 353 unique adolescents and 148 young adults. The comparable subscales were successfully bridged across forms (adolescent reliability from 0.67 to 0.85; young adult from 0.69 to 0.88). Compared with adolescents, young adults on average reported more pain and itch, less symptom and role satisfaction, and poorer work/school reintegration (Cohen's d = 0.39-0.77; P family/parental concern were comparable across ages (d = -0.01 to 0.09; P > .05). Family functioning was better for young adults than adolescents (d = -0.25; P = .006). BOQ11-18 scores can be mapped from adolescence into young adulthood. Physical and psychosocial outcomes change across this life span. Bridges provide a highly useful approach to track changes across this part of the lifespan.

  20. Young Children's Understanding of Denial (United States)

    Austin, Keith; Theakston, Anna; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael


    Although a fair amount is known about young children's production of negation, little is known about their comprehension. Here, we focus on arguably the most complex basic form, denial, and how young children understand denial, when it is expressed in response to a question with gesture, single word, or sentence. One hundred twenty-six children in…

  1. Gas fireplace contact burns in young children. (United States)

    Zettel, Julie C; Khambalia, Amina; Barden, Wendy; Murthy, Trisha; Macarthur, Colin


    Contact burns from domestic appliances are common in young children. Recently, gas fireplaces have been recognized as a potential cause of contact burns in young children. We sought to quantify the frequency of gas fireplace contact burns in young children, to identify the etiology of contact, to describe the clinical presentation, and to describe clinical outcomes. Children with gas fireplace contact burn injuries presenting to The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto (1999-2002) were identified using three data sources: the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program Database, the Burn Unit Registry, and the Rehabilitation Services Database. Demographic, clinical, and outcomes data were collected on all children. During the 4-year study period, 27 children presented to the hospital because of a gas fireplace contact burn (approximately 9% of all contact burns). The median age of the children was 14 months (range, 8-36 months), with 16 boys (59%). Most children were burned in their own home. With regard to etiology, 10 children (37%) lost their balance near the fireplace, 2 (7%) walked too close to the glass front, and 8 (30%) touched the glass front out of curiosity. Almost half (44%) of the children burned the palms and digits of both hands. The median total burn surface area was 1% (range, 0.2-2.5%). In total, 30% of children were admitted to hospital, and 11% required skin grafts. All children had full wound closure after 4 to 43 days. Given the etiology of these burns (loss of balance or curiosity), passive prevention, such as barriers or changes in the composition of glass panels, may be the most effective approach to combat them.

  2. Egalitarianism in young children


    Fehr, Ernst; Bernhard, Helen; Rockenbach, Bettina


    Human social interaction is strongly shaped by other-regarding preferences. These preferences are key for a unique aspect of human sociality – large scale cooperation with genetic strangers – but little is known about their developmental roots. We show here that young children’s other-regarding preferences assume a particular form – inequality aversion – that develops strongly between the ages of 3 and 8. At age 3-4, the overwhelming majority of children behave selfishly, while the vast major...

  3. Young Children and Job Satisfaction. (United States)

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Sloane, Douglas M.


    Used data from General Social Surveys to examine effect of young children on job satisfaction of men and women. Findings suggest that young children have no effect on job satisfaction of male or female workers regardless of time period, work status, or marital status. This was true for women working in labor market as well as in home. (Author/NB)

  4. Egalitarianism in young children. (United States)

    Fehr, Ernst; Bernhard, Helen; Rockenbach, Bettina


    Human social interaction is strongly shaped by other-regarding preferences, that is, a concern for the welfare of others. These preferences are important for a unique aspect of human sociality-large scale cooperation with genetic strangers-but little is known about their developmental roots. Here we show that young children's other-regarding preferences assume a particular form, inequality aversion that develops strongly between the ages of 3 and 8. At age 3-4, the overwhelming majority of children behave selfishly, whereas most children at age 7-8 prefer resource allocations that remove advantageous or disadvantageous inequality. Moreover, inequality aversion is strongly shaped by parochialism, a preference for favouring the members of one's own social group. These results indicate that human egalitarianism and parochialism have deep developmental roots, and the simultaneous emergence of altruistic sharing and parochialism during childhood is intriguing in view of recent evolutionary theories which predict that the same evolutionary process jointly drives both human altruism and parochialism.

  5. Effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. (United States)

    Le, Truong Giang; Ngo, Long; Mehta, Sumi; Do, Van Dzung; Thach, T Q; Vu, Xuan Dan; Nguyen, Dinh Tuan; Cohen, Aaron


    There is emerging evidence, largely from studies in Europe and North America, that economic deprivation increases the magnitude of morbidity and mortality related to air pollution. Two major reasons why this may be true are that the poor experience higher levels of exposure to air pollution, and they are more vulnerable to its effects--in other words, due to poorer nutrition, less access to medical care, and other factors, they experience more health impact per unit of exposure. The relations among health, air pollution, and poverty are likely to have important implications for public health and social policy, especially in areas such as the developing countries of Asia where air pollution levels are high and many live in poverty. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI*) and to explore whether such effects differed between poor children and other children. ALRI, which comprises pneumonia and bronchiolitis, is the largest single cause of mortality among young children worldwide and is responsible for a substantial burden of disease among young children in developing countries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the health effects of air pollution in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. For these reasons, the results of this study have the potential to make an important contribution to the growing literature on the health effects of air pollution in Asia. The study focused on the short-term effects of daily average exposure to air pollutants on hospital admissions of children less than 5 years of age for ALRI, defined as pneumonia or bronchiolitis, in HCMC during 2003, 2004, and 2005. Admissions data were obtained from computerized records of Children's Hospital 1 and Children's Hospital 2 (CH1 and CH2) in HCMC. Nearly all children hospitalized for respiratory illnesses in the city are admitted to one of these two pediatric

  6. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope (United States)

    Wood, Frances B.


    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  7. Teaching Chess to Young Children. (United States)

    Bankauskas, Deborah


    Presents suggestions for teaching chess to young children as part of the problem-solving component of a kindergarten mathematics curriculum. Discusses the introduction of pairs of chess characters, playing challenge games with teachers to enhance skill development, and writing down the rules of the game. Notes that children's problem-solving and…

  8. Young Children's Language of Togetherness. (United States)

    de Haan, Dorian; Singer, Elly


    Discusses verbal strategies used by young children to express and construct a sense of togetherness. Presents the case study of one child, 3-5 years old, in his interactions with other children and teachers. Describes three general mechanisms for expressing togetherness: expression of common ground, of cooperation, and of care. (JPB)




  10. Sexuality and Young Children. (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling


    Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…

  11. Pain prevalence in hospitalized children

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    Walther-Larsen, S; Pedersen, M T; Friis, S M


    admitted the same day. The single most common painful procedure named by the children was needle procedures, such as blood draw and intravenous cannulation. CONCLUSION: This study reveals high pain prevalence in children across all age groups admitted to four Danish university hospitals. The majority......BACKGROUND: Pain management in hospitalized children is often inadequate. The prevalence and main sources of pain in Danish university hospitals is unknown. METHODS: This prospective mixed-method cross-sectional survey took place at four university hospitals in Denmark. We enrolled 570 pediatric...... patients who we asked to report their pain experience and its management during the previous 24 hours. For patients identified as having moderate to severe pain, patient characteristics and analgesia regimes were reviewed. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirteen children (37%) responded that they had experienced...

  12. Socialization and Instrumental Competence in Young Children (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana


    Discusses relationships between parental authority patterns by which children are influenced and the development of socially responsible and independent behavior in young children (especially girls). (NH)

  13. Sex Education with Young Children. (United States)

    Koblinsky, Sally; And Others


    Discusses guidelines (developed by the Oregon State University Early Childhood Sex Education Project) for developing teacher-parent cooperation in providing sex education to young children. The guidelines concern how to talk about body differences and body functions; how to deal with masturbation, sex play and obscene language; and how to involve…

  14. Caring for Young Children in the Home. (United States)

    Birckmayer, Jennifer; And Others

    Group leaders of 10- to 13-year-olds may use this program guide to help the preteens interact with young children through six discussion meetings and five visits with a preschool child at home. Discussion topics concern (1) the family environment of young children, (2) children's play; (3) children's play areas at home, (4) safety at home, (5)…

  15. Noticing Young Children's Mathematical Strengths and Agency (United States)

    Dockett, Sue; Goff, Wendy


    This paper promotes the importance of noticing young children's mathematical strengths. It draws on the philosophical positions of children's rights and competence to propose a shift in the ways in which all involved might notice the mathematical engagement, understandings, experiences and practices of young children. Noticing children's…

  16. The State of Young Children in Israel (United States)

    Kosher, Hanita, Ed.


    This document, based on the statistical yearbook, "Children in Israel 2014," presents data on the population of young children in Israel. The document presents a current picture of the well-being of young children in Israel intended to assist policy-makers and practitioners to understand the situation of this group of children and to…

  17. Children's psychological responses to hospitalization. (United States)

    Vessey, Judith A


    The data-based literature addressing children's psychological responses to hospitalization was reviewed using methods outlined by Cooper (1989). Using a developmental science perspective, early research was reviewed and a model of variables that contribute to children's responses was constructed. This model consists of three major foci, including maturational and cognitive variables (developmental level, experience, coping style), ecological variables (family and hospital milieu), and biological variables (inborn factors and pathophysiology). Coping serves as the overarching framework for examining these variables and their contributions to children's responses to hospitalization. A variety of theoretical perspectives from the social sciences have been used, with psychoanalytic and stress and adaptation theories predominating. The majority of the research used simple case study, descriptive, or pre- and post-test designs. Methodologic issues were common. Little qualitative work has been done. Future research directions call for studies to adopt new theoretical and empirical models that are methodologically rigorous and clinically relevant and that embrace the precepts of developmental science.

  18. Young children as Internet users


    Daramola, O. (Oladipo)


    Abstract In the current available research concerning the real usage of the internet among the young children, most researchers particularly emphases on the risk and opportunities regarding the active use of the internet. Limited experimental research emphases on the role-based and impact of the parent guidelines in the context. In the current studies, internet parenting methods are well-defined and operationalized to study...

  19. Predicting respiratory hospital admissions in young people with cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Blackmore, Amanda Marie; Bear, Natasha; Blair, Eve; Langdon, Katherine; Moshovis, Lisa; Steer, Kellie; Wilson, Andrew C


    To determine the early predictors of respiratory hospital admissions in young people with cerebral palsy (CP). A 3-year prospective cohort study using linked data. Children and young people with CP, aged 1 to 26 years. Self-reported and carer-reported respiratory symptoms were linked to respiratory hospital admissions (as defined by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision codes) during the following 3 years. 482 participants (including 289 males) were recruited. They were aged 1 to 26 years (mean 10 years, 10 months; SD 5 years, 11 months) at the commencement of the study, and represented all Gross Motor Function Classification Scale (GMFCS) levels. During the 3-year period, 55 (11.4%) participants had a total of 186 respiratory hospital admissions, and spent a total of 1475 days in hospital. Statistically significant risk factors for subsequent respiratory hospital admissions over 3 years in univariate analyses were GMFCS level V, at least one respiratory hospital admission in the year preceding the survey, oropharyngeal dysphagia, seizures, frequent respiratory symptoms, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, at least two courses of antibiotics in the year preceding the survey, mealtime respiratory symptoms and nightly snoring. Most risk factors for respiratory hospital admissions are potentially modifiable. Early identification of oropharyngeal dysphagia and the management of seizures may help prevent serious respiratory illness. One respiratory hospital admission should trigger further evaluation and management to prevent subsequent respiratory illness. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Stroke Among Young Adults at the LAUTECH Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stroke Among Young Adults at the LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. AF Mustapha, EO Sanya, TO Bello. Abstract. Background: Stroke in young adults is relatively rare and there are very few hospital reports about it in Nigeria. The aetiologic mechanisms of stoke among young adults are quite distinct from ...

  1. Young Children and Families Experiencing Homelessness (United States)

    Wilson, Allison B.; Squires, Jane


    The increasing prevalence of homelessness among young children and families in the United States is described, as is the developmental impact on young children and cost to society. Although services are mandated for this population under the McKinney­-Vento Act, Education of Homeless Children and Youth Program, and the Individuals With…

  2. Seven Myths about Young Children and Technology (United States)

    Plowman, Lydia; McPake, Joanna


    Parents and educators tend to have many questions about young children's play with computers and other technologies at home. They can find it difficult to know what is best for children because these toys and products were not around when they were young. Some will say that children have an affinity for technology that will be valuable in their…

  3. Measuring young children's language abilities. (United States)

    Zink, I; Schaerlaekens, A


    This article deals with the new challenges put on language diagnosis, and the growing need for good diagnostic instruments for young children. Particularly for Dutch, the original English Reynell Developmental Language Scales were adapted not only to the Dutch idiom, but some general ameliorations and changes in the original scales resulted in a new instrument named the RTOS. The new instrument was standardized on a large population, and psychometrically evaluated. In communicating the experiences with such a language/cultural/psychometric adaptation, we hope that other language-minority groups will be encouraged to undertake similar adaptations.

  4. Universe Awareness For Young Children (United States)

    Scorza, C.; Miley, G.; Ödman, C.; Madsen, C.


    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an international programme that will expose economically disadvantaged young children aged between 4 and 10 years to the inspirational aspects of modern astronomy. The programme is motivated by the premise that access to simple knowledge about the Universe is a basic birth right of everybody. These formative ages are crucial in the development of a human value system. This is also the age range in which children can learn to develop a 'feeling' for the vastness of the Universe. Exposing young children to such material is likely to broaden their minds and stimulate their world-view. The goals of Universe Awareness are in accordance with two of the United Nations Millennium goals, endorsed by all 191 UN member states, namely (i) the achievement of universal primary education and (ii) the promotion of gender equality in schools. We propose to commence Universe Awareness with a pilot project that will target disadvantaged regions in about 4 European countries (possibly Spain, France, Germany and The Netherlands) and several non-EU countries (possibly Chile, Colombia, India, Tunisia, South Africa and Venezuela). There will be two distinct elements in the development of the UNAWE program: (i) Creation and production of suitable UNAWE material and delivery techniques, (ii) Training of educators who will coordinate UNAWE in each of the target countries. In addition to the programme, an international network of astronomy outreach will be organised. We present the first results of a pilot project developed in Venezuela, where 670 children from different social environments, their teachers and members of an indigenous tribe called Ye´kuana from the Amazon region took part in a wonderful astronomical and cultural exchange that is now being promoted by the Venezuelan ministry of Education at the national level.

  5. Hospitality: transformative service to children, families, and communities. (United States)

    Melton, Gary B


    Hospitality is an ancient moral practice that was deeply embedded in early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Hospitality requires acceptance of, service to, and respect for people who lack a place in the community. The contemporary importance of this practice reflects the social disconnection and economic disadvantage of many young parents and the high frequency of separation of young people, including many young parents, from their communities. Such social deterioration substantially increases the risk of child maltreatment. Building on the proposals of the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, Strong Communities for Children demonstrated the effectiveness of community building in reducing such risk. It further suggested the importance of both relying on and learning from hospitable people in strengthening support for children and their parents. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Motor Proficiency in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Venetsanou


    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine motor proficiency in young children, focusing on potential gender differences. For that purpose, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency–Long Form (BOTMP-LF was administered to 540 children (272 boys, 4½ to 6 years old. First, the 2 (sex × 4 (age groups ANOVA computed on children’s total BOTMP-LF scores showed that age had a statistically significant effect, whereas gender did not. Second, the one-way MANCOVA applied on subtest scores, with age as covariate, revealed statistical significant gender differences; however, η2 values were found to be small or moderate. Finally, the MANCOVA applied on items where significant gender differences have been reported showed a significant effect of gender. Nonetheless, η2 values exceeded the limit of practical significance only on two items (“standing on preferred leg on floor”, “throwing a ball at a target with preferred hand” that are associated with gender-stereotyped activities. It can be concluded that (a besides statistical significance, effect sizes should be examined for the results of a study to be adequately interpreted; (b young boys’ and girls’ motor proficiency is similar rather than different. Gender differences in specific skills should be used for movement programs to be individualized.

  7. What Do Young Children Dream about? (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Nealis, Arlene L.


    Young children's dreams can be a way for teachers and caregivers to share with children and an opportunity for children to describe and even draw dreams. In two different preschool settings, in two different geographical locales, 94 children, aged 3-5 years, shared 266 dreams with a trusted, familiar teacher. Dreams were coded anonymously. The…

  8. Young Children in Deep Poverty. Fact Sheet (United States)

    Ekono, Mercedes; Jiang, Yang; Smith, Sheila


    A U.S. family of three living in deep poverty survives on an annual income below $9,276, or less than $9.00 a day per family member. The struggle to raise children on such a meager income is not a rare circumstance among U.S. families, especially those with young children. Currently, 11 percent of young children (0-9 years) live in households with…

  9. Assessment of early bronchiectasis in young children with cystic fibrosis is dependent on lung volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P.L. Bard (Martin); K. Graniel (Karla); J. Park (Judy); N.H. de Klerk (Nicholas); P.D. Sly; C.P. Murray (Conor); H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm); S. Stick


    textabstractObjective: The aim of this study was to determine whether assessment of early CT scan-detected bronchiectasis in young children with cystic fibrosis (CF) depends on lung volume. Methods: This study, approved by the hospital ethics committee, included 40 young children with CF from a

  10. Book Ownership and Young Children's Learning (United States)

    Tadesse, Selamawit; Washington, Patsy


    Research indicates that there are positive effects when young children read and explore books for pleasure, as such activities help build the skills and knowledge that are critical to schooling. Reading for pleasure is facilitated when children have access to books in their own homes. There are great variations in children's book ownership…

  11. Priorities for children and young people - opportunities and challenges for children and young people's nurses. (United States)

    Smith, Fiona


    Across Europe children's nurses today face many challenges, including rising childhood obesity, the soaring incidence of issues with the mental health of children and young people, the effects of social media, child maltreatment and the impact of poverty, war and conflict on children and families. There are opportunities for children's nurses to undertake new roles and to influence both policy and practice to improve the health outcomes of children and young people, and thereby the future health of the population.

  12. Digestive system complications among hospitalized children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    least common complication, occurring in one (3.3%) of the cases studied. Conclusion: Acute ... Keywords: Acute abdominal crisis, children, haemoglobin, hospitalization, multi-systemic ... improvement of the management of such children.

  13. INEDITHOS: a Hospital Pedagogy project devoted to improving the quality of life of children and young people with rare diseases from the intervention, and research with university volunteering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca NEGRE BENNASAR


    Full Text Available This paper presents an experience in Hospital Pedagogy organized by the University of the Balearic Islands. This project is called INEDITHOS and its main objective is to work into improve the quality of life of children and youth with Rare Diseases. The project works in three lines of intervention: psycho-pedagogical support to patients and their families, research to respond to the needs that are detected in this area and the training of university students who collaborates in the project, using the Service Learning methodology. The long trajectory of the project that began in 2003 has made it possible to consolidate the three interventions resulting in a non-profit association with the same name. This result is complemented by the growing involvement of other Associations such as ABAIMAR and FEDER with which close collaboration is maintained. It is also worth noting the increase in the number of volunteers, which allows to offer attention to a higher number of affected while improving the quality of the interventions made thanks to the collaboration and involvement of students and teachers who, through the methodology of Learning and Service, carry out activities and elaborate end-of-degree and master’s work based on the needs identified in the volunteer interventions. INEDITHOS has introduced Rare Diseases in the university context sensitizing a large part of the Educational Community.

  14. Lung function measurement in awake young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Klug, B


    ) and transcutaneous measurements of oxygen tension (Ptc,O2) were compared with concomitant measurements of specific airway resistance (sRaw) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) by whole body plethysmography and spirometry, respectively, during methacholine challenge in 21 young children aged 4-6 yrs...... to methacholine in young children aged 4-6 yrs. This implies that ZIOS, Rint and Ptc,O2 provide convenient indices of changes in lung function. Their combined use will be useful for monitoring airway diseases of young children.......The aim of the study was to evaluate methods applicable in a clinical setting for monitoring of changes in lung function in awake young children. Impedance measurements by the impulse oscillation technique (ZIOS), respiratory resistance measurements by the interrupter technique (Rint...

  15. Teething & Dental Hygiene for Young Children (United States)

    ... Living Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Dental Health & Hygiene for Young Children Page Content Article ... and lead to future dental problems. Teaching Good Dental Habits The best way to protect your child's ...

  16. Consultation for Parents of Young Gifted Children. (United States)

    Wolf, Joan S.


    The article describes private evaluation and consultation services provided to parents of young gifted children, and discusses the benefits of private consultation and the potential role of school personnel in meeting the needs of this population. (Author/JDD)

  17. Release From Proactive Interference with Young Children (United States)

    Cann, Linda F.; And Others


    This demonstration of release from proactive interference with young children confirms the suggestion that the technique is appropriate for the study of developmental changes in the encoding of information. (Authors/CB)

  18. Teaching Time Concepts to Young Children. (United States)

    Muir, Sharon Pray


    Presents many activity ideas for teaching young children about time using chronological events, clocks, and calendars. Jerome Bruner's enactive-iconic-symbolic sequence of concept development is used as a guide for these learning experiences. (LP)

  19. Young Children and War Play. (United States)

    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.


    In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…

  20. A review of infant and young child feeding practice in hospital and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early complementary feeding is a problem in the Midlands. This study has identified that age-specific feeding of infants and young children is not recognised in state hospitals, due to the inadequate frequency of feeding. There is a discrepancy between intention and practice among healthcare professionals in feeding ...

  1. Young Children's Drawings in Problem Solving (United States)

    Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Way, Jennifer; Bobis, Janette


    This paper explores young children's drawings (6 years old) in early number and addition activities in Malaysia. Observation, informal interviews and analysis of drawings revealed two types of drawing, and gave insight into the transitional process required for children to utilise drawings in problem solving. We argue the importance of valuing and…

  2. Helping Young Children in Frightening Times. (United States)

    Young Children, 2001


    Presents ways parents and other adults can help young children deal with tragedy and violence in the wake of terrorist attacks on the United States. Suggests giving reassurance and physical comfort, providing structure and stability, expecting a range of reactions, helping children to talk if they are ready, turning off the television, and…

  3. Health-Related Fitness and Young Children. (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; LeBlanc, Betty

    Because research indicates that American youth have become fatter since the 1960's, the development of fitness among young children should not be left to chance. Simple games, rhythms, and dance are not sufficient to insure fitness, for, during the regular free play situation, children very seldom experience physical activity of enough intensity…

  4. Pay More Attention: a national mixed methods study to identify the barriers and facilitators to ensuring equal access to high-quality hospital care and services for children and young people with and without learning disabilities and their families. (United States)

    Oulton, Kate; Wray, Jo; Carr, Lucinda; Hassiotis, Angela; Jewitt, Carey; Kerry, Sam; Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Gibson, Faith


    Despite evidence of health inequalities for adults with intellectual disability (ID) there has yet to be a comprehensive review of how well hospital services are meeting the needs of children and young people (CYP) with ID and their families. We do not know how relevant existing recommendations and guidelines are to CYP, whether these are being applied in the paediatric setting or what difference they are making. Evidence of parental dissatisfaction with the quality, safety and accessibility of hospital care for CYP with ID exists. However, the extent to which their experience differs from parents of CYP without ID is not known and the views and experiences of CYP with ID have not been investigated. We will compare how services are delivered to, and experienced by CYP aged 5-15 years with and without ID and their families to see what inequalities exist, for whom, why and under what circumstances. We will use a transformative, mixed methods case study design to collect data over four consecutive phases. We will involve CYP, parents and hospital staff using a range of methods; interviews, parental electronic diary, hospital and community staff questionnaire, patient and parent satisfaction questionnaire, content analysis of hospital documents and a retrospective mapping of patient hospital activity. Qualitative data will be managed and analysed using NVivo and quantitative data will be analysed using parametric and non-parametric descriptive statistics. The study will run from December 2015 to November 2018. We have Health Authority Approval (IRAS project ID: 193932) for phase 1 involving staff only and ethical and Health Authority Approval for phases 2-4 (IRAS project ID: 178525). We will disseminate widely to relevant stakeholders, using a range of accessible formats, including social media. We will publish in international peer-reviewed journals and present to professional, academic and lay audiences through national and international conferences. Published by

  5. Overview of respiratory syncytial virus disease in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoopes JM


    Full Text Available J Michael Hoopes1, Veena R Kumar21Medical Information, 2Medical and Scientific Affairs, MedImmune, LLC, Gaithersburg, MD, USAAbstract: Respiratory tract illnesses associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV were first reported more than 160 years ago and gained acceptance as a major respiratory pathogen in the late 1950s. Annual epidemics show a seasonal pattern typically beginning in the late fall and ending in early spring, averaging 5 months in length, and varying in time of onset, offset, and duration depending on geographic location. Manifestations of RSV illness primarily involve the upper respiratory tract but can spread to the lower airways and lead to bronchiolitis and/or pneumonia. Initial infection occurs in approximately two-thirds of children during the first year of life; nearly all children are infected at least once by 2 years of age. Reinfection is common throughout life, but initial illness during infancy generally presents with the most severe symptoms. Medical risk conditions that consistently predispose young children to serious lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI include congenital heart disease, chronic lung disease, and premature birth. Serious LRTI due to RSV is the leading cause of hospitalization in infants and young children worldwide and annual mean hospital expenses have been estimated to exceed 1 billion dollars in the United States. Young children incur more inpatient and outpatient visits for RSV LRTI than for influenza. RSV has a greater impact than influenza on hospitalization in infants with respect to length of stay, severity/course of disease, and resultant needs for ancillary treatments. Unlike many other childhood illnesses, a vaccine is not currently available for preventing RSV disease.Keywords: bronchopulmonary dysplasia, infants, hospitalization, prematurity, respiratory syncytial virus

  6. Emotion knowledge in young neglected children. (United States)

    Sullivan, Margaret W; Bennett, David S; Carpenter, Kim; Lewis, Michael


    Young neglected children may be at risk for emotion knowledge deficits. Children with histories of neglect or with no maltreatment were initially seen at age 4 and again 1 year later to assess their emotion knowledge. Higher IQ was associated with better emotion knowledge, but neglected children had consistently poorer emotion knowledge over time compared to non-neglected children after controlling for IQ. Because both neglected status and IQ may contribute to deficits in emotional knowledge, both should be assessed when evaluating these children to appropriately design and pace emotion knowledge interventions.

  7. On imitation among young and blind children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Campello Rodrigues


    Full Text Available This article investigates the imitation among young and blind children. The survey was conducted as a mosaic in the time since the field considerations were taken from two areas: a professional experience with early stimulation of blind babies and a workshop with blind and low vision young between 13-18 years. By statingthe situated trace of knowledge, theresearch indicates that imitation among blind young people can be one of the ways of creating a common world among young blind and sighted people. Imitation among blind young is a multi-sensory process that requires a body experience, including both blind and people who see. The paper concludes with an indication of the unique character of imitation and at the same time, with the affirmation of its relevance to the development and inclusion process of both the child and the young blind.

  8. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajan, Shahzleen; Wissenberg, Mads; Folke, Fredrik


    BACKGROUND: There is insufficient knowledge of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the very young. OBJECTIVES: This nationwide study sought to examine age-stratified OHCA characteristics and the role of parental socioeconomic differences and its contribution to mortality in the young...... population. METHODS: All OHCA patients in Denmark, ≤21 years of age, were identified from 2001 to 2010. The population was divided into infants (adolescents/young adults (16-21 years). Multivariate logistic regression......-school children, school children and high school adolescents were 11.5, 3.5, 1.3 and 5.3 per 100,000 inhabitants. Overall bystander CPR rate was 48.8%, and for age groups: 55.4%, 41.2%, 44.9% and 63.0%, respectively. Overall 30-day survival rate was 8.1%, and for age groups: 1.4%, 4.5%, 16.1% and 9...

  9. Hospitalization of abused and neglected children. (United States)

    Marshall, W N


    To describe the use of inpatient hospitalization for abused and neglected children living in a metropolitan area. Retrospective record review of abused and neglected children admitted in 1992 and 1993 to hospitals with 87% of metropolitan area pediatric admissions; comparison of these data with population, crisis nursery, and child protective services data. Thirty-four abused and neglected children were admitted to hospital, representing 0.3% (34/11,066; 95% confidence interval, 0%-1.2%) of pediatric admissions and 0.2% (34/19,950; 95% confidence interval, 0%-0.6%) of child protective services reports. This represents a rate of hospitalization for child abuse of 10 children (95% confidence interval, 0-46) per 100,000 child population per year. Seven hundred fifteen children were admitted to the crisis nursery by child protective services. Of those admitted to the hospital, 12 needed intensive care, 5 of whom died. Only 3 of 34 hospital-admitted children had private health insurance; 19 of 34 were younger than 1 year. Inpatient hospitalization for abuse represented a small fraction of total pediatric admissions and of child protective services reports. Comprehensive medical care for most abused children and medical education about child abuse must occur in outpatient settings.

  10. Human rhinovirus infection in young African children with acute wheezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zar Heather J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections caused by human rhinoviruses (HRVs are important triggers of wheezing in young children. Wheezy illness has increasingly been recognised as an important cause of morbidity in African children, but there is little information on the contribution of HRV to this. The aim of this study was to determine the role of HRV as a cause of acute wheezing in South African children. Methods Two hundred and twenty children presenting consecutively at a tertiary children's hospital with a wheezing illness from May 2004 to November 2005 were prospectively enrolled. A nasal swab was taken and reverse transcription PCR used to screen the samples for HRV. The presence of human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus and human coronavirus-NL63 was assessed in all samples using PCR-based assays. A general shell vial culture using a pool of monoclonal antibodies was used to detect other common respiratory viruses on 26% of samples. Phylogenetic analysis to determine circulating HRV species was performed on a portion of HRV-positive samples. Categorical characteristics were analysed using Fisher's Exact test. Results HRV was detected in 128 (58.2% of children, most (72% of whom were under 2 years of age. Presenting symptoms between the HRV-positive and negative groups were similar. Most illness was managed with ambulatory therapy, but 45 (35% were hospitalized for treatment and 3 (2% were admitted to intensive care. There were no in-hospital deaths. All 3 species of HRV were detected with HRV-C being the most common (52% followed by HRV-A (37% and HRV-B (11%. Infection with other respiratory viruses occurred in 20/128 (16% of HRV-positive children and in 26/92 (28% of HRV-negative samples. Conclusion HRV may be the commonest viral infection in young South African children with acute wheezing. Infection is associated with mild or moderate clinical disease.

  11. Children Hospitalized With Varicella in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glode Helmuth, Ida; Broccia, Marcella Ditte; Glenthøj, Jonathan Peter


    is not part of the national immunization program and there is no national surveillance of varicella. The primary aim of the study was to describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of children hospitalized with varicella in Denmark. The secondary aim was to validate the sensitivity and completeness...... of the Danish National Patient Register. METHODS: Active surveillance of children hospitalized with varicella was carried out at 4 pediatric departments. In the Danish National Patient Register, we identified all children discharged with an International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision code...... of varicella from the 4 departments. We used a capture-recapture analysis to estimate the "true" number of hospitalized children with varicella. RESULTS: By active surveillance, we identified 86 children eligible for clinical description. In 87% of cases, the children were 0-4 years of age. Complications were...

  12. Internet Usage among Children and Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karayagiz Muslu


    Full Text Available Computers have occupied increasingly central roles in children’s world with the advance of technology. They have proved to be an ideal companion for children in developing and developed countries who spend most of their time at school or home with computers. As a measure of development and modernization, technology has made people’s lives easier and contributed positively to social well-being so far while it has also brought about some problems and threats stemming from irresponsible use of Internet. Unmonitored use of Internet may cause damages in children’s and young people’s physical, psychological, social and cognitive development. It seems imperative to assure that children and young people can benefit from computers and Internet resources effectively and productively while measures for appropriate and safe use of Internet are to be taken into serious consideration. Therefore, the government offices and institutions should lay stress upon the issue; education professionals and parents should be well-informed and regularly updated; and finally children and young people should be educated and monitored to achieve a better and efficient use of Internet. In this paper, has been mentioned to negative effect of internet usage on physical, psychosocial and cognitive health of children and young people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 445-450

  13. Young Children Surfing: Gender Differences in Computer Use (United States)

    Kirmani, Mubina Hassanali; Davis, Marcia H.; Kalyanpur, Maya


    Computers have become an important part of young children's lives, both as a source of entertainment and education. The National Association for the Education of Young Children's (NAEYC) position statement on Technology and Young Children (2006) supports the need for equal access to technology for all children with attention to eliminating gender…

  14. Attachment in young children with incarcerated fathers. (United States)

    Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie; Burnson, Cynthia; Runion, Hilary; Weymouth, Lindsay A


    The present study examined young children's attachment behaviors during paternal incarceration and reported on initial validity of a new measure used to rate children's attachment-related behaviors and emotions during visits in a corrections setting. Seventy-seven children, age 2 to 6 years, and their jailed fathers and current caregivers participated in the home visit portion of the study, whereas 28 of these children participated in the jail visit. The results indicated that 27% of children witnessed the father's crime and 22% of children witnessed the father's arrest, with most children who witnessed these events exhibiting extreme distress; children who witnessed these events were more likely to have insecure attachments to their caregivers. Consistent with attachment theory and research, caregivers who exhibited more sensitivity and responsivity during interactions with children and those who provided more stimulating, responsive, learning-oriented home environments had children who were more likely to have secure attachments (measured with the Attachment Q-Sort). We also found preliminary evidence for the validity of our new measure, the Jail Prison Observation Checklist, in that children's attachment-related behaviors and emotions during the jail visit correlated with their attachment security observed in the home. Our observations indicate that, in certain contexts, noncontact visits with incarcerated parents can be stressful for children and that children's caregivers may play a significant role during these visits.

  15. Tracing Young Children's Scientific Reasoning (United States)

    Tytler, Russell; Peterson, Suzanne


    This paper explores the scientific reasoning of 14 children across their first two years of primary school. Children's view of experimentation, their approach to exploration, and their negotiation of competing knowledge claims, are interpreted in terms of categories of epistemological reasoning. Children's epistemological reasoning is distinguished from their ability to control variables. While individual children differ substantially, they show a relatively steady growth in their reasoning, with some contextual variation. A number of these children are reasoning at a level well in advance of curriculum expectations, and it is argued that current recommended practice in primary science needs to be rethought. The data is used to explore the relationship between reasoning and knowledge, and to argue that the generation and exploration of ideas must be the key driver of scientific activity in the primary school.

  16. Protecting Against Influenza (Flu): Advice for Caregivers of Young Children (United States)

    ... Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Protecting Against Influenza (Flu): Advice for Caregivers of Young Children Language: English ( ... from the flu. Advice on How to Prevent Flu for Caregivers of Young Children 1. Take Time ...

  17. Young Children Treat Robots as Informants. (United States)

    Breazeal, Cynthia; Harris, Paul L; DeSteno, David; Kory Westlund, Jacqueline M; Dickens, Leah; Jeong, Sooyeon


    Children ranging from 3 to 5 years were introduced to two anthropomorphic robots that provided them with information about unfamiliar animals. Children treated the robots as interlocutors. They supplied information to the robots and retained what the robots told them. Children also treated the robots as informants from whom they could seek information. Consistent with studies of children's early sensitivity to an interlocutor's non-verbal signals, children were especially attentive and receptive to whichever robot displayed the greater non-verbal contingency. Such selective information seeking is consistent with recent findings showing that although young children learn from others, they are selective with respect to the informants that they question or endorse. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Coding & Robotics for Young Children? You Bet! (United States)

    Gadzikowski, Ann


    In 2012, the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) revised its position statement regarding the appropriate use of technology in early childhood classrooms. The increased accessibility of touch screens on tablets and smart phones led to this revision, which moves the conversation from the question of "When shall we…

  19. Methodological Reflections on Working with Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias


    This paper provides methodological reflections on an evolutionary and participatory software development process for designing interactive systems with children of very young age. The approach was put into practice for the design of a software environment for self-directed project management...

  20. Neighborhood Context and Immigrant Young Children's Development (United States)

    Leventhal, Tama; Shuey, Elizabeth A.


    This study explored how neighborhood social processes and resources, relevant to immigrant families and immigrant neighborhoods, contribute to young children's behavioral functioning and achievement across diverse racial/ethnic groups. Data were drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, a neighborhood-based,…

  1. How the Project Approach Challenges Young Children (United States)

    Burns, Marcia V.; Lewis, Alisha L.


    In this article, educators at University Primary School in Champaign, Illinois, share examples and understandings of the ways The Project Approach challenges young children to think critically about topics of importance in their world. Project investigations that provoke academic and social challenges for individuals and classroom communities of…

  2. Young Children's Learning with Digital Media (United States)

    Lieberman, Debra A.; Bates, Cynthia H.; So, Jiyeon


    This article reviews a selection of studies on digital media and learning for young children ages 3 to 6. The range of digital media for this age group is growing and includes computer-delivered and online activities; console video games; handheld media, occasionally with GPS or an accelerometer, in cell phones and other wireless mobile devices;…

  3. Young Children's Responses to Guilt Displays (United States)

    Vaish, Amrisha; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael


    Displaying guilt after a transgression serves to appease the victim and other group members, restore interpersonal relationships, and indicate the transgressors' awareness of and desire to conform to the group's norms. We investigated whether and when young children are sensitive to these functions of guilt displays. In Study 1, after 4- and…

  4. Growth of the skull in young children in Baotou, China. (United States)

    Hou, Hai-dong; Liu, Ming; Gong, Ke-rui; Shao, Guo; Zhang, Chun-Yang


    There are some controversies about the optimal time to perform skull repair in very young Chinese children because of the rapid skull growth in this stage of life. The purpose of this current study is to describe the characteristics of skull growth and to discuss the optimal time for skull repair in young Chinese children with skull defects. A total of 112 children born in the First Affiliated Hospital of Baotou Medical College were measured for six consecutive years starting in 2006. Cranial length (CL, linear distance between the eyebrows to the pillow tuberosity), cranial width (CW, double-sided linear distance of connection of external auditory canal), ear over the top line (EOTL), the eyebrows-the posterior tuberosity line (EPTL), and head circumference (HC) were measured to describe the skull growth. The most rapid period of skull growth occurs during the first year of life. The second and third most rapid periods are the second and third years, respectively. Then, the skull growth slowed and the values of the skull growth index of 6-year-old children were close to those of adults. Children 0-1 years old should not receive skull repair due to their rapid skull growth. The indexes of children 3 years old or older were close to those of the adult; therefore, 3 years old or older may receive skull repair.

  5. Contamination Sensitivity in Young Children. (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Share, David L.


    Revealed that children were able to indicate that an apparently safe substance such as juice may be contaminated by contact with a foreign body such as a cockroach. Supported the hypothesis that early sensitivity to substances that contain invisible contaminates may be guided by knowledge of a distinction between appearance and reality. (RH)

  6. Dominance Hierarchies in Young Children (United States)

    Edelman, Murray S.; Omark, Donald R.


    This study uses the ethological approach of seeking species characteristics and phylogenetic continuities in an investigation of human behavior. Among primates a striking consistency is the presence of some form of dominance hierarchy in many species. The present study examines peer group dominance hierarchies as they are perceived by children in…

  7. Phonemic Awareness and Young Children. (United States)

    Wasik, Barbara A.


    Asserts that regardless of the method used to teach reading, children first need a strong basis in phonemic awareness. Describes phonemic awareness, differentiates it from phonics, and presents available research findings. Advises on the development of phonemic awareness and creation of a classroom environment supportive of its development. (SD)

  8. Iron status of young children in Europe. (United States)

    van der Merwe, Liandré F; Eussen, Simone R


    Iron deficiency (ID) is common in young children aged 6-36 mo. Although the hazards associated with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are well known, concerns about risks associated with excess iron intake in young children are emerging. To characterize iron status in Europe, we describe the prevalence of ID, IDA, iron repletion, and excess stores with the use of published data from a systematic review on iron intake and deficiency rates, combined with other selected iron status data in young European children. Various definitions for ID and IDA were applied across studies. ID prevalence varied depending on socioeconomic status and type of milk fed (i.e., human or cow milk or formula). Without regard to these factors, ID was reported in 3-48% of children aged ≥12 mo across the countries. For 6- to 12-mo-old infants, based on studies that did not differentiate these factors, ID prevalence was 4-18%. IDA was iron status data from a sample of healthy Western European children aged 12-36 mo, 69% were iron replete, and the 97.5th percentile for serum ferritin (SF) was 64.3 μg/L. In another sample, 79% of 24-mo-old children were iron replete, and the 97.5th percentile for SF was 57.3 μg/L. Average iron intake in most countries studied was close to or below the UK's Recommended Dietary Allowance. In conclusion, even in healthy European children aged 6-36 mo, ID is still common. In Western European populations for whom data were available, approximately three-quarters of children were found to be iron replete, and excess iron stores (SF >100 μg/L) did not appear to be a concern. Consensus on the definitions of iron repletion and excess stores, as well as on ID and IDA, is needed. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Hacking the hospital environment: young adults designing youth-friendly hospital rooms together with young people with cancer experiences. (United States)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Boisen, Anne; Thomsen, Stine Legarth; Matthiesen, Simon Meggers; Hjerming, Maiken; Hertz, Pernille Grarup


    There is a need for youth-friendly hospital environments as the ward environment may affect both patient satisfaction and health outcomes. To involve young people in designing youth-friendly ward environment. We arranged a design competition lasting 42 h (Hackathon). Students in architecture, design, engineering, communication and anthropology participated (27 young adults) - forming eight groups. Adolescents and young adults (AYA) with current or former cancer experience participated as sparring partners. We provided workspace and food during the weekend. The groups presented their products to a jury and relevant stakeholders. The groups created eight unique design concepts. The young designers were extremely flexible listening to ideas and experiences from the young patients, which led to common features including individual and flexible design, privacy in two-bed wardrooms and social contact with other hospitalized AYA. The winning project included an integrated concept for both wardrooms and the AYA day room, including logos and names for the rooms and an 'energy wall' in the day room. A hackathon event was an effective mode of youth participation. The design concepts and ideas were in line with current evidence regarding pleasing hospital environment and youth-friendly inpatient facilities and may be applicable to other young patients.

  10. Heart rates in hospitalized children by age and body temperature. (United States)

    Daymont, Carrie; Bonafide, Christopher P; Brady, Patrick W


    Heart rate (HR) is frequently used by clinicians in the hospital to assess a patient's severity of illness and make treatment decisions. We sought to develop percentiles that characterize the relationship of expected HR by age and body temperature in hospitalized children and to compare these percentiles with published references in both primary care and emergency department (ED) settings. Vital sign data were extracted from electronic health records of inpatients temperature measurement pairs from each admission. Measurements from 60% of patients were used to derive the percentile curves, with the remainder used for validation. We compared our upper percentiles with published references in primary care and ED settings. We used 60,863 observations to derive the percentiles. Overall, an increase in body temperature of 1°C was associated with an increase of ∼ 10 beats per minute in HR, although there were variations across age and temperature ranges. For infants and young children, our upper percentiles were lower than in primary care and ED settings. For school-age children, our upper percentiles were higher. We characterized expected HR by age and body temperature in hospitalized children. These percentiles differed from references in primary care and ED settings. Additional research is needed to evaluate the performance of these percentiles for the identification of children who would benefit from further evaluation or intervention for tachycardia. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Children and Young People-Mental Health Safety Assessment Tool (CYP-MH SAT) study: Protocol for the development and psychometric evaluation of an assessment tool to identify immediate risk of self-harm and suicide in children and young people (10–19 years) in acute paediatric hospital settings (United States)

    Walker, Gemma M; Carter, Tim; Aubeeluck, Aimee; Witchell, Miranda; Coad, Jane


    Introduction Currently, no standardised, evidence-based assessment tool for assessing immediate self-harm and suicide in acute paediatric inpatient settings exists. Aim The aim of this study is to develop and test the psychometric properties of an assessment tool that identifies immediate risk of self-harm and suicide in children and young people (10–19 years) in acute paediatric hospital settings. Methods and analysis Development phase: This phase involved a scoping review of the literature to identify and extract items from previously published suicide and self-harm risk assessment scales. Using a modified electronic Delphi approach, these items will then be rated according to their relevance for assessment of immediate suicide or self-harm risk by expert professionals. Inclusion of items will be determined by 65%–70% consensus between raters. Subsequently, a panel of expert members will convene to determine the face validity, appropriate phrasing, item order and response format for the finalised items. Psychometric testing phase: The finalised items will be tested for validity and reliability through a multicentre, psychometric evaluation. Psychometric testing will be undertaken to determine the following: internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, convergent, divergent validity and concurrent validity. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was provided by the National Health Service East Midlands—Derby Research Ethics Committee (17/EM/0347) and full governance clearance received by the Health Research Authority and local participating sites. Findings from this study will be disseminated to professionals and the public via peer-reviewed journal publications, popular social media and conference presentations. PMID:29654046

  12. [Nutritional status and risk in hospitalized children]. (United States)

    Hankard, R; Bloch, J; Martin, P; Randrianasolo, H; Bannier, M F; Machinot, S; Cézard, J P


    A few studies report malnutrition in hospitalized patients. This one-day cross-sectional survey performed in January 1999 assessed nutritional status and protein-energy intake in a pediatric population hospitalized in medicine or surgery units. Every child older than six months, hospitalized for more than 48 h and free of nutritional support (parenteral, enteral, or special regimens for metabolic diseases) was included. Fifty-eight children among the 183 present the day of the study met the inclusion criteria and were included in the statistical analysis. They were hospitalized in medicine (48%), psychiatry (31%) and surgery (21%). The body mass index (BMI) was below -2 standard deviations (DS) in 21% of them. Excluding patients with anorexia nervosa, BMI was +2 SD, or in between these limits in respectively 12, 14 and 74%. Energy intake measured at the hospital was below 75% of the recommended dietary allowances in two-thirds of the children whether malnourished or not. Fifty percent of the malnourished children had been referred to a dietician the day of the study. Malnutrition is frequent in a population of hospitalized children. Energy intake and referral to a dietician are insufficient.

  13. Effects of Assertive Training on Hospitalized Adolescents and Young Adults. (United States)

    Fiedler, Phyllis E.; And Others


    This study focuses on reducing the hostility of hospitalized adolescent and young adult psychiatric patients through assertive training techniques designed to teach appropriate responses to interpersonal conflict. It was predicted that, after treatment, the assertive group would show greater assertiveness, less hostility, and a more positive…

  14. Strokes In Young Adults And Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Iranmanesh


    Full Text Available Stroke is in second place on a mortality list in the world. Also, stroke is a leading cause of disability. Approximately 20% of all strokes occur in Children and young adults. The etiology of stroke in Children and young adults is different from that in older patients, and has an influence on diagnostic evaluation and treatment, so knowledge about older patients cannot always be applied to these patients. The list of stroke etiologies among young adults and children is extensive. Ischemic stroke are more frequent than hemorrhagic strokes in both groups. Stroke in young adults had been thought to be associated with   risk factors, including arterial (such as dissection, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, inflammatory arteritis ,moyamoya ,migraine - induced stroke, genetic or inherted arteriopathy, premature atherosclerosis cardiac (such as patent foramen ovale, cardiomyopathy , congenital heart disease and   hematologic (such as  deficiencies of protein S,protein C,or antithrombin;factor V lieden mutation . Common risk factors for stroke in children include: Sickle-cell disease, diseases of the arteries, abnormal blood clotting, head or neck trauma. There are no specific recommendations or guidelines for primary or secondary stroke prevention in young adults. Primary prevention focused on identifying and managing known vascular risk factors, such as hypertension, disorders of lipid metabolism, and diabetes, and non-drug strategies and lifestyle changes, including smoking, reducing body weight, increasing regular aerobic physical activity, and adopting a healthy diet with more fruit and vegetables and less salt. For secondary stroke prevention, identification of the etiologic mechanism of the initial stroke and the presence of any additional risk factors is most important. It consists of optimal treatment of vascular risk factors administering antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy, and if indicated, invasive surgical or

  15. Emotional Responsivity in Young Children with Williams Syndrome (United States)

    Fidler, Debbie J.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Most, David E.; Philofsky, Amy; Rogers, Sally J.


    The hypothesis that young children with Williams syndrome show higher rates of emotional responsivity relative to other children with developmental disabilities was explored. Performance of 23 young children with Williams syndrome and 30 MA-matched children with developmental disabilities of nonspecific etiologies was compared on an adaptation of…

  16. Intravenous Laser Therapy in Young Children with Thermal Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Bocharov


    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the laboratory and clinical effects of combined intravenous laser therapy in young children with thermalinjuries in the acute period of burn disease.Subjects and methods. Forty children whose mean age was 2.67±0.35 years were examined; thermal injuries accounted for 25.05±1.01% of the total body surface area; of them degrees IIIaIIIb was 19.04±0.85%. A comparison group (n=15 received conventional therapy without taking into account and correcting baseline and current hemostasiological disorders. On day 1, a study group (n=25 had programmed anticoagulant therapy and intravenous laser therapy at different radiation frequencies with a Mustang 20002+ laser therapy apparatus (patent for invention No. 2482894 in addition to the conventional therapy. The laser therapy cycle was 6 to 16 sessions. The investigators estimated and compared the following examined parameters: white blood cell count; leukocytic index of intoxication; plasma average mass molecules at a wavelength of 254 nm; toxogenic granularity of neutrophils; wound exudate discharge time; surgical plasty area; and hospitalization time.Results. The positive laboratory and clinical effects of the performed combined intravenous laser therapy in the combined therapy of burn disease in young children were comparatively shown in the study group patients. The significant decrease in the level of an inflammatory response and endogenous intoxication led to a rapider burn wound cleansing, active epithelization, and reduced surgical plasty volumes.Conclusion. Combined intravenous laser therapy signif icantly exerts antiinflammatory and detoxifying effects in young children with 40% thermal injuries in the acute period of burn disease. Abolishing a systemic inflammatory response by combined intravenous laser therapy initiated early regenerative processes in the burn wound and caused reductions in surgical plasty volumes and hospitalization time, which optimizes ther

  17. Health of children and young people in secure settings


    Mooney, Ann; Statham, J.; Storey, P.


    This small-scale descriptive study was commissioned by the Children and Young People's Public Health team within the Department of Health, in partnership with Offender Health, in order to inform preparation and implementation of an Offender Health Strategy document for children and young people. The overall aim was to review what is currently known about healthcare for children and young people in the secure estate, covering all three types of settings (Young Offender Institution, Secure Trai...

  18. AKI in Children Hospitalized with Nephrotic Syndrome. (United States)

    Rheault, Michelle N; Zhang, Lei; Selewski, David T; Kallash, Mahmoud; Tran, Cheryl L; Seamon, Meredith; Katsoufis, Chryso; Ashoor, Isa; Hernandez, Joel; Supe-Markovina, Katarina; D'Alessandri-Silva, Cynthia; DeJesus-Gonzalez, Nilka; Vasylyeva, Tetyana L; Formeck, Cassandra; Woll, Christopher; Gbadegesin, Rasheed; Geier, Pavel; Devarajan, Prasad; Carpenter, Shannon L; Kerlin, Bryce A; Smoyer, William E


    Children with nephrotic syndrome can develop life-threatening complications, including infection and thrombosis. While AKI is associated with adverse outcomes in hospitalized children, little is known about the epidemiology of AKI in children with nephrotic syndrome. The main objectives of this study were to determine the incidence, epidemiology, and hospital outcomes associated with AKI in a modern cohort of children hospitalized with nephrotic syndrome. Records of children with nephrotic syndrome admitted to 17 pediatric nephrology centers across North America from 2010 to 2012 were reviewed. AKI was classified using the pediatric RIFLE definition. AKI occurred in 58.6% of 336 children and 50.9% of 615 hospitalizations (27.3% in stage R, 17.2% in stage I, and 6.3% in stage F). After adjustment for race, sex, age at admission, and clinical diagnosis, infection (odds ratio, 2.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.37 to 3.65; P=0.001), nephrotoxic medication exposure (odds ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 1.64; P=0.002), days of nephrotoxic medication exposure (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.15; Pchildren with nephrotic syndrome. Nephrotoxic medication exposure was common in this population, and each additional nephrotoxic medication received during a hospitalization was associated with 38% higher risk of AKI. AKI was associated with longer hospital stay after adjustment for race, sex, age at admission, clinical diagnosis, and infection (difference, 0.45 [log]days; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.53 [log]days; Pchildren hospitalized with nephrotic syndrome and should be deemed the third major complication of nephrotic syndrome in children in addition to infection and venous thromboembolism. Risk factors for AKI include steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, infection, and nephrotoxic medication exposure. Children with AKI have longer hospital lengths of stay and increased need for intensive care unit admission. Copyright © 2015 by the

  19. Dealing with Difficult Young Children: Strategies for Teachers and Parents. (United States)

    Soderman, Anne K.


    Reviews current research on the individual temperament of young children and recommends strategies to understand and build upon children's personality strengths. Discusses the influence of adult perceptions and misperceptions on children's personality development. (DT)

  20. Casemix reimbursement: a Singapore Children's Hospital perspective. (United States)

    Yoong, S L


    Casemix reimbursement was introduced to Singapore in October 1999 using the Australian National Diagnosis Related Groups Version 3.1 (AN-DRGs 3.1). The possible impact of this classification system on a Singapore Children's Hospital is discussed. Data on paediatric patients in KK Women's and Children's Hospital (KKH) were drawn from the inhouse Datamart warehouse system, and reviewed with regards to volume of patients, length of stay and charges. Several high cost categories were selected for a more in-depth review and discussed. The classification system and reimbursement method did not take into account the higher cost of treating children, thus penalising the Children's Hospital. The wide variety of cases treated also gave rise to difficulty in obtaining appropriate reimbursement. The lack of severity of illness measures was a drawback in the Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) for ventilated patients. The lack of outcome measures gave rise to potentially inequitable reimbursement in some high cost neonatal DRGs. While Casemix is an improvement over previous methods of providing Government funding in Singapore, particular aspects need to be reviewed, and reimbursement criteria refined to ensure equitable funding to Children's Hospital.

  1. Disclosing brand placement to young children


    De Pauw, Pieter; Hudders, Liselot; Cauberghe, Veroline; De Kuysscher, Charlotte


    Purpose – This article examines whether a television brand placement warning cue can alter young children’s susceptibility for advertising effects (i.e., brand attitude) through activating their advertising literacy. The proposed model also puts forward an important moderating role for children’s skeptical attitude toward the brand placement format. Design/methodology/approach – The data were collected among 63 children between 7 and 9 years old (Mage = 8.49; 51% girls) through a single...

  2. Young Adult Outcome of Hyperactive Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Adaptive functioning of 149 hyperactive (H group and 72 control children (CC group in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, followed for at least 13 years to young adulthood (mean 20 years, range 19-25, was evaluated by interviews with participants, employer ratings, and high school records, and reported by researchers from Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; and University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester.

  3. Can young children learn words from a robot?


    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Kanda, Takayuki; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yoko; Itakura, Shoji


    Young children generally learn words from other people. Recent research has shown that children can learn new actions and skills from nonhuman agents. This study examines whether young children could learn words from a robot. Preschool children were shown a video in which either a woman (human condition) or a mechanical robot (robot condition) labeled novel objects. Then the children were asked to select the objects according to the names used in the video. The results revealed that children ...

  4. Evaluation of fever in infants and young children. (United States)

    Hamilton, Jennifer L; John, Sony P


    Febrile illness in children younger than 36 months is common and has potentially serious consequences. With the widespread use of immunizations against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b, the epidemiology of bacterial infections causing fever has changed. Although an extensive diagnostic evaluation is still recommended for neonates, lumbar puncture and chest radiography are no longer recommended for older children with fever but no other indications. With an increase in the incidence of urinary tract infections in children, urine testing is important in those with unexplained fever. Signs of a serious bacterial infection include cyanosis, poor peripheral circulation, petechial rash, and inconsolability. Parental and physician concern have also been validated as indications of serious illness. Rapid testing for influenza and other viruses may help reduce the need for more invasive studies. Hospitalization and antibiotics are encouraged for infants and young children who are thought to have a serious bacterial infection. Suggested empiric antibiotics include ampicillin and gentamicin for neonates; ceftriaxone and cefotaxime for young infants; and cefixime, amoxicillin, or azithromycin for older infants.

  5. Benchmarks for multidimensional recovery after burn injury in young adults: the development, validation, and testing of the American Burn Association/Shriners Hospitals for Children young adult burn outcome questionnaire. (United States)

    Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Kazis, Lewis E; Lee, Austin; Li, Nien-Chen; Hinson, Michelle; Bauk, Helena; Peck, Michael; Meyer, Walter J; Palmieri, Tina; Pidcock, Frank S; Reilly, Debra; Tompkins, Ronald G


    Although data exist on burn survival, there are little data on long-term burn recovery. Patient-centered health outcomes are useful in monitoring and predicting recovery and evaluating treatments. An outcome questionnaire for young adult burn survivors was developed and tested. This 5-year (2003-2008) prospective, controlled, multicenter study included burned and nonburned adults ages 19 to 30 years. The Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaires were completed at initial contact, 10 days, and 6 and 12 months. Factor analysis established construct validity. Reliability assessments used Cronbach α and test-retest. Recovery patterns were investigated using generalized linear models, with generalized estimating equations using mixed models and random effects. Burned (n = 153) and nonburned subjects (n = 112) completed 620 questionnaires (47 items). Time from injury to first questionnaire administration was 157 ± 36 days (mean ± SEM). Factor analysis included 15 factors: Physical Function, Fine Motor Function, Pain, Itch, Social Function Limited by Physical Function, Perceived Appearance, Social Function Limited by Appearance, Sexual Function, Emotion, Family Function, Family Concern, Satisfaction With Symptom Relief, Satisfaction With Role, Work Reintegration, and Religion. Cronbach α ranged from 0.72 to 0.92, with 11 scales >0.8. Test-retest reliability ranged from 0.29 to 0.94, suggesting changes in underlying health status after burns. Recovery curves in five domains, Itch, Perceived Appearance, Social Function Limited by Appearance, Family Concern, and Satisfaction with Symptom Relief, remained below the reference group at 24 months. The Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument for multidimensional functional outcomes assessment. Recovery in some domains was incomplete.

  6. Predicting hospitalization in children with acute asthma. (United States)

    Buyuktiryaki, A Betul; Civelek, Ersoy; Can, Demet; Orhan, Fazıl; Aydogan, Metin; Reisli, Ismail; Keskin, Ozlem; Akcay, Ahmet; Yazicioglu, Mehtap; Cokugras, Haluk; Yuksel, Hasan; Zeyrek, Dost; Kocak, A Kadir; Sekerel, Bulent E


    Acute asthma is one of the most common medical emergencies in children. Appropriate assessment/treatment and early identification of factors that predict hospitalization are critical for the effective utilization of emergency services. To identify risk factors that predict hospitalization and to compare the concordance of the Modified Pulmonary Index Score (MPIS) with the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guideline criteria in terms of attack severity. The study population was composed of children aged 5-18 years who presented to the Emergency Departments (ED) of the tertiary reference centers of the country within a period of 3 months. Patients were evaluated at the initial presentation and the 1(st) and 4(th) hours. Of the 304 patients (median age: 8.0 years [interquartile range: 6.5-9.7]), 51.3% and 19.4% required oral corticosteroids (OCS) and hospitalization, respectively. Attack severity and MPIS were found as predicting factors for hospitalization, but none of the demographic characteristics collected predicted OCS use or hospitalization. Hospitalization status at the 1(st) hour with moderate/severe attack severity showed a sensitivity of 44.1%, specificity of 82.9%, positive predictive value of 38.2%, and negative predictive value of 86.0%; for MPIS ≥ 5, these values were 42.4%, 85.3%, 41.0%, and 86.0%, respectively. Concordance in prediction of hospitalization between the MPIS and the GINA guideline was found to be moderate at the 1(st) hour (κ = 0.577). Attack severity is a predictive factor for hospitalization in children with acute asthma. Determining attack severity with MPIS and a cut-off value ≥ 5 at the 1(st) hour may help physicians in EDs. Having fewer variables and the ability to calculate a numeric value with MPIS makes it an easy and useful tool in clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rota virus Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, M. I.; Khan, K. M. A.; Zia, N.; Kazi, S. G.


    Objective: To determine the frequency and clinical features of Rota virus diarrhea in children presenting in a tertiary care hospital. Study Design: A cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, from January to June 2007. Methodology: A total of three hundred children of either gender aged 1 month to 5 years, who presented with diarrhea of < 7 days as a primary illness were enrolled. Children with bloody diarrhea or nosocomial gastroenteritis acquired during hospitalization for other disease were not included. Detection of Rota virus in stool was done by enzyme linked immunoassay. Results: Out of 300 children, 188 (63%) tested positive and 112 (37%) tested negative for Rota virus. Positive Rota virus cases in 7 - 12 months of age was (n = 34, 18.08%). Overall, 151 (80.3%) children with Rota virus were less than 3 years old. 182 (60.7%) had fever, 118 (39.3%) had vomiting and 156 (82.9%) children had both fever and vomiting. Conclusion: This study shows that Rota virus is a common organism causing diarrhea in children less than 3 years of age. There is a need to incorporate Rota virus vaccine in the national EPI program to decrease the disease burden as highlighted in this study. (author)

  8. Employer supports for parents with young children. (United States)

    Friedman, D E


    The competing interests of employers, working parents, and very young children collide in decisions over work schedules, child care arrangements, promotions, children's sicknesses, and overtime hours. With the rising number of women in the labor force, more and more employers are concerned about how their workers balance work and family priorities. This article examines the supports that employers provide to help parents with young children juggle demands on their time and attention. It reviews the availability of traditional benefits, such as vacation and health insurance, and describes family-friendly initiatives. Exciting progress is being made in this arena by leading employers, but coverage remains uneven: Employers say they provide family-friendly policies and programs to improve staff recruitment and retention, reduce absenteeism, and increase job satisfaction and company loyalty. Evaluations demonstrate positive impacts on each of these valued outcomes. Employee benefits and work/family supports seldom reach all layers of the work force, and low-income workers who need assistance the most are the least likely to receive or take advantage of it. Understandably, employer policies seek to maximize productive work time. However, it is often in the best interests of children for a parent to be able to set work aside to address urgent family concerns. The author concludes that concrete work/family supports like on-site child care, paid leave, and flextime are important innovations. Ultimately, the most valuable aid to employees would be a family-friendly workplace culture, with supportive supervision and management practices.

  9. Young children's preference for unique owned objects. (United States)

    Gelman, Susan A; Davidson, Natalie S


    An important aspect of human thought is the value we place on unique individuals. Adults place higher value on authentic works of art than exact replicas, and young children at times value their original possessions over exact duplicates. What is the scope of this preference in early childhood, and when do children understand its subjective nature? On a series of trials, we asked three-year-olds (N=36) to choose between two toys for either themselves or the researcher: an old (visibly used) toy vs. a new (more attractive) toy matched in type and appearance (e.g., old vs. brand-new blanket). Focal pairs contrasted the child's own toy with a matched new object; Control pairs contrasted toys the child had never seen before. Children preferred the old toys for Focal pairs only, and treated their own preferences as not shared by the researcher. By 3years of age, young children place special value on unique individuals, and understand the subjective nature of that value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Community-acquired Pneumonia in Hospitalized Urban Young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of a comprehensive hospital-based study of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in under-five urban Nigerian children, we sought to identify the possible clinical and investigative correlates of lobar versus bronchopneumonia, and the possible determinants of mortality in community-acquired pneumonia. Over a ...

  11. Gender and Sexuality in Young Children's Perspectives of AIDS (United States)

    Bhana, D.; Jewnarain, D.


    Responses to AIDS have often neglected children. Drawing on a qualitative study of young children aged 7-9 years, this paper draws attention to their understandings of HIV and AIDS. It is argued that young children are able to give meaning to the disease in ways that link to their social contexts, where gender inequalities and sexual violence are…

  12. Teaching Play Skills to Young Children with Autism (United States)

    Jung, Sunhwa; Sainato, Diane M.


    Background: Play is critical for the development of young children and is an important part of their daily routine. However, children with autism often exhibit deficits in play skills and engage in stereotypic behaviour. We reviewed studies to identify effective instructional strategies for teaching play skills to young children with autism.…

  13. Teaching Young Children How to Sing: One School's Experience (United States)

    Kenney, Susan


    In many schools, classroom teachers are responsible for the music experiences of young children. Children may learn songs, but may not learn "how" to sing. This article outlines simple teaching strategies to help young children develop listening and vocal habits leading to beautiful singing. The article discusses how the kindergarten classes at…

  14. Computadoras y ninos pequenos (Computers and Young Children). ERIC Digest. (United States)

    Haugland, Susan W.

    Whether we use technology with young children--and if so, how--are critical issues facing early childhood educators and parents. This Spanish-language digest points out that many researchers do not recommend that children under 3 years old use computers. The digest also notes that many educators use computers with young children in ways that are…

  15. Music and Movement for Young Children's Healthy Development (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Morris, Vivian Gunn; Meredith, Cathy D.; Hicks, Claire


    Young children enjoy moving around when they hear music. Children take pleasure in physical activities that contribute to their healthy development. Physical activities are vital to retain healthy bodies, and inactivity is one cause of obesity in young children (Dow, 2010; Izumi-Taylor & Morris, 2007). This article describes how teachers and…

  16. "Our Guinea Pig Is Dead!" Young Children Cope with Death. (United States)

    Thomason, Nita Davison


    Describes how children develop a concept of death, and presents suggestions for classroom experiences to help young children cope with death. Considers children's attendance at funerals and how to answer children's questions about death. Lists 14 children's books about death. (KB)

  17. Parental Influence on Young Children's Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A. Zecevic


    Full Text Available Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys. Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B=.78, P<.10 and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B=.69, P<.05 were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B=−.08, P<.01, having older parents (B=−.26, P<.01, and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B=1.55, P<.01 reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B=1.44, P<.05. Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits.

  18. Advice for families traveling to developing countries with young children. (United States)

    Doan, Sylvia; Steele, Russell W


    Young children are most likely to travel to developing countries with their parents to visit relatives. Preparation for such travel must include careful counseling and optimal use of preventive vaccines and chemoprophylaxis. For infants and very young children, data defining safety and efficacy of these agents are often limited. However, accumulated experience suggests that young travelers may be managed similarly to older children and adults.

  19. Infection prevention and control practices in children's hospitals. (United States)

    Bender, Jeffrey M; Virgallito, Mary; Newland, Jason G; Sammons, Julia S; Thorell, Emily A; Coffin, Susan E; Pavia, Andrew T; Sandora, Thomas J; Hersh, Adam L


    We surveyed hospital epidemiologists at 28 Children's Hospital Association member hospitals regarding their infection prevention and control programs. We found substantial variability between children's hospitals in both the structure and the practice of these programs. Research and the development of evidence-based guidelines addressing infection prevention in pediatrics are needed.

  20. Risk profile of young people admitted to hospital for suicidal behaviour in Melbourne, Australia. (United States)

    Borschmann, Rohan; Stark, Patrick; Prakash, Chidambaram; Sawyer, Susan M


    Self-harm and suicidal behaviour is most prevalent during adolescence, but little is known about the risk profile of adolescents admitted to hospital for suicidal behaviour. Young people who self-harm are at an increased risk of mortality compared to those who do not self-harm; adolescents admitted to hospital for suicidal behaviour are particularly at risk. The aim of this study was to generate a risk profile of adolescents admitted to hospital with suicidal behaviour. We conducted a 12-month retrospective audit of adolescent admissions to the mental health inpatient unit at a tertiary children's hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Routinely collected data were used to generate a risk profile. We found that 212 of 271 (78.2%) admissions were due to suicidal behaviour. Of these, 107 (51%) adolescents were diagnosed with one or more mental disorders at discharge, most commonly major depressive disorder. Beyond known distal determinants of health risk, the proximal risk profile of these adolescents included factors relating to gender, substance use, prior mental health diagnoses and prior admission to hospital. Poor sleep was also a risk factor, with 159 (75%) reporting a recent history of sleeping problems. The very high proportion of admissions to the mental health inpatient unit due to suicidal behaviour reinforces the importance of finding effective methods of identification of the risk processes underpinning suicidal behaviours to reduce the unnecessary waste of young lives by suicide. © 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. Inequalities in Parental Spending on Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabino Kornrich


    Full Text Available This article investigates inequality in parental spending on young children over the period from 1972 to 2010. I find increased spending among parents at the top of the income distribution but little change among parents at the bottom of the income distribution. The gap in spending is equally attributable to increased spending on center-based care for preschool-age children and spending on enrichment goods and activities. The article examines potential causes of increased spending, including income, parental education, and wife’s work status, using decomposition analysis. Results indicate that higher incomes are the largest cause of the increased gap in spending but that increases in wife’s earnings, college completion, and wife’s work hours are also important for growth in spending.

  2. Acute respiratory infections in young Ethiopian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris RA


    Full Text Available Rebecca Arden HarrisDepartment of Family and Social Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USAThe identification of risk factors for acute respiratory infections (ARI is crucial for designing interventions to both minimize transmission and augment the immune response, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa where poverty-related ARI is still a major cause of preventable death in young children.1 I therefore read with interest Geberetsadik et al’s recent study of the factors associated with ARI in Ethiopian children.2 Their study uses nationally representative data on households and individuals to build a model of the social, demographic, and anthropometric determinants of ARI. A precise understanding of their model, however, requires clarification of several items in their paper.View original paper by Geberetsadik et al.

  3. Young Children as Media Users and Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv


    a very early age, also becoming consumers in their own right. Through media, children are exposed to a wide range of consumer goods,not only through traditional spot commercials, but especially through different kinds of merchandise related to program content. This process, the paper argues, takes place...... in a complex socialization, in which the child through daily interactions with family members and media texts learns how to act and behave as a competent media user......This paper presents some main results from the PhD-project ‘Toddlers watching TV'1. Young children, aged 1½ to three, are in this project understood and examined as active participants in the process of becoming regular viewers of both public service and commercial television, and thereby, from...

  4. Spirometry use in children hospitalized with asthma. (United States)

    Tan, Chee Chun; McDowell, Karen M; Fenchel, Matthew; Szczesniak, Rhonda; Kercsmar, Carolyn M


    Asthma is the most common chronic disorder of childhood and continues to be a leading cause of pediatric hospital admission. The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) recommends that spirometry be obtained for asthma patients upon hospital admission, after bronchodilation during the acute phase of asthma symptoms, and at least one additional time before discharge from the hospital. The objectives of this study were to describe the use of spirometry in children hospitalized with asthma and to determine association of pulmonary function with future exacerbations. A retrospective cohort study design was utilized involving review of medical records of children ≥5 years old admitted with asthma to Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center from September 1, 2009 to March 31, 2011. Hospitalization or emergency department (ED) visits were identified by the ICD-9-CM codes of having either a primary diagnosis of asthma (493) or a respiratory illness (460-496) plus a secondary diagnosis of asthma. Asthma re-exacerbation was defined as either having an ED visit or hospitalization for asthma that occurred within 3 months after the index hospitalization. All spirometries were performed in a pediatric pulmonary function laboratory. Among 1,037 admissions included in this study, 89 (8.6%) had spirometry that was recommended by a consulting asthma specialist and usually performed on the day of discharge. Spirometries for forty-five of these patients (54.9%) met all acceptability and repeatability criteria of the American Thoracic Society. Patients who performed acceptable spirometry were significantly older (12.4 ± 3.8 vs. 10.7 ± 3.0 years; P = 0.041). The average forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 ) was 84.4 ± 19.7% predicted; forced vital capacity (FVC) was 98.1 ± 16.0% predicted; FEV1 /FVC was 74.6 ± 9.6%; forced expiratory flow at 25-75% (FEF25-75 ) was 61.2 ± 30.1% predicted. Ten patients (22%) who

  5. Young Children's Color Preferences in the Interior Environment (United States)

    Read, Marilyn A.; Upington, Deborah


    This study focuses on children's color preferences in the interior environment. Previous studies highlight young children's preferences for the colors red and blue. The methods of this study used a rank ordering technique and a semi-structured interview process with 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Findings reveal that children prefer the color…

  6. A Sense of Autonomy in Young Children's Special Places (United States)

    Green, Carie


    Early childhood is a significant time when children begin to develop their place identity. As they discover their environment, young children claim special places in which to construct their own experiences. In exploring ways to connect children with place, particularly nature, caregivers need to consider children's place perspectives in the…

  7. Early Childhood Teachers as Socializers of Young Children's Emotional Competence (United States)

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Zinsser, Katherine


    Young children's emotional competence--regulation of emotional expressiveness and experience when necessary, and knowledge of their own and other's emotions--is crucial for social and academic (i.e., school) success. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms of how young children develop emotional competence. Both parents and teachers are…

  8. An Integrated Play-Based Curriculum for Young Children (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.


    Play provides young children with the opportunity to express their ideas, symbolize, and test their knowledge of the world. It provides the basis for inquiry in literacy, science, social studies, mathematics, art, music, and movement. Through play, young children become active learners engaged in explorations about themselves, their community, and…

  9. Time to Eat: Improving Mealtimes of Young Children with Autism (United States)

    Bruns, Deborah A.; Thompson, Stacy


    Many young children with autism exhibit feeding-related difficulties, such as accepting a limited diet, demonstrating texture aversions, or using only specific mealtime utensils. Young children with autism need assistance to acquire skills to improve mealtime behavior, including increased acceptance of a variety of foods (types and textures) at…

  10. Friendship in Young Children: Construction of a Behavioural Sociometric Method (United States)

    van Hoogdalem, Anne-Greth; Singer, Elly; Eek, Anneloes; Heesbeen, Daniëlle


    We need methods to measure friendship among very young children to study the beginnings of friendship and the impact of experiences with friendship for later development. This article presents an overview of methods for measuring very young children's friendships. A behavioural sociometric method was constructed to study degrees of friendship…

  11. Exploring the Lived Experiences of Homeless Families with Young Children (United States)

    Hinton, Stephanie; Cassel, Darlinda


    This study researched the experiences of homeless families with young children between the ages of four and eight. Many families experience homelessness every year; therefore, it is important for early childhood educators to have an understanding of how homelessness affects families with young children so that educators can effectively serve the…

  12. Young Children's Enactments of Human Rights in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Quennerstedt, Ann


    This paper explores ways in which human rights become part of and affect young children's everyday practices in early childhood education and, more particularly, how very young children enact human rights in the preschool setting. The study is conducted in a Swedish preschool through observations of the everyday practices of a group of children…

  13. Bullying: Young Children's Roles, Social Status, and Prevention Programmes (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.


    Bullying in schools has been identified as a serious and complex worldwide problem associated with young children's victimization. Research studies indicate the frequency and effects of bullying among young children. The effects seem to be across-the-board for both bullies and victims, who are at risk of experiencing emotional, social, and…

  14. Young Children Experiencing Homelessness: The Overlooked Medium of Play (United States)

    Schlembach, Sue


    The number of mothers with young children experiencing homelessness and seeking shelter has increased in the USA over the past decade. Shelters are often characterized as environments offering few opportunities for appropriate play experiences. This article delineates the important role of play for young children experiencing homelessness and…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The hospitality industry generates environmental degradation through the construction of buildings, waste disposal, and water usage. Nowadays, a large number of customers show increased environmental awareness, being willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products/services. In Romania institutional arrangements to generate awareness of the necessity of sustainable development were numerous, exemplifying in this respect the actions carried out by the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development for introducing the european eco-label for tourist accommodation services and the camping services, as well as for promoting the use of the eco-label in Romania among interested hotels and guesthouses. Based on these aspects, the article presents the results of a quantitative marketing research conducted among the young generation from Brașov county. The main objectives of the research consist in identifying the level of information among Romanian young consumers of accommodation services from Brasov county regarding the eco-certification and environmental management systems applied in the Romanian hospitality industry and, also, to identify their intentions to consume the green accommodation products.

  16. Hospitalizations of Children with Autism Increased from 1999 to 2009 (United States)

    Nayfack, Aaron M.; Huffman, Lynne C.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Chan, Jia; Saynina, Olga; Wise, Paul H.


    We performed a retrospective analysis of hospital discharges for children with autism, in comparison to children with cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, mental retardation/intellectual disability, and the general population. Hospitalizations for autism increased nearly threefold over 10 years, especially at the oldest ages, while hospitalizations for…

  17. Disciplining young children: the role of verbal instructions and reasoning. (United States)

    Blum, N J; Williams, G E; Friman, P C; Christophersen, E R


    Pediatricians are often asked to advise parents who are having difficulty managing the oppositional behaviors of their toddlers and preschool-age children. A large number of articles provide advice to pediatricians and parents on effective disciplinary strategies. However, despite the fact that verbal explanations, reasoning, and instructions are commonly used by parents, few articles directly address the use of these strategies to affect children's behavior. In this paper, we review studies that explicitly investigate the ability of adults' verbal explanations or instructions to alter the behavior of young children. These studies suggest that under most circumstances, verbal explanations and instructions are not effective in changing young children's problem behaviors. We then discuss how theories in developmental and behavioral psychology help explain the limitations of using verbal reasoning and instructions to change young children's problem behaviors. Finally, we provide some recommendations for parents on the use of verbal explanations and instructions in disciplining young children.

  18. An overview of hepatitis A at Tyger- berg Children's Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 14, 2008 ... In a minority of cases, fulminant hepatitis can occur.1 The bulk of hepatitis A infection occurs in young children, in whom jaundice is often so subtle that it can ... This study confirms that hepatitis A is a serious risk to young children in the Western Cape, with significant .... Acute liver failure in the United States.

  19. Surgery for Intractable Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available The results of temporal resection for medically intractable epilepsy in 20 children less than age 5 years with at least 2 years follow-up are reported from Miami Children's Hospital, Florida.

  20. Young children's tool innovation across culture: Affordance visibility matters. (United States)

    Neldner, Karri; Mushin, Ilana; Nielsen, Mark


    Young children typically demonstrate low rates of tool innovation. However, previous studies have limited children's performance by presenting tools with opaque affordances. In an attempt to scaffold children's understanding of what constitutes an appropriate tool within an innovation task we compared tools in which the focal affordance was visible to those in which it was opaque. To evaluate possible cultural specificity, data collection was undertaken in a Western urban population and a remote Indigenous community. As expected affordance visibility altered innovation rates: young children were more likely to innovate on a tool that had visible affordances than one with concealed affordances. Furthermore, innovation rates were higher than those reported in previous innovation studies. Cultural background did not affect children's rates of tool innovation. It is suggested that new methods for testing tool innovation in children must be developed in order to broaden our knowledge of young children's tool innovation capabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Computer Habits and Behaviours among Young Children in Singapore (United States)

    Karuppiah, Nirmala


    This exploratory research project was aimed at developing baseline data on computer habits and behaviours among preschool children in Singapore. Three sets of data were collected from teachers, parents and children which are (1) why and how young children use computers; (2) what are the key physical, social and health habits and behaviours of…

  2. Using Photographs and Diagrams to Test Young Children's Mass Thinking (United States)

    Cheeseman, Jill; McDonough, Andrea


    This paper reports the results of a pencil-and-paper test developed to assess young children's understanding of mass measurement. The innovative element of the test was its use of photographs. We found many children of the 295 6-8 year-old children tested could "read" the photographs and diagrams and recognise the images as…

  3. Reading to young children : A head-start in life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalb, G.; van Ours, J.C.

    This paper investigates the importance of parents reading to their young children. Using Australian data we find that parental reading to children at age 4–5 has positive and significant effects on reading skills and cognitive skills (including numeracy skills) of these children at least up to age

  4. Reading to Young Children : A Head-Start in Life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalb, G.; van Ours, J.C.


    Abstract: This paper investigates the importance of parents reading to their young children. Using Australian data we find that parental reading to children at age 4 to 5 has positive and significant effects on reading skills and cognitive skills of these children at least up to age 10 or 11. Our

  5. Secrets and Disclosures: How Young Children Handle Secrets (United States)

    Anagnostaki, Lida; Wright, Michael J.; Papathanasiou, Athanasia


    The authors examined the influence of content and verbal cues on young children's understanding of secret information and of its disclosure. Participants were 209 5- and 6-year-old children in an experiment where a puppet, named Zinc, was the protagonist. Children were asked to whom Zinc would disclose a list of pieces of information, some of…

  6. Measuring and Promoting Acceptance of Young Children with Disabilities. (United States)

    Favazza, Paddy C.; Phillipsen, Leslie; Kumar, Poonam


    Results of two studies indicate the Acceptance Scale for Kindergartners was reliable with a sample of minority, low socioeconomic status children and that children exposed to all of the components of an intervention designed to promote acceptance of young children with disabilities had short-term and long-term gains in acceptance. (Contains…

  7. Emotional Security in the Classroom: What Works for Young Children (United States)

    Janson, Gregory R.; King, Margaret A.


    Discussions regarding young children and secure schools often focus on children's physical safety and external stressors such as chaotic families, dangerous neighborhoods, and terrorism. Less attention is given to the emotional security of children in schools, a necessary prerequisite to learning and healthy development. The most effective way to…

  8. Young Children's Computer Skills Development from Kindergarten to Third Grade (United States)

    Sackes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Bell, Randy L.


    This investigation explores young children's computer skills development from kindergarten to third grade using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) dataset. The sample size of the study was 8642 children. Latent growth curve modeling analysis was used as an analytical tool to examine the development of children's computer…

  9. The Influence of Media on Young Children's Development (United States)

    Wartella, Ellen


    Ellen Wartella, PhD, a leading scholar of the role of media in children's development, responds to questions about the role of media in the lives of very young children. She discusses how technology is having an impact on parents and children and provides some context for how parents and caregivers can make informed decisions about using media…

  10. Narrative in Young Children's Digital Art-Making (United States)

    Sakr, Mona; Connelly, Vince; Wild, Mary


    Digital technologies have material and social properties that have the potential to create new opportunities for children's expressive arts practices. The presence and development of oral narratives in young children's visual art-making on paper has been noted in previous research, but little is known about the narratives children create when they…

  11. The Trauma of Hurricane Katrina: Developmental Impact on Young Children (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Cross Hansel, Tonya; Moore, Michelle B.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Hughes, Jennifer B.; Dickson, Amy B.


    When expectant mothers are exposed to traumatic events such as natural disasters, their children are at increased risk for developmental and behavioral problems. Many people believe that young children will not be impacted by the traumatic experiences that occur during and following disasters. Therefore, planning for the youngest children at the…

  12. Using Recorded Music with Young Children: A Guide for Nonmusicians. (United States)

    Jalongo, Mary Renck


    Encourages the appreciation of music through listening, responding with body movement, and sharing with children. Points out that early childhood educators and children who are nonmusicians can make and understand music. Identifies basic problems with preschool teachers' current practices in using music with young children and provides a list of…

  13. Plethysmographic measurements of specific airway resistance in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Nielsen, Kim G


    allowed discrimination of young children with respiratory disease. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness can be determined with acceptable short-term and long-term repeatability and provides good discrimination between asthmatics and healthy young children. The effects of the major antiasthmatic therapies have......Validated methods for lung function measurements in young children are lacking. Plethysmographic measurement of specific airway resistance (sRaw) provides such a method applicable from 2 years of age. sRaw gauges airway resistance from the measurements of the pressure changes driving the airflow...... during tidal breathing. These measurements require no active cooperation and are therefore feasible in children from 2 years of age. The within-observer and between-observer variability of sRaw in young children compare favorably with alternative methods. Reference values are available for sRaw and have...

  14. Children Explain the Rainbow: Using Young Children's Ideas to Guide Science Curricula (United States)

    Siry, Christina; Kremer, Isabelle


    This study examines young children's ideas about natural science phenomena and explores possibilities in starting investigations in kindergarten from their ideas. Given the possibilities inherent in how young children make sense of their experiences, we believe it is critical to take children's perspectives into consideration when designing any…

  15. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Larsen, Hans Henrik; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper


    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p infected children required respiratory support. hMPV is present in young.......6%) ARTI episodes by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using primers targeting the hMPV N gene and the RSV L gene. Two children were co-infected with hMPV and RSV. They were excluded from statistical analysis. Hospitalization for ARTI caused by hMPV was restricted to very young...

  16. Smoking trends amongst young doctors of a tertiary care hospital - Mayo Hospital, Lahore - Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudhary, M.K.; Younis, M.; Bukhari, M.H.


    The World Health Organization cites tobacco use as one of the biggest public health threats the world has ever faced. Tobacco is the number one preventable cause of disability and death. Tobacco has many negative health effects which many of the smokers know them well. In Pakistan tobacco use is common in general public and the health professionals don't lack behind this habit. To study the smoking trends amongst young doctors of Mayo Hospital. Questionnaire based descriptive study. This study was conducted at the Institute of Chest Medicine, Mayo Hospital - A tertiary care hospital affiliated with King Edward Medical University, Lahore. Out of 250 doctors, 180 (72%) were males and 70 (28%) were female. Amongst 180 male doctors 97 (53.88%) were smokers and 83 (46.21%) were non smokers. Amongst 70 female doctors 8 (11.43%) were smokers and 62 (88.57%) were non smokers. Smoking is common among male young doctors but it is less common in female doctors. (author)

  17. Intussusception in children seen at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intussusception in children seen at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es salaam. ... its magnitude of concern and any seasonal variation in our environment. ... majority of the children present late, >48 hours from the onset of symptoms and ...

  18. [Severe trampoline injuries and their risk factors among children and the young]. (United States)

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Salokorpi, Niina; Suo-Palosaari, Maria; Pesälä, Juha; Serlo, Willy


    Although the majority of trampoline injuries in children are minor, severe injuries occur as well. We have analyzed the risk factors, treatment and outcome of severe trampoline injuries treated in the Oulu University Hospital in children and the young between April and November 2105. There was a total of eight severe injuries. Five injuries involved a danger of death. Almost all severe trampoline injuries resulted from an unsuccessful trick. A safety net was in use in half of the cases. All cervical spine injuries would have been avoided provided that the children would have refrained from doing a somersault on the trampoline.

  19. Scintigraphic diagnosis of spiral fracture in young children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossein-Foucher, C.; Venel, H.; Legouffe, P.; Ythier, H.; Legghe, R.; Marchandise, X.


    The authors report 8 cases of unsuspected bone fracture in children, identified at bone scan. Common features were the children's young age (1 to 3 years), the absence of clinical suspicion, the initially normal X-rays, the fracture type (sprial fracture of the tibia undisplaced), and the uniform of appearance the bone scan. These data confirm the value of the bone scan in limping children and suggest that spiral fracture of the tibia is a frequent and underdiagnosed condition in children [fr

  20. Scintigraphic diagnosis of spiral fracture in young children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossein-Foucher, C.; Venel, H.; Lecouffe, P.; Ythier, H.; Legghe, R.; Marchandise, X.


    8 cases of unsuspected bone fracture in children, identified at bone scan are reported. Common features were the children's young age (1 to 3 years), the absence of clinical suspicion, the initially normal X-rays, the fracture type (spiral fracture of the tibia undisplaced), and the uniform appearance of the bone scan. These data confim the value of bone scan in limping children and suggest that spiral fracture of the tibia is a frequent and underdiagnosed condition in children [fr

  1. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European

  2. Using Visual Supports with Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    Meadan, Hedda; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Triplett, Brooke; Michna, Amanda; Fettig, Angel


    The authors describe important characteristics of visual supports and considerations when designing visual supports for young children with ASD. Guidelines for developing the visual supports are included. (Contains 5 figures.)

  3. Young children feeding and Zinc levels of complementary foods in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young children feeding and Zinc levels of complementary foods in Western ... localities helped to identify the recipes used for preparation of complementary foods. ... foods given to them, the cooking methods and the frequency of consumption.

  4. Effects of fast food branding on young children's taste preferences. (United States)

    Robinson, Thomas N; Borzekowski, Dina L G; Matheson, Donna M; Kraemer, Helena C


    To examine the effects of cumulative, real-world marketing and brand exposures on young children by testing the influence of branding from a heavily marketed source on taste preferences. Experimental study. Children tasted 5 pairs of identical foods and beverages in packaging from McDonald's and matched but unbranded packaging and were asked to indicate if they tasted the same or if one tasted better. Preschools for low-income children. Sixty-three children (mean +/- SD age, 4.6 +/- 0.5 years; range, 3.5-5.4 years). Branding of fast foods. A summary total taste preference score (ranging from -1 for the unbranded samples to 0 for no preference and +1 for McDonald's branded samples) was used to test the null hypothesis that children would express no preference. The mean +/- SD total taste preference score across all food comparisons was 0.37 +/- 0.45 (median, 0.20; interquartile range, 0.00-0.80) and significantly greater than zero (Pbranding among children with more television sets in their homes and children who ate food from McDonald's more often. Branding of foods and beverages influences young children's taste perceptions. The findings are consistent with recommendations to regulate marketing to young children and also suggest that branding may be a useful strategy for improving young children's eating behaviors.

  5. Young children (0-8) and digital technology - EU report


    Chaudron, Stéphane; Plowman, Lydia; Beutel, M.E; Černikova, Martina; Donoso Navarette, Veronica; Dreier, Michael; Fletcher-Watson, Ben; Heikkilä, Anni-Sofia; Kontríková, Věra; Korkeamäki, Riitta-Liisa; Livingstone, Sonia; Marsh, Jackie; Mascheroni, Giovanna; Micheli, Marina; Milesi, Daniele


    Despite the growing number of very young children who go online and who are using a wide range of technologies, little is known about children’s interactions with those technologies. This report presents a pilot qualitative study designed and implemented in collaboration with a selected group of academic partners in different European countries that aims at pioneering in Europe the exploration of young children and their families` experiences with new technologies. It resents its results and ...

  6. A parental perspective on apps for young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekman, F.L.; Piotrowski, J.T.; Beentjes, H.W.J.; Valkenburg, P.M.


    Touchscreen applications (apps) for young children have seen increasingly high rates of growth with more than a hundred thousand now available apps. As with other media, parents play a key role in young children’s app selection and use. However, to date, we know very little about how parents select

  7. Improving stethoscope disinfection at a children's hospital. (United States)

    Zaghi, Justin; Zhou, Jing; Graham, Dionne A; Potter-Bynoe, Gail; Sandora, Thomas J


    Stethoscopes are contaminated with pathogenic bacteria and pose a risk for transmission of infections, but few clinicians disinfect their stethoscope after every use. We sought to improve stethoscope disinfection rates among pediatric healthcare providers by providing access to disinfection materials and visual reminders to disinfect stethoscopes. Prospective intervention study. Inpatient units and emergency department of a major pediatric hospital. Physicians and nurses with high anticipated stethoscope use. Baskets filled with alcohol prep pads and a sticker reminding providers to regularly disinfect stethoscopes were installed outside of patient rooms. Healthcare providers' stethoscope disinfection behaviors were directly observed before and after the intervention. Multivariable logistic regression models were created to identify independent predictors of stethoscope disinfection. Two hundred twenty-six observations were made in the preintervention period and 261 in the postintervention period (83% were of physicians). Stethoscope disinfection compliance increased significantly from a baseline of 34% to 59% postintervention (P stethoscope disinfection supplies and visible reminders outside of patient rooms significantly increased stethoscope disinfection rates among physicians and nurses at a children's hospital. This simple intervention could be replicated at other healthcare facilities. Future research should assess the impact on patient infections.

  8. Family ecology of young children with cerebral palsy. (United States)

    LaForme Fiss, A; Chiarello, L A; Bartlett, D; Palisano, R J; Jeffries, L; Almasri, N; Chang, H-J


    Family ecology in early childhood may influence children's activity and participation in daily life. The aim of this study was to describe family functioning, family expectations of their children, family support to their children, and supports for families of young children with cerebral palsy (CP) based on children's gross motor function level. Participants were 398 children with CP (mean age = 44.9 months) and their parents residing in the USA and Canada. Parents completed four measures of family ecology, the Family Environment Scale (FES), Family Expectations of Child (FEC), Family Support to Child (FSC) and Family Support Scale (FSS). The median scores on the FES indicated average to high family functioning and the median score on the FSS indicated that families had helpful family supports. On average, parents reported high expectations of their children on the FEC and strong support to their children on the FSC. On the FES, higher levels of achievement orientation were reported by parents of children in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level II than parents of children in level I, and higher levels of control were reported by parents of children in level I than parents of children in level IV. On the FEC, parents of children with limited gross motor function (level V) reported lower expectations than parents of children at all other levels. Family ecology, including family strengths, expectations, interests, supports and resources, should be discussed when providing interventions and supports for young children with CP and their families. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of television exposure on developmental skills among young children. (United States)

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Cherng, Rong-Ju; Chen, Yung-Jung; Chen, Yi-Jen; Yang, Hei-Mei


    Literature addressing the effects of television exposure on developmental skills of young children less than 36 months of age is scarce. This study explored how much time young children spend viewing television and investigated its effects on cognitive, language, and motor developmental skills. Data were collected from the Pediatric Clinics at University Medical Center in Southern Taiwan. The participants comprised 75 children who were frequently exposed to television and 75 children who were not or infrequently exposed to television between 15 and 35 months old. The age and sex were matched in the two groups. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-second edition and Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-second edition were used to identify developmental skills. Independent t-tests, χ(2) tests, and logistic regression models were conducted. Among 75 children who were frequently exposed to television, young children watched a daily average of 67.4 min of television before age 2, which was excessive according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. Viewing television increased the risk of delayed cognitive, language, and motor development in children who were frequently exposed to television. Cognitive, language, and motor delays in young children were significantly associated with how much time they spent viewing television. The type of care providers was critical in determining the television-viewing time of children. We recommend that pediatric practitioners explain the impacts of television exposure to parents and caregivers to ensure cognitive, language, and motor development in young children. Advocacy efforts must address the fact that allowing young children to spend excessive time viewing television can be developmentally detrimental. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Associating children with contemporary visual arts in the hospital]. (United States)

    Dessuter, Brigitte


    In 2008, for 3 months, a visual artist in residence at the Margency children's hospital (Val d'Oise) made sculptures for the bandstand situated in the hospital's park. By bringing people together this experience helped to create a bond between the artists, the hospitalised children and the healthcare workers.

  11. Elevated Autism Spectrum Disorder Traits in Young Children with OCD. (United States)

    Stewart, Elyse; Cancilliere, Mary Kathryn; Freeman, Jennifer; Wellen, Brianna; Garcia, Abbe; Sapyta, Jeffrey; Franklin, Martin


    Studies have shown a high prevalence of autistic spectrum traits in both children and adults with psychiatric disorders; however the prevalence rate has not yet been investigated in young children with OCD. The aim of the current study was to (1) determine whether ASD traits indicated by the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) were elevated in young children with OCD who do not have a specific ASD diagnosis and (2) determine if ASD traits were associated with OCD severity. Participants (N = 127) were children ages 5-8 years enrolled in the pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder treatment study for young children (POTS Jr.). Results indicated that the SRS showed elevated autistic traits in the sample and was associated with OCD severity whereas the SCQ did not indicate heightened ASD symptoms. Implications of these results are discussed.

  12. Heritability of food preferences in young children. (United States)

    Breen, Fiona M; Plomin, Robert; Wardle, Jane


    There is persisting interest in the idea that taste preferences are heritable characteristics, but few twin studies have found evidence for a significant genetic component. Small sample sizes and idiosyncratic selection of foods may have contributed to the negative results. We hypothesized that using a larger twin sample and empirical groupings of food types, would give stronger evidence for the heritability of food preferences. We examined the heritability of preferences for four food groups in a sample of young twins. We administered a food preference questionnaire with 95 foods to 214 mothers of same-sex twin pairs (103 monozygotic and 111 dizygotic pairs) aged 4 to 5. 18 foods were excluded because they had been tried by fewer than 25% of the children. Foods were grouped into 'Vegetables', 'Fruits', 'Desserts' and 'Meat and Fish' on the basis of a factor analysis of the preference data. Genetic analyses were carried out on mean liking across these four groups, using model fitting techniques. Over all 77 foods, MZ correlations were higher than DZ correlations for 72 of them, with a higher mean MZ correlation (r = 0.76) than DZ correlation (r = 0.56). Using model fitting techniques with the factor scores, significant heritability estimates were obtained for all four food groups. Heritability was modest for dessert foods (0.20), moderate for vegetables (0.37) and fruits (0.51), and high for liking for protein foods (0.78). Shared environmental effects were strong for desserts, fruits and vegetables, while non-shared environmental influences were low for all four food groups. These results provide strong evidence for modest heritability of food preferences when using empirically-derived groupings of foods.

  13. Hospital malnutrition in children: what are the challenges?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oct 20, 2016 ... Hospital malnutrition can be regarded as a universal problem. It is highly prevalent in the young,1 in acute2 and chronic1 disease conditions and in developed1 as well as developing2 countries. It is associated with many adverse outcomes, including prolonged ICU1 and hospital length of stay,1,3,4,5 ...

  14. Television viewing by young Latino children: Evidence of heterogeneity (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A.; Sibinga, Erica M.S.; Jennings, Jacky M.; Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Christakis, Dimitri A.


    Objective To determine if hours of daily television viewed by varying age groups of young children with Latina mothers differs by maternal language preference (English/Spanish) and to compare these differences to young children with non-Latina white mothers. Design Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2000 from the National Survey of Early Childhood Health. Setting Nationally representative sample. Participants 1,347 mothers of children 4-35 months. Main Exposure Subgroups of self-reported maternal race/ethnicity (non-Latina white (white), Latina) and within Latinas, stratification by maternal language preference (English/Spanish). Outcome Measure Hours of daily television viewed by the child. Results Bivariate analyses showed children of English- versus Spanish-speaking Latinas watch more daily television (1.88 versus 1.31 hours,ptelevision. However, among children 12-23 and 24-35 months, children of English-speaking Latinas watched more television than children of Spanish-speaking Latinas (IRR=1.61,CI=1.17-2.22; IRR=1.66,CI=1.10-2.51, respectively). Compared to children of white mothers, children of both Latina subgroups watched similar amounts among the 4-11 month olds. However, among 12-23 month olds, children of English-speaking Latinas watched more compared to children of white mothers (IRR=1.57,CI=1.18-2.11). Among 24-35 month olds, children of English-speaking Latinas watched similar amounts compared to children of white mothers, but children of Spanish-speaking Latinas watched less (IRR=0.69,CI=0.50-0.95). Conclusions Television viewing amounts among young children with Latina mothers vary by child age and maternal language preference supporting the need to explore sociocultural factors that influence viewing in Latino children. PMID:20124147

  15. Otitis Media in Young Children with Disabilities. (United States)

    Zeisel, Susan A.; Roberts, Joanne E.


    This study examined the prevalence of otitis media with effusion (OME) in 14 children (ages 8-66 months) with developmental disabilities attending center-based childcare. Although younger children had more OME than older children, children with Down syndrome had the highest incidence of OME regardless of age. Implications of OME for fluctuating…

  16. Young Children Learning for the Environment: Researching a Forest Adventure (United States)

    Gambino, Agatha; Davis, Julie; Rowntree, Noeleen


    Field experiences for young children are an ideal medium for environmental education/education for sustainability because of opportunities for direct experience in nature, integrated learning, and high community involvement. This research documented the development--in 4-5 year old Prep children--of knowledge, attitudes and actions/advocacy in…

  17. Phonological Patterns Observed in Young Children with Cleft Palate. (United States)

    Broen, Patricia A.; And Others

    The study examined the speech production strategies used by 4 young children (30- to 32-months-old) with cleft palate and velopharyngeal inadequacy during the early stages of phonological learning. All the children had had primary palatal surgery and were producing primarily single word utterances with a few 2- and 3-word phrases. Analysis of each…

  18. Use of budesonide Turbuhaler in young children suspected of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, S; Nikander, K


    The question addressed in this study was the ability of young children to use a dry-powder inhaler, Turbuhaler. One hundred and sixty five children suspected of asthma, equally distributed in one year age-groups from 6 months to 8 yrs, inhaled from a Pulmicort Turbuhaler, 200 micrograms budesonide...

  19. The Impact of User Interface on Young Children's Computational Thinking (United States)

    Pugnali, Alex; Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi


    Aim/Purpose: Over the past few years, new approaches to introducing young children to computational thinking have grown in popularity. This paper examines the role that user interfaces have on children's mastery of computational thinking concepts and positive interpersonal behaviors. Background: There is a growing pressure to begin teaching…

  20. The Contact Principle and Utilitarian Moral Judgments in Young Children (United States)

    Pellizzoni, Sandra; Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca


    In three experiments involving 207 preschoolers and 28 adults, we investigated the extent to which young children base moral judgments of actions aimed to protect others on utilitarian principles. When asked to judge the rightness of intervening to hurt one person in order to save five others, the large majority of children aged 3 to 5 years…

  1. Hollyhocks and Honeybees: Garden Projects for Young Children. (United States)

    Starbuck, Sara; Olthof, Marla; Midden, Karen

    Children are drawn to nature and the outdoors. This guide details the inclusion of gardening in the preschool curriculum at a university child development program in Illinois. Chapter 1 of the book, "Why Garden?" details the benefits of gardening for young children, describes the project approach used, discusses the role of the teacher,…

  2. Emotion Regulation in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (United States)

    Berkovits, Lauren; Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan


    There has been little research connecting underlying emotion processes (e.g., emotion regulation) to frequent behavior problems in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined the stability of emotion regulation and its relationship with other aspects of child functioning. Participants included 108 children with ASD,…

  3. Talking with Young Children: How Teachers Encourage Learning (United States)

    Test, Joan E.; Cunningham, Denise D.; Lee, Amanda C.


    In general, talking with young children encourages development in many areas: (1) spoken language; (2) early literacy; (3) cognitive development; (4) social skills; and (5) emotional maturity. Speaking with children in increasingly complex and responsive ways does this even better. This article explores research findings about the effects of…

  4. Young Children's Knowledge about the Moon: A Complex Dynamic System (United States)

    Venville, Grady J.; Louisell, Robert D.; Wilhelm, Jennifer A.


    The purpose of this research was to use a multidimensional theoretical framework to examine young children's knowledge about the Moon. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and the design was a multiple case study of ten children between the ages of three and eight from the USA and Australia. A detailed, semi-structured interview…

  5. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre


    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  6. How Young Children Understand Electric Circuits: Prediction, Explanation and Exploration (United States)

    Glauert, Esme Bridget


    This paper reports findings from a study of young children's views about electric circuits. Twenty-eight children aged 5 and 6 years were interviewed. They were shown examples of circuits and asked to predict whether they would work and explain why. They were then invited to try out some of the circuit examples or make circuits of their own…

  7. Diagnostic Stability in Very Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (United States)

    Kleinman, Jamie M.; Ventola, Pamela E.; Pandey, Juhi; Verbalis, Alyssa D.; Barton, Marianne; Hodgson, Sarah; Green, James; Dumont-Mathieu, Thyde; Robins, Diana L.; Fein, Deborah


    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) diagnosis in very young children may be delayed due to doubts about validity. In this study, 77 children received a diagnostic and developmental evaluation between 16 and 35 months and also between 42 and 82 months. Diagnoses based on clinical judgment, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and the Autism Diagnostic…

  8. Books on Adoption for Young Children: Looking at Language. (United States)

    Schimmel, Nancy; Love, Susan


    Books can inform, reassure, and give young children the vocabulary to talk about adoption. This article presents and examines the language used to talk about adoption in eleven current children's books. Discusses surrogacy, adoption, "natural" parents, grief, "chosen-baby" stories, age at adoption, international adoption,…

  9. The Factors Influencing Young Children's Social Interaction in Technology Integration (United States)

    Lim, Eun Mee


    When technology integration is accomplished successfully in early childhood education settings, children tend to interact more with one another and exchange information related to computer tasks as well as the overall classroom on-going curriculum themes. Therefore, to explore how young children are interacting in computer areas when using…

  10. Mathematics Anxiety in Young Children: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Harari, Rachel R.; Vukovic, Rose K.; Bailey, Sean P.


    This study explored the nature of mathematics anxiety in a sample of 106 ethnically and linguistically diverse first-grade students. Although much is known about mathematics anxiety in older children and adults, little is known about when mathematics anxiety first emerges or its characteristics in young children. Results from exploratory factor…

  11. Double diabetes: an emerging disease in children and young adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studies in most countries have shown an increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in children and young adults. Double diabetes is a newly recognized problem in children with different diagnostic and therapeutic measures. Methods: A review of over 30 literature obtained from Google, PUBMED search and ...

  12. Developmental Education for Young Children in the Netherlands: Basic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompert, Bea; Dobber, M.; Fleer, Marilyn; van Oers, Bert


    This chapter describes Starting Blocks and Basic Development. This approach and curriculum provides possible answers for professionals working with young children. We focus on broad development of children by creating meaningful teaching opportunities in the context of play. We define play as a

  13. Symbolic Communication Forms in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    Braddock, Barbara A.; Armbrecht, Eric S.


    The aim of this study was to examine how early symbolic forms (and their associated communicative functions) are related to change in communication among a sample of 12 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who produced two or fewer spoken words ("M" age = 28.75 months; 11 male, 1 female). Parents reported on children's…

  14. Young Children Help Others to Achieve Their Social Goals (United States)

    Beier, Jonathan S.; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda


    From early in development, humans have strong prosocial tendencies. Much research has documented young children's propensity to help others achieve their unfulfilled goals toward physical objects. Yet many of our most common and important goals are social--directed toward other people. Here we demonstrate that children are also inclined, and able,…

  15. Involving Parents in Teaching Social Communication Skills to Young Children (United States)

    Weiss, Amy L.; Theadore, Geraldine


    This article focuses on why and how speech-language pathologists and other professionals can encourage the involvement of parents in teaching social communication skills to their young children. Four main topics are explored: (1) the evidence that many of the children with special needs served by speech-language pathologists and other…

  16. Core vocabulary of young children with Down syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckers, S.R.J.M.; Zaalen, Y. van; Balkom, L.J.M. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.


    The aim of this study was to develop a core vocabulary list for young children with intellectual disabilities between 2 and 7 years of age because data from this population are lacking in core vocabulary literature. Children with Down syndrome are considered one of the most valid reference groups

  17. Television Violence and Its Effect on Young Children. (United States)

    Simmons, Betty Jo; Stalsworth, Kelly; Wentzel, Heather


    Examines research on television violence and links violence to specific programs commonly watched by young children. Maintains that television violence is related to aggressive behavior, lessened sensitivity to the results of violence, and increased fear. Examines public reactions to children's educational television programs. (Author/KB)

  18. Intersectional Identity Negotiation: The Case of Young Immigrant Children (United States)

    Compton-Lilly, Catherine; Papoi, Kristin; Venegas, Patricia; Hamman, Laura; Schwabenbauer, Briana


    We cast our lens on intersectional networks of identity negotiated by young children in immigrant families. Although some scholars discuss identity construction, we reference identity negotiation to capture the active, strategic, and agential work that we witnessed in our study. We begin by synthesizing relevant research on children's identity…

  19. The Rights of Children and Young People in State Care (United States)

    Ashton, Sarah


    This article highlights the lack of human rights recognition for arguably one of the most vulnerable groups in our society, children and young people in the care of the state. Currently under New Zealand legislation and policy frameworks these children do not have their rights upheld, as per New Zealand's obligations under the United Nations…

  20. Investigating Young Children's Perceptions of Body Size and Healthy Habits (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Nerren, Jannah S.


    Attitudes and biases toward body size perceived as fat and body size perceived as thin are present in young children (Cramer and Steinwert in "J Appl Dev Psychol" 19(3):429-451, 1998; Worobey and Worobey in "Body Image" 11:171-174, 2014). However, the information children have regarding body size and ways to modify body size…

  1. Young Children's Analogical Reasoning across Cultures: Similarities and Differences (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey Engle; Chan, Tsz-Kit; Morrison, Robert G.; Au, Terry Kit-Fong


    A cross-cultural comparison between U.S. and Hong Kong preschoolers examined factors responsible for young children's analogical reasoning errors. On a scene analogy task, both groups had adequate prerequisite knowledge of the key relations, were the same age, and showed similar baseline performance, yet Chinese children outperformed U.S. children…

  2. Young Children Create Iconic Gestures to Inform Others (United States)

    Behne, Tanya; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael


    Much is known about young children's use of deictic gestures such as pointing. Much less is known about their use of other types of communicative gestures, especially iconic or symbolic gestures. In particular, it is unknown whether children can create iconic gestures on the spot to inform others. Study 1 provided 27-month-olds with the…

  3. The Visual Arts as a Therapeutic Process for Young Children. (United States)

    Pergjini, Vesna

    This article discusses the use of visual arts activities to help young children cope with separation anxiety and sibling rivalry. Addressed to preschool and elementary school teachers seeking therapeutic classroom activities, the article suggests ways of using children's literature as starting points for drawing activities focused on anxiety…

  4. Differences in language development among young children in Northeast Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poolman, Berend Gerardus


    It is generally assumed that in the countryside of Northeast Netherlands children enter primary school with a language delay. Despite the apparent consensus, unequivocal evidence demonstrating that the number of young children with language delays and the magnitude of these delays is, however,

  5. Concept Maps: An Alternative Methodology to Assess Young Children (United States)

    Atiles, Julia T.; Dominique-Maikell, Nikole; McKean, Kathleen


    The authors investigated the utility and efficacy of using concepts maps as a research tool to assess young children. Pre- and post- concept maps have been used as an assessment and evaluation tool with teachers and with older students, typically children who can read and write; this article summarizes an investigation into the utility of using…

  6. Examining the Quality of IEPs for Young Children with Autism (United States)

    Ruble, Lisa A.; McGrew, John; Dalrymple, Nancy; Jung, Lee Ann


    The purpose of this study was to develop an Individual Education Program (IEP) evaluation tool based on Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requirements and National Research Council recommendations for children with autism; determine the tool's reliability; test the tool on a pilot sample of IEPs of young children; and examine…

  7. Engaging Young Children in Research through Photo Elicitation (United States)

    Pyle, Angela


    Embracing the new sociology of childhood, this paper describes a participatory research method built on a belief in the competency of young children. The paper begins with a critical review of the photo elicitation literature exploring the varied levels of children's participation. Drawing on the strengths of the previous research, a multi-step…

  8. Adaptive Assessment of Young Children with Visual Impairment (United States)

    Ruiter, Selma; Nakken, Han; Janssen, Marleen; Van Der Meulen, Bieuwe; Looijestijn, Paul


    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adaptations for children with low vision of the Bayley Scales, a standardized developmental instrument widely used to assess development in young children. Low vision adaptations were made to the procedures, item instructions and play material of the Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant…

  9. Young Children Manifest Spiritualities in Their Hip-Hop Writing (United States)

    Norton, Nadjwa E. L.


    In this article, the author combines multicultural feminist critical theories with the voices of Black and Latina/Latino young spiritual children to extend culturally responsive teaching. The author illuminates how children use their hip-hop writing to construct themselves as people who communicate with God, choose spiritual content for their…

  10. Early Childhood Dental Caries. Building Community Systems for Young Children. (United States)

    Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.

    As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…


    Koukourikos, Konstantinos; Tzeha, Laila; Pantelidou, Parthenopi; Tsaloglidou, Areti


    Introduction: Play constitutes an essential parameter of the normal psychosomatic development of children, as well as their statutory right. It is also an important means of communication in childhood. Objective: To review, detect and highlight all data cited regarding the role of play during the hospitalization of children. Methodology: Literature review was achieved by searching the databases Scopus, PubMed, Cinhal in English, using the following key words: therapeutic play, play therapy, hospitalized child, therapist. Results: During hospitalization, play either in the form of therapeutic play, or as in the form of play therapy, is proven to be of high therapeutic value for ill children, thus contributing to both their physical and emotional well-being and to their recovery. It helps to investigate issues related to the child’s experiences in the hospital and reduce the intensity of negative feelings accompanying a child’s admission to hospital and hospitalization. Play is widely used in pre-operative preparation and invasive procedures, while its use among children hospitalized for cancer is beneficial. Conclusion: The use of play in hospital may become a tool in the hands of healthcare professionals, in order to provide substantial assistance to hospitalized children, as long as they have appropriate training, patience, and will to apply it during hospitalization. PMID:26889107

  12. Hoarding behavior among young children with obsessive-compulsive disorder


    Frank, Hannah; Stewart, Elyse; Walther, Michael; Benito, Kristen; Freeman, Jennifer; Conelea, Christ; Garci, Abbe


    Previous research has shown that among the various subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), adults (e.g. Frost, Krause & Steketee, 1996) and older children and adolescents (Bloch et al., 2009; Storch et al., 2007) with problematic hoarding have distinct features and a poor treatment prognosis. However, there is limited information on the phenomenology and prevalence of hoarding behaviors in young children. The present study characterizes children ages 10 and under who present with OCD...

  13. The epidemiology of hospitalized influenza in children, a two year population-based study in the People's Republic of China (United States)


    Background The epidemiology and disease burden of annual influenza in children in mainland People's Republic of China have not been reported in detail. To understand the incidence and epidemiology of laboratory-proven influenza hospitalization in children in China, a review of available laboratory and hospital admission data was undertaken. Methods We conducted a retrospective population-based study in Suzhou and the surrounding area of Jiangsu province, China for hospitalized cases of respiratory illness at Suzhou Children's Hospital. Cases of pneumonia or respiratory illness were identified from hospital computer data bases. Routine virological testing by fluorescent monoclonal antibody assay of all hospitalized children identified influenza and other viruses. We calculated incidence rates using census population denominators. Results Of 7,789 specimens obtained during 2007 and 2008, 85 were positive for influenza A and 25 for influenza B. There were 282 specimens with parainfluenza virus and 1392 with RSV. Influenza occurred throughout the year, with peaks in the winter, and in August/September. Overall estimated annual incidence of laboratory-proven influenza hospitalization was 23-27/100,000 children 0-4 years old, and 60/100,000 in infants 0-6 months, with an average hospitalization of 9 days. Conclusions Influenza disease in young children in this part of China is a relatively common cause of hospitalization, and occurs throughout the year. The use of influenza vaccine in Chinese children has the potential to reduce the effect of influenza in the children, as well as in their communities. Studies are needed to further assess the burden of influenza, and to develop and refine effective strategies of immunization of young children in China. PMID:20353557

  14. Young Children Learning from Touch Screens: Taking a Wider View. (United States)

    Lovato, Silvia B; Waxman, Sandra R


    Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children's lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under 3 years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them.

  15. Welfare reforms and the cognitive development of young children. (United States)

    Williamson, Deanna L; Salkie, Fiona J; Letourneau, Nicole


    To investigate whether the cognitive development of young children in poverty is affected by activities of their primary caregiver and by household income source, which are two components of family poverty experience that have been affected by recent welfare reforms. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationships that caregiver activity, household income source, and family characteristics (family income adequacy, caregiver depressive symptoms, caregiver education) have with the cognitive development of 59 impoverished children less than three years old. Of the three poverty experience variables included in the multivariate analysis, only employment as the exclusive source of household income had an independent relationship (positive) with children's cognitive development. Two of the family characteristics, income adequacy and caregiver education, also were associated with the children's cognitive score, and they were both better relative predictors than the employment-only income source variable. Income adequacy was positively associated and caregiver education was negatively associated with children's cognitive development. Although recent welfare reforms, in combination with economic growth and declining unemployment, have changed the poverty experience of young families by increasing the proportion that secure at least part of their income from employment, our study provides preliminary evidence that these reforms have made little difference for most young impoverished children. Instead, our findings suggest that the cognitive development of young children is influenced as much by the actual amount of household income as by their parents' activity and source of income.

  16. Hospital Management of Severe Hypertriglyceridemia in Children. (United States)

    Valaiyapathi, Badhma; Ashraf, Ambika P


    Severe Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), i.e., plasma triglyceride levels exceeding 1000 mg/dL, is one of the established causes of acute pancreatitis and severe abdominal pain. There are no established pediatric guidelines regarding treatment of children and adolescents with severe HTG. To review the pathophysiology and etiology of severe HTG in the pediatric age group, and to discuss management options. Severe HTG is usually due to deficient or absent Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) activity, which can be due to primary genetic etiology or secondary causes triggering HTG in those with underlying genetic susceptibility. Hospitalization is indicated for patients with severe HTG who are symptomatic with abdominal pain or pancreatitis, in those with uncontrolled diabetes requiring insulin, or, in those with substantial elevations of plasma TG. Fasting followed by fat free diet until plasma TG declines to severe pancreatitis, shock or multi-organ failure. Medications such as fibrates and omega-3 fatty acids are not effective if LPL activity is absent or when plasma TG is >1800 mg/dL. Medications only have an adjunct role in the management. Low fat diet, lifestyle changes, weight loss, control of secondary causes, and patient education form the mainstay of management once the patient is discharged. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  17. Reasons for hospital admissions among youth and young adults with cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Young, Nancy L; McCormick, Anna M; Gilbert, Tom; Ayling-Campos, Anne; Burke, Tricia; Fehlings, Darcy; Wedge, John


    To identify the most common reasons for acute care hospital admissions among youth (age range, 13-17.9y) and young adults (age range, 23-32.9y) with cerebral palsy (CP). We completed a secondary analysis of data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) to determine the most frequently observed reasons for admissions and the associated lengths of stay (LOS). Participants were identified from 6 children's treatment centers in Ontario, Canada. Health records data from youth with CP (n=587) and young adults with CP (n=477) contributed to this study. Not applicable. The most common reasons for hospital admission, relative frequencies of admissions for each reason, and mean LOS were reported. The analysis of CIHI records identified epilepsy and pneumonia as the top 2 reasons for admissions in both age groups. Both age groups were commonly admitted because of infections other than pneumonia and urinary tract infections (UTIs), gastrointestinal (GI) problems such as malabsorption, and mental illness. The reasons that were unique to youth included orthopedic and joint-related issues, other respiratory problems, and scoliosis. In young adults, mental illness was the third most common reason for admission, followed by lower GI or constipation problems, malnutrition or dehydration, upper GI problems, fractures, and UTIs. This article provides important clinical information that can be used in the training of physicians and health care providers, and to guide future planning of ambulatory care services to support the clinical management of persons with CP over their lifespan. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal responsivity in mothers of young children with Down syndrome. (United States)

    Sterling, Audra; Warren, Steven F


    The purpose of this study was to examine maternal responsivity and directive behaviors in mothers of children with Down syndrome (DS). Participants included 22 mothers with a young child with DS compared to 22 mothers of chronologically age-matched typically developing (TD) children using a cross-sectional design. The dyads participated in videotaped structured activities that were coded for responsive and directive behaviors. RESULTS indicated that the mothers of children with DS used a more facilitative style with the older children while these behaviors decreased with older children with TD; one directive behavior, request for behavioral comply, increased with the older children with DS. The mothers of children with DS adapted their parenting style to be facilitative of their children's linguistic development.

  19. Mother-child interactions in young children with excessive physical aggression and in typically developing young children. (United States)

    Urbain-Gauthier, Nadine; Wendland, Jaqueline


    Among the multiple risk factors, the emergence of conduct problems in young children may be linked to harsh parenting and child's temperamental difficulties, leading to a reciprocal early discordant relationship. Little is known about the characteristics of early parent-child interactions in young children with physical aggression. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the characteristics of mother-child interactions in dyads referred for excessive physical aggression in young children under 5 years of age compared to mother-child interactions in typically developing young children. Mother-child interactions were assessed during a free-play session in both a clinical sample ( N = 70, child mean age  = 3.5 years) and a nonclinical sample ( N = 80, child mean age  = 3.5 years) by using the Rating Scale of Interaction Style (Clark and Seifer, adapted by Molitor and Mayes). Significant differences were found between several interactive features in clinical and nonclinical dyads. In clinical dyads, mothers' behaviors were often characterized by intrusiveness and criticism toward children, and poor facilitative positioning. Children with excessive aggressive behavior often displayed poor communication, initiation of bids, and poor responsiveness toward the mother. They displayed fewer sustained bouts of play than typically developing children did. In clinical dyads, strong positive correlations were found between child responsiveness and maternal interest in engagement ( r = .41, p children with excessive aggressive behavior develop disrupted mother-infant interactions from a very young age. Several negative interactive features and correlations between child behavior and maternal behavior were found in clinical samples. The effects of these features add up and probably strengthen each other, thus leading to interactive difficulties from a very young age. More attention should be paid to early parent-child interactions in case of

  20. Soft stethoscope for detecting asthma wheeze in young children. (United States)

    Yu, Chun; Tsai, Tzu-Hsiu; Huang, Shi-Ing; Lin, Chii-Wann


    Asthma is a chronic disease that is commonly suffered by children. Asthmatic children have a lower quality of life than other children. Physicians and pediatricians recommend that parents record the frequency of attacks and their symptoms to help manage their children's asthma. However, the lack of a convenient device for monitoring the asthmatic condition leads to the difficulties in managing it, especially when it is suffered by young children. This work develops a wheeze detection system for use at home. A small and soft stethoscope was used to collect the respiratory sound. The wheeze detection algorithm was the Adaptive Respiratory Spectrum Correlation Coefficient (RSACC) algorithm, which has the advantages of high sensitivity/specificity and a low computational requirement. Fifty-nine sound files from eight young children (one to seven years old) were collected in the emergency room and analyzed. The results revealed that the system provided 88% sensitivity and 94% specificity in wheeze detection. In conclusion, this small soft stethoscope can be easily used on young children. A noisy environment does not affect the effectiveness of the system in detecting wheeze. Hence, the system can be used at home by parents who wish to evaluate and manage the asthmatic condition of their children.

  1. Young Children Learning from Touch Screens: Taking a Wider View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lovato


    Full Text Available Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children’s lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under three years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them.

  2. Kids in the atrium: comparing architectural intentions and children's experiences in a pediatric hospital lobby. (United States)

    Adams, Annmarie; Theodore, David; Goldenberg, Ellie; McLaren, Coralee; McKeever, Patricia


    The study reported here adopts an interdisciplinary focus to elicit children's views about hospital environments. Based at the Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids), Toronto, the research explores the ways in which designers and patients understand and use the eight-storey lobby, The Atrium, a monumental addition constructed in 1993. It is a public place that never closes; hundreds of children pass through the namesake atrium every day. Combining methodological approaches from architectural history and health sociology, the intentions and uses of central features of the hospital atrium are examined. Data were collected from observations, focused interviews, and textual and visual documents. We locate the contemporary atrium in a historical context of building typologies rarely connected to hospital design, such as shopping malls, hotels and airports. We link the design of these multi-storey, glass-roofed spaces to other urban experiences especially consumption as normalizing forces in the everyday lives of Canadian children. Seeking to uncover children's self-identified, self-articulated place within contemporary pediatric hospitals, we assess how the atrium--by providing important, but difficult-to-measure functions such as comfort, socialization, interface, wayfinding, contact with nature and diurnal rhythms, and respite from adjacent medicalized spaces--contributes to the well-being of young patients. We used theoretical underpinnings from architecture and humanistic geography, and participatory methods advocated by child researchers and theorists. Our findings begin to address the significant gap in understanding about the relationship between the perceptions of children and the settings where their healthcare occurs. The study also underlines children's potential to serve as agents of architectural knowledge, reporting on and recording their observations of hospital architecture with remarkable sophistication. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Screening for nutritional risk in hospitalized children with liver disease. (United States)

    Song, Tiantian; Mu, Ying; Gong, Xue; Ma, Wenyan; Li, Li


    Malnutrition is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality from pediatric liver disease. We investigated the prevalence of both malnutrition and high nutritional risk in hospitalized children with liver disease as well as the rate of in-hospital nutritional support. A total of 2,874 hospitalized children and adolescents with liver disease aged 1 to 17 years (inclusive) were enrolled. Malnutrition was screened by anthropometric measures (height-for-age, weight-for-height, weight-for-age, and BMI- for-age z-scores). The Screening Tool for Risk on Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONGkids) was used to evaluate nutritional risk status. Nutrition markers in blood, rate of nutritional support, length of hospital stay, and hospital fees were compared among nutritional risk groups. The overall prevalence of malnutrition was 38.6%. About 20.0% of children had high nutritional risk, and prevalence of malnutrition was markedly greater in the high nutritional risk group compared with the moderate risk group (67.9% vs 31.3%). Serum albumin and prealbumin differed significantly between high and moderate risk groups (pnutritional risk and 3.5% with moderate nutritional risk received nutrition support during hospitalization. Children with high nutritional risk had longer hospital stays and greater hospital costs (pnutritional risk is also prevalent at admission. Albumin and prealbumin are sensitive markers for distinguishing nutritional risk groups. High nutritional risk prolongs length of stay and increases hospital costs. The nutritional support rate is still low and requires standardization.

  4. Playscapes : A design perspective on young children's physical play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Boudewijn; Van Der Net, Janjaap; Rozendaal, Marco; Stappers, Pieter Jan; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.


    In early childhood, children develop motor skills that form the basis of their future physical activities. This development can stagnate when children face long-term hospitalization due to injury or disease. Most interventions to facilitate their physical development are built on exercise and

  5. Children's Hospitals' Solutions for Patient Safety Collaborative Impact on Hospital-Acquired Harm. (United States)

    Lyren, Anne; Brilli, Richard J; Zieker, Karen; Marino, Miguel; Muething, Stephen; Sharek, Paul J


    To determine if an improvement collaborative of 33 children's hospitals focused on reliable best practice implementation and culture of safety improvements can reduce hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) and serious safety events (SSEs). A 3-year prospective cohort study design with a 12-month historical control population was completed by the Children's Hospitals' Solutions for Patient Safety collaborative. Identification and dissemination of best practices related to 9 HACs and SSE reduction focused on key process and culture of safety improvements. Individual hospital improvement teams leveraged the resources of a large, structured children's hospital collaborative using electronic, virtual, and in-person interactions. Thirty-three children's hospitals from across the United States volunteered to be part of the Children's Hospitals' Solutions for Patient Safety collaborative. Thirty-two met all the data submission eligibility requirements for the HAC improvement objective of this study, and 21 participated in the high-reliability culture work aimed at reducing SSEs. Significant harm reduction occurred in 8 of 9 common HACs (range 9%-71%; P collaborative dedicated to implementing HAC-related best-practice prevention bundles and culture of safety interventions designed to increase the use of high-reliability organization practices resulted in significant HAC and SSE reductions. Structured collaboration and rapid sharing of evidence-based practices and tools are effective approaches to decreasing hospital-acquired harm. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Children in the hospital: elements of quality in drawings. (United States)

    Pelander, Tiina; Lehtonen, Kimmo; Leino-Kilpi, Helena


    Not much is known about how children perceive the quality of care that they receive in hospitals. This study set out to describe elements of quality in children's drawings of an ideal hospital. Thirty-five drawings were collected from children aged between 4 and 11 years during their stay in a university hospital in Finland. They were coded using the method of content analysis. The two main categories extracted from the analysis were the environment and the people of their ideal hospital. The emphasis was on the environment; patients, parents, and nurses appeared less frequently in the drawings. The findings showed that children are capable of offering valuable insights into the elements of quality through the medium of drawing.

  7. Patterns of referral to Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Memorial Children's Hospital, K1ipfontein Road, Rondebosch, 7700 RSA,. Accepted 10 Apt 1990, ... of every patient referred in the study period, or recorded the folder number of ..... Council for providing a short-term grant; Mariah Jacobs of the.

  8. Hospital-based home care for children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Eva Helena; Kjaergaard, H; Schmiegelow, K


    , as it decreased the strain on the family and the ill child, maintained normality and an ordinary everyday life and fulfilled the need for safety and security. According to family members of children with cancer, hospital-based home care support enhanced their quality of life during the child's cancer trajectory......The study aims to describe the experiences of a hospital-based home care programme in the families of children with cancer. Fourteen parents, representing 10 families, were interviewed about their experiences of a hospital-based home care programme during a 4-month period in 2009 at a university...... hospital in Denmark. Five children participated in all or part of the interview. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The findings indicate that hospital-based home care enabled the families to remain intact throughout the course of treatment...

  9. Air pollution and children's asthma-related emergency hospital visits in southeastern France. (United States)

    Mazenq, Julie; Dubus, Jean-Christophe; Gaudart, Jean; Charpin, Denis; Nougairede, Antoine; Viudes, Gilles; Noel, Guilhem


    Children's asthma is multifactorial. Environmental factors like air pollution exposure, meteorological conditions, allergens, and viral infections are strongly implicated. However, place of residence has rarely been investigated in connection with these factors. The primary aim of our study was to measure the impact of particulate matter (PM), assessed close to the children's homes, on asthma-related pediatric emergency hospital visits within the Bouches-du-Rhône area in 2013. In a nested case-control study on 3- to 18-year-old children, each control was randomly matched on the emergency room visit day, regardless of hospital. Each asthmatic child was compared to 15 controls. PM 10 and PM 2.5 , meteorological conditions, pollens, and viral data were linked to ZIP code and analyzed by purpose of emergency visit. A total of 68,897 visits were recorded in children, 1182 concerning asthma. Short-term exposure to PM 10 measured near children's homes was associated with excess risk of asthma emergency visits (adjusted odds ratio 1.02 (95% CI 1.01-1.04; p = 0.02)). Male gender, young age, and temperature were other risk factors. Conversely, wind speed was a protective factor. PM 10 and certain meteorological conditions near children's homes increased the risk of emergency asthma-related hospital visits in 3- to 18-year-old children in Bouches-du-Rhône. What is Known: • A relationship between short-term exposure to air pollution and increase in emergency room visits or hospital admissions as a result of increased pollution levels has already been demonstrated. What is New: • This study confirms these results but took into account confounding factors (viral data, pollens, and meteorological conditions) and is based on estimated pollution levels assessed close to the children's homes, rather than those recorded at the hospital. • The study area, the Mediterranean, is favorable to creation of secondary pollutants in these sunny and dry seasons.

  10. Recurrence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax in young adults and children. (United States)

    Noh, Dongsub; Lee, Sungsoo; Haam, Seok Jin; Paik, Hyo Chae; Lee, Doo Yun


    Although better nutritional support has improved the growth rates in children, the occurrence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax has also been increasing in children. The current study attempts to investigate the occurrence and recurrence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax and the efficacy of surgery for primary spontaneous pneumothorax in young adults and children. A total of 840 patients were treated for pneumothorax at our hospital from January 2006 to December 2010. Exclusion criteria for this study were age >25 or secondary, traumatic or iatrogenic pneumothorax, and a total of 517 patients were included. Patients were classified into three groups according to age at the first episode of primary spontaneous pneumothorax: Group A: ≤16 years; Group B: 17-18 years and Group C: ≥19 years. The study group was composed of 470 male and 47 female patients. There were 234 right-sided, 279 left-sided and 4 bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothoraces. Wedge resection by video-assisted thoracic surgery was performed in 285 patients, while 232 were managed by observation or closed thoracostomy. In the wedge resection group, 51 patients experienced recurrence. The recurrence rates after wedge resection were 27.9% in Group A, 16.5% in Group B and 13.2% in Group C (P = 0.038). The recurrence rates after observation or closed thoracostomy were 45.7% in Group A, 51.9% in Group B and 47.7% in Group C (P = 0.764). In the present study, postoperative recurrence rates were higher than those in the literature. Intense and long-term follow-up was probably one reason for the relatively high recurrence rate. The recurrence rate after wedge resection in patients aged ≤16 years was higher than that in older patients. There was no difference between the recurrence rates after observation or closed thoracostomy, regardless of age. These results suggest that wedge resection might be delayed in children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  11. Two-Step Process for ED UTI Screening in Febrile Young Children: Reducing Catheterization Rates. (United States)

    Lavelle, Jane M; Blackstone, Mercedes M; Funari, Mary Kate; Roper, Christine; Lopez, Patricia; Schast, Aileen; Taylor, April M; Voorhis, Catherine B; Henien, Mira; Shaw, Kathy N


    Urinary tract infection (UTI) screening in febrile young children can be painful and time consuming. We implemented a screening protocol for UTI in a high-volume pediatric emergency department (ED) to reduce urethral catheterization, limiting catheterization to children with positive screens from urine bag specimens. This quality-improvement initiative was implemented using 3 Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, beginning with a small test of the proposed change in 1 ED area. To ensure appropriate patients received timely screening, care teams discussed patient risk factors and created patient-specific, appropriate procedures. The intervention was extended to the entire ED after providing education. Finally, visual cues were added into the electronic health record, and nursing scripts were developed to enlist family participation. A time-series design was used to study the impact of the 6-month intervention by using a p-chart to determine special cause variation. The primary outcome measure for the study was defined as the catheterization rate in febrile children ages 6 to 24 months. The ED reduced catheterization rates among febrile young children from 63% to UTIs among those followed within the hospital's network. A 2-step less-invasive process for screening febrile young children for UTI can be instituted in a high-volume ED without increasing length of stay or missing cases of UTI. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Soft Stethoscope for Detecting Asthma Wheeze in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yu


    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic disease that is commonly suffered by children. Asthmatic children have a lower quality of life than other children. Physicians and pediatricians recommend that parents record the frequency of attacks and their symptoms to help manage their children’s asthma. However, the lack of a convenient device for monitoring the asthmatic condition leads to the difficulties in managing it, especially when it is suffered by young children. This work develops a wheeze detection system for use at home. A small and soft stethoscope was used to collect the respiratory sound. The wheeze detection algorithm was the Adaptive Respiratory Spectrum Correlation Coefficient (RSACC algorithm, which has the advantages of high sensitivity/specificity and a low computational requirement. Fifty-nine sound files from eight young children (one to seven years old were collected in the emergency room and analyzed. The results revealed that the system provided 88% sensitivity and 94% specificity in wheeze detection. In conclusion, this small soft stethoscope can be easily used on young children. A noisy environment does not affect the effectiveness of the system in detecting wheeze. Hence, the system can be used at home by parents who wish to evaluate and manage the asthmatic condition of their children.

  13. Nutritional value of milk drinks for young children


    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment


    Milk drinks for young children, i.e. toddlers, available on the market are referred to as toddler milk or children’s milk. The manufacturers of these products often advertise these to be – in contrast to cow milk – adjusted to serve the specific nutritional needs of young children. These products thus often contain less protein than cow milk, allegedly in order to counteract obesity later in life. Instead they contain more vitamins and minerals, which is then said to be necessary for the adeq...

  14. Aerobic capacity related to cardiac size in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Wollmer, P; Karlsson, M


    Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base.......Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base....

  15. Bilingualism and Conversational Understanding in Young Children (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Iozzi, Laura; Surian, Luca


    The purpose of the two experiments reported here was to investigate whether bilingualism confers an advantage on children's conversational understanding. A total of 163 children aged 3-6 years were given a Conversational Violations Test to determine their ability to identify responses to questions as violations of Gricean maxims of conversation…

  16. Young Children's Apologies to Their Siblings (United States)

    Schleien, Sara; Ross, Hildy; Ross, Michael


    When children apologize, they accept responsibility for wrongdoings and act to reconcile social relationships. Apologies to siblings were coded in 40 families that were observed for 9 h when children were 2 1/2 and 4 1/2 years old, and again 2 years later. We found that sibling apologies were rare, generally simple in form, and more frequent after…

  17. 474 Science Activities for Young Children. (United States)

    Green, Moira D.

    This book uses a child-initiated, whole language approach to help children have fun while exploring the world of science. The activities are divided into 23 units. Each unit begins with an "Attention Getter," the purpose of which is to introduce the unit to children in a way that grabs their attention, stimulates their interest, and creates…

  18. Young Children, Gender and the Heterosexual Matrix (United States)

    Paechter, Carrie


    In this paper I consider the adult focus of current mainstream gender theory. I relate this to how the concept of the heterosexual matrix originates in a social contract which excludes children from civil society. I argue that this exclusion is problematic both for theoretical reasons and from the perspective of children themselves. I start by…

  19. The effect of educational interventions with siblings of hospitalized children. (United States)

    Gursky, Barbara


    Research has demonstrated that siblings of chronically ill children can experience significant emotional and behavior changes; however, few studies have looked at the specific impact of pediatric hospitalization on the nonhospitalized child. Studies also indicate that children who receive age-appropriate information are better equipped to handle the stress and anxiety often associated with hospitalization.This study explored whether siblings of hospitalized children who received educational interventions had lower anxiety levels compared to siblings who did not receive interventions. A pretest-posttest experimental design was used with 50 subjects, ages 6-17 years, recruited from a children's hospital within a university medical center. Subjects were matched according to age, sex, and race, with 25 siblings each in the experimental and control groups. Siblings assigned to the experimental group received interventions from a standardized educational intervention protocol developed by the researcher. Interventions focused on teaching the sibling about hospitalization, illness or injury, and treatment for the patient, based on cognitive stages of development. All interventions were conducted by child life specialists on staff at the hospital with extensive training and experience in preparation and procedural teaching. Results shows that siblings who received educational interventions had significantly lower anxiety levels after interventions, compared to siblings who did not receive interventions. These findings have significant impact on children's health care and supporting family needs when a child is hospitalized.

  20. Cancer in Children at El Obeid Hospital, Western Sudan. | Doumi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Cancers in children were seen at Western Sudan, and cases admitted to hospital only reflect the tip of the iceberg as many cases were directly referred to Oncology Hospitals. Establishment of a local radiation and isotopes centre is needed in this part of the country to provide oncology services and to integrate ...

  1. Research improves hospitals' approach to children's pain in Thailand

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research that has enabled hospitals in Thailand to better treat children's pain ... requires nurses and doctors to have specialized training and more time to assess a ... having to stay longer in the hospital, or creating problems for their parents. ... pain numerically — on a scale of 1 to 10 — as is standard practice for adults.

  2. Theory of Mind and Executive Functions in Young Bilingual Children. (United States)

    Dahlgren, SvenOlof; Almén, Helena; Dahlgren Sandberg, Annika


    Few studies have explored the relationship between theory of mind (ToM), executive function (EF), and bilingualism at the same time. In this study 14 young bilingual children were compared with monolingual children on a test battery composed of 5 ToM tests, 5 EF tests, and 1 test of general language ability. The result showed that despite significantly lower verbal ability, the bilingual children outperformed the monolingual ones on tests of EF. There were no differences in ToM performance. The authors argue that there is a strong relationship between bilingualism and EF, but, contrary to results from earlier studies, they could not find any relationship between bilingualism and ToM. EF did not predict ToM performance. Lack of a significant relationship could be due to the children's young age and consequently their low scores on the ToM tasks.

  3. Promoting and protecting the health of children and young people. (United States)

    Licence, K


    The health-related behaviours adopted by children and young people can have both immediate and long-term health effects. Health promotion interventions that target children and young people can lay the foundations of a healthy lifestyle that may be sustained into adulthood. This paper is based on a selective review of evidence relating to health promotion in childhood, carried out to support the external working group on the 'Healthy Child' module of the Children's National Service Framework. This is a selective review of mainly secondary research. It focuses on injury prevention, support for parenting and the promotion of good mental health, and promoting a healthy diet and physical activity amongst children and young people. In many areas, the quality of primary research into health promotion interventions aimed at children and young people is poor. Interventions are heterogeneous and not described in sufficient detail. Sample sizes tend to be small, and there are commonly problems of bias. Despite these difficulties, there is good evidence for a range of interventions, including (1) area road safety schemes; (2) combining a variety of approaches to the promotion of the use of safety equipment, including legislation and enforcement, loan/assisted purchase/giveaway schemes, education, fitting and maintenance of safety equipment; (3) school-based mental health promotion; (4) parenting support; (5) interventions that promote and facilitate 'lifestyle' activity for children, such as walking and cycling to school, and those that aim to reduce sedentary behaviours such as parent education to reduce the time children spend watching TV and using computers; and (6) controlling advertising of unhealthy food that is aimed at children. There are effective interventions to promote and protect the health of children and young people that require action across the five areas described in the Ottawa Charter. Health, social care and education services have a direct role in the

  4. The Understanding of Emotion among Young Chinese Children


    Tang, Yulong; Harris, Paul L.; Pons, Francisco; Zou, Hong; Zhang, Wenjuan; Xu, Qunxia


    The development of emotion understanding in young Chinese children was examined. The overall trend in the development of emotion understanding among Chinese preschoolers – as measured by the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC) proved similar to that found among preschoolers in Western Europe. However, Chinese children performed better at understanding the distinction between real and apparent emotion and worse at understanding the connection between reminders and emotion. Children’s theory of...

  5. Homicidal abuse of young children: A historical perspective


    Rudy J Castellani; Joyce L deJong; Carl J Schmidt


    The past 50 years has seen a heightened awareness of abusive injury patterns and increased concern for the plight of children victimized by their caregivers. Murder of the young, however, has been embedded in society since the beginning of recorded time. Indeed, nature provides abundant examples of infanticide in lower animals, raising the question of whether exploitation, apathy, and violence toward children are on some level evolutionarily conserved. In human antiquity, selective killing of...

  6. Examining the Quality of IEPs for Young Children with Autism


    Ruble, Lisa A.; McGrew, John; Dalrymple, Nancy; Jung, Lee Ann


    The purpose of this study was to develop an Individual Education Program (IEP) evaluation tool based on Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requirements and National Research Council recommendations for children with autism; determine the tool’s reliability; test the tool on a pilot sample of IEPs of young children; and examine associations between IEP quality and school, teacher, and child characteristics. IEPs for 35 students with autism (Mage = 6.1 years; SD = 1.6) from 35 d...

  7. Premature discharge of children from hospital admission at Ahmadu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Leaving hospital care prematurely could threaten the healthy survival of and expose children to a risk of harmful alternatives. It is also a concern and a challenge to healthcare providers and the health system. A better understanding of its characteristic could help mitigate the impact on children. Objective: To ...

  8. Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption (United States)

    Gritter, James L.


    Building on previous books by the author, "Hospitious Adoption: How Hospitality Empowers Children and Transforms Adoption" examines the next step after open adoption. Gritter takes the approach that practicing goodwill, respect, and courage within the realm of adoption makes the process move smoother and enriches children's lives. Following a…

  9. Hospital-based home care for children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Helena; Hallström, Inger; Kjaergaard, Hanne


    Hospital-based home care (HBHC) is widely applied in Pediatric Oncology. We reviewed the potential effect of HBHC on children's physical health and risk of adverse events, parental and child satisfaction, quality of life of children and their parents, and costs. A search of PubMed, CINAHL...

  10. Talking with Young Children about Their Dreams: How to Listen and What to Listen For. (United States)

    Rousso, June; Gross, Augusta


    Addresses aspects of talking with young children about their dreams. Explains why dreams are worthwhile topics of conversation with young children and what approaches are effective in facilitating discussion of dreams in class. (BB)

  11. Ideas Exchange: "How Important Is Activity in Young Children (Preschool) to a Lifetime of Physical Activity?" (United States)

    Hushman, GLenn; Morrison, Jaime; Mally, Kristi; McCall, Renee; Corso, Marjorie; Kamla, Jim; Magnotta, John; Chase, Melissa A.; Garrahy, Deborah A.; Lorenzi, David G.; Barnd, Sue


    This article presents the opinions of several professionals who were asked: "How important is activity in young children (preschool) to a lifetime of physical activity?" These professionals point out the importance of physical activity to young children.

  12. Early life trauma exposure and stress sensitivity in young children. (United States)

    Grasso, Damion J; Ford, Julian D; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J


    The current study replicates and extends work with adults that highlights the relationship between trauma exposure and distress in response to subsequent, nontraumatic life stressors. The sample included 213 2-4-year-old children in which 64.3% had a history of potential trauma exposure. Children were categorized into 4 groups based on trauma history and current life stress. In a multivariate analysis of variance, trauma-exposed children with current life stressors had elevated internalizing and externalizing problems compared with trauma-exposed children without current stress and nontrauma-exposed children with and without current stressors. The trauma-exposed groups with or without current stressors did not differ on posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity. Accounting for number of traumatic events did not change these results. These findings suggest that early life trauma exposure may sensitize young children and place them at risk for internalizing or externalizing problems when exposed to subsequent, nontraumatic life stressors.

  13. [Intelligence, socio-economic status and hospital admissions of young adults]. (United States)

    Bosma, H; Traag, T; Berger-van Sijl, M; van Eijk, J; Otten, F


    To determine whether socio-economic differences in hospital admissions of adolescents and young adults are related to differences in intelligence. . Retrospective cohort study. The data were derived from a group of 10,231 young adults and adolescents who were followed for a total of 47,212 person years with regard to their hospital admissions. Intelligence was measured in the first year of secondary school by 2 non-verbal intelligence tests for fluid intelligence. Data from hospital admissions were matched to a large-scale educational and occupational cohort. Data were analysed with Cox proportional hazards analysis. Intelligence was not found to be related to hospital admissions. However, a low occupational and educational level of the young adults or their parents, was strongly related to heightened risk for hospital admissions. In particular, the low socio-economic status of a respondent was associated with heightened risk for hospital admissions due to accidents (relative risk: 3.49; 95% confidence interval: 1.91-6.39). The small extent to which the socio-economic differences in hospital admissions seem to be based upon fluid intelligence, at least in adolescents and young adults, as well as the heightened risks of hospital admissions in lower socio-economic status groups and the associated high costs for health care legitimise further study of the determinants of these differences.

  14. Indirect, out-of-pocket and medical costs from influenza-related illness in young children. (United States)

    Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael R; Molinari, Noelle-Angelique M; Fairbrother, Gerry; Szilagyi, Peter G; Edwards, Kathryn M; Griffin, Marie R; Cassedy, Amy; Poehling, Katherine A; Bridges, Carolyn; Staat, Mary Allen


    Studies have documented direct medical costs of influenza-related illness in young children, however little is known about the out-of-pocket and indirect costs (e.g., missed work time) incurred by caregivers of children with medically attended influenza. To determine the indirect, out-of-pocket (OOP), and direct medical costs of laboratory-confirmed medically attended influenza illness among young children. Using a population-based surveillance network, we evaluated a representative group of children aged accounting databases, and follow-up interviews with caregivers. Outcome measures included work time missed, OOP expenses (e.g., over-the-counter medicines, travel expenses), and direct medical costs. Costs were estimated (in 2009 US Dollars) and comparisons were made among children with and without high risk conditions for influenza-related complications. Data were obtained from 67 inpatients, 121 ED patients and 92 outpatients with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Caregivers of hospitalized children missed an average of 73 work hours (estimated cost $1456); caregivers of children seen in the ED and outpatient clinics missed 19 ($383) and 11 work hours ($222), respectively. Average OOP expenses were $178, $125 and $52 for inpatients, ED-patients and outpatients, respectively. OOP and indirect costs were similar between those with and without high risk conditions (p>0.10). Medical costs totaled $3990 for inpatients and $730 for ED-patients. Out-of-pocket and indirect costs of laboratory-confirmed and medically attended influenza in young children are substantial and support the benefits of vaccination. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Development of the Respiratory Index of Severity in Children (RISC score among young children with respiratory infections in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Reed

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pneumonia is a leading cause of death in children worldwide. A simple clinical score predicting the probability of death in a young child with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI could aid clinicians in case management and provide a standardized severity measure during epidemiologic studies. METHODS: We analyzed 4,148 LRTI hospitalizations in children <24 months enrolled in a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trial in South Africa from 1998-2001, to develop the Respiratory Index of Severity in Children (RISC. Using clinical data at admission, a multivariable logistic regression model for mortality was developed and statistically evaluated using bootstrap resampling techniques. Points were assigned to risk factors based on their coefficients in the multivariable model. A child's RISC score is the sum of points for each risk factor present. Separate models were developed for HIV-infected and non-infected children. RESULTS: Significant risk factors for HIV-infected and non-infected children included low oxygen saturation, chest indrawing, wheezing, and refusal to feed. The models also included age and HIV clinical classification (for HIV-infected children or weight-for-age (for non-infected children. RISC scores ranged up to 7 points for HIV-infected or 6 points for non-infected children and correlated with probability of death (0-47%, HIV-infected; 0-14%, non-infected. Final models showed good discrimination (area under the ROC curve and calibration (goodness-of-fit. CONCLUSION: The RISC score incorporates a simple set of risk factors that accurately discriminate between young children based on their risk of death from LRTI, and may provide an objective means to quantify severity based on the risk of mortality.

  16. Outcomes for children hospitalized with abusive versus noninflicted abdominal trauma. (United States)

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman; Lotwin, Irwin; Dubowitz, Howard; Langenberg, Patricia; Dischinger, Patricia


    Abusive abdominal trauma (AAT) is the second leading cause of child abuse mortality. Previous outcome studies have been limited to data from trauma centers. The goals of this study were (1) to examine mortality, length of hospitalization, and hospital charges among a national sample of children hospitalized for AAT; and (2) to compare these outcomes with children with noninflicted abdominal trauma. Hospitalization data for children aged 0 to 9 years were obtained from the 2003 and 2006 Kids' Inpatient Database. Cases were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification and external cause of injury codes. Multivariable regression analyses were used to compare outcomes of children with AAT versus those with noninflicted injury. Children with AAT were younger, and more often insured by Medicaid. Among children surviving to discharge, those with AAT had longer hospitalizations (adjusted mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] length of stay: 7.9 (6.6-9.3) vs 6.4 (6.1-6.7) days, P assist families at risk should be supported.

  17. Young Children's Sibling Relationship Quality: Distal and Proximal Correlates (United States)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Pike, Alison


    Background: Relationships within families are interdependent and related to distal environmental factors. Low socioeconomic status (SES) and high household chaos (distal factors) have been linked to less positive marital and parent-child relationships, but have not yet been examined with regard to young children's sibling relationships. The…

  18. Assessment of Self-Recognition in Young Children with Handicaps. (United States)

    Kelley, Michael F.; And Others


    Thirty young children with handicaps were assessed on five self-recognition mirror tasks. The set of tasks formed a reproducible scale, indicating that these tasks are an appropriate measure of self-recognition in this population. Data analysis suggested that stage of self-recognition is positively and significantly related to cognitive…

  19. Gaze Shift as an Interactional Resource for Very Young Children (United States)

    Kidwell, Mardi


    This article examines how very young children in a day care center make use of their peers' gaze shifts to differentially locate and prepare for the possibility of a caregiver intervention during situations of their biting, hitting, pushing, and the like. At issue is how the visible character of a gaze shift--that is, the manner in which it is…

  20. 4953 Volume 11 No. 4 July 2011 YOUNG CHILDREN FEEDING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Your User Name


    Jul 4, 2011 ... YOUNG CHILDREN FEEDING AND ZINC LEVELS OF. COMPLEMENTARY .... The main objective of this work was to determine dietary zinc ..... Cameroun. Résultats de l'enquête Démographique et de Santé au Cameroun en.

  1. Young Children's Analogical Reasoning: The Role of Immediate Feedback (United States)

    Chiu, Shuhui; Alexander, Patricia A.


    In this study, a computerized measure, Interactive Analogical Measure (IAM), was developed and used to assess young children's ability to reason analogically. The IAM was equipped to provide corrective feedback and the effects of that feedback were tested for experimental and control groups. A group of 5-year-olds (N = 80) participated in the…

  2. Serious bacterial infections in febrile young children: Lack of value ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young children often attend primary care institutions and emergency departments with ... Three-quarters (~1 000) are admitted for subspecialist care and tend to be afebrile on ..... occurred after the first 3 days of hospitalisation, with the median time to death .... are extremely useful markers to aid in diagnosis, whereas there.

  3. Young Children's Sensitivity to Speaker Gender When Learning from Others (United States)

    Ma, Lili; Woolley, Jacqueline D.


    This research explores whether young children are sensitive to speaker gender when learning novel information from others. Four- and 6-year-olds ("N" = 144) chose between conflicting statements from a male versus a female speaker (Studies 1 and 3) or decided which speaker (male or female) they would ask (Study 2) when learning about the functions…

  4. Working in the Classroom with Young Children Who Stutter (United States)

    Panico, James; Daniels, Derek E.; Claflin, M. Susan


    Young children develop the skills necessary for communication in infancy. Interactions with family members and other caregivers nurture and support those skills. Spoken (expressive) language progresses rapidly after a child's first word. A typical 2-year-old has an expressive vocabulary of approximately 150-300 words. Around this time, as they…

  5. Appropriate Social Behavior: Teaching Expectations to Young Children (United States)

    Carter, Deborah Russell; Pool, Juli Lull


    Young children's challenging behavior can impact all aspects of the classroom environment, including relationships (peer-peer, student-teacher), learning, and safety. Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a program that focuses on supporting pro-social behaviors and preventing challenging behavior. PBIS begins with building a…

  6. Reading with hotspots: How young children respond to touchscreen stories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piotrowski, J.T.; Krcmar, M.

    Worldwide estimates indicate that toddlers and preschoolers are introduced to mobile technology at an early age, with many now using touchscreens on a daily basis. One of the appeals of touchscreen technology is that it seems to be intuitive to very young children and, at least from anecdotal

  7. Breastfeeding practices of mothers of young children in Lagos, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the breastfeeding practices (prevalence, initiation and exclusivity) of mothers of young children in Lagos. Methods: This was a communitybased, cross-sectional study carried out in 2010 in two Local Government Areas of Lagos State. Structured, intervieweradministered questionnaires were ...

  8. Assistive Technology for Young Children: Creating Inclusive Learning Environments (United States)

    Sadao, Kathleen C.; Robinson, Nancy B.


    Assistive technology (AT) can help young children with disabilities fully participate in natural, inclusive learning environments--but many early childhood professionals don't get the training they need to harness the power of AT. Fill that gap with this unintimidating, reader-friendly resource, the go-to guide to recommended AT practice for…

  9. SPIRE Project: Parental Involvement in Young Children's ESL Reading Development (United States)

    Harji, Madhubala Bava; Balakrishnan, Kavitha; Letchumanan, Krishnanveni


    Realising the clear dichotomy between schools and homes, the Malaysia government has now turned its attention to stakeholders and called for an increase involvement of parents, who are critical in transforming the education system. However, a clear line of demarcation continues to exist between the two prime educators of young children. Schools…

  10. Home Food Preservation among Families with Young Children (United States)

    Lorenz, Lorraine J.; Sawicki, Marjorie A.; Elliott, Michael; White, Melissa


    The purpose of this study was to determine preservation practices, perceived barriers, and likelihood of parents with young children to home preserve food in the future. Implications of this research relate to family and consumer sciences professionals who endeavor to improve fruit and vegetable intake and provide resources to families and…

  11. Screening for suppression in young children: the Polaroid Suppression test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, J.W.R.; Oosterveen, DK; Van Hof-van Duin, J


    Background: Assessment of monocular visual impairment during screening of young children is often hampered by lack of cooperation. Because strabismus, amblyopia, or anisometropia may lead to monocular suppression during binocular viewing conditions, a test was developed to screen far suppression in

  12. Web Sites for Young Children: Gateway to Online Social Networking? (United States)

    Bauman, Sheri; Tatum, Tanisha


    Traffic on Web sites for young children (ages 3-12) has increased exponentially in recent years. Advocates proclaim that they are safe introductions to the Internet and online social networking and teach essential 21st-century skills. Critics note developmental concerns. In this article, we provide basic information about Web sites for young…

  13. Cyberbullying: Through the Eyes of Children and Young People (United States)

    Ackers, Melanie Jane


    The topic of cyberbullying is raising international debate and concern. Through the development and dissemination of a questionnaire 12 student researchers were supported in surveying 325 UK students across Years 7, 8 and 9 to gain further knowledge of this area, in relation to children and young people. Results were analysed and comparisons made…

  14. Young children's ability to use a computer mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, A.; Reitsma, P.


    Because there is little empirical data available on how well young children are able to use a computer mouse, the present study examined their proficiency in clicking on small objects at various positions on the screen and their skill in moving objects over the screen, using drag-and-drop and

  15. The perception of natural vs. built environments by young children (United States)

    Briavel Holcomb


    This paper questions the assumption that young children need exposure to natural environments for healthy psychological development. Preliminary investigation of the environmental perceptions of 4-year-olds suggests that the distinction between natural and man-made milieux is insignificant to preschoolers, and that they find both kinds of environments similarly...

  16. Home Literacy, Television Viewing, Fidgeting and ADHD in Young Children (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Davison, Mark L.


    Factors related to parent ratings of young children's (mean age = 3.72, range = 3-6) fidgeting and reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were examined in a nationally representative sample of US families via the National Household Education Surveys. In structural equation models, the number of television hours viewed daily was…

  17. Phonological Awareness of Young Children with Visual Impairments (United States)

    Hatton, Deborah D.; Erickson, Karen A.; Lee, Donna Brostek


    The findings from a sample of 22 young children with visual impairments and no additional disabilities suggest that potential readers of braille or dual media had better syllable-segmentation, sound-isolation, and sound-segmentation skills than potential readers of print. Potential readers of print seemed to have slightly better…

  18. Re(con)ceiving Young Children's Curricular Performativity (United States)

    Sellers, Marg


    Working (with) Deleuzo-Guattarian philosophical imaginaries opens (to) a multiplicity of possibilities for thinking differently about curriculum, young children and how they perform their curricular understandings. In this article I work (as) rhizome, bringing the imaginaries "becoming" and "milieu" into an early childhood curriculum conversation…

  19. Exposure and Use of Mobile Media Devices by Young Children. (United States)

    Kabali, Hilda K; Irigoyen, Matilde M; Nunez-Davis, Rosemary; Budacki, Jennifer G; Mohanty, Sweta H; Leister, Kristin P; Bonner, Robert L


    Research on children's use of mobile media devices lags behind its adoption. The objective of this study was to examine young children's exposure to and use of mobile media devices. Cross-sectional study of 350 children aged 6 months to 4 years seen October to November 2014 at a pediatric clinic in an urban, low-income, minority community. The survey was adapted from Common Sense Media's 2013 nationwide survey. Most households had television (97%), tablets (83%), and smartphones (77%). At age 4, half the children had their own television and three-fourths their own mobile device. Almost all children (96.6%) used mobile devices, and most started using before age 1. Parents gave children devices when doing house chores (70%), to keep them calm (65%), and at bedtime (29%). At age 2, most children used a device daily and spent comparable screen time on television and mobile devices. Most 3- and 4-year-olds used devices without help, and one-third engaged in media multitasking. Content delivery applications such as YouTube and Netflix were popular. Child ownership of device, age at first use, and daily use were not associated with ethnicity or parent education. Young children in an urban, low-income, minority community had almost universal exposure to mobile devices, and most had their own device by age 4. The patterns of use suggest early adoption, frequent and independent use, and media multitasking. Studies are urgently needed to update recommendations for families and providers on the use of mobile media by young children. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Associations between Screen-Based Sedentary Behaviour and Anxiety Symptoms in Mothers with Young Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Teychenne

    Full Text Available Anxiety is a serious illness and women (including mothers with young children are at particular risk. Although physical activity (PA may reduce anxiety risk, little research has investigated the link between sedentary behaviour and anxiety risk. The aim of this study was to examine the association between screen-based sedentary behaviour and anxiety symptoms, independent of PA, amongst mothers with young children.During 2013-2014, 528 mothers with children aged 2-5 years completed self-report measures of recreational screen-based sedentary behaviour (TV/DVD/video viewing, computer/e-games/hand held device use and anxiety symptoms (using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS-A. Linear regression analyses examined the cross-sectional association between screen-based sedentary behaviour and anxiety symptoms.In models that adjusted for key demographic and behavioural covariates (including moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA, MVPA, computer/device use (B = 0.212; 95% CI = 0.048, 0.377 and total screen time (B = 0.109; 95% CI = 0.014, 0.205 were positively associated with heightened anxiety symptoms. TV viewing was not associated with anxiety symptoms in either model.Higher levels of recreational computer or handheld device use and overall screen time may be linked to higher risk of anxiety symptoms in mothers with young children, independent of MVPA. Further longitudinal and intervention research is required to determine temporal associations.

  1. Psychological workshops for children and adolescents suffering from malignant disease: The model of psychosocial support during hospitalization and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klikovac Tamara


    Full Text Available Pediatric psycho-oncology within psycho-oncology is a highly developed scientific discipline in the world, both at the level of basic research and the development of theoretical concepts and at the practical level, which refers to the creation and implementation of various models of psychosocial support to children and young people who are suffering from various malignant diseases and their families during all stages of the demanding oncology treatment. One of the models of psychosocial support for children are workshops, as a form of group psychological treatment in which children and young people who are in distress, crisis, shock and even trauma, acquire a new positive experience and which provides new insights and knowledge to empower and boost the quality of life for overcoming severe malignant disease and treatment through meaningful games, all of which leads to overcoming the 'downtime' and regression and encouraging further psychological development. The outcome of workshop activities are various products (drawings, photographs, videos, posters, written material, but also positive feelings and behaviours in children and adolescents. The main objectives of introducing psychological workshops at the department of pediatric hematology-oncology in our community are, on the one hand, to provide professional counselling and support to children and young people during hospitalization and, on the other, to introduce a standard psychological procedure and quality psychological practice of group psychological counselling for sick children and young people in the hospital environment.

  2. Cyborgization: Deaf Education for Young Children in the Cochlear Implantation Era (United States)

    Valente, Joseph Michael


    The author, who was raised oral deaf himself, recounts a visit to a school for young deaf children and discovers that young d/Deaf children and their rights are subverted by the cochlear implantation empire. The hypercapitalist, techno-manic times of cochlear implantation has wreaked havoc to the lives of not only young children with deafness but…

  3. The Social Organisation of Help during Young Children's Use of the Computer (United States)

    Davidson, Christina


    This article examines some of the ways that young children seek and provide help through social interaction during use of the computer in the home. Although social interaction is considered an important aspect of young children's use of computers, there are still few studies that provide detailed analysis of how young children accomplish that…

  4. Young Children as Active Citizens in Local Government: Possibilities and Challenges from an Australian Perspective (United States)

    Bartholomaeus, Clare; Gregoric, Carolyn; Krieg, Susan


    Despite considerable research and discussion regarding children and young people's rights and citizenship, the participation of young children in community decision-making is still limited. In this exploratory research, a case study is reported on how ideas about young children as active citizens are interpreted within one local government…

  5. How hospitalized children and parents perceive nurses and hospital amenities: A qualitative descriptive study in Poland. (United States)

    Marcinowicz, Ludmiła; Abramowicz, Paweł; Zarzycka, Danuta; Abramowicz, Magdalena; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy


    A qualitative descriptive design using an interview guide approach was adopted to investigate the patient-nurse relationship and paediatric ward amenities from the perspective of parents and hospitalised children in Poland. The study included 26 parents or caregivers of hospitalised children (between 13 months and 15 years old) and 22 children (from 10 to 16 years old). Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the recorded verbal data. Data from patients' transcripts were coded and classified in terms of topics on the patient-nurse relationship and hospital care. We identified five main topics. 1. Nurse qualities; 2. Nurse verbal behaviour; 3. Nurse tone of voice and non-verbal behaviour; 4. Hospital amenities; 5. Parents' expectations towards nurses. Our study contributes to increased understanding of parents' and children's experiences of paediatric hospital care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Food advertising towards children and young people in Norway. (United States)

    Bugge, Annechen Bahr


    Despite the fact that no studies have been carried out to map the amount of unhealthy food advertising aimed at Norwegian children and adolescents, it is still widely held belief that this type of advertising is disproportionately common. As a consequence, one of the issues high on the agenda in Norway in the 2000s was the possibility of imposing restrictions on advertising for unhealthy foods to children. The purpose of this study is to contribute with a research-based foundation for implementing this health initiative by mapping food marketing in media channels widely used by children and adolescents. In sum, the study shows that the food industry spends a lot of resources to influence young consumers' eating and drinking habits. Compared with studies from USA, UK and Australia, however, there are, strong indications that there is significantly less unhealthy food advertising in Scandinavian countries. Similar to a previous Swedish study, this study shows that Norwegian children and young people were exposed to little advertising for unhealthy food products through media channels such as TV, the Internet, magazines, comics and cinemas. The study also supports critical remarks from some researchers that the extensive use of the international discourse as a political argument and recommendation for Norwegian conditions is not accurate. For the future it may be beneficial to look more closely at the relationship between advertising and health policy, and how this relationship can be further developed to improve children and young people's diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Probabilistic Reasoning and Prediction with Young Children (United States)

    Kinnear, Virginia; Clark, Julie


    This paper reports findings from a classroom based study with 5 year old children in their first term of school. A data modelling activity contextualised by a picture story book was used to present a prediction problem. A data table with numerical data values provided for three consecutive days of rubbish collection was provided, with a fourth day…

  8. Young Children's Analogical Reasoning in Science Domains (United States)

    Haglund, Jesper; Jeppsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Johanna


    This exploratory study in a classroom setting investigates first graders' (age 7-8 years, N = 25) ability to perform analogical reasoning and create their own analogies for two irreversible natural phenomena: mixing and heat transfer. We found that the children who contributed actively to a full-class discussion were consistently successful at…

  9. Helping Young Children See Math in Play (United States)

    Parks, Amy Noelle; Blom, Diana Chang


    The purpose of this article is to provide strategies for recognizing meaningful mathematics in common play contexts in early childhood classrooms and to offer suggestions for how teachers might intervene in these moments to help children attend to the mathematical ideas embedded in their play. In particular, the author's focus on the concepts of…

  10. Ideas on Manipulative Math for Young Children. (United States)

    Murray, Anne


    Presents a case study of one kindergarten class in which the mathematics center is the popular area in the room. Focuses on how math is best understood if activities follow the five-C formula: collaborative, concrete, comprehensive, connecting, and cavorting. Describes how children used manipulatives to construct mathematics concepts…

  11. Intervention for Young Children Displaying Coordination Disorders (United States)

    Chambers, Mary E.; Sugden, David A.


    The years from 3 to 6 are a time when children develop fundamental movement skills that are the building blocks for the functional movements they use throughout their lives. By 6 years of age, a typically developing child will have in place a full range of movement skills, including, running, jumping, hopping, skipping, climbing, throwing,…

  12. Young Children's Understanding of Cultural Common Ground (United States)

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael


    Human social interaction depends on individuals identifying the common ground they have with others, based both on personally shared experiences and on cultural common ground that all members of the group share. We introduced 3- and 5-year-old children to a culturally well-known object and a novel object. An experimenter then entered and asked,…

  13. Playful subversions: young children and tablet use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel; Pajares Tosca, Susana


    Drawing on data from empirical studies of small children (4-8 year olds) using tablets in educational settings, we explore the ways they resist the expected use of the various applications in order to invent their own forms of interaction. We propose the category of playful subversion to conceptu...

  14. Young Children's Creativity and Pretend Play. (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.


    This article discusses commonalities among experts' descriptions of creative individuals, including rational thinking, high levels of emotional development, talent, and higher levels of consciousness. Maintains that creativity studies justify the development of educational creativity training programs. Asserts that teachers can promote children's…

  15. Hydroxyurea is associated with lower costs of care of young children with sickle cell anemia. (United States)

    Wang, Winfred C; Oyeku, Suzette O; Luo, Zhaoyu; Boulet, Sheree L; Miller, Scott T; Casella, James F; Fish, Billie; Thompson, Bruce W; Grosse, Scott D


    In the BABY HUG trial, young children with sickle cell anemia randomized to receive hydroxyurea had fewer episodes of pain, hospitalization, and transfusions. With anticipated broader use of hydroxyurea in this population, we sought to estimate medical costs of care in treated versus untreated children. The BABY HUG database was used to compare inpatient events in subjects receiving hydroxyurea with those receiving placebo. Unit costs were estimated from the 2009 MarketScan Multi-state Medicaid Database for children with sickle cell disease, aged 1 to 3 years. Inpatient costs were based on length of hospital stay, modified by the occurrence of acute chest syndrome, splenic sequestration, or transfusion. Outpatient expenses were based on the schedule required for BABY HUG and a "standard" schedule for 1- to 3-year-olds with sickle cell anemia. There were 232 hospitalizations in the subjects receiving hydroxyurea and 324 in those on placebo; length of hospital stay was similar in the 2 groups. Estimated outpatient expenses were greater in those receiving hydroxyurea, but these were overshadowed by inpatient costs. The total estimated annual cost for those on hydroxyurea ($11 072) was 21% less than the cost of those on placebo ($13 962; P = .038). Savings on inpatient care resulted in a significantly lower overall estimated medical care cost for young children with sickle cell anemia who were receiving hydroxyurea compared with those receiving placebo. Because cost savings are likely to increase with age, these data provide additional support for broad use of hydroxyurea treatment in this population.

  16. Hospital-based home care for children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Eva Helena; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Johansen, Christoffer


    BACKGROUND: To assess the feasibility and psychosocial impact of a hospital-based home care (HBHC) program for children with cancer. PROCEDURE: A HBHC program was carried out with 51 children (0-18 years) with cancer to assess its feasibility in terms of satisfaction, care preferences, safety...... children and 43 parents in the home care group, and 47 children and 66 parents receiving standard hospital care. RESULTS: All parents in the HBHC program were satisfied and preferred home care. There were no serious adverse events associated with HBHC, and costs did not increase. When adjusting for age......, gender, diagnosis and time since diagnosis, we found significant higher HRQOL scores in parent-reported physical health (P = 0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.2-19.5) and worry (P = 0.04; 95% CI: -0.4-20.6) in the home-care group indicating better physical health and less worry for children...

  17. Framing Young Childrens Oral Health: A Participatory Action Research Project. (United States)

    Collins, Chimere C; Villa-Torres, Laura; Sams, Lattice D; Zeldin, Leslie P; Divaris, Kimon


    Despite the widespread acknowledgement of the importance of childhood oral health, little progress has been made in preventing early childhood caries. Limited information exists regarding specific daily-life and community-related factors that impede optimal oral hygiene, diet, care, and ultimately oral health for children. We sought to understand what parents of young children consider important and potentially modifiable factors and resources influencing their children's oral health, within the contexts of the family and the community. This qualitative study employed Photovoice among 10 English-speaking parents of infants and toddlers who were clients of an urban WIC clinic in North Carolina. The primary research question was: "What do you consider as important behaviors, as well as family and community resources to prevent cavities among young children?" Five group sessions were conducted and they were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative research methodology. Inductive analyses were based on analytical summaries, double-coding, and summary matrices and were done using Atlas.ti.7.5.9 software. Good oral health was associated with avoidance of problems or restorations for the participants. Financial constraints affected healthy food and beverage choices, as well as access to oral health care. Time constraints and occasional frustration related to children's oral hygiene emerged as additional barriers. Establishment of rules/routines and commitment to them was a successful strategy to promote their children's oral health, as well as modeling of older siblings, cooperation among caregivers and peer support. Community programs and organizations, social hubs including playgrounds, grocery stores and social media emerged as promising avenues for gaining support and sharing resources. Low-income parents of young children are faced with daily life struggles that interfere with oral health and care. Financial constraints are pervasive, but parents

  18. Youth and young adults with cerebral palsy: their use of physician and hospital services. (United States)

    Young, Nancy L; Gilbert, Thomas K; McCormick, Anna; Ayling-Campos, Anne; Boydell, Katherine; Law, Mary; Fehlings, Darcy L; Mukherjee, Shubhra; Wedge, John H; Williams, Jack I


    To examine patterns of health care utilization among youth and young adults who have cerebral palsy (CP) and to provide information to guide the development of health services for adults who have CP. This study analyzed health insurance data for outpatient physician visits and hospital admissions for a 4-year period. Six children's treatment centers in Ontario, Canada. The sample included 587 youth and 477 adults with CP identified from health records. Youths were 13 to 17 years of age, and adults were 23 to 32 years of age at the end of the data range. Not applicable. We computed the annual rates of outpatient physician visits and hospitalizations per 1000 persons and compared these with rates for the general population. Annual rates of outpatient physician visits were 6052 for youth and 6404 for adults with CP, 2.2 times and 1.9 times higher, respectively, than rates for age-matched peers (P<.01). Specialists provided 28.4% of youth visits but only 18.8% of adult visits. Annual hospital admission rates were 180 for youth and 98 for adults with CP, 4.3 times and 10.6 times higher, respectively, than rates for age-matched peers (P<.01). It appears that youth and adults with CP continue to have complex care needs and rely heavily on the health care system. Comprehensive services are essential to support their health as they move into youth and adulthood. However, there appear to be gaps in the adult health care system, such as limited access to specialist physicians.

  19. Parents' descriptions of young children's dissociative reactions after trauma. (United States)

    Cintron, Gabriela; Salloum, Alison; Blair-Andrews, Zoe; Storch, Eric A


    There is limited research on the phenomenology of how young children who have been exposed to trauma express the intrusive symptom of dissociative reactions. The current qualitative study utilized interviews from a semi-structured diagnostic clinical interview with 74 caregivers of young children (ages 3 to 7) who were exposed to trauma to identify parents' descriptions of their children's dissociative reactions during a clinical interview. Based on results from the interview, 45.9% of the children had dissociative reactions (8.5% had flashbacks and 41.9% had dissociative episodes). Interviews were transcribed to identify themes of dissociative reactions in young children. Common themes to flashbacks and dissociative episodes included being triggered, being psychologically in their own world (e.g., spaced out and shut down), and displaying visible signs (e.g., crying and screaming). For flashbacks, caregivers reported that it seemed as if the child was re-experiencing the trauma (e.g., yelling specific words and having body responses). For dissociative episodes, caregivers noted that the child not only seemed psychologically somewhere else (e.g., distant and not there) but also would be physically positioned somewhere else (e.g., sitting and not responding). Caregivers also expressed their own reactions to the child's dissociative episode due to not understanding what was occurring, and trying to interrupt the occurrences (e.g., calling out to the child). Themes, descriptions, and phrases to describe dissociative reactions in young children after trauma can be used to help parents and professionals more accurately identify occurrences of dissociative reactions.

  20. Food branding and young children's taste preferences: a reassessment. (United States)

    Elliott, Charlene D; Carruthers Den Hoed, Rebecca; Conlon, Martin J


    This study examines the effects of branding and packaging on young children's taste preferences. Preschool children aged 3 to 5 (n=65) tasted five pairs of identical foods in packaging from McDonald's and in matched packaging that was either plain, Starbucks-branded, or colourful (but unbranded). Children were asked if the foods tasted the same or if one tasted better. Children preferred the taste of foods wrapped in decorative wrappings, relying more on aesthetics than on familiar branding when making their choices. The findings suggest the need to explore questions beyond commercial advertising (and brand promotion) on television and other media platforms. More attention should be directed at the important role of packaging in directing children's food preferences.

  1. The semantics of secrecy: young children's classification of secret content. (United States)

    Anagnostaki, Lida; Wright, Michael J; Bourchier-Sutton, Alison J


    The authors explored whether young children can distinguish potential secrets from nonsecrets by their content, as can older children, adolescents, and adults. Ninety children, 4, 5, and 6 years old, rated the secrecy of items from an adult-validated list of personal information about an age- and gender-appropriate puppet. Two factors of the children's data corresponded to the adult categories of nonsecrets and secrets, and a third factor corresponded to surprises. All ages rated surprises as significantly more secret than nonsecret items; however, the surprise items contained linguistic cues to secrecy. A tendency to rate nonsecrets as secret decreased with age, but only the 6-year-olds rated secrets other than surprises as significantly more secret than nonsecrets. Thus, children acquire the implicit rules defining secret content from a somewhat later age than that reported for the cognitive or behavioral capacities for secrecy.

  2. Sanctification of Parenting, Moral Socialization, and Young Children's Conscience Development. (United States)

    Volling, Brenda L; Mahoney, Annette; Rauer, Amy J


    Religion is important to most U.S. families, but is often overlooked in research on children's development. This study examined parental religious beliefs about the sanctification of parenting, parental disciplinary strategies, and the development of young children's conscience in a sample of 58 two-parent families with a preschool child. Fathers were more punitive and used less induction when disciplining their children than did mothers. Maternal and paternal reports of the sanctification of parenting were positively related to positive socialization/praise and the use of induction. When mothers and fathers in the family were both using induction, children had higher scores on moral conduct. Parents' use of positive socialization combined with a belief in the sanctification of parenting predicted children's conscience development.

  3. Parental leave: comparing children's hospitals with Fortune 500 companies. (United States)

    Weiss, A H; Gordon, E J; O'Connor, M E


    To identify parental leave policies and availability of support systems for new parents employed by children's hospitals and compare these benefits with those offered by Fortune 500 companies. Telephone or facsimile survey of all (n=118) children's hospitals and pediatric medical centers in the National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions 1995 Directory of Members, and 118 geographically matched Fortune 500 companies. Policies for maternity and paternity leave, adoption benefits, and support services for new parents were compared. Ninety-four children's hospitals (80%) and 82 Fortune 500 companies (69%) responded to the survey. No difference in duration of maternity (P>.30) or paternity (P=.12) leave was found. Sixty-two companies (77%) classified maternity leave as short-term disability while 47 hospitals (50%) classified it as sick time (Pleave as short-term disability generally gives better benefits to employees with short duration of service, whereas classifying maternity leave as sick time usually favors employees with longer employment. Companies provided more financial support for adoption expenses (Ppaid or unpaid leave for adoption (P=.14). Hospitals provided more on-site day care (69% vs 42%; Pparental leave benefits than Fortune 500 companies; however, they offer better support systems for parents returning to work after the birth of a child.

  4. Malnutrition in hospitalized children: prevalence, impact, and management. (United States)

    Groleau, Veronique; Thibault, Maxime; Doyon, Myriam; Brochu, Eve-Emmanuelle; Roy, Claude C; Babakissa, Corentin


    Malnutrition in hospitalized children has been reported since the late 1970s. The prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition was examined in hospitalized patients in a general pediatric unit, and the impact and management of malnutrition were assessed. The nutritional risk score (NRS) and nutritional status (NS) (weight, height, body mass index, and skinfold thickness) of children aged zero to 18 years were assessed upon hospital admission. Growth and energy intake were monitored every three days until discharge. A total of 173 children (median age three years, 88 girls) participated; 79.8% had a moderate to severe NRS and 13.3% were acutely and/or chronically malnourished. A high NRS was associated with a longer hospital stay in children older than three years (Pchildren aged three years or younger (Pchildren with abnormal NS received 92.5% of recommended energy intake. This study suggests that all children admitted to hospital should have an evaluation of their NRS and NS, so that they can receive appropriate nutrition interventions provided by a multidisciplinary nutrition team.

  5. Prevalence of fall injuries and risk factors for fall among hospitalized children in a specialized childrens hospital in Saudi Arabia. (United States)

    AlSowailmi, Banan Abdullah; AlAkeely, Maha Heshaam; AlJutaily, Hayat Ibrahim; Alhasoon, Mohammad Abdulaziz; Omair, Amir; AlKhalaf, Hamad Abdullah


    Fall injuries among children during hospital stay is a major patient safety issue. Inpatient pediatric falls can lead to numerous negative consequences. In contrast to adults, there is a paucity of information on the prevalence and risk factors associated with children's falls during hospitalization. Identify the prevalence of fall injuries among hospital.ized children and describe the demographic and environmental factors that could predict a higher risk of severe outcomes of fall. Descriptive, cross-sectional prevalence study. Specialized children's hospital. Data was obtained through the electronic Safety Reporting System (SRS). All reported fall events during hospitalization in children less than or equal 14 years of age for the period from 1 April 2015 to 30 April 2016 were included. Fall events that occurred in the day care unit and the outpatient clinic were excluded. Prevalence and possible risk factors for fall events. 48. The prevalence of falls among the 4860 admitted children was 9.9 (95% CI=7.5, 13.1) per 1000 patients (48/4860). A majority of the falls were among boys (n=26, 54%), in the age group from 1-5 years old (n=22, 46%), in children at high risk of falling (n=35, 73%), with normal mobility status (n=21, 44%), and with no history of previ.ous falls (n=33, 69%). Severe injuries accounted for 25% of falls (n=12). However, falls among the moderate risk category (n=9, 69%) were more often severe than falls among the high risk category of children (n=12, 34%) (P=.03). Risk factor identification is required to prevent falls and their severe outcomes. Underreporting and single-centered study. None.

  6. Information site for parents of young children


    Heggedal, Eivind


    For parents of small children and lay people it can be difficult to navigate specialist literature when trying to access paediatric problems on their own. Although information targeted at this group already exists, both on the Internet and in different brochures, pamphlets and books, it is of varying quality and is not always easily accessible. With this in mind, there is a need to collect and simplify the literature on this subject, and make it available to lay people and parents of smal...

  7. Assessing Body Image in Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin E. Heron


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine body image discrepancies in elementary-age children in a racially diverse sample. Body image and body image discrepancy were measured in elementary school children (N = 58 of various racial groups (35% Hispanic, 33% African American, 16% Caucasian, 14% other. Each participant was shown a set of silhouette figure drawings and reported current and ideal body sizes. Children’s body discrepancies appear to change between Grades 1 and 2. Notable discrepancies between their current and ideal figures, and their current figure and those that they believe are most attractive, are largely absent in Grade 1, but are evident in Grade 2 and older children. No substantive racial or gender differences in body image perceptions or dissatisfaction were observed in this sample. Body image dissatisfaction may begin as early as second grade in both girls and boys of various racial and ethnic backgrounds. These findings provide preliminary evidence that body discrepancies may begin much earlier than previously thought.

  8. Estimates of Parainfluenza Virus-Associated Hospitalizations and Cost Among Children Aged Less Than 5 Years in the United States, 1998–2010 (United States)

    Abedi, Glen R.; Prill, Mila M.; Langley, Gayle E.; Wikswo, Mary E.; Weinberg, Geoffrey A.; Curns, Aaron T.; Schneider, Eileen


    Background Parainfluenza virus (PIV) is the second leading cause of hospitalization for respiratory illness in young children in the United States. Infection can result in a full range of respiratory illness, including bronchiolitis, croup, and pneumonia. The recognized human subtypes of PIV are numbered 1–4. This study calculates estimates of PIV-associated hospitalizations among US children younger than 5 years using the latest available data. Methods Data from the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System were used to characterize seasonal PIV trends from July 2004 through June 2010. To estimate the number of PIV-associated hospitalizations that occurred annually among US children aged PIV among young children enrolled in the New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Estimates of hospitalization charges attributable to PIV infection were also calculated. Results Parainfluenza virus seasonality follows type-specific seasonal patterns, with PIV-1 circulating in odd-numbered years and PIV-2 and -3 circulating annually. The average annual estimates of PIV-associated bronchiolitis, croup, and pneumonia hospitalizations among children aged PIV-associated bronchiolitis, croup, and pneumonia hospitalizations were approximately $43 million, $58 million, and $158 million, respectively. Conclusions The majority of PIV-associated hospitalizations in young children occur among those aged 0 to 2 years. When vaccines for PIV become available, immunization would be most effective if realized within the first year of life. PMID:26908486

  9. Duration of watching TV and child language development in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Audya Perdana


    Full Text Available Background Many factors contribute to language development in children. About 5-8% of children in Indonesia experience delayed language skills. Young children need appropriate stimulation for optimal development. Children who watch television (TV for long periods of time may receive less two-way interaction, the appropriate stimulation for learning. As such, shorter duration of the appropriate stimulation may impede language development in small children. Objective To assess for an association between duration of watching TV and language development in young children. Methods This cross-sectional study was done with primary data collected from questionnaires. Subjects, aged 18 months to 3 years, were from a Jakarta-area community health center (Puskesmas Jatinegara and the Pediatric Growth and Development Clinic, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. Their language development was tested using the Developmental Pre-screening Questionnaire (Kuesioner Pra Skrining Perkembangan, KPSP and the Early Language Milestone (ELM Scale 2 test. Results From a total of 84 subjects, 47 (56% had normal and 37 (44% had delayed language development. Duration of watching TV was categorized as 4 hours per day. Children who watched TV >4 hours/day (OR 4.4; 95%CI 1.68 to 11.7; P=0.002, and children who watched both Indonesian and English language TV programs (OR 14.7; 95%CI 1.77 to 123.0; P=0.004 had higher risk of language delay. Other variables such as sex, first age exposed to TV, use of gadgets, and TV in the bedroom had no significant associations with delayed language development. Conclusion Children who watch TV >4 hours/day had four times higher risk of developing language delay. In addition, those who watch TV programs in both Indonesian and English, also have a 14.7 higher risk of delayed language development.

  10. Games Children Play: The Effects of Media Violence on Young Children. (United States)

    Wellisch, Mimi


    Noting that most children living in Australia have access to a television, video games, and computers and are influenced by the content of their viewing and interactive games, this report examines the impact of media violence on young children. Topics discussed include the recognition of violence on television and video/computer games, reasons for…

  11. The Family Environment as a Moderator of Psychosocial Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Young Children (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H. Gerry; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L.


    Objective This study sought to determine whether the family environment moderates psychosocial outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in young children. Method Participants were recruited prospectively from consecutive hospital admissions of 3-6 year old children, and included 19 with severe TBI, 56 with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 99 with orthopedic injuries (OI). They completed four assessments across the first 18 months post-injury. The initial assessment included measures of parenting style, family functioning, and the quality of the home. Children’s behavioral adjustment, adaptive functioning, and social competence were assessed at each occasion. Mixed model analyses examined the relationship of the family environment to psychosocial outcomes across time. Results The OI and TBI groups differed significantly in social competence, but the family environment did not moderate the group difference, which was of medium magnitude. In contrast, group differences in behavioral adjustment became more pronounced across time at high levels of authoritarian and permissive parenting; among children with severe TBI, however, even those with low levels of permissive parenting showed increases in behavioral problems. For adaptive functioning, better home environments provided some protection following TBI, but not over time for the severe TBI group. These three-way interactions of group, family environment, and time post injury were all of medium magnitude. Conclusions The findings indicate that the family environment moderates the psychosocial outcomes of TBI in young children, but the moderating influence may wane with time among children with severe TBI. PMID:20438212

  12. Failure to Thrive Hospitalizations and Risk Factors for Readmission to Children's Hospitals. (United States)

    Puls, Henry T; Hall, Matthew; Bettenhausen, Jessica; Johnson, Matthew B; Peacock, Christina; Raphael, Jean L; Newland, Jason G; Colvin, Jeffrey D


    Risk factors for failure to thrive (FTT) readmissions, including medical complexity, have not been described. We sought to characterize children hospitalized for FTT and identify risk factors associated with FTT-specific readmissions during the current era of increasing medical complexity among hospitalized children. This retrospective cohort study used the Pediatric Health Information System database of 43 freestanding children's hospitals across the United States. The cohort included children <2 years of age with index hospitalizations for FTT between 2006 and 2010. The main outcome was FTT-specific readmission within 3 years. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed the association of demographic, clinical, diagnostic, and treatment characteristics with FTT-specific readmission. There were 10 499 FTT hospitalizations, with 14.1% being readmitted for FTT within 3 years and 4.8% within 30 days. Median time to readmission was 66 days (interquartile range, 19-194 days). Nearly one-half of children (40.8%) had at least 1 complex chronic condition (CCC), with 16.4% having ≥2 CCCs. After multivariable modeling, increasing age at admission, median household income in the lowest quartile (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.23 [95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.44]), and prematurity-related CCC (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.46 [95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.86]) remained significantly associated with readmission. Nearly one-half of children hospitalized for FTT had a CCC, and a majority of FTT-specific readmissions occurred after the traditional 30-day window. Children with prematurity-related conditions and low median household income represent unique populations at risk for FTT readmissions. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Young Children's Knowledge About the Moon: A Complex Dynamic System (United States)

    Venville, Grady J.; Louisell, Robert D.; Wilhelm, Jennifer A.


    The purpose of this research was to use a multidimensional theoretical framework to examine young children's knowledge about the Moon. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and the design was a multiple case study of ten children between the ages of three and eight from the USA and Australia. A detailed, semi-structured interview was conducted with each child. In addition, each child's parents were interviewed to determine possible social and cultural influences on the child's knowledge. We sought evidence about how the social and cultural experiences of the children might have influenced the development of their ideas. From a cognitive perspective we were interested in whether the children's ideas were constructed in a theory like form or whether the knowledge was the result of gradual accumulation of fragments of isolated cultural information. Findings reflected the strong and complex relationship between individual children, their social and cultural milieu, and the way they construct ideas about the Moon and astronomy. Findings are presented around four themes including ontology, creatures and artefacts, animism, and permanence. The findings support a complex dynamic system view of students' knowledge that integrates the framework theory perspective and the knowledge in fragments perspective. An initial model of a complex dynamic system of young children's knowledge about the Moon is presented.

  14. Excretion patterns of human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus among young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Koch, A


    of the infected children showed to have an upper respiratory tract infection when following up. CONCLUSION: Viral RNA was present in nasal secretions, saliva, sweat, and faeces, but whether or not the virions were infectious and constitute a potential mode of transmission remains to be shown in future studies.......BACKGROUND: As respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) cause serious respiratory tract infections, the routes of transmission of these viruses are important to elucidate. We examined the modes of virus shedding and shedding duration of RSV and hMPV in young children....... METHODS: From each child in a group of 44 children (37 RSV-positive, 6 hMPV-positive, and 1 co-infected child), aged between 0.5-38 months, hospitalised at Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark, one nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA), saliva, urine, and faeces sample were collected at inclusion and weekly...

  15. Management of children and young people with headache. (United States)

    Whitehouse, William P; Agrawal, Shakti


    Headache is very common in children and young people. The correct advice and treatment requires consideration of a wide differential diagnosis between primary and secondary headaches, and also of the different types of primary headache. The International Classification of Headache Disorders gives useful descriptions and diagnostic criteria that are especially useful for primary headaches. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Clinical Guideline 150 provides evidence-based recommendations on treatments for adults and young people from age 12 years. However, the same principles can be applied to younger children when a specific diagnosis can be made. Key recommendations from the NICE Quality Standards include, establishing a precise diagnosis if possible, avoiding, diagnosing and treating medication overuse headache, and combining a triptan with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug or paracetamol as the first-line acute/rescue treatment for migraine with or without aura. Although rare in children and young people, it is important to diagnose new daily persistent headache, as it responds poorly or not at all to medication; and paroxysmal hemicrania as it responds very well to indomethacin but not to other commonly used analgesics. When faced with difficulties in reaching a precise diagnosis or in finding effective therapies, further advice should be sought from a children's headache clinic or specialist. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  16. Unintentional exposure of young children to camphor and eucalyptus oils. (United States)

    Flaman, Z; Pellechia-Clarke, S; Bailey, B; McGuigan, M


    Essential oils, such as camphorated and eucalyptus oils, are volatile oils that can be absorbed by mouth and through the skin; if ingested orally by children, they can be harmful, even life-threatening. To determine the frequency of essential oil ingestion among children in Toronto, Ontario. Charts from December 1995 through March 1997 at the Ontario Regional Poison Information Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto were reviewed to collect information on calls about essential oil ingestion, and a search of MEDLINE articles from 1966 to 1998 was conducted using the key words: 'camphor', 'eucalyptus', 'paediatric', and 'poisoning'. Callers to the Poison Information Centre reported that 251 children had ingested an essential oil or product: eucalyptus oil 50 children; camphorated oil 18 children; VapAir (Drug Trading, Canada) vaporizing liquid 93 children; and Vicks VaporRub (Procter & Gamble, Canada) 90 children. The most common symptoms were cough, vomiting and cough associated with vomiting. Two children had seizures but recovered. The MEDLINE search found 18 reports of paediatric ingestion of the oils or oil products. The main symptoms were vomiting, lethargy, coma and seizures. One child died. Although widely used by health care consumers, essential oils and the products that contain them can be harmful when ingested by children. Further education for parents and other caregivers about the risks involved in exposure to these products is required.

  17. Factors associated with hospitalization of children with acute odontogenic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klačar Jelena


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the sociodemographic and clinical features of odontogenic infections between hospitalized and nonhospitalized children and to show what were the risk factors in children that could predict the course of odontogenic infection and indicate the need for hospital treatment. The design of our study was of the case-control type. The two study groups consisted of 70 inpatients and 35 outpatients with odontogenic infections who were treated at Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Department of Maxillofacial Surgery at Clinical Center in Kragujevac, Serbia. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected retrospectively from patients' hospital records. The following characteristics were significantly associated with hospital treatment of children with acute odontogenic infection: living in a village (OR =7.26,[1.43-36.96], multi-spatial infection (OR =0.04, [0.00-0.91], and affection of upper face (OR = 0.01, [0.00-0.86]. Tooth extraction was important intervention in the treatment regimen and reduced frequency of hospitalization (OR=0.07, [0.01-0.70]. The differences between hospitalized and non-hospitalized children were not significant in regard to: ethnicity, employment of parents, anatomical region of infection, side of the facial infection, source of infection (posterior or anterior deciduous or permanent teeth, and treatment (drainage and incision, oral or parenteral antibiotics. In children with acute odontogenic infection it is necessary to do tooth extraction in timely manner, especially if the source of infection is tooth from upper jaw and if it is multi-spatial infection.

  18. The cost of caring for young children


    Rosenbaum, Dan T.; Ruhm, Christopher J.


    This study examines the "cost burden" of child care, defined as day care expenses divided by after-tax income. Data are from the wave 10 core and child care topical modules to the 1996 Survey of Income and Program Participation. We estimate that the average child under six years of age lives in a family that spends 4.9 percent of after-tax income on day care. However, this conceals wide variation: 63 percent of such children reside in families with no child care expenses and 10 percent are in...

  19. Hospitality and the mental health of children and families. (United States)

    Pohl, Christine D


    In many ancient cultures, hospitality was a significant moral and religious practice in responding to the needs of strangers. Although largely trivialized in contemporary society, the practice of hospitality continues to create contexts that contribute to individual and communal flourishing and that resist several dehumanizing social trends. A recovery of the practice can help faith communities connect their moral and theological commitments to the needs of children, families, and neighborhoods. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  20. Young Children of Schizophrenic Mothers: Difficulties of Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte; Gammeltoft, Marie


    Casework by Danish local social agencies on behalf of 11 children og chronically ill schizophrenic mothers is retrospectively analyzed, along with documentation from psychiatric hospitals, consulting child specialists, and other health professionals. Findings point to a need for earlier and more...... precise assessment of the mother's parenting abilities as measured against the severity of her illness and the vulnerability of the child...

  1. Serious bacterial infections in febrile young children: Lack of value ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fever is both a marker of insignificant viral infection, as well as more serious bacterial sepsis. Therefore ... febrile children under the age of 5 years (with an axillary temperature ≥38°C) who presented to Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Pretoria, with signs and symptoms of pneumonia, meningitis and/or generalised sepsis.

  2. Mycoplasma Pneumoniae among Children Hospitalized with Community-acquired Pneumonia. (United States)

    Kutty, Preeta K; Jain, Seema; Taylor, Thomas H; Bramley, Anna M; Diaz, Maureen H; Ampofo, Krow; Arnold, Sandra R; Williams, Derek J; Edwards, Kathryn M; McCullers, Jonathan A; Pavia, Andrew T; Winchell, Jonas M; Schrag, Stephanie J; Hicks, Lauri A


    The burden and epidemiology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) among U.S. children (<18 years) hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are poorly understood. In the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study, we prospectively enrolled 2254 children hospitalized with radiographically-confirmed pneumonia from January 2010-June 2012 and tested nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs for Mp using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Clinical and epidemiological features of Mp-PCR-positive and -negative children were compared using logistic regression. Macrolide susceptibility was assessed by genotyping isolates. In the EPIC study, 182(8%) children were Mp-PCR-positive (median age: 7 years); 12% required intensive care and 26% had pleural effusion. No in-hospital deaths occurred. Macrolide resistance was found in 6/169(4%) isolates. Of 178(98%) Mp-PCR-positive children tested for co-pathogens, 50(28%) had ≥1 co-pathogen detected. Variables significantly associated with higher odds of Mp detection included age {10-17 years [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 7.9 (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5-13.6)] and 5-9 years [aOR: 4.8 (CI: 2.9-7.8)] vs. 2-4 years}, outpatient antibiotics ≤5 days pre-admission [aOR: 2.3 (CI: 1.5-3.4)], and co-pathogen detection [aOR: 2.1 (CI: 1.3-3.1)]. Clinical characteristics often seen included hilar lymphadenopathy, rales, headache, sore throat, and decreased breath sounds. Usually considered as a mild respiratory infection, M. pneumoniae was the most commonly detected bacteria among children ≥5 years hospitalized with CAP; one-quarter of whom had co-detections. Although associated with clinically non-specific symptoms, there was a need for intensive care support in some cases. M. pneumoniae should be included in the differential diagnosis for school-aged children hospitalized with CAP.

  3. Nutritional status of children hospitalized for parapneumonic effusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Huysentruyt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Among children hospitalized for pneumonia, those with parapneumonic effusion (PPE are at particular risk for nutritional deterioration. This study aimed to 1 investigate the evolution of the nutritional status during hospitalization and at outpatient follow-up; 2 determine clinical risk factors for weight loss during hospitalization; 3 describe the nutritional interventions for these children. METHODS: Retrospective chart review (January '07 - September '12 of 56 children with pneumonia, complicated by PPE in two Belgian hospitals for data on body weight and height at admission (t0 and discharge (t1, and two weeks (t2 and one month (t3 after discharge. Length of hospitalization (LoS, length of stay in paediatric intensive care (LoSPICU and maximal in-hospital weight loss (tmax were calculated and nutritional interventions were recorded. RESULTS: The median (range age was 3.5 (1.0-14.8 years. Weight or height was lacking in five (8.9% children at t0 and in 28 (50% at t1; 21.4% was weighed only once during hospitalization. At tmax, respectively 17/44 and 5/44 children lost ≥ 5% and ≥ 10% of their weight. Median (range LoS and LoSPICU were 18.0 (10-41 and 4.0 (0-23 days. One-fourth received a nutritional intervention. Weight for height at admission (WFH(t0 significantly predicted maximal weight loss (β (95% CI = -0.34 (-2.0--0.1; p = 0.03. At t2 and t3, 13/32 and 5/22 of the children with available follow-up data did not reach WFH(t0, whilst in 4/35 and 5/26 body weight remained ≥ 5% under the weight(t0. CONCLUSIONS: One-third of children with pneumonia complicated by PPE and monitored for weight and height, lost ≥ 5% of their body weight during hospitalization. One-fourth did not reach initial WFH one month after discharge. Those with a higher WFH at admission were at higher risk of weight loss. More attention for monitoring of weight loss and the nutritional policy during and after hospitalization is warranted.

  4. Pancreatic tumors in children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koc, Gonca; Sugimoto, Sam; Kammen, Bamidele F.; Karakas, S.P.; Kuperman, Rachel


    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are not included in the diagnostic criteria for tuberous sclerosis complex, although an association has been described. To investigate the association of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex and define MRI characteristics of the tumor. We retrospectively evaluated the abdominal MRI scans of 55 children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex for the presence of a pancreatic mass. The scans were performed over a period of 7 years to monitor renal pathology. We obtained each patient's clinical history and treatment protocol from the hospital's electronic medical records. A solid pancreatic mass was identified in 5/55 (9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3-20%) patients (4 male) with a mean age of 12.6 years. Four of the lesions were located in the pancreatic tail and one in the pancreatic body. All of the lesions were solid, ovoid and well demarcated, with a mean diameter of 3.1 cm. The masses uniformly demonstrated T1 and T2 prolongation, but their diffusion behavior and post-contrast enhancement varied. The two surgically resected lesions were synaptophysin (+) non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors on pathology. Two of the patients who did not have surgery were treated with everolimus; one of the lesions has shown interval decrease in size and the other has remained stable. Pancreatic tumor is relatively common in children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex. (orig.)

  5. Pancreatic tumors in children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koc, Gonca [Erciyes University, School of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Melikgazi, Kayseri (Turkey); Sugimoto, Sam; Kammen, Bamidele F.; Karakas, S.P. [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oakland, CA (United States); Kuperman, Rachel [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Oakland, CA (United States)


    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are not included in the diagnostic criteria for tuberous sclerosis complex, although an association has been described. To investigate the association of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex and define MRI characteristics of the tumor. We retrospectively evaluated the abdominal MRI scans of 55 children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex for the presence of a pancreatic mass. The scans were performed over a period of 7 years to monitor renal pathology. We obtained each patient's clinical history and treatment protocol from the hospital's electronic medical records. A solid pancreatic mass was identified in 5/55 (9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3-20%) patients (4 male) with a mean age of 12.6 years. Four of the lesions were located in the pancreatic tail and one in the pancreatic body. All of the lesions were solid, ovoid and well demarcated, with a mean diameter of 3.1 cm. The masses uniformly demonstrated T1 and T2 prolongation, but their diffusion behavior and post-contrast enhancement varied. The two surgically resected lesions were synaptophysin (+) non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors on pathology. Two of the patients who did not have surgery were treated with everolimus; one of the lesions has shown interval decrease in size and the other has remained stable. Pancreatic tumor is relatively common in children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex. (orig.)

  6. Anemia among hospitalized children at a multispecialty hospital, Bangalore (Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdos Saba


    Full Text Available Background: Due to the limited availability of data related to anemia in hospitalized children, this research was conducted to study the occurrence, morphological patterns, distribution in different age groups, sex, and severity of anemia among children aged 6 months-12 years. Setting: Inpatients in department of pediatrics at a multispecialty hospital, Bangalore. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study from Oct, 2011 to Sep, 2012. Materials and Methods: Ethical clearance was obtained from the ethical committee of the hospital as per 1964 Declaration of Helsinki. Unrestricted random sampling method was used to select the study group consisting of 882 children between the age of 6 months and 12 years. After obtaining the consent, data were obtained and statistically analyzed using statistical tools like mean, median, standard deviation, and Chi-square test. Results: Out of 882 children selected, 642 (72.79% were anemic, out of which a majority of 629 (98% children suffered from nonhemoglobinopathies and a meagre 13 (2% suffered from hemoglobinopathies. Children in the age group of 6 months-1 year were most affected with nonhemoglobinopathies (33%. Moderate degree of anemia (hemoglobin = 7-9.9 g/dL was the commonest grade of anemia (80%, while microcytic hypochromic anemia was commonest morphological type of anemia (48%. Among hemoglobinopathies, thalassemia major was the most common (69%, that is 9 out of 13 patients. Conclusion: The occurrence of anemia among children aged between 6 months and 12 years is high and nonhemoglobinopathies predominate over the hemoglobinopathies.

  7. Why Are There So Few Ethics Consults in Children's Hospitals? (United States)

    Carter, Brian; Brockman, Manuel; Garrett, Jeremy; Knackstedt, Angie; Lantos, John


    In most children's hospitals, there are very few ethics consultations, even though there are many ethically complex cases. We hypothesize that the reason for this may be that hospitals develop different mechanisms to address ethical issues and that many of these mechanisms are closer in spirit to the goals of the pioneers of clinical ethics than is the mechanism of a formal ethics consultation. To show how this is true, we first review the history of collaboration between philosophers and physicians about clinical dilemmas. Then, as a case-study, we describe the different venues that have developed at one children's hospital to address ethical issues. At our hospital, there are nine different venues in which ethical issues are regularly and explicitly addressed. They are (1) ethics committee meetings, (2) Nursing Ethics Forum, (3) ethics Brown Bag workshops, (4) PICU ethics rounds, (5) Grand Rounds, (6) NICU Comprehensive Care Rounds, (7) Palliative Care Team (PaCT) case conferences, (8) multidisciplinary consults in Fetal Health Center, and (9) ethics consultations. In our hospital, ethics consults account for only a tiny percentage of ethics discussions. We suspect that most hospitals have multiple and varied venues for ethics discussions. We hope this case study will stimulate research in other hospitals analyzing the various ways in which ethicists and ethics committees can build an ethical environment in hospitals. Such research might suggest that ethicists need to develop a different set of "core competencies" than the ones that are needed to do ethics consultations. Instead, they should focus on their skills in creating multiple "moral spaces" in which regular and ongoing discussion of ethical issues would take place. A successful ethicist would empower everyone in the hospital to speak up about the values that they believe are central to respectful, collaborative practice and patient care. Such a role is closer to what the first hospital philosophers set

  8. Stereotyping and nurses' recommendations for treating pain in hospitalized children. (United States)

    Griffin, Ruth A; Polit, Denise F; Byrne, Mary W


    The purpose of this study was to examine whether nurses' recommendations for managing children's pain were influenced by stereotypes based on children's personal attributes. Three vignettes, in which hospitalized children's sex, race, and attractiveness were experimentally manipulated, were mailed to a national random sample of 700 pediatric nurses; 334 nurses responded. Responses to vignette questions indicated little evidence of stereotyping. Nurses perceived similar levels of pain and recommended similar pain treatments, regardless of sex, race, and attractiveness. Nurses, on average, perceived children's pain at levels consistent with the children's self-reports and recommended assertive analgesic and non-pharmacologic pain management strategies. The results appear consistent with prevailing views on providing adequate pain treatment for children.

  9. Hospital: With Emphasis on Stroke in the Young

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    frequencies of these potential risk factors among stroke in the young and ... type of valve involved rather than severity of disease is related to occurrence of stroke. ... analysis. The mean (+ 5D) age for the whole patient group was 52+16 years ... 2(8). 19(39.6). 21(28.8). 0. 0. 0. 21(8 I). Diabetes. 2(8). 1(2.1). 3(4.1). 9(8.7).

  10. Family processes as pathways from income to young children's development. (United States)

    Linver, Miriam R; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Kohen, Dafna E


    A variety of family processes have been hypothesized to mediate associations between income and young children's development. Maternal emotional distress, parental authoritative and authoritarian behavior (videotaped mother-child interactions), and provision of cognitively stimulating activities (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment [HOME] scales) were examined as possible mediators in a sample of 493 White and African American low-birth-weight premature infants who were followed from birth through age 5. Cognitive ability was assessed by standardized test, and child behavior problems by maternal report, when the children were 3 and 5 years of age. As expected, family income was associated with child outcomes. The provision of stimulating experiences in the home mediated the relation between family income and both children's outcomes; maternal emotional distress and parenting practices mediated the relation between income and children's behavior problems.

  11. The "Batman Effect": Improving Perseverance in Young Children. (United States)

    White, Rachel E; Prager, Emily O; Schaefer, Catherine; Kross, Ethan; Duckworth, Angela L; Carlson, Stephanie M


    This study investigated the benefits of self-distancing (i.e., taking an outsider's view of one's own situation) on young children's perseverance. Four- and 6-year-old children (N = 180) were asked to complete a repetitive task for 10 min while having the option to take breaks by playing an extremely attractive video game. Six-year-olds persevered longer than 4-year-olds. Nonetheless, across both ages, children who impersonated an exemplar other-in this case a character, such as Batman-spent the most time working, followed by children who took a third-person perspective on the self, or finally, a first-person perspective. Alternative explanations, implications, and future research directions are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. The impact of choice on young children's prosocial motivation. (United States)

    Rapp, Diotima J; Engelmann, Jan M; Herrmann, Esther; Tomasello, Michael


    The current study explored how freedom of choice affects preschoolers' prosocial motivation. Children (3- and 5-year-olds) participated in either a choice condition (where they could decide for themselves whether to help or not) or a no-choice condition (where they were instructed to help). Prosocial motivation was subsequently assessed by measuring the amount children helped an absent peer in the face of an attractive alternative game. The 5-year-olds provided with choice helped more than the children not provided with choice, and this effect was stronger for girls than for boys. There was no difference between conditions for the 3-year-olds. These results highlight the importance of choice in young children's prosocial development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethics in Researching Young Children's Play in Preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hanne Værum


    uncomfortable in the situation? How does the researcher know if a child wants to withdraw from the research? The permission has to be negotiated in relation to the specific child and in the specific situation. Examples from a study of children's physical activities in sprots preschool are applied to illustrate......This chapter discusses what considerations a researcher must do in the research of young children's play in preschool when she is using video. In using video technology, several researchers have described how their activities are technically, analytically, and interpretively done......, but there is a lack of understanding methodological reflections and knowledge of guidelines in research of the topic. Researchers can get permission from parents and pedagogues to film children, but how can a researcher get an informed permission from the children? And how can a researcher detect if a child feel...

  14. Autism and Mental Retardation of Young Children in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To understand the prevalence and rehabilitation status of autism and mental retardation in China. Methods Screening test and clinical assessment were conducted for the diagnosis of autism and mental retardation. The assessment included investigation of the histories of medical conditions and development of these two disorders, utilization and needs for the rehabilitation service, and related intellectual and behavioral appraisal. Results Among the 7345 children investigated, the prevalence of autism disorder was 1.10 cases per 1000 children aged 2-6 years (95% CI=0.34 to 2.54), and the prevalence of mental retardation was 10.76 cases per 1000 children (95% CI=8.40 to 13.12). All the children suffering from autistic disorder were intellectually disabled, whereas 31.0% of the non-autism mental retardates had other disabilities. The medical conditions prior to birth and perinatal period were important potential factors for autism. Half of the autistic children and 84% of the children with non-autism mental retardation had never received any rehabilitative service. Conclusions The prevalence of autistic disorder in children aged 2-6 years in Tianjin is rather high. It is urgent to improve the status of the autistic and intelligently disabled young children in China. In order to upgrade the level of early diagnostic and improve the intervention to autism and mental retardation, public awareness and training courses should be heightened.

  15. Young children's imagination in science education and education for sustainability (United States)

    Caiman, Cecilia; Lundegård, Iann


    This research is concerned with how children's processes of imagination, situated in cultural and social practices, come into play when they invent, anticipate, and explore a problem that is important to them. To enhance our understanding of young children's learning and meaning-making related to science and sustainability, research that investigates children's use of imagination is valuable. The specific aim of this paper is to empirically scrutinize how children's imaginations emerge, develop, and impact their experiences in science. We approach imagination as a situated, open, and unscripted act that emerges within transactions. This empirical study was conducted in a Swedish pre-school, and the data was collected `in between' a science inquiry activity and lunchtime. We gathered specific video-sequences wherein the children, lived through the process of imagination, invented a problem together and produced something new. Our analysis showed that imagination has a great significance when children provide different solutions which may be useful in the future to sustainability-related problems. If the purpose of an educational experience in some way supports children's imaginative flow, then practicing an open, listening approach becomes vital. Thus, by encouraging children to explore their concerns and questions related to sustainability issues more thoroughly without incautious recommendations or suggestions from adults, the process of imagination might flourish.

  16. Policies to assist parents with young children. (United States)

    Ruhm, Christopher J


    The struggle to balance work responsibilities with family obligations may be most difficult for working parents of the youngest children, those five and under. Any policy changes designed to ease the difficulties for these families are likely to be controversial, requiring a careful effort to weigh both the costs and benefits of possible interventions while respecting diverse and at times conflicting American values. In this article, Christopher Ruhm looks at two potential interventions-parental leave and early childhood education and care (ECEC)-comparing differences in policies in the United States, Canada, and several European nations and assessing their consequences for important parent and child outcomes. By and large, Canadian and European policies are more generous than those in the United States, with most women eligible for paid maternity leave, which in a few countries can last for three years or more. Many of these countries also provide for paid leave that can be used by either the mother or the father. And in many European countries ECEC programs are nearly universal after the child reaches a certain age. In the United States, parental leave, if it is available, is usually short and unpaid, and ECEC is generally regarded as a private responsibility of parents, although some federal programs help defray costs of care and preschool education. Ruhm notes that research on the effects of differences in policies is not completely conclusive, in part because of the difficulty of isolating consequences of leave and ECEC policies from other influences on employment and children's outcomes. But, he says, the comparative evidence does suggest desirable directions for future policy in the United States. Policies establishing rights to short parental leaves increase time at home with infants and slightly improve the job continuity of mothers, with small, but positive, long-run consequences for mothers and children. Therefore, Ruhm indicates that moderate extensions

  17. Evaluation Of Methadone Poisoning in Hospitalized Children: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Maamouri


    Full Text Available Upload poisoning is one of the most dangerous and common poisoning in Iranian children. Depression of the respiratory and central nervous systems may lead to significant toxicity. Even low doses of uploads are dangerous in pediatrics under 6 years old. Methadone is the most toxic of the uploads; small doses as low as a single tablet can lead to death. According to this information we decided to evaluate methadone poisoning in Hospitalized Children

  18. Typhoid fever among hospitalized febrile children in Siem Reap, Cambodia. (United States)

    Wijedoru, Lalith P M; Kumar, Varun; Chanpheaktra, Ngoun; Chheng, Kheng; Smits, Henk L; Pastoor, Rob; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Baker, Stephen; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Peacock, Sharon J; Putchhat, Hor; Parry, Christopher M


    Typhoid fever was confirmed by positive blood culture in 5 (3.7%) of 134 febrile children hospitalized in Cambodia. Typhoid was suspected in an additional 25 (18.7 %) blood culture-negative children based on: a positive immunoglobulin M lateral flow assay (IgMFA) (16); a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Salmonella typhi (2); or clinical assessment (7). The specificity of the IgMFA and PCR assays requires further study.

  19. Issues and Strategies Involved in Helping Homeless Parents of Young Children Strengthen Their Self-Esteem (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.


    Homeless parents of young children face many stressors that erode their self-esteem. This article articulates these stressors and how they negatively impact homeless parents and their children. Strategies for helping parents empower themselves and their children are explained.

  20. Neocortical Development in Brain of Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Majken; Fabricius, Katrine; Sigaard, Rasmus Krarup


    The early postnatal development of neuron and glia numbers is poorly documented in human brain. Therefore we estimated using design-based stereological methods the regional volumes of neocortex and the numbers of neocortical neurons and glial cells for 10 children (4 girls and 6 boys), ranging from...... neonate to 3 years of age. The 10 infants had a mean of 20.7 × 109 neocortical neurons (range 18.0-24.8 × 109) estimated with a coefficient of variation (CV) = 0.11; this range is similar to adult neuron numbers. The glia populations were 10.5 × 109 oligodendrocytes (range 5.0-16.0 × 109; CV = 0.40); 5...

  1. Costing of severe pneumonia in hospitalized infants and children aged 2-36 months, at a secondary and tertiary level hospital of a not-for-profit organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helle Ostergaard; Hanehøj, Malin; Das, Ashima Rani


    OBJECTIVES: To determine health care provider cost and household cost of the treatment of severe pneumonia in infants and young children admitted to secondary and tertiary level health care facilities. METHODS: The study was done in a private, not-for-profit medical college hospital, in Vellore...... comprised travel, accommodation and special food during the period of illness, and indirect costs of productivity loss for family members. Patient specific resource consumption and related charges were recorded from charts, nursing records, pharmacy lists and hospital bills, and the providers view point...

  2. Parental experiences of a developmentally focused care program for infants and children during prolonged hospitalization. (United States)

    So, Stephanie; Rogers, Alaine; Patterson, Catherine; Drew, Wendy; Maxwell, Julia; Darch, Jane; Hoyle, Carolyn; Patterson, Sarah; Pollock-BarZiv, Stacey


    This study investigates parental experiences and perceptions of the care received during their child's prolonged hospitalization. It relates this care to the Beanstalk Program (BP), a develop-mentally focused care program provided to these families within an acute care hospital setting. A total of 20 parents (of children hospitalized between 1-15 months) completed the Measures of Processes of Care (MPOC-20) with additional questions regarding the BP. Scores rate the extent of the health-care provider's behaviour as perceived by the family, ranging from 'to a great extent' (7) to 'never' (1). Parents rated Respectful and Supportive Care (6.33) as highest, while Providing General Information (5.65) was rated lowest. Eleven parents participated in a follow-up, qualitative, semi-structured interview. Interview data generated key themes: (a) parents strive for positive and normal experiences for their child within the hospital environment; (b) parents value the focus on child development in the midst of their child's complex medical care; and (c) appropriate developmentally focused education helps parents shift from feeling overwhelmed with a medically ill child to instilling feelings of confidence and empowerment to care for their child and transition home. These results emphasize the importance of enhancing child development for hospitalized infants and young children through programs such as the BP. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Multimodal representations of gender in young children's popular culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Lindstrand


    Full Text Available This article poses questions regarding learning and representation in relation to young children's popular culture. Focusing on gender, the article builds on multimodal, social semiotic analyses of two different media texts related to a specific brand and shows how gender and gender differences are represented multimodally in separate media contexts and in the interplay between different media. The results show that most of the semiotic resources employed in the different texts contribute in congruent ways to the representation of girls as either different from or inferior to boys. At the same time, however, excerpts from an encounter with a young girl who engages with characters from the brand in her role play are used as an example of how children actively make meaning and find strategies that subvert the repressive ideologies manifested in their everyday popular culture.

  4. Management of cervical spine injuries in young children: lessons learned. (United States)

    Smith, Jodi L; Ackerman, Laurie L


    Previous studies have shown that the correct use of car safety seats can protect infants and children from vehicular injury. Although child passenger devices are increasingly used in the US, motor vehicle crashes continue to be the leading cause of death and acquired disability in infants and children younger than 14 years of age. These events are likely related, at least in part, to the high percentage of children who are unrestrained or improperly restrained. The authors present 2 cases of severe cervical spine trauma in young children restrained in car safety seats during a motor vehicle crash: 1) a previously healthy 14-month-old girl who was improperly restrained in a forward-facing booster seat secured to the vehicle by a lap belt, and 2) a previously healthy 30-month-old girl who was a rear seat passenger restrained in a car safety seat. This study points out the unique challenges encountered in treating cervical spine injuries in infants and young children, as well as the lessons learned, and emphasizes the significance of continuing efforts to increase family and public awareness regarding the importance of appropriate child safety seat selection and use.

  5. Resilience in young children involved with child protective services. (United States)

    Sattler, Kierra M P; Font, Sarah A


    Child maltreatment increases the risk of poor developmental outcomes. However, some children display resilience, meaning they are high-functioning despite their adverse experiences. To date, few research studies have examined protective factors among very young maltreated children. Yet, domains of resilience, and the protective factors that promote resilience among maltreated children, are likely to differ by developmental stage. Drawing on ecological systems theory and life course theory, we examined how protective factors at multiple ecological levels across early childhood were related to social and cognitive resilience among very young children involved with child protective services. The results demonstrated that the buffering effects of protective factors varied by social or cognitive resilience and the cumulative effects of protective factors were more consistently related to later resilience than protective factors at specific time points. In addition, the influence of specific protective factors on resilience slightly varied by initial in-home or out-of-home placement. These findings have important policy and research implications for promoting optimal development among children involved in child protective services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The importance of pets’ visit in recovery of hospitalized children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Maria Heins Vaccari


    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the experience of hospitalized childrenwhen visited by animals at hospital. Methods: Descriptive andexploratory research with qualitative approach in a private pediatrichospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Thirteen children aged threeto six years were enrolled. Observation of the children before,during, and after the animal’s visit, interviews, and drawings weresome of the strategies used to collect data, which were submittedto the Bardin content analysis technique. Results: Three meaningcategories were identified and showed some of the benefits of thisexperience to children “pleasant contact with the animals”; “easierinteraction with staff and with other children”; “pain and discomfortrelief”. Conclusions: Animal visits make the environment morerelaxed, improve the interaction between the child, the staff andother children thus helping sick children to be more cooperativewith hospital procedures. This is an alternative strategy for pain anddiscomfort relief. It has also been observed that this activity benefitsnot only children but also adults who care them.

  7. The prevalence of undernutrition upon hospitalization in children in a developing country: A single hospital study from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Way-Seah Lee


    Conclusion: The prevalence of undernutrition among children admitted to a tertiary hospital in Malaysia was 14%. Strategies for systematic screening and provision of nutritional support in children at risk of undernutrition as well as treatment of undernutrition in children requiring hospitalization are needed.

  8. Frequency of medical errors in hospitalized children in khorramabad Madani hospital during six months in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azam Mohsenzadeh


    Full Text Available Many hospitalized children are suffered from medical errors that may cause serious injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate medical errors in hospitalized children in khorramabad Madani hospital in the first half of 2008. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross sectional that was performed for all medical errors in hospitalized children in khorramabad Madani hospital from 21/3/2008 to 21/9/2008. The sampling method was census. Studied variables included: age, sex, weight, kinds of errers, education of parents, job of parents. Data was collected by questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS software. Results: In this study out of 2250 records, 151 (6/3% had medical errors. 53%were girls and 47% were boys that there was a significant relation between sex and medical errors. 46/4%were related to age group lower than 2 years old. Most of the errors were occurred in weight group of 6kg. Types of medical errors included drug ordering 46/3% (involved incorrect dosage of drug (37%, frequency 28%, rout 19% and others 16%, transcribing10%, administering32/4%, dispensing11/3%. Most errors related to liquid therapy 76/2% and intravenous rout 85/4%. Most errors were occurred during night 47% and during weekend 56/6%. Conclusion: Medical errors are common in hospitalized patients, and in our study the rate of medical errors was 6/3%. So further efforts are needed to reduce them.

  9. Fear of clowns in hospitalized children: prospective experience. (United States)

    Meiri, Noam; Schnapp, Zeev; Ankri, Amichi; Nahmias, Itay; Raviv, Amnon; Sagi, Omer; Hamad Saied, Mohamad; Konopnicki, Muriel; Pillar, Giora


    Medical clowns (MC) have become an integral part of the pediatric staff of hospital wards. While several studies have demonstrated the huge benefits of MC, there are almost no data regarding fear of clowns, a known phenomenon that means an irrational fear of clowns. In the current study, we sought to examine the prevalence of fear of clowns in pediatrics wards, and to characterize the affected children. The clinical work of three certified MCs was prospectively assessed. Every child with fear of clowns was noted, data were retrieved from the medical records, and the parents/child completed a specific questionnaire with a research assistant. Fear of clowns was defined as crying, anxiety response or effort to avoid contact with the MCs in small children, while in older children, it was determined if the child either reported fear of MCs or made actions to avoid clowns' intervention. A total of 1160 children participated in the study. All were hospitalized in the department of pediatrics or the pediatric emergency medicine department at Carmel Medical Center, and were exposed to a MC intervention session. Of the 1160 children, 14 children experienced fear of clowns (1.2%). The average age of children who experienced fear of clowns was 3.5 years (range 1-15). Interestingly, most of the children demonstrating fear of clowns were girls (12 out of 14, 85.7%). We found no association between fear of clowns and specific diagnosis, fever, clinical appearance, religion, or ethnicity. The prevalence of fear of clowns in the general pediatric hospitalized population was 1.2%, with a significant predominance of girls (85.7%). Children who experienced significant fear of clowns also experienced significant fear of encountering or thinking about a MC visit. Fear of clowns can affect children at any age (range 1-15), any ethnicity, religion, or degree of illness. Further large scale studies are required to better understand this unique phenomenon of fear of clowns. What is Known

  10. Choice-making treatment of young children's severe behavior problems.


    Peck, S M; Wacker, D P; Berg, W K; Cooper, L J; Brown, K A; Richman, D; McComas, J J; Frischmeyer, P; Millard, T


    The choice-making behavior of 5 young children with developmental disabilities who engaged in aberrant behavior was studied within a concurrent operants framework. Experimental analyses were conducted to identify reinforcers that maintained aberrant behavior, and functional communication training packages were implemented to teach the participants to gain reinforcement using mands. Next, a choice-making analysis, in which the participants chose one of two responses (either a mand or an altern...

  11. Genotyping of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Hospitalized Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Ben Nejma


    Full Text Available Community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA is an emerging pathogen increasingly reported to cause skin and soft tissue infections for children. The emergence of highly virulencet CA-MRSA strains in the immunodeficiency of young children seemed to be the basic explanation of the increased incidence of CA-MRSA infections among this population. The subjects of this study were 8 patients hospitalized in the Pediatric Department at the University Hospital of Monastir. The patients were young children (aged from 12 days to 18 months who were suffering from MRSA skin infections; two of them had the infections within 72 h of their admission. The isolates were classified as community isolates as they all carried the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec IV and pvl genes. Epidemiological techniques, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST, were applied to investigate CA-MRSA strains. Analysis of molecular data revealed that MRSA strains were related according to PFGE patterns and they belonged to a single clone ST80. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that all strains were resistant to kanamycin and 2 strains were resistant to erythromycin.

  12. Hearing the voices of children and young people to develop and test a patient-reported experience measure in a specialist paediatric setting. (United States)

    Wray, Jo; Hobden, Sylvie; Knibbs, Sarah; Oldham, Geralyn


    To develop and test patient-reported experience measures (PREMs) for children and young people in a specialist paediatric hospital setting. Six PREMs were developed and tested by children and young people for children and young people aged 8-11, 12-13 and 14-16 years in inpatient and outpatient settings. A week-long pilot was implemented across inpatient wards and outpatient clinics to identify facilitators and barriers to the routine use of PREMs in a real-time setting across our organisation. Tertiary paediatric hospital. Final PREMs; identified facilitators and barriers to implementation. 543 children and young people aged 8-16 years attending outpatient clinics or inpatient wards across a range of specialties. Three key themes about hospital experience were identified during focus groups: facilities, treatment and tests and people working at the hospital, and these provided the structure for the questionnaires. During cognitive testing the questionnaires were generally understood but some revisions to language and length of the questionnaires were required. Two designs were selected for the final PREMs. During acceptability and feasibility testing it was evident that children and young people liked the PREMs and wanted to give feedback on their hospital experience. Particular challenges for routine use of the PREMs focused on sustainability and resources. The new PREMs will provide children and young people receiving care in specialist paediatric hospitals with the opportunity to provide feedback on their experience. Sustainability and ensuring that feedback results in improvements need to be addressed in future work. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Young Children in Intractable Conflicts: The Israeli Case. (United States)

    Nasie, Meytal; Diamond, Aurel Harrison; Bar-Tal, Daniel


    The article examines the political socialization of young Jewish-Israeli children who live under the Israeli-Palestinian intractable conflict. It proposes arguments and presents empirical evidence to suggest that the way in which political socialization of young children happens in this context contributes to the development of conflict-supporting narratives of ethos of conflict and collective memory by the youngest generation. As a result, the conflict solidifies adherence to these narratives in adulthood, thereby serving as a major obstacle to the processes of peace-making and peace-building. Specifically, as evidence for showing how the political socialization works in Israel, a series of studies conducted in Israeli kindergartens and elementary schools are presented. These studies recount the contents acquired by young children, as well as contents delivered by teachers, related to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. This indicates the serious consequences of acquiring conflict-supporting narratives at an early age in societies involved in intractable conflict. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  14. Youth and young adults with spina bifida: their utilization of physician and hospital services. (United States)

    Young, Nancy L; Anselmo, Lianne A; Burke, Tricia A; McCormick, Anna; Mukherjee, Shubhra


    To describe current patterns of health care utilization of youth and young adults who have spina bifida (SB) and provide evidence to guide the development of health care for this growing population. We conducted a secondary analysis of health services utilization data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information to determine the rates and patterns of health care utilization, because comprehensive health care has been recognized as critical to positive health outcomes. Participants were identified from 6 publicly funded children's treatment centers. Health records from youth (n=164; age range, 13.0-17.9y) and adults (n=120; age range, 23.0-32.9y) with SB contributed to this study. Not applicable. The rates of outpatient physician visits and hospital admissions for the youth and adult groups were calculated. The proportion with a "medical home" was also calculated. The annual rates of outpatient physician visits per 1000 persons were 8031 for youth and 8524 for adults with SB. These rates were approximately 2.9 and 2.2 times higher, respectively, than for their age-matched peers. On average, 12% of youth and 24% of adults with SB had a medical home. The annual rates of hospital admissions per 1000 persons were 329 for youth and 285 for adults with SB. Rates of admissions were 19.4 and 12.4 times higher, respectively, for these groups than for the general population. It appears that persons with SB are accessing health services more often than their age-matched peers, and few have a medical home. We recommend that seamless medical care be provided to all adults with SB, coordinated by a primary care provider, to facilitate comprehensive care. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Epidemiology Of Measles And Its Complications In Non- Hospitalized Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangal N


    Full Text Available This study was conducted in 1985-86 amongst non-hospitalized children of jaipur city in33 investigative units having 3791 families with 6183 children in the 0-9 years age group. Measles vaccine coverage was only 21.7% Measles developed in 189 cases. Maximum incidence occurred in the 1-2 years olds and during the first half of the years (January to June. Complication developed in 50 (26.5% children. The most frequent was diarrohea (14.3% followed by respiratory infection (6.9%. No case fatality was reported.

  16. Human Rhinovirus C Associated with Wheezing in Hospitalized Children in the Middle East (United States)

    Miller, E. Kathryn; Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Williams, John V.; Shehabi, Asem A.; Faouri, Samir; Jundi, Ihsan Al; Chen, Qingxia; Heil, Luke; Mohamed, Yassir; Morin, Laura-Lee; Ali, Asad; Halasa, Natasha B.


    Background Few studies have investigated the disease burden and genetic diversity of human rhinoviruses (HRV) in developing countries. Objectives To assess the burden of HRV in Amman, Jordan and to characterize clinical differences between HRV groups. Study Design We prospectively studied children <5 years old hospitalized with respiratory symptoms and/or fever in Amman, Jordan. Viruses were identified by real-time RT-PCR. VP4/VP2 gene sequencing was performed on HRV-positive specimens. Results Of 728 enrolled children, 266 (37%) tested positive for picornaviruses, 240 of which were HRV. Of the HRV-positive samples, 62 (26%) were of the recently identified group HRVC, 131 (55%) were HRVA, and 7 (3%) were HRVB. The HRVC strains clustered into at least 19 distinct genotypes. Compared with HRVA-infected children, children with HRVC were more likely to require supplemental oxygen (63% vs. 42%, p=0.007) and, when co-infections were excluded, were more likely to have wheezing (100% vs. 82%, p=0.016). Conclusions There is a significant burden of HRV-associated hospitalizations in young children in Jordan. Infection with the recently identified group HRVC is associated with wheezing and more severe illness. PMID:19581125

  17. Core vocabulary of young children with Down syndrome. (United States)

    Deckers, Stijn R J M; Van Zaalen, Yvonne; Van Balkom, Hans; Verhoeven, Ludo


    The aim of this study was to develop a core vocabulary list for young children with intellectual disabilities between 2 and 7 years of age because data from this population are lacking in core vocabulary literature. Children with Down syndrome are considered one of the most valid reference groups for researching developmental patterns in children with intellectual disabilities; therefore, spontaneous language samples of 30 Dutch children with Down syndrome were collected during three different activities with multiple communication partners (free play with parents, lunch- or snack-time at home or at school, and speech therapy sessions). Of these children, 19 used multimodal communication, primarily manual signs and speech. Functional word use in both modalities was transcribed. The 50 most frequently used core words accounted for 67.2% of total word use; 16 words comprised core vocabulary, based on commonality. These data are consistent with similar studies related to the core vocabularies of preschoolers and toddlers with typical development, although the number of nouns present on the core vocabulary list was higher for the children in the present study. This finding can be explained by manual sign use of the children with Down syndrome and is reflective of their expressive vocabulary ages.

  18. Young children seek out biased information about social groups. (United States)

    Over, Harriet; Eggleston, Adam; Bell, Jenny; Dunham, Yarrow


    Understanding the origins of prejudice necessitates exploring the ways in which children participate in the construction of biased representations of social groups. We investigate whether young children actively seek out information that supports and extends their initial intergroup biases. In Studies 1 and 2, we show that children choose to hear a story that contains positive information about their own group and negative information about another group rather than a story that contains negative information about their own group and positive information about the other group. In a third study, we show that children choose to present biased information to others, thus demonstrating that the effects of information selection can start to propagate through social networks. In Studies 4 and 5, we further investigate the nature of children's selective information seeking and show that children prefer ingroup-favouring information to other types of biased information and even to balanced, unbiased information. Together, this work shows that children are not merely passively recipients of social information; they play an active role in the creation and transmission of intergroup attitudes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Maternal Feeding Goals and Restaurant Menu Choices for Young Children. (United States)

    Domoff, Sarah E; Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison; Hoffmann, Debra A; Musher-Eizenman, Dara


    Childhood obesity remains a major public health issue. One recent effort to improve the obesogenic environment is mandating that restaurants provide calorie and other nutritional content on menus. Little is known about whether maternal feeding for young children is influenced by calorie disclosure on menus. This study examined (1) whether maternal feeding goals associate with mothers' food selections for their young children and (2) whether mothers change entrée and side selections for their children when calories/fat grams are listed on menus. One-hundred seventy mothers of children ages of 3-6 years participated in an online survey. Most participants identified as white (76.5%), with a mean BMI of 25.68 (standard deviation=5.94). Mothers were presented two menus (one with and one without calorie/fat information). The goal of feeding for the child's familiarity with the food was significantly associated with mothers' selection of original side dish and entrées, with greater endorsement of this goal associated with choosing high-calorie/-fat sides and entrées. Feeding for natural content was associated with mothers' selection of original entrée, with greater endorsement of this goal associated with choosing low-calorie/-fat entrées. Significantly fewer mothers chose a higher-calorie entrée when there was menu labeling. Maternal feeding goals are associated with mothers' selection of entrée and side dishes on restaurant menus. Results from this study suggest that menu labeling of calories and fat grams may influence entrée choices by mothers. Targeting mothers' feeding goals and labeling restaurant menus may improve the diets of young children.

  20. Clinical definition of respiratory viral infections in young children and potential bronchiolitis misclassification. (United States)

    Megalaa, Rosemary; Perez, Geovanny F; Kilaikode-Cheruveettara, Sasikumar; Kotwal, Nidhi; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E; Nino, Gustavo


    Viral respiratory infections are often grouped as a single respiratory syndrome named 'viral bronchiolitis', independently of the viral etiology or individual risk factors. Clinical trials and guidelines have used a more stringent definition of viral bronchiolitis, including only the first episode of wheezing in children less than 12 months of age without concomitant respiratory comorbidities. There is increasing evidence suggesting that this definition is not being followed by pediatric care providers, but it is unclear to what extent viral respiratory infections are currently misclassified as viral bronchiolitis using standard definitions. We conducted a retrospective analysis of hospitalized young children (≤3 years) due to viral respiratory infections. Bronchiolitis was defined as the first wheezing episode less than 12 months of age. Demographic variables and comorbidities were obtained by electronic medical record review. The study comprised a total of 513 hospitalizations (n=453). Viral bronchiolitis was diagnosed in 144 admissions (28.1%). Notably, we identified that the majority of children diagnosed with bronchiolitis (63%) were misclassified as they had prior episodes of wheezing. Many children with bronchiolitis misclassification had significant comorbidities, including prematurity (51%), neuromuscular conditions (9.8%), and congenital heart disease (9.8%). Misclassification of bronchiolitis is a common problem that may lead to inappropriate management of viral respiratory infections in young children. A comprehensive approach that takes into consideration viral etiology and individual risk factors may lead to a more accurate clinical assessment of this condition and would potentially prevent bronchiolitis misclassification. © American Federation for Medical Research (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. HIV Infection in hospitalized under-5 children with acute watery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu


    Dec 31, 2011 ... HIV with acute watery diarrhea as a clinical manifesta- tion.5,6,9,10 This study therefore attempts to find out the prevalence of HIV among children admitted into the. Diarrhoea Treatment and Training Unit of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. This study will help in identifying ...

  2. Are We Meeting The Calorie Needs Of Hospitalized Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For the past four decades, nutrition has assumed its pride of place on the list of advances in surgery and general patient care. We prospectively reviewed the effect of hospitalisation on the nutritional status of 28 children admitted for various surgical and medical conditions at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital.

  3. Detecting biomarkers of secondhand marijuana smoke in young children. (United States)

    Wilson, Karen M; Torok, Michelle R; Wei, Binnian; Wang, Lanqing; Robinson, Michelle; Sosnoff, Connie S; Blount, Benjamin C


    The impact of secondhand marijuana smoke exposure on children is unknown. New methods allow detection of secondhand marijuana smoke in children. We studied children ages 1 mo to 2 y hospitalized with bronchiolitis in Colorado from 2013 to 2015. Parents completed a survey, and urine samples were analyzed for cotinine using LC/MS/MS (limits of detection 0.03 ng/ml) and marijuana metabolites including COOH-THC (limits of detection 0.015 ng/ml). A total of 43 subjects had urine samples available for analysis. Most (77%) of the subjects were male, and 52% were less than 1 y of age. COOH-THC was detectable in 16% of the samples analyzed (THC+); the range in COOH-THC concentration was 0.03-1.5 ng/ml. Two subjects had levels >1 ng/ml. Exposure did not differ by gender or age. Non-white children had more exposure than white children (44 vs. 9%; P 2.0 ng/ml were THC+, compared with 7% of those with lower cotinine (P marijuana smoke can be detected in children; in this cohort, 16% were exposed. Detectable COOH-THC is more common in children with tobacco smoke exposure. More research is needed to assess the health impacts of marijuana smoke exposure on children and inform public health policy.

  4. Young Children's Research Behaviour? Children Aged Four to Eight Years Finding Solutions at Home and at School (United States)

    Murray, Jane M.


    Children's research abilities have become increasingly recognised by adults, yet children remain excluded from the academy. This restricts children's freedom to make choices in matters affecting them, underestimates their capabilities and denies children particular rights. The present paper reports on young children's problem-solving as part of a…

  5. Young Children's Learning in Art Museums: A Review of New Zealand and International Literature (United States)

    Terreni, Lisa


    In order to examine the existing literature in relation to the benefits of art museum education for the young, as well as to emphasise the literature gap in early childhood education research pertaining to access to and use of art museums by young children, a review of literature that discussed museum education for young children was undertaken. A…

  6. Social Networking Family of Caregivers during Hospitalization of Children. (United States)

    Menezes, Marina; Moré, Carmen Leontina Ojeda Ocampo; Barros, Luísa


    To identify and analyze the significant networks of family, social and hospital support described by the family caregivers of hospitalized children 5-12 years during the hospital stay. Descriptive study, exploratory and qualitative study conducted with 20 caregivers of children hospitalized in a hospital in a city in southern Brazil, through semi-structured interviews and significant social networks maps, tailored to the hospital setting. Data analysis showed that the most active social network was comprised of families through emotional support, material aid and services. Relations with hospital health care team and the hospital context were cited as providing support to the caregivers of the hospitalized child. The identification of social networks in the child's hospitalization course enables equip professionals working in the institution aiming at better targeting of actions and care for the family and hospitalized children. Identificar e analisar as redes significativas de suporte familiar, social e hospitalar descritas pelos familiares acompanhantes de crianças hospitalizadas de 5 a 12 anos, durante o período de internação. Estudo descritivo, exploratório e de cunho qualitativo realizado com 20 acompanhantes de crianças hospitalizadas em uma unidade hospitalar em uma cidade do Sul do Brasil, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas e dos Mapas de Redes sociais significativas, adaptado para o contexto hospitalar. A análise dos dados demonstrou que a rede social mais atuante foi composta por familiares, através de apoio emocional, ajuda material e de serviços. As relações com a equipe de saúde do hospital e com o contexto hospitalar foram citadas como capazes de fornecer apoio ao acompanhante da criança internada. a identificação das redes sociais no curso da hospitalização da criança possibilita instrumentalizar os profissionais que atuam na instituição objetivando um melhor direcionamento de ações e cuidados destinados à família e a

  7. Coping strategies used by hospitalized children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. (United States)

    Sposito, Amanda Mota Pacciulio; Silva-Rodrigues, Fernanda Machado; Sparapani, Valéria de Cássia; Pfeifer, Luzia Iara; de Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira


    To analyze coping strategies used by children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy during hospitalization. This was an exploratory study to analyze qualitative data using an inductive thematic analysis. Semistructured interviews using puppets were conducted with 10 children with cancer, between 7 and 12 years old, who were hospitalized and undergoing chemotherapy. The coping strategies to deal with chemotherapy were: understanding the need for chemotherapy; finding relief for the chemotherapy's side effects and pain; seeking pleasure in nourishment; engaging in entertaining activities and having fun; keeping the hope of cure alive; and finding support in religion. Children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy need to cope with hospitalizations, pain, medication side effects, idle time, and uncertainty regarding the success of treatment. These challenges motivated children to develop their own coping strategies, which were effective while undergoing chemotherapy. By gaining knowledge and further understanding about valid coping strategies during chemotherapy treatment, health professionals can mobilize personal and material resources from the children, health teams, and institutions aiming to potentiate the use of these strategies to make treatments the least traumatic. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  8. Bidirectional Influences of Anxiety and Depression in Young Children (United States)

    Hopkins, Joyce; Gouze, Karen R.; Bryant, Fred B.


    Anxiety and depression tend to co-occur in children. Studies indicate that higher levels of anxiety are associated with subsequent higher levels of depression, while depression may inhibit subsequent anxiety. It is important to increase our understanding of the temporal sequencing of these disorders and, particularly, to determine if suppression effects account for the inhibitory association. In addition, further information about these relationships in young children is needed. Participants were a diverse (20.4 % Hispanic, 16.7 % African American; 49.1 % boys) community sample of 796 children with data available at ages 4, 5, and 6–7 years. Anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed using the Child Symptom Inventory and symptom count measures from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Parent Scale-Young Child version. The results indicated: (a) anxiety and depression were relatively stable over time; (b) anxiety at age 4 and 5 was a significant positive predictor of subsequent depression; (c) while an inhibitory effect of depression on subsequent anxiety was found, that inhibitory effect was due to negative suppression, and higher levels of depression were actually associated with subsequent anxiety; (e) consistent with a significant suppression effect, when depression was included as a predictor, the association between anxiety at ages 4 and 5 and anxiety one year later increases in magnitude. Both anxiety and depression are associated with higher levels of one another in the subsequent year. Implications for prevention are discussed. PMID:24934567

  9. Risk-adjusted hospital outcomes for children's surgery. (United States)

    Saito, Jacqueline M; Chen, Li Ern; Hall, Bruce L; Kraemer, Kari; Barnhart, Douglas C; Byrd, Claudia; Cohen, Mark E; Fei, Chunyuan; Heiss, Kurt F; Huffman, Kristopher; Ko, Clifford Y; Latus, Melissa; Meara, John G; Oldham, Keith T; Raval, Mehul V; Richards, Karen E; Shah, Rahul K; Sutton, Laura C; Vinocur, Charles D; Moss, R Lawrence


    BACKGROUND The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric was initiated in 2008 to drive quality improvement in children's surgery. Low mortality and morbidity in previous analyses limited differentiation of hospital performance. Participating institutions included children's units within general hospitals and free-standing children's hospitals. Cases selected by Current Procedural Terminology codes encompassed procedures within pediatric general, otolaryngologic, orthopedic, urologic, plastic, neurologic, thoracic, and gynecologic surgery. Trained personnel abstracted demographic, surgical profile, preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables. Incorporating procedure-specific risk, hierarchical models for 30-day mortality and morbidities were developed with significant predictors identified by stepwise logistic regression. Reliability was estimated to assess the balance of information versus error within models. In 2011, 46 281 patients from 43 hospitals were accrued; 1467 codes were aggregated into 226 groupings. Overall mortality was 0.3%, composite morbidity 5.8%, and surgical site infection (SSI) 1.8%. Hierarchical models revealed outlier hospitals with above or below expected performance for composite morbidity in the entire cohort, pediatric abdominal subgroup, and spine subgroup; SSI in the entire cohort and pediatric abdominal subgroup; and urinary tract infection in the entire cohort. Based on reliability estimates, mortality discriminates performance poorly due to very low event rate; however, reliable model construction for composite morbidity and SSI that differentiate institutions is feasible. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric expansion has yielded risk-adjusted models to differentiate hospital performance in composite and specific morbidities. However, mortality has low utility as a children's surgery performance indicator. Programmatic improvements have resulted in

  10. Telemedicine for a Children's Field Hospital in Chechnya. (United States)

    Ehrlich, A I; Kobrinsky, B A; Petlakh, V I; Rozinov, V M; Shabanov, V E


    In 2001, the Children's Field Hospital in the Gudermes area of the Chechen Republic was connected to a telemedical centre at the Scientific Institute of Pediatrics and Children's Surgery in Moscow, via the Russian SCA HeliosNet satellite system. An asymmetric satellite link, in which there was a high-speed downlink from the satellite to Gudermes and a low-speed uplink from Gudermes to the satellite was used. In total, 179 teleconsultations were carried out from October 2001 until February 2002, when the field hospital was closed. Of the 179 teleconsultations, 26 were real-time, by videoconference and the rest were asynchronous, by email. Almost half of consultations were carried out for emergency or urgent reasons, thus demonstrating the value of providing access to the necessary experts. The use of satellite communication allowed telemedical support for medical decisions in a wide range of disease and trauma in children and teenage in a conflict situation.

  11. Framing Young Childrens Oral Health: A Participatory Action Research Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimere C Collins

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread acknowledgement of the importance of childhood oral health, little progress has been made in preventing early childhood caries. Limited information exists regarding specific daily-life and community-related factors that impede optimal oral hygiene, diet, care, and ultimately oral health for children. We sought to understand what parents of young children consider important and potentially modifiable factors and resources influencing their children's oral health, within the contexts of the family and the community.This qualitative study employed Photovoice among 10 English-speaking parents of infants and toddlers who were clients of an urban WIC clinic in North Carolina. The primary research question was: "What do you consider as important behaviors, as well as family and community resources to prevent cavities among young children?" Five group sessions were conducted and they were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative research methodology. Inductive analyses were based on analytical summaries, double-coding, and summary matrices and were done using Atlas.ti.7.5.9 software.Good oral health was associated with avoidance of problems or restorations for the participants. Financial constraints affected healthy food and beverage choices, as well as access to oral health care. Time constraints and occasional frustration related to children's oral hygiene emerged as additional barriers. Establishment of rules/routines and commitment to them was a successful strategy to promote their children's oral health, as well as modeling of older siblings, cooperation among caregivers and peer support. Community programs and organizations, social hubs including playgrounds, grocery stores and social media emerged as promising avenues for gaining support and sharing resources.Low-income parents of young children are faced with daily life struggles that interfere with oral health and care. Financial constraints are

  12. Longitudinal relations between parenting and child adjustment in young children. (United States)

    Gadeyne, Els; Ghesquière, Pol; Onghena, Patrick


    We studied the predictive relations between reports of parenting behavior on the one hand and academic achievement and reported behavior problems of young children on the other hand. Data were gathered for 352 children and their parents from kindergarten to 2nd grade. The results indicated that in the academic domain, low supportive and high controlling parenting practices were modestly related to poor subsequent math achievement. Children's externalizing and attention problem behavior was clearly predictive of high levels of control in mothers and low levels of support in fathers. The combination of high parental support and control was especially associated with high levels of problem behavior. However, when previous parenting and child adjustment were taken into account, the magnitude of the predictive power of parenting for child adjustment, and of child adjustment for parenting, remained limited.

  13. Fundamental movement skills and habitual physical activity in young children. (United States)

    Fisher, Abigail; Reilly, John J; Kelly, Louise A; Montgomery, Colette; Williamson, Avril; Paton, James Y; Grant, Stan


    To test for relationships between objectively measured habitual physical activity and fundamental movement skills in a relatively large and representative sample of preschool children. Physical activity was measured over 6 d using the Computer Science and Applications (CSA) accelerometer in 394 boys and girls (mean age 4.2, SD 0.5 yr). Children were scored on 15 fundamental movement skills, based on the Movement Assessment Battery, by a single observer. Total physical activity (r=0.10, Pmovement skills score. Time spent in light-intensity physical activity was not significantly correlated with motor skills score (r=0.02, P>0.05). In this sample and setting, fundamental movement skills were significantly associated with habitual physical activity, but the association between the two variables was weak. The present study questions whether the widely assumed relationships between motor skills and habitual physical activity actually exist in young children.

  14. [Acute ethanol intoxication among children and adolescents. A retrospective analysis of 173 patients admitted to a university children hospital]. (United States)

    Schöberl, S; Nickel, P; Schmutzer, G; Siekmeyer, W; Kiess, W


    In the last time the alcohol consumption among children and adolescents is a big theme in all kind of media. The ethanol consumption among children and adolescents has risen during the last years, but also new hazardous drinking patterns like "binge-drinking" are increasing. These drinking episodes are responsible for many hospital presentations of children and adolescents with acute ethanol intoxication. This study is a retrospective analysis of 173 patients admitted to the university children hospital of Leipzig due to acute ethanol intoxication during the period 1998-2004. Investigated parameters were: socio-demographic factors, clinical presentation and management as well as quantity and type of alcohol. During the years 1998-2004 the rate of alcohol intoxicated patients in this study increased, from 1998-2003 at about 171.4%. Totally 173 patients with an average age of 14.5 years were admitted to the university children hospital. There were significantly more boys than girls. The mean blood alcohol concentration of these patients was 1.77%. Some of the patients had severe symptoms. 62 were unconscious, 2 were in coma and at least 3 patients had to be ventilated. A difference between socioeconomic groups could be observed by comparing the different school types. 44.8% of the patients went to the middle school. Furthermore 17 patients of this study had mental disorders or psychosocial problems and were therefore in psychological or psychiatric treatment. In this study a significant influence of social classes or psychosocial problems on alcohol consumption such as binge-drinking leading to acute ethanol intoxication could not be found. Alarming is the increasing number of ethanol intoxicated patients, the young age, the high measured blood ethanol concentrations and the severe symptoms of these patients. This is the reason why early and intensive prevention strategies are required.

  15. Detection of rotavirus and other enteropathogens in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Havana, Cuba. (United States)

    Ribas, María de Los Angeles; Tejero, Yahisel; Cordero, Yanislet; de Los Angeles León, María; Rodriguez, Misladys; Perez-Lastre, Jorge; Triana, Thelma; Guerra, Mabel; Ayllón, Lucía; Escalante, Gladys; Hadad, Jorge


    The aim of the study was to diagnose infections with rotavirus and other enteric pathogens in children under five years old with acute gastroenteritis and to identify the most common epidemiological and clinical characteristics of these pathogens. The study was conducted using 110 stool samples from the same number of children under five years old who were inpatients at three paediatric hospitals in Havana, Cuba, between October and December 2011. The samples were tested for rotavirus and other enteric pathogens using traditional and molecular microbiological methods. Pathogens were detected in 85 (77.3 %) of the children. Rotavirus was the most commonly found, appearing in 54.5 % of the children, followed by bacteria (29 %) and parasites (10.9 %). Other viral pathogens detected included adenovirus (6.4 %) and astrovirus (3.6 %). In rotavirus-positives cases, at least one other pathogen was detected, usually a bacterium (26.6 %). More than three episodes of watery diarrhea in 24 hours were observed in 78.3 % of the cases. Dehydration was found in 30 (50 %) rotavirus-positive children, of whom seven (11.6 %) were transferred to an intensive care unit due to complications of metabolic acidosis. Rotavirus was most commonly observed among children under 12 months old (65 %). The highest incidence of infection occurred in children who were under the care of a relative at home (78.3 %), had not been breastfed (65 %), or had been breastfed for less than six months (28.3 %). The genotype combinations most frequently found were G9P8 (28.3 %) and G1P8 (10 %). This study demonstrates the presence of rotavirus and other enteric pathogens as causes of gastroenteritis in hospitalized infants and young children in Cuba.

  16. A review of infant and young child feeding practice in hospital and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To describe infant and young child feeding practices at home and in hospital in KwaZulu-Natal Midlands, South .... Table 1 reflects the timing as well as the content of information ... frequency of meat consumption in the home was not determined. .... households do not have access to internet, the majority has a.

  17. Hoarding behavior among young children with obsessive-compulsive disorder. (United States)

    Frank, Hannah; Stewart, Elyse; Walther, Michael; Benito, Kristen; Freeman, Jennifer; Conelea, Christ; Garci, Abbe


    Previous research has shown that among the various subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), adults (e.g. Frost, Krause & Steketee, 1996) and older children and adolescents (Bloch et al., 2009; Storch et al., 2007) with problematic hoarding have distinct features and a poor treatment prognosis. However, there is limited information on the phenomenology and prevalence of hoarding behaviors in young children. The present study characterizes children ages 10 and under who present with OCD and hoarding behaviors. Sixty-eight children received a structured interview-determined diagnosis of OCD. Clinician administered, parent-report, and child-report measures on demographic, symptomatic, and diagnostic variables were completed. Clinician ratings of hoarding symptoms and parent and child endorsement of the hoarding item on the CY-BOCS checklist (Scahill, Riddle, McSwiggin-Hardin, & Ort, 1997) determined inclusion in the hoarding group ( n =33). Compared to children without hoarding symptoms ( n =35), the presence of hoarding symptoms was associated with an earlier age of primary diagnosis onset and a higher proportion of ADHD and provisional anxiety diagnoses. These results are partially consistent with the adult literature and with findings in older children (Storch et al., 2007). Additional data on clinical presentation and phenomenology of hoarding are needed to form a developmentally appropriate definition of the behavior.

  18. Malnutrition determinants in young children from Burkina Faso. (United States)

    Beiersmann, Claudia; Bermejo Lorenzo, Justo; Bountogo, Mamadou; Tiendrébeogo, Justin; Gabrysch, Sabine; Yé, Maurice; Jahn, Albrecht; Müller, Olaf


    Childhood malnutrition remains a major challenge to public health in poor countries. Data on malnutrition determinants in African children are scarce. A cross-sectional survey was performed in eight villages of Burkina Faso in June 2009, including 460 children aged 6-31 months. Demographic, socioeconomic, parasitological, clinical and anthropometric characteristics were collected. The main outcome variable was weight-for-length (WFL) z-score (i.e. wasting). A multiple regression model identified village, age group, religion and the presence of younger siblings as significantly associated with wasting. Villages differed in their mean WFL z-score by up to one unit. Compared with younger children, the mean WFL z-score of children aged 24-35 months was 0.63 units higher than the WFL z-score in younger children. This study confirms the still unacceptable high level of malnutrition in young children of rural West Africa and supports the fact that childhood malnutrition is a complex phenomenon highly influenced by contextual variables.

  19. Young children consider merit when sharing resources with others. (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Warneken, Felix


    MERIT IS A KEY PRINCIPLE OF FAIRNESS: rewards should be distributed according to how much someone contributed to a task. Previous research suggests that children have an early ability to take merit into account in third-party situations but that merit-based sharing in first-party contexts does not emerge until school-age. Here we provide evidence that three- and five-year-old children already use merit to share resources with others, even when sharing is costly for the child. In Study 1, a child and a puppet-partner collected coins that were later exchanged for rewards. We varied the work-contribution of both partners by manipulating how many coins each partner collected. Children kept fewer stickers in trials in which they had contributed less than in trials in which they had contributed more than the partner, showing that they took merit into account. Few children, however, gave away more than half of the stickers when the partner had worked more. Study 2 confirmed that children related their own work-contribution to their partner's, rather than simply focusing on their own contribution. Taken together, these studies show that merit-based sharing is apparent in young children; however it remains constrained by a self-serving bias.

  20. Young children consider merit when sharing resources with others.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Kanngiesser

    Full Text Available MERIT IS A KEY PRINCIPLE OF FAIRNESS: rewards should be distributed according to how much someone contributed to a task. Previous research suggests that children have an early ability to take merit into account in third-party situations but that merit-based sharing in first-party contexts does not emerge until school-age. Here we provide evidence that three- and five-year-old children already use merit to share resources with others, even when sharing is costly for the child. In Study 1, a child and a puppet-partner collected coins that were later exchanged for rewards. We varied the work-contribution of both partners by manipulating how many coins each partner collected. Children kept fewer stickers in trials in which they had contributed less than in trials in which they had contributed more than the partner, showing that they took merit into account. Few children, however, gave away more than half of the stickers when the partner had worked more. Study 2 confirmed that children related their own work-contribution to their partner's, rather than simply focusing on their own contribution. Taken together, these studies show that merit-based sharing is apparent in young children; however it remains constrained by a self-serving bias.

  1. Sleep disturbance and neuropsychological function in young children with ADHD. (United States)

    Schneider, Heather E; Lam, Janet C; Mahone, E Mark


    Sleep disturbance, common among children with ADHD, can contribute to cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. It is therefore challenging to determine whether neurobehavioral dysfunction should be attributed to ADHD symptoms, sleep disturbance, or both. The present study examined parent-reported sleep problems (Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire) and their relationship to neuropsychological function in 64 children, aged 4-7 years, with and without ADHD. Compared to typically developing controls, children with ADHD were reported by parents to have significantly greater sleep disturbance--including sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, night awakenings, and daytime sleepiness--(all p ≤ .01), and significantly poorer performance on tasks of attention, executive control, processing speed, and working memory (all p sleep disturbance was significantly associated with deficits in attention and executive control skills (all p ≤ .01); however, significant group differences (relative to controls) on these measures remained (p sleep disturbance. While sleep problems are common among young children with ADHD, these findings suggest that inattention and executive dysfunction appear to be attributable to symptoms of ADHD rather than to sleep disturbance. The relationships among sleep, ADHD symptoms, and neurobehavioral function in older children may show different patterns as a function of the chronicity of disordered sleep.

  2. Risk of malnutrition of hospitalized children in a university public hospital. (United States)

    Muñoz-Esparza, Nelly Carolina; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar Manuel; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio


    The study aimed to demonstrate that the duration of hospitalization has a significant effect on the nutritional status of children treated in a university hospital. A longitudinal study was conducted during 2014, with a non-random sampling site concentration in children from birth to 19 years who were admitted to the hospital in the past 24 hours and who met the inclusion criteria and had signed informed consent. Upon entering, at 7 days, and at discharge, anthropometric indices, including weight/age, height/age, weight/height, BMI/age, head circumference/age, triceps and subscapular skin folds, and fat percentage, were obtained. Student's t-test, U Mann-Whitney, ANOVA, chi square, Wilcoxon, and odds ratios were used to analyze the data. In total, 206 patients were included: 40% infants, 25% preschoolers, 15% schoolchildren, and 20% teenagers. Infants had a significant improvement from admission to discharge in the indices weight/length (p = 0.042) and BMI (p = 0.002); adolescents showed decreased BMI from admission to discharge from the hospital (p = 0.05). Patients with longer hospitalization (more than 10 days) had an increased deficit in anthropometric indices at admission (p malnutrition and require greater monitoring of nutritional status during hospitalization.

  3. Determinants of allergic rhinitis in young children with asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Moussu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the preschool period, allergic rhinitis (AR is infrequent and thus under-diagnosed. However, recent works have highlighted the occurrence of AR in toddlers although the causes of AR in this young population remain unknown. The objective of this study was to identify determinants of AR in young children with asthma. METHODS: We carried out a case-control study of 227 children with active asthma and enrolled in the Trousseau Asthma Program. AR and other allergic diseases (asthma, food allergy and eczema were diagnosed by medical doctors using standardized questionnaires. Parental history of AR and asthma, biological markers of atopy (total IgE, blood eosinophilia, allergic sensitization towards food and aeroallergens and environmental parameters were also collected. RESULTS: Forty one of the children (18.1% had AR. By univariate logistic regression analysis, AR was mainly associated with peanut sensitization (OR = 6.75; p = 0.002; food allergy (OR = 4.31; p = 0.026; mold exposure (OR = 3.81 p<0.01 and parental history of AR (OR = 1.42; p = 0.046. Due to the strong link between food allergy and peanut sensitization three models of multivariate logistic regression were performed and confirmed that AR is associated with peanut sensitization but also food allergy and mold exposure. A random forest analysis was also performed to explain AR. The results reinforced the logistic analysis that peanut sensitization and mold exposure were the principal determinants of AR. CONCLUSIONS & CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These results stress the importance of investigating AR in young children with asthma to potentially diagnose a particularly severe allergic asthmatic phenotype. Moreover, these data evoke the hypothesis that peanut could be an aeroallergen.

  4. Causes of recurrent pneumonia in children in a general hospital. (United States)

    Hoving, M F Paulien; Brand, Paul L P


    Because the few previous studies on underlying causes of recurrent pneumonia in children have come from tertiary care referral centres where selection bias may be important, the aim of this study was to examine underlying causes of recurrent pneumonia in children in a general hospital. We performed a retrospective chart review in a general hospital of 62 children with recurrent pneumonia over a 7.5 years period. In 19 patients (30.6%), no cause was identified, commonly because favourable natural history obviated the need for a full and invasive diagnostic work-up. Other underlying causes included recurrent aspiration in 16 patients (25.7%), lung disease (airway stenosis, bronchiectasis, middle lobe syndrome or tracheooesophageal fistula) in 10 patients (16.1%) and immune deficiency in 10 patients (16.1%). In contrast to previous studies, asthma was never diagnosed as an underlying cause, but diagnostic confusion between asthma (or recurrent upper respiratory tract infections) and recurrent pneumonia was common. The cause of recurrent pneumonia in children remains elusive in almost a third of patients, partly because the favourable natural history consistent with immune system maturation eliminates the need for further diagnostic procedures. Asthma is more likely a differential diagnostic consideration than an underlying cause of recurrent pneumonia in children. A standardised diagnostic guideline is needed to improve knowledge on causes of recurrent pneumonia in children. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. Outcomes and healthcare utilization in children and young adults with aplastic anemia: A multiinstitutional analysis. (United States)

    Gupta, Ashish; Fu, Pingfu; Hashem, Hasan; Vatsayan, Anant; Shein, Steven; Dalal, Jignesh


    Aplastic anemia is a bone marrow failure syndrome with high mortality affecting children and young adults. Although current treatment guidelines recommend hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) for patients with matched sibling donors, outcomes with alternate donor options have been improving. We analyzed a validated multiinstitutional pediatric cohort using one of the largest pediatric and young adult database, the Pediatric Health Information System, for patients diagnosed with aplastic anemia (AA) from 2006 to 2015. Outcomes with upfront and salvage transplants were analyzed along with healthcare utilization. Among 2,169 patients in the study period, almost 20% underwent HCT, while others received immunosuppressive therapy. In a multivariate model, there was no significant difference in mortality with upfront or salvage transplants (odds ratio [OR] 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6-2.58, P = 0.567), while every platelet transfusion was associated with higher mortality (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.12-1.67, P = 0.002). Healthcare utilization was significantly higher in salvage transplants requiring frequent hospitalization and transfusion requirements. Treatment mortality and graft failure rates were significantly reduced in the salvage transplant group in recent years (2011-2015 as compared to 2006-2010). As outcomes with HCT continue to improve in severe AA, transplant with good alternate donors should be considered upfront in children and young adults. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Developmental Status and Social-Emotional Functioning of Young Children Experiencing Homelessness (United States)

    Haskett, Mary E.; Armstrong, Jenna Montgomery; Tisdale, Jennifer


    The developmental status and social-emotional functioning of young children who are homeless has received inadequate attention in spite of high rates of homelessness among families with young children and the potentially negative impact of homelessness and associated stressors on children's well-being. The aim of this study was to gain…

  7. Early Care and Education for Young Children Experiencing Homelessness. Best Practices in Homeless Education Brief Series (United States)

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2013


    Given the number of young children experiencing homelessness and its devastating impacts on development, preschool programs play a critical role in meeting these children's need for quality early care and education; yet, most young homeless children do not receive early childhood services. Many barriers limit access to early childhood programs for…

  8. Influences on Young Children's Knowledge: The Case of Road Safety Education. (United States)

    Cullen, Joy


    Argues that effective road safety education for young children needs to incorporate constructivist and socio-cultural perspectives on learning. Excerpts interviews with young children highlighting the variety of influences affecting children's road safety knowledge and examination of a road safety curriculum to illustrate the value of a dual…

  9. Low Motor Assessment : A Comparative Pilot Study with Young Children With and Without Motor Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, S.A.J.; Nakken, H.; Van der Meulen, B.F.; Lunenborg, C.B.

    Most of the developmental instruments that measure cognitive development in children rely heavily on fine motor skills, especially for young children whose language skills are not yet well developed. This is problematic when evaluating the cognitive development of young children with motor

  10. Television and Media Literacy in Young Children: Issues and Effects in Early Childhood (United States)

    Jusoff, Kamaruzaman; Sahimi, Nurul Nadiah


    Television viewing among young children has been an on going issue as it is found to effect their development in various areas. This problem is getting more worrisome as the percentage and amount of hours of television exposure among young children is increasing, especially with the growing production of children television programs. Studies have…

  11. Developing Thinking and Understanding in Young Children: An Introduction for Students. Second Edition (United States)

    Robson, Sue


    Developing "Thinking and Understanding in Young Children" presents a comprehensive and accessible overview of contemporary theory and research about young children's developing thinking and understanding. Throughout this second edition, the ideas and theories presented are enlivened by transcripts of children's activities and conversations taken…

  12. Uncovering Young Children's Motivational Beliefs about Learning Science (United States)

    Oppermann, Elisa; Brunner, Martin; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Anders, Yvonne


    Young children, ages 5-6 years, develop first beliefs about science and themselves as science learners, and these beliefs are considered important precursors of children's future motivation to pursue science. Yet, due to a lack of adequate measures, little is known about young children's motivational beliefs about learning science. The present…

  13. Oncofertility: A New Medical Specialty Helping Young Cancer Patients Have Children (United States)

    ... Oncofertility: A New Medical Specialty Helping Young Cancer Patients Have Children Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of ... old problem: the fertility needs of young cancer patients. The word itself was coined through NIH-sponsored ...

  14. Magical attachment: Children in magical relations with hospital clowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta Linge


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to achieve a theoretical understanding of several different-age children's experiences of magic relations with hospital clowns in the context of medical care, and to do so using psychological theory and a child perspective. The method used was qualitative and focused on nine children. The results showed that age was important to consider in better understanding how the children experienced the relation with the hospital clowns, how they described the magical aspects of the encounter and how they viewed the importance of clown encounters to their own well-being. The present theoretical interpretation characterized the encounter with hospital clowns as a magical safe area, an intermediate area between fantasy and reality. The discussion presented a line of reasoning concerning a magical attachment between the child and the hospital clowns, stating that this attachment: a comprised a temporary relation; b gave anonymity; c entailed reversed roles; and d created an emotional experience of boundary-transcending opportunities.

  15. Use of drawings in children with pervasive developmental disorder during hospitalization: a developmental perspective. (United States)

    Stefanatou, Athena


    The level and nature of emotional upheaval and relationship to developmental stage was studied in children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) hospitalized for head injury. The sample consisted of 25 hospitalized children aged 5-12 years. Children were asked to make the drawing of a ;person in hospital'. The drawings were evaluated by Koppitz's emotional indicators. Punishment and persecution were the main cognitive constructs of children in order to explain hospitalization.

  16. Knowledge of the mothers of hospitalized children in a university hospital regarding diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula do Rego


    Full Text Available This qualitative research aimed at identifying the knowledge of the mothers regarding diarrhea. It was conducted with eight mothers of hospitalized children in a university hospital located in Santa Cruz, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, in 2012. Data were collected through open interviews and the analysis was based on Bardin. The categories emerging from the analysis were: understanding diarrhea and preventing/treating diarrhea. Regarding the understanding of diarrhea, mothers conceptualize and understand it from the symptoms, habits/eating mistakes and/or cultural beliefs. Concerning the prevention and treatment of the disease, the mothers highlight hygiene and home cleaning as preventive measures, as well the importance of home and hospital care measures. The interviewees have basic knowledge of pathology, further studies are necessary in order to define the current gap between the knowledge of mothers and recurrence of diarrhea cases, resulting in hospitalization and expenses with unnecessary treatment.

  17. Dental trauma that require fixation in a children's hospital. (United States)

    Bruns, Timothy; Perinpanayagam, Hiran


    Children and adolescents who suffer traumatic injuries often seek emergency treatment at a Children's Hospital. Complex injuries to permanent teeth and their periodontium require immediate repositioning and stabilization. Many of these emergencies are treated by pediatric dental residents at the Women and Children's Hospital of Buffalo, Buffalo, New York. The purpose of this study was to characterize these complex injuries of permanent teeth that require emergency treatment in a Children's Hospital. All of the cases of dental trauma which had involved permanent teeth and which had been treated with a splint in 2001 and 2002 were reviewed. There were 79 patients that were between 5 and 19 years of age with twice as many males (54) as females (25). The number of males increased from childhood (5-10 years) to early adolescence (11-15 years) and then decreased rapidly in late adolescence (16-19 years), whereas the number of females decreased steadily with age. Most of the incidents occurred during the summer months (72%), particularly in June and July (42%), and Fridays and Saturdays were the busiest days of the week. Most of the injuries were caused by organized and recreational sporting activities (39%) and accidental falls (33%), followed by interpersonal violence (15%) and a few motor vehicle accidents (7%). The 173 permanent tooth injuries were mostly luxations (62%) or avulsions (20%), with only a few fractures of the alveolar bone (5%) or tooth root (1%). Most of the displacements were lateral luxations (40%) or extrusions (18%) with only a few intrusions (3%). These injuries most commonly afflicted the maxillary central incisors (54%), followed by the maxillary laterals (18%) and mandibular centrals (17%). The emergency treatment that was provided at the Children's Hospital included replantation and repositioning, and the placement of a semi-rigid or flexible splint.

  18. The Examination of Relationship between Life Rhythm and Parent's Consciousness among Young Children


    Tanaka, Saori


    The social background of child care and rearing has changed rapidly today in Japan. Also young children's life rhythm has changed compared with before. These disorders of life rhythm cause big influence to young children's mind and body health. To improve young child's mind and body health, it is effective that parents improve the life rhythm at home. Therefore, the educational campaign to parents about young child's life rhythm was held. In this research, the relationship between improvement...

  19. Representations of abstract grammatical feature agreement in young children. (United States)

    Melançon, Andréane; Shi, Rushen


    A fundamental question in language acquisition research is whether young children have abstract grammatical representations. We tested this question experimentally. French-learning 30-month-olds were first taught novel word-object pairs in the context of a gender-marked determiner (e.g., un MASC ravole 'a ravole'). Test trials presented the objects side-by-side while one of them was named in new phrases containing other determiners and an adjective (e.g., le MASC joli ravole MASC 'the pretty ravole'). The gender agreement between the new determiner and the non-adjacent noun was manipulated in different test trials (e.g., le MASC __ravole MASC; *la FEM __ravole MASC). We found that online comprehension of the named target was facilitated in gender-matched trials but impeded in gender-mismatched trials. That is, children assigned the determiner genders to the novel nouns during word learning. They then processed the non-adjacent gender agreement between the two categories (Det, Noun) during test. The results demonstrate abstract featural representation and grammatical productivity in young children.

  20. International reach of tobacco marketing among young children. (United States)

    Borzekowski, Dina L G; Cohen, Joanna E


    Prosmoking messages, delivered through marketing and the media, can reach very young children and influence attitudes and behaviors around smoking. This study examined the reach of tobacco marketing to 5 and 6 year olds in 6 low- and middle-income countries. Researchers worked one-on-one with 5 and 6 year olds in Brazil, China, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Russia (N = 2423). The children were asked to match logos with pictures of products, including 8 logos for cigarette brands. Analyses examined, overall and by country, whether gender, age, location, household use of tobacco, and knowledge of media characters were associated with awareness of cigarette brand logos. Additional analyses considered the relationship between cigarette brand logo awareness and intentions to smoke. Overall, 68% of 5 and 6 year olds could identify at least 1 cigarette brand logo, ranging from 50% in Russia to 86% in China. Across countries, being slightly older and having someone in the household who used tobacco, were significantly associated with greater odds of being able to identify at least 1 cigarette brand logo. The majority of young children from low- and middle-income countries are familiar with cigarette brands. This study's findings suggest that more effective measures are needed to restrict the reach of tobacco marketing.

  1. Computed tomography in young children with herpes simplex virus encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, T.; Woo, M.; Okazaki, H.; Nishida, N.; Hara, T.; Yasuhara, A.; Kasahara, M.; Kobayashi, Y.


    Computed tomographic (CT) scans were obtained from eight infants and young children with herpes simplex virus encephalitis. In two cases the initial scan showed diffuse edematous changes as a mass effect without laterality. Unilateral localized low attenuation in the initial scan was evident 4 days after the onset in one patient, and high attenuation in the initial scan appeared on the 6th day in another patient, but in general, it was not possible to establish an early diagnosis of herpes simplex virus encephalitis from CT scan. In the longitudinal study the calcification with ventriculomegaly appeared in 3 of 5 survivors, and gyriform calcification in 2 of 3 patients, respectively. The appearance of multicystic encephalomalacia was evident in one patient 6 months after the onset of neonatal herpes simplex encephalitis. It is shown that the CT findings of neonates and young children with herpes simplex encephalitis are different from those of older children and adults, and the importance of longitudinal CT studies was stressed in clarifying the pathophysiology of the central nervous system involvement in survivors. (orig.)

  2. Ross operation in children and young adults: the Alder Hey case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozzi Marco


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ideal prosthesis for aortic valve replacement in children and young adults has not been found yet. In recent years there has been a renewed interest in the replacement of aortic valve with the pulmonary autograft owing to its advantages of lack of anticoagulation, potential for growth and excellent haemodynamic performance. The purpose of this study was to review our institutional experience at Alder Hey hospital with the Ross procedure in children and young adults. Methods From November 1996 to September 2003, 38 patients (mean age, 13.1 ± 5.7 years underwent the Ross procedure for various aortic valve diseases using the root replacement technique. Clinical and echocardiographic follow-up was performed early (within 30 days, 3 to 6 months, and yearly after surgery. Medical records of all patients were reviewed retrospectively. Results There was 1 perioperative death. The patients were followed-up for a median interval of 36 months and up to 7 years. One patient died 3 years after surgery secondary to ventricular arrhythmia with overall mortality of 5.3%. Actuarial survival at 7 years was 94 ± 2.5% and there was 100% freedom from reoperation for autograft valve dysfunction or any other cause. Balloon dilatation was required in 2 patients for pulmonary homograft stenosis. The haemodynamics at the latest follow-up were also similar to those at the time of discharge after surgery. There was no progression in the degree of aortic regurgitation for 11 patients with trivial and 3 with mild regurgitation. Conclusion Our experience demonstrates that Ross operation is an attractive option for aortic valve replacement in children and young adults. Not only can the operation be accomplished with a low operative risk but the valve function stays normal over a long period of time with minimal alteration in lifestyle and no need for repeated operations to replace the valve as a result of somatic growth of the children.

  3. Prevalence of rotavirus in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Imam Sajjad Hospital of Yasuj, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Khodadadi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background & Aim: Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of dehydrating and gastroenteritis among children worldwide. . The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rotavirus in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Imam Sajjad Hospital of Yasuj. Methods: This cross sectional – descriptive study was done on 184 stool samples of children younger than 7 years of age hospitalized at Imam Sajjad hospital of Yasuj in 2011 due to acute gastroenteritis. All samples were routinely analyzed for detection of rotavirus by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA test. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 16, Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Results: Of the 184 samples analyzed, 52(28.26% were positive.The Results showed significant relationship between the seasonal distribution and virus detection (p=0/001. The highest incidence of rotavirus was seen in autumn with frequency of (48.08% and the lowest in spring (5.77%. Conclusions: According to high prevalence of rotavirus infection, continual surveillance is necessary to provide useful data for formulating effective vaccines and perform diarrhea prevention programs. Key words: Rotavirus, Gastroenteritis, Prevalence, Elisa

  4. Prevalence and characterization of rotaviruses in children hospitalized for diarrheal disease in a tertiary care hospital, Pune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Satish Pol


    Full Text Available Background: Diarrhoea remains the second most common cause of death among children below 5 years globally. Among various enteric pathogens, rotavirus appears to be the most important aetiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. Increased understanding of epidemiology of rotavirus infections is needed to improve the vaccine efficacy. Aim: This study aims to determine prevalence rotavirus infection and prevalent circulating strains of rotavirus in and around Pune. Setting and Design: Prospective hospital-based study. The study was approved by Institutional Ethical Committee. Materials and Methods: Stool samples (n = 100 were collected from children aged <5 years, hospitalised for acute diarrhoea in paediatric ward at a tertiary care hospital. Samples were subjected for rotavirus antigen capture ELISA. The viral RNA was subjected to multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to amplify VP7 genotypes G1–G4, G8–G10 and G12 and VP4 genotypes P[4], P[6], P[8], P[9], P[10] and P[11]. Nontypable rotavirus strains were sequenced. Results: About 35% stool samples were positive for rotavirus antigen by ELISA. G9P[4] (28.6% was found to be the most prevalent rotavirus strain. The detection of emerging strain G12P[6] (14.3% and rare reassortant strain G9P[4] was the significant finding. Conclusion: Genotypes found in circulation are not present in the currently used vaccine. Thus, an emergence of newer genotypes over a period calls for the continued surveillance and genomic characterisation of rotaviruses to improve the vaccine efficacy.

  5. Teaching young children a theory of nutrition: conceptual change and the potential for increased vegetable consumption. (United States)

    Gripshover, Sarah J; Markman, Ellen M


    In two experiments, we used a novel approach to educating young children about nutrition. Instead of teaching simple facts, we provided a rich conceptual framework that helped children understand the need to eat a variety of healthy foods. Using the insight that children's knowledge can be organized into coherent belief systems, or intuitive theories, we (a) analyzed the incipient knowledge that guides young children's reasoning about the food-body relationship, (b) identified the prerequisites that children need to conceptualize food as a source of nutrition, and (c) devised a strategy for teaching young children a coherent theory of food as a source of diverse nutrients. In these two experiments, we showed that children can learn and generalize this conceptual framework. Moreover, this learning led children to eat more vegetables at snack time. Our findings demonstrate that young children can benefit from an intervention that capitalizes on their developing intuitive theories about nutrition.

  6. Generalized trust predicts young children's willingness to delay gratification. (United States)

    Ma, Fengling; Chen, Biyun; Xu, Fen; Lee, Kang; Heyman, Gail D


    Young children's willingness to delay gratification by forgoing an immediate reward to obtain a more desirable one in the future predicts a wide range of positive social, cognitive, and health outcomes. Standard accounts of this phenomenon have focused on individual differences in cognitive control skills that allow children to engage in goal-oriented behavior, but recent findings suggest that person-specific trust is also important, with children showing a stronger tendency to delay gratification if they have reason to trust the individual who is promising the future reward. The current research builds on those findings by examining generalized trust, which refers to the extent to which others are generally viewed as trustworthy. A total of 150 3- to 5-year-olds in China were tested. Participants were given the opportunity to obtain one sticker immediately, or wait for 15 min for two stickers. Results showed that participants with high levels of generalized trust waited longer even after controlling for age and level of executive function. These results suggest that trust plays a role in delaying gratification even when children have no information about the individual who is promising the future reward. More broadly, the findings build on recent evidence that there is more to delay of gratification than cognitive capacity, and they suggest that there are individual differences in whether children consider sacrificing for a future outcome to be worth the risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Costly third-party punishment in young children. (United States)

    McAuliffe, Katherine; Jordan, Jillian J; Warneken, Felix


    Human adults engage in costly third-party punishment of unfair behavior, but the developmental origins of this behavior are unknown. Here we investigate costly third-party punishment in 5- and 6-year-old children. Participants were asked to accept (enact) or reject (punish) proposed allocations of resources between a pair of absent, anonymous children. In addition, we manipulated whether subjects had to pay a cost to punish proposed allocations. Experiment 1 showed that 6-year-olds (but not 5-year-olds) punished unfair proposals more than fair proposals. However, children punished less when doing so was personally costly. Thus, while sensitive to cost, they were willing to sacrifice resources to intervene against unfairness. Experiment 2 showed that 6-year-olds were less sensitive to unequal allocations when they resulted from selfishness than generosity. These findings show that costly third-party punishment of unfair behavior is present in young children, suggesting that from early in development children show a sophisticated capacity to promote fair behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. On the incidence of diarrhoea among young Indian children. (United States)

    Borooah, Vani K


    Diarrhoea, claiming over three million young lives in the world every year, is the second biggest killer of children in developing countries. Using data for over 13,000 children in rural India, under the age of 3 years, this paper examines the relative effects of the different factors--inter alia the quality of the water supply, mother's literacy, housing conditions, and the level of development of the villages in which the children lived--contributing to diarrhoea. The paper highlights the importance of two factors: that children born to undernourished mothers may be more susceptible to infection than children whose mothers are well nourished, and that good hygienic practices within the home, such as washing hands with soap before feeding a child, can reduce the incidence of diarrhoea. The paper also quantifies the relative strength of the factors that determine whether mothers do so. The results emphasize the importance of mothers being literate, of household affluence and of institutional support (through the availability of trained midwives and mother and child centres in villages) in promoting domestic hygiene.

  9. Mental health: early intervention and prevention in children and young people. (United States)

    Membride, Heather

    It is estimated that 10% of children and young people have mental health problems so significant that they impact not only on their day-to-day life but, if left untreated, they will continue into adulthood. In this article, the author discusses mental health issues affecting children and young people and examines evidence-based early intervention and prevention programmes that have been shown to support better outcomes for children, young people and their families.

  10. Hospital readmission after management of appendicitis at freestanding children's hospitals: contemporary trends and financial implications. (United States)

    Rice-Townsend, Samuel; Hall, Matthew; Barnes, Jeff N; Baxter, Jessica K; Rangel, Shawn J


    The purpose of this study was to characterize epidemiologic trends and cost implications of hospital readmission after treatment of pediatric appendicitis. We conducted a 5-year retrospective cohort analysis of 30-day readmission rates for 52,054 patients admitted with appendicitis at 38 children's hospitals participating in the Pediatric Health Information System database. Patients were categorized as "uncomplicated" (postoperative length of stay [LOS] ≤ 2 days) or "complicated" (LOS ≥ 3 days and ≥ 4 consecutive days of antibiotics) and analyzed for demographic data, treatment received during the index admission, readmission rates, and excess LOS and hospital-related costs attributable to readmission encounters. The aggregate 30-day readmission rate was 8.7%, and this varied significantly by disease severity and management approach (uncomplicated appendectomy, 5.6%; complicated appendectomy, 12.8%; drainage, 22.6%; antibiotics only, 24.6%; P management approach (uncomplicated appendectomy, $1946 [31% relative increase]; complicated appendectomy, $6524 [53% increase]; drainage, $6827 [48% increase]; antibiotics only, $5835 [58% increase]; P < .0001). In freestanding children's hospitals, readmission after treatment of pediatric appendicitis is a relatively common and costly occurrence. Collaborative efforts are needed to characterize patient, treatment, and hospital-related risk factors as a basis for developing preventative strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Planning an outing from hospital for ventilator-dependent children. (United States)

    Gilgoff, I S; Helgren, J


    Returning ventilator-dependent children to the home environment has become a well-accepted occurrence. The success of a home program depends on careful pre-discharge planning in order to ensure the child's medical safety, and adequate preparation to ensure the child's and family's adjustment to an active community life after discharge. To achieve this, involvement in community activities must begin while the child is still in hospital. As part of a complete rehabilitation program, nine ventilator-dependent children were taken on an inpatient outing to Disneyland. The planning and goals of the outing are described.

  12. Evaluation of Seafood Product Concepts by Young Adults and Families with Young Children from Denmark, Norway, and Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altintzoglou, T.; Sveinsdottir, K.; Einarsdottir, G.; Schelvis, R.; Luten, J.B.


    This article describes the results of a study that tested the responses to 14 seafood concepts among young adults and families with young children in Denmark, Norway, and Iceland. This study was aimed at gaining insight into the evaluation of new seafood product concepts by individuals with low

  13. Reading and Reinterpreting Picture Books on Children's Television: Implications for Young Children's Narrative Literacy (United States)

    Zhang, Kunkun; Djonov, Emilia; Torr, Jane


    "Bookaboo" is a television programme aiming to promote literacy and reading among young children. In each episode, a celebrity reads a book to Bookaboo, a dog who plays the drums in a rock band, in order to help him overcome stage fright. Using the episode featuring the picture book (Cowell and Layton in "That Rabbit Belongs to…

  14. Practitioners' Views on Involving Young Children in Decision Making: Challenges for the Children's Rights Agenda (United States)

    Hudson, Kim


    This article presents the key findings and discussion from a research project and subsequent report: "Involving young children in decision making: An exploration of practitioners' views". This research explored early childhood practitioners'--childcare workers, kindergarten, pre-primary and grade 1-2 teachers--views on decision making…

  15. Ethical issues in research involving children and young people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scally, Andy


    This article identifies the key ethical issues that need to be addressed in any research study involving children and young people, accessed through the NHS. It makes specific reference to the Declaration of Helsinki and to additional guidance developed for researchers from a variety of disciplines, both within healthcare and in other fields of study. The focus of the paper is on defining the key ethical issues, identifying the complexities in the legislative framework underpinning research involving this patient group and offering practical advice on when, and how, ethical approval needs to be sought

  16. Young Children's Screen Activities, Sweet Drink Consumption and Anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, Steingerdur; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Siani, Alfonso


    Background/Objectives: This longitudinal study describes the relationship between young children’s screen time, dietary habits and anthropometric measures. The hypothesis was that television viewing and other screen activities at baseline result in increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages...... children, both on their consumption of sugary drinks and on an increase in BMI and central obesity. Our findings suggest that television viewing seems to have a stronger effect on food habits and anthropometry than other screen activities in this age group....

  17. Young man presenting with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. (United States)

    Huang, Hans David; Lombardi, William L; Steinberg, Zachary Louis


    A man in his early 30s with remote history of a febrile rash as a toddler presented to the emergency room following an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest while riding his bicycle. He received bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and one shock from an automatic external defibrillator, successfully restoring sinus rhythm. On arrival, he was haemodynamically stable without ECG evidence of ST segment changes to suggest active ischaemia, and an initial troponin I was mildly elevated at 0.10 ng/mL (normal <0.04 ng/mL). A CT angiogram (CTA) was obtained showing a normal-appearing aorta and no abnormal extracardiac findings. Urgent coronary angiography was performed; images are shown in figure 1A-C. Echocardiogram revealed a mildly reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (45%) with a hypokinetic inferior wall.heartjnl;heartjnl-2018-312966v1/F1F1F1Figure 1(A) Right coronary artery angiogram in the left anterior oblique cranial projection. (B) Left coronary artery angiogram in the right anterior oblique caudal projection. (C) Left coronary artery angiogram in the right anterior oblique cranial projection. CAUD, caudal; CRAN, cranial; LAO, left anterior oblique; RAO, right anterior oblique. What is the next best step in the management of this patient at this time?Complete revascularisation via percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).Referral for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG).Initiation of high-dose steroids.Initiation of dual-antiplatelet therapy without planned revascularisation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. E-Cigarette and Liquid Nicotine Exposures Among Young Children. (United States)

    Govindarajan, Preethi; Spiller, Henry A; Casavant, Marcel J; Chounthirath, Thitphalak; Smith, Gary A


    To investigate exposures to liquid nicotine (including electronic cigarette devices and liquids) among children <6 years old in the United States and evaluate the impact of legislation requiring child-resistant packaging for liquid nicotine containers. Liquid nicotine exposure data from the National Poison Data System for January 2012 through April 2017 were analyzed. There were 8269 liquid nicotine exposures among children <6 years old reported to US poison control centers during the study period. Most (92.5%) children were exposed through ingestion and 83.9% were children <3 years old. Among children exposed to liquid nicotine, 35.1% were treated and released from a health care facility, and 1.4% were admitted. The annual exposure rate per 100 000 children increased by 1398.2% from 0.7 in 2012 to 10.4 in 2015, and subsequently decreased by 19.8% from 2015 to 8.3 in 2016. Among states without a preexisting law requiring child-resistant packaging for liquid nicotine containers, there was a significant decrease in the mean number of exposures during the 9 months before compared with the 9 months after the federal child-resistant packaging law went into effect, averaging 4.4 (95% confidence interval: -7.1 to -1.7) fewer exposures per state after implementation of the law. Pediatric exposures to liquid nicotine have decreased since January 2015, which may, in part, be attributable to legislation requiring child-resistant packaging and greater public awareness of risks associated with electronic cigarette products. Liquid nicotine continues to pose a serious risk for young children. Additional regulation of these products is warranted. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Difficulty buying food, BMI, and eating habits in young children. (United States)

    Fuller, Anne; Maguire, Jonathon L; Carsley, Sarah; Chen, Yang; Lebovic, Gerald; Omand, Jessica; Parkin, Patricia; Birken, Catherine S


    To determine whether parent report of difficulty buying food was associated with child body mass index (BMI) z-score or with eating habits in young children. This was a cross-sectional study in primary care offices in Toronto, Ontario. Subjects were children aged 1-5 years and their caregivers, recruited through the TARGet Kids! Research Network from July 2008 to August 2011. Regression models were developed to test the association between parent report of difficulty buying food because of cost and the following outcomes: child BMI z-score, parent's report of child's intake of fruit and vegetables, fruit juice and sweetened beverages, and fast food. Confounders included child's age, sex, birth weight, maternal BMI, education, ethnicity, immigration status, and neighbourhood income. The study sample consisted of 3333 children. Data on difficulty buying food were available for 3099 children, and 431 of these (13.9%) were from households reporting difficulty buying food. There was no association with child BMI z-score (p = 0.86). Children from households reporting difficulty buying food (compared with never having difficulty buying food) had increased odds of consuming three or fewer servings of fruits and vegetables per day (odds ratio [OR]: 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.69), more than one serving of fruit juice/sweetened beverage per day (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.28-2.00), and, among children 1-2 years old, one or more servings of fast food per week (OR: 2.91, 95% CI: 1.67-5.08). Parental report of difficulty buying food is associated with less optimal eating habits in children but not with BMI z-score.

  20. Nutritient intake of young children with Prader–Willi syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Lindmark


    Full Text Available Background: Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS is a rare genetic disorder resulting in obesity. The diets for young children with PWS must balance the importance of preventing development of obesity with the need to supply sufficient energy and essential nutrients. Objective: To investigate the nutritional intake for children with PWS 2, 3, and 4 years of age and compare it with Nordic Nutritional Recommendations (NNR and intake of healthy controls. Design: Assessments of food intake for six children 2–4 years of age were performed twice a year. At the age of 2 and 3 years data was obtained by using food recall interviews and at 4 year of age a pre-coded food-diary was used. Results: The energy intake for the 2-year-old children was 3.25 MJ/day (SD 0.85 and for the 3- and 4-year olds 3.62 MJ/day (SD 0.73 and 4.07 MJ/day (SD 0.39 MJ, respectively. These intakes are 61%, 68%, and 77% of the estimated energy requirements in NNR for healthy 2-, 3- and 4-year-old children, respectively, and 60% and 66% of the energy intakes of 2- and 4-year-old children in reference populations. The children's BMI-for-age score and length growth was within the normal range during the study period. The intake of fat was about 25 E% in all age groups and reduced when compared with reference populations. In 25% of the assessments the fat intake was 20 E% or below. The intake of iron was below recommendations in all age groups both with and without supplementation. The mean intake of vitamin D and tocopherol was below recommendations when intakes were determined excluding dietary supplementations. Conclusions: More large-scale investigations on nutritional intake are needed to further investigate dietary challenges for this patient group.

  1. Lipoprotein (a)--lipid profile and apolipoprotein B in children of young parents with coronary artery disease. (United States)

    Khalil, Anita; Aggarwal, Amit; Arora, Sarika; Bhattacharya, Jayashree


    To evaluate lipoprotein(a), apolipoprotein B and lipid profile in children of young parents with coronary artery disease. Analytical observational study. Tertiary care hospital. The study included 80 children (9-18 years) out of which 40 were children of young parents (one or both) with established coronary artery disease (CAD), while the other 40 were children of parents with no evidence of CAD (controls). All were evaluated for fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein (a) - Lp(a). Two sample 't' test was applied for analysis of continuous variables between study & control group. The study group children had significantly higher levels of total serum cholesterol (p = 0.004), LDL cholesterol (p = 0.002), lipoprotein a (p = 0.001) as compared to children of the control group. A significant difference in apolipoprotein B levels (p = 0.044) was observed in children in the adolescent age group (14-18 years). Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher without any significant difference being observed for weight and body mass index between the two groups. Higher levels of pro-atherogenic factors in children with family history of premature CAD indicate that the combined effects of "nature and nurture" are responsible for development of accelerated atherosclerosis especially in Indians. Tracking of Lp(a) levels from childhood may be a better option than detecting other elements of dyslipidemia which are not fully expressed until middle age.

  2. Neonatal hypoglycemia: prevalence and clinical manifestations in tehran children's hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashti, N.; Einollahi, N.; Abbasi, S.


    To measure the prevalence of hypoglycemia among newborn infants in Children Hospital using a standard laboratory glucose method and to evaluate the evidence of clinical manifestations of hypoglycemia, designing appropriate strategies for prevention and treatment. The study population consisted of 673 neonates in Tehran Children's Hospital and was conducted between June 2004 and March 2005. The incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia in the present study group was 15.15% live births. The clinical features which remained significantly associated with the hypoglycemic neonates were refusal of feeding (45%), hyporeflexia (36.2%), irritability (30%), cyanosis (28.4%), tackypnea (24.5%), seizure (16.6%), weak cry (15.8%), apneic spels (9.8%), pallor (1.9%), cardiac arrest (9.1%) and sweating (1%). Hypoglycemia does occur frequently in newborn infants and requires careful monitoring and therapy of serum glucose. (author)

  3. Hospitalized children's representations of their relationship with nurses and doctors. (United States)

    Corsano, Paola; Majorano, Marinella; Vignola, Valentina; Cardinale, Elisa; Izzi, Giancarlo; Nuzzo, Maria Josè


    This article reports an explorative study which aims to investigate hospitalized children's views of their relationships with nurses and doctors. Twenty-seven school-aged children and adolescents from 6 to 15 years old in the paediatric haematology and oncology ward of an Italian hospital participated in the study. Each participant was asked to draw him or herself with a doctor or nurse from the ward while they were doing something. The drawings were analysed using Pictorial Assessment of Interpersonal Relationships (PAIR) and a qualitative analysis. The results showed that the participants viewed their relationships with health professionals positively, in particular with the nurses. This relationship was perceived as close, intimate, cohesive and without conflict. In some cases it became an emotional bond. Finally, this relationship helped the patients to cope with painful and uncomfortable medical procedures, which gradually became familiar and accepted. The clinical implications of this study are discussed.

  4. Characteristics of Hospitalized Children With a Diagnosis of Malnutrition: United States, 2010. (United States)

    Abdelhadi, Ruba A; Bouma, Sandra; Bairdain, Sigrid; Wolff, Jodi; Legro, Amanda; Plogsted, Steve; Guenter, Peggi; Resnick, Helaine; Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C; Corkins, Mark R


    Malnutrition is common in hospitalized patients in the United States. In 2010, 80,710 of 6,280,710 hospitalized children malnutrition (CDM). This report summarizes nationally representative, person-level characteristics of hospitalized children with a CDM. Data are from the 2010 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, which contains patient-level data on hospital inpatient stays. When weighted appropriately, estimates from the project represent all U.S. hospitalizations. The data set contains up to 25 ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes for each patient. Children with a CDM listed during hospitalization were identified. In 2010, 1.3% of hospitalized patients malnutrition's true prevalence may be underrepresented. Length of stay among children with a CDM was almost 2.5 times longer than those without a CDM. Hospital costs for children with a CDM were >3 times higher than those without a CDM. Hospitalized children with a CDM were less likely to have routine discharge and almost 3.5 times more likely to require postdischarge home care. Children with a CDM were more likely to have multiple comorbidities. Hospitalized children with a CDM are associated with more comorbidities, longer hospital stay, and higher healthcare costs than those without this diagnosis. These undernourished children may utilize more healthcare resources in the hospital and community. Clinicians and policymakers should factor this into healthcare resource utilization planning. Recognizing and accurately coding malnutrition in hospitalized children may reveal the true prevalence of malnutrition. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  5. Incidence and Outcome of Acute Cardiorenal Syndrome in Hospitalized Children. (United States)

    Athwani, Vivek; Bhargava, Maneesha; Chanchlani, Rahul; Mehta, Amar Jeet


    To determine the incidence, etiology and outcome of Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) in hospitalized children. A prospective cohort study was carried out in 242 children between 6 mo to 18 y of age hospitalized with primary cardiac, renal or any systemic disorder at a tertiary care center in India. The primary outcome was the development of CRS. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to determine the risk of mortality secondary to CRS. Among 242 children, 67 (27.7%) children developed CRS and the rest 175 (72.3%) did not. Among those with CRS, 40.3%, 20.9%, and 38.8% had CRS-1, 3 and 5, respectively. Cardiac diseases leading to CRS were myocarditis (40.7%) followed by congenital heart disease (25.9%), rheumatic heart disease (18.5%), and dilated cardiomyopathy (7.4%); renal disease associated with CRS was acute glomerulonephritis (100%) and major systemic disorders leading to CRS were septicemia (53.8%), malaria (23.1%), scrub typhus (7.7%), and acute gastroenteritis (3.8%). The occurrence of CRS was associated with an increased risk of mortality (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.8, 14.1; p 0.000). A subgroup analysis revealed that children with CRS having acute kidney injury stage 2 and 3 also had a higher risk of mortality (p 0.001). The incidence of CRS is quite high in children with cardiac, renal or systemic diseases and is associated with a significant risk of mortality. Children presenting with these illnesses should be monitored for the occurrence of CRS so that early intervention may reduce mortality.

  6. Job sharing at a children's hospital: evaluation by medical staff. (United States)

    Valentine, J P; Martin, C J


    To evaluate job sharing for registrars at Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Perth, by seeking responses from members of the relevant medical teams. A questionnaire was sent to all 126 medical staff within the hospital (and three managers in medical administration) asking their views on job sharing for registrars. Whether job sharing should continue, who should do it, at what stage of training, and the effects on patient care. Among the 77 respondents (60%) there was broad support for the continuation of job sharing at the hospital: only 5 of 37 consultants and 2 of 19 non-job sharing registrars rejected the idea (with a further 4 consultants uncertain). 43% Of the consultants who had worked with job sharing registrars thought continuity of care was adversely affected. The committee for physician training of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians emphasises that advanced training should be flexible, with a wide range of opportunities for individuals to plan an appropriate training programme in line with their personal goals. This study has shown that job sharing for registrars at Princess Margaret Hospital for Children allows this choice. Action on concerns over any adverse effects on patient care should resolve any persisting disquiet.

  7. Use of children's artwork to evaluate the effectiveness of a hospital preparation program. (United States)

    Wilson, C J


    Approximately 1.5 million children are hospitalized on an emergency basis per year and are not able to be fully prepared for the event due to the emergency (Azarnoff & Woody, 1981). For this reason many pre-crisis hospital preparation programs are being instituted by hospitals and pediatric nurses. This pilot study investigated the use of children's artwork to evaluate the effectiveness of a hospital preparation program. The 6 to 10 year old children attending summer school at a day care center participated in a hospital preparation program. The purpose of the program was to decrease children's anxieties and fears in the event of an emergency hospitalization.

  8. Young Children's Mathematics References during Free Play in Family Childcare Settings (United States)

    Hendershot, Shawnee M.; Berghout Austin, Ann M.; Blevins-Knabe, Belinda; Ota, Carrie


    Very little is known about children's discussion of mathematics topics during unstructured play. Ginsburg, Lin, Ness, and Seo [2003. Young American and Chinese children's everyday mathematical activity. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 5(4), 235-258. Retrieved from…

  9. Tertiary paediatric emergency department use in children and young people with cerebral palsy. (United States)

    Meehan, Elaine; Reid, Susan M; Williams, Katrina; Freed, Gary L; Babl, Franz E; Sewell, Jillian R; Rawicki, Barry; Reddihough, Dinah S


    The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of tertiary paediatric emergency department (ED) use in children and young people with cerebral palsy (CP). A retrospective analysis of ED data routinely collected at the two tertiary paediatric hospitals in Victoria, Australia, cross-matched with the Victorian Cerebral Palsy Register. Data pertaining to the ED presentations of 2183 registered individuals born 1993-2008 were obtained. Between 2008 and 2012, 37% (n = 814) of the CP cohort had 3631 tertiary paediatric ED presentations. Overall, 40% (n = 332) of presenters were residing in inner metropolitan Melbourne; 44% (n = 356) in outer Melbourne; and 13% (n = 108) in regional Victoria. Presenters were more likely than non-presenters to be younger, non-ambulant and have epilepsy. In total, 71% of presentations were triaged as Australasian Triage Scale 1-3 (urgent), and 44% resulted in a hospital admission. Disorders of the respiratory, neurological and gastrointestinal systems, and medical device problems were responsible for 72% of presentations. Many of the tertiary paediatric ED presentations in this group were appropriate based on the high admission rate and the large proportion triaged as urgent. However, there is evidence that some families are bypassing local services and travelling long distances to attend the tertiary paediatric ED, even for less urgent complaints that do not require hospital admission. Alternative pathways of care delivery, and strategies to promote the management of common problems experienced by children and young people with CP in non-paediatric EDs or primary care settings, may go some way towards reducing unnecessary tertiary paediatric ED use in this group. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Children's experiences as hospital in-patients: voice, competence and work. Messages for nursing from a critical ethnographic study. (United States)

    Livesley, Joan; Long, Tony


    There is growing evidence that children's subjective interpretations of events may differ significantly from those of adults; yet children's and young people's voices and children's knowledge regarding hospital care remain relatively unexplored. To develop insight into children's subjective interpretations and knowledge of being hospital in-patients. Critical ethnography. A nephro-urology ward in a tertiary referral children's hospital in the north of England. A purposive sample was employed of 15 children over 2 phases: six (9-15 years) at home in a reconnaissance first phase, and nine (5-14 years) in hospital in phase 2. A raft of child-friendly, age-appropriate strategies was used to engage children in phase 1. Phase 2 involved over 100 h of field-work with hospitalised children over 6 months, with observation, interview, play and craft activities as prominent methods. Data were analysed using constant comparative methods. The study ward was a place in which children struggled to find a space for their competence to be recognised and their voice heard. Children's voice became manifest in what they said but also through the non-verbal mechanisms of resisting, turning away and being silent. While all the children shared the experience of being in trouble, recognition of their competence was fluid and contingent on their relationships with the nurses alongside other structural and material factors. The children worked hard to maintain their position as knowledgeable individuals. When they could not do so they relied on supportive adults, and in the absence of supportive adults they became marooned and received bare minimum care. The hospital ward was a place for children in which there was little space for children's voices. When their voices were heard, they were often seen as a challenge. Quiet, sick and shy children who were alone were the most likely to have their needs overlooked and become subject to standardised nursing care. A more inclusive and

  11. Increasing Incidence of Hospitalization for Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack in Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Maiken; Dehlendorff, Christian; Jørgensen, Henrik S


    BACKGROUND: Studies have reported increasing incidence of ischemic stroke in adults younger than 50 to 55 years. Information on temporal trends of other stroke subtypes and transient ischemic attack (TIA) is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate temporal trends of the incidence...... of hospitalizations for TIA and stroke including sex- and subtype-specific trends in young adults aged 15 to 30 years. METHODS AND RESULTS: From the Danish National Patient Register, we identified all cases of first-ever stroke and TIA (age 15-30 years) in Denmark, who were hospitalized during the study period...... of 1994 to 2012. Incidence rates and estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) were estimated by using Poisson regression. During the study period, 4156 cases of first-ever hospitalization for stroke/TIA were identified. The age-standardized incidence rates of hospitalizations for stroke increased...

  12. The clinical characteristics and direct medical cost of influenza in hospitalized children: a five-year retrospective study in Suzhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There have been few studies on children hospitalized with influenza published from mainland China. We performed a retrospective review of medical charts to describe the epidemiology, clinical features and direct medical cost of laboratory-proven influenza hospitalized children in Suzhou, China. METHODS: Retrospective study on children with documented influenza infection hospitalized at Suzhou Children Hospital during 2005-2009 was conducted using a structured chart review instrument. RESULTS: A total of 480 children were positive by immuno-fluorescent assay for influenza during 2005-2009. The hospitalizations for influenza occurred in 8-12 months of the year, most commonly in the winter with a second late summer peak (August-September. Influenza A accounted for 86.3%, and of these 286 (59.6% were male, and 87.2% were 60 months old had shorter hospital stay (OR = 0.45; children with oxygen treatment tended to have longer hospital stays than those without oxygen treatment (OR = 2.14. The mean cost of each influenza-related hospitalization was US$ 624 (US$ 1323 for children referred to ICU and US$ 617 for those cared for on the wards. High risk children had higher total cost than low-risk patients. CONCLUSION: Compared to other countries, in Suzhou, children hospitalized with influenza have longer hospital stay and higher percentage of pneumonia. The direct medical cost is high relative to family income. Effective strategies of influenza immunization of young children in China may be beneficial in addressing this disease burden.

  13. Variation and Repetition in the Spelling of Young Children (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Decker, Kristina; Kessler, Brett; Pollo, Tatiana


    A number of investigators have suggested that young children, even those do not yet represent the phonological forms of words in their spellings, tend to use different strings of letters for different words. However, empirical evidence that children possess a concept of between-word variation has been weak. In a study by Pollo, Kessler, and Treiman (2009), in fact, prephonological spellers were more likely to write different words in the same way than would be expected on the basis of chance, not less likely. In the present study, preschool-age prephonological and phonological spellers showed a tendency to repeat spellings and parts of spellings that they had recently used. However, even prephonological spellers (mean age 4 years, 8 months) showed more repetition when spelling the same word twice in succession than when spelling different words. The results suggest that children who have not yet learned to use writing to represent the sounds of speech show some knowledge that writing represents words and should thus vary to show differences between them. The results further suggest that in spelling, as in other domains, children have a tendency to repeat recent behaviors. PMID:25637713

  14. Uncertainty Monitoring by Young Children in a Computerized Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Beran


    Full Text Available Adult humans show sophisticated metacognitive abilities, including the ability to monitor uncertainty. Unfortunately, most measures of uncertainty monitoring are limited to use with adults due to their general complexity and dependence on explicit verbalization. However, recent research with nonhuman animals has successfully developed measures of uncertainty monitoring that are simple and do not require explicit verbalization. The purpose of this study was to investigate metacognition in young children using uncertainty monitoring tests developed for nonhumans. Children judged whether stimuli were more pink or blue—stimuli nearest the pink-blue midpoint were the most uncertain and the most difficult to classify. Children also had an option to acknowledge difficulty and gain the necessary information for correct classification. As predicted, children most often asked for help on the most difficult stimuli. This result confirms that some metacognitive abilities appear early in cognitive development. The tasks of animal metacognition research clearly have substantial utility for exploring the early developmental roots of human metacognition.

  15. Cognitive functioning in young children with type 1 diabetes. (United States)

    Cato, M Allison; Mauras, Nelly; Ambrosino, Jodie; Bondurant, Aiden; Conrad, Amy L; Kollman, Craig; Cheng, Peiyao; Beck, Roy W; Ruedy, Katrina J; Aye, Tandy; Reiss, Allan L; White, Neil H; Hershey, Tamara


    The aim of this study was to assess cognitive functioning in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine whether glycemic history influences cognitive function. Neuropsychological evaluation of 216 children (healthy controls, n = 72; T1D, n = 144) ages 4-10 years across five DirecNet sites. Cognitive domains included IQ, Executive Functions, Learning and Memory, and Processing Speed. Behavioral, mood, parental IQ data, and T1D glycemic history since diagnosis were collected. The cohorts did not differ in age, gender or parent IQ. Median T1D duration was 2.5 years and average onset age was 4 years. After covarying age, gender, and parental IQ, the IQ and the Executive Functions domain scores trended lower (both p = .02, not statistically significant adjusting for multiple comparisons) with T1D relative to controls. Children with T1D were rated by parents as having more depressive and somatic symptoms (p < .001). Learning and memory (p = .46) and processing speed (p = .25) were similar. Trends in the data supported that the degree of hyperglycemia was associated with Executive Functions, and to a lesser extent, Child IQ and Learning and Memory. Differences in cognition are subtle in young children with T1D within 2 years of onset. Longitudinal evaluations will help determine whether these findings change or become more pronounced with time.

  16. Early numerical foundations of young children's mathematical development. (United States)

    Chu, Felicia W; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C


    This study focused on the relative contributions of the acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) and knowledge of quantitative symbols to young children's early mathematical learning. At the beginning of preschool, 191 children (Mage=46 months) were administered tasks that assessed ANS acuity and explicit knowledge of the cardinal values represented by number words, and their mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of the school year. Children's executive functions, intelligence, and preliteracy skills and their parents' educational levels were also assessed and served as covariates. Both the ANS and cardinality tasks were significant predictors of end-of-year mathematics achievement with and without control of the covariates. As simultaneous predictors and with control of the covariates, cardinality remained significantly related to mathematics achievement, but ANS acuity did not. Mediation analyses revealed that the relation between ANS acuity and mathematics achievement was fully mediated by cardinality, suggesting that the ANS may facilitate children's explicit understanding of cardinal value and in this way may indirectly influence early mathematical learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis in young children - clinical and radiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penushliev, T.; Brankov, O.; Georgiev, Tz.; Stoilov, S.; Panov, M.; Totev, M.


    Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis is a bacterial infectious disease which mainly affects the paediatrics age group. The incidence seems to decline through the last decade. The authors analyzed the clinical, bacteriological and radiological features of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis in 49 young children. Their age ranged from 12 days to 2.9 years (19 new-born and 30 babies). The most affected locus was the femur (46.9 %), followed by the humerus (40.9 %) and tibia (6.2 %). The adjacent joint was involved in 38.8 %. Up to the third day after onset of symptoms were admitted 32 children (65.3 %). A bacteriological diagnosis has been achieved in only 19 cases (38.8 %) which underwent different surgical procedures. Staphylococcus aureus (9 children; 64.3 %) was the most common causative microbe. Radiological characteristic showed mainly widening of joints, destruction of cartilage, bone destruction and osteoporosis. The median duration of antibiotic therapy was 31 days. Nine children underwent needle aspiration while another 10 required locus incision or open surgery with debridement or sequestrectomy. Definitive clinical restoration was observed in 42 cases (85.7%). (authors)

  18. Attachment-based interventions for families with young children. (United States)

    Woodhouse, Susan S


    Given a large body of research indicating links between child attachment and later mental health outcomes, interventions that promote children's secure attachment to their caregivers have the potential to contribute to prevention of psychopathology and promotion of well-being. A number of attachment-based interventions have been developed to support parents, enhance caregiving quality, and promote children's attachment security with the aim of improving children's mental health. There is now a growing evidence base to support the efficacy of a number of these interventions. The present literature review and introduction to the special issue on attachment-based interventions for families with young children describes key aspects of attachment theory and research that form the theoretical and empirical background for attachment-based interventions, and introduces seven case studies illustrating five different attachment-based interventions. The case studies represent a variety of attachment-based models, including both group and individual treatments, and show applications across a range of caregiver contexts. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A systematic review: plyometric training programs for young children. (United States)

    Johnson, Barbara A; Salzberg, Charles L; Stevenson, David A


    The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of plyometric training for improving motor performance in young children; to determine if this type of training could be used to improve the strength, running speed, agility, and jumping ability of children with low motor competence; and to examine the extent and quality of the current research literature. Primary research articles were selected if they (a) described the outcomes of a plyometric exercise intervention; (b) included measures of strength, balance, running speed, jumping ability, or agility; (c) included prepubertal children 5-14 years of age; and (d) used a randomized control trial or quasiexperimental design. Seven articles met the inclusion criteria for the final review. The 7 studies were judged to be of low quality (values of 4-6). Plyometric training had a large effect on improving the ability to run and jump. Preliminary evidence suggests plyometric training also had a large effect on increasing kicking distance, balance, and agility. The current evidence suggests that a twice a week program for 8-10 weeks beginning at 50-60 jumps a session and increasing exercise load weekly results in the largest changes in running and jumping performance. An alternative program for children who do not have the capability or tolerance for a twice a week program would be a low-intensity program for a longer duration. The research suggests that plyometric training is safe for children when parents provide consent, children agree to participate, and safety guidelines are built into the intervention.

  20. Inter-hospital transport of critically ill children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aherne, E


    Most Irish paediatric tertiary care services are centralised in Dublin. Many children are transferred there each year from regional paediatric units around the country. We aimed to quantify and describe all children transferred from one regional tertiary hospital over a two year period. Seventy three out of 75 identified transfers were examined. Sixty nine transfers (94.5%) were sent to the major tertiary centre. Fifteen (20.5%) required intensive care services for transfer. Seventeen seriously ill neonates required transfer, however only 4 (23.5%) of those met both the criteria for and the availability of the National Neonatal Transfer Team (NNTT). Significant events during transfer were only documented in 3 cases. Most transfers arrived in Dublin outside normal working hours. Standards of documentation were found to be very inconsistent. In conclusion, a national transport service for all critically ill children is urgently needed in Ireland.

  1. Therapeutic Hypothermia after In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Children. (United States)

    Moler, Frank W; Silverstein, Faye S; Holubkov, Richard; Slomine, Beth S; Christensen, James R; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Meert, Kathleen L; Browning, Brittan; Pemberton, Victoria L; Page, Kent; Gildea, Marianne R; Scholefield, Barnaby R; Shankaran, Seetha; Hutchison, Jamie S; Berger, John T; Ofori-Amanfo, George; Newth, Christopher J L; Topjian, Alexis; Bennett, Kimberly S; Koch, Joshua D; Pham, Nga; Chanani, Nikhil K; Pineda, Jose A; Harrison, Rick; Dalton, Heidi J; Alten, Jeffrey; Schleien, Charles L; Goodman, Denise M; Zimmerman, Jerry J; Bhalala, Utpal S; Schwarz, Adam J; Porter, Melissa B; Shah, Samir; Fink, Ericka L; McQuillen, Patrick; Wu, Theodore; Skellett, Sophie; Thomas, Neal J; Nowak, Jeffrey E; Baines, Paul B; Pappachan, John; Mathur, Mudit; Lloyd, Eric; van der Jagt, Elise W; Dobyns, Emily L; Meyer, Michael T; Sanders, Ronald C; Clark, Amy E; Dean, J Michael


    Targeted temperature management is recommended for comatose adults and children after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; however, data on temperature management after in-hospital cardiac arrest are limited. In a trial conducted at 37 children's hospitals, we compared two temperature interventions in children who had had in-hospital cardiac arrest. Within 6 hours after the return of circulation, comatose children older than 48 hours and younger than 18 years of age were randomly assigned to therapeutic hypothermia (target temperature, 33.0°C) or therapeutic normothermia (target temperature, 36.8°C). The primary efficacy outcome, survival at 12 months after cardiac arrest with a score of 70 or higher on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, second edition (VABS-II, on which scores range from 20 to 160, with higher scores indicating better function), was evaluated among patients who had had a VABS-II score of at least 70 before the cardiac arrest. The trial was terminated because of futility after 329 patients had undergone randomization. Among the 257 patients who had a VABS-II score of at least 70 before cardiac arrest and who could be evaluated, the rate of the primary efficacy outcome did not differ significantly between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (36% [48 of 133 patients] and 39% [48 of 124 patients], respectively; relative risk, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67 to 1.27; P=0.63). Among 317 patients who could be evaluated for change in neurobehavioral function, the change in VABS-II score from baseline to 12 months did not differ significantly between the groups (P=0.70). Among 327 patients who could be evaluated for 1-year survival, the rate of 1-year survival did not differ significantly between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (49% [81 of 166 patients] and 46% [74 of 161 patients], respectively; relative risk, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.34; P=0.56). The incidences of blood-product use, infection, and serious adverse

  2. Hospitalization Rate and Population-Based Incidence of Hospitalization for Community-Acquired Pneumonia Among Children in Suzhou, China. (United States)

    Shan, Wei; Shi, Ting; Zhang, Xiyan; Xue, Jian; Wang, Yin; Yu, Jia; Huang, Yukai; Lin, Sheng; Zhao, Genming; Tian, Jianmei; Zhang, Tao


    Data on hospitalization burden of CAP in children is very limited in China. This study aimed to estimate the hospitalization rate and population-based incidence of hospitalization of CAP for children <15 years of age in Suzhou, China. This was a retrospective study of children hospitalized in Soochow University Affiliated Children's Hospital (SCH) from January 2010 to December 2014. Children who were residents of downtown Suzhou, 29 days to <15 years of age, with discharge diagnosis codes (ICD-10) including J09 to J18 and J20 to J22 were included. All-cause clinical community-acquired pneumonia (CCAP) and radiographically confirmed pneumonia (RCAP) were identified based on individual medical chart review. The hospitalization rate (HR) and population-based cumulative incidence of hospitalization (HI) were calculated. Among 184,734 children <15 years old admitted to SCH during the study period, 31,302 children were identified as having CCAP, and 24,218 (77.4%) children confirmed as having RCAP. CCAP hospitalization occurred year round and peaked during winter and early spring. The overall HRs for CCAP and RCAP were 189.0 (95%CI, 187.1-190.9) and 146.2 (95%CI, 144-148) per 1,000 hospitalizations respectively, and the HIs per 100,000 children annually were CCAP, 3,235.8 (95%CI, 3207.3-3264.2) and RCAP, 2,503.5 (95%CI, 2,478.3-2,528.6). For children <5 years old, the HR for CCAP was 248.4 (95%CI, 245.9-250.9) and RCAP 194.0 (95%CI, 191.4-196.3) per 1,000 hospitalizations; the HI for CCAP was 6,956.2 (95%CI: 6,892.8-7,019.6) and 5,431.9 (95%CI: 5,375.4-5,488.4) per 100,000 children for RCAP. The highest HR and HI were observed in children 29 days to <6 months old: HR for CCAP was 407.4 (95%CI: 400.9-413.9) per 1,000 hospitalizations and HI for CCAP was 11,203.7 (95%CI: 11,026.8-11,380.6) per 100,000 children annually. There is a considerable burden of CAP among children <15 years of age in Suzhou, particularly among children 29 days to <6 months of age and during winter

  3. Prevention of alcohol misuse among children, youths and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczak, Dieter


    Full Text Available Background: Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. Objectives: This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. Methods: A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool’sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. Results: 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA. Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Discussion: Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters. The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. Conclusion: The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour as well as the definition and empirical validation

  4. Prevention of alcohol misuse among children, youths and young adults. (United States)

    Korczak, Dieter; Steinhauser, Gerlinde; Dietl, Markus


    Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool'sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA). Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters). The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour) as well as the definition and empirical validation of risky alcohol consumption. The efficacy of prevention activities should be proven

  5. Key health outcomes for children and young people with neurodisability: qualitative research with young people and parents (United States)

    Allard, Amanda; Fellowes, Andrew; Shilling, Valerie; Janssens, Astrid; Beresford, Bryony; Morris, Christopher


    Objectives To identify key health outcomes, beyond morbidity and mortality, regarded as important in children and young people with neurodisability, and their parents. Design Qualitative research incorporating a thematic analysis of the data supported by the Framework Approach; the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provided a theoretical foundation. Setting The study was conducted in community settings. Participants Participants were 54 children and young people with neurodisability: 50 participated in focus groups, and 4 in interviews; 53 parents participated: 47 in focus groups and 6 in interviews. Children/young people and parents were recruited through different networks, and were not related. Results Children/young people and parents viewed health outcomes as inter-related. Achievement in some outcomes appeared valued to the extent that it enabled or supported more valued domains of health. Health outcomes prioritised by both young people and parents were: communication, mobility, pain, self-care, temperament, interpersonal relationships and interactions, community and social life, emotional well-being and gaining independence/future aspirations. Parents also highlighted their child's sleep, behaviour and/or safety. Conclusions Those responsible for health services for children/young people with neurodisability should take account of the aspects of health identified by families. The aspects of health identified in this study provide a basis for selecting appropriate health indicators and outcome measures. PMID:24747792

  6. Neurocognitive Dysfunction in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults With CKD. (United States)

    Ruebner, Rebecca L; Laney, Nina; Kim, Ji Young; Hartung, Erum A; Hooper, Stephen R; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Furth, Susan L


    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a known complication in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, less is known about putative mechanisms or modifiable risk factors. The objective of this study was to characterize and determine risk factors for cognitive dysfunction in children, adolescents, and young adults with CKD compared with controls. Cross-sectional study. The Neurocognitive Assessment and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis of Children and Young Adults With Chronic Kidney Disease (NiCK) Study included 90 individuals aged 8 to 25 years with CKD compared with 70 controls. CKD versus control, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), ambulatory blood pressure. Performance on neurocognitive assessment with relevant tests grouped into 11 domains defined a priori by expert opinion. Results of tests were converted to age-normalized z scores. Each neurocognitive domain was analyzed through linear regression, adjusting for eGFR and demographic and clinical variables. For domains defined by multiple tests, the median z score of tests in that domain was used. We found significantly poorer performance in multiple areas of neurocognitive function among individuals with CKD compared with controls. Particular deficits were seen in domains related to attention, memory, and inhibitory control. Adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, we found lower performance in multiple domains with decreasing eGFRs (attention: β=0.053, P=0.02; visual spatial: β=0.062, P=0.02; and visual working memory: β=0.069, P=0.04). Increased diastolic load and decreased diastolic nocturnal dipping on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were independently associated with impairments in neurocognitive performance. Unable to assess changes in neurocognitive function over time, and neurocognitive tests were grouped into predetermined neurocognitive domains. Lower eGFR in children, adolescents, and young adults is associated with poorer neurocognitive performance, particularly in

  7. Relationships between Adaptive Behaviours, Personal Factors, and Participation of Young Children. (United States)

    Killeen, Hazel; Shiel, Agnes; Law, Mary; O'Donovan, Donough J; Segurado, Ricardo; Anaby, Dana


    To examine the extent to which personal factors (age, socioeconomic grouping, and preterm birth) and adaptive behaviour explain the participation patterns of young children. 65 Children 2-5 years old with and without a history of preterm birth and no physical or intellectual disability were selected by convenience sampling from Galway University Hospital, Ireland. Interviews with parents were conducted using the Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II) and the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation (APCP). Linear regression models were used to identify associations between the ABAS-II scores, personal factors, and APCP scores for intensity and diversity of participation. Adaptive behaviour explained 21% of variance in intensity of play, 18% in intensity of Skill Development, 7% in intensity of Active Physical Recreation, and 6% in intensity of Social Activities controlling for age, preterm birth, and socioeconomic grouping. Age explained between 1% and 11% of variance in intensity of participation scores. Adapted behaviour (13%), Age (17%), and socioeconomic grouping (5%) explained a significant percentage of variance in diversity of participation controlling for the other variables.  Adaptive behaviour had a unique contribution to children's intensity and diversity of participation, suggesting its importance.

  8. The relation between maternal work hours and cognitive outcomes of young school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Künn-Nelen, A.C.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.


    This paper is the first that analyzes the relation between maternal work hours and the cognitive outcomes of young school-going children. When children attend school, the potential time working mothers miss out with their children, is smaller than when children do not yet attend school. At the same

  9. Parental Perceptions of the Role of Media and Technology in Their Young Children's Lives (United States)

    Vittrup, Brigitte; Snider, Sharla; Rose, Katherine K; Rippy, Jacqueline


    The purpose of this study was to survey parental media attitudes and perceptions of their children's knowledge and engagement with various media technologies, as well as to explore the children's actual knowledge and experience with these tools. A total of 101 US parents of young children (ages 2-7 years) and 39 children (ages 3-6 years)…

  10. A Pedagogy of Friendship: Young Children's Friendships and How Schools Can Support Them (United States)

    Carter, Caron; Nutbrown, Cathy


    Children's friendships are often neglected by teachers and researchers. This phenomenological study conducted with seven children aged five and six years explores young children's perceptions of their everyday friendship experiences. This multi-method study used role play interviews, drawings and persona doll scenarios to consider children's…

  11. Developmental Benefits of Pets for Young Children. Final Report for the Delta Society. (United States)

    Poresky, Robert H.; And Others

    An exploratory study examined the premise that pets provide developmental benefits for young children. Four hypotheses were derived from prior research: (1) children who have a bond with a dog or cat show more maturity in their cognitive, moral, and emotional development than children who do not have such pets; (2) children who have a more…

  12. Young Children's Psychological Selves: Convergence with Maternal Reports of Child Personality (United States)

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Agathen, Jean M.; Ho, Moon-Ho


    The present research examined five-year-old children's psychological self-concepts. Non-linear factor analysis was used to model the latent structure of the children's self-view questionnaire (CSVQ; Eder, 1990), a measure of children's self-concepts. The coherence and reliability of the emerging factor structure indicated that young children are…

  13. IVC filter placements in children: nationwide comparison of practice patterns at adult and children's hospitals using the Kids' Inpatient Database. (United States)

    Wadhwa, Vibhor; Trivedi, Premal S; Ali, Sumera; Ryu, Robert K; Pezeshkmehr, Amir


    Inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement in children has been described in literature, but there is variability with regard to their indications. No nationally representative study has been done to compare practice patterns of filter placements at adult and children's hospitals. To perform a nationally representative comparison of IVC filter placement practices in children at adult and children's hospitals. The 2012 Kids' Inpatient Database was searched for IVC filter placements in children filter insertion (38.7), IVC filter placements were identified. A small number of children with congenital cardiovascular anomalies codes were excluded to improve specificity of the code used to identify filter placement. Filter placements were further classified by patient demographics, hospital type (children's and adult), United States geographic region, urban/rural location, and teaching status. Statistical significance of differences between children's or adult hospitals was determined using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. A total of 618 IVC filter placements were identified in children filters were placed in the setting of venous thromboembolism in children's hospitals (40/44, 90%) compared to adult hospitals (246/573, 43%) (Pfilters comprised 327/573 (57%) at adult hospitals, with trauma being the most common indication (301/327, 92%). The mean length of stay for patients receiving filters was 24.5 days in children's hospitals and 18.4 days in adult hospitals. The majority of IVC filters in children are placed in adult hospital settings. Children's hospitals are more likely to place therapeutic filters for venous thromboembolism, compared to adult hospitals where the prophylactic setting of trauma predominates.

  14. Role of young child formulae and supplements to ensure nutritional adequacy in U.K. young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieux, Florent; Brouzes, Chloé M C; Maillot, Matthieu


    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) states that young child formulae (YCFs) “cannot be considered as a necessity to satisfy the nutritional requirements” of children aged 12–36 months. This study quantifies the dietary changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy in U.K. young children who...... consume YCFs and/or supplements and in those who do not. Dietary data from 1147 young children (aged 12–18 months) were used to identify, using linear programming models, the minimum changes needed to ensure nutritional adequacy: (i) by changing the quantities of foods initially consumed by each child....../day, respectively). Increasing YCF and supplement consumption was the shortest way to cover the EFSA nutrient requirements of U.K. children....

  15. How Children and Young People Win Friends and Influence People:Children and Young People’s Association, their opportunities, strategies and obstacles


    Cleaver, Frances; Cockburn, T


    This research was commissioned by the Carnegie UK Trust to inform the Inquiry into the Future of Civil Society in the UK and Ireland, which was established to strenghen civil society…This report connects with the work that the Inquiry has conducted to explore the relationships between children, young people and civil society. The report is based on extensive literature review and on primary research amongst three groups of young people in the UK. The report explores how young people associate...

  16. Parental motivation to change body weight in young overweight children. (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M; Dawson, Anna M; Haszard, Jillian J; Brown, Deirdre A


    To determine what factors are associated with parental motivation to change body weight in overweight children. Cross-sectional study. Dunedin, New Zealand. Two hundred and seventy-one children aged 4-8 years, recruited in primary and secondary care, were identified as overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) after screening. Parents completed questionnaires on demographics; motivation to improve diet, physical activity and weight; perception and concern about weight; parenting; and social desirability, prior to being informed that their child was overweight. Additional measures of physical activity (accelerometry), dietary intake and child behaviour (questionnaire) were obtained after feedback. Although all children were overweight, only 42% of parents perceived their child to be so, with 36% indicating any concern. Very few parents (n 25, 8%) were actively trying to change the child's weight. Greater motivation to change weight was observed for girls compared with boys (P = 0.001), despite no sex difference in BMI Z-score (P = 0.374). Motivation was not associated with most demographic variables, social desirability, dietary intake, parenting or child behaviour. Increased motivation to change the child's weight was observed for heavier children (P < 0.001), those who were less physically active (P = 0.002) and more sedentary (P < 0.001), and in parents who were more concerned about their child's weight (P < 0.001) or who used greater food restriction (P < 0.001). Low levels of parental motivation to change overweight in young children highlight the urgent need to determine how best to improve motivation to initiate change.

  17. Intestinal parasites among young children in the interior of Guyana. (United States)

    Lindo, J F; Validum, L; Ager, A L; Campa, A; Cuadrado, R R; Cummings, R; Palmer, C J


    Intestinal parasites contribute greatly to morbidity in developing countries. While there have been several studies of the problem in the Caribbean, including the implementation of control programmes, this has not been done for Guyana. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among young children in a town located in the interior of Guyana. Eighty-five children under the age of 12 years were studied prospectively for intestinal parasites in Mahdia, Guyana. Stool samples were transported in formalin to the Department of Microbiology, The University of the West Indies, Jamaica, for analysis using the formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Data on age and gender of the children were recorded on field data sheets. At least one intestinal parasite was detected in 43.5% (37/85) of the children studied and multiple parasitic infections were recorded in 21.2% (18/85). The most common intestinal helminth parasite was hookworm (28.2%; 24/85), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (18.8%; 16/85) and then Trichuris trichuria (14.1%; 12/85). Among the protozoan infections Giardia lamblia was detected in 10.5% (9/85) of the study population while Entamoeba histolytica appeared rarely. All stool samples were negative for Cryptosporidium and other intestinal Coccidia. There was no predilection for gender with any of the parasites. The pattern of distribution of worms in this area of Guyana was unlike that seen in other studies. Hookworm infection was the most common among the children and a large proportion had multiple infections. The study established the occurrence and prevalence of a number of intestinal parasites in the population of Guyana. This sets the stage for the design and implementation of more detailed epidemiological studies.

  18. Maternal and paternal pragmatic speech directed to young children with Down syndrome and typical development


    de Falco, Simona; Venuti, Paola; Esposito, Gianluca; Bornstein, Marc H.


    The aim of this study was to compare functional features of maternal and paternal speech directed to children with Down syndrome and developmental age-matched typically developing children. Altogether 88 parents (44 mothers and 44 fathers) and their 44 young children (22 children with Down syndrome and 22 typically developing children) participated. Parents’ speech directed to children was obtained through observation of naturalistic parent–child dyadic interactions. Verbatim transcripts of m...

  19. Young Adult Children of Divorced Parents: Depression and the Perception of Loss. (United States)

    Drill, Rebecca L.


    Examined long-term effects of divorce in young adult children by comparing young adults of divorce (N=104) and those of intact families (N=172). When non-custodial parent was perceived as "lost" the young adult was more depressed. After-divorce perception of non-custodial father changed negatively, while perception of mother remained…

  20. Systematic literature review of hospital medication administration errors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameer A


    Full Text Available Ahmed Ameer,1 Soraya Dhillon,1 Mark J Peters,2 Maisoon Ghaleb11Department of Pharmacy, School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK; 2Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK Objective: Medication administration is the last step in the medication process. It can act as a safety net to prevent unintended harm to patients if detected. However, medication administration errors (MAEs during this process have been documented and thought to be preventable. In pediatric medicine, doses are usually administered based on the child's weight or body surface area. This in turn increases the risk of drug miscalculations and therefore MAEs. The aim of this review is to report MAEs occurring in pediatric inpatients. Methods: Twelve bibliographic databases were searched for studies published between January 2000 and February 2015 using “medication administration errors”, “hospital”, and “children” related terminologies. Handsearching of relevant publications was also carried out. A second reviewer screened articles for eligibility and quality in accordance with the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Key findings: A total of 44 studies were systematically reviewed. MAEs were generally defined as a deviation of dose given from that prescribed; this included omitted doses and administration at the wrong time. Hospital MAEs in children accounted for a mean of 50% of all reported medication error reports (n=12,588. It was also identified in a mean of 29% of doses observed (n=8,894. The most prevalent type of MAEs related to preparation, infusion rate, dose, and time. This review has identified five types of interventions to reduce hospital MAEs in children: barcode medicine administration, electronic prescribing, education, use of smart pumps, and standard concentration. Conclusion: This review has identified a wide variation in the prevalence of hospital MAEs in children. This is attributed to

  1. Learning Vocabulary through E-Book Reading of Young Children with Various Reading Abilities (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hee


    Previous studies revealed that young children learn novel word meanings by simply reading and listening to a printed book. In today's classroom, many children's e-books provide audio narration support so young readers can simply listen to the e-books. The focus of the present study is to examine the effect of e-book reading with audio narration…

  2. Political Socialization of Young Children in Intractable Conflicts: Conception and Evidence (United States)

    Bar-Tal, Daniel; Diamond, Aurel Harrison; Nasie, Meytal


    This article examines the political socialization of young children who live under conditions of intractable conflict. We present four premises: First, we argue that, within the context of intractable conflict, political socialization begins earlier and faster than previously suspected, and is evident among young children. Second, we propose that…

  3. Adaptation of glucose metabolism to fasting in young children with infectious diseases: a perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlmans, Wilco C. W. R.; van Kempen, Anne A. M. W.; Serlie, Mireille J.; Kager, Piet A.; Sauerwein, Hans P.


    Hypoglycemia is a frequently encountered complication in young children with infectious diseases and may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Mortality rate in young children under 5 years of age is increased four- to six-fold when severe infectious disease is complicated by

  4. "I Already Know What I Learned": Young Children's Perspectives on Learning through Play (United States)

    Colliver, Yeshe; Fleer, Marilyn


    Around the world, if and how young children learn through their play in early childhood education and care contexts has been the subject of much debate. Yet rarely has the debate heard from the young children themselves, often due to the pervasive belief that they do not understand learning. To redress this, a qualitative case study was conducted…

  5. Strategies for Promoting Social Relationships among Young Children with and without Disabilities. Final Report. (United States)

    Favazza, Paddy C.

    This report details the activities and accomplishments of a 4-year federally supported project concerned with: (1) validating a new strategy designed to promote the social relationships among young children with and without disabilities; (2) creating a training manual for use by teachers to promote acceptance of young children with disabilities;…

  6. Theory of Mind: Understanding Young Children's Pretence and Mental States (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.


    For more than two decades, research has focused on the understanding of pretence as an important means for young children to conceptualise the mind. Many use the phrase "mental representation" to a mental model of some entity or concept, which describes what is inside the minds of young children in relation to a real-world situation or…

  7. Low-Income Mothers' Food Practices with Young Children: A Qualitative Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Harden, Jeni; Dickson, Adele


    Objective: Young children living in socioeconomically deprived areas of Scotland have an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese. To enhance understanding of the wider contexts within which family food practices are developed, this study examined the experiences of low-income mothers with young children. Design: Qualitative longitudinal…

  8. Mothers' Temperament and Personality: Their Relationship to Parenting Behaviors, Locus of Control, and Young Children's Functioning. (United States)

    Puff, Jayme; Renk, Kimberly


    There appears to be a lack of construct clarity and a dearth of studies that have examined both mothers' temperament and personality in conjunction with parenting behaviors when predicting young children's functioning. As a result, this study examined these constructs jointly so that a further understanding of how mothers' temperament and personality may work together to predict young children's functioning could be gained. As part of this study, 214 diverse mothers with young children who ranged in age from 2- to 6-years rated their own temperament and personality, their parenting characteristics, and their young children's functioning (i.e., temperament and emotional and behavioral functioning). Based on the findings of hierarchical regression analyses completed in this study, both mothers' temperament and personality may be important individual predictors of young children's temperament but may be important joint predictors, along with parenting behaviors, of young children's behavior problems. Consequently, future research should examine the role that mothers' temperament and personality characteristics may play in conjunction with their parenting behaviors when trying to understand young children's functioning. These findings will be particularly helpful for professionals providing parenting interventions to families with young children who have difficult temperament styles and/or emotional and behavioral problems.

  9. Social Class and Japanese Mothers' Support of Young Children's Education: A Qualitative Study (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yoko


    The impact of social class backgrounds on young children's educational experiences has attracted increasing attention in early childhood research. However, few longitudinal studies related to social class and parental involvement in young children's education are available, especially in East Asian contexts. In this longitudinal qualitative study,…

  10. Fear of Hypoglycemia in Parents of Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus


    Patton, Susana R.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Henry, Racquel; Powers, Scott W.


    The current study examined fear of hypoglycemia in 81 mothers and 64 fathers of young children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) using the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey-Parents of Young Children (HFS-P-YC possible range=26–130).

  11. Investing in Young Children: A Fact Sheet on Early Care and Education Participation, Access, and Quality (United States)

    Schmit, Stephanie; Matthews, Hannah; Smith, Sheila; Robbins, Taylor


    Across the U.S., large numbers of young children are affected by one or more risk factors that have been linked to academic failure and poor health. High quality early care and education can play a critical role in promoting young children's early learning and success in life, while also supporting families' economic security. Young…

  12. Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children. (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.


    This bulletin issue contains five papers on the theme of adults with mental illness who are parents of very young children. "Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children" (John N. Constantino) offers the experience of a trainee in a combined residency in pediatrics and psychiatry, focusing on…

  13. Self-Recognition in Young Children Using Delayed versus Live Feedback: Evidence of a Developmental Asynchrony. (United States)

    Povinelli, Daniel J.; And Others


    Investigated the ability of young children to recognize themselves in delayed videotapes and recent photographs. Results suggested a significant developmental delay in young children's success on mark tests of self-recognition using delayed feedback as compared to live feedback, which may have important implications for characterizing the…

  14. Young Children Follow Pointing over Words in Interpreting Acts of Reference (United States)

    Grassmann, Susanne; Tomasello, Michael


    Adults refer young children's attention to things in two basic ways: through the use of pointing (and other deictic gestures) and words (and other linguistic conventions). In the current studies, we referred young children (2- and 4-year-olds) to things in conflicting ways, that is, by pointing to one object while indicating linguistically (in…

  15. Abnormalities on the Neurological Examination and EEG in Young Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (United States)

    Akshoomoff, Natacha; Farid, Nikdokht; Courchesne, Eric; Haas, Richard


    This study examined the nature and frequency of neurological and EEG abnormalities in 60 young children (ages 2-6 years) with pervasive developmental disorders. A number of standard neurological functions could not be adequately assessed due to the young age of the children and/or limited comprehension and cooperation. The most common neurological…

  16. Aiming and clicking in young children's use of the computer mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, A.; Reitsma, P.


    The present study investigated the abilities of young children to aim and click with a computer mouse. Young children have not yet fully developed their motor skills and they are therefore more likely than adults to click next to targets on the computer screen. Because in educational software

  17. Parenting Young Children (PARYC): Validation of a Self-Report Parenting Measure (United States)

    McEachern, Amber D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Weaver, Chelsea M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Gardner, Frances


    The measurement of parenting behaviors is important to the field of psychology and the goal of remediating problematic parenting as a means of reducing child problem behaviors. The Parenting Young Children (PARYC) is a self-report measure designed to address parenting behaviors relevant for the caregivers of young children, and was assessed in…

  18. Bringing ABA into Early Childhood Routines to Meet the Needs of Young Children with ASD (United States)

    Leach, Debra


    It is well documented that applied behavior analysis (ABA) approaches to intervention for young children with ASD have a strong evidence-base. Although federal special education law mandates that early intervention services and supports be implemented within the natural environment to the maximum extent appropriate, many young children with ASD…

  19. Sweet and sour preferences in young children and adults: role of repeated exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.; Graaf, de C.


    The authors investigated the influence of repeated exposure to orangeades with added sucrose and different concentrations of citric acid, on the taste preferences of 6- to-11-year-old children and young adults. During an intervention study of 8 days, 59 children (9.2±0.9 years) and 46 young adults

  20. Ethnic Prejudice in Young Children in Indonesia: Intervention Attempts Using Multicultural Friendship Stories (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Tam, Michelle; Aboud, Frances


    Ethnic prejudice, even among very young children, is a universal occurrence. Yet, little research has been conducted on this issue outside of Westernized contexts. The current study evaluated a storybook intervention in Indonesia, a country of historically high racial tensions, designed to reduce young children's ethnic bias regarding out-groups…

  1. [Ocular traumatism in children at Laquintinie Hospital, Douala (Cameroon)]. (United States)

    Bella-Hiag, A L; Mvogo, C E


    Pediatric ophthalmology is poorly developed in Cameroon. However, efforts are being made to collect data essential for the development of national strategies to combat blindness. We relate our experience, within this framework, at a large public hospital in Cameroon. We carried out a retrospective study covering the period from June 1993 to May 1998, studying the medical files of children under the age of 15 years with ocular traumatism. Data were collected from 144 files. The frequency of ocular/orbital injury was 7.8% and was the third most common condition, after ametropia and kerato-conjunctivitis, in this population. The mean age of the children was 7 years and 3 months and more boys (64%) than girls were affected. Ocular lesions were due to contusion in 83.3% of cases. The principal causes of the trauma were children's games (40.2%), and punishment by parents or teachers (23.7%). The ocular lesions were similar to those described in previous studies. Infection was rare, because the interval from trauma to consultation was very short. The functional prognosis was severe, with 24.3% of patients having final vision less than 1/10. We recommend that children should be informed about the dangers of violent games and that parents and teachers should be made aware of the dangers associated with brutality towards children. Finally, ophthalmologists should ensure that the injured eye is treated rapidly and carefully so as to minimize functional sequelae.

  2. Young children show representational flexibility when interpreting drawings. (United States)

    Allen, Melissa L; Nurmsoo, Erika; Freeman, Norman


    Drawings can be ambiguous and represent more than one entity. In three experiments, we examine whether young children show representational flexibility by allowing one picture to be called by a second name. We also evaluate the hypothesis that children who are representationally flexible see the artist's intention as binding, rather than changeable. In Experiment 1, an artist declared what she intended to draw (e.g. a balloon) but then produced an ambiguous drawing. Children were asked whether the drawings could be interpreted differently (e.g. 'could this be a lollipop?') in the presence of a perceptually similar or dissimilar distractor (e.g., lollipop or snake). Six-year-olds accepted two labels for drawings in both conditions, but four-year-olds only did so in the dissimilar condition. Experiment 2 probed each possible interpretation more deeply by asking property questions (e.g., 'does it float?, does it taste good?'). Preschoolers who understood that the ambiguous drawing could be given two interpretations nevertheless mostly endorsed only properties associated with the prior intent. Experiment 3 provided converging evidence that 4-year-olds were representationally flexible using a paradigm that did not rely upon modal questioning. Taken together, our results indicate that even 4-year-olds understand that pictures may denote more than one referent, they still think of the symbol as consistent with the artist's original intention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Phonetic imitation by young children and its developmental changes. (United States)

    Nielsen, Kuniko


    In the current study, the author investigated the developmental course of phonetic imitation in childhood, and further evaluated existing accounts of phonetic imitation. Sixteen preschoolers, 15 third graders, and 18 college students participated in the current study. An experiment with a modified imitation paradigm with a picture-naming task was conducted, in which participants' voice-onset time (VOT) was compared before and after they were exposed to target speech with artificially increased VOT. Extended VOT in the target speech was imitated by preschoolers and 3rd graders as well as adults, confirming previous findings in phonetic imitation. Furthermore, an age effect of phonetic imitation was observed; namely, children showed greater imitation than adults, whereas the degree of imitation was comparable between preschoolers and 3rd graders. No significant effect of gender or word specificity was observed. Young children imitated fine phonetic details of the target speech, and greater degree of phonetic imitation was observed in children compared to adults. These findings suggest that the degree of phonetic imitation negatively correlates with phonological development.

  4. Relationship between antigravity control and postural control in young children. (United States)

    Sellers, J S


    The purposes of this study were 1) to determine the relationship between antigravity control (supine flexion and prone extension) and postural control (static and dynamic balance), 2) to determine the quality of antigravity and postural control, and 3) to determine whether sex and ethnic group differences correlate with differences in antigravity control and postural control in young children. I tested 107 black, Hispanic, and Caucasian children in a Head Start program, with a mean age of 61 months. The study results showed significant relationships between antigravity control and postural control. Subjects' supine flexion performance was significantly related to the quantity and quality of their static and dynamic balance performance, whereas prone extension performance was related only to the quality of dynamic balance performance. Quality scale measurements (r = .90) indicated that the children in this study had not yet developed full antigravity or postural control. The study results revealed differences between sexes in the quality of static balance and prone extension performance and ethnic differences in static balance, dynamic balance, and prone extension performance.

  5. Initiating Young Children into Basic Astronomical Concepts and Phenomena (United States)

    Kallery, M.


    In the present study we developed and implemented three units of activities aiming at acquainting very young children with basic astronomical concepts and phenomena such as the sphericity of the earth, the earth’s movements and the day/night cycle. The activities were developed by a group composed of a researcher/facilitator and six early-years teachers. In the activities children were presented with appropriate for their age scientific information along with conceptual tools such as a globe and an instructional video. Action research processes were used to optimize classroom practices and to gather useful information for the final shaping of the activities and the instruction materials. In these activities the adopted approach to learning can be characterized as socially constructed. The results indicated awareness of concepts and phenomena that the activities dealt with in high percentages of children, storage of the new knowledge in the long term memory and easy retrieval of it, and children’s enthusiasm for the subject.

  6. Age-related functional brain changes in young children. (United States)

    Long, Xiangyu; Benischek, Alina; Dewey, Deborah; Lebel, Catherine


    Brain function and structure change significantly during the toddler and preschool years. However, most studies focus on older or younger children, so the specific nature of these changes is unclear. In the present study, we analyzed 77 functional magnetic resonance imaging datasets from 44 children aged 2-6 years. We extracted measures of both local (amplitude of low frequency fluctuation and regional homogeneity) and global (eigenvector centrality mapping) activity and connectivity, and examined their relationships with age using robust linear correlation analysis and strict control for head motion. Brain areas within the default mode network and the frontoparietal network, such as the middle frontal gyrus, the inferior parietal lobule and the posterior cingulate cortex, showed increases in local and global functional features with age. Several brain areas such as the superior parietal lobule and superior temporal gyrus presented opposite development trajectories of local and global functional features, suggesting a shifting connectivity framework in early childhood. This development of functional connectivity in early childhood likely underlies major advances in cognitive abilities, including language and development of theory of mind. These findings provide important insight into the development patterns of brain function during the preschool years, and lay the foundation for future studies of altered brain development in young children with brain disorders or injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Investigation on nutritional intakes for hospitalized children with blood disease]. (United States)

    Xu, Zi-Liang; Wu, Yun-Tang; Sun, Zhong; Zhu, Xiao-Fan; Li, Rui; Li, Hong-Qiang; Qi, Yu-Mei; Song, Ji-Chang; Han, Zhong-Chao


    To investigate the diet and nutritional status of hospitalized children with blood disease in order to provide nutritional guidelines. The patients' daily dietary intakes, including breakfast, lunch, dinner and additional meals, were recorded in detail for seven consecutive days. The intake amount of various nutrients was calculated using the dietary database. The majority of children with blood disease showed inadequate intakes of calories [mean 1825.81 kCal/d, 73.62% of the recommended intake (RNI)] and protein (mean 67.68 g/d, 81.34% of RNI). Intakes of vitamin E and riboflavin were adequate, but intakes of vitamin A, thiamine and vitamin C (66.67%, 77.78% and 69.89% of RNI, respectively) were inadequate. Iron and selenium intakes were adequate, but calcium and zinc intakes (41.11% and 56.21% of RNI, respectively) were grossly inadequate. Hospitalized children with blood disease had decreased dietary intakes of calories, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, calcium and zinc. The dietary pattern and nutritional intake need to be improved.

  8. Effects of analog and digital filtering on auditory middle latency responses in adults and young children. (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Hirabayashi, M; Kobayashi, K


    Effects of analog high pass (HP) filtering were compared with those of zero phase-shift digital filtering on the auditory middle latency responses (MLR) from nine adults and 16 young children with normal hearing. Analog HP filtering exerted several prominent effects on the MLR waveforms in both adults and young children, such as suppression of Po (ABR), enhancement of Nb, enhancement or emergence of Pb, and latency decrements for Pa and the later components. Analog HP filtering at 20 Hz produced more pronounced waveform distortions in the responses from young children than from adults. Much greater latency decrements for Pa and Nb were observed for young children than for adults in the analog HP-filtered responses at 20 Hz. A large positive peak (Pb) emerged at about 65 ms after the stimulus onset. From these results, the use of digital HP filtering at 20 Hz is strongly recommended for obtaining unbiased and stable MLR in young children.

  9. Development of the first permanent mandibular molar in young children with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCCLP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Nuno Vibe; Darvann, Tron A; Kreiborg, Sven

    Development of the first permanent mandibular molar in young children with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCCLP)......Development of the first permanent mandibular molar in young children with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCCLP)...

  10. Urinary tract infection in Children Hospitalized at Constanta Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pînzaru Anca Daniela


    Full Text Available Introduction: In pediatrics, the urinary tract infection is one of the most frequent bacterial infection, representing an important health problem due to its high incidence, wide etiology, asymptomatic evolution, and multiple and sever complications, relapses and sequelae.” Material and Method: We evaluated 45 children, aged between 6 months and 16 years, diagnosed and treated for urinary tract infection at the Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital, of Constanta County, in a period of 3 years and 6 months. Results: During studied period, between January 2014 and June 2017 from a total of 9343 patients admitted to the Constanta Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital, we selected 45 children (4.81‰ diagnosed with urinary tract infection. The average age of children with urinary tract infections was 5 years and 5 months. The gender distribution revealed a 2:1 balance in girl’s favor. The most affected group of age was 1-3 years. Fever was the dominating symptom. Urine cultures were positive for 37 cases, meanwhile for eight cases had been negative. The predominant germs are E. coli for female and for male Proteus. We noticed that for E. coli the highest sensitivity is preserved to Ertapenem -15 cases, followed by Ceftriaxone and Ciprofloxacin -10 cases each, and Gentamycin -9 cases. Conclusions: Pediatric urinary tract infection should be considered in every patient under 3 years with unexplained fever.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwiyanti Puspitasari


    Full Text Available Introduction: Diphtheria is an important disease in children that could lead to fatal disease. East Java Province was declared to have Diphtheria outbreak in 2011 with increasing morbidity and mortality, including on Soetomo Hospital. Our paper aimed to describe the profi le of diphtheria cases in children admitted at dr Sutomo Hospital. Method: This descriptive study reviewed all medical records of diphtheritic patients admitted to Dr. Soetomo Hospital, January 2004–December 2010, of concerns were clinical presentations, age, sex, immunizations status, complications, and outcomes. Result: From 148 diphtheria cases, 22.3% were bacteriologically proven; 53.4% were male with sex ratio 1.1:1. The age proportion of ≤ 5 years old, 5- ≤ 10 years old, and > 10 years old were 61.5%, 31.8%, and 6.7%. Fever occurred in 99% cases, sore throat, stridor and bullneck occurred respectively in 62.2%, 39.9%, and 29.7% cases. There were 56.8% severe and 41.9% moderate diphtheria. Subjects were immunized in 84%, but none of them have adequate immunization. Myocarditis, being one of the commonest complications occurred in 11.4% cases and tracheostomy was the second (4.0%. All of the death cases (7.9% were unvaccinated and in severe form. Discussion: The mostly prevalent clinical manifestations in diphtheria children were fever and sore throat. Half of the cases came with severe diphtheria and most cases were inadequately vaccinated. Death occurred in the unvaccinated and severe form.

  12. Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual Perceptions of Emotions by Young Children with Hearing Loss versus Children with Normal Hearing (United States)

    Most, Tova; Michaelis, Hilit


    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effect of hearing loss (HL) on emotion-perception ability among young children with and without HL. Method: A total of 26 children 4.0-6.6 years of age with prelingual sensory-neural HL ranging from moderate to profound and 14 children with normal hearing (NH) participated. They were asked to identify…

  13. Hospitalized children drawing their pain: the contents and cognitive and emotional characteristics of pain drawings. (United States)

    Kortesluoma, Riitta-Liisa; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Nikkonen, Merja


    Describing pain is difficult. Children like to draw, and through their drawing they reveal worrying issues. This study aimed to examine how hospitalized children express pain through drawings, and was carried out by examining children's thematic drawings of pain. A comparison was made between hospitalized children and healthy control groups with respect to the thematic contents and cognitive and emotional characteristics of pain drawings. The drawings were sorted in categories on the basis of content, and cognitive competence and emotional disturbances by the Draw-a-Person procedure. The hospitalized children showed a lower level of cognitive capacity than their healthy controls. The control group children revealed a higher level of emotional disturbance than the hospitalized children. The groups differed in the contents of their drawings. The drawings of the hospitalized children frequently depicted medical procedures, whereas the drawings of the healthy controls depicted more consoling human and family relations.

  14. Resource utilization for observation-status stays at children's hospitals. (United States)

    Fieldston, Evan S; Shah, Samir S; Hall, Matthew; Hain, Paul D; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Del Beccaro, Mark A; Harding, John; Macy, Michelle L


    Observation status, in contrast to inpatient status, is a billing designation for hospital payment. Observation-status stays are presumed to be shorter and less resource-intensive, but utilization for pediatric observation-status stays has not been studied. The goal of this study was to describe resource utilization characteristics for patients in observation and inpatient status in a national cohort of hospitalized children in the Pediatric Health Information System. This study was a retrospective cohort from 2010 of observation- and inpatient-status stays of ≤2 days; all children were admitted from the emergency department. Costs were analyzed and described. Comparison between costs adjusting for age, severity, and length of stay were conducted by using random-effect mixed models to account for clustering of patients within hospitals. Observation status was assigned to 67 230 (33.3%) discharges, but its use varied across hospitals (2%-45%). Observation-status stays had total median costs of $2559, including room costs and $678 excluding room costs. Twenty-five diagnoses accounted for 74% of stays in observation status, 4 of which were used for detailed analyses: asthma (n = 6352), viral gastroenteritis (n = 4043), bronchiolitis (n = 3537), and seizure (n = 3289). On average, after risk adjustment, observation-status stays cost $260 less than inpatient-status stays for these select 4 diagnoses. Large overlaps in costs were demonstrated for both types of stay. Variability in use of observation status with large overlap in costs and potential lower reimbursement compared with inpatient status calls into question the utility of segmenting patients according to billing status and highlights a financial risk for institutions with a high volume of pediatric patients in observation status.

  15. Homicidal abuse of young children: A historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy J Castellani


    Full Text Available The past 50 years has seen a heightened awareness of abusive injury patterns and increased concern for the plight of children victimized by their caregivers. Murder of the young, however, has been embedded in society since the beginning of recorded time. Indeed, nature provides abundant examples of infanticide in lower animals, raising the question of whether exploitation, apathy, and violence toward children are on some level evolutionarily conserved. In human antiquity, selective killing of females, the illegitimate, and the malformed, killing by ritualistic sacrifice or to conserve resources was carried out with impunity. The middle ages and later saw a decline in these practices albeit limited. One hundred years into the industrial revolution, with harsh child labor in public view, legal remedies were sought to protect children but with little effect. The domestic abuse of children was not addressed until a pivotal 19th-century case, in which the rights of animals were invoked to intervene on behalf of a child. In the 20th century, physicians began to look closely at anatomical findings; patterns due to trauma, especially inflicted trauma, began to emerge. “Battered child syndrome” was followed by “shaken baby syndrome,” the latter prompted by the recurrent findings of subdural hematoma, retinal hemorrhages, and brain injury with the absence of impact injuries and no plausible accidental or natural disease explanation. In the 21st century, high-quality studies and an emphasis on evidenced-based medicine substantiated the existence of injury patterns resulting from homicidal violence. However, progress has been uneven. A case of child abuse that reached the US Supreme Court resulted in an ill-cited dissent that seems to have amplified an already toxic medicolegal environment, perhaps unjustifiably. The difficulties in balancing the welfare of society with that of caregivers in the aftermath of homicidal abuse will no doubt continue.

  16. Stroke among young adults at the LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. (United States)

    Mustapha, A F; Sanya, E O; Bello, T O


    Stroke in young adults is relatively rare and there are very few hospital reports about it in Nigeria. The aetiologic mechanisms of stoke among young adults are quite distinct from those of the adults' populations. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the frequency, aetiologic mechanisms and prognosis of stroke among young adults at the LAUTECH Teaching Hospital Osogbo Nigeria. The study was both retrospective and descriptive. Case notes of stroke patients aged 16-45 years managed at the LAUTECH Teaching Hospital Osogbo from June 2005 till February 2008 were retrieved. Demographic data, clinical profile of stroke, laboratory investigation results and treatment outcomes were collated. Clinical diagnosis and classification of stroke was mainly clinical using the WHO clinical criteria. Only 3 patients had cranial CT scan. Out of the total number of 208 stroke patients managed during this period, 27(12.9%) were aged 45 years and below. This comprised of 17 males and 10 females. The age range was between 23-45 years. Using the WHO clinical criteria, there were 14 cases of heamorrhagic CVD and 13 cases of ischaemic CVD. The three cranial CT scan that were done revealed cerebral infarction which was consistent with the clinical diagnosis. Severe hypertension was found in 16 (59.2%) patients on admission. 3 patients had clinical and electrocardiographic evidence of rheumatic heart disease with infective endocarditis. Other risk factors included Sickle cell disease, cardiac arrhythmias etc. 8 out of the 27 patients died giving a percentage mortality of 29.6% and 7 patients were discharged against medical advice. Heamorrhagic stroke was slightly more frequent than ischaemic CVD. Systemic hypertension was also found to be prevalent among these young Nigerian adults with stroke. However, it was difficult to unravel the aetiologic mechanisms of stroke in this study because of paucity of investigations.

  17. Hollow viscus injury in children: Starship Hospital experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadhyay Vipul


    Full Text Available Abstract Starship Children's Hospital in Auckland, New Zealand, serves a population of 1.2 million people and is a tertiary institution for pediatric trauma. This study is designed to review all cases of abdominal injury (blunt and penetrating that resulted in injury of a hollow abdominal viscus including the stomach, duodenum, small intestine, large intestine and urinary bladder. The mechanism of injury; diagnosis and outcome were studied. This was done by retrospective chart review of patients admitted from January 1995 to December 2001. Thirty two injuries were found in 29 children. The age ranged from 7 months to 15 years with boys represented more commonly. Small bowel was the most frequently injured hollow viscus. Computerized Tomography (CT scan is an extremely useful tool for the diagnosis of HVI.

  18. Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children. (United States)

    Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi


    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children.

  19. Intervention Programmes for Developing Positive Self-Concepts in Hospitalized Children. (United States)

    Lizasoain, Olga; Polaino, Aquilino


    Describes a program implemented in Navarra, Spain, to prepare children for hospitalization and to provide psychopedagogical follow-up to develop positive self-concepts. Describes the effects of the program on 40 hospitalized children between the ages of 8 and 12, reporting a more positive self-concept among the children who received the…

  20. Increasing Short-Stay Unplanned Hospital Admissions among Children in England; Time Trends Analysis ’97–‘06 (United States)

    Saxena, Sonia; Bottle, Alex; Gilbert, Ruth; Sharland, Mike


    Background Timely care by general practitioners in the community keeps children out of hospital and provides better continuity of care. Yet in the UK, access to primary care has diminished since 2004 when changes in general practitioners' contracts enabled them to ‘opt out’ of providing out-of-hours care and since then unplanned pediatric hospital admission rates have escalated, particularly through emergency departments. We hypothesised that any increase in isolated short stay admissions for childhood illness might reflect failure to manage these cases in the community over a 10 year period spanning these changes. Methods and Findings We conducted a population based time trends study of major causes of hospital admission in children 2 days. By 2006, 67.3% of all unplanned admissions were isolated short stays <2 days. The increases in admission rates were greater for common non-infectious than infectious causes of admissions. Conclusions Short stay unplanned hospital admission rates in young children in England have increased substantially in recent years and are not accounted for by reductions in length of in-hospital stay. The majority are isolated short stay admissions for minor illness episodes that could be better managed by primary care in the community and may be evidence of a failure of primary care services. PMID:19829695