WorldWideScience

Sample records for young adult case

  1. Infectious mononucleosis hepatitis in young adults: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Tae-Hun; Shim, Ki-Nam; Jung, Sung-Ae; Cho, Min-Sun; Yoo, Kwon; Chung, Kyu Won

    2009-12-01

    Infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection sometimes causes acute hepatitis, which is usually self-limiting with mildly elevated transaminases, but rarely with jaundice. Primary EBV infection in children is usually asymptomatic, but in a small number of healthy individuals, typically young adults, EBV infection results in a clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis with hepatitis, with typical symptoms of fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. EBV is rather uncommonly confirmed as an etiologic agent of acute hepatitis in adults. Here, we report two cases: the first case with acute hepatitis secondary to infectious mononucleosis and a second case, with acute hepatitis secondary to infectious mononucleosis concomitantly infected with hepatitis A. Both cases involved young adults presenting with fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and atypical lymphocytosis confirmed by serologic tests, liver biopsy and electron microscopic study.

  2. STROKE IN YOUNG ADULTS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF 68 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Harirchian

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous etiologies are responsible for cases of stroke in young adults. This study reviews the causes of two types of stroke (ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhage in young adults aged 15 to 40years, admitted to our center (a tertiary care center from 1997 to 2002. The purpose of this study is to determine the relative frequency of causes of stroke in young adults and compare this with published data in the literature. Using the codes 46.0 to 46.8 of the International Classification of Diseases- 10th Edition (ICD-10, cases were identified from the records of the stroke patients admitted in Imam Khomeini Hospital and the data were collected from their files using a comprehensive questionnaire. Forty-two cases of ischemic stroke (62% and 26 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage (38% were identified. The leading cause of ischemic stroke was cardioembolism (38.1%, followed by atherosclerosis in 5 cases (11.9%. Among cardiac causes infarction was attributable to consequences of rheumatic heart disease in 8 cases. In 3 cases a cessation or decrease in dose of warfarin was followed directly by an ischemic stroke. The most leading cause of intracerebral hemorrhage was hypertension (30.8%. Other causes were anticoagulant therapy, intratumoral hemorrhage, aplastic anemia, leukemia, arteriovenous malformations, and chronic active hepatitis. In conclusion, cardioembolism and hypertension were the most leading causes of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in young adults admitted in our hospital.

  3. Stroke in young adults: about 128 cases | Chraa | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ischemic stroke is rare in young adults, but it is genuinely a serious situation giving the fact that it touch a very active part of our society. We report a series of 128 cases. The purpose is to analyze the risk factors, etiologies and outcomes of ischemic stroke in young adults in Marrakesh. Retrospective study performed at the ...

  4. Stigma associated with medication treatment for young adults with opioid use disorder: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadland, Scott E; Park, Tae Woo; Bagley, Sarah M

    2018-05-07

    Opioid-related overdose deaths have risen sharply among young adults. Despite this increase, access to evidence-based medication for opioid agonist treatment (OAT) for youth remains low. Among older adults, barriers to OAT include the paucity of buprenorphine-waivered prescribers and low rates of prescribing among waivered physicians. We have increasingly found in our clinical practice significant stigma related to using OAT to treat addiction for young adults. In this series, we describe three cases of young adults who faced significant stigma related to their treatment. The first case is a young male with a history of significant trauma and a severe opioid use disorder. He started buprenorphine and has found a job, stayed abstinent, and began a healthy relationship. At each step in his recovery, he has faced resistance to taking medication from other treatment providers, directors of sober houses, and his parents. The second case is a young woman who presented to a substance use treatment program after a relapse. She was unable to restart buprenorphine despite our calling to ask that it be restarted. Ultimately, she left against medical advice and was stabilized as an outpatient on buprenorphine. The final case is a young woman who stopped buprenorphine after being told she was "not sober" while attending 12-step group but restarted after conversations with her clinical team. In each case, the patient has continued their medication treatment and are stable. Opioid-related deaths continue to rise among all age groups, including young adults. Stigma related to medication treatment can be a substantial barrier for many young adult patients but there are concrete steps that providers and communities can take to address this stigma.

  5. Iguana-associated salmonellosis in a young adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, B J; Martens, P B; Harte, J S

    1995-08-01

    Review a case of Salmonella infection in a young adult related to handling of an infected iguana. Case report. Most cases of Salmonella infection related to handling of reptiles have occurred in children. We report a case of Salmonella diarrhea in a 19-year-old male who kept a pet iguana. The iguana was asymptomatic, but Salmonella grew from stool specimens. Those who keep iguanas as pets, which are particularly attractive to adolescents and young adults, should be aware that iguanas frequently carry Salmonella. Those caring for adolescents and young adults should always inquire into the pet-keeping habits of their patients when illnesses develop.

  6. Suicide in young adults: psychiatric and socio-economic factors from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Andrew; Morrell, Stephen; Hobbs, Coletta; Carter, Greg; Dudley, Michael; Duflou, Johan; Taylor, Richard

    2014-03-06

    Suicide in young adults remains an important public health issue in Australia. The attributable risks associated with broader socioeconomic factors, compared to more proximal psychiatric disorders, have not been considered previously in individual-level studies of young adults. This study compared the relative contributions of psychiatric disorder and socio-economic disadvantage associated with suicide in terms of relative and attributable risk in young adults. A population-based case-control study of young adults (18-34 years) compared cases of suicide (n = 84) with randomly selected controls (n = 250) from population catchments in New South Wales (Australia), with exposure information collected from key informant interviews (for both cases and controls). The relative and attributable risk of suicide associated with ICD-10 defined substance use, affective, and anxiety disorder was compared with educational achievement and household income, adjusting for key confounders. Prevalence of exposures from the control group was used to estimate population attributable fractions (PAF). Strong associations were evident between mental disorders and suicide for both males and females (ORs 3.1 to 18.7). The strongest association was for anxiety disorders (both males and females), followed by affective disorders and substance use disorders. Associations for socio-economic status were smaller in magnitude than for mental disorders for both males and females (ORs 1.1 to 4.8 for lower compared to high SES groups). The combined PAF% for all mental disorders (48% for males and 52% for females) was similar in magnitude to socio-economic status (46% for males and 58% for females). Socio-economic status had a similar magnitude of population attributable risk for suicide as mental disorders. Public health interventions to reduce suicide should incorporate socio-economic disadvantage in addition to mental illness as a potential target for intervention.

  7. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors in children and young adults: a clinicopathologic, molecular, and genomic study of 15 cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Sonam; Sarran, Lisa; Socci, Nicholas; DeMatteo, Ronald P; Eisenstat, Jonathan; Greco, Alba M; Maki, Robert G; Wexler, Leonard H; LaQuaglia, Michael P; Besmer, Peter; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2005-04-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are mesenchymal tumors of the intestinal tract that typically occur in adults over the age of 40 years. GISTs in younger patients are rare and not well characterized. The objective was to define the characteristics of GISTs in children and young adults (<30 years old). Clinicopathologic and molecular features, including KIT/PDGFRA genotype, in GISTs from 5 children and 10 young adults were analyzed. Gene expression analysis was performed on 5 gastric tumor samples from 2 children, 2 gastric tumors from young adults, and 10 gastric GISTs from older adults using an U133A Affymetrix platform (22,000 genes). All five pediatric GISTs occurred in girls, involved the stomach as multiple nodules, showed predominantly an epithelioid morphology, often involved lymph nodes, and lacked KIT or PDGFRA mutations. Although all five patients developed recurrence (four in the liver, three in the peritoneum, and two in both sites), four are still alive with disease. Of the 10 GISTs in young adults, half occurred in the small bowel and had spindle cell morphology, and one case had lymph node metastasis. KIT mutations were identified in seven cases, four in exon 11 and three in exon 9. Seven patients developed recurrence, and at last follow-up two patients had died of disease. Gene expression analysis showed high expression of PHKA1, FZD2, NLGN4, IGF1R, and ANK3 in the pediatric and young adult versus older adult cases. GISTs that occur in children are a separate clinicopathologic and molecular subset with predilection for girls, multifocal gastric tumors, and wild-type KIT/PDGFRA genotype. In contrast, GISTs in young adults are a more heterogeneous group, including cases that resemble either the pediatric or the older adult-type tumors. The distinct gene expression profile suggests avenues for investigation of pathogenesis and potential therapeutic strategies.

  8. Social outcomes of young adults with childhood-onset epilepsy: A case-sibling-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Christine B; Barry, Frances; Vickrey, Barbara G; Caplan, Rochelle; Berg, Anne T

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to compare long-term social outcomes in young adults with childhood-onset epilepsy (cases) with neurologically normal sibling controls. Long-term social outcomes were assessed at the 15-year follow-up of the Connecticut Study of Epilepsy, a community-based prospective cohort study of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Young adults with childhood-onset epilepsy with complicated (abnormal neurologic exam findings, abnormal brain imaging with lesion referable to epilepsy, intellectual disability (ID; IQ < 60) or informative history of neurologic insults to which the occurrence of epilepsy might be attributed), and uncomplicated epilepsy presentations were compared to healthy sibling controls. Age, gender, and matched-pair adjusted generalized linear models stratified by complicated epilepsy and 5-year seizure-free status estimated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals [CIs] for each outcome. The 15-year follow-up included 361 individuals with epilepsy (59% of initial cases; N = 291 uncomplicated and N = 70 complicated epilepsy; mean age 22 years [standard deviation, SD 3.5]; mean epilepsy onset 6.2 years [SD 3.9]) and 173 controls. Social outcomes for cases with uncomplicated epilepsy with ≥5 years terminal remission were comparable to controls; cases with uncomplicated epilepsy <5 years seizure-free were more likely to be less productive (school/employment < 20 h/week) (aOR 3.63, 95% CI 1.83-7.20) and not to have a driver's license (aOR 6.25, 95% CI 2.85-13.72). Complicated cases with epilepsy <5 years seizure-free had worse outcomes across multiple domains; including not graduating high school (aOR 24.97, 95% CI 7.49-83.30), being un- or underemployed (<20 h/week) (aOR 11.06, 95% CI 4.44-27.57), being less productively engaged (aOR 15.71, 95% CI 6.88-35.88), and not living independently (aOR 10.24, 95% CI 3.98-26.36). Complicated cases without ID (N = 36) had worse outcomes with respect to productive engagement (aOR 6.02; 95% CI 2

  9. YOUNG ADULTS (20 - 35 YEARS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    Young adults are especially distressed by skin conditions that are uncomfortable, ... treatment are as for teenage acne. ... sive cases are treated with low to medium ... This is usually mild and self-limiting, ... loss of confidence, and depression,.

  10. Facilitating Teamwork in Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Smith, Ashley W.; Block, Rebecca G.; Keyton, Joann

    2016-01-01

    A case of a young adult patient in the days immediately after a cancer diagnosis illustrates the critical importance of three interrelated core coordinating mechanisms—closed-loop communication, shared mental models, and mutual trust—of teamwork in an adolescent and young adult multidisciplinary oncology team. The case illustrates both the opportunities to increase team member coordination and the problems that can occur when coordination breaks down. A model for teamwork is presented, which highlights the relationships among these coordinating mechanisms and demonstrates how balance among them works to optimize team function and patient care. Implications for clinical practice and research suggested by the case are presented. PMID:27624944

  11. Facilitating Teamwork in Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca H; Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Smith, Ashley W; Block, Rebecca G; Keyton, Joann

    2016-11-01

    A case of a young adult patient in the days immediately after a cancer diagnosis illustrates the critical importance of three interrelated core coordinating mechanisms-closed-loop communication, shared mental models, and mutual trust-of teamwork in an adolescent and young adult multidisciplinary oncology team. The case illustrates both the opportunities to increase team member coordination and the problems that can occur when coordination breaks down. A model for teamwork is presented, which highlights the relationships among these coordinating mechanisms and demonstrates how balance among them works to optimize team function and patient care. Implications for clinical practice and research suggested by the case are presented.

  12. [Ischemic stroke in the young adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, D

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is not rare in young adults since one in ten stroke patients are less than 50 years old. This incidence increased over the past last years, mainly due to the rise in the prevalence of traditional vascular risk factors in this sub-group of age but also of illegal drug use. Even though both survival and functional outcome of young stroke patients are better than those observed in older patients, socio-economic and quality of life consequences make this disease a main objective in terms of primary and secondary prevention. Identifying the cause of ischemic stroke in young adults is of major importance to prevent stroke recurrence. However, given the wide variety of potential underlying causes, the etiologic work-up of stroke in young adults requires a different approach from that in the elderly. In this context, a sequential diagnostic work-up is needed in order to optimize the yield of diagnostic tests, to reduce their cost and risks for the patient. Arterial dissection is the most frequent cause of stroke in young adults but other less frequent causes are numerous. Despite a comprehensive work-up, about one third of cases remains unexplained leading to the diagnosis of cryptogenic ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Nutrition support programs for young adult athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, N

    1998-12-01

    After graduating from college and entering the work force, young adult athletes often struggle with the task of fueling themselves optimally for top performance and weight control. The stresses and time constraints of work, family, and social responsibilities often result in eating fast foods on the run. These young adults can benefit from nutrition education programs in the worksite, at health clubs, in the community, and via the media. Dietitians who specialize in sport nutrition have particular appeal to these athletes, who are struggling to each well, exercise well, and stay lean yet put little time or effort into their food program. This article includes two case studies of young adults and the dietary recommendations that taught them how to make wise food choices, fuel themselves well for high energy, and control their weight.

  14. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Lessons Learned from EMT Career Pathway Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Loh-Sze

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund for Workforce Solution's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study will focus on challenges and…

  15. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Hands-On Multidisciplinary Career Exploration and Mentorships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund for Workforce Solution's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from…

  16. The Disabled Young Adult: Ready to Leave Home?

    OpenAIRE

    Tervo, Raymond; O'Leary, Donal

    1986-01-01

    The disabled young adult strives to be independent when preparing to leave home and family. This article provides a checklist that can help the disabled young adult and his/her family to make this transition. In some cases, a transitional rehabilitation program may also be of help. The family physician who is familiar with the issues that pertain to adolescent development can play a central part in addressing patient and family problems that present at this time.

  17. Meta-analysis of factor V Leiden and ischemic stroke in young adults: the importance of case ascertainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedani, Ali G; Cole, John W; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J

    2010-08-01

    The factor V Leiden mutation is associated with ischemic stroke in children but not in adults. Whether it is associated with ischemic stroke in young adults, however, is uncertain. To address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis of 18 case-control studies of ischemic stroke in adults 50 years of age and younger published before June 2009. Across all studies, factor V Leiden was detected in 154 of 2045 cases (7.5%) and 217 of 5307 controls (4.1%), yielding a fixed-effect odds ratio of 2.00 (95% CI, 1.59-2.51). However, further analyses revealed substantial heterogeneity among these studies (P=0.005 for Q-test of heterogeneity). Hypothesizing that this heterogeneity could be related to differences among studies in case selection criteria, we stratified the meta-analysis into studies for which case samples were enriched or not enriched to include cases having an increased likelihood of prothrombotic genetic involvement ("selected" ischemic stroke studies, n=9) and those that recruited cases from consecutive neurology referrals or hospitalizations ("unselected" ischemic stroke studies, n=8). Among the 9 "selected" ischemic stroke studies, factor V Leiden was more strongly associated with stroke (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.98-3.75), whereas among the 8 "unselected" ischemic stroke studies, the association between factor V Leiden and stroke was substantially weaker (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.998-1.95). This difference was found to be statistically significant (P=0.003 for Woolf test for heterogeneity). We conclude that factor V Leiden is associated with ischemic stroke in young adults, particularly in patient populations in which there is an increased clinical suspicion of prothrombotic state.

  18. Acute myocardial infarction in young adults with Antiphospholipid syndrome: report of two cases and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Abid, Leila; Frikha, Faten; Bahloul, Zouhir; Kammoun, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is rarely associated with antiphospholipid syndrome. The treatment of these patients is a clinical challenge. We report the observations of 2 young adults (1 woman and 1 man), admitted in our acute care unit for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A coagulopathy work-up concludes the existence of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in the 2 cases. APS syndrome was considered primary in 2 cases. All patients presented an intense inflammatory syndrome (high...

  19. Acute myocardial infarction in young adults with Antiphospholipid syndrome: report of two cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Abid

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is rarely associated with antiphospholipid syndrome. The treatment of these patients is a clinical challenge. We report the observations of 2 young adults (1 woman and 1 man, admitted in our acute care unit for acute myocardial infarction (AMI. A coagulopathy work-up concludes the existence of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS in the 2 cases. APS syndrome was considered primary in 2 cases. All patients presented an intense inflammatory syndrome (high level of CRP. Anticardiolipine was present in the 2 cases. However, anti B2 glycoprotein I antibodies were detected in only one case. Emergency percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA with direct stenting had been performed successfully only in the first case, and the follow-up was uncomplicated. Thereafter, long-term oral anticoagulant appeared to be effective. The last patient was admitted because of peripheral acute ischemia of legs. Standard electrocardiogram showed signs of previous silent anteroseptal wall myocardial infarction confirmed by echocardiography. The latter revealed an apical thrombus and a very low left ventricular ejection fraction. Amputation of the right leg was necessary because of consultation occurred too late. However, he died four weeks later. Primary antiphospholipid syndrome should be considered as a cause of acute myocardial infarction in young adults, and PTCA with anticoagulant treatment is effective for initial treatment of this complication

  20. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Lessons Learned from Manufacturing and Automotive Career Pathway Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from automotive and…

  1. 78 FR 32116 - TRICARE Young Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...-HA-0029] TRICARE Young Adult AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This... 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult (TYA) program to provide an extended... TRICARE Program coverage made available for purchase worldwide. TYA is similar to young adult coverage...

  2. Selected Films for Young Adults, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top of the News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This 22-item filmography of 16mm films recommended for use in programs planned for young adults was compiled by the Selected Films for Young Adults Committee, Young Adult Services Division, American Library Association. Producers, directors, distributors, length, price, and brief annotations are provided. Addresses for 12 distributors are…

  3. Carcinoma of the stomach in the young adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. R.; Lee, Y. H.; Kim, K. W.

    1985-01-01

    Carcinoma of the stomach is usually considered a disease of middle aged or elderly patients and is rarely suspected in young adults. However carcinoma of the stomach in the young adults is an aggressive malignant disease with nonspecific symptoms and worse prognosis than older age group because of late diagnosis and increased incidence of undifferentiated form. In an attempt to identify further the natural history of carcinoma of the stomach in the young adults, we reviewed 68 cases of stomach cancers in patients 30 years of age and less at Severance hospital. The results were as follows: 1. The over-all male to female ratio in the young adult was 1:1.34 and in order age group was 2.44:1. 2. Common symptoms included epigastric pain, weight loss and vomiting. The mean time interval between onset of symptoms and the first visit to a physician was 3 months. 3. Usually diagnostic aids were UGI series and endoscopic examination. 38 patients underwent an exploratory laparatomy, and lesions were amenable to curative or palliative resection. 4. In the young age Bormann type III and IV were predominant, while in the older age group Bormann type II and III were common. 5. The majority of tumors occurred in the cardia, fundus and upper body. 6. Histologic diagnosis were poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, signet ring cell carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma in orders. 7. A relatively high incidence of pregnancy and Krukenberg tumor in the young age were noted

  4. Parents' and young adults' perspectives on transition outcomes for young adults with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowy, Collette; Silverman, Chloe; Shattuck, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Existing research shows that young adults with autism spectrum disorder have poorer outcomes than their peers with other developmental disabilities in the key areas of independent living, postsecondary education, and employment. However, we understand little about how young adults with autism and their families understand and value outcomes and whether these indicators match their goals and aspirations. We interviewed parents (n = 21) and young adults with autism spectrum disorder (n = 20) about their experiences with the transition to adulthood to understand what they consider to be desirable outcomes and how they seek to achieve them. Understanding these perspectives will help identify areas of need as well as disconnections between service objectives and the goals of young adults and their families. Participants described outcomes as more complex and nuanced than current conceptions and measures account for. They defined and evaluated outcomes in relation to their or their child's individual abilities, needs, and desires. These findings provide important insight into challenges to and facilitators of desired outcomes, which has implications for programming, service delivery, and policy.

  5. Young adults on disability benefits in 7 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbrunner Bernitz, Brita; Grees, Nadja; Jakobsson Randers, Marie; Gerner, Ulla; Bergendorff, Sisko

    2013-11-01

    This article, based on a study by the Swedish Social Insurance Inspectorate, describes the development of young adults receiving disability benefits due to reduced working capability, and the disability benefit systems in seven European countries; Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the UK. This comparative study mainly uses Sweden as a benchmark. Apart from a documentary and legal data collection and analysis, 26 semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives of the responsible ministries and authorities in the studied countries. In addition, national and European data was collected. There is an increasing trend of young adults, aged 19-29, on disability benefits in all studied countries. The most common diagnosis group among young adults on disability benefits is mental and behavioural disorders, ranging from 58% in the UK to 80% in Denmark. The comparison of the different disability benefit systems shows that there are relatively large national differences in terms of rules and regulations, the handling of disability benefit cases, and offered rehabilitation activities and other measures to support young adults on disability benefits to strengthen their working capability, and hence enable them to approach the labour market in the future. However, it is clear that these countries face similar challenges, and therefore there could be a lot to learn from European exchange of experiences and expertise in this area. This article identifies a number of measures of special interest to study and discusses further with regard to the further development of the Swedish system for disability benefits for young adults.

  6. Postsecondary Employment Experiences Among Young Adults With an Autism Spectrum Disorder RH: Employment in Young Adults With Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Anne M.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Anderson, Kristy A.; Wagner, Mary; Narendorf, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined postsecondary employment experiences of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and compared these outcomes with those of young adults with different disabilities. Method Data were from Wave 5 of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2), a nationally representative survey of young adults who had received special education services during high school. We examined the prevalence of ever having had—and currently having—a paid job at 21–25 years of age. We analyzed rates of full employment, wages earned, number of jobs held since high school, and job types. Results About half (53.4%) of young adults with an ASD had ever worked for pay outside the home since leaving high school, the lowest rate among disability groups. Young adults with an ASD earned an average of $8.10 per hour, significantly lower than average wages for young adults in the comparison groups, and held jobs that clustered within fewer occupational types. Odds of ever having had a paid job were higher for those who were older, from higher-income households, and with better conversational abilities or functional skills. Conclusions Findings of worse employment outcomes for young adults with an ASD suggest this population is experiencing particular difficulty in successfully transitioning into employment. Research is needed to determine strategies for improving outcomes as these young adults transition into adulthood. PMID:23972695

  7. Use of proton pump inhibitors is associated with fractures in young adults: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedberg, D E; Haynes, K; Denburg, M R; Zemel, B S; Leonard, M B; Abrams, J A; Yang, Y-X

    2015-10-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are associated with risk for fracture in osteoporotic adults. In this population-based study, we found a significant association between PPIs and fracture in young adults, with evidence of a dose-response effect. Young adults who use PPIs should be cautioned regarding risk for fracture. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are associated with fracture in adults with osteoporosis. Because PPI therapy may interfere with bone accrual and attainment of peak bone mineral density, we studied the association between use of PPIs and fracture in children and young adults. We conducted a population-based, case-control study nested within records from general medical practices from 1994 to 2013. Participants were 4-29 years old with ≥ 1 year of follow-up who lacked chronic conditions associated with use of long-term acid suppression. Cases of fracture were defined as the first incident fracture at any site. Using incidence density sampling, cases were matched with up to five controls by age, sex, medical practice, and start of follow-up. PPI exposure was defined as 180 or more cumulative doses of PPIs. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio and confidence interval for use of PPIs and fracture. We identified 124,799 cases and 605,643 controls. The adjusted odds ratio for the risk of fracture associated with PPI exposure was 1.13 (95% CI 0.92 to 1.39) among children aged young adults aged 18-29 years old. In young adults but not children, we observed a dose-response effect with increased total exposure to PPIs (p for trend young adults, but overall evidence did not support a PPI-fracture relationship in children. Young adults who use PPIs should be cautioned regarding potentially increased risk for fracture, even if they lack traditional fracture risk factors.

  8. Clinical evaluation of myocardial involvement in acute myopericarditis in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saricam, Ersin; Saglam, Yasemin; Hazirolan, Tuncay

    2017-05-22

    Myocardial involvement in young adults has various causes. Acute myopericarditis is one of the myocardial involvements in young adults. It is easy to confuse with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction because of the electrocardiographic features. This study aims to investigate a number of imaging techniques and clinical features for acute myopericarditis in young adults (defined as myocardial brightness in the left ventricle regions, especially in posterior and lateral wall. Focal echobright was observed in the 75 of 77 cases of acute myopericarditis in transthoracic echocardiogram. This sign was confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Focal echobright sensitivity was 95%; its specificity was 93%; its predictive was 95.2%. Pericardial effusion (83%) was observed in group I behind posterior wall. Its specificity was 81%; its sensitivity was 65%; predictivity was 73%. Pericardial effusion and myocardial focal echobright in echocardiography can be quite sensitive indicators for acute myopericarditis in young adults.

  9. THE ROLES OF TRANSLATED YOUNG ADULT FICTION IN ACHIEVEMENT OF YOUNG ADULT DEVELOPMENT IN PITIMOSS FUN LIBRARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuji Muliasari

    2017-02-01

    perkembangan dan usia kronologis pemustaka. Kata Kunci: fiksi remaja terjemahan, pengembangan koleksi fiksi, perkembangan remaja, Pitimoss Fun Library Abstract. Library has to provide fiction as one of its collection. There are two kind of fictions; national fiction and translated fiction. Its selection is not only based on amusement function, but also its role to help readers developing themselves. This research aims to describe the roles of translated young adult fiction in achievement of three aspects of young adult development. Those aspects are cognitive, social, and affective. Theoritically, this research gives advantages for library and information science, especially for developing selection theory and bibliotheraphy. Practically, the advantages those are given by this research are tended to caretakers of Pitimoss Fun Library and other researchers. This reasearch is done by using qualitative approach.Meanwhile, descriptive method is chosen with case study interpretative as its model. The answers of research questions are based on explanation of six informants and key informant. Six informants are chosen by purposive sampling technique. Meanwhile, key informant is a bibliotheraphist. Observation, interview, document study, and  online searching are techniques those are used for collecting data. Research data are analyzed by narrative analysis technique. The result shows the two-way relation between translated young adult fiction and developmental achievement. Translated young adult fictions those are provided by Pitimoss Library have roles in achievement of three aspects of young adult development. Even so, developmental achievement also determines the effectiveness of translated fiction roles for young adults. It also helps them to react to controversial issues. The roles of translated young adult fiction can be maximized if Pitimoss Fun Library doing some efforts, such us involving developmental needs as one of selection criteria, also giving guidance and books

  10. Exposure to digital marketing enhances young adults? interest in energy drinks: An exploratory investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Limin; Kelly, Bridget; Yeatman, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Young adults experience faster weight gain and consume more unhealthy food than any other age groups. The impact of online food marketing on "digital native" young adults is unclear. This study examined the effects of online marketing on young adults' consumption behaviours, using energy drinks as a case example. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion was used as the theoretical basis. A pre-test post-test experimental research design was adopted using mixed-methods. Participants (age...

  11. Young Adults Failure to Thrive Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren C. Sanderson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many young working age adults in developed countries are failing to thrive in economic, demographic and social terms. Their failure to thrive is a relatively new phenomenon that has not been widely recognized, but it affects young adults in virtually all the more developed countries for which we have relevant data. Young adults nowadays are more often in poverty. They are leaving their parental homes at ever later ages and in some countries the frequency of psychological problems increased. The seriousness of failure to thrive syndrome is reflected in the relationship between relative economic conditions and increased suicide rates. The syndrome is important because young adults are at the prime ages for finding employment, establishing long-run career paths and building an economic basis for founding a family. Developing strategies to arrest the spread of failure to thrive syndrome among young adults, in order to keep them vibrant contributors to our societies, should be a priority for policy makers.

  12. Young Adults' Implicit and Explicit Attitudes towards the Sexuality of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Byers, E Sandra; Shaughnessy, Krystelle

    2014-09-01

    Sexual interest and capacity can extend far into later life and result in many positive health outcomes. Yet there is little support for sexual expression in later life, particularly among young adults. This study assessed and compared young adults' explicit and implicit attitudes towards older adult sexuality. A sample of 120 participants (18-24 years; 58% female) completed a self-report (explicit) measure and a series of Implicit Association Tests capturing attitudes towards sexuality among older adults. Despite reporting positive explicit attitudes, young people revealed an implicit bias against the sexual lives of older adults. In particular, young adults demonstrated implicit biases favouring general, as compared to sexual, activities and young adults as compared to older adults. Moreover, the bias favouring general activities was amplified with regard to older adults as compared to younger adults. Our findings challenge the validity of research relying on self-reports of attitudes about older adult sexuality.

  13. Carcinoma of the stomach in young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In Sook; Kim, Bo Young; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song; Oh, Sung Soo

    1988-01-01

    Of patients examined during the 24 years from January 1963 to December 1986, we have reviewed 6116 cases of gastric cancer. We found 126 cases of gastric carcinoma in patients below 30 years of age among 6116 cases of gastric malignancy, which were confirmed by histopathological study at PMC in Chonju. In an attempt to identify further the natural history of carcinoma of the stomach in young adults, we reviewed 126 cases of stomach carcinoma in patients below 30 years of age at PMC. The results were as follows: 1.Among the gastric malignancies the incidence of gastric carcinoma in young adults was 2.1%. 2.The age ranged from 13 years to 29 years, and the peak incidence occurred in the 3rd decade. 3.Male to female ratio was 1:1.03. 4.Common symptoms included epigastric pain, indigestion, weight loss, and vomiting. The mean time interval between onset of symptoms and the 1st visit to a physician was 12 months. 5.Usually diagnostic aids were UGI series, endoscopic examination and biopsy. 6.In the endoscopic finding Borrmamn type III was predominant. 7.The majority of tumors occurred in the antrum and Pyloric portion. 8.Histologic diagnosis were adenocarcinoma, signet ring cell carcinoma, and mucinous cardinoma, in orders

  14. Motions in Digital Young Adult Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Ayoe Qvist

    Abstract (in English): The digital turn brings about not only changes in young adult literature considered as aesthetic artifacts and literary works but also changes in the perception and reception of the reader. Digital young adult literature is increasingly multimodal and interactive...... will be the focal point here. The pivotal point of this paper will be exploring how transgressing analytical categories, e.g. rhythm, sequentiality, time, space and dialogue with the reader, can shed light on the formation of meaning in a specific digital young adult literary work, i.e. Tavs (Camilla Hübbe, Rasmus......, the paper will investigate the ‘denaturalization’ of the reading process and it will attempt to investigate and offer analytical categories which can be used also by young readers so that they can become competent cross media readers of young adult literature in a digitalized and medialized landscape...

  15. Flavored e-cigarette use: Characterizing youth, young adult, and adult users

    OpenAIRE

    Harrell, M.B.; Weaver, S.R.; Loukas, A.; Creamer, M.; Marti, C.N.; Jackson, C.D.; Heath, J.W.; Nayak, P.; Perry, C.L.; Pechacek, T.F.; Eriksen, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12?17?years old), young adults (18?29?years old), and older adults (30?+ years old). Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth (n?=?3907) and young adult college students (n?=?5482) in Texas, and young adults and older adults (n?=?6051) nationwide were administered in 2014?2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation...

  16. Treatment of Class III malocclusion in a young adult patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, B H Jyothi; Kumar, Prashanth; Ravi, S; Shivalinga, B M; Bhagyalaxmi; Pradeep; Kudagi, Vishal

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the treatment of a young adult male with a concave profile, skeletal class III malocclusion because of a prognathic mandible and proclined upper incisors. The therapy included stages: 1. Pre-surgical orthodontics involving leveling and aligning of upper and lower arches, protraction of lower molars and retraction of upper incisors; 2. Surgical phase involving BSSO with mandibular setback and 3. Post-surgical orthodontics for finishing and detailing. The treatment lasted 23 months and improved facial esthetics significantly The treatment resulted in a functional occlusion with a lack of lateral cuspid guidance that could be accepted considering the difficulty of the case. Over jet and overbite are within norms.

  17. Young Adult and Usual Adult Body Mass Index and Multiple Myeloma Risk: A Pooled Analysis in the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium (IMMC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmann, Brenda M; Andreotti, Gabriella; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Camp, Nicola J; Chiu, Brian C H; Spinelli, John J; Becker, Nikolaus; Benhaim-Luzon, Véronique; Bhatti, Parveen; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Brown, Elizabeth E; Cocco, Pierluigi; Costas, Laura; Cozen, Wendy; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Foretová, Lenka; Giles, Graham G; Maynadié, Marc; Moysich, Kirsten; Nieters, Alexandra; Staines, Anthony; Tricot, Guido; Weisenburger, Dennis; Zhang, Yawei; Baris, Dalsu; Purdue, Mark P

    2017-06-01

    Background: Multiple myeloma risk increases with higher adult body mass index (BMI). Emerging evidence also supports an association of young adult BMI with multiple myeloma. We undertook a pooled analysis of eight case-control studies to further evaluate anthropometric multiple myeloma risk factors, including young adult BMI. Methods: We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis of usual adult anthropometric measures of 2,318 multiple myeloma cases and 9,609 controls, and of young adult BMI (age 25 or 30 years) for 1,164 cases and 3,629 controls. Results: In the pooled sample, multiple myeloma risk was positively associated with usual adult BMI; risk increased 9% per 5-kg/m 2 increase in BMI [OR, 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-1.14; P = 0.007]. We observed significant heterogeneity by study design ( P = 0.04), noting the BMI-multiple myeloma association only for population-based studies ( P trend = 0.0003). Young adult BMI was also positively associated with multiple myeloma (per 5-kg/m 2 ; OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3; P = 0.0002). Furthermore, we observed strong evidence of interaction between younger and usual adult BMI ( P interaction adult BMI may increase multiple myeloma risk and suggest that healthy BMI maintenance throughout life may confer an added benefit of multiple myeloma prevention. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(6); 876-85. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Raising "Hot Topics" through Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenke, Susan; Maples, Joellen; Henderson, Jill

    2010-01-01

    While young adult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read young adult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching young adult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their…

  19. Parents' and Young Adults' Perspectives on Transition Outcomes for Young Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowy, Collette; Silverman, Chloe; Shattuck, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Existing research shows that young adults with autism spectrum disorder have poorer outcomes than their peers with other developmental disabilities in the key areas of independent living, postsecondary education, and employment. However, we understand little about how young adults with autism and their families understand and value outcomes and…

  20. Art messaging to engage homeless young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Thomas, Alexandra; Hudson, Angela; Kahilifard, Farinaz; Avila, Glenna; Orser, Julie; Cuchilla, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and young adults. However, little is known how homeless young adults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to solicit perspectives of homeless, drug-using young adults as to how art can be used to design messages for their peers about the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Qualitative methodology via focus group discussions was utilized to engage 24 homeless young adults enrolled from a drop-in site in Santa Monica, California. The findings revealed support for a myriad of delivery styles, including in-person communication, flyers, music, documentary film, and creative writing. The young adults also provided insight into the importance of the thematic framework of messages. Such themes ranged from empowering and hopeful messages to those designed to scare young homeless adults into not experimenting with drugs. The findings indicate that in addition to messages communicating the need to prevent or reduce drug and alcohol use, homeless young adults respond to messages that remind them of goals and dreams they once had for their future, and to content that is personal, real, and truthful. Our research indicates that messages that reinforce protective factors such as hope for the future and self-esteem may be as important to homeless young adults as information about the risks and consequences of drug use.

  1. Suicide Risks among Adolescents and Young Adults in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibo Zhao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. Aim: The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged 15 to 24 years and those aged 25 to 34 years. Method: A case-control psychological autopsy (PA study is conducted in sixteen counties from three Chinese provinces, including 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls in the sample. Results: In China, young adults aged 25 to 34 years have a higher risk for suicide than adolescents aged 15 to 24 years, and it holds true even controlling for relevant social factors. In addition, age-related factors such as education, marital status, whether having children, status in the family, physical health, and personal income all have varying degrees of impact on suicide risks for rural youth. Conclusions: This study shows that there are some age-related risk factors for suicide at certain life stages and emphasizes that young adults in rural China aged 25 to 34 years have an increased risk of suicide as a result of experiencing more psychological strains with age.

  2. Young people in adult education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Mrgole

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of young people participating in adult education programmes has, in the recent years, raised the question of transfer from regular education system to labour market where a large proportion of young people remain socially marginalized and isolated. Young people in adult education are a special target group; in order to plan educational programmes properly, we need to be familiar with their specific characteristics. The article, on the level of a statistical data outline and its paradoxes, introduces the category of young people in adult education as an impact of system factors, and defines related problems in the register, which - for more thorough understanding - dictates sociologically and anthropologically directed analytical approach. The first effect of this, not solely pedagogical view, is presented in the second part of the article, where Mrgole proposes an analysis of educational needs definition and its dangerous consequences in original planning of educational programmes. The concluding part takes a wider perspective and treats the factors of early school-leaving of young people, taking into consideration direct experience in experimental educational programmes for the young. The article ends with an outline of basic elements which the planners of andragogical educational programmes intended for young people should consider in their planning to achieve effective curricula.

  3. Young adult smoking behavior: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Neilands, Torsten B; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-05-01

    Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18-25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR=4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking.

  4. Stroke among young adults at the LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, A F; Sanya, E O; Bello, T O

    2012-01-01

    Stroke in young adults is relatively rare and there are very few hospital reports about it in Nigeria. The aetiologic mechanisms of stoke among young adults are quite distinct from those of the adults' populations. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the frequency, aetiologic mechanisms and prognosis of stroke among young adults at the LAUTECH Teaching Hospital Osogbo Nigeria. The study was both retrospective and descriptive. Case notes of stroke patients aged 16-45 years managed at the LAUTECH Teaching Hospital Osogbo from June 2005 till February 2008 were retrieved. Demographic data, clinical profile of stroke, laboratory investigation results and treatment outcomes were collated. Clinical diagnosis and classification of stroke was mainly clinical using the WHO clinical criteria. Only 3 patients had cranial CT scan. Out of the total number of 208 stroke patients managed during this period, 27(12.9%) were aged 45 years and below. This comprised of 17 males and 10 females. The age range was between 23-45 years. Using the WHO clinical criteria, there were 14 cases of heamorrhagic CVD and 13 cases of ischaemic CVD. The three cranial CT scan that were done revealed cerebral infarction which was consistent with the clinical diagnosis. Severe hypertension was found in 16 (59.2%) patients on admission. 3 patients had clinical and electrocardiographic evidence of rheumatic heart disease with infective endocarditis. Other risk factors included Sickle cell disease, cardiac arrhythmias etc. 8 out of the 27 patients died giving a percentage mortality of 29.6% and 7 patients were discharged against medical advice. Heamorrhagic stroke was slightly more frequent than ischaemic CVD. Systemic hypertension was also found to be prevalent among these young Nigerian adults with stroke. However, it was difficult to unravel the aetiologic mechanisms of stroke in this study because of paucity of investigations.

  5. Flavored e-cigarette use: Characterizing youth, young adult, and adult users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, M B; Weaver, S R; Loukas, A; Creamer, M; Marti, C N; Jackson, C D; Heath, J W; Nayak, P; Perry, C L; Pechacek, T F; Eriksen, M P

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12-17 years old), young adults (18-29 years old), and older adults (30 + years old). Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth ( n  = 3907) and young adult college students ( n  = 5482) in Texas, and young adults and older adults ( n  = 6051) nationwide were administered in 2014-2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation and in the past 30 days that was flavored, among current e-cigarette users. Chi-square tests were applied to examine differences by combustible tobacco product use and demographic factors. Most e-cigarette users said their first and "usual" e-cigarettes were flavored. At initiation, the majority of Texas school-going youth (98%), Texas young adult college students (95%), and young adults (71.2%) nationwide said their first e-cigarettes were flavored to taste like something other than tobacco, compared to 44.1% of older adults nationwide. Fruit and candy flavors predominated for all groups; and, for youth, flavors were an especially salient reason to use e-cigarettes. Among adults, the use of tobacco flavor at initiation was common among dual users (e-cigarettes + combustible tobacco), while other flavors were more common among former cigarette smokers (P = 0.03). Restricting the range of e-cigarette flavors (e.g., eliminating sweet flavors, like fruit and candy) may benefit youth and young adult prevention efforts. However, it is unclear what impact this change would have on adult smoking cessation.

  6. Flavored e-cigarette use: Characterizing youth, young adult, and adult users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Harrell

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12–17 years old, young adults (18–29 years old, and older adults (30+ years old. Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth (n = 3907 and young adult college students (n = 5482 in Texas, and young adults and older adults (n = 6051 nationwide were administered in 2014–2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation and in the past 30 days that was flavored, among current e-cigarette users. Chi-square tests were applied to examine differences by combustible tobacco product use and demographic factors. Most e-cigarette users said their first and “usual” e-cigarettes were flavored. At initiation, the majority of Texas school-going youth (98%, Texas young adult college students (95%, and young adults (71.2% nationwide said their first e-cigarettes were flavored to taste like something other than tobacco, compared to 44.1% of older adults nationwide. Fruit and candy flavors predominated for all groups; and, for youth, flavors were an especially salient reason to use e-cigarettes. Among adults, the use of tobacco flavor at initiation was common among dual users (e-cigarettes + combustible tobacco, while other flavors were more common among former cigarette smokers (P = 0.03. Restricting the range of e-cigarette flavors (e.g., eliminating sweet flavors, like fruit and candy may benefit youth and young adult prevention efforts. However, it is unclear what impact this change would have on adult smoking cessation.

  7. Diabetes risk among overweight and obese metabolically healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twig, Gilad; Afek, Arnon; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Cukierman-Yaffe, Tali; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Tirosh, Amir

    2014-11-01

    To determine diabetes incidence over time among obese young adults without metabolic risk factors. Incident diabetes during a median follow-up of 6.1 years was assessed among 33,939 young men (mean age 30.9 ± 5.2 years) of the Metabolic, Lifestyle and Nutrition Assessment in Young Adults cohort who were stratified for BMI and the number of metabolic abnormalities (based on the Adult Treatment Panel-III). Metabolically healthy (MH) obesity was defined as BMI ≥30 kg/m2 in the presence of normoglycemia, normal blood pressure, and normal levels of fasting triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels (n = 631). A total of 734 new cases of diabetes were diagnosed during 210,282 person-years of follow-up. The incidence rate of diabetes among participants with no metabolic risk factors was 1.15, 2.10, and 4.34 cases per 1,000 person-years among lean, overweight, and obese participants, respectively. In a multivariable model adjusted for age, region of origin, family history of diabetes, physical activity, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride level, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and white blood cell count, a higher diabetes risk was observed among MH-overweight (hazard ratio [HR] 1.89 [95% CI 1.25-2.86]; P young adults from incident diabetes associated with overweight and obesity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  8. A cross-sectional study on experiences of young adult carers compared to young adult noncarers: parentification, coping and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, Nicolle P G; Dorant, Elisabeth

    2018-05-15

    Most young carer studies on parentification, resilience and coping concentrated on child carers up to age 18 years, whereas the group of young adult caregivers (18-24 years) has been neglected. In our study, we focused on these young adult caregivers, who are in a life phase in which young people usually are distancing themselves from their families and are striving for autonomy and freedom. To explore young adult carers' perceptions of parentification, resilience and coping compared to young adult noncarers. Cross-sectional. In 2014/2015, data were collected on 297 healthcare students from a school for vocational education and a university in the Netherlands. A fully structured questionnaire was used. Young adult carers were compared with young adult noncarers on parentification, resilience and coping. Fifty-six students identified themselves as a carer: 40 vocational education students and 16 university students. Carers scored significantly higher than noncarers on three out of six parentification dimensions. No differences were found for resilience and problem-focused coping behaviour, whereas results for emotion-focused coping demonstrated a higher score for the carers compared to the noncarers. Although it is important to take care of the needs of all young carers, special attention should be given to those who are at the start of their adult lives, undergoing extensive changes and taking major decisions on study and career issues. Home-care professionals and school counsellors should be able to recognise this group and their needs and activate support from specialised services and significant others. © 2018 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.

  9. Strokes in young adults: epidemiology and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajlović D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dževdet Smajlović Department of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Tuzla, School of Medicine, University of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Abstract: Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%–15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more

  10. [Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma of adolescents and young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garciaz, Sylvain; Coso, Diane; Brice, Pauline; Bouabdallah, Réda

    2016-12-01

    Lymphoma is one of the most frequent cancers in adolescent and young adults. Hodgkin Lymphoma is curable in more than 90% of cases. Recent pediatric and adults protocols aimed to decrease long term toxicities (mostly gonadic and cardiovascular) and secondary malignancies, reducing the use of alkylating agents and limiting radiation fields. Risk-adapted strategies, using positron emission tomography staging, are about to become a standard, both in adult and pediatric protocols. These approaches allow obtaining excellent results in adolescents with Hodgkin lymphoma. On the other hand, treatment of adolescents with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma raises some questions. Even through children have good outcomes when treated with risk-adapted strategies, adolescents who are between 15 and 18 years old seem to experience poorer survivals, whereas patients older than 18 years old have globally the same outcome than older adults. This category of patient needs a particular care, based on a tight coordination between adults and pediatric oncologists. Primary mediastinal lymphomas, a subtype of BLDCL frequent in young adult population, exhibits poorer outcomes in children or young adolescent population than in older ones. Taking together, B-cell lymphoma benefited from recent advances in immunotherapy (in particular with the extended utilization of rituximab) and metabolic response-adapted strategies. In conclusion, adolescent and young adult's lymphomas are very curable diseases but require a personalized management in onco-hematological units. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Incorporating Social Support in the Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa: Special Considerations for Older Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisetsky, Emily M.; Utzinger, Linsey M.; Peterson, Carol B.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, research support is strongest for family-based treatment (FBT) for the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN) in adolescents. However, a strong evidence base for treatments for older adolescents and young adults with AN is lacking. Emphasizing social support in the treatment of AN may be beneficial for older adolescents and young adults with AN. This paper provides a brief review of the literature on FBT for adolescent AN and provides a case example of adolescent AN treated with FBT. We then discuss novel treatments that have incorporated social support for older adolescents and young adults with AN, such as modified FBT and couples-based interventions. We provide case studies of each of these novel treatment approaches as well. Additionally, this paper highlights and discusses developmental considerations and challenges in working with older adolescents and young adults with AN. PMID:27429544

  12. Treatment of Young Adults with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Ankit; Litzow, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are a distinctive category of patients, with substantial difference in disease biology and response to therapy; hence, they pose unique challenges and issues beyond those faced by children and older adults. Despite inferior survival compared to children, there is growing evidence to suggest that young adults have improved outcomes when treated with pediatric-based approaches. With better supportive care and toxicity management and multidisciplinary team and approach, we have made great improvement in outcomes of young adults with ALL. However, despite significant progress, patients with persistence of minimal residual disease have a poor prognosis. This review discusses current controversies in the management of young adults with ALL, outcomes following pediatric and adult protocols, and the role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We also explore recent advances in disease monitoring and highlight our approach to incorporation of novel therapies in the management of young adults with ALL.

  13. Oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in young adults: a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majchrzak, Ewa; Szybiak, Bartosz; Wegner, Anna; Pienkowski, Piotr; Pazdrowski, Jakub; Luczewski, Lukasz; Sowka, Marcin; Golusinski, Pawel; Malicki, Julian; Golusinski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a disease of middle-aged to elderly adults. However, an increased incidence of HNSCC in young people under 45 years of age has been reported recently. In the present review, we focused on the epidemiology and aetiology of HNSCC in adults under 45 years of age. We reviewed literature related to HNSCC in adult patients less than 45 years of age and discussed current treatment options and prognosis. HNSCC in young adults is associated with a higher incidence rate in nonsmokers, lower female-to-male ratio, a higher percentage of oral cavity and oropharynx tumours, and fewer second primary tumours. However, aside from traditional risk factors of tobacco and alcohol exposure, the causes of these cancers in young adults remain unclear. Agents that might contribute to risk include infection with high-risk human papillomavirus subtypes as well as genetic factors or immunodeficiency status. The expected increase in incidence and mortality of the young with HNSCC may become a major public health concern if current trends persist, particularly lifestyle habits that may contribute to this disease. Given the younger age and potential long-term adverse sequelae of traditional HNSCC treatments, young adults should be treated on a case-by-case basis and post-therapy quality of life must be considered in any treatment-decision making process

  14. Young Adult Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Connie C.

    1987-01-01

    Considers the similarities between science fiction writing and young adult literature, and points out that several well-known authors, such as Robert Heinlein and Jane Yolen, write in both genres. (NKA)

  15. Film and the Young Adult Novel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Harold M.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses films based on young adult novels and why they are often considered failures. Describes various films about young adults and their problems that have proven to be artistic successes. Gives close attention to film versions of S. E. Hinton's novels and of Robert Cormier's "The Chocolate War." (HB)

  16. Connecting the Canon to Current Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakova, Katie; Roccanti, Rikki

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the respective roles of young adult literature and literary texts in the secondary level English Language Arts classroom and explore the connections that can be made between popular young adult books and the traditional canon. We provide examples showing how young adult literature bestsellers such as "The Book…

  17. Life history strategy and young adult substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, George B; Chen, Ching-Chen; Dai, Chia-Liang; Swoboda, Christopher M

    2014-11-03

    This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS) and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.

  18. Life History Strategy and Young Adult Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George B. Richardson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.

  19. MARRIAGE AND MENTAL HEALTH AMONG YOUNG ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E.

    2012-01-01

    Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this relationship may vary across the life course. Early marriage—which is non-normative—could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 11,743), I find that married young adults exhibit similar levels of psychological distress as young adults who are in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults report lower rates of drunkenness than others. Married young adults—especially those who first married at age 22–26—report higher life satisfaction than those in other types of relationships or no relationship at all, as well as those who married at younger ages. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed. PMID:22328171

  20. Health related quality of life in Dutch young adults: psychometric properties of the PedsQL generic core scales young adult version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limperg, Perrine F.; Haverman, Lotte; van Oers, Hedy A.; van Rossum, Marion A. J.; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide Dutch norm data and to assess internal consistency and construct validity for the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Young Adult Generic Core Scales (PedsQL_YA) in Dutch young adults aged 18-30 years. A sample of 649 young adults from the general Dutch

  1. Cause-specific mortality among children and young adults with epilepsy: Results from the U.S. National Child Death Review Case Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Niu; Shaw, Esther C; Zack, Matthew; Kobau, Rosemarie; Dykstra, Heather; Covington, Theresa M

    2015-04-01

    We investigated causes of death in children and young adults with epilepsy by using data from the U.S. National Child Death Review Case Reporting System (NCDR-CRS), a passive surveillance system composed of comprehensive information related to deaths reviewed by local child death review teams. Information on a total of 48,697 deaths in children and young adults 28days to 24years of age, including 551 deaths with epilepsy and 48,146 deaths without epilepsy, was collected from 2004 through 2012 in 32 states. In a proportionate mortality analysis by official manner of death, decedents with epilepsy had a significantly higher percentage of natural deaths but significantly lower percentages of deaths due to accidents, homicide, and undetermined causes compared with persons without epilepsy. With respect to underlying causes of death, decedents with epilepsy had significantly higher percentages of deaths due to drowning and most medical conditions including pneumonia and congenital anomalies but lower percentages of deaths due to asphyxia, weapon use, and unknown causes compared with decedents without epilepsy. The increased percentages of deaths due to pneumonia and drowning in children and young adults with epilepsy suggest preventive interventions including immunization and better instruction and monitoring before or during swimming. State-specific and national population-based mortality studies of children and young adults with epilepsy are recommended. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The Effect of Karate Practice on Self-Esteem in Young Adults with Visual Impairment: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Samir; Ravenscroft, John; Sproule, John

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has not examined the potential relationship between physical activity interventions and psychological domains of young adults with visual impairment (VI). This study aimed to investigate whether karate practice improves the self-esteem of young adults with VI. A secondary aim of this study was to explore the exercise and…

  3. Developmental Counseling: The Young Adult Period. Critical Issues in Young Adult Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Lee A.

    In this paper, development during the adolescent period is considered from a counseling perspective. Although many of the issues of young adults continue to confront older adults, this paper discusses the issues that are special to this age group. It suggests that the emotional and social domain is best represented by the theory of Erikson, which…

  4. When Cyberbullies Meet Gamers: What Do Young Adults Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Pustaka, Arkhadi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cyberbullying is connected with online gaming in complex ways. Although cyberbullying can occur while people play games, it is also the case that gaming may have the potential to address cyberbullying and bullying problems. Purpose: This study examines young adults' beliefs and experiences related to cyberbullying and gaming. Sample:…

  5. Investing in the health and well-being of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Clare; Walker, Leslie R; Davis, Maryann; Irwin, Charles E

    2015-02-01

    Contrary to popular perception, young adults-ages approximately 18-26 years-are surprisingly unhealthy. They are less healthy than adolescents, and they also show a worse health profile than those in their late 20s and 30s. The Affordable Care Act provisions to extend coverage for young adults are well known, and some states had already been pursuing similar efforts before the Affordable Care Act was enacted. These initiatives have resulted in important gains in young adults' heath care coverage. However, too little attention has been paid to the care that young adults receive once they are in the system. Given young adults' health problems, this is a critical omission. The Institute of Medicine and National Research Council recently released a report titled Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. The report concludes that young adulthood is a critical developmental period and recommends that young adults ages 18-26 years be treated as a distinct subpopulation in policy, planning, programming, and research. The report also recommends action in three priority areas to improve health care for young adults: improving the transition from pediatric to adult medical and behavioral health care, enhancing preventive care for young adults, and developing evidence-based practices. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Simulation Frames: Young Adult Dystopian Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Tedman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the ways in which Young Adult dystopian film Divergent (2014 successfully repurposes dystopia for a young demographic, making dystopia an aesthetically appealing space for heroic adventure. The film recombines Young Adult literary tropes with film conventions including those of science fiction. Divergent and other Young Adult dystopian films modify the potential for social critique associated with canonic dystopian fiction. The article’s critical framework includes theories of dystopia and of Young Adult dystopian literature, the Freudian uncanny, studies of the post-apocalyptic film city and new media theory. In Divergent, the dystopian division of society into factions is made enjoyable through production design, particularly in ‘Dauntless’, the faction joined by heroine Tris. This extends to transmedia marketing. The book’s violence is reduced to increase audience engagement, while lack of contextual detail precludes a critical dystopia. In Divergent, the spaces and ideologies of the post-apocalyptic film city are reframed as youth culture. Chicago is gamified, connoting an adventure playground. The space of the Dauntless ‘Pit’ offers symbolic rebirth, community and romance, yet its appeal is uncanny, as with communal spaces in The Host (2013 and The Maze Runner (2014. Divergent’s mirror simulation foregrounds spectacle but other simulations construct immediacy, appearing dream-like not immersive. Like the visions in Young Adult dystopian adaptations How I Live Now (2013 and Ender’s Game (2013, simulations convey individual awareness and supernatural communication. The film combines pleasurable classification and a divergence motif with its heroine’s development, revising dystopian cinematic space. Divergent represents a new form of dystopian cinema.

  7. Young Adults, Technology, and Weight Loss: A Focus Group Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Janna; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have ver...

  8. Percutaneous absorption of triadimefon in the adult and young male and female rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaak, J.B.; Yee, K.; Ackerman, C.R.; Zweig, G.; Wilson, B.W.

    1984-01-01

    The percutaneous absorption of 14 C-phenoxy ring labeled triadimefon was studied in adult and young male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Triadimefon was applied (41.1 to 46.4 micrograms/cm2) in 0.2 ml of acetone to areas comprising 3% of the body surface (7.0 to 14.5 cm2). Thirty-six animals were treated at the initiation of each study. Groups of three animals were subsequently killed at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 hr after treatment. Skin from the treated area as well as blood, heart, liver, kidneys, remaining carcass, urine, and feces were analyzed for 14 C by scintillation counting techniques. Based on 14 C counts, triadimefon was lost more rapidly from the skin of young animals (t 1/2, 20 to 25 hr) than from the skin of adult animals (t 1/2, 29 to 53 hr). Recovery studies indicated that adult males, adult females, young males, and young females, respectively, absorbed 53, 82, 57, and 52% of the dose. The rest of the dose based on material balance was presumably lost by evaporation. Approximately 2.5 to 3.9% of the dose penetrated the skin in one hour and was available for absorption. The rate of entry triadimefon into blood was 2 to 2.5 times faster for young than that observed in adult animals. Elimination of it from blood was faster in the case of the young animals. Triadimefon was absorbed through the skins of the adult male, adult female, young male, and young female rats, respectively, at rates of 0.20, 0.50, 0.58, and 0.48 micrograms/hr/cm2 of skin

  9. Childhood Origins of Young Adult Environmental Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Otto, Siegmar; Kaiser, Florian G

    2018-05-01

    Prospective, longitudinal analyses revealed that over a 12-year period from ages 6 to 18, individuals who grew up with mothers with more proenvironmental attitudes engaged in more proenvironmental behavior as young adults. A similar marginal association was uncovered between mothers' proenvironmental behaviors and the proenvironmental behavior of their young adult offspring. Maternal educational attainment, but not political ideology, was also associated with more proenvironmental behavior as children matured. Moreover, childhood time spent outdoors was positively associated with increased environmentally responsible behavior in young adulthood. Interestingly, one's own childhood proenvironmental behavior and attitude, at least as assessed at age 6, bear little on one's eventual proenvironmental behavior as a young adult. Finally, among this set of childhood factors, maternal education and childhood time spent outdoors were independent predictors of positive changes in environmental behavior from early childhood to young adulthood.

  10. Cause-specific mortality among children and young adults with epilepsy: Results from the U.S. National Child Death Review Case Reporting System ☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Niu; Shaw, Esther C.; Zack, Matthew; Kobau, Rosemarie; Dykstra, Heather; Covington, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated causes of death in children and young adults with epilepsy by using data from the U.S. National Child Death Review Case Reporting System (NCDR-CRS), a passive surveillance system composed of comprehensive information related to deaths reviewed by local child death review teams. Information on a total of 48,697 deaths in children and young adults 28 days to 24 years of age, including 551 deaths with epilepsy and 48,146 deaths without epilepsy, was collected from 2004 through 2012 in 32 states. In a proportionate mortality analysis by official manner of death, decedents with epilepsy had a significantly higher percentage of natural deaths but significantly lower percentages of deaths due to accidents, homicide, and undetermined causes compared with persons without epilepsy. With respect to underlying causes of death, decedents with epilepsy had significantly higher percentages of deaths due to drowning and most medical conditions including pneumonia and congenital anomalies but lower percentages of deaths due to asphyxia, weapon use, and unknown causes compared with decedents without epilepsy. The increased percentages of deaths due to pneumonia and drowning in children and young adults with epilepsy suggest preventive interventions including immunization and better instruction and monitoring before or during swimming. State-specific and national population-based mortality studies of children and young adults with epilepsy are recommended. PMID:25794682

  11. Exposure to digital marketing enhances young adults' interest in energy drinks: An exploratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Limin; Kelly, Bridget; Yeatman, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Young adults experience faster weight gain and consume more unhealthy food than any other age groups. The impact of online food marketing on "digital native" young adults is unclear. This study examined the effects of online marketing on young adults' consumption behaviours, using energy drinks as a case example. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion was used as the theoretical basis. A pre-test post-test experimental research design was adopted using mixed-methods. Participants (aged 18-24) were randomly assigned to control or experimental groups (N = 30 each). Experimental group participants' attitudes towards and intended purchase and consumption of energy drinks were examined via surveys and semi-structured interviews after their exposure to two popular energy drink brands' websites and social media sites (exposure time 8 minutes). Exposure to digital marketing contents of energy drinks improved the experimental group participants' attitudes towards and purchase and consumption intention of energy drinks. This study indicates the influential power of unhealthy online marketing on cognitively mature young adults. This study draws public health attentions to young adults, who to date have been less of a focus of researchers but are influenced by online food advertising.

  12. Prayer practices among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Jennifer G; Quinn Griffin, Mary T; McNulty, Sister Rita; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2010-01-01

    Prayer is the most common complementary and alternative intervention used by most Americans. Yet, little is known about the prayer practices of young adults. In this exploratory study, 4 types of prayer practices of 62 young adults (21-30 years old) are described. The 4 different categories of prayer were: contemplative-meditative, ritualistic, petitionary, and colloquial. Participants most often used colloquial prayer practice, that is, asking God to provide guidance or talking to God in their own words. Recommendations for future research are included.

  13. Cerebral Ischemia versus MS in Young Adults Clinical Imaging Diagnosis Difficulties and Recovery Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Any DOCU-AXELERAD; Dan DOCU-AXELERAD

    2012-01-01

    Ischemia in young adults is often the result of non-atherosclerotic vasculopathies, cardiac embolism or clotting disorders. One third of young adults ischemic stroke etiology remains undetermined. Materials and methods: We present the case of a patient aged 42, diagnosed with probable MS without cardiovascular or metabolic risk factors, presented to our clinic for decrease of force at right limbs and recent dysarthria. Results and discussion: The history revealed recurrent episodes of right h...

  14. Stroke Among Young Adults at the LAUTECH Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stroke Among Young Adults at the LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. AF Mustapha, EO Sanya, TO Bello. Abstract. Background: Stroke in young adults is relatively rare and there are very few hospital reports about it in Nigeria. The aetiologic mechanisms of stoke among young adults are quite distinct from ...

  15. Young Adults Deserve the Best: YALSA's Competencies in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    As high school enrollment continues to rise, the need for effective librarianship serving young adults is greater than ever before. "Young Adults Deserve the Best: Competencies for Librarians Serving Youth," developed by Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), is a document outlining areas of focus for providing quality library service…

  16. Young adults, technology, and weight loss: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Janna; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have very little knowledge on the use of Smartphone technology for weight loss but would like to use this type of technology to help them lose weight. Results also indicated that young adults struggle to make healthy food choices and have priorities that outweigh exercise and they need support and guidance to make better decisions. In conclusion, young adults would be open to using Smartphone technology for weight loss but also need feedback and guidance to help make healthy decisions.

  17. Improving Work Participation of Young Adults with Physical Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, J.A.C.

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work participation in these young adults and the support they need to achieve suitable employment is needed. Interventions to improve the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities were lacking. The...

  18. Do Online Privacy Concerns Predict Selfie Behavior among Adolescents, Young Adults and Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Amandeep; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle; Andreassen, Cecilie S.

    2017-01-01

    Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today’s culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies), editing (cropping and filtering), and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties) was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women (n = 2,509, 66.7%). The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult) by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting) among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers. PMID:28588530

  19. Do Online Privacy Concerns Predict Selfie Behavior among Adolescents, Young Adults and Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Amandeep; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle; Andreassen, Cecilie S

    2017-01-01

    Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today's culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies), editing (cropping and filtering), and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties) was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women ( n = 2,509, 66.7%). The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult) by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting) among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers.

  20. Do Online Privacy Concerns Predict Selfie Behavior among Adolescents, Young Adults and Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Dhir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today’s culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies, editing (cropping and filtering, and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women (n = 2,509, 66.7%. The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers.

  1. Acute onset and rapid progression of multiple organ failure in a young adult with undiagnosed disseminated colonic adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frestad, Daria; Perner, Anders; Pedersen, Ulf Gøttrup

    2014-01-01

    Colourectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. While rates for CRC in adults age 50 and older have been declining, incidence rates in young adults, a population routinely not screened, has been increasing. We report a rare case of high-grade CRC in a prev......Colourectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. While rates for CRC in adults age 50 and older have been declining, incidence rates in young adults, a population routinely not screened, has been increasing. We report a rare case of high-grade CRC...

  2. Marriage Matters But How Much? Marital Centrality Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Brian J; Hall, Scott S; Goff, Saige

    2015-01-01

    Marriage, once a gateway to adulthood, is no longer as widely considered a requirement for achieving adult status. With declining marriage rates and delayed marital transitions, some have wondered whether current young adults have rejected the traditional notion of marriage. Utilizing a sample of 571 young adults, the present study explored how marital centrality (the expected importance to be placed on the marital role relative to other adult roles) functioned as a unique and previously unexplored marital belief among young adults. Results suggested that marriage remains an important role for many young adults. On average, young adults expected that marriage would be more important to their life than parenting, careers, or leisure activities. Marital centrality profiles were found to significantly differ based on both gender and religiosity. Marital centrality was also associated with various outcomes including binge-drinking and sexual activity. Specifically, the more central marriage was expected to be, the less young adults engaged in risk-taking or sexual behaviors.

  3. 2009 YALSA Fabulous Films & Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Journal, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2009 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the titles that were released in January 2009 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Denver,…

  4. Factors Affecting Sentence Severity for Young Adult Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Peter W.; And Others

    This document analyzes the sentencing of young adult defendants in comparison with older adult and younger juvenile offenders, and disputes prior research which held that young adults received more lenient sentencing, perhaps because of the restrictions on disclosing juvenile delinquency histories. The document presents data from samples of young…

  5. Physical Fitness in Young Adults Born Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Kaseva, Nina; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Miettola, Satu; Eriksson, Johan G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Kajantie, Eero

    2016-01-01

    Young adults born preterm have higher levels of cardiometabolic risk factors than their term-born peers. Muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness have important cardiometabolic and other health benefits. We assessed muscular, cardiorespiratory, and self-rated fitness in preterm-born young adults. We studied unimpaired participants of the ESTER (Ennenaikainen syntymä ja aikuisiän terveys [Preterm Birth and Early-Life Programming of Adult Health and Disease]) birth cohort study at age 23.3 (SD: 1.2) years: 139 born early preterm (EPT; Young adults born EPT (-0.8; 95% confidence interval: -1.5 to -0.1; adjusted for gender, age, and source cohort) and LPT (-0.8; -1.4 to -0.3) performed fewer modified push-ups than controls. Handgrip strength was 23.8 (0.9-46.8) N lower in EPT participants. Cardiorespiratory fitness, measured by submaximal step test, was similar. On a self-rated fitness scale (1-5), the EPT adults reported 0.2 (0.0-0.4) lower scores than controls. After adjustment for early-life confounders, the results remained. They attenuated after further adjustment for mediating factors. Young adults born EPT and LPT had lower muscular fitness than controls, which may predispose them to cardiometabolic and other chronic diseases. Adults born EPT also perceived themselves as less fit than controls. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Attitudes of Kuwaiti Young Adults toward Marriage and Divorce:

    OpenAIRE

    Humoud Alqashan; Hayfaa Alkandari

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates whether parental marital status affects young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce. There exists a vast amount of literature on the impact of divorce on young adults in Western cultures; however, no previous empirical studies have been conducted on the attitudes of young adults from intact and divorced families in the Gulf region or in Arab countries in the Middle East. The sample of the study consisted of 661 young adults from Kuwait University (from divorced...

  7. Myocardial delayed-enhancement CT: initial experience in children and young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    Clinical utility of myocardial delayed enhancement CT has not been reported in children and young adults. To describe initial experience of myocardial delayed enhancement CT regarding image quality, radiation dose and identification of myocardial lesions in children and young adults. Between August 2013 and November 2016, 29 consecutive children and young adults (median age 16 months) with suspected coronary artery or myocardial abnormality underwent arterial- and delayed-phase cardiac CT at our institution. We measured CT densities in normal myocardium, left ventricular cavity, and arterial and delayed hypo-enhancing and delayed hyperenhancing myocardial lesions. We then compared the extent of delayed hyperenhancing lesions with delayed-enhancement MRI or thallium single-photon emission CT. Normal myocardium and left ventricular cavity showed significantly higher CT numbers on arterial-phase CT than on delayed-phase CT (t-test, P<0.0001). Contrast-to-noise ratios of the arterial and delayed hypo-enhancing and delayed hyperenhancing lesions on CT were 26.7, 17.6 and 18.7, respectively. Delayed-phase CT findings were equivalent to those of delayed-enhancement MRI in all cases (7/7) and to those of thallium single-photon emission CT in 70% (7/10). Myocardial delayed-enhancement CT can be added to evaluate myocardial lesions in select children and young adults with suspected coronary artery or myocardial abnormality. (orig.)

  8. Myocardial delayed-enhancement CT: initial experience in children and young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Hyun Woo

    2017-01-01

    Clinical utility of myocardial delayed enhancement CT has not been reported in children and young adults. To describe initial experience of myocardial delayed enhancement CT regarding image quality, radiation dose and identification of myocardial lesions in children and young adults. Between August 2013 and November 2016, 29 consecutive children and young adults (median age 16 months) with suspected coronary artery or myocardial abnormality underwent arterial- and delayed-phase cardiac CT at our institution. We measured CT densities in normal myocardium, left ventricular cavity, and arterial and delayed hypo-enhancing and delayed hyperenhancing myocardial lesions. We then compared the extent of delayed hyperenhancing lesions with delayed-enhancement MRI or thallium single-photon emission CT. Normal myocardium and left ventricular cavity showed significantly higher CT numbers on arterial-phase CT than on delayed-phase CT (t-test, P<0.0001). Contrast-to-noise ratios of the arterial and delayed hypo-enhancing and delayed hyperenhancing lesions on CT were 26.7, 17.6 and 18.7, respectively. Delayed-phase CT findings were equivalent to those of delayed-enhancement MRI in all cases (7/7) and to those of thallium single-photon emission CT in 70% (7/10). Myocardial delayed-enhancement CT can be added to evaluate myocardial lesions in select children and young adults with suspected coronary artery or myocardial abnormality. (orig.)

  9. Young adult cancer survivors and work: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Dawn S; Ganz, Patricia A; Pavlish, Carol; Robbins, Wendie A

    2017-12-01

    Sixty-three percent of cancer survivors continue to work, or return to work after treatment. Among this population, work ability and challenges encountered in the workplace by young adult cancer survivors have not been well established. The purposes of the study are to describe what is currently known about work-related issues for young adult cancer survivors diagnosed between ages 15 and 39, to identify gaps in the research literature, and to suggest interventions or improvements in work processes and occupational settings. A narrative review of articles using PubMed, CINAHL, and PsychInfo was conducted without date limitations. Search phrases included young adult cancer survivors, long-term cancer survivors, young adults affected by cancer, further combined with key terms employment, work, and occupationally active. Inclusion criteria for publications were young adult cancer survivors initially diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 39, data about work or employment was presented, and articles written in English. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. Work-related issues included the potential for reduced work productivity from cancer-changed physical and cognitive functional ability that affected income, and resulted in distress. Coping style, support systems, and changing perspectives about work and life in general were also influential on career decisions among young adult cancer survivors. More research is needed to study interventions to better manage health changes in young adult cancer survivors within the context of the workplace. Since financial hardship has been shown to be especially high among young cancer survivors, employment is essential to ensure payment of cancer-associated costs and continued medical care. While young adult cancer survivors may initially grapple with cancer-related physical and psychosocial changes that impact work productivity or influence choice of occupation, employment appears to enhance overall quality of life.

  10. Spanish normative studies in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project): norms for verbal fluency tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Rognoni, T; Calvo, L; Palomo, R; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Peña-Casanova, J

    2013-01-01

    Lexical fluency tests are frequently used in clinical practice to assess language and executive function. As part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project), we provide age- and education-adjusted normative data for 3 semantic fluency tasks (animals, fruits and vegetables, and kitchen tools), three formal lexical fluency tasks (words beginning with P, M and R), three excluded-letter fluency tasks (words excluding A, E and S) and a verb fluency task. The sample consisted of 179 participants who are cognitively normal and range in age from 18 to 49 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to scaled scores. Age- and education-adjusted scores are provided by applying linear regression techniques. The results show that education impacted most of the verbal fluency test scores, with no effects related to age and only minimal effects related to sex. The norms obtained will be extremely useful in the clinical evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Social Media: Support for Survivors and Young Adults With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, AnnMarie L; Albrecht, Tara A; Lux, Lauren; Judge Santacroce, Sheila

    2017-10-01

    Social media use is ubiquitous among young adults. Young adults with cancer must make important decisions about where, what, and how to share information on social media. Oncology nurses are in a unique position to start conversations about the risks and benefits of social media use. This column aims to review a variety of social media platforms that may be used by young adults with cancer and provide guidance to nurses on initiating open dialogue with young adults about social media usage. 
.

  12. Air Pollution and Ischemic Stroke Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitshak Sade, Maayan; Novack, Victor; Ifergane, Gal; Horev, Anat; Kloog, Itai

    2015-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated consistent associations between cardiovascular illness and particulate matter (PM) stroke received less attention. We hypothesized that air pollution, an inflammation progenitor, can be associated with stroke incidence in young patients in whom the usual risk factors for stroke are less prevalent. We aimed to evaluate the association between stroke incidence and exposure to PM stroke between 2005 and 2012. Exposure assessment was based on a hybrid model incorporating daily satellite remote sensing data at 1-km spatial resolution. We performed case-crossover analysis, stratified by personal characteristics and distance from main roads. We identified 4837 stroke cases (89.4% ischemic stroke). Interquartile range of PM ischemic stroke and increases of interquartile range average concentrations of particulate matter ischemic stroke associated with PM among young adults. This finding can be explained by the inflammatory mechanism, linking air pollution and stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Young adult's attachment style as a partial mediator between maternal functioning and young adult offsprings' functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Sarah K; Harris, Susan J; Martinez, Pedro; Gold, Philip M; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2018-05-01

    The quality of our early attachment relationships with primary caregivers is carried forward to new developmental domains, including interpersonal contexts in adulthood. One of the factors that can disrupt early attachment is maternal depression, which may be associated with less responsive care and may impede the development of a secure attachment. Moreover, this disruption in secure attachment may act as a mechanism by which offspring of depressed mothers are more likely to experience their own psychopathology. In this study we predicted that attachment anxiety and avoidance would mediate the relationship between maternal depression diagnosis and functional impairment predicting young adult offspring's functional impairment. This study utilized longitudinal data from 98 families with clinically diagnosed depressed and well mothers, and two of their young adult children, an older and younger sibling (N = 123, Female = 75, Mage = 22.09, SD = 2.57). Mother's and young adult children's functioning was based on clinical ratings on the Global Assessment Scale. Attachment was based on the young adult's self-report on the Experiences in Close Relationships. Results indicate that maternal diagnosis and functional impairment predicted offspring's functional impairment. This relationship was partially mediated through offspring's attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance. The mediator and outcome variable were measured concurrently, thus causal implications are limited. Our study provides critical evidence that early experiences with depressed mothers may have influence into young adulthood in typical and atypical domains of development. This work extends our understanding of the impact of early experiences in long-term development, and may have treatment implications for intervening on both maternal and romantic relationships to improve attachment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving Work Participation of Young Adults with Physical Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. J.A.C. Verhoef

    2015-01-01

    This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work participation in these young adults and the

  15. Association Between the 20210G>A Prothrombin Gene Polymorphism and Arterial Ischemic Stroke in Children and Young Adults-Two Meta-analyses of 3586 Cases and 6440 Control Subjects in Total.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarecka-Hujar, Beata; Kopyta, Ilona; Skrzypek, Michal; Sordyl, Joanna

    2017-04-01

    Previous data have shown that the 20210G>A polymorphism of the Factor II gene is related to an increased prothrombin level, which may in turn lead to a procoagulant state. The heterogeneous and multifactorial character of arterial ischemic stroke often results in contradictory reports describing the association between the 20210G>A polymorphism and arterial ischemic stroke in different populations. We performed a meta-analysis of available data addressing the relation between the FII 20210G>A polymorphism and arterial ischemic stroke, both in young adults and children. We searched PubMed using appropriate keywords. The inclusion criteria for the study were as follows: case-control study, study population consisting of children, study population consisting of young adults, arterial ischemic stroke confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography, and English language. The exclusion criteria included lack of genotype or allele frequencies, study design other than a case-control study, outcome definition other than arterial ischemic stroke, and previously overlapped patient groups. Finally, 30 case-control studies (14 in children and 16 in young adults) were included. Statistical analyses were conducted using R software. Heterogeneity between the studies was evaluated using the Dersimonian and Laird's Q test. In the case of significant between-studies heterogeneity, the pooled odds ratio was estimated with a random-effects model, otherwise a fixed-effects model was used. The pooled analysis showed that carriers of 20210A allele (GA+AA genotypes) of the prothrombin gene are more common in arterial ischemic stroke patients, both in children and young adults, than in control subjects (P = 0.006; odds ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.19 to 2.80 and P = 0.001; odds ratio, 1.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 2.28, respectively). The results of the present meta-analysis have proven that the FII 20210G>A polymorphism is associated with arterial

  16. Surgical Consideration for Adolescents and Young Adults With Cervical Chordoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Nanzhe; Yang, Xinghai; Yang, Jian; Meng, Tong; Yang, Cheng; Yan, Wangjun; Xiao, Jianru

    2017-05-15

    Retrospective study. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes between adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients and old adult patients with cervical chordoma who were treated surgically and present the surgical consideration for adolescents and young adults with cervical chordoma. With predominance in senior patients, chordoma is distinctively rare in AYAs. Because of the rarity of AYA chordoma, individual case report represents most of the literature on this disease entity on mobile spine and lack of long-term follow up, which leads to the paucity of clinical evidence for treatment planning and prognosis prediction. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the prognosis of AYA patients with cervical chordoma who were treated surgically. We collected the clinical data of these patients and their older counterparts, and further compared the prognosis of the patients in different age groups. To estimate survival curves, Kaplan-Meier method was used, and significance was assessed using a log-rank test. Forty consecutive patients with chordoma of the cervical spine treated in our institution were included in the study. Two groups were identified according to age. Group 1 comprised children and adolescents (age ≤ 25 yrs; n = 9) and Group 2 comprised adults (age > 25 years; n = 31). In comparison, Group 1 was featured by significantly higher rate of recurrence and shorter overall survival, although no difference found in the surgical modality between two groups. There is a dismal prognosis in young patients with chordoma, and thus support the notion that as radical a total en bloc spondylectomy (TES) of the lesions as possible may benefit the overall survival of these young patients. Although the ensuing neurological deficits may be devastating, it will be worth sacrificing if the life expectancy of these young patients is prolonged. 4.

  17. Risk factors, aetiology and outcome of ischaemic stroke in young adults: the Swiss Young Stroke Study (SYSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeggel Simonetti, Barbara; Mono, Marie-Luise; Huynh-Do, Uyen; Michel, Patrik; Odier, Celine; Sztajzel, Roman; Lyrer, Philippe; Engelter, Stefan T; Bonati, Leo; Gensicke, Henrik; Traenka, Christopher; Tettenborn, Barbara; Weder, Bruno; Fischer, Urs; Galimanis, Aekaterini; Jung, Simon; Luedi, Rudolf; De Marchis, Gian Marco; Weck, Anja; Cereda, Carlo W; Baumgartner, Ralf; Bassetti, Claudio L; Mattle, Heinrich P; Nedeltchev, Krassen; Arnold, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    Ischaemic stroke (IS) in young adults has been increasingly recognized as a serious health condition. Stroke aetiology is different in young adults than in the older population. This study aimed to investigate aetiology and risk factors, and to search for predictors of outcome and recurrence in young IS patients. We conducted a prospective multicentre study of consecutive IS patients aged 16-55 years. Baseline demographic data, risk factors, stroke aetiology including systematic genetic screening for Fabry disease and severity were assessed and related to functional neurological outcome (modified Rankin Scale, mRS), case fatality, employment status, place of residence, and recurrent cerebrovascular events at 3 months. In 624 IS patients (60% men), median age was 46 (IQR 39-51) years and median NIHSS on admission 3 (IQR 1-8). Modifiable vascular risk factors were found in 73%. Stroke aetiology was mostly cardioembolism (32%) and of other defined origin (24%), including cervicocerebral artery dissection (17%). Fabry disease was diagnosed in 2 patients (0.3%). Aetiology remained unknown in 20%. Outcome at 3 months was favourable (mRS 0-1) in 61% and fatal in 2.9%. Stroke severity (p young adults with IS had modifiable vascular risk factors, emphasizing the importance of prevention strategies. Outcome was unfavourable in more than a third of patients and was associated with initial stroke severity and diabetes mellitus. Previous cerebrovascular events predicted recurrent ones.

  18. Life satisfaction of young adults with spina bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, H. A.; Post, M. W. M.; Verhoef, M.; Jennekens-Schinkel, A.; Gooskens, R. H. J. M.; Prevo, A. J. H.

    This study concerns life satisfaction and its determinants in Dutch young adults with spina bifida (SB). Data on life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire [LiSat-9]) were related to hydrocephalus, lesion level, disabilities, and demographic variables. In total, 179 young adults with SB

  19. Financial Literacy of Young Adults: The Importance of Parental Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Bryce L.; Savla, Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of young adults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence young adults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which young adults' financial attitudes mediated financial…

  20. Determinants of vitamin D status in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Rune; Hovind, Peter Hambak; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Very few studies have investigated the determinants of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) in young adults (18-25 years old) using a set of variables that include lifestyle, sociodemographic, and anthropometric data. Our aim was to investigate the association between...... these variables and vitamin D status in a sample of untreated young adults. METHODS: A total of 738 young adults were enrolled in a (June cross-sectional study 2012 to May 2014) and were recruited from educational institutions in the Copenhagen area. For multivariate logistic regression subjects was categorized.......68). For vitamin D insufficiency, the highest RR was again for men 1.31 (1.06, 1.61); obese subjects 1.57 (1.17, 2.11); and subjects who exercised 0-½ hours a week 1.51 (1.11, 2.06). CONCLUSION: In this study of young adults, vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent. Modifiable factors such as smoking...

  1. The Prevalence of food hypersensitivity in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerballe, Morten; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Hansen, Tine Kjær

    2009-01-01

    by questionnaire, skin prick test (SPT) and histamin release (HR) followed by oral challenge to the most common allergenic foods. FHS was divided into primary and secondary FHS. Primary FHS was defined as being independent of pollen sensitization, whereas secondary FHS was defined as reactions to pollen related......Osterballe M, Mortz CG, Hansen TK, Andersen KE, Bindslev-Jensen C. The Prevalence of food hypersensitivity in young adults. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2009. (c) 2009 The Authors Journal compilation (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/SA rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity (FHS) and severe allergic...... reactions to foods have been reported in the last decade. However, little is known on the prevalence in young adults. This study estimated the prevalence of FHS to the most common allergenic foods in an unselected population of young adults. We investigated a cohort of 1272 young adults 22 years of age...

  2. Health Promotion for Young Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Scherer, Emily A; Pratt, Sarah I; Bartels, Stephen J

    2017-02-01

    Young adulthood represents a critical time to address elevated obesity rates and the risk of early mortality, particularly among people with serious mental illness. Few studies have assessed the benefits of lifestyle interventions targeting weight loss among these young adults. This study examined the impact of the 12-month In SHAPE lifestyle intervention on weight loss and fitness among overweight and obese young adults with serious mental illness (ages 21-30) compared with participants over age 30. Data were combined from three trials of the 12-month In SHAPE program delivered through community mental health centers. In SHAPE includes weekly fitness trainer meetings, a gym membership, and nutrition education. Primary outcomes were weight loss and change in fitness at 12 months. Participants (N=194) had a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (53%) or a mood disorder (47%). The overall sample achieved significant weight loss and improved fitness; differences between young adults (N=29) and participants over age 30 (N=165) were not significant. An important finding was that 42% of young adults achieved clinically significant reductions in cardiovascular risk, defined as ≥5% weight loss or improved fitness (>50-m increase on the 6-Minute Walk Test), compared with 54% of adults over age 30 (a nonsignificant difference between age groups). Among persons enrolled in a lifestyle intervention, overweight and obese young adults experienced benefits comparable with those of adults over age 30. Young adults with serious mental illness face high risk of gaining weight, but a meaningful proportion of these individuals can achieve clinically significant cardiovascular risk reduction, thus highlighting the need to promote lifestyle intervention participation in this group.

  3. Stumbling over obstacles in older adults compared to young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schillings, AM; Mulder, T; Duysens, J

    Falls are a major problem in older adults. Many falls occur because of stumbling. The aim of the present study is to investigate stumbling reactions of older adults and to compare them with young adults. While subjects walked on a treadmill, a rigid obstacle unexpectedly obstructed the forward sway

  4. Impact of Cancer on Romantic Relationships Among Young Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Carolyn

    2018-04-24

    The aim of this review was to determine the impact of a cancer diagnosis and history on young adults' ability to initiate and maintain romantic relationships. MedLine and PsycInfo databases were used to identify articles that address dating, romantic relationships, or marriage among 18- to 45-year-old cancer survivors. Twenty-one relevant articles were identified. Findings indicate that young adult cancer survivors struggle with when/how to disclose their cancer history to potential partners, are delayed in initiating their first romantic relationships, have fewer romantic relationships than peers, and are less likely than peers to marry. Young survivors report that their cancer experience impacts their long-term relationships in both positive and negative ways. In summary, young survivors face significant barriers to establishing and maintaining romantic relationships. Those who have difficulty establishing romantic relationships may benefit from receiving additional support from other sources, including family members, friends, and (in some cases) mental health professionals.

  5. Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adult (13 to 21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adults KidsHealth / For Parents / Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adults What's in this article? ...

  6. The Self-Concept of Spanish Young Adults with Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Justicia, Maria Dolores; Cordoba, Inmaculada Nieto

    2006-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a degenerative disease of the retina that causes the severe impairment of visual functioning similar to low vision, leading, in many cases, to blindness. Because the construct of self-concept plays a key role in personality, this study was designed to measure self-concept in a group of young adults with RP. The…

  7. Determinants of Aortic Root Dilatation and Reference Values Among Young Adults Over a 20-Year Period: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido-Tura, Gisela; Almeida, Andre L C; Choi, Eui-Young; Gjesdal, Ola; Jacobs, David R; Dietz, Harry C; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen; Lewis, Cora E; Garcia-Dorado, David; Evangelista, Artur; Gidding, Samuel; Lima, João A C

    2015-07-01

    Aortic size increases with age, but factors related to such dilatation in healthy young adult population have not been studied. We aim to evaluate changes in aortic dimensions and its principal correlates among young adults over a 20-year time period. Reference values for aortic dimensions in young adults by echocardiography are also provided. Healthy Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study participants aged 23 to 35 years in 1990-1991 (n=3051) were included after excluding 18 individuals with significant valvular dysfunction. Aortic root diameter (ARD) by M-mode echocardiography at year-5 (43.7% men; age, 30.2 ± 3.6 years) and year-25 CARDIA exams was obtained. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to assess associations of ARD with clinical data at years-5 and -25. ARD from year-5 was used to establish reference values of ARD in healthy young adults. ARD at year-25 was greater in men (33.3 ± 3.7 versus 28.7 ± 3.4 mm; Pyoung adulthood. Our study also provides reference values for ARD in young adults. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. 2010 YALSA Fabulous Films and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Journal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2010 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the list of titles that were released in January 2010 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Boston,…

  9. Ross operation in children and young adults: the Alder Hey case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozzi Marco

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ideal prosthesis for aortic valve replacement in children and young adults has not been found yet. In recent years there has been a renewed interest in the replacement of aortic valve with the pulmonary autograft owing to its advantages of lack of anticoagulation, potential for growth and excellent haemodynamic performance. The purpose of this study was to review our institutional experience at Alder Hey hospital with the Ross procedure in children and young adults. Methods From November 1996 to September 2003, 38 patients (mean age, 13.1 ± 5.7 years underwent the Ross procedure for various aortic valve diseases using the root replacement technique. Clinical and echocardiographic follow-up was performed early (within 30 days, 3 to 6 months, and yearly after surgery. Medical records of all patients were reviewed retrospectively. Results There was 1 perioperative death. The patients were followed-up for a median interval of 36 months and up to 7 years. One patient died 3 years after surgery secondary to ventricular arrhythmia with overall mortality of 5.3%. Actuarial survival at 7 years was 94 ± 2.5% and there was 100% freedom from reoperation for autograft valve dysfunction or any other cause. Balloon dilatation was required in 2 patients for pulmonary homograft stenosis. The haemodynamics at the latest follow-up were also similar to those at the time of discharge after surgery. There was no progression in the degree of aortic regurgitation for 11 patients with trivial and 3 with mild regurgitation. Conclusion Our experience demonstrates that Ross operation is an attractive option for aortic valve replacement in children and young adults. Not only can the operation be accomplished with a low operative risk but the valve function stays normal over a long period of time with minimal alteration in lifestyle and no need for repeated operations to replace the valve as a result of somatic growth of the children.

  10. Attitudes of Kuwaiti Young Adults toward Marriage and Divorce:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humoud Alqashan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether parental marital status affects young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce. There exists a vast amount of literature on the impact of divorce on young adults in Western cultures; however, no previous empirical studies have been conducted on the attitudes of young adults from intact and divorced families in the Gulf region or in Arab countries in the Middle East. The sample of the study consisted of 661 young adults from Kuwait University (from divorced and intact families. The findings reveal that adults whose parents divorced show fewer positive attitudes toward marriage than do those individuals from intact marriages. The study also suggests that adults whose parents were divorced carry more positive attitudes toward divorce compared with individuals from intact marriages. Furthermore, gender was found to be an important factor in shaping attitudes toward marriage and divorce. A longitudinal study is recommended to look at the changes in young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce over time, which will help to identify the influence of other factors of attitudes toward marriage and divorce.

  11. Memory Monitoring and Control in Young and Intermediate-Age Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxciel Zortea

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The way adults perceive and regulate learning (metamemory is an important indicator of how they perform on memory tasks. This study assessed memory monitoring, control and performance in young and intermediate-age adults according to item type (with or without semantic relation, type of judgment of learning (JOL - immediate or delayed, and age. Twenty-six young adults (M = 22 years old and 18 intermediate-age adults (M = 47 years old participated, who responded to an experimental paradigm to evaluate metamemory. Results showed that related word-pairs received higher magnitude for the JOLs and better cued-recall scores. JOLs’ accuracy was similar between the age groups, delayed JOLs being more accurate only for young adults. Intermediate-age adults apparently based their allocation of study time less on JOLs or cued-recall than young adults.

  12. Mental Health Outcomes Following Recent Parental Divorce: The Case of Young Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Teresa M.; Kurz, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Addresses association between recent parental divorce and mental health outcomes in young adults aged 18-23. Half of those studied (n=485) had experienced parental divorce within 15 months of the interview; the other half had not. Comparison indicated that, at the bivariate level, parental divorce was associated with poorer mental health outcomes…

  13. File list: Unc.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 Unclassified Adult Young adult SRX707297,SRX70729...8 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Unc.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...

  14. File list: Unc.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 Unclassified Adult Young adult SRX707297,SRX70729...8 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Unc.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...

  15. Strokes In Young Adults And Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Iranmanesh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is in second place on a mortality list in the world. Also, stroke is a leading cause of disability. Approximately 20% of all strokes occur in Children and young adults. The etiology of stroke in Children and young adults is different from that in older patients, and has an influence on diagnostic evaluation and treatment, so knowledge about older patients cannot always be applied to these patients. The list of stroke etiologies among young adults and children is extensive. Ischemic stroke are more frequent than hemorrhagic strokes in both groups. Stroke in young adults had been thought to be associated with   risk factors, including arterial (such as dissection, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, inflammatory arteritis ,moyamoya ,migraine - induced stroke, genetic or inherted arteriopathy, premature atherosclerosis cardiac (such as patent foramen ovale, cardiomyopathy , congenital heart disease and   hematologic (such as  deficiencies of protein S,protein C,or antithrombin;factor V lieden mutation . Common risk factors for stroke in children include: Sickle-cell disease, diseases of the arteries, abnormal blood clotting, head or neck trauma. There are no specific recommendations or guidelines for primary or secondary stroke prevention in young adults. Primary prevention focused on identifying and managing known vascular risk factors, such as hypertension, disorders of lipid metabolism, and diabetes, and non-drug strategies and lifestyle changes, including smoking, reducing body weight, increasing regular aerobic physical activity, and adopting a healthy diet with more fruit and vegetables and less salt. For secondary stroke prevention, identification of the etiologic mechanism of the initial stroke and the presence of any additional risk factors is most important. It consists of optimal treatment of vascular risk factors administering antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy, and if indicated, invasive surgical or

  16. Adolescent and young adult health in the United States in the past decade: little improvement and young adults remain worse off than adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M Jane; Scott, Jazmyn T; Adams, Sally H; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E

    2014-07-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood are unique developmental periods that present opportunities and challenges for improving health. Health at this age can affect health throughout the lifespan. This review has two aims: (1) to examine trends in key indicators in outcomes, behaviors, and health care over the past decade for U.S. adolescents and young adults; and (2) to compare U.S. adolescents and young adults on these indicators. The review also assesses sociodemographic differences in trends and current indicators. Guided by our aims, previous reviews, and national priorities, the present review identified 21 sources of nationally representative data to examine trends in 53 areas and comparisons of adolescents and young adults in 42 areas. Most health and health care indicators have changed little over the past decade. Encouraging exceptions were found for adolescents and young adults in unintentional injury, assault, and tobacco use, and, for adolescents, in sexual/reproductive health. Trends in violence and chronic disease and related behaviors were mixed. Review of current indicators demonstrates that young adulthood continues to entail greater risk and worse outcomes than adolescence. Young adults fared worse on about two-thirds of the indicators examined. Differences among sociodemographic subgroups persisted for both trends and current indicators. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. File list: ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 All antigens Adult Young adult SRX331330,SRX14642...4210 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...

  18. Young Adults' Support Strategies when Peers Disclose Suicidal Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    In response to the growing suicide rate among adolescents and young adults, researchers have noted the importance of peer responses to suicidal disclosures in this population. The most adaptive response is to inform a responsible adult about the suicidal peer, but existing data indicate that most adolescents and young adults choose to talk to the…

  19. The Longitudinal Study of Aging in Human Young Adults: Knowledge Gaps and Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E; Belsky, Daniel W; Danese, Andrea; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2017-02-01

    To prevent onset of age-related diseases and physical and cognitive decline, interventions to slow human aging and extend health span must eventually be applied to people while they are still young and healthy. Yet most human aging research examines older adults, many with chronic disease, and little is known about aging in healthy young humans. This article explains how this knowledge gap is a barrier to extending health span and puts forward the case that geroscience should invest in researching the pace of aging in young adults. As one illustrative example, we describe an initial effort to study the pace of aging in a young-adult birth cohort by using repeated waves of biomarkers collected across the third and fourth decades to quantify the pace of coordinated physiological deterioration across multiple organ systems (eg, pulmonary, periodontal, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, metabolic, and immune function). Findings provided proof of principle that it is possible to quantify individual variation in the pace of aging in young adults still free of age-related diseases. This article articulates research needs to improve longitudinal measurement of the pace of aging in young people, to pinpoint factors that slow or speed the pace of aging, to compare pace of aging against genomic clocks, to explain slow-aging young adults, and to apply pace of aging in preventive clinical trials of antiaging therapies. This article puts forward a research agenda to fill the knowledge gap concerning lifelong causes of aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. File list: Pol.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 RNA polymerase Adult Young adult SRX395531,SRX331...RX043965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Pol.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...

  1. File list: ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 All antigens Adult Young adult SRX080072,SRX39553...2299,SRX005633 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...

  2. File list: Pol.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 RNA polymerase Adult Young adult SRX395531,SRX331...RX043965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Pol.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...

  3. File list: Pol.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 RNA polymerase Adult Young adult SRX331268,SRX331...RX043964 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Pol.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 All antigens Adult Young adult SRX395531,SRX08007...4210,SRX005633 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...

  5. File list: Oth.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 TFs and others Adult Young adult SRX331330,SRX146...,SRX054211 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Oth.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...

  6. Dental Care among Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2013-01-01

    Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer…

  7. Are there any disturbances in vestibular organ of children and young adults with Type I diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, W; Pospiech, L; Orendorz-Fraczkowska, K; Noczynska, A

    2002-05-01

    The aim of the work was to evaluate the vestibular organ condition in children and young adults suffering from Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. The group examined consisted of 95 children and young adults aged from 6 to 28 years with Type I diabetes diagnosed. The diabetic group was divided into subgroups according to duration of the disease, compensation of the disease, and presence and character of hypoglycaemic incidents, and presence of diabetic complications. The control group consisted of 44 healthy children and young adults aged 6 to 28 years. After collecting detailed medical history in each case an electronystagmographic test was performed using the computed two-canal electronystagmographer. Within the diabetic group 6 patients complained about vertigo and balance disorders. Spontaneous nystagmus occurred in 10 cases, positional one in 21 cases. Impaired optokinesis occurred in 36 cases and impaired eye tracking test in 33 cases. In caloric tests there was partial canal paresis in 4 cases and directional preponderance in 7 cases. Metabolic disturbances present in Type I diabetes cause disturbances in different parts of vestibular organ but mostly in its central part. Comparing disturbances in the vestibular organ with clinical and biochemical parameters characterising diabetes, the range of vestibular organ impairment in diabetes mellitus type 1 seems to depend mainly on the presence and character of hypoglycaemic incidents and the duration of the disease and to some extent on the compensation of diabetes.

  8. Osteoporosis knowledge translation for young adults: new directions for prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alyson

    2017-08-01

    Osteoporosis prevention is heavily reliant on education programs, which are most effective when tailored to their intended audience. Most osteoporosis prevention education is designed for older adults, making application of these programs to younger adults difficult. Designing programs for young adults requires understanding the information-seeking practices of young adults, so that knowledge about osteoporosis can be effectively translated. Individual interviews were conducted with 60 men and women-multiethnic, Canadian young adults-to explore both the sources and types of information they search for when seeking information on nutrition or bone health. The results of this study raised themes related to the sources participants use, to their interests and to ways of engaging young adults. Prevention programs should make use of traditional sources, such as peers, family members and medical professionals, as well as emerging technologies, such as social media. Choice of sources was related to the perceived authority of and trust associated with the source. Messaging should relate to young adult interests, such as fitness and food-topics on which young adults are already seeking information-rather than being embedded within specific osteoporosis awareness materials. Engaging young adults means using relatable messages that are short and encourage small changes. Small gender-based differences were found in the information-seeking interests of participants. Differences related to age were not examined. Creating short, action-oriented messages that are designed to encourage small changes in behaviour and are packaged with information that young adults are actively seeking is more likely to result in active engagement in prevention behaviours.

  9. Psychosocial and Health Behavior Outcomes of Young Adults with Asthma or Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Bauer, Katherine W; Eisenberg, Marla E; Denny, Kara; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-04-30

    Previous research has shown a relationship between childhood/adolescent chronic conditions and negative health behaviors, psychological outcomes, and social outcomes. Less is known about whether these negative outcomes are experienced by young adults with chronic health conditions. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how young adults' BMI, health behaviors, and psychological and social outcomes differ depending on whether they have diabetes, asthma, or neither of these chronic conditions. Data were drawn from the third wave of Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Young Adults, a population-based study of 2287 young adults (mean age = 25.3; range 19.8 - 31.2). General linear models were used to test differences in BMI, health behaviors (e.g., fast food intake) and psychosocial outcomes (e.g. depressive symptoms) by young adults' chronic disease status. Young adults with diabetes had higher BMIs, engaged in less physical activity and more unhealthy weight control behaviors and binge eating, had lower self-esteem and lower body satisfaction, and experienced more depressive symptoms and appearance-based teasing compared to young adults with asthma or no chronic conditions, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and, when relevant, for BMI. There were no significant differences between young adults with asthma and young adults with no chronic condition on all of the psychosocial and health behavior outcomes. Young adults with diabetes reported higher prevalence of negative health behaviors and psychosocial outcomes. Providers may find it useful to assess for negative health behaviors and psychosocial variables with young adults with diabetes in order to improve treatment and quality of life for these individuals.

  10. Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer Study-A Methodological Approach in Cancer Epidemiology Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, N. L.; Maurer, E.; Largent, J.; Kent, E.; Sender, E.; Culver, H. A.; Morris, R. A.; Sender, E.

    2009-01-01

    Advances have been made in treatment and outcomes for pediatric cancer. However adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer have not experienced similar relative improvements. We undertook a study to develop the methodology necessary for epidemiologic cancer research in these age groups. Our goal was to create the Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer (KAYAC) project to create a resource to address research questions relevant to this population. We used a combination of clinic and population-based ascertainment to enroll 111 cases aged 0-39 for this methodology development study. The largest groups of cancer types enrolled include: breast cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, and melanoma. The overall participation rate is 69.8% and varies by age and tumor type. The study included patients, mothers, and fathers. The methods used to establish this resource are described, and the values of the resource in studies of childhood and young adult cancer are outlined.

  11. File list: ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 All antigens Adult Young adult SRX331330,SRX14642...54208,SRX054210,SRX054211 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...

  12. File list: Oth.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 TFs and others Adult Young adult SRX080072,SRX331...,SRX054211,SRX054210 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Oth.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 TFs and others Adult Young adult SRX331330,SRX146...,SRX054208,SRX054210 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Oth.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...

  14. Obesity increases risk of ischemic stroke in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew B; Cole, John W; McArdle, Patrick F; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Ryan, Kathleen A; Sparks, Mary J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J

    2015-06-01

    Body mass index has been associated with ischemic stroke in older populations, but its association with stroke in younger populations is not known. In light of the current obesity epidemic in the United States, the potential impact of obesity on stroke risk in young adults deserves attention. A population-based case-control study design with 1201 cases and 1154 controls was used to investigate the relationship of obesity and young onset ischemic stroke. Stroke cases were between the ages of 15 and 49 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between body mass index and ischemic stroke with and without adjustment for comorbid conditions associated with stroke. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity, obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m(2)) was associated with an increased stroke risk (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-1.94) although this increased risk was highly attenuated and not statistically significant after adjustment for smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. These results indicate that obesity is a risk factor for young onset ischemic stroke and suggest that this association may be partially mediated through hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or other variables associated with these conditions. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Young Adult Literature in the Malaysian Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajoo, Mallika V.; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the experience of the Malaysian secondary school student with Young Adult Literature in the English language classroom. The study aimed to determine the extent to which the Malaysian secondary school student identified with the young adult protagonists and issues in the novels which have been…

  16. Preparing childhood cancer survivors for transition to adult care: The young adult perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Natasha N; Bober, Sharon L; Berwick, Lexie; Tower, Mary; Kenney, Lisa B

    2017-10-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) remain at risk for developing treatment-associated health conditions as they age; however, many do not obtain recommended follow-up, putting them at unnecessary risk for morbidity. Educational interventions targeted at providing survivors with the knowledge and skills necessary for healthcare independence might improve adherence and outcomes as they transition care to the adult medical system. To identify informational needs, educational preferences, and support that young adult CCSs perceive as beneficial for transition from pediatric to adult medical care. Sixteen young adult CCSs (ages 22-39 years) who have transitioned to adult care participated in focus groups led by a trained moderator and analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Four major themes emerged: (1) education preferences-pediatric oncology provider as the primary source of information and guidance, enhanced by other formats, and early and ongoing engagement in education; (2) family role in transition-desire for independence and acknowledgement of need for ongoing parental support; (3) expectations for adult providers, such as close relationships, open communication, and care coordination; and (4) knowledge deficits regarding disease/treatment history, risk for long-term complications, and navigation of the adult medical system. Transition education as described by young adult CCSs should be a developmentally appropriate process beginning in early adolescents, primarily administered by pediatric oncology providers, and delivered in multiple formats. While healthcare independence is a goal for young adult CCSs, all stakeholders must recognize that families and providers continue to have an important role supporting survivors with transition logistics and medical decision-making. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results From the National Young Adult Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method We examined risk perception responses among a nationally representative sample of young adults (age 18-34 years; n = 2,871, including tobacco and non-tobacco users) from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey. Results Most (57.8%) respondents believed that e-cigarettes were less risky than cigarettes. Respondents were more likely to rate combustible products hookah (24.5%) and cigars (13.9%) as being less risky compared to noncombustible snus (10%) and other smokeless tobacco (SLT) products (7.1%) relative to cigarettes. Few (2.5%) rated menthol cigarettes as less risky. For e-cigarettes, hookah, and SLT, less risky beliefs were significantly higher among ever or current versus never product users. Between 22% and 33% of all respondents believed that SLT, snus, menthol cigarettes, and cigars were more risky than cigarettes, but differences in this belief between current and nonusers of these products were small and insignificant. Younger young adults were more likely to rate e-cigarettes and hookah as being "less risky" and rate cigars and SLT as being "more risky" than older young adults. Conclusion The public's views of comparative tobacco risk perceptions vary widely by tobacco product type and age-group. While "less risky" perceptions may be associated with product use, perceptions that products are "more risky" than cigarettes may not necessarily dissuade people from their use. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  18. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs.

  19. Dissociative fugue: Recurrent episodes in a young adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintan Madhusudan Raval

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissociative fugue is a rare disorder which has been described as sudden, unexpected, travel away from home or one′s customary place of daily activities, with the inability to recall some or all of one′s past. There is no systematic data existing on it and very few cases reported in the literature. Here we report a case of fugue in a young adult male who travelled 8 times away from his home during last 1΍ year. He has a loss of memory for episodes with patchy recall of few events. Longest duration of fugue episode was of 1-month. The case describes mode of presentation to hospital and treatment given to restore his identity and reunite him in society and family.

  20. Psychological Support for Young Adults with Down Syndrome: Dohsa-Hou Program for Maladaptive Behaviors and Internalizing Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruo Fujino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychological and psychiatric dysfunction is a major problem in a substantial proportion of young adults with Down syndrome. Some patients develop psychiatric issues, such as depressive, obsessive-compulsive, or psychotic-like disorders, in their late adolescence or young adulthood. Furthermore, these individuals may experience moderate to severe emotional and psychological distress. Development of a psychosocial treatment to address these issues is needed in addition to psychotropic medication. The current study reports two cases of young adults with Down syndrome, who presented psychiatric symptoms and marked disruption in their daily lives. These individuals participated in a Dohsa-hou treatment program. Following treatment, adaptive levels, maladaptive behaviors, and internalizing problems were evaluated by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II. Participants showed improvement in maladaptive behaviors and internalizing problems; however, improvement in these areas may be influenced by baseline severity of the problems. This case report suggests that Dohsa-hou could be an effective therapeutic approach for maladaptive and internalizing problems in adults with Down syndrome.

  1. Age and Time Population Differences: Young Adults, Gen Xers, and Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Lauren A.

    2013-01-01

    Age and Time disparities in young adult research populations are common because young adults are defined by varying age spans; members of Generation X and Millennial generations may both be considered young adults; study years vary, affecting populations; and qualitative methods with limited age/year samples are frequently utilized. The current…

  2. Postsecondary employment experiences among young adults with an autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Anne M; Shattuck, Paul T; Cooper, Benjamin P; Anderson, Kristy A; Wagner, Mary; Narendorf, Sarah C

    2013-09-01

    We examined postsecondary employment experiences of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and compared these outcomes with those of young adults with different disabilities. Data were from Wave 5 of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), a nationally representative survey of young adults who had received special education services during high school. We examined the prevalence of ever having had, and currently having, a paid job at 21 to 25 years of age. We analyzed rates of full-time employment, wages earned, number of jobs held since high school, and job types. Approximately one-half (53.4%) of young adults with an ASD had ever worked for pay outside the home since leaving high school, the lowest rate among disability groups. Young adults with an ASD earned an average of $8.10 per hour, significantly lower than average wages for young adults in the comparison groups, and held jobs that clustered within fewer occupational types. Odds of ever having had a paid job were higher for those who were older, from higher-income households, and with better conversational abilities or functional skills. Findings of worse employment outcomes for young adults with an ASD suggest that this population is experiencing particular difficulty in successfully transitioning into employment. Research is needed to determine strategies for improving outcomes as these young adults transition into adulthood. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Osteoporosis knowledge translation for young adults: new directions for prevention programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson Holland

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis prevention is heavily reliant on education programs, which are most effective when tailored to their intended audience. Most osteoporosis prevention education is designed for older adults, making application of these programs to younger adults difficult. Designing programs for young adults requires understanding the information-seeking practices of young adults, so that knowledge about osteoporosis can be effectively translated. Methods: Individual interviews were conducted with 60 men and women—multiethnic, Canadian young adults—to explore both the sources and types of information they search for when seeking information on nutrition or bone health. Results: The results of this study raised themes related to the sources participants use, to their interests and to ways of engaging young adults. Prevention programs should make use of traditional sources, such as peers, family members and medical professionals, as well as emerging technologies, such as social media. Choice of sources was related to the perceived authority of and trust associated with the source. Messaging should relate to young adult interests, such as fitness and food—topics on which young adults are already seeking information—rather than being embedded within specific osteoporosis awareness materials. Engaging young adults means using relatable messages that are short and encourage small changes. Small gender-based differences were found in the information-seeking interests of participants. Differences related to age were not examined. Conclusion: Creating short, action-oriented messages that are designed to encourage small changes in behaviour and are packaged with information that young adults are actively seeking is more likely to result in active engagement in prevention behaviours.

  4. File list: His.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 Histone Adult Young adult SRX1388777,SRX554723,SR...1388779,SRX1388772,SRX1388771,SRX1388778,SRX012297 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/His.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...

  5. Oral health-related quality of life in Swedish young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunvi Johansson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The living conditions of young adults in Sweden have changed during the last decades due to the economic and employment situation in society. Although oral health is mainly considered to be good in this age group, their use of dental care has decreased and their priorities and opportunities regarding oral health are little known. The purpose of this study was to describe the views of Swedish young adults on their oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL. The design of the study was qualitative, using content analysis. Sixteen young adults, aged 21–29 years, were interviewed. The findings from the interviews were summarized under the theme “Young adults reflected on their OHRQoL in a time perspective” consisting of three categories: “Past experiences, Present situation, and Future prospects.” The OHRQoL of young adults is dependent not only on their own experiences of oral health during childhood and their received dental care but also on their present self-perceived oral health, oral health habits, and social life; together with their expectations of future oral health. The findings in this study indicate that the oral health awareness and needs of young adults, as well as their expectations of oral care, merit further follow-up.

  6. Protecting an adult identity: A grounded theory of supportive care for young adults recently diagnosed with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soanes, Louise; Gibson, Faith

    2018-05-01

    For adolescents and young adults living in high-income countries cancer remains the most common disease-related death. Increasing survival rates and projected longevity are positive outcomes, although long-term consequences of cancer and/or its treatment will likely increase the global burden of cancer. In low and middle-income countries the impact and needs of young adults with cancer are largely unknown and require further attention. However, universal studies have revealed that cancer-related needs for this group are multifactorial, complex and largely unmet. In response to these findings, the body of work on supportive care for young adults with cancer is growing. Yet, there is no published research in the context of the United Kingdom, regarding the role young adults play in managing their supportive cancer care needs. To explore the experience, purpose and meaning of supportive cancer care to young adults recently diagnosed with cancer. Using constructivist grounded theory, data were collected in one to one interviews with eleven young adults (seven women and four men aged 19-24 years) being treated for cancer in two English hospitals. Data were analyzed using open and focused coding, constant comparison, theoretical coding and memoing, and this enabled construction of a subjective theory. Young adults in this study interpreted cancer as an interruption to the events, experiences and tasks forming the biographical work of their adult identity. Data analysis led to the construction of the theory, 'protecting an adult identity: self in relation to a diagnosis of cancer in young adulthood'. This theory arose from three categories: fragility of self, maintaining self in an altered reality and mobilizing external resources. Young adults faced the loss of their early adult identity. Interpreting cancer as a temporary interruption, they sought to re-establish their identity by directly and indirectly managing their supportive care needs. These findings contribute to

  7. Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Doctor and Hospital View this video on YouTube. Experts in the field of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers and cancer survivors answer the ... trials. Fertility Preservation Options View this video on YouTube. ... on fertility is a special concern for young cancer patients. It is important to talk with ...

  8. File list: His.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 Histone Adult Young adult SRX554723,SRX1388779,SR...RX1388775,SRX554734,SRX1388768,SRX012297,SRX012298,SRX012300 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/His.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...

  9. File list: His.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 Histone Adult Young adult SRX1388777,SRX1388779,S...SRX554724,SRX554734,SRX1388769,SRX012297,SRX012298,SRX012300 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/His.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...

  10. Replication RCT of Early Universal Prevention Effects on Young Adult Substance Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda; Redmond, Cleve; Shin, Chungyeol

    2014-01-01

    Objective For many substances, more frequent and problematic use occurs in young adulthood; these types of use are predicted by the timing of initiation during adolescence. We replicated and extended an earlier study examining whether delayed substance initiation during adolescence, resulting from universal preventive interventions implemented in middle school, reduces problematic use in young adulthood. Method Participants were middle school students from 36 Iowa schools randomly assigned to the Strengthening Families Program plus Life Skills Training (SFP 10–14 + LST), LST-only, or a control condition. Self-report questionnaires were collected at 11 time points, including four during young adulthood. The intercept (average level) and rate of change (slope) in young adult frequency measures (drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, cigarettes, and illicit drugs) across ages 19–22 were modeled as outcomes influenced by growth factors describing substance initiation during adolescence. Analyses entailed testing a two-step hierarchical latent growth curve model; models included the effects of baseline risk, intervention condition assignment, and their interaction. Results Analyses showed significant indirect intervention effects on the average levels of all young adult outcomes, through effects on adolescent substance initiation growth factors, along with intervention by risk interaction effects favoring the higher-risk subsample. Additional direct effects on young adult use were observed in some cases. Relative reduction rates were larger for the higher-risk subsample at age 22, ranging from 5.8% to 36.4% on outcomes showing significant intervention effects. Conclusions Universal preventive interventions implemented during early adolescence have the potential to decrease the rates of substance use and associated problems, into young adulthood. PMID:24821095

  11. Radiation nephropathy in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of bilateral kidney irradiation were compared in young and adult rats. During a 1 year period after a single dose of 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, or 15 Gy on both kidneys, renal function (glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow), urine composition, and systolic blood pressure were measured periodically. The first changes after irradiation were observed in the glomerular filtration rate and urine osmolality. One month after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine osmolality had declined below control values in the young rats. After this initial decline, renal function increased at control rate or even more during the third and fourth month after irradiation but decreased progressively thereafter. In the adult rats, GFR and urine osmolality started to decrease 3 months after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy. A rise in systolic blood pressure and proteinuria started 2-3 months after 12.5 and 15 Gy in both age groups. Early changes in the glomerular filtration rate with a drop in urine osmolality in young rats, occurring during a period of rapid renal development indicated an irradiation-induced inhibition of glomerular and tubular development. Although renal function deteriorated at a later time in adult rats, dose-response relationships obtained in young and adult rats did not show significant differences

  12. Motion Sensor Reactivity in Physically Active Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether young adults changed their physical activity (PA) behavior when wearing motion sensors. PA patterns of 119 young adults (M age = 20.82 years, SD = 1.50, M body mass index = 23.93 kg/m[superscript 2] , SD = 4.05) were assessed during 2 consecutive weeks. In Week 1, participants wore an accelerometer.…

  13. Cerebral Ischemia versus MS in Young Adults Clinical Imaging Diagnosis Difficulties and Recovery Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Any DOCU-AXELERAD

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia in young adults is often the result of non-atherosclerotic vasculopathies, cardiac embolism or clotting disorders. One third of young adults ischemic stroke etiology remains undetermined. Materials and methods: We present the case of a patient aged 42, diagnosed with probable MS without cardiovascular or metabolic risk factors, presented to our clinic for decrease of force at right limbs and recent dysarthria. Results and discussion: The history revealed recurrent episodes of right hemi-body numbness and vertigo labeled as relapse in MS. Patient is non smoker, does not take oral contraceptives and has no history of cerebrovascular disease in the family. Extensive imaging and laboratory investigations confirms the ischemic clinical picture, carotid Doppler ultrasound showing significant stenosis of the bulbo-left carotid. The patient is guided to the cardiovascular surgery clinic for specialized treatment. Two weeks postoperatively we apply a kinetic-therapy program. Conclusion: Uncertain imaging and lack of vascular and metabolic risk factors do not preclude ischemia in young adults.

  14. Depression Risk in Young Adults With Juvenile- and Adult-Onset Lupus: Twelve Years of Followup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrea M; Trupin, Laura; Katz, Patricia; Yelin, Edward; Lawson, Erica F

    2018-03-01

    To compare major depression risk among young adults with juvenile-onset and adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and to determine demographic and health-related predictors of depression. Young adults with SLE ages 18-45 years (n = 546) in the Lupus Outcomes Study completed annual telephone surveys from 2002-2015, including assessment of depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and self-report measures of sociodemographics and health characteristics. Juvenile-onset SLE was defined as age adult-onset SLE. Older age, lower educational attainment, and physical function, higher disease activity, and a history of smoking were associated with an increased depression risk. Juvenile-onset SLE patients had a higher risk of major depression across all educational groups. Young adults with SLE, particularly those with juvenile-onset disease, are at high risk for major depression, which is associated with increased disease activity, poorer physical functioning, and lower educational attainment. Early depression intervention in young adults with SLE has the potential to improve both medical and psychosocial outcomes. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  15. Drug-Induced Myocardial Infarction Secondary to Coronary Artery Spasm in Teenagers and Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menyar Ayman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no published registry for drug-induced acute myocardial infarction (AMI with subsequent patent coronary angiogram in teenagers. To highlight the mechanism and impact of drug-induced MI with patent coronary arteries among teenagers who have relatively few coronary risk factors in comparison with older patients, we conducted a review of the literature. In this review most of the pertinent published (English and non-English articles through the Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and EBSCO Host research databases from 1970 to 2005 have been revised. Teenagers and young adults with AMI and subsequent patent coronary angiogram were included. In those cases drug-induced coronary spasm was highlighted. Among 220 articles (>12000 cases related with AMI with normal coronary angiogram, 50 articles (~100 cases reported the role of drug in AMI secondary to coronary artery spasm (CAS. There is no well-conducted trial for AMI secondary to CAS in young adults but only a series of case reports, and the diagnosis in most of cases was based on the clinical and laboratory findings without provocation. CAS was associated with 12 illicit substances in teenagers (i.e., cocaine, marijuana, alcohol, butane, and amphetamine. Smoking is not only the initiative but also might harbor other illicit substances that increase the risk for CAS. Cocaine-associated AMI is the most frequent in various research papers. CAS was reported with 19 types of medications (i.e., over-the-counter, chemotherapy, antimigraine, and antibiotics without strong relation to age. Despite drug-induced AMI being not a common event, attention to smoking and drugs in teenagers and young adults will have major therapeutic and prognostic implications.

  16. YOUNG ADULT PERCEPTION AND ATTITUDE TOWARD CONSPICUOUS CONSUMPTION AND POVERTY

    OpenAIRE

    Toni Yvette Sims-Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the perception and attitude of young adults toward conspicuous consumption portrayed in mass media and their conception of poverty. Many young adults may not realize the cadre of consumerist ideologies portrayed throughout the culture and mass media such as buy more, buy newer and improved, buy wants over needs, buy comparatively, buy exclusively and buy to prove. In light of such mass media portrayal, young adult consumption habits may reflect unrealistic ideas about what...

  17. Teaching for Visual Literacy: 50 Great Young Adult Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, Alan B.; Wilder, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how films portraying the lives of young adults can serve as the basis for a "viewer response" study of film and filmmaking. Lists and summarizes 50 films found to be suitable for teaching to young adults. Provides criteria by which the films were selected. (HB)

  18. Tattoos, piercing, and sexual behaviors in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Sipiński, Adam; Kuczerawy, Ilona; Kozłowska-Rup, Danuta; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2012-09-01

    Body piercing and tattooing are accepted by a growing number of teenagers and young adults as a way of self-expressing. Some authors suggest association between body piercings/tattoos and early sexual initiation, higher number of sexual partners, or risky sexual behaviors. The aim of the study was to evaluate sexual behaviors among young adults with body modifications (BMs)--tattoos and piercings. One hundred twenty young healthy adults, ages between 20 and 35, were included in the population study. The study group was divided into three subgroups: controls (N = 60), adults with tattoos (N = 28), and adults with piercings (N = 32). The research instrument was a self-prepared questionnaire containing 59 questions assessing socioepidemiological parameters, sexual behaviors, incidents of sexual harassment in the past, and self-attractiveness evaluation, as well as questions concerning tattoos and piercings. Socioepidemiological variables and sexual behaviors were compared between subgroups. To assess and describe the correlation between having BM--tattoos and piercing--and sexual behaviors in the population of young adults by using the logistic regression model. Adults with BMs have had their first intercourse statistically earlier and were more sexually active compared with controls. There were no statically significant differences in sexual orientation, sexual preferences, engaging in risky sexual behaviors, frequency of masturbation, and history of sexual abuse between the groups. In contrast, the frequency of sexual intercourses was statistically higher and oral sex was more likely to be a dominant sexual activity in adults with BM compared with controls. The multivariate logistic model revealed that adults with BM were four times less likely to participate in religious practices and twice more likely to have early sexual initiation. Having BM is associated with early sexual initiation and more liberal attitudes toward sexual behaviors but not with engaging in

  19. A concept analysis of young adults; Perception of HIV Counselling and Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Patrone R. Risenga; Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate perceptions of young adults regarding HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) and the factors contributing to either negative or positive perceptions towards the programme. This article is a report of a concept analysis of young adults' perceptions of HCT that were collected during the study. Background: Perception forms the core of HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) use by young adults, because it is from these perceptions that young adults will decid...

  20. Unusual Respiratory Manifestations in Two Young Adults with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Lemay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult respirologists are often involved in the evaluation and treatment of young adult patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In this context, the most frequent respiratory complication is nocturnal and daytime hypoventilation related to respiratory muscle weakness. The present article describes cases of Duchenne muscular dystrophy involving two brothers, 17 and 19 years of age, respectively, who presented with less frequently reported respiratory complications of their disease: obstructive sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration with central apnea, which were believed to be partially or completely related to congestive cardiomyopathy.

  1. Comparative clinical outcomes between pediatric and young adult dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Meredith A; Lestz, Rachel M; Fivush, Barbara A; Silverstein, Douglas M

    2011-12-01

    Published data on the comparative achievement of The Kidney Disease Dialysis Outcome Quality Initiative (KDOQI) recommended clinical performance targets between children and young adults on dialysis are scarce. To characterize the achievement of KDOQI targets among children (young adults (18-24 years) with prevalent end stage renal disease (ESRD), we performed a cross-sectional analysis of data collected by the Mid-Atlantic Renal Coalition, in conjunction with the 2007 and 2008 ESRD Clinical Performance Measures Projects. Data on all enrolled pediatric dialysis patients, categorized into three age groups (0-8, 9-12, 13-17 years), and on a random sample of 5% of patients ≥ 18 years in ESRD Network 5 were examined for two study periods: hemodialysis (HD) data were collected from October to December 2006 and from October to December 2007 and peritoneal dialysis (PD) data were collected from October 2006 to March 2007 and from October 2007 to March 2008. In total, 114 unique patients were enrolled the study, of whom 41.2% (47/114) were on HD and 58.8% (67/114) on PD. Compared to the pediatric patients, young adults were less likely to achieve the KDOQI recommended serum phosphorus levels and serum calcium × phosphorus product values, with less than one-quarter demonstrating values at or below each goal. Multivariate analysis revealed that both young adults and 13- to 17-year-olds were less likely to achieve target values for phosphorus [young adults: odds ratio (OR) 0.04, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.01-0.19, p young adults: OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.002-0.09, p young adult ESRD patients.

  2. Comparison and modification of Pu-239 kinetics in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volf, V.; Gamer, A.; Laengle, U.

    1987-01-01

    It is obvious that the biokinetics of bone-seeking radionuclides are influenced by skeletal growth and remodelling, the rate of which in general decreases with increasing age. For plutonium, Mahlum and Sikov (1974) observed that rats injected with Pu-239 as weanlings retained a lower percentage in the liver and more in the bones than the animals injected as adults. However, skeletal Pu-239 was diluted more rapidly in the young rats because of intensive new bone formation and this led to a more pronounced reduction in the accumulation of radiation dose than was the case in adult animals. The aim of the present experiments was to study: a) The age effect on Pu-239 biokinetics in adult rates as influenced by the sex of the animals. b) Early retention and distribution of Pu-239 in the bones of young and adult rats injected with an optimal osteosarcomogenic dose. c) The effectiveness of a delayed prolonged administration of Zn-DTPA in drinking water for the mobilization of injected Pu-239 in rats of various age. 3 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  3. Identifying Correlates of Young Adults' Weight Behavior: Survey Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…

  4. Chronic Subdural Hematoma Associated with Arachnoid Cyst in Young Adults: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Yeen Chan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inrracranial arachnoid cysts are believed to be congenital; they can become symptomatic in pediarric patients. Chronic subdural hematomas tend to occur in elderly patients with a history of mild head injury a few months prior to the onset of symptoms. However, these two distinct clinical entities sporadically occur together in relatively young patients. We report a 29-year-old man who presented with headache and dizziness of 2 months' duration. Brain computed tomography revealed a huge chronic subdural hematoma over the left frontoparietal lobe, with an incidental finding of an arachnoid cyst over the left sylvian fissure. In light of a literature review, we discuss arachnoid cysts as a possible risk factor for subdural hematoma, especially in young adults.

  5. Day occupation is associated with psychopathology for adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kitty-Rose; Jacoby, Peter; Einfeld, Stewart; Girdler, Sonya; Bourke, Jenny; Riches, Vivienne; Leonard, Helen

    2014-10-03

    Young adults with Down syndrome experience increased rates of emotional and behavioural problems compared with the general population. Most adolescents with Down syndrome living in Western Australia participate in sheltered employment as their main day occupation. Relationship between day occupation and changes in behaviour has not been examined. Therefore, the aim of this research was to explore any relationship between post school day occupations and changes in the young person's behaviour. The Down syndrome Needs Opinion Wishes database was used for case ascertainment of young adults aged 15 to 32 years with Down syndrome. Families of 118 young people in this population-based database completed questionnaires in 2004, 2009 and 2011. The questionnaires addressed both young person characteristics such as age, gender, presence of impairments, behaviour, functioning in activities of daily living, and family characteristics such as income and family functioning. Post-school day occupations in which the young people were participating included open and sheltered employment, training and day recreation programs. Change in behaviour of young adults who remained in the same post-school day occupation from 2009 to 2011 (n = 103) were examined in a linear regression model adjusting for confounding variables including age, gender, prior functioning and behaviour in 2004 and family income. In comparison to those young adults attending open employment from 2009 to 2011, those attending day recreation programs were reported to experience worsening in behaviour both in the unadjusted (effect size -0.14, 95% CI -0.24, -0.05) and adjusted models (effect size -0.15, 95% CI -0.29, -0.01). We found that the behaviour of those participating in open employment improved compared to those attending other day occupations. Further examination of the direction of this association is required.

  6. File list: InP.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 Input control Adult Young adult SRX005630,SRX4670...9,SRX005633 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/InP.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...

  7. File list: InP.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 Input control Adult Young adult SRX005630,SRX0056...6,SRX005633 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/InP.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...

  8. Acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis in an immunocompromised young adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jessie; Kent, Paul; Lennon, Joshua M; Logan, Latania K

    2015-01-01

    Acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis is an acute onset disease characterised by ulceration, necrosis, pain and bleeding in gingival surfaces. It is predominantly seen in severely malnourished children and young adults with advanced HIV infection. We present a unique presentation in a young adult with high-grade osteogenic sarcoma. PMID:26376700

  9. Energy drink consumption among young adults in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Karina; Lasgaard, Mathias Kamp; Larsen, Finn Breinholt

    2015-01-01

    -demographic factors and health behaviour with energy drink consumption among young adults (16-24 years) in Denmark. Methods The study is based on a public health survey from 2010 (n = 3923). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to analyse the association between weekly consumption of energy drink...... and the potential explanatory factors of interest. Results In total, 15.8 % of the young adults drink energy drinks on a weekly basis. Men have higher odds of weekly energy drink consumption than women. The study also shows that young age, being employed and having a low educational level are associated with weekly...

  10. Living arrangements of young adults in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwanitz, Katrin; Mulder, Clara H.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative research suggests that there are great cross-national and cross-temporal differences in living arrangements of young adults aged 18-34 in Europe. In this paper, we examine young adults’ living arrangements (1) across several European countries and different national contexts, and (2) by

  11. Housing preferences of young adults in Indonesia: housing attributes and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farasa, N.; Kusuma, H. E.

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, the housing demand of young adults in Indonesia is important issues for the sustainable development of the market. Facing differences of life phases, such as marriage, leaving home after graduation, and new job positioning, young adults become the main segment facing constant housing choice decisions in the housing market. In their particular phase of life, young adults have distinct preferences for housing attributes which bring a great influence on their lives in the future. Data was gathered from a survey questionnaire that was answered by 180 young adults in Indonesia, ranging from age 22-33 years. The findings suggest that the green area and view, location, simplicity, home design, and accessibility are the significant parts as housing attributes for young adults’ housing preferences in Indonesia. The effect of these attributes has many consequences such as security, personalization, mood/ambiance, maintenance, interaction, image, flexibility, environmental, economy, durability, convenience, comfort, and circulation. The biggest group of young adults who prefer comfort as their wanted consequences tend to have high preferences on housing attributes of the green area and view, and simplicity.

  12. Economic Socialization, Saving and Assets in European Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…

  13. Current lifestyle of young adults treated for cancer in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S E; Radford, M

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to look at the current lifestyle of young adult survivors of childhood cancer between the ages of 16 and 30 years to document their achievements and expose any psychosocial problems. Sixty six young adult survivors were contacted and asked if they and their siblings (16-30 years) would take part in a lifestyle study; 48 patients and 38 sibling controls were interviewed. This took the form of a structured lifestyle questionnaire, a self esteem questionnaire (Oxford Psychologists Press), and an unstructured interview. Fifty five per cent of patients achieved five or more A-C grades at 'O' level/GCSE compared with 62% of siblings and a national average of 30%. Despite that these patients were significantly less likely to go on to higher education than their siblings. The two groups were equally employable and earning similar salaries. There were three cases of known employer prejudice. A slightly higher percentage of patients than siblings had their driving licence. Seventeen patients felt their appearance had changed and eight felt that they had a residual physical mobility problem. Both groups were socially active and equally likely to partake in competitive sports. There was no overall difference in the self esteem of the two groups. In general the survivors of childhood cancer were coping well in their young adult life and achieving the same lifestyle goals as their siblings. However, significant problems have been identified.

  14. Reverse correlating trustworthy faces in young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eÉthier-Majcher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as facial trustworthiness. In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Engell, Todorov & Haxby, 2010; Todorov, 2008. Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Chaby & Narme, 2009; Ruffman, Henry, Livingstone et al., 2008; Firestone, Turk-Browne & Ryan, 2007; Calder, Keane, Manly et al., 2003. Based on Todorov’s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004 reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment, from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness.

  15. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Use Among Teens and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Michael E; Matic, Kathleen; McAlearney, Ann Scheck

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine rates of stimulant/atomoxetine use among teens (aged 12-17 years) and young adults (aged 18-23 years) and to investigate associations in medication use before and after the transition from teen to young adult. Repeated cross-sectional analyses using the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. The sample included all teens and young adults between 2003 and 2012. Within this group, a staggered sample of individuals between 2006 and 2012 born during a 5-year range was used to minimize false positive findings due to temporal trends. The primary outcome was attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication use (two or more prescriptions and ≥60 tablets). A multivariable logistic regression was utilized to determine associations between ADHD medication use and race/ethnicity and other sociodemographic factors. A total of 62,699 individuals were included between 2003 and 2012. Rates of ADHD medication use increased for both teens (4.2%-6.0%) and young adults (1.2%-2.6%) between 2003-2004 and 2011-2012. In adjusted analysis, blacks, Hispanics, and Asians had lower rates of use compared with whites. The decrease in use among young adults was more pronounced among blacks compared with whites. A usual source of care and health insurance were less common among young adults, and both were associated with ADHD medication use. Although there has been an increase in the use of ADHD medications in both teens and young adults, we found a drop-off in levels of ADHD treatment among young adults when compared with teens. A portion of this decrease appears to be related to race/ethnicity, usual source of care, and health insurance status. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Young Adult Children of Divorced Parents: Depression and the Perception of Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill, Rebecca L.

    1986-01-01

    Examined long-term effects of divorce in young adult children by comparing young adults of divorce (N=104) and those of intact families (N=172). When non-custodial parent was perceived as "lost" the young adult was more depressed. After-divorce perception of non-custodial father changed negatively, while perception of mother remained…

  17. ASSESSMENT OF THE PREVALENCE OF PSYCHIATRIC-DISORDER IN YOUNG-ADULTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FERDINAND, RF; VANDERREIJDEN, M; VERHULST, FC; NIENHUIS, FJ; GIEL, R

    Background. The effectiveness of different assessment procedures for determining prevalence rates of psychiatric disorder in young adults was investigated. Method. In a two-stage multi-method procedure, the Young Adult Self-Report, the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN), the

  18. Cardiovascular reactivity to stressors in Indian young adults with normotensive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anjali; Kumar, Manoj; Saxena, Indu; Kumar, Jayballabh

    2013-10-01

    Stress-induced increase in heart-rate and blood pressure is termed cardiovascular reactivity (CVR). Various studies are designed to monitor the CVR and use different types of experimental stressors. We have compared the CVR to three different stressors used in CVR based studies (cold pressor task, hand grip test, and video game) to identify the best suited stressor for any study design. The study was conducted on 82 (38 female) young Indian adults with normal resting basal parameters and normotensive parents. Each volunteer was subjected to three stressors: cold pressor task (CPT), hand grip test (HGT), and video game (VG). The CVR to the three stressors was compared amongst female subjects and amongst male subjects by ANOVA, and between female and male subjects by unpaired Student's t-test. Maximum CVR was obtained to HGT, while maximum gender difference in CVR was obtained in case of CPT. Heart rate and blood pressure changes obtained on playing VG were not statistically significant. When the purpose of research is to generate maximum possible CVR, we suggest the use of HGT; while if the purpose of the research is to study gender related differences, the use of CPT would be more appropriate. Unlike young adults of Western countries, VG is not perceived as a challenging task or stressor by young Indian adults and produces little change in heart rate and blood pressure.

  19. The emotional impact of national music on young and older adults differing in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensimon, Moshe; Bodner, Ehud; Shrira, Amit

    2017-10-01

    In spite of previous evidence regarding the function of national songs as a contextual stimulus, their effect on the emotional state of older adults living with different levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms has not be been examined. Following the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict, we examined the emotional effects of listening to happy national songs (songs of Independence Day) and sad national songs (Memorial Day songs) on young (N = 144, mean age = 29.4) and older adults (N = 132, mean age = 68.5). Respondents were exposed to happy or sad national songs, and completed measures of exposure to missile attacks, related PTSD symptoms, and positive and negative emotions. Sad national songs were related to higher negative affect among young adults who were lower on PTSD symptoms, but not among their older counterparts. In contrast, sad national songs were related to higher negative affect among older adults who were higher on PTSD symptoms, but not among their young counterparts. These findings support the strength and vulnerability model, as they demonstrate that relative to young adults, older adults are generally more capable to withstand negative stimuli, yet are more sensitive to negative stimuli when they suffer from chronic vulnerability, as in the case of higher level of PTSD symptoms.

  20. Cultural Identity of Young Deaf Adults with Cochlear Implants in Comparison to Deaf without Cochlear Implants and Hard-of-Hearing Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblat, Ester; Most, Tova

    2018-07-01

    This study examined the relationships between cultural identity, severity of hearing loss (HL), and the use of a cochlear implant (CI). One hundred and forty-one adolescents and young adults divided into three groups (deaf with CI, deaf without CI, and hard-of-hearing (HH)) and 134 parents participated. Adolescents and young adults completed questionnaires on cultural identity (hearing, Deaf, marginal, bicultural-hearing, and bicultural-deaf) and communication proficiencies (hearing, spoken language, and sign language). Parents completed a speech quality questionnaire. Deaf participants without CI and those with CI differed in all identities except marginal identity. CI users and HH participants had similar identities except for a stronger bicultural-deaf identity among CI users. Three clusters of participants evolved: participants with a dominant bicultural-deaf identity, participants with a dominant bicultural-hearing identity and participants without a formed cultural identity. Adolescents and young adults who were proficient in one of the modes of communication developed well-established bicultural identities. Adolescents and young adults who were not proficient in one of the modes of communication did not develop a distinguished cultural identity. These results suggest that communication proficiencies are crucial for developing defined identities.

  1. Spanish normative studies in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project): norms for Stroop Color-Word Interference and Tower of London-Drexel University tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognoni, T; Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Calvo, L; Palomo, R; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Peña-Casanova, J

    2013-03-01

    The Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (Stroop) measures cognitive flexibility, selective attention, cognitive inhibition and information processing speed. The Tower of London-Drexel University version test (TOL) assesses higher-order problem solving and executive planning abilities. In this study, as part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults), we present normative data for the Stroop and young adults TOL tests. The sample consisted of 179 participants who are cognitively normal and range in age from 18 to 49 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to scaled scores. Scores adjusted for sociodemographic factors were obtained by applying linear regression techniques. No effects were found for age and sex in either test. Educational level impacted most of the Stroop test variables and some of the TOL scores (Total Moves score and Total Initiation Time score). The norms obtained will be extremely useful in the clinical evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Obesity and dissociable forms of impulsivity in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Derbyshire, Katherine L; Leppink, Eric; Grant, Jon E

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality, and young people are increasingly affected. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between obesity and dissociable forms of impulsivity in young adults. A group of young adults (511) was recruited from city areas in the United States using media advertisements. These young adults were administered careful and extensive clinical and neurocognitive assessment in order to quantify different aspects of impulsivity (behavioral/phenomenological-, cognitive-, and personality-related measures). Associations between obesity and impulsivity were explored using multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant function analysis. 10.8% of the sample was obese, and 21.5% was overweight. Compared to controls, subjects with obesity showed significantly elevated rates of maladaptive gambling behaviors, monetary amounts lost to gambling, nicotine consumption, impulsive action (prolonged stop-signal reaction times in the Stop-Signal Test), and impulsive decision-making (reduced modulation of behavior as a function of risk in the Cambridge Gamble Test). Even accounting for potential confounding variables, obesity was significantly predicted by female gender, older age, more maladaptive gambling behaviors, and worse inhibitory control (stop-signal reaction times). Obesity is associated with several dissociable forms of impulsivity in young people, especially gambling and impulse dyscontrol. Family doctors should screen for gambling problems in obese young adults. Successful treatment of nicotine dependence in young obese people is likely to require intensive weight management support. Neuropsychological deficits relating to impulsivity occur in obese people in early adulthood, and may represent vulnerability markers rather than being due to chronic untoward metabolic effects on brain function.

  3. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight. Keywords: Obesity; overweight; prevalence; Uganda; young adults. African Health Sciences ...

  4. Impact of Childhood Family Disruption on Young Adults' Relationships with Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, William S.

    1994-01-01

    Explored implications of childhood family disruption for parent-adult child relations in sample of 4,516 young adults. Among young adults raised in single-parent families, relationships with custodial mothers and custodial fathers remained quite positive into early adulthood. Becoming noncustodial parent resulted in severe deterioration of…

  5. THEORETICAL GUIDELINES ON THE OF LONELINESS OF YOUNG ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PLĂMĂDEALĂ Victoria

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a synthesis of conducted researches in field of loneliness psychology, in order to reveal the feeling of loneliness and its manifestation at young adults. At this age, the main hazard represent the excessive self-concern or avoidance of interpersonal relationships. The inability to establish personal relationships of trust leads to loneliness. The causes and factors findings that could trigger loneliness, as well as their effects on young adults reflect a multi-featured phenomenon of this complex and ambiguous condition. The clear depiction deficiency of loneliness approach among young adults shows that this phenomenon may have different distinctions. As a prerequisite for personal development, as well as a multitude of causes, these can be expressed through various contexts of social isolation disclosure (voluntary or forced and life consequences of young individual. All of the above represent an additional need of developing the loneliness concept of young, based on an integrated approach and oriented towards structuring the control of loneliness and empirical data-bases.

  6. File list: His.Adl.50.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.50.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 Histone Adult Germline containing young adult...osciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/His.Adl.50.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  7. File list: His.Adl.05.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.05.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 Histone Adult Germline containing young adult...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/His.Adl.05.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  8. File list: Oth.Adl.05.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adl.05.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 TFs and others Adult Germline containing young adult....jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Oth.Adl.05.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  9. File list: Oth.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 TFs and others Adult Germline containing young adult....jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Oth.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  10. File list: His.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 Histone Adult Germline containing young adult...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/His.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  11. File list: His.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 Histone Adult Germline containing young adult...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/His.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  12. File list: Oth.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 TFs and others Adult Germline containing young adult....jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Oth.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.Adl.50.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Adl.50.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 TFs and others Adult Germline containing young adult....jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Oth.Adl.50.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  14. File list: Unc.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 Unclassified Adult Germline containing young adult... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Unc.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  15. File list: Unc.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 Unclassified Adult Germline containing young adult... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Unc.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  16. File list: Unc.Adl.50.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Adl.50.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 Unclassified Adult Germline containing young adult... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Unc.Adl.50.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 All antigens Adult Germline containing young adult...e.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  18. [Nodular gastritis and gastric cancer in young adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Tomoari; Shiotani, Akiko; Haruma, Ken

    2012-10-01

    Nodular gastritis is a popular endoscopic gastritis in H. pylori-positive children and young adults. The endoscopic findings of nodular gastritis were mainly characterized by a unique, small granulated pattern in the antrum of the stomach. The cases of gastric cancer with nodular gastritis showed the same characteristics: all were diagnosed histologically as the diffuse-type and were located in the corpus with H. pylori infection. We recommended that endoscopists should carefully examine not only the antrum but also the corpus in patients with nodular gastritis, and H. pylori should be eradicated as soon as possible to prevent gastric cancer.

  19. Career Decision-Making Processes of Young Adults With First-Episode Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boychuk, Christa; Lysaght, Rosemary; Stuart, Heather

    2018-05-01

    The first episode of psychosis often emerges during young adulthood, when individuals are pursuing important educational and career goals that can become derailed because of the development of major impairments. Past research has neglected the developmental nature of employment and education decisions that young adults with first-episode psychosis make within the context of their lives. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to advance a model of the career decision-making processes of young adults with first-episode psychosis, and the influences that affect their career decision-making. The career decision-making of young adults with first-episode psychosis emerged as a multistaged, iterative process that unfolded over three phases of illness, and was affected by several internal and environmental influences. These findings suggest the phase of illness and career decision-making stage should be considered in future vocational programming for young adults with first-episode psychosis.

  20. File list: InP.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 Input control Adult Young adult SRX005630,SRX3732...X331269,SRX331331,SRX467093,SRX982096,SRX1388752,SRX1388749,SRX235166,SRX012299 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/InP.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...

  1. File list: Pol.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 RNA polymerase Adult Germline containing young adult... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Pol.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  2. File list: Pol.Adl.50.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adl.50.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 RNA polymerase Adult Germline containing young adult... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Pol.Adl.50.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  3. File list: Pol.Adl.05.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Adl.05.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 RNA polymerase Adult Germline containing young adult... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Pol.Adl.05.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  4. Work readiness tools for young adults with chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzinger, Courtney; Berg, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Young adults with chronic health conditions can experience barriers to work performance, ability, and their present and future worker roles. Work readiness resources can expand individuals' work skills, abilities, and interests. Five work readiness tools are presented (1) building an occupational profile, (2) generating environmental strategies, (3) on-the-job strategy use, and exploration of online tools (4) O*NET® and (5) O*NET® Interest Profiler, along with two theories (Knowles's Andragogy and Lawton's Ecological Model) to guide tool use. Use of these tools can assist young adults to better manage their health and expand their vocational identities for success at work. These approaches and tools support health professionals, community partners, and vocational organizations in their efforts to help young adults with chronic conditions.

  5. Differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, John B; Mackintosh, Shylie; Jones, Sara; Thewlis, Dominic

    2014-02-01

    Our understanding of age-related changes to foot function during walking has mainly been based on plantar pressure measurements, with little information on differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults during walking using a multi-segment foot model. Joint kinematics of the foot and ankle for 20 young (mean age 23.2 years, standard deviation (SD) 3.0) and 20 older adults (mean age 73.2 years, SD 5.1) were quantified during walking with a 12 camera Vicon motion analysis system using a five segment kinematic model. Differences in kinematics were compared between older adults and young adults (preferred and slow walking speeds) using Student's t-tests or if indicated, Mann-Whitney U tests. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) for the differences were also computed. The older adults had a less plantarflexed calcaneus at toe-off (-9.6° vs. -16.1°, d = 1.0, p = range of motion (ROM) of the midfoot (11.9° vs. 14.8°, d = 1.3, p = young adults. Walking speed did not influence these differences, as they remained present when groups walked at comparable speeds. The findings of this study indicate that independent of walking speed, older adults exhibit significant differences in foot kinematics compared to younger adults, characterised by less propulsion and reduced mobility of multiple foot segments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization among homeless young adults in Venice, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winetrobe, H; Rice, E; Rhoades, H; Milburn, N

    2016-03-01

    Homeless young adults are a vulnerable population with great healthcare needs. Under the Affordable Care Act, homeless young adults are eligible for Medicaid, in some states, including California. This study assesses homeless young adults' health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization prior to Medicaid expansion. All homeless young adults accessing services at a drop-in center in Venice, CA, were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire; 70% of eligible clients participated (n = 125). Within this majority White, heterosexual, male sample, 70% of homeless young adults did not have health insurance in the prior year, and 39% reported their last healthcare visit was at an emergency room. Past year unmet healthcare needs were reported by 31%, and financial cost was the main reported barrier to receiving care. Multivariable logistic regression found that homeless young adults with health insurance were almost 11 times more likely to report past year healthcare utilization. Health insurance coverage is the sole variable significantly associated with healthcare utilization among homeless young adults, underlining the importance of insurance coverage within this vulnerable population. Service providers can play an important role by assisting homeless young adults with insurance applications and facilitating connections with regular sources of health care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yu-Ching; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Cole, John W.; Stine, O. Colin; Dueker, Nicole; McArdle, Patrick F.; Sparks, Mary J.; Shen, Jess; Laurie, Cathy C.; Nelson, Sarah; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Ling, Hua; Pugh, Elizabeth W.; Brott, Thomas G.; Brown, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Ischemic stroke (IS) is among the leading causes of death in Western countries. There is a significant genetic component to IS susceptibility, especially among young adults. To date, research to identify genetic loci predisposing to stroke has met only with limited success. We performed a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis of early-onset IS to identify potential stroke susceptibility loci. The GWA analysis was conducted by genotyping 1 million SNPs in a biracial population of 889 IS cases...

  8. Self-management in young adults with bipolar disorder: Strategies and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Jennifer; Boydell, Katherine; Christensen, Helen

    2017-02-01

    Early adoption of effective self-management strategies for bipolar disorder (BD) results in better clinical outcomes and increased quality of life. Therefore, facilitation of these strategies in young adults who are early in their illness course is vital. However, an understanding of self-management practices and needs of young adults with BD is lacking. This study explores young adult's perspectives of disorder self-management practices and challenges. Young adults with BD completed an online survey about disorder management strategies and challenges. Self-management was investigated through self-report and ratings of literature-derived strategies. Results were analysed using descriptive statistics and qualitative thematic analysis. Eighty-nine participants aged 18-30 (M=24.4; SD=3.9) completed the survey. Adherence to treatment, disorder psychoeducation, and sleep-management were the strategies rated most helpful. Six participant-reported self-management strategies were identified (1) Maintaining a healthy lifestyle; (2) Treatment attendance and adherence; (3) Participation in meaningful activities; (4) Engagement with social support; (5) Meditation and relaxation practices; and (6) Symptom monitoring. The most common self-management challenges experienced by young adults concerned the nature of the disorder, interpersonal relationships, and stigma. Participants likely represent a sub-set of young adults engaged with healthcare and therefore may not be representative of the population. Strategies reported vital by those successfully managing their disorder are not adequately utilised by young adults with BD. Both differences in strategy use and perceived self-management challenges represent important areas of clinical support and intervention. This increased understanding will help facilitate self-management skill development in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Young adults: beloved by food and drink marketers and forgotten by public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Kelly, Bridget; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Baur, Louise

    2016-12-01

    Young adults are a highly desirable target population for energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) food and beverage marketing. But little research, resources, advocacy and policy action have been directed at this age group, despite the fact that young adults are gaining weight faster than previous generations and other population groups. Factors such as identity development and shifting interpersonal influences differentiate young adulthood from other life stages and influence the adoption of both healthy and unhealthy eating behaviours. EDNP food and beverage marketing campaigns use techniques to normalize brands within young adult culture, in particular through online social media. Young adults must be a priority population in future obesity prevention efforts. Stronger policies to protect young adults from EDNP food and beverage marketing may also increase the effectiveness of policies that are meant to protect younger children. Restrictions on EDNP food and beverage marketing should be extended to include Internet-based advertising and also aim to protect vulnerable young adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Mental health in young adults and adolescents - supporting general physicians to provide holistic care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    In the era of an ageing population, young adults on medical wards are quite rare, as only 12% of young adults report a long-term illness or disability. However, mental health problems remain prevalent in the younger population. In a recent report, mental health and obesity were listed as the most common problems in young adults. Teams set up specifically for the needs of younger adults, such as early intervention in psychosis services are shown to work better than traditional care and have also proven to be cost effective. On the medical wards, younger patients may elicit strong emotions in staff, who often feel protective and may identify strongly with the young patient's suffering. In order to provide holistic care for young adults, general physicians need to recognise common presentations of mental illness in young adults such as depression, deliberate self-harm, eating disorders and substance misuse. Apart from treating illness, health promotion is particularly important for young adults. © 2015 Royal College of Physicians.

  11. Young adult smokers' neural response to graphic cigarette warning labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E. Green

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.

  12. Perceptions of Resiliency and Coping: Homeless Young Adults Speak Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…

  13. No excess fatigue in young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, N. E.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Voûte, P. A.; de Haan, R. J.; van den Bos, C.

    2003-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest that many survivors of childhood cancer experience fatigue as a long-term effect of their treatment. To investigate this issue further, we assessed the level of fatigue in young adult survivors of childhood cancer. We compared the results with a group of young adults with no

  14. Healthy older adults have insufficient hip range of motion and plantar flexor strength to walk like healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dennis E; Madigan, Michael L

    2014-03-21

    Limited plantar flexor strength and hip extension range of motion (ROM) in older adults are believed to underlie common age-related differences in gait. However, no studies of age-related differences in gait have quantified the percentage of strength and ROM used during gait. We examined peak hip angles, hip torques and plantar flexor torques, and corresponding estimates of functional capacity utilized (FCU), which we define as the percentage of available strength or joint ROM used, in 10 young and 10 older healthy adults walking under self-selected and controlled (slow and fast) conditions. Older adults walked with about 30% smaller hip extension angle, 28% larger hip flexion angle, 34% more hip extensor torque in the slow condition, and 12% less plantar flexor torque in the fast condition than young adults. Older adults had higher FCU than young adults for hip flexion angle (47% vs. 34%) and hip extensor torque (48% vs. 27%). FCUs for plantar flexor torque (both age groups) and hip extension angle (older adults in all conditions; young adults in self-selected gait) were not significantly adults lacked sufficient hip extension ROM to walk with a hip extension angle as large as that of young adults. Similarly, in the fast gait condition older adults lacked the strength to match the plantar flexor torque produced by young adults. This supports the hypothesis that hip extension ROM and plantar flexor strength are limiting factors in gait and contribute to age-related differences in gait. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk factor and etiology analysis of ischemic stroke in young adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, Rosaria; Pilato, Fabio; Profice, Paolo; Della Marca, Giacomo; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Morosetti, Roberta; Frisullo, Giovanni; Rossi, Elena; De Stefano, Valerio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-03-01

    Approximately 10%-14% of ischemic strokes occur in young adults. To investigate risk factors and etiologies of strokes of young adults admitted to the "stroke unit" of Policlinico "Gemelli" of Rome from December 2005 to January 2013. In all, 150 consecutive patients younger than 50 years diagnosed with ischemic stroke were enrolled. Clinical evaluation consisted of a complete neurologic examination and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Diagnostic workup consisted of anamnesis, extensive laboratory, radiologic, and cardiologic examination. Stroke etiologies were classified according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment. Patients' mean age was 41 ± 8.0 years. The most common risk factors were dyslipidemia (52.7%), smoking (47.3%), hypertension (39.3%), and patent foramen ovale (PFO, 32.8%). Large-artery atherosclerosis was diagnosed as the cause of stroke in 17 patients (11.3%). Cardioembolism was presumed in 36 patients (24%), most of them presented a PFO at transesophageal echocardiography. Small-vessel occlusion was diagnosed in 12 patients (8%); all of them were hypertensive and most of them presented additional risk factors. Forty-one patients (27.3%) presented a stroke of other determined etiology and 44 (29.3%) presented a stroke of undetermined etiology. The 3-year survival was 96.8% and recurrent strokes occurred in only 3 cases. Traditional vascular risk factors are also very common in young adults with ischemic stroke, but such factors increase the susceptibility to stroke dependent to other causes as atherosclerosis and small-artery occlusion represent less than 20% of cases. Prognosis quoadvitam is good, being characterized by low mortality and recurrence rate. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Outbreak-related mumps vaccine effectiveness among a cohort of children and of young adults in Germany 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takla, Anja; Böhmer, Merle M; Klinc, Christina; Kurz, Norbert; Schaffer, Alice; Stich, Heribert; Stöcker, Petra; Wichmann, Ole; Koch, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Mumps outbreaks in populations with high 2-dose vaccination coverage and among young adults are increasingly reported. However, data on the duration of vaccine-induced protection conferred by mumps vaccines are scarce. As part of a supra-regional outbreak in Germany 2010/11, we conducted two retrospective cohort studies in a primary school and among adult ice hockey teams to determine mumps vaccine effectiveness (VE). Via questionnaires we collected information on demography, clinical manifestations, and reviewed vaccination cards. We estimated VE as 1-RR, RR being the rate ratio of disease among two-times or one-time mumps-vaccinated compared with unvaccinated persons. The response rate was 92.6% (100/108--children cohort) and 91.7% (44/48--adult cohort). Fourteen cases were identified in the children and 6 in the adult cohort. In the children cohort (mean age: 9 y), 2-dose VE was 91.9% (95% CI 81.0-96.5%). In the adult cohort (mean age: 26 y), no cases occurred among the 13 2-times vaccinated, while 1-dose VE was 50.0% (95% CI -9.4-87.1%). Average time since last vaccination showed no significant difference for cases and non-cases, but cases were younger at age of last mumps vaccination (children cohort: 2 vs. 3 y, P=0.04; adult cohort: 1 vs. 4 y, P=0.03). We did not observe signs of waning immunity in the children cohort. Due to the small sample size VE in the adult cohort should be interpreted with caution. Given the estimated VE, very high 2-dose vaccination coverage is required to prevent future outbreaks. Intervention efforts to increase coverage must especially target young adults who received<2 vaccinations during childhood.

  17. Long-term outcome after arterial ischemic stroke in children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeggel Simonetti, Barbara; Cavelti, Ariane; Arnold, Marcel; Bigi, Sandra; Regényi, Mária; Mattle, Heinrich P; Gralla, Jan; Fluss, Joel; Weber, Peter; Hackenberg, Annette; Steinlin, Maja; Fischer, Urs

    2015-05-12

    To compare long-term outcome of children and young adults with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) from 2 large registries. Prospective cohort study comparing functional and psychosocial long-term outcome (≥2 years after AIS) in patients who had AIS during childhood (1 month-16 years) or young adulthood (16.1-45 years) between January 2000 and December 2008, who consented to follow-up. Data of children were collected prospectively in the Swiss Neuropediatric Stroke Registry, young adults in the Bernese stroke database. Follow-up information was available in 95/116 children and 154/187 young adults. Median follow-up of survivors was 6.9 years (interquartile range 4.7-9.4) and did not differ between the groups (p = 0.122). Long-term functional outcome was similar (p = 0.896): 53 (56%) children and 84 (55%) young adults had a favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale 0-1). Mortality in children was 14% (13/95) and in young adults 7% (11/154) (p = 0.121) and recurrence rate did not differ (p = 0.759). Overall psychosocial impairment and quality of life did not differ, except for more behavioral problems among children (13% vs 5%, p = 0.040) and more frequent reports of an impact of AIS on everyday life among adults (27% vs 64%, p Stroke Scale/NIH Stroke Scale score was the most important predictor of favorable outcome (p young adults for mortality, disability, quality of life, psychological, or social variables. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Well Researched, Yet Little Understood: Young Adults and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothran, Donetta; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2005-01-01

    The authors present two beginning studies. One investigated the teaching-style preferences of young adults, and the other looked at physical activity trends within this age group. One key to understanding young adults and physical activity is to recognize the importance of participant cognition on physical activity patterns. From this…

  19. Do young adults with bipolar disorder benefit from early intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether young adults with bipolar disorder are able to benefit from early intervention combining optimised pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation. The aim of the present report was to compare the effects of early intervention among patients with bipolar...... disorder aged 18-25 years to that of patients aged 26 years or older. METHODS: Patients were randomised to early treatment in a specialised outpatient mood disorder clinic versus standard care. The primary outcome was risk of psychiatric re-hospitalisation. RESULTS: A total of 158 patients with mania/bipolar...... different, the observed differences of the point estimates was surprisingly larger for young adults suggesting that young adults with bipolar disorder may benefit even more than older adults from early intervention combining pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation....

  20. Lonely young adults in modern Britain: findings from an epidemiological cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Timothy; Danese, Andrea; Caspi, Avshalom; Fisher, Helen L; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Kepa, Agnieszka; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L; Arseneault, Louise

    2018-04-24

    The aim of this study was to build a detailed, integrative profile of the correlates of young adults' feelings of loneliness, in terms of their current health and functioning and their childhood experiences and circumstances. Data were drawn from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a birth cohort of 2232 individuals born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995. Loneliness was measured when participants were aged 18. Regression analyses were used to test concurrent associations between loneliness and health and functioning in young adulthood. Longitudinal analyses were conducted to examine childhood factors associated with young adult loneliness. Lonelier young adults were more likely to experience mental health problems, to engage in physical health risk behaviours, and to use more negative strategies to cope with stress. They were less confident in their employment prospects and were more likely to be out of work. Lonelier young adults were, as children, more likely to have had mental health difficulties and to have experienced bullying and social isolation. Loneliness was evenly distributed across genders and socioeconomic backgrounds. Young adults' experience of loneliness co-occurs with a diverse range of problems, with potential implications for health in later life. The findings underscore the importance of early intervention to prevent lonely young adults from being trapped in loneliness as they age.

  1. Clusters of Adolescent and Young Adult Thyroid Cancer in Florida Counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raid Amin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thyroid cancer is a common cancer in adolescents and young adults ranking 4th in frequency. Thyroid cancer has captured the interest of epidemiologists because of its strong association to environmental factors. The goal of this study is to identify thyroid cancer clusters in Florida for the period 2000–2008. This will guide further discovery of potential risk factors within areas of the cluster compared to areas not in cluster. Methods. Thyroid cancer cases for ages 15–39 were obtained from the Florida Cancer Data System. Next, using the purely spatial Poisson analysis function in SaTScan, the geographic distribution of thyroid cancer cases by county was assessed for clusters. The reference population was obtained from the Census Bureau 2010, which enabled controlling for population age, sex, and race. Results. Two statistically significant clusters of thyroid cancer clusters were found in Florida: one in southern Florida (SF (relative risk of 1.26; P value of <0.001 and the other in northwestern Florida (NWF (relative risk of 1.71; P value of 0.012. These clusters persisted after controlling for demographics including sex, age, race. Conclusion. In summary, we found evidence of thyroid cancer clustering in South Florida and North West Florida for adolescents and young adult.

  2. The Effects of Framing Vocational Choices on Young Adults' Sets of Career Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Daniel C.; Whitcomb, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The present paper examines the effects of two decision-framing inductions on young adults' set of career options: first, whether young adults use abilities or interests as the grounds for their vocational choices and, second, whether young adults approach the decision-making task by including all career options to which they feel…

  3. Micro-Albuminuria In Adolescent/Young Adult Offsprings Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    young adult offsprings of Nigeria hypertensive adults. Background: On the premise that micro-albuminuria is a predictor of early stage hypertensive disease and the fact that heredity plays an important role in the aetiology of essential hypertension, ...

  4. Post-stroke epilepsy in young adults: a long-term follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntz, R.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the incidence and risk of seizures after stroke in young adults. Especially in the young seizures might dramatically influence prognosis and quality of life. We therefore investigated the long-term incidence and risk of post-stroke epilepsy in young adults with a

  5. Getting young adults back to church: A marketing approach | van der ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Getting young adults back to church: A marketing approach. ... A decline in the number of young adults that attend church services is also evident. The purpose of the research ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  6. A Case of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in an HIV-Positive Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakriti Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is commonly known to cause an influenza-like illness. However, it can also cause more severe disease in young children and older adults comprising of organ transplant patients with immunocompromised status. Till date, only four cases of RSV infections have been reported in HIV-positive adults. We describe here a case of HIV-positive female with relatively preserved immune function who presented with RSV infection requiring ventilation and showed improvement after prompt treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin.

  7. File list: ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 All antigens Adult Germline containing young adult...6563,SRX495065,SRX495061,SRX495102,SRX495062,SRX494887,SRX495066 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 All antigens Adult Germline containing young adult...4871,SRX494938,SRX495065,SRX495061,SRX494933,SRX495042,SRX495102 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 All antigens Adult Germline containing young adult...4938,SRX466563,SRX495065,SRX495061,SRX494933,SRX495102,SRX494887 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  10. Young Adults' Linguistic Manipulation of English in Bangla in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shaila

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed in the print media that bilingual young adults in Bangladesh are subjugated by the colonial legacy of English and they are "polluting" Bangla, the national language of Bangladesh, by their indiscriminate insertion of English in it. However, this ethnographic study on a group of young adults in a university in…

  11. Health-related stigma as a determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Kapella

    Full Text Available Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18-35 with narcolepsy (N = 122 and without narcolepsy (N = 93 were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ, Fife Stigma Scale (FSS, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (p<0.01. Health-related stigma was directly and indirectly associated with lower functioning through depressed mood. Fifty-two percent of the variance in functioning was explained by the final model in the young adults with narcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy.

  12. Health-related stigma as a determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapella, Mary C; Berger, Barbara E; Vern, Boris A; Vispute, Sachin; Prasad, Bharati; Carley, David W

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of narcolepsy tend to arise during adolescence or young adulthood, a formative time in human development during which people are usually completing their education and launching a career. Little is known about the impact of narcolepsy on the social aspects of health-related quality of life in young adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between health-related stigma, mood (anxiety and depression) and daytime functioning in young adults with narcolepsy compared to those without narcolepsy. Young adults (age 18-35) with narcolepsy (N = 122) and without narcolepsy (N = 93) were mailed a packet that included questionnaires and a self-addressed postage paid envelope. The questionnaire included demographic information and a composite of instruments including the SF 36, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Fife Stigma Scale (FSS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Variable associations were assessed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U Test, correlations, stepwise multiple regression and path analysis. Young adults with narcolepsy perceived significantly more stigma and lower mood and health-related quality of life than young adults without narcolepsy (p<0.01). Health-related stigma was directly and indirectly associated with lower functioning through depressed mood. Fifty-two percent of the variance in functioning was explained by the final model in the young adults with narcolepsy. Health-related stigma in young adults with narcolepsy is at a level consistent with other chronic medical illnesses. Health-related stigma may be an important determinant of functioning in young adults with narcolepsy. Future work is indicated toward further characterizing stigma and developing interventions that address various domains of stigma in people with narcolepsy.

  13. Increasing Employment Opportunities for Disadvantaged Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Farhana; Terwelp, Emily

    2015-01-01

    In the past four decades, profound changes in the U.S. economy--including falling wages, widening inequality, and the polarization of jobs at the top and bottom of the education and wage distributions--have had dramatic implications for the labor-market fortunes of young adults. Only about half of young people ages 16 to 24 held jobs in 2014, and…

  14. Articulation of young adult readers in a digitalized and medialized landscape of texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Ayoe Qvist

    The digital turn does not bring about changes in young adultliterature considered as aesthetic artifacts and literary works but it changes the perception and reception of the reader. Digital young adult literature is increasingly multimodal, including interactivity and the integration of elements...... of game aesthetics. The way the young person is articulated within such texts must be presumed to be new, and the pivotal point of this paper will be to explore how the young adult reader is thematized in content, form, and medium in digital young adult literature....

  15. Young Adults' Perceptions of Calcium Intake and Health: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinow, Michelle L.; Randall Simpson, Janis A.; Whiting, Susan J.; Jung, Mary E.; Buchholz, Andrea C.

    2017-01-01

    Many young Canadian adults are not meeting dietary calcium recommendations. This is concerning as adequate calcium is important throughout young adulthood to maximize peak bone mass for osteoporosis prevention. There are limited studies that have explored young adults' perceptions toward calcium and health. Our objectives were to determine young…

  16. Diabetes Empowerment Council: Integrative Pilot Intervention for Transitioning Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigensberg, Marc J; Vigen, Cheryl; Sequeira, Paola; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Juarez, Magaly; Florindez, Daniella; Provisor, Joseph; Peters, Anne; Pyatak, Elizabeth A

    2018-01-01

    The transition of young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) from pediatric to adult care is challenging and frequently accompanied by worsening of diabetes-related health. To date, there are no reports which prospectively assess the effects of theory-based psycho-behavioral interventions during the transition period neither on glycemic control nor on psychosocial factors that contribute to poor glycemic control. Therefore, the overall aim of this study was to develop and pilot test an integrative group intervention based on the underlying principles of self-determination theory (SDT), in young adults with T1D. Fifty-one young adults with T1D participated in an education and case management-based transition program, of which 9 took part in the Diabetes Empowerment Council (DEC), a 12-week holistic, multimodality facilitated group intervention consisting of "council" process based on indigenous community practices, stress-reduction guided imagery, narrative medicine modalities, simple ritual, and other integrative modalities. Feasibility, acceptability, potential mechanism of effects, and bio-behavioral outcomes were determined using mixed qualitative and quantitative methods. The intervention was highly acceptable to participants, though presented significant feasibility challenges. Participants in DEC showed significant reductions in perceived stress and depression, and increases in general well-being relative to other control participants. Reduction in perceived stress, independent of intervention group, was associated with reductions in hemoglobin A1C. A theoretical model explaining the effects of the intervention included the promotion of relatedness and autonomy support, 2 important aspects of SDT. The DEC is a promising group intervention for young adults with T1D going through transition to adult care. Future investigations will be necessary to resolve feasibility issues, optimize the multimodality intervention, determine full intervention effects, and fully

  17. Getting young adults back to church: A marketing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. van der Merwe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, church membership is decreasing. A decline in the number of young adults that attend church services is also evident. The purpose of the research was to determine whether the application of a well-established body of knowledge of marketing theories and principles could be used by churches to encourage young adults to return to the church. The application of services marketing to the church as a non-profit organisation is discussed by focussing on non-physical and physical atmospheric cues in the church’s servicescape that could enhance church attendance. A quantitative approach was used by testing the opinions of 200 church service attendees of different denominations. The findings indicated that certain elements in the servicescape of a church may be useful in attracting young adults. It was found that music is a strong determinant of whether young adults attend church services, followed by layout and design of the church and then by the signs and symbols used in the church. Females reported significantly higher levels of positive perceptions concerning the layout and design. Although the research showed that some marketing elements, such as a positive servicescape, could improve church attendance, other personal elements such as forming personal relationships with fellow Christians and God need to be further explored.

  18. The Complexity of Family Reactions to Identity among Homeless and College Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Rachel M; Tyler, Kimberly A

    2018-05-01

    Familial responses to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) young people's identities range on a spectrum from rejection to acceptance and these reactions strongly impact family relationships and young adult well-being. Less is known, however, about how family members' reactions may differ based on young people's contexts of socioeconomic status. Through a qualitative, life course analysis of in-depth interview data from 46 LGBTQ college students and LGBTQ homeless young adults, our study highlights the diverse, contextual nuances of young people's "linked lives" within their families. We find that the context of socioeconomic status influenced how a young person managed family rejection. Conversely, processes of familial acceptance were also connected to life course transitions that worked in some cases to enhance LGBTQ young adults' family relationships. Finally, the intricacy of familial reactions to a young person's LGBTQ identity transcended socioeconomic contexts as many respondents shared similar experiences of rejection and acceptance. These findings have implications for understanding how young people manage family relationships across different contexts of socioeconomic status and how these experiences can shape their life course trajectories. Results from this study can inform LGBTQ youth service providers by tailoring intervention programs that account for contextual social diversity.

  19. File list: InP.Adl.50.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adl.50.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 Input control Adult Germline containing young adult...p/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/InP.Adl.50.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  20. Effectiveness of individual placement and support supported employment for young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Gary R; Drake, Robert E; Campbell, Kikuko

    2016-08-01

    The individual placement and support (IPS) model of supported employment was first developed in community mental health centres for adults with severe mental illness. While IPS is an established evidence-based practice in this broad population, evidence on its effectiveness focused specifically on young adults has been limited. The current study aimed to address this gap. To investigate the effects of IPS on young adults, the authors conducted a secondary analysis on a pooled sample of 109 unemployed young adults (under age 30) from four randomized controlled trials employing a common research protocol that included a standardized measurement battery and rigorous fidelity monitoring. Researchers assessed these participants over 18 months on nine competitive employment outcome measures. On all measures, the IPS group had significantly better employment outcomes. Overall, 40 (82%) of IPS participants obtained employment during follow-up compared with 25 (42%) of control participants, χ(2) = 17.9, P < .001. IPS participants averaged 25.0 weeks of employment, compared with 7.0 weeks for control participants, t = 4.50, P < .001. The current analysis supports a small number of previous studies in showing that IPS is highly effective in helping young adults with severe mental illness to attain competitive employment. When young adults acquire competitive jobs and initiate a path towards normal adult roles, they may avoid the cycle of disability and psychiatric patient roles that are demeaning and demoralizing. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Merchandising Library Materials to Young Adults. Libraries Unlimited Professional Guides for Young Adult Librarians Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Mary Anne

    By addressing the concept of merchandising, this handbook shows librarians how to turn their young adult collection into one that will attract teenagers. Delivering an introduction to marketing and merchandising concepts, the author shares years of experience as a teen services librarian, combined with the latest studies and research findings on…

  2. Workplace secondhand smoke exposure: a lingering hazard for young adults in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Louisa M; Ling, Pamela M

    2017-03-01

    To examine occupational differences in workplace exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) among young adults in California. Data are taken from the 2014 Bay Area Young Adult Health Survey, a probabilistic multimode cross-sectional household survey of young adults, aged 18-26, in Alameda and San Francisco Counties. Respondents were asked whether they had been exposed to SHS 'indoors' or 'outdoors' at their workplace in the previous 7 days and also reported their current employment status, industry and occupation. Sociodemographic characteristics and measures of health perception and behaviour were included in the final model. Young adults employed in service (pyoung adults in the San Francisco Bay Area still reported workplace SHS exposure in the past week, with those in lower income occupations and working in non-office environments experiencing the greatest exposure. Closing the gaps that exempt certain types of workplaces from the Smoke-Free Workplace Act may be especially beneficial for young adults. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Computed tomographic evolution of post-traumatic subdural hygroma in young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuzawa, T.; Sato, F.

    1984-01-01

    The authors report on two cases of post-traumatic subdural hygroma that were encountered in young adults. Serial computed tomograms were taken immediately following trauma and for more than 4 weeks thereafter. In the case of a 28-year-old man with a skull fracture, an initial CT scan revealed a thin crescentic subdural collection in the right frontal area. A successive CT scan on the 36th postoperative day revealed developed subdural hygroma, and the CSF-like fluid was surgically evacuated. In the second case, involving an 18-year-old man, a very thin bifrontal subdural collection was found on the initial CT scan, and on the 15th post-traumatic day CT scan demonstrated a bifrontal subdural hygroma. No surgical treatment was carried out, and the follow-up CT scan on the 29th post-traumatic day demonstrated no change in size. The two young patients were slightly symptomatic during the period involved, and the repeat unenchanced CT scans showed subdural lesions of less than brain density, even in the chronic stage. (orig.)

  4. File list: NoD.Adl.05.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adl.05.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 No description Adult Germline containing young adult... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/NoD.Adl.05.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  5. File list: NoD.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 No description Adult Germline containing young adult... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/NoD.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  6. File list: NoD.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 No description Adult Germline containing young adult... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/NoD.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  7. File list: NoD.Adl.50.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Adl.50.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 No description Adult Germline containing young adult... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/NoD.Adl.50.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  8. Acute neuropsychiatric disorders in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome: Japanese case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akahoshi K

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Keiko Akahoshi,1 Hiroshi Matsuda,2 Masuko Funahashi,1 Tomoyuki Hanaoka,3 Yasuyuki Suzuki11Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Children’s Rehabilitation Hospital, Tokyo; 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama; 3Department of Pediatrics, Bihoro Rehabilitation Hospital, Hokkaido, JapanBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate acute neuropsychiatric disorders in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome. We report 13 Japanese adolescents or young adults with Down syndrome who developed acute neuropsychiatric disorders including withdrawal, depression, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and occasional delusions or hallucinations.Methods: The following information was collected from each patient: age at onset of acute neuropsychiatric disorder, complications, signs and symptoms, personality traits before the onset of the acute neuropsychiatric disorder, prescribed medications with their respective doses and the response to treatment, and senile changes observed on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography.Results: The mean age at onset of these disorders was 21.2 years. Brain imaging showed almost senile changes; patients responded well to low-dose psychotropic therapy. Patients had an onset at a young age and presented with treatable conditions, although the average age of the onset of Alzheimer’s disease is generally over 40 years of age in patients with Down syndrome.Conclusion: These findings suggest that the pathology of acute neuropsychiatric disorder in patients with Down syndrome may be related to presenile changes; however, these disorders present features and a clinical course that is different from those presented in typical Alzheimer’s disease with Down syndrome.Keywords: Down syndrome, acute neuropsychiatric disorders, Alzheimer’s disease

  9. Mental health trajectories from childhood to young adulthood affect the educational and employment status of young adults: results from the TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Karin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Ortiz, Josue Almansa; Verhulst, Frank C; Bültmann, Ute

    2015-06-01

    Young adults at work without basic educational level (BEL), and young adults in Neither Employment, Education nor Training (NEET) are at high risk of adverse employment outcomes. Evidence lacks on the impact of mental health problems during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood on employment outcomes of young adults. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) identify trajectories of mental health problems from childhood to young adulthood and (2) investigate the relation between these trajectories and the educational or employment status of young adults. Data were used from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a Dutch prospective cohort study with 9-year follow-up. Trajectories of mental health problems measured at ages 11, 13.5, 16 and 19 years were identified in 1711 young adults with latent class growth models. Young adults with high-stable trajectories of total problems, from childhood to young adulthood, were more likely to work without BEL or be in NEET at age 19, than to be at school or to work with BEL (28.0% vs 16.0%, p=0.01). The same was found for externalising problems (35.3% vs 23.2%, p=0.02). For internalising and attention problems, no statistically significant differences were found. Young adults with high-stable trajectories of mental health problems from age 11 to 19, were at risk of adverse employment outcomes. Interventions reducing mental health problems in childhood may improve the educational or employment status of young adults and their chances for successfully entering the labour market. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Handgrip force steadiness in young and older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomkvist, Andreas W; Eika, Fredrik; de Bruin, Eling D

    2018-01-01

    ) was investigated in a test-retest design with seven days between sessions. Ten young and thirty older adults were recruited and handgrip steadiness was tested at 5%, 10% and 25% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) using Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB). Coefficients of variation were calculated from the mean...... force produced (CVM) and the target force (CVT). Area between the force curve and the target force line (Area) was also calculated. For the older adults we explored reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and agreement using standard error of measurement (SEM), limits of agreement......, CVT and Area was 0.815, 0.806 and 0.464, respectively. Averaged ICC on 5%, 10%, and 25% of MVC was 0.751, 0.667 and 0.668, respectively. Measures of agreement showed similar trends with better results for CVM and CVT than for Area. Young adults had better handgrip steadiness than older adults across...

  11. Goals and everyday problem solving: manipulating goal preferences in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, we examined the link between goal and problem-solving strategy preferences in 130 young and older adults using hypothetical family problem vignettes. At baseline, young adults preferred autonomy goals, whereas older adults preferred generative goals. Imagining an expanded future time perspective led older adults to show preferences for autonomy goals similar to those observed in young adults but did not eliminate age differences in generative goals. Autonomy goals were associated with more self-focused instrumental problem solving, whereas generative goals were related to more other-focused instrumental problem solving in the no-instruction and instruction conditions. Older adults were better at matching their strategies to their goals than young adults were. This suggests that older adults may become better at selecting their strategies in accordance with their goals. Our findings speak to a contextual approach to everyday problem solving by showing that goals are associated with the selection of problem-solving strategies.

  12. EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in young adults: is this a distinct disease entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J Y; Yoon, D H; Suh, C; Huh, J; Do, I-G; Sohn, I; Jo, J; Jung, S-H; Hong, M E; Yoon, H; Ko, Y H; Kim, S J; Kim, W S

    2015-03-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly is defined only in adults older than 50 years. However, EBV-positive DLBCL can affect younger patients. We investigated the prevalence, clinical characteristics and survival outcomes of EBV-positive DLBCL in young adults. We analyzed patients with de novo DLBCL who were registered in the Samsung Medical Center (SMC) retrospective lymphoma cohort and prospective SMC Lymphoma Cohort Study I (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00822731). A total of 571 cases were included in the analysis. The prevalence of EBV positivity was 6.7% (13/195) and 9.3% (35/376) in the young group (≤50 years) and in the elderly group (>50 years), respectively. EBV status was closely associated with unique unfavorable clinical characteristics [older age, more advanced stage, two or more sites of extranodal involvement, higher International Prognostic Index (IPI), and age-adjusted IPI risk] only in the elderly group. Poor prognostic impact of EBV positivity on overall survival was observed only in the elderly group [hazard ratio (HR) 2.86; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.83-4.47; P young group (HR 1.17; 95% CI 0.35-3.89; P = 0.801). A substantial proportion of EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly can occur in young adults. EBV positivity of DLBCL in young adults was not associated with unfavorable clinical characteristics or worse outcomes. We suggest that EBV-positive DLBCL should not be confined only in the elderly and 'EBV-positive DLBCL in young adults' needs to be considered as a clinically distinct disease entity. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02060435. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Young Adults' Health Care Utilization and Expenditures Prior to the Affordable Care Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Josephine S.; Adams, Sally H.; Boscardin, W. John; Irwin, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Examine young adults' health care utilization and expenditures prior to the ACA. Methods We used 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) to 1) compare young adults' health care utilization and expenditures of a full-spectrum of health services to children and adolescents and 2) identify disparities in young adults' utilization and expenditures, based on access (insurance and usual source of care) and other socio-demographic factors, including race/ethnicity and income. Results Young adults had: 1) significantly lower rates of overall utilization (72%) than other age groups (83-88%, Pyoung adults had high out-of-pocket expenses. Compared to the young adults with private insurance, the uninsured spent less than half on health care ($1,040 vs. $2,150/ person, Pyoung adults, we identified significant disparities in utilization and expenditures based on the presence/absence of a usual source of care, race/ethnicity, home language and sex. Conclusions Young adults may not be utilizing the health care system optimally by having low rates of office-based visits and high rates of ER visits. The ACA provision of insurance for those previously uninsured or under-insured will likely increase their utilization and expenditures and lower their out-of-pocket expenses. Further effort is needed to address non-insurance barriers and ensure equal access to health services. PMID:24702839

  14. Sexuality of young adults with cerebral palsy: Experienced limitations and needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.H.G. Wiegerink (Diana); M.E. Roebroeck (Marij); J. Bender (Jim); H.J. Stam (Henk); P.T. Cohen-Kettenis (Peggy)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractObjective of this study is to describe the problems young adults with Cerebral Palsy (CP) experience in the various stages of the sexual response cycle, and the physical and emotional obstacles they experience with sexuality. In this prospective cohort study 74 young adults (46 men; 28

  15. Social branding to decrease smoking among young adults in bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B; Jordan, Jeffrey W; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for "hipster" young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons.

  16. A concept analysis of young adults; Perception of HIV Counselling and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrone R. Risenga

    2017-10-01

    Background: Perception forms the core of HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT use by young adults, because it is from these perceptions that young adults will decide to follow an HCT programme or not, depending on how they perceive the programme. HCT as an entry point in HIV and AIDS services should be accessible and young adults' perceptions towards the programme be promoted in order to assist them to develop positive perceptions towards the programme, which will enhance its uptake. Data sources: A literature search was undertaken using internet search engines, different journals, websites and electronic literature indexes. A sample of 60 documents met the criteria. The inclusion criterion was any article addressing perceptions in psychology, social sciences, nursing and education were reviewed. Review method: A concept analysis was conducted according to the steps of Rodger andKnafl (2000; Walker and Avant (2005 and Wilson (1963. Results: Perception has been defined as a constructive process that relies on a top-down processing. This entails that people make inferences about what they see and try to make a best guess as to what the object is all about. Attributes for perception were defined as intensity and physical dimension of stimulus, past experiences, and attention factors such as readiness to respond to the stimulus, motivation and emotional state of the subject. Consequences include increasedHCTuptake by young adults, a positive lifestyle, a reduction in the spreading of HIV and AIDS and lowered HIV statistics amongst young adults. Conclusion: The study findings related to HCT and perceptions paved the way towards a further understanding of HCT as an entry programme in HIV/AIDS services or programmes in relation to young adults. The ability of young adults to use their auditory senses to hear the nurses talk about HCT and HIV, the ability to see the attitudes displayed by HCT counsellors, and their perceptions with regard to lack of privacy, together with a

  17. Association of β-fibrinogen promoter gene polymorphism (−148C/T), hyperfibrinogenemia and ischemic stroke in young adult patients

    OpenAIRE

    Imran, Imran; Lamsudin, Rusdi; Idjradinata, Ponpon; Achmad, Tri Hanggono; Maskoen, Amelani; Wibowo, Samekto; Harapan, Harapan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) −148C/T which is located in β-fibrinogen gene (FGB) promoter has correlation with fibrinogen levels; however, the association of SNP −148C/T and ischemic stroke in young adult patients is contradictory. Aim: To determine the association of SNP −148C/T in FGB promoter with plasma fibrinogen levels and ischemic stroke in young adults. Subjects and methods: In this case-control study, SNP −148C/T among 107 ischemic stroke patients and 94 con...

  18. Comparison of differentiated thyroid cancer in children and adolescents (≤20 years) with young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Ali S; Alkhafaji, Dania; Tuli, Mahmoud; Al-Hindi, Hindi; Sadiq, Bakr Bin

    2016-04-01

    Age is a major prognostic factor in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). It is not clear if paediatric DTC has a different histopathological profile and outcome than DTC in adult patients age. To assess whether DTC in children and adolescents differs from young age group by comparing paediatric DTC (age ≤ 20) with DTC in patients >20 to age. We studied all cases of paediatric DTC seen during the period 1998-2011. We compared this group with a large sample of 213 consecutive adult patients in the age group >20 to age 17 years (range, 8-20)] and 213 young adult patients [median age 33 years (range, 20·5-44·9)]. There was no difference in gender distribution, tumour subtypes, size and tumour multifocality, but there was a significantly higher rate of extrathyroidal extension [40/75 (53·3%) vs 81/213 (38·0%), P = 0·03], lymph node [57/73 (78%) vs 102/183 (55·7%), P adult groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a higher risk of persistent/recurrent disease in the paediatric group than adults (log-rank test 0·03). However, there was no mortality secondary to DTC in both groups. Paediatric DTC is distinct from DTC in the young adults (age >20 to <45 years). It is characterized by a higher rate of extrathyroidal extension, lymph node and distant metastases and a higher risk of persistent/recurrent DTC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Knowledge and Beliefs About E-Cigarettes in Straight-to-Work Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Mary; Cheney, Marshall K; Wann, Taylor F

    2017-02-01

    Young adults are a growing segment of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users. Young adults who go straight to work (STW) from high school make up a large portion of the young adult population, yet research to date has focused on college-educated young adults. This study explored STW young adult beliefs and knowledge about e-cigarettes. Semistructured individual interviews were used to elicit in-depth information from STW young adults ages 19-31 from a state in the southwest United States. Thirty interviews were conducted focusing on beliefs about e-cigarettes, current knowledge, and information-seeking practices. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo. Nine themes were identified falling into three categories: (1) beliefs about e-cigarettes, (2) knowledge about e-cigarettes, and (3) personal rules about e-cigarettes. STW young adults held positive beliefs about the health and safety of e-cigarettes for themselves, others, and the environment. They reported their social networks and the Internet as reliable sources of information about e-cigarettes, but they reported parents as the best source for advice. Participants had rules about e-cigarettes that contradicted some of their beliefs such as using e-cigarettes around children indicating that their beliefs were not as strongly held as they initially reported. Industry marketing and contradictory information may contribute to STW young adult knowledge and beliefs about e-cigarettes. Lack of credible public health information may also contribute to this issue. Ensuring that what is known about the benefits and harms of e-cigarettes is conveyed through multichannel communication and continued monitoring of marketing practices of the e-cigarette industry in light of the soon to be implemented regulations should be top priorities for public health. Beliefs and knowledge of STW young adults have not been explored even though they are heavily targeted by the e-cigarette industry. This group

  20. Upper functional gastrointestinal disorders in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Peyman; Behzad, Ebrahim; Shafieeyan, Mohammad; Toghiani, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Functional Gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are common disorders in gastroenterology which are common in young adults. The aim of this study is evaluating the prevalence of upper FGID in iranian young adults. This was a cross-sectional study which was on 995 persons who were going to marry. A ROME III based questionnaire was used to determine the frequency of upper GI Syndromes among the sample population. Our results determined 74 subjects had functional dyspepsia (36 subjects diagnosed as postprandial distress syndrome patient and Epigastric pain syndrome was seen in 38 subjects). Functional heartburn was diagnosed in 52 participants. Globus was seen in 35 subjects and 41 had unspecified excessive belching. Many epidemiologic studies were done all around the world but there are different reports about prevalence and incidence of FGIDs. Our results were agreed with reported prevalence of FGIDs in Iran in adults. And our findings were agreed with some other Asian studies.

  1. Toxicity of inhaled 239PuO2 in immature, young adult, and aged Syrian hamsters. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, C.H.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Slauson, D.A.; McClellan, R.O.; Miglio, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    Syrian hamsters have been exposed at either 28 (immature), 84 (young adult), or 340 (aged) days of age to polydisperse aerosols of 239 PuO 2 to better define dose-response relationships for this radionuclide in a population with a wide range of ages such as would be the case with a human population following a catastrophic nuclear accident. Animals were exposed to obtain initial lung burdens of 240, 60, 15, 3.8, 0.95, 0.25, and 0.029 nCi for the immature and young adult animals and 240, 60, 15, and 3.8 nCi for the aged animals. Animals are being maintained both for serial sacrifice to determine the radiation dose pattern for lung and other tissues and for lifespan observation to determine dose-response relationships. At the present time, only animals with ILB of about 200 nCi or higher exposed as either immature, young adult, or aged animals have shown increased mortality as compared to controls. At this time, the young adult, immature, and aged animals are 68, 73, and 27 weeks post-inhalation exposure, respectively. The animals that died in the higher ILB groups had radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis along with atypical pulmonary epithelial hyperplasia. Histopathological examination is not complete on all animals that have died, but no pulmonary neoplasms have been observed to date. (U.S.)

  2. Obesity Among Young Adults in Developing Countries: A Systematic Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poobalan, Amudha; Aucott, Lorna

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the overweight/obesity situation among young adults in developing countries. For this target population, obesity prevalence ranges from 2.3 to 12 %, and overweight is 28.8 %, mostly affecting females. Weight is now increasing during this life stage of transition at a higher rate, 1 kg/year, than in developed countries. Maternal factors and early childhood socioeconomic status are associated with BMI in young adults along with changing environmental and behavioural factors in some low and middle income countries, brought about by demographic and socioeconomic transitions. Young adults with 'normal weight' obesity need identification using other convenient low cost measures (skin folds or waist circumference) along with BMI. Obesity prevention or management interventions were not identified, but clearly needed to help stem the obesity pandemic. Young people generally give little priority to their future health, so such interventions need to be conducted at some optimal age, be innovative, country specific and culturally acceptable.

  3. A Comparison of Support for Two Groups of Young Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Sarah; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina; Scholte, Evert

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) have varying profiles of cognitive, adaptive and behavioural functioning. There is also variability in their educational and therapeutic needs. This study compares recommended and actual provision of support for two groups of young adults with MBID and looks at young adults'…

  4. Introduction to Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer researchers, advocates, and a cancer survivor introduce the topic of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers, covering distinct aspects of cancer in these patients and research questions to answer.

  5. Openness to Using Non-cigarette Tobacco Products Among U.S. Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Arrazola, René A; Tworek, Cindy; Rolle, Italia V; Neff, Linda J; Portnoy, David B

    2016-04-01

    National data indicate that the prevalence of non-cigarette tobacco product use is highest among young adults; however, little is known about their openness to use these products in the future and associated risk factors. This study sought to characterize openness to using non-cigarette tobacco products and associated factors among U.S. young adults. In 2014, National Adult Tobacco Survey data (2012-2013) were analyzed to characterize openness to using the following tobacco products among all young adults aged 18-29 years (N=5,985): cigars; electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes"); hookah; pipe tobacco; chew, snuff, or dip; snus; and dissolvables. Among those who were not current users of each product, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between demographics, cigarette smoking status, lifetime use of other non-cigarette products, perceived harm and addictiveness of smoking, and receipt of tobacco industry promotions and openness to using each product. Among all young adults, openness to using non-cigarette tobacco products was greatest for hookah (28.2%); e-cigarettes (25.5%); and cigars (19.1%). In multivariable analyses, which included non-current users of each product, non-current ever, current, and former smokers were more likely than never smokers to be open to using most examined products, as were men and adults aged 18-24 years. Receipt of tobacco industry promotions was associated with openness to using e-cigarettes; chew, snuff, or dip; and snus. There is substantial openness to trying non-cigarette tobacco products among U.S. young adults. Young adults are an important population to consider for interventions targeting non-cigarette tobacco product use. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Individual and parental psychiatric history and risk for suicide among adolescents and young adults in Denmark : A population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Kirstina; Qin, Ping

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both individual and familial histories of mental illness are substantial risk factors for suicide in young people. AIM: To explore suicide risk among adolescents and young adults according to detailed aspects of individual and parental psychiatric admission history. METHODS: A nested...... case-control study was undertaken using data from Danish population registers to include 4,142 suicide cases and 82,840 matched controls aged 9-35 years. Data were analyzed with conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: A history of hospitalized psychiatric illness was a strong risk factor for suicide...... in adolescents and young adults, and the effect of such a history was greater in females than males. The elevated risk peaked in the two periods immediately after admission and discharge for both sexes, and exceeded in females who had multiple admissions and in males who were diagnosed with schizophrenia...

  7. Minimally invasive aesthetic procedures in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollina U

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Uwe Wollina1, Alberto Goldman21Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande du Sul, BrazilAbstract: Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asymmetries, correction after body modifying procedures, and facial sculpturing are important issues for young adults. The implication of aesthetic medicine as part of preventive medicine is a major ethical challenge that differentiates aesthetic medicine from fashion.Keywords: acne scars, ice pick scars, boxcar scars, fillers 

  8. Improving Work Participation of Young Adults with Physical Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.C. Verhoef (Joan)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work

  9. Finger tapping ability in healthy elderly and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Tomoko; Fukuoka, Yoshiyuki

    2010-03-01

    The maximum isometric force production capacity of the fingers decreases with age. However, little information is available on age-related changes in dynamic motor capacity of individual fingers. The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic motor function of individual fingers between elderly and young adults using rapid single-finger and double-finger tapping. Fourteen elderly and 14 young adults performed maximum frequency tapping by the index, middle, ring, or little finger (single-finger tapping) and with alternate movements of the index-middle, middle-ring, or ring-little finger-pair (double-finger tapping). The maximum pinch force between the thumb and each finger, tactile sensitivity of each fingertip, and time taken to complete a pegboard test were also measured. Compared with young subjects, the older subjects had significantly slower tapping rates in all fingers and finger-pairs in the tapping tasks. The age-related decline was also observed in the tactile sensitivities of all fingers and in the pegboard test. However, there was no group difference in the pinch force of any finger. The tapping rate of each finger did not correlate with the pinch force or tactile sensitivity for the corresponding finger in the elderly subjects. Maximum rate of finger tapping was lower in the elderly adults compared with the young adults. The decline of finger tapping ability in elderly adults seems to be less affected by their maximum force production capacities of the fingers as well as tactile sensitivities at the tips of the fingers.

  10. File list: InP.Adl.05.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adl.05.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 Input control Adult Germline containing young adult...X495065,SRX495061,SRX495042,SRX495102 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/InP.Adl.05.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  11. File list: InP.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 Input control Adult Germline containing young adult...X466563,SRX495065,SRX495061,SRX495102 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/InP.Adl.10.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  12. File list: InP.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 Input control Adult Germline containing young adult...X495061,SRX495102,SRX495062,SRX495066 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/InP.Adl.20.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...

  13. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…

  14. Cancer treatment decision-making among young adults with lung and colorectal cancer: a comparison with adults in middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Jennifer W; Cronin, Angel; Fasciano, Karen; Block, Susan D; Keating, Nancy L

    2016-09-01

    Our aim is to understand experiences with treatment decision-making among young adults with cancer. We studied patients with lung cancer or colorectal cancer in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium, a prospective cohort study. We identified 148 young adult patients aged 21-40 years who completed baseline interview questions about cancer treatment decision-making; each was propensity score matched to three middle adult patients aged 41-60 years, for a cohort of 592 patients. Patients were asked about decision-making preferences, family involvement in decision-making, and worries about treatment. An ordinal logistic regression model evaluated factors associated with more treatment worries. Young and middle-aged adults reported similar decision-making preferences (p = 0.80) and roles relative to physicians (p = 0.36). Although family involvement was similar in the age groups (p = 0.21), young adults were more likely to have dependent children in the home (60% younger versus 28% middle-aged adults, p Young adults reported more worries about time away from family (p = 0.002), and, in unadjusted analyses, more cancer treatment-related worries (mean number of responses of 'somewhat' or 'very' worried 2.5 for younger versus 2.2 for middle-aged adults, p = 0.02.) However, in adjusted analyses, worries were associated with the presence of dependent children in the home (odds ratio [OR] 1.55, 95% CI = 1.07-2.24, p = 0.02), rather than age. Young adults involve doctors and family members in decisions at rates similar to middle-aged adults but experience more worries about time away from family. Patients with dependent children are especially likely to experience worries. Treatment decision-making strategies should be based on individual preferences and needs rather than age alone. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. 'Mind the gap'--mapping services for young people with ADHD transitioning from child to adult mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Charlotte L; Newell, Karen; Taylor, John; Sayal, Kapil; Swift, Katie D; Hollis, Chris

    2013-07-10

    Once considered to be a disorder restricted to childhood, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is now recognised to persist into adult life. However, service provision for adults with ADHD is limited. Additionally, there is little guidance or research on how best to transition young people with ADHD from child to adult services. We report the findings of a survey of 96 healthcare professionals working in children's (Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services and Community Paediatrics) and adult services across five NHS Trusts within the East Midlands region of England to gain a better understanding of the current provision of services for young people with ADHD transitioning into adult mental health services. Our findings indicate a lack of structured guidelines on transitioning and little communication between child and adult services. Child and adult services had differing opinions on what they felt adult services should provide for ADHD cases. Adult services reported feeling ill-prepared to deal with ADHD patients, with clinicians in these services citing a lack of specific knowledge of ADHD and a paucity of resources to deal with such cases. We discuss suggestions for further research, including the need to map the national provision of services for adults with ADHD, and provide recommendations for commissioned adult ADHD services. We specifically advocate an increase in ADHD-specific training for clinicians in adult services, the development of specialist adult ADHD clinics and greater involvement of Primary Care to support the work of generic adult mental health services in adult ADHD management.

  16. Now and Then - Diasporic Identity Processes among South Asian Young Adults in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores some social-psychological aspects for South Asian Young Adults in Denmark such as identity processes through social relations across the geographical borders and psychological diaspora consciousness and is a follow up of the project conducted in the mid-nineties, in Denmark (N....... The young adults are perceived as active actors in relation to their life situation. The results show the young adults as well as parental generations´ reinterpretation of the self, other and home. They also depict that the young adults’ diasporic identities involve the countries of origin as well...

  17. Predictors of Work Participation of Young Adults with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are three to four times less often employed compared to their non-disabled peers. Evidence for factors associated with work participation of young adults with ID is limited. Furthermore, studies on predictors for sustainable work participation among young adults with ID is lacking altogether.…

  18. Pediatric to Adult Care Transition: Perspectives of Young Adults With Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Jerlym S; Wesley, Kimberly M; Zhao, Mimi S; Rupff, Rebecca J; Hankins, Jane S

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore perspectives of transition and transition readiness of young adult patients (YAs) with sickle cell disease (SCD) who have transitioned to adult health care. In all, 19 YAs with SCD (ages 18-30 years) participated in one of three focus groups and completed a brief questionnaire about transition topics. Transcripts were coded and emergent themes were examined using the social-ecological model of adolescent and young adult readiness for transition (SMART). Themes were consistent with most SMART components. Adult provider relationships and negative medical experiences emerged as salient factors. YAs ranked choosing an adult provider, seeking emergency care, understanding medications/medication adherence, knowing SCD complications, and being aware of the impact of health behaviors as the most important topics to include in transition programming. The unique perspectives of YAs can inform the development and evaluation of SCD transition programming by incorporating the identified themes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Examining intention in simulated actions: are children and young adults different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Caçola, Priscila

    2014-10-01

    Previous work with adults provides evidence that 'intention' used in processing simulated actions is similar to that used in planning and processing overt movements. The present study compared young adults and children on their ability to estimate distance reachability using a NOGO/GO paradigm in conditions of imagery only (IO) and imagery with actual execution (IE). Our initial thoughts were that whereas intention is associated with motivation and commitment to act, age-related differences could impact planning. Results indicated no difference in overall accuracy by condition within groups, and as expected adults were more accurate. These findings support an increasing body of evidence suggesting that the neurocognitive processes (in this case, intention) driving motor imagery and overt actions are similar, and as evidenced here, functioning by age 7. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Resiliency Scale for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince-Embury, Sandra; Saklofske, Donald H.; Nordstokke, David W.

    2017-01-01

    The Resiliency Scale for Young Adults (RSYA) is presented as an upward extension of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA). The RSYA is based on the "three-factor model of personal resiliency" including "mastery," "relatedness," and "emotional reactivity." Several stages of scale…

  1. Sudden cardiac death in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maiken K; Nissen, Peter H; Kristensen, Ingrid B

    2012-01-01

    pathogenic mutations. Lipid profiles and genetic testing for FH could be considered when autopsy reveals significant atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries in young adults. First-degree family members are advised to seek medical advice and testing to determine their own risks of atherosclerosis to prevent...

  2. Young Adult Smokers' Neural Response to Graphic Cigarette Warning Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E; Mays, Darren; Falk, Emily B; Vallone, Donna; Gallagher, Natalie; Richardson, Amanda; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Abrams, David B; Niaura, Raymond S

    2016-06-01

    The study examined young adult smokers' neural response to graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nineteen young adult smokers ( M age 22.9, 52.6% male, 68.4% non-white, M 4.3 cigarettes/day) completed pre-scan, self-report measures of demographics, cigarette smoking behavior, and nicotine dependence, and an fMRI scanning session. During the scanning session participants viewed cigarette pack images (total 64 stimuli, viewed 4 seconds each) that varied based on the warning label (graphic or visually occluded control) and pack branding (branded or plain packaging) in an event-related experimental design. Participants reported motivation to quit (MTQ) in response to each image using a push-button control. Whole-brain blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional images were acquired during the task. GWLs produced significantly greater self-reported MTQ than control warnings ( p branded versus plain cigarette packages. In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.

  3. The School-to-Community Transition Experiences of Hearing Young Adults and Young Adults Who Are Deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of hearing (n=222) and deaf (n=217) young adults on employment, independent living, and social experience outcomes found that the hearing group was generally more successful than deaf persons from mainstream or residential schools. Gender differences did not uniformly favor men. Suggestions for improving transition programs for the deaf…

  4. Decrease in risk of tuberculosis infection despite increase in tuberculosis among young adults in urban Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buu, T. N.; Quy, H. T.; Qui, N. C.; Lan, N. T. N.; Sy, D. N.; Cobelens, F. G. J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the increase in tuberculosis (TB) notification rates among young adults in Vietnam reflects increased transmission in the population at large. METHOD: Trends of case notification rates of new smear-positive TB were calculated from routinely reported data of district TB

  5. On the Border: Young Adults with LGBQ Parents Navigate LGBTQ Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Richardson, Hannah B.; Downing, Jordan B.

    2012-01-01

    Little research has examined the perspectives of young adults with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) parents, particularly in relation to their identification with the LGBTQ community. To address this gap, we conducted a qualitative study of 42 young adults (ages 18-29) who were raised by LGBQ parents. We found that…

  6. Independent Living Transition Assistance for Young Adults Who Have Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Rhonda L.

    2016-01-01

    This research focused on young adults who have disabilities and their transition and career planning for post-secondary life. The study sought to identify best practices in transition planning, transition planning services, and to determine the types of resources and support needed by young adults who have disabilities. For youth who have…

  7. The Cultural Work of Magical Realism in Three Young Adult Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Don

    2007-01-01

    Magical realism as a literary mode is often subversive and transgressive, questioning the values and assumptions of the dominant society that it depicts. Young adult literature, by contrast, is typically thought to serve a socializing function, helping to integrate young readers into adult society. What then is the cultural work of magical realism…

  8. Natural history of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis in a young adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Mani, Revathy; Rakshit, Archayeeta; Ramasubramanian, Srikanth; Vittal Praveen, Smitha

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis and the role of conservative management such as vision training during the recovery process is not well documented in the literature to the best of our knowledge. This case report presents the natural recovery process of idiopathic abducens nerve paresis in a young adult and the role of vision therapy in the recovery process. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Characteristics of Young Adults Enrolled Through the Affordable Care Act-Dependent Coverage Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuesong; Zhu, Shiyun; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sociodemographic and health care-related characteristics of young adults covered through the Affordable Care Act (ACA)-dependent coverage expansion. Our sample consisted of 36,802 young adults aged 19-25 years from 2011 to 2014 National Health Interview Survey. Sociodemographic differences among young adults with the four insurance types were described: privately insured under parents, privately insured under self/spouse, publicly insured, and uninsured. Multivariable logistic models were fitted to compare those covered under parent with those covered through other traditional insurance types, in terms of the following outcomes: health status, health behaviors, insurance history and experience, access to care, care utilization, and receipt of preventive service, controlling for sociodemographic factors. Young adults who were covered under their parents' insurance were most likely to be college students and non-Hispanic whites. These young adults also had more stable insurance, better access to care, better care utilization patterns, and reported better health status, compared to their peers. The beneficiaries of the ACA-dependent coverage expansion were more likely to be college students from families with high socioeconomic status. Coverage under parents was associated with improved access to care and health outcomes among young adults. The enrollees through the ACA represent the healthiest subgroup of young adults and those with the best care utilization patterns, suggesting that the added cost relative to premium for insurers from this population will likely be minimal. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-obstructive carotid atherosclerosis and patent foramen ovale in young adults with cryptogenic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffre, A; Guidolin, B; Ruidavets, J-B; Nasr, N; Larrue, V

    2017-05-01

    Up to 50% of ischaemic strokes in young adults are classified as cryptogenic despite extensive work-up. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of non-obstructive carotid atherosclerosis (NOCA) and its association with patent foramen ovale (PFO) in young adults with cryptogenic stroke (CS). Patients aged 18-54 years, consecutively treated for first-ever CS in an academic stroke service, were included. NOCA was assessed using carotid ultrasound examination and was defined as carotid plaque with young adults with CS. NOCA is negatively associated with PFO. Detecting NOCA is an important component of stroke investigation in young adults. © 2017 EAN.

  11. Comparison of survival of adolescents and young adults with hematologic malignancies in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Inoue, Masami; Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Miyashiro, Isao; Masaie, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Jun; Hino, Masayuki; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    The survival gap between adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with hematological malignancies persists in many countries. To determine to what extent it does in Japan, we investigated survival and treatment regimens in 211 Japanese AYAs (15-29 years) in the Osaka Cancer Registry diagnosed during 2001-2005 with hematological malignancies, and compared adolescents (15-19 years) with young adults (20-29 years). AYAs with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had a poor 5-year survival (44%), particularly young adults (29% vs. 64% in adolescents, p = 0.01). Additional investigation for patients with ALL revealed that only 19% of young adults were treated with pediatric treatment regimens compared with 45% of adolescents (p = 0.05). Our data indicate that we need to focus on young adults with ALL and to consider establishing appropriate cancer care system and guidelines for them in Japan.

  12. Self-reference enhances relational memory in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Mingzhu; Grilli, Matthew D; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2017-11-27

    The present study investigated the influence of self-reference on two kinds of relational memory, internal source memory and associative memory, in young and older adults. Participants encoded object-location word pairs using the strategies of imagination and sentence generation, either with reference to themselves or to a famous other (i.e., George Clooney or Oprah Winfrey). Both young and older adults showed memory benefits in the self-reference conditions compared to other-reference conditions on both tests, and the self-referential effects in older adults were not limited by low memory or executive functioning. These results suggest that self-reference can benefit relational memory in older adults relatively independently of basic memory and executive functions.

  13. Recruiting Young Adult Cancer Survivors for Behavioral Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2012-01-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies. PMID:22810954

  14. Recruiting young adult cancer survivors for behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Carolyn; Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2013-03-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies.

  15. Cardiometabolic Risks and Severity of Obesity in Children and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Asheley C; Perrin, Eliana M; Moss, Leslie A; Skelton, Joseph A

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of severe obesity among children and young adults has increased over the past decade. Although the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors is relatively low among children and young adults who are overweight or obese, those with more severe forms of obesity may be at greater risk. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from overweight or obese children and young adults 3 to 19 years of age who were included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 through 2012 to assess the prevalence of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors according to the severity of obesity. Weight status was classified on the basis of measured height and weight. We used standard definitions of abnormal values for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, and fasting glucose and report the prevalence of abnormal values in children and young adults according to weight status. Among 8579 children and young adults with a body-mass index at the 85th percentile or higher (according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts), 46.9% were overweight, 36.4% had class I obesity, 11.9% had class II obesity, and 4.8% had class III obesity. Mean values for some, but not all, cardiometabolic variables were higher with greater severity of obesity in both male and female participants, and the values were higher in male participants than in female participants; for HDL cholesterol, the mean values were lower with greater severity of obesity. Multivariable models that controlled for age, race or ethnic group, and sex showed that the greater the severity of obesity, the higher the risks of a low HDL cholesterol level, high systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and high triglyceride and glycated hemoglobin levels. Severe obesity in children and young adults was associated with an increased prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors

  16. Turkish and Moroccan Young Adults in the Netherlands: The Relationship Between Acculturation and Psychological Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbek, Emel; Bongers, Ilja L; Lobbestael, Jill; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between acculturation and psychological problems in Turkish and Moroccan young adults living in the Netherlands. A sample of 131 healthy young adults aged between 18 and 24 years old, with a Turkish or Moroccan background was recruited using snowball sampling. Data on acculturation, internalizing and externalizing problems, beliefs about psychological problems, attributions of psychological problems and barriers to care were collected and analyzed using Latent Class Analysis and multinomial logistic regression. Three acculturation classes were identified in moderately to highly educated, healthy Turkish or Moroccan young adults: integration, separation and diffusion. None of the participants in the sample were marginalized or assimilated. Young adults reporting diffuse acculturation reported more internalizing and externalizing problems than those who were integrated or separated. Separated young adults reported experiencing more practical barriers to care than integrated young adults. Further research with a larger sample, including young adult migrants using mental health services, is required to improve our understanding of acculturation, psychological problems and barriers to care in this population. Including experiences of discrimination in the model might improve our understanding of the relationship between different forms of acculturation and psychological problems.

  17. Distress among young adult cancer survivors: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez, Betina; Garcia, Sofia F; Victorson, David; Salsman, John M

    2013-09-01

    Being diagnosed with cancer as a young adult can lead to significant psychological distress and impaired quality of life. Compared to children and older adults diagnosed with cancer, fewer studies have addressed psychological distress among young adult cancer survivors. This study sought to identify the prevalence of, and factors associated with, distress among young adult cancer survivors (ages 18-39). Young adult cancer survivors (N = 335, mean age = 31.8, women = 68.4%) were recruited from an online research panel and stratified by cohort (time postactive treatment: 0-12, 13-24, and 25-60 months). Participants completed measures assessing demographic and clinical characteristics, global impact of cancer, cancer-related education and work interruption, and cancer-specific distress using the impact of event scale (IES). The mean score on the IES (M = 31.0, range = 0-75) was above the cut point of 20, suggesting clinically elevated distress. Analysis of covariance revealed significant main effects for cohort, global impact and cancer-related education/work interruption, and an interaction between cohort and cancer-related education/work interruption on distress. Although there was no significant effect of education/work interruption on distress for those in the 0-12 month cohort (p = .88), survivors in the 13-24 and 25-60 month cohorts reporting education/work interruption were significantly more distressed than those not reporting education/work interruption in the respective cohorts (p cancer survivors face unique challenges. These data underscore the importance of attending to cancer-related distress beyond the completion of treatment and may help inform targeted interventions to prevent or reduce significant distress and related sequelae in this population.

  18. Visual integration enhances associative memory equally for young and older adults without reducing hippocampal encoding activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memel, Molly; Ryan, Lee

    2017-06-01

    observed during the Combined condition. Older adults showed less overall activation in MTL regions compared to young adults, and associative memory performance was most strongly predicted by prefrontal, rather than MTL, activation. We suggest that visual integration benefits both young and older adults similarly, and provides a special case of unitization that may be mediated by recollective, rather than familiarity-based encoding processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Health Care Transition in Young Adults With Type 1 Diabetes: Perspectives of Adult Endocrinologists in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Katharine C; Telo, Gabriela H; Needleman, Joseph S; Forbes, Peter; Finkelstein, Jonathan A; Laffel, Lori M

    2016-02-01

    Young adults with type 1 diabetes transitioning from pediatric to adult care are at risk for adverse outcomes. Our objective was to describe experiences, resources, and barriers reported by a national sample of adult endocrinologists receiving and caring for young adults with type 1 diabetes. We fielded an electronic survey to adult endocrinologists with a valid e-mail address identified through the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. We received responses from 536 of 4,214 endocrinologists (response rate 13%); 418 surveys met the eligibility criteria. Respondents (57% male, 79% Caucasian) represented 47 states; 64% had been practicing >10 years and 42% worked at an academic center. Only 36% of respondents reported often/always reviewing pediatric records and 11% reported receiving summaries for transitioning young adults with type 1 diabetes, although >70% felt that these activities were important for patient care. While most respondents reported easy access to diabetes educators (94%) and dietitians (95%), fewer (42%) reported access to mental health professionals, especially in nonacademic settings. Controlling for practice setting and experience, endocrinologists without easy access to mental health professionals were more likely to report barriers to diabetes management for young adults with depression (odds ratio [OR] 5.3; 95% CI 3.4, 8.2), substance abuse (OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.2, 5.6), and eating disorders (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.6, 3.8). Our findings underscore the need for enhanced information transfer between pediatric and adult providers and increased mental health referral access for young adults with diabetes post-transition. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  20. A Replication and Extension of the PEERS® for Young Adults Social Skills Intervention: Examining Effects on Social Skills and Social Anxiety in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Alana J.; Dolan, Bridget K.; Willar, Kirsten S.; Pleiss, Sheryl; Karst, Jeffrey S.; Casnar, Christina L.; Caiozzo, Christina; Vogt, Elisabeth M.; Gordon, Nakia S.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with ASD experience difficulties with social skills, empathy, loneliness, and social anxiety. One intervention, "PEERS® for Young Adults," shows promise in addressing these challenges. The present study replicated and extended the original study by recruiting a larger sample (N = 56), employing a gold standard ASD assessment…

  1. Transitioning Adolescents and Young Adults With HIV Infection to Adult Care: Pilot Testing the "Movin' Out" Transitioning Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturo, Donna; Powell, Alexis; Major-Wilson, Hannah; Sanchez, Kenia; De Santis, Joseph P; Friedman, Lawrence B

    2015-01-01

    Advances in care and treatment of adolescents/young adults with HIV infection have made survival into adulthood possible, requiring transition to adult care. Researchers have documented that the transition process is challenging for adolescents/young adults. To ensure successful transition, a formal transition protocol is needed. Despite existing research, little quantitative evaluation of the transition process has been conducted. The purpose of the study was to pilot test the "Movin' Out" Transitioning Protocol, a formalized protocol developed to assist transition to adult care. A retrospective medical/nursing record review was conducted with 38 clients enrolled in the "Movin' Out" Transitioning Protocol at a university-based adolescent medicine clinic providing care to adolescents/young adults with HIV infection. Almost half of the participants were able to successfully transition to adult care. Reasons for failure to transition included relocation, attrition, lost to follow-up, and transfer to another adult service. Failure to transition to adult care was not related to adherence issues, X(2) (1, N=38)=2.49, p=.288; substance use, X(2) (1, N=38)=1.71, p=.474; mental health issues, X(2) (1, N=38)=2.23, p=.322; or pregnancy/childrearing, X(2) (1, N=38)=0.00, p=.627). Despite the small sample size, the "Movin' Out" Transitioning Protocol appears to be useful in guiding the transition process of adolescents/young adults with HIV infection to adult care. More research is needed with a larger sample to fully evaluate the "Movin' Out" Transitioning Protocol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The consumer competence of young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2007-01-01

    of consumer competence in actual consumption decisions, however more competent approaches were reported when respondents were faced with hypothetical purchase situations. The young consumers' own understanding of what consumer competence requires showed some degree of correspondence with traditional notions...... of 'desirable consumer socialization', but also added a fundamental consumer competence to the list: to carefully consider one's need to make a purchase. Research limitations/implications The study included only a certain segment of young consumers. Future studies of consumer competence may include consumers......, particularly with respect to how new, complex buying decisions are managed. Findings Guidance from family and friends was found to be of major significance as regards complex consumer decisions made in the transition period from home to first household. The young adults did not display very high levels...

  3. Exposure to electronic cigarette television advertisements among youth and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Jennifer C; Lee, Youn O; Kim, Annice E; Watson, Kimberly A; Arnold, Kristin Y; Nonnemaker, James M; Porter, Lauren

    2014-07-01

    Currently, the US Food and Drug Administration does not regulate electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) marketing unless it is advertised as a smoking cessation aid. To date, the extent to which youth and young adults are exposed to e-cigarette television advertisements is unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in youth and young adult exposure to e-cigarette television advertisements in the United States. Nielsen data on television household audiences' exposure to e-cigarette advertising across US markets were examined by calendar quarter, year, and sponsor. Youth exposure to television e-cigarette advertisements, measured by target rating points, increased 256% from 2011 to 2013. Young adult exposure increased 321% over the same period. More than 76% of all youth e-cigarette advertising exposure occurred on cable networks and was driven primarily by an advertising campaign for 1 e-cigarette brand. E-cigarette companies currently advertise their products to a broad audience that includes 24 million youth. The dramatic increase in youth and young adult television exposure between 2011 and 2013 was driven primarily by a large advertising campaign on national cable networks. In the absence of evidence-based public health messaging, the current e-cigarette television advertising may be promoting beliefs and behaviors that pose harm to the public health. If current trends in e-cigarette television advertising continue, awareness and use of e-cigarettes are likely to increase among youth and young adults. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Polygenic risk predicts obesity in both white and black young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W Domingue

    Full Text Available To test transethnic replication of a genetic risk score for obesity in white and black young adults using a national sample with longitudinal data.A prospective longitudinal study using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Sibling Pairs (n = 1,303. Obesity phenotypes were measured from anthropometric assessments when study members were aged 18-26 and again when they were 24-32. Genetic risk scores were computed based on published genome-wide association study discoveries for obesity. Analyses tested genetic associations with body-mass index (BMI, waist-height ratio, obesity, and change in BMI over time.White and black young adults with higher genetic risk scores had higher BMI and waist-height ratio and were more likely to be obese compared to lower genetic risk age-peers. Sibling analyses revealed that the genetic risk score was predictive of BMI net of risk factors shared by siblings. In white young adults only, higher genetic risk predicted increased risk of becoming obese during the study period. In black young adults, genetic risk scores constructed using loci identified in European and African American samples had similar predictive power.Cumulative information across the human genome can be used to characterize individual level risk for obesity. Measured genetic risk accounts for only a small amount of total variation in BMI among white and black young adults. Future research is needed to identify modifiable environmental exposures that amplify or mitigate genetic risk for elevated BMI.

  5. Polygenic risk predicts obesity in both white and black young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Benjamin W; Belsky, Daniel W; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Smolen, Andrew; McQueen, Matthew B; Boardman, Jason D

    2014-01-01

    To test transethnic replication of a genetic risk score for obesity in white and black young adults using a national sample with longitudinal data. A prospective longitudinal study using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Sibling Pairs (n = 1,303). Obesity phenotypes were measured from anthropometric assessments when study members were aged 18-26 and again when they were 24-32. Genetic risk scores were computed based on published genome-wide association study discoveries for obesity. Analyses tested genetic associations with body-mass index (BMI), waist-height ratio, obesity, and change in BMI over time. White and black young adults with higher genetic risk scores had higher BMI and waist-height ratio and were more likely to be obese compared to lower genetic risk age-peers. Sibling analyses revealed that the genetic risk score was predictive of BMI net of risk factors shared by siblings. In white young adults only, higher genetic risk predicted increased risk of becoming obese during the study period. In black young adults, genetic risk scores constructed using loci identified in European and African American samples had similar predictive power. Cumulative information across the human genome can be used to characterize individual level risk for obesity. Measured genetic risk accounts for only a small amount of total variation in BMI among white and black young adults. Future research is needed to identify modifiable environmental exposures that amplify or mitigate genetic risk for elevated BMI.

  6. Mental health trajectories from childhood to young adulthood affect the educational and employment status of young adults : results from the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Karin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Almansa, Josue; Verhulst, Frank C.; Bultmann, Ute

    Background Young adults at work without basic educational level (BEL), and young adults in Neither Employment, Education nor Training (NEET) are at high risk of adverse employment outcomes. Evidence lacks on the impact of mental health problems during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood on

  7. Factors associated with young adults delaying and forgoing driving licenses: results from Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, Scott; Polak, John

    2014-01-01

    To identify the reasons that young adults (age 17-29) in Britain delay or forgo driving license acquisition. Using year 2010 British National Travel Survey microdata, we first analyze self-reported reasons (including their prioritisation) for not holding a full car driving license and then estimate a logistic regression model for license-holding to investigate additional factors, several of which extend from previous studies. This study also employs a novel segmentation approach to analyze the sets of reasons that individual young adults cite for not driving. These results show that, despite the lack of a graduated driving license system at present, many young adults indicate that issues associated with the driving license acquisition process are the main reason they do not hold a full driving license. About 3 in 10 young adults can be interpreted as not viewing driving as a priority, though half of those without a license are either learning to drive or are deterred principally by the cost of learning. We calculate that after their 17th birthday (the age of eligibility for a full driving license) young adults spend a mean of 1.7 years learning to drive. Young adults citing the costs of insurance or car purchase are likely to cite them as secondary rather than the main reason for not driving, whereas those citing physical/health difficulties are very likely to cite this as the main reason they do not drive. Two distinct groups of young people are identified that both indicate that costs deter them from driving-one group that is less well off financially and that indicates that costs alone are the primary deterrent and one that reports that other reasons also apply and is better off. Status as an international migrant was found to be an important factor, net of confounding variables, for identifying that a young adult in Britain does not hold a driving license. Further research is needed to understand the relative saliency of plausible causal mechanisms for this

  8. Transition from children's to adult services for young adults with life-limiting conditions: A realist review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Helen; Price, Jayne; Nicholl, Honor; O'Halloran, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Improvements in care and treatment have led to more young adults with life-limiting conditions living beyond childhood, which means they must make the transition from children's to adult services. This has proved a challenging process for both young adults and service providers, with complex transition interventions interacting in unpredictable ways with local contexts. To explain how intervention processes interact with contextual factors to help transition from children's to adult services for young adults with life-limiting conditions. Systematic realist review of the literature. Literature was sourced from four electronic databases: Embase, MEDLINE, Science Direct and Cochrane Library from January 1995 to April 2016. This was supplemented with a search in Google Scholar and articles sourced from reference lists of included papers. Data were extracted using an adapted standardised data extraction tool which included identifying information related to interventions, mechanisms, contextual influences and outcomes. Two reviewers assessed the relevance of papers based on the inclusion criteria. Methodological rigor was assessed using the relevant Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tools. 78 articles were included in the review. Six interventions were identified related to an effective transition to adult services. Contextual factors include the need for children's service providers to collaborate with adult service providers to prepare an environment with knowledgeable staff and adequate resources. Mechanisms triggered by the interventions include a sense of empowerment and agency amongst all stakeholders. Early planning, collaboration between children's and adult service providers, and a focus on increasing the young adults' confidence in decision-making and engaging with adult services, are vital to a successful transition. Interventions should be tailored to their context and focused not only on organisational procedures but on equipping young adults, parents

  9. Ovarian function following pelvic irradiation in prepubertal and pubertal girls and young adult women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuck, A.; Hamelmann, V.; Braemswig, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of pelvic radiotherapy on ovarian function in prepubertal and pubertal girls and young adult women. Patients and methods: In a retrospective monoinstitutional analysis, patients 15 Gy to the ovaries developed hormone failure. In one case of a patient receiving an ovarian dose of 15 Gy, hormone failure was not found. In case of pelvic irradiation excluding at least one ovary, approximately half of the patients developed ovarian dysfunction, probably also due to the effects of polychemotherapy. (orig.)

  10. Young Adults' Attitudes and Perceptions of Obesity and Weight Management: Implications for Treatment Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoye, Autumn; Gorin, Amy A; LaRose, Jessica Gokee

    2016-03-01

    Young adults are underrepresented in standard behavioral weight loss trials, and evidence suggests that they differ from older adults on many weight-related constructs. The aim of this review is to explore young adults' attitudes toward obesity and weight management, with particular attention to those factors that may play a role in the development of future treatment efforts. Both intrapersonal and interpersonal considerations unique to young adulthood are assessed; in addition, we examine young adults' perceptions of specific weight-related behaviors such as dieting, physical activity, and self-weighing. Conclusions are consistent with other findings suggesting that weight management interventions should be adapted and designed specifically for this age group.

  11. Information Vaccine: Using Graphic Novels as an HIV/AIDS Prevention Resource for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Kendra S.; Gavigan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    HIV/AIDS infections are growing at an alarming rate for young adults. In 2009, youth, ages 13-29, accounted for 39% of all new HIV infections in the U.S. (Division of HIV/ AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 2011). South Carolina ranks eighth in the nation for new HIV cases, while the capital city of Columbia ranks seventh…

  12. Meningococcal B Vaccine Failure With a Penicillin-Resistant Strain in a Young Adult on Long-Term Eculizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Sydel R; Lucidarme, Jay; Bingham, Coralie; Warwicker, Paul; Goodship, Tim; Borrow, Ray; Ladhani, Shamez N

    2017-09-01

    We describe a case of invasive meningococcal disease due to a vaccine-preventable and penicillin-resistant strain in a fully immunized young adult on long-term complement inhibitor therapy and daily penicillin chemoprophylaxis. Eculizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds human complement C5 protein and inhibits the terminal complement pathway. It is currently recommended for the treatment of complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathies. An unwanted complication of inhibiting complement, however, is an increased risk of invasive meningococcal disease. Here, we report the first case of meningococcal group B vaccine failure in a young adult receiving eculizumab for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. She developed invasive meningococcal disease due to a vaccine-preventable and penicillin-resistant meningococcal group B strain 4 months after receiving 2 doses of meningococcal group B vaccine while on oral penicillin prophylaxis against meningococcal infection. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Developing an attitude towards bullying scale for prisoners: structural analyses across adult men, young adults and women prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Jane L; Power, Christina L; Bramhall, Sarah; Flowers, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have attempted to explore attitudes towards bullying among prisoners, despite acknowledgement that attitudes may play an important role. To evaluate the structure of a new attitudinal scale, the Prison Bullying Scale (PBS), with adult men and women in prison and with young male prisoners. That attitudes would be represented as a multidimensional construct and that the PBS structure would be replicated across confirmatory samples. The PBS was developed and confirmed across four independent studies using item parceling and confirmatory factor analysis: Study I comprised 412 adult male prisoners; Study II, 306 adult male prisoners; Study III, 171 male young offenders; and Study IV, 148 adult women prisoners. Attitudes were represented as a multidimensional construct comprising seven core factors. The exploratory analysis was confirmed in adult male samples, with some confirmation among young offenders and adult women. The fit for young offenders was adequate and improved by factor covariance. The fit for women was the poorest overall. The study notes the importance of developing ecologically valid measures and statistically testing these measures prior to their clinical or research use. The development of the PBS holds value both as an assessment and as a research measure and remains the only ecologically validated measure in existence to assess prisoner attitudes towards bullying.

  14. Nicotine dependence and sleep quality in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, E N; Sylvestre, M P; O'Loughlin, E K; Brunet, J; Kakinami, L; Constantin, E; O'Loughlin, J

    2017-02-01

    More cigarette smokers report poor sleep quality than non-smokers, but the association between nicotine dependence (ND) and sleep quality has not been well-characterized. The objective of this study was to describe the associations among frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, ND symptoms, and sleep quality in young adults. Data on past-year smoking frequency, number of cigarettes smoked in the past month, five ND indicators (i.e., withdrawal, craving, self-medication symptoms, mFTQ, ICD-10 criteria for tobacco dependence), and sleep quality (measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)) were collected in 2011-12 in self-report questionnaires completed by 405 young adult smokers (mean age 24 (0.6) years; 45% male; 45% daily smokers) participating in a longitudinal investigation of the natural course of ND. Associations between indicators of cigarette smoking, ND symptoms, and sleep quality were examined in multivariable logistic regression analyses controlling for age, sex, mother's education, and alcohol use. Thirty-six percent of participants reported poor sleep quality (PSQI>5). Higher cigarette consumption (OR(95% CI), 1.03(1.001-1.05)) but not frequency of past-year smoking, more frequent withdrawal symptoms (1.05(1.004-1.10)), more frequent cravings (1.05(1.004-1.10)), higher mFTQ scores (1.14(1.02-1.27)), and endorsing more ICD-10 criteria for tobacco dependence (1.19(1.04-1.36)) were also associated with poor sleep quality. Cigarette smoking and ND symptoms are associated with poor sleep quality in young adult smokers. Advice from practitioners to cut back on number of cigarettes smoked per day and treatment of ND symptoms may improve sleep quality in young adult smokers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetics of ischaemic stroke in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Terni

    2015-06-01

    General significance: This review focuses on the main causes of genetically-based ischemic stroke in young adults, often classified as indeterminate, investigating also the recent findings of the GWAS, in order to improve diagnostic and therapeutic management.

  16. Delayed transition of care: a national study of visits to pediatricians by young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Robert J; Halterman, Jill S; Pulcino, Tiffany; Robbins, Brett W

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous policy statements and an increased focus on transition of care, little is known about young adults who experience delayed transition to adult providers. We used cross-sectional data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey between 1998 and 2008 to examine delayed transition among young adults ages 22 to 30. We defined delayed transition as continuing to visit a pediatrician after the age of 21 years. Overall, we found that 1.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.7) of visits by young adults to primary care physicians were seen by pediatricians, approximately 445,000 visits per year. We did not find a significant change in delayed transition during the past decade (β = -.01; P = .77). Among young adults, visits to pediatricians were more likely than visits to adult-focused providers to be for a chronic disease (25.7% vs 12.6%; P = .002) and more likely to be billed to public health insurance (23.5% vs 14.1%; P = .01). In adjusted models, visits by young adults to pediatric healthcare providers were more likely associated with chronic disease (adjusted relative risk [ARR] 2.2; 95% CI 1.5-3.4), with public health insurance (ARR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3-2.9), or with no health insurance (ARR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.4). Although most young adult visits were to adult providers, a considerable number of visits were to pediatricians, indicating delayed transition of care. There has been no substantial change in delayed transition during the past decade. Visits by young adults with chronic disease, public health insurance, or no health insurance were more likely to experience delayed transition of care. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Face age modulates gaze following in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardo, Francesca; Marino, Barbara F M; Actis-Grosso, Rossana; Rossetti, Angela; Ricciardelli, Paola

    2014-04-22

    Gaze-following behaviour is considered crucial for social interactions which are influenced by social similarity. We investigated whether the degree of similarity, as indicated by the perceived age of another person, can modulate gaze following. Participants of three different age-groups (18-25; 35-45; over 65) performed an eye movement (a saccade) towards an instructed target while ignoring the gaze-shift of distracters of different age-ranges (6-10; 18-25; 35-45; over 70). The results show that gaze following was modulated by the distracter face age only for young adults. Particularly, the over 70 year-old distracters exerted the least interference effect. The distracters of a similar age-range as the young adults (18-25; 35-45) had the most effect, indicating a blurred own-age bias (OAB) only for the young age group. These findings suggest that face age can modulate gaze following, but this modulation could be due to factors other than just OAB (e.g., familiarity).

  18. Parent Expectations Mediate Outcomes for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Anne V

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the complex relationships among factors that may predict the outcomes of young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is of utmost importance given the increasing population undergoing and anticipating the transition to adulthood. With a sample of youth with ASD (n = 1170) from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, structural equation modeling techniques were used to test parent expectations as a mediator of young adult outcomes (i.e., employment, residential independence, social participation) in a longitudinal analysis. The mediation hypothesis was confirmed; family background and functional performance variables significantly predicted parent expectations which significantly predicted outcomes. These findings add context to previous studies examining the role of parent expectations on young adult outcomes and inform directions for family-centered interventions and future research.

  19. LGBTQ+ Latinx young adults' health autonomy in resisting cultural stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Rachel M; Sanchez, Julissa; Lopez, Bianca

    2018-03-20

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer/questioning (LGBTQ+) young people of colour are exposed to intersecting dynamics of social prejudice and discrimination related to sexuality and gender as well as race/ethnicity. In particular, Latinx-identifying LGBTQ+ young people face unique challenges in their lives, due to cultural stressors that stigmatise expansive gender and sexual identities. While it is crucial to examine the effects of multiple stressors on the well-being of LGBTQ+ young people of colour, this risk-based focus can overshadow the resilient capacities of multiply marginalised groups. Guided by an intersectional minority stress resilience framework, we asked: how do self-identified LGBTQ+ Latinx young adults manage cultural messages of prejudice and discrimination in relation to their health? Findings underscore how LGBTQ+ Latinx young adults established a strong sense of health autonomy to resist cultural stigma related to their intersecting identities. Young people actively educated themselves on health-related concerns, engaged in health-promoting tactics, and practised cultural negativity management to effectively navigate exposure to prejudice and discrimination.

  20. Recognition and management of stroke in young adults and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, José; Elkind, Mitchell S.; Fullerton, Heather J.; Jauch, Edward C.; Kittner, Steven J.; Levine, Deborah A.; Levine, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 15% of all ischemic strokes (IS) occur in young adults and adolescents. To date, only limited prior public health and research efforts have specifically addressed stroke in the young. Early diagnosis remains challenging because of the lack of awareness and the relative infrequency of stroke compared with stroke mimics. Moreover, the causes of IS in the young are heterogeneous and can be relatively uncommon, resulting in uncertainties about diagnostic evaluation and cause-specific management. Emerging data have raised public health concerns about the increasing prevalence of traditional vascular risk factors in young individuals, and their potential role in increasing the risk of IS, stroke recurrence, and poststroke mortality. These issues make it important to formulate and enact strategies to increase both awareness and access to resources for young stroke patients, their caregivers and families, and health care professionals. The American Academy of Neurology recently convened an expert panel to develop a consensus document concerning the recognition, evaluation, and management of IS in young adults and adolescents. The report of the consensus panel is presented herein. PMID:23946297

  1. Synthetic Cannabis Overdose and Withdrawal in a Young Adult: A Case Report, Commentary on Regulation, and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaan, John; Ferrer, Gerardo F; Akinyemi, Boye; Junquera, Patricia; Oms, Juan; Dumenigo, Rhaisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction . Marijuana has been used for its psychotropic effects including enhanced relaxation and perceptual alterations. However, the use of synthetic marijuana (SM) leads to more frequent and drastic side effects than the typical use of regular marijuana, owing to the fact that SM has a shorter duration and an earlier peak of action. Despite all the potential adverse health effects associated with SM use, current health policies on SM are very limited. It is believed that the popularity of SM has increased, due to its easy accessibility in the US and lack of detection in typical urine drug screens for THC. Case Report . One case presented is of a young adult patient, with histories of recurrent synthetic cannabis and recreational cannabis use, who had developed drastic physiological and psychiatric symptoms, including the development of acute-onset psychosis. Conclusion/Discussion . This case, as many others nationwide, exemplifies the impact of synthetic cannabinoid use and abuse in adolescents. Side effects and adverse health consequences of synthetic cannabinoid use warrant stricter regulations and policies in order to decrease psychiatric hospital admissions and associated healthcare costs.

  2. Assessment of body perception among Swedish adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, E; Stenlund, H; Svedjehäll, B

    2000-01-01

    To assess body perception in adolescents and young adults without anorexia nervosa. Using a visual size estimation technique, perceived body size was estimated in four groups of Swedish adolescents and young adults without anorexia nervosa (86 males and 95 females). Perceived body size was estimated at nine different body sites comparing these estimations to real body size. The results show that 95% of males and 96% of females overestimated their body size (mean overestimation: males +22%, females +33%). The overestimations were greatest in females. The greatest overestimations were made of the waist (males +31%, females +46%), buttocks (males +22%, females +42%), and thighs (males +27%, females +41%). The results indicate that overestimation of body size may be a general phenomenon in adolescents and young adults in a country such as Sweden, implying a similar, but less pronounced distortion of body image as in individuals with anorexia nervosa.

  3. Sexting among young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Methods Using an adapted web version of Respondent-Driven Sampling (webRDS) we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (ages 18 to 24; N=3447). We examined participant sexting behavior using 4 categories of sexting: 1) Non-Sexters, 2) Receivers, 3) Senders, and 4) Two-way Sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Results Over half (57%) of respondents were Non-Sexters, 28.2% of the sample were Two-way Sexters, 12.6% were Receivers, and 2% were Senders. Males were more likely to be Receivers than females. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be Two-way Sexters than non-sexually active respondents. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in number of sexual partners, or number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Conclusions Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting. PMID:23299018

  4. Predictors of migraine subtypes in young adults with ischemic stroke: the italian project on stroke in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzini, Alessandro; Grassi, Mario; Lodigiani, Corrado; Patella, Rosalba; Gandolfo, Carlo; Casoni, Federica; Musolino, Rossella; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Bovi, Paolo; Adami, Alessandro; Delodovici, Maria Luisa; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Rota, Lidia Luciana; Rasura, Maurizia; Del Sette, Massimo; Giossi, Alessia; Volonghi, Irene; Zini, Andrea; Cerrato, Paolo; Costa, Paolo; Magoni, Mauro; Iacoviello, Licia; Padovani, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    the mechanisms underlying the relationship between migraine and ischemic stroke remain uncertain. The aim of the present study was to investigate the predictive value of major cardiovascular risk factors, cardiac interatrial abnormalities, and additional biological markers on migraine subtypes in young adults with ischemic stroke. ischemic stroke patients aged 45 years or younger were consecutively enrolled as part of the Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults. A comprehensive evaluation was performed including assessment of self-reported migraine and cardiovascular risk factors, interatrial right-to-left shunt, and genotyping to detect factor V Leiden and the G20210A mutation in the prothrombin gene. nine hundred eighty-one patients (mean age, 36.0 ± 7.6 years; 50.7% women) were included. The risk of migraine with aura increased with decreasing number of cardiovascular risk factors (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.24-0.99 for 2 factors or more), increasing number of thrombophilic variants (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.05-4.68 for carriers of at least 1 of the 2), and the presence of right-to-left shunt (OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.37-3.45), as compared to patients without migraine. None of these factors had influence on the risk of migraine without aura. in young adults with ischemic stroke, low cardiovascular risk profile, right-to-left shunt, and an underlying procoagulant state are predictors of migraine with aura. The biological effects of these factors should be considered in future studies aimed at investigating the mechanisms linking migraine to brain ischemia.

  5. Neural correlates of motor-cognitive dual-tasking in young and old adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papegaaij, Selma; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Godde, Ben; Kaan, Wim A.; Erhard, Peter; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    When two tasks are performed simultaneously, performance often declines in one or both tasks. These so-called dual-task costs are more pronounced in old than in young adults. One proposed neurological mechanism of the dual-task costs is that old compared with young adults tend to execute

  6. Young Adults on the Autism Spectrum at College: Successes and Stumbling Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Connie; Butt, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    There is limited information on outcomes for young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including achievement at college. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 18 families reporting a degree-seeking college experience for their young adult with ASD. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Four themes…

  7. The working alliance between homeless young adults and workers : A dyadic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, Astrid M.; Krabbenborg, Manon A M; Boersma, Sandra N.; Beijersbergen, Mariëlle D.; van den Berg, Yvonne H. M.; Vollebergh, Wilma A.M.; Wolf, Judith R.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    The development of a strong working alliance between homeless young adults and their social workers is seen as a critical component in the recovery process. The purpose of this study was to examine the composition of the working alliance between homeless young adults and their social workers, and

  8. Parental Divorce and Family Functioning: Effects on Differentiation Levels of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick; Throngren, Jill M.; Smith, Adina J.

    2001-01-01

    Study examines the effect of parental divorce and various dimensions of functioning in the family of origin on young adult development. Results indicate that parental divorce and family functioning significantly affect differentiation levels of young adults. Implications of the results for counselors and future researchers are provided. (Contains…

  9. TOURIST PROFILE OF YOUNG-ADULTS IN MACEDONIA AND THEIR PERCEPTION OF E-TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Petrevska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to create a tourist profile of young-adult consumers as well as to examine their attitude towards e-tools. More precisely, the study examines how young people percept the Internet as rapidly evolving medium, and do they use the on-line social networks (OSN in sharing experiences. In both cases, the main research area is tourism and travel. So, the aim and objective of the paper are to determine a tourist profile among young population in Macedonia and simultaneously to determine the level of application of e-tools. For this purpose, a survey was conducted among undergraduate students. The results point to interesting conclusions regarding travel habits and interests, planning activities, type of accommodation, preferences and other data that support the created tourist profile. With regards to research hypotheses, the outcomes confirm solid causality between tested variables concluding that young population in Macedonia use e-tools for travel and tourism purposes. Such findings one may find useful for tailoring strategies to the specific characteristics and initially created tourist profile of young consumers in Macedonia.

  10. Factors Supporting the Employment of Young Adult Peer Providers: Perspectives of Peers and Supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delman, Jonathan; Klodnick, Vanessa V

    2017-10-01

    Peer providers are a promising practice for transition-age youth community mental health treatment engagement and support, yet little is known about the experience of being a young adult peer provider or what helps to make an individual in this role successful. Utilizing a capital theory lens, this study uses data from focus groups (two with young adult peer providers and two with their supervisors) to examine facilitators of young adult peer provider success in community mental health treatment settings. Eight factors were identified as critical to young adult peer provider on-the-job success: persistence, job confidence, resilience, job training, skilled communications with colleagues, regular and individualized supervision, support from colleagues, and family support. Findings suggest that young adult peer providers may benefit immensely from an agency level focus on fostering social organizational capital as well as more individualized efforts to increase cultural, social, and psychological capital through training and supervision.

  11. Young Adult Literature and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Jacqueline; Choate, Laura Hensley; Parker, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    As the body of high quality young adult literature (YAL) continues to grow, what role might these texts play in professional development for educators? This article describes ways in which schools can develop book study programs that use this literature to promote meaningful dialogue and understanding of contemporary adolescent issues. Based on…

  12. Energy drinks and alcohol-related risk among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    Energy drink consumption, with or without concurrent alcohol use, is common among young adults. This study sought to clarify risk for negative alcohol outcomes related to the timing of energy drink use. The authors interviewed a community sample of 481 young adults, aged 18-25, who drank alcohol in the last month. Past-30-day energy drink use was operationalized as no-use, use without concurrent alcohol, and concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol ("within a couple of hours"). Negative alcohol outcomes included past-30-day binge drinking, past-30-day alcohol use disorder, and drinking-related consequences. Just over half (50.5%) reported no use of energy drinks,18.3% reported using energy drinks without concurrent alcohol use, and 31.2% reported concurrent use of energy drinks and alcohol. Relative to those who reported concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol, and controlling for background characteristics and frequency of alcohol consumption, those who didn't use energy drinks and those who used without concurrent alcohol use had significantly lower binge drinking, negative consequences, and rates of alcohol use disorder (P energy drink without concurrent alcohol groups on any alcohol-related measure (P > .10 for all outcomes). Concurrent energy drink and alcohol use is associated with increased risk for negative alcohol consequences in young adults. Clinicians providing care to young adults could consider asking patients about concurrent energy drink and alcohol use as a way to begin a conversation about risky alcohol consumption while addressing 2 substances commonly used by this population.

  13. Predictors of outpatient mental health clinic follow-up after hospitalization among Medicaid-enrolled young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Leslie; Wissow, Lawrence S; Davis, Maryann; Abrams, Michael T; Dixon, Lisa B; Slade, Eric P

    2016-12-01

    To assess demographic and clinical predictors of outpatient mental health clinic follow-up after inpatient psychiatric hospitalization among Medicaid-enrolled young adults. Using logistic regression and administrative claims data from the Maryland public mental health system and Maryland Medicaid for young adults ages 18-26 who were enrolled in Medicaid (N = 1127), the likelihood of outpatient mental health follow-up within 30 days after inpatient psychiatric hospitalization was estimated . Only 51% of the young adults had any outpatient mental health follow-up visits within 30 days of discharge. Being black and having a co-occurring substance use disorder diagnosis were associated with a lower probability of having a follow-up visit (OR = 0.60, P young adults hospitalized for serious psychiatric conditions, half did not connect with an outpatient mental healthcare provider following their discharge. Outpatient transition supports may be especially needed for young adults who were not receiving outpatient services prior to being admitted for psychiatric inpatient care, as well as for young adults with substance use disorders and African Americans. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Avatar-based depression self-management technology: promising approach to improve depressive symptoms among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Melissa D; Hickman, Ronald L; Clochesy, John; Buchner, Marc

    2013-02-01

    Major depressive disorder is prevalent among American young adults and predisposes young adults to serious impairments in psychosocial functioning. Without intervention, young adults with depressive symptoms are at high risk for worsening of depressive symptoms and developing major depressive disorder. Young adults are not routinely taught effective depression self management skills to reduce depressive symptoms and preempt future illness. This study reports initial results of a randomized controlled trial among young adults (18-25 years of age) with depressive symptoms who were exposed to an avatar-based depression self-management intervention, eSMART-MH. Participants completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms at baseline and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks follow-up. Participants who received eSMART-MH had a significant reduction in depressive symptoms over 3 months, while individuals in the attention-control condition had no change in symptoms. In this study, eSMART-MH demonstrated initial efficacy and is a promising developmentally appropriate depression self-management intervention for young adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The History and Accomplishments of the LIVESTRONG Young Adult Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews-Bradshaw, Beth; Johnson, Rebecca; Kaplan, Stuart; Craddock, Kelli; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon

    2011-03-01

    This article outlines the history, background, and accomplishments of the LIVESTRONG Young Adult Alliance. The LIVESTRONG Young Adult Alliance, a program of the Lance Armstrong Foundation, was developed as a vehicle for a strategic plan designed to implement the Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Progress Review Group (AYAO PRG) recommendations. The AYAO PRG was co-sponsored by Lance Armstrong Foundation and the National Cancer Institute (NCI); both LIVESTRONG and NCI provide strategic oversight and guidance to the Alliance. Highlights and accomplishments: The Alliance accomplishments include the publication of disease-specific retrospective analyses, funding of an AYA cohort study and biorepository proposal, publication of two position statements on guidelines for care of AYAs with cancer and training for AYA oncology health professionals, promotion of an international charter of rights for AYA cancer patients, creation and distribution of a survey to college health professionals, creation and implementation of a Cancer Centers Working Group and Institutional Review Board Toolkit, and continued growth and collaboration through an annual meeting. The growth and success of the Alliance has coincided with the growth of AYA oncology as a field. The collaborative environment of the Alliance draws together a diverse group of individuals united in the effort to increase survival rates and improve the quality of life for adolescents and young adults diagnosed with cancer.

  16. Effects of regular exercise on asthma control in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Sirpa A M; Mäkikyrö, Elina M S; Hugg, Timo T; Jaakkola, Maritta S; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2017-08-28

    According to our systematic literature review, no previous study has assessed potential effects of regular exercise on asthma control among young adults. We hypothesized that regular exercise improves asthma control among young adults. We studied 162 subjects with current asthma recruited from a population-based cohort study of 1,623 young adults 20-27 years of age. Asthma control was assessed by the occurrence of asthma-related symptoms, including wheezing, shortness of breath, cough, and phlegm production, during the past 12 months. Asthma symptom score was calculated based on reported frequencies of these symptoms (range: 0-12). Exercise was assessed as hours/week. In Poisson regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and education, the asthma symptom score reduced by 0.09 points per 1 hour of exercise/week (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.17). Applying the "Low exercise" quartile as the reference, "Medium exercise" reduced the asthma symptom score by 0.66 (-0.39 to 1.72), and "High exercise" reduced it significantly by 1.13 (0.03 to 2.22). The effect was strongest among overweight subjects. Our results provide new evidence that regular exercising among young adults improves their asthma control. Thus, advising about exercise should be included as an important part of asthma self-management in clinical practice.

  17. [Intelligence, socio-economic status and hospital admissions of young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, H; Traag, T; Berger-van Sijl, M; van Eijk, J; Otten, F

    2007-05-12

    To determine whether socio-economic differences in hospital admissions of adolescents and young adults are related to differences in intelligence. . Retrospective cohort study. The data were derived from a group of 10,231 young adults and adolescents who were followed for a total of 47,212 person years with regard to their hospital admissions. Intelligence was measured in the first year of secondary school by 2 non-verbal intelligence tests for fluid intelligence. Data from hospital admissions were matched to a large-scale educational and occupational cohort. Data were analysed with Cox proportional hazards analysis. Intelligence was not found to be related to hospital admissions. However, a low occupational and educational level of the young adults or their parents, was strongly related to heightened risk for hospital admissions. In particular, the low socio-economic status of a respondent was associated with heightened risk for hospital admissions due to accidents (relative risk: 3.49; 95% confidence interval: 1.91-6.39). The small extent to which the socio-economic differences in hospital admissions seem to be based upon fluid intelligence, at least in adolescents and young adults, as well as the heightened risks of hospital admissions in lower socio-economic status groups and the associated high costs for health care legitimise further study of the determinants of these differences.

  18. Spirituality, Religion, Social Justice Orientation, and the Career Aspirations of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenot, David; Kim, Hansung

    2017-01-01

    Spirituality and religion predicted the development of social justice orientation (SJO) among young adults in a previous study (Chenot & Kim, 2013). The current study explores the manner in which the effects of spirituality and religion on social justice orientation vary depending on the career aspirations of young adults. The longitudinal…

  19. Young Adults' Perceptions of Calcium Intake and Health: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinow, Michelle L; Randall Simpson, Janis A; Whiting, Susan J; Jung, Mary E; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2017-12-01

    Many young Canadian adults are not meeting dietary calcium recommendations. This is concerning as adequate calcium is important throughout young adulthood to maximize peak bone mass for osteoporosis prevention. There are limited studies that have explored young adults' perceptions toward calcium and health. Our objectives were to determine young adults' (18-34 years) knowledge of calcium in relation to health, facilitators and barriers to adequate calcium intake, and to explore both their suggestions for individual strategies to increase calcium intake and ways to communicate calcium-related messaging to this population. Eight gender-specific focus groups (18 men; 35 women) were conducted using a semistructured interview guide, guided by social cognitive theory. Deductive thematic analysis was used to generate themes. Participants perceived adequate calcium intake to be important for children and older adults but were uncertain of the benefits for their own age group. Perceived positive outcomes (e.g., aesthetics such as strong nails) associated with adequate calcium intake were cited as a motivator to increase intake. Perceived barriers to achieving increased calcium intake included the high cost and inconvenience of milk products and negative practices of dairy farmers. Participants suggested planning healthy well-balanced meals and forming a habit of consuming calcium-rich foods as individual strategies to increase calcium intake. Strategies to convey calcium-related information to young adults included increasing awareness of the importance of calcium via credible sources of information and developing nutrition education curricula. Social media and advertising were perceived as ineffective. Our findings provide key information for nutrition education initiatives.

  20. National Cholesterol Education Panel III performance in preventing myocardial infarction in young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dib, Jean J.; Alameddine, Y.; Geitany, R.; Afiouni, F.

    2008-01-01

    Only one published has directly evaluated the utility of National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) guidelines in young adults that study population consisted of young Americans. We examined the utility of the latest NCEP Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) guidelines in a group of young Lebanese adults. A group of 234 young adults admitted for myocardial infarction at a Lebanese teaching hospital over a 2-year period were evaluated retrospectively. The Framingham risk predictor model was used to calculate the 10-year risk for coronary events in all subjects. Two hundred young Lebanese adults with a mean age of 49+-7.6 years were included in the analysis. The majority of the study population had a history of smoking (67%) and LDL cholesterol <130 mg/dL (70.5%) and were considered overweight and obese (80.5%). As a group, 80% did not meat the criteria to qualify for antilipiemic pharmacotherapy prior to their presentation. The predictive model did not detect the majority of these patients. Clinicians should treat modifiable risk factors with the same intensity given to cholesterol even if the patient has a normal lipid profile. (author)

  1. Smoking Initiation Among Young Adults in the United States and Canada, 1998-2010: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, Kit S.; Nelson, Nanette M.; Feldman, Laura L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the United States and Canada, and recent data indicate that they often initiate smoking as young adults. The objective of this study was to systematically review peer-reviewed articles on cigarette smoking initiation and effective prevention efforts among young adults. Methods We searched 5 databases for research articles published in English between 1998 and 2010 on smoking initiation among young adults (aged 18-25) ...

  2. Metaphor Comprehension by Deaf Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Rinat; Segal, Osnat

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we compared the processing of both conventional and novel metaphors by deaf versus hearing young adults. Eighteen deaf participants with severe-to-profound hearing loss and 18 controls matched for age, sex, and years of education were presented with word pairs of 4 types (literal, conventional metaphors, novel metaphors, and…

  3. Cognitive tasks promote automatization of postural control in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin-Desrochers, Alexandra; Richer, Natalie; Lajoie, Yves

    2017-09-01

    Researchers looking at the effects of performing a concurrent cognitive task on postural control in young and older adults using traditional center-of-pressure measures and complexity measures found discordant results. Results of experiments showing improvements of stability have suggested the use of strategies such as automatization of postural control or stiffening strategy. This experiment aimed to confirm in healthy young and older adults that performing a cognitive task while standing leads to improvements that are due to automaticity of sway by using sample entropy. Twenty-one young adults and twenty-five older adults were asked to stand on a force platform while performing a cognitive task. There were four cognitive tasks: simple reaction time, go/no-go reaction time, equation and occurrence of a digit in a number sequence. Results demonstrated decreased sway area and variability as well as increased sample entropy for both groups when performing a cognitive task. Results suggest that performing a concurrent cognitive task promotes the adoption of an automatic postural control in young and older adults as evidenced by an increased postural stability and postural sway complexity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Q-methodology to identify young adult renal transplant recipients at risk for nonadherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Moors-Tielen (Mirjam); A.L. van Staa (AnneLoes); S. Jedeloo (Susan); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); W. Weimar (Willem)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND. Young adult renal transplant recipients may display patterns of behavior that affect graft survival. The present study aimed to identify young adults at risk for nonadherent behavior by investigating their attitudes about posttransplant health lifestyle. METHOD. A

  5. Influence of Central Obesity Assessed by Conicity Index on Lung Age in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Usha; Jagadamba

    2017-04-01

    Central obesity is an emerging public health problem in young adults which compromises lung mechanics. Conicity Index (CI) is a simple anthropometric measure to assess central adiposity. The concept of lung age relates to a person's current lung function at which his/her lung function would be considered abnormal in relation to the present actual age. To determine the effect of central obesity by CI on lung age in young adults. A total of 319 young adults in the age group 18-25 years were recruited for this cross-sectional observational study. Written informed consent and Institutional Ethical Clearance (IEC) approval were obtained. Anthropometric parameters were measured and CI was calculated using the following formula: CI = Waist Circumference (WC) (m)/ [0.109 X√ {Bodyweight (kg)/ Height (m)}] where 0.109 is a constant. Spirometry was performed and all the lung volumes and capacities were obtained. There was a significant increase in mean values of CI in obese young adults compared to non obese (1.36±0.15 and 1.16±0.08, pobesity on lung age in young adults was compared using an independent t-test. Mean of lung age was significantly higher in centrally obese young adults compared to non obese 23.87±3.03 and 21.30±2.6, pobese young adults compared to non obese. Hence, lung age can be used as a potential psychological tool to show an individual with central obesity that there is premature aging of their lungs.

  6. Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults and Preexisting Psychiatric Disorders: A Nationwide Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Chuan; Bai, Ya-Mei; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Mu-Hong

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies showed that psychiatric disorders such as major depression, bipolar disorders, and alcohol misuse are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. However, the link between psychiatric disorders and stroke in the young population is rarely investigated. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 2063 young adults aged between 18 and 45 years with ischemic stroke and 8252 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in our study between 1998 and 2011. Participants who had preexisting psychiatric disorders were identified. After adjusting for preexisting physical disorders and demographic data, patients with ischemic stroke had an increased risk of having preexisting psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder (odds ratio [OR]: 2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06∼4.67), unipolar depression (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.62∼2.86), anxiety disorders (OR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.87∼3.69), and alcohol use disorders (OR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.79∼4.57). Young ischemic stroke (age ≥30 years) was related to the risk of preexisting unipolar depression (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.05∼2.11), anxiety disorders (OR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.33∼2.97), and alcohol use disorders (OR: 2.54, 95% CI: 1.55∼4.14); very young stroke (age ischemic stroke at age younger than 45 years had a higher risk of having pre-existing bipolar disorder, unipolar depression, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders than those who did not after adjusting for demographic data and stroke-related medical comorbidities.

  7. Living arrangements of migrant and Dutch young adults: the family influence disentangled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valk, H.A.G.; Billari, F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the family of origin on whether migrant and Dutch young adults live in the parental home. Using a sample of 1,678 young adults aged between 15 and 30 years from 847 families with five different ethnic backgrounds, we identified patterns of

  8. We Spent Our Summer Chasing Unicorns: A Young Adult Reading Game Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, Cathi

    1986-01-01

    Describes a young adult summer reading game which is offered in three age-level versions from grades 1 through 12 at Enoch Pratt Free Library (Maryland). Benefits of young adult reading games in public libraries, game rules and sample questions, and the game finale visit to Walters Art Gallery are highlighted. (EJS)

  9. Reactive and Proactive Control in Incarcerated and Community Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive control skills of male incarcerated adolescents (n = 44), male control adolescents (n = 33), male incarcerated young adults (n = 41), and male control young adults (n = 35) using the AX-continuous performance test (AX-CPT). This test measures proactive control (the ability to maintain a mental representation of…

  10. Increasing Incidence of Hospitalization for Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack in Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Maiken; Dehlendorff, Christian; Jørgensen, Henrik S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have reported increasing incidence of ischemic stroke in adults younger than 50 to 55 years. Information on temporal trends of other stroke subtypes and transient ischemic attack (TIA) is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate temporal trends of the incidence...... of hospitalizations for TIA and stroke including sex- and subtype-specific trends in young adults aged 15 to 30 years. METHODS AND RESULTS: From the Danish National Patient Register, we identified all cases of first-ever stroke and TIA (age 15-30 years) in Denmark, who were hospitalized during the study period...... of 1994 to 2012. Incidence rates and estimated annual percentage changes (EAPCs) were estimated by using Poisson regression. During the study period, 4156 cases of first-ever hospitalization for stroke/TIA were identified. The age-standardized incidence rates of hospitalizations for stroke increased...

  11. Tracking Young Adults' Attitudes Toward Tobacco Marketing Using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E; Lu, Bo; Browning, Christopher R; Ferketich, Amy K

    2017-07-29

    Decades of research demonstrate the pernicious effects of targeted cigarette marketing on young people. Now, with tobacco marketing shifting toward greater incorporation of alternative products, it is critical to identify current attitudes toward the new landscape of tobacco advertisements. The purpose of this study was to understand the present landscape of tobacco marketing to which young adults are exposed, and to assess how they respond to it. During 2015-2016, we used ecological momentary assessment (EMA), in which 44 young adults (aged 18-28) carried smartphones equipped with a survey app. Seventy-seven percent were ever-users of tobacco and 29.5% were intermittent users of tobacco (someday users of cigarettes and/or those who used another tobacco product >5 times within the past year). For ten days, participants were prompted at three random times/day to complete a brief survey about their exposures and responses to tobacco-related advertising. Analyses used t-test and multilevel modeling. Intermittent users reported greater exposure than non-intermittent users to tobacco advertising. Further, both intermittent and ever-users reported more positive attitudes toward the tobacco advertising. Of the tobacco advertisements reported, 22% were for products unregulated by the FDA at the time of data collection. Conclusions/Importance: These findings indicate that young adults, and especially young adults who use tobacco, are exposed to a fair amount of tobacco advertising on a weekly basis. As the tobacco users in our sample were largely experimental and occasional users, these marketing exposures could put young adults at risk for progression toward regular use.

  12. The Role of Personality Traits in Young Adult Fruit and Vegetable Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Tamlin S; Thompson, Laura M; Knight, Rachel L; Flett, Jayde A M; Richardson, Aimee C; Brookie, Kate L

    2017-01-01

    This project investigated how individual differences in the big-five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and agreeableness) predicted plant-food consumption in young adults. A total of 1073 participants from two samples of young adults aged 17-25 reported their daily servings of fruits, vegetables, and two unhealthy foods for comparison purposes using an Internet daily diary for 21 or 13 days (micro-longitudinal, correlational design). Participants also completed the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) measure of personality, and demographic covariates including gender, age, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Analyses used hierarchical regression to predict average daily fruit and vegetable consumption as separate dependent variables from the demographic covariates (step 1) and the five personality traits (step 2). Results showed that young adults higher in openness and extraversion, and to some extent conscientiousness, ate more fruits and vegetables than their less open, less extraverted, and less conscientious peers. Neuroticism and agreeableness were unrelated to fruit and vegetable consumption. These associations were unique to eating fruit and vegetables and mostly did not extend to unhealthy foods tested. Young adult women also ate more fruit and vegetables than young adult men. Results suggest that traits associated with greater intellect, curiosity, and social engagement (openness and extraversion), and to a lesser extent, discipline (conscientiousness) are associated with greater plant-food consumption in this population. Findings reinforce the importance of personality in establishing healthy dietary habits in young adulthood that could translate into better health outcomes later in life.

  13. Why and how the tobacco industry sells cigarettes to young adults: evidence from industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2002-06-01

    To improve tobacco control campaigns, we analyzed tobacco industry strategies that encourage young adults (aged 18 to 24) to smoke. Initial searches of tobacco industry documents with keywords (e.g., "young adult") were extended by using names, locations, and dates. Approximately 200 relevant documents were found. Transitions from experimentation to addiction, with adult levels of cigarette consumption, may take years. Tobacco marketing solidifies addiction among young adults. Cigarette advertisements encourage regular smoking and increased consumption by integrating smoking into activities and places where young adults' lives change (e.g., leaving home, college, jobs, the military, bars). Tobacco control efforts should include both adults and youths. Life changes are also opportunities to stop occasional smokers' progress to addiction. Clean air policies in workplaces, the military, bars, colleges, and homes can combat tobacco marketing.

  14. Determinants of persistent asthma in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Lisbet Krogh; Halling, Anders; Bælum, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate determinants for the prognosis of asthma in a population-based cohort of young adults. Design: The study was a nine-year clinical follow up of 239 asthmatic subjects from an enriched population-based sample of 1,191 young adults, aged 20-44 years, who...... participated in an interviewer-administered questionnaire and clinical examination at baseline in 2003-2006. From the interview, an asthma score was generated as the simple sum of affirmative answers to five main asthma-like symptoms in order to analyse symptoms of asthma as a continuum. The clinical...... examination comprised spirometry, bronchial challenge or bronchodilation, and skin prick test. Results: Among the 239 individuals with asthma at baseline 164 (69%) had persistent asthma at follow up, while 68 (28%) achieved remission of asthma and seven (3%) were diagnosed with COPD solely. Determinants...

  15. Memory-guided force output is associated with self-reported ADHD symptoms in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Kristina A; Chennavasin, Amanda P; Yoder, Arie; Williams, Genevieve K R; Loken, Eric; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L

    2016-11-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed mental health disorder in childhood and persists into adulthood in up to 65 % of cases. ADHD is associated with adverse outcomes such as the ability to gain and maintain employment and is associated with an increased risk for substance abuse obesity workplace injuries and traffic accidents A majority of diagnosed children have motor deficits; however, few studies have examined motor deficits in young adults. This study provides a novel examination of visuomotor control of grip force in young adults with and without ADHD. Participants were instructed to maintain force production over a 20-second trial with and without real-time visual feedback about their performance. The results demonstrated that when visual feedback was available, adults with ADHD produced slightly higher grip force than controls. However, when visual feedback was removed, adults with ADHD had a faster rate of decay of force, which was associated with ADHD symptom severity and trait impulsivity. These findings suggest that there may be important differences in the way that adults with ADHD integrate visual feedback during continuous motor tasks. These may account for some of the motor impairments reported in children with ADHD. These deficits could result from (1) dysfunctional sensory motor integration and/or (2) deficits in short-term visuomotor memory.

  16. Kidney transplant survival in pediatric and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acott Phil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a perception that kidney transplant recipients transferred from pediatric centers to adult care have an increased risk of graft loss. It is not clear whether young adults transplanted in adult centers also suffer from high graft loss rates. Methods We examined death censored graft survival in 3 cohorts of young patients transplanted at a single center. Pediatric (PED patients transplanted at the pediatric center were compared to a cohort of young adults (YAD; age 18- Results In a multivariate Cox model for death-censored graft survival, PED survival was statistically similar to the YAD (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.44, 1.7, p = 0.66, however the ADL cohort (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25, 0.82, p = 0.009 demonstrated better survival. Admitted non-adherence rates were not different among cohorts. Patients were transferred within a narrow age window (18.6 ± 1.0 age in years but at a wide range of times from the date of transplantation (5.1 ± 3.5 years and with a wide range of graft function (serum creatinine 182 ± 81 μmol/L. Conclusions The perception that pediatric transfers do poorly reflects advanced graft dysfunction in some at the time of transfer. The evidence also suggests that it is not the transfer of care that is the critical issue but rather recipients, somewhere between the ages of 11-14 and 25, are a unique and vulnerable cohort. Effective strategies to improve outcomes across this age group need to be identified and applied consistently.

  17. Circulating CXCR5+PD-1+ response predicts influenza vaccine antibody responses in young adults but not elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herati, Ramin Sedaghat; Reuter, Morgan A; Dolfi, Douglas V; Mansfield, Kathleen D; Aung, Htin; Badwan, Osama Z; Kurupati, Raj K; Kannan, Senthil; Ertl, Hildegund; Schmader, Kenneth E; Betts, Michael R; Canaday, David H; Wherry, E John

    2014-10-01

    Although influenza vaccination is recommended for all adults annually, the incidence of vaccine failure, defined as weak or absent increase in neutralizing Ab titers, is increased in the elderly compared with young adults. The T follicular helper cell (Tfh) subset of CD4 T cells provides B cell help in germinal centers and is necessary for class-switched Ab responses. Previous studies suggested a role for circulating Tfh cells (cTfh) following influenza vaccination in adults, but cTfh have not been studied in elderly adults in whom weak vaccine responses are often observed. In this study, we studied cTfh expressing CXCR5 and programmed death-1 (PD-1). cTfh from elderly adults were present at reduced frequency, had decreased in vitro B cell help ability, and had greater expression of ICOS compared with young adults. At 7 d after inactivated influenza vaccination, cTfh correlated with influenza vaccine-specific IgM and IgG responses in young adults but not in elderly adults. In sum, we have identified aging-related changes in cTfh that correlated with reduced influenza vaccine responses. Future rational vaccine design efforts should incorporate Tfh measurement as an immune correlate of protection, particularly in the setting of aging. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Metabolic Characteristics and Risks Associated with Stone Recurrence in Korean Young Adult Stone Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ho Won; Seo, Sung Pil; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Yong-June; Yun, Seok-Joong; Kim, Wun-Jae; Lee, Sang-Cheol

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the metabolic characteristics and risks of stone recurrence in young adult stone patients in Korea. The medical records of 1532 patients presenting with renal or ureteric stones at our stone clinic between 1994 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were grouped according to age (young adult, 18-29 years; intermediate onset, 30-59 years; old age, ≥60 years) at first presentation, and measurements of clinicometabolic characteristics and risks of stone recurrence were compared. Overall, excretion of urinary stone-forming substances was highest in the intermediate onset group, followed by the young adult and old age groups. Importantly, excretion of urinary citrate was lowest in the young adult group. Kaplan-Meier analyses identified a significant difference between the three age groups in terms of stone recurrence (log rank test, p adult stone patients. Younger age (18-29 years) at first stone presentation was a significant risk factor for stone recurrence, and urinary citrate excretion was an independent risk factor affecting recurrence in this group. Metabolic evaluation and potassium citrate therapy should be considered for young adult stone patients to prevent recurrence.

  19. The Relationship between the Self-Efficacy and Life Satisfaction of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakar, Firdevs Savi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and life satisfaction of young adults. This study is cross-sectional study and variables. Data were collected between March 2012 and April 2012 from young adults who were bachelor degree and attending the Celal Bayar University Pedagogical Formation Program the academic…

  20. The brain anatomy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in young adults - a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehricke, Jean-G; Kruggel, Frithjof; Thampipop, Tanyaporn; Alejo, Sharina Dyan; Tatos, Erik; Fallon, James; Muftuler, L Tugan

    2017-01-01

    This is one of the first studies to examine the structural brain anatomy and connectivity associated with an ADHD diagnosis and child as well as adult ADHD symptoms in young adults. It was hypothesized that an adult ADHD diagnosis and in particular childhood symptoms, are associated with widespread changes in the brain macro- and microstructure, which can be used to develop a morphometric biomarker for ADHD. Voxel-wise linear regression models were used to examine structural and diffusion-weighted MRI data in 72 participants (31 young adults with ADHD and 41 controls without ADHD) in relation to diagnosis and the number of self-reported child and adult symptoms. Findings revealed significant associations between ADHD diagnosis and widespread changes to the maturation of white matter fiber bundles and gray matter density in the brain, such as structural shape changes (incomplete maturation) of the middle and superior temporal gyrus, and fronto-basal portions of both frontal lobes. ADHD symptoms in childhood showed the strongest association with brain macro- and microstructural abnormalities. At the brain circuitry level, the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cortico-limbic areas are dysfunctional in individuals with ADHD. The morphometric findings predicted an ADHD diagnosis correctly up to 83% of all cases. An adult ADHD diagnosis and in particular childhood symptoms are associated with widespread micro- and macrostructural changes. The SLF and cortico-limbic findings suggest complex audio-visual, motivational, and emotional dysfunctions associated with ADHD in young adults. The sensitivity of the morphometric findings in predicting an ADHD diagnosis was sufficient, which indicates that MRI-based assessments are a promising strategy for the development of a biomarker.

  1. The brain anatomy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in young adults - a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-G Gehricke

    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies to examine the structural brain anatomy and connectivity associated with an ADHD diagnosis and child as well as adult ADHD symptoms in young adults. It was hypothesized that an adult ADHD diagnosis and in particular childhood symptoms, are associated with widespread changes in the brain macro- and microstructure, which can be used to develop a morphometric biomarker for ADHD.Voxel-wise linear regression models were used to examine structural and diffusion-weighted MRI data in 72 participants (31 young adults with ADHD and 41 controls without ADHD in relation to diagnosis and the number of self-reported child and adult symptoms.Findings revealed significant associations between ADHD diagnosis and widespread changes to the maturation of white matter fiber bundles and gray matter density in the brain, such as structural shape changes (incomplete maturation of the middle and superior temporal gyrus, and fronto-basal portions of both frontal lobes. ADHD symptoms in childhood showed the strongest association with brain macro- and microstructural abnormalities. At the brain circuitry level, the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF and cortico-limbic areas are dysfunctional in individuals with ADHD. The morphometric findings predicted an ADHD diagnosis correctly up to 83% of all cases.An adult ADHD diagnosis and in particular childhood symptoms are associated with widespread micro- and macrostructural changes. The SLF and cortico-limbic findings suggest complex audio-visual, motivational, and emotional dysfunctions associated with ADHD in young adults. The sensitivity of the morphometric findings in predicting an ADHD diagnosis was sufficient, which indicates that MRI-based assessments are a promising strategy for the development of a biomarker.

  2. Perceived history of anaphylaxis and parental overprotection, autonomy, anxiety, and depression in food allergic young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Linda J; Dahlquist, Lynnda M

    2008-12-01

    This study examined autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior in 86 food allergic young adults and 344 healthy young adults between the ages of 18 and 22. Participants completed an online survey measuring self-reported autonomy, anxiety, depression, and perceptions of parental behavior. Results indicated that, as a group, food allergic young adults did not differ from healthy peers. However, food allergic young adults who reported having experienced an anaphylactic reaction described their disease as more severe, reported more worry about their disease, and rated their parents as more overprotective than food allergic young adults who reported never having experienced anaphylaxis. The experience of anaphylaxis may be a reliable indicator of food allergic individuals who are at risk for psychological distress.

  3. Psychological well-being and independent living of young adults with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmesheimer, Rodica Mia; Lange, Karin; Dölle, Michael; Heger, Sabine; Mueller, Iris

    2017-08-01

    To assess the psychological well-being and social integration of adults with craniopharyngioma diagnosed in childhood. A cross-sectional study of a nationwide cohort of young adults with craniopharyngioma in Germany was performed. A structured questionnaire covered the sociodemographic, clinical data, and subjective effects of the condition on social integration. Psychological well-being was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results were compared to young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The study included 59 participants (29 females, 30 males; mean age 25y 2mo [SD 5y 10mo]), mean age at first surgery 10y 2mo [SD 3y 7mo]. Compared to the T1DM group, significantly more young people with craniopharyngioma aged 25 to 35 years lived at their parents' homes (craniopharyngioma 43.34%; T1DM 13.7%; χ 2 =4.14, p=0.049), and fewer lived in a relationship (craniopharyngioma 8.69%; T1DM 54.7%; χ 2 =15.74, p<0.001). The HADS revealed a score for depression above the cut-off in 20.69 per cent of young adults with craniopharyngioma and in 6 per cent of young adults with T1DM (χ 2 =13.42, p<0.001). Young adults with craniopharyngioma reported subjective disadvantages in professional and social integration. Further, they presented with reduced well-being and increased depression rates. Better psychosocial support and self-management education might reduce the long-term burden of the disease. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  4. Airflow obstruction in young adults in Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Hazmi, Manal; Wooldrage, Kate; Anthonisen, Nicholas R.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Airflow obstruction is relatively uncommon in young adults, and may indicate potential for the development of progressive disease. The objective of the present study was to enumerate and characterize airflow obstruction in a random sample of Canadians aged 20 to 44 years. SETTING: The ...

  5. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  6. The Social Prioritization Index and Tobacco Use among Young Adult Bar Patrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Holmes, Louisa M.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2016-01-01

    Social benefits likely play a role in young adult tobacco use. The Social Prioritization Index (SPI) was developed to measure the degree to which young adults place a great importance on their social lives. We examined the usefulness of this measure as a potential predictor of tobacco use controlling for demographics and tobacco-related attitudes.…

  7. Sexting among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc

    2013-03-01

    Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Using an adapted Web version of respondent-driven sampling, we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (aged 18-24 years, N = 3,447). We examined participant sexting behavior using four categories of sexting: (1) nonsexters, (2) receivers, (3) senders, and (4) two-way sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, and psychological well-being. More than half (57%) of the respondents were nonsexters, 28.2% were two-way sexters, 12.6% were receivers, and 2% were senders. Male respondents were more likely to be receivers than their female counterparts. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be two-way sexters than non-sexually active ones. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in the number of sexual partners or the number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cycloplegic autorefraction in young adults: is it mandatory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, Michael; Zoller, Lilach; Horowitz, Josefa; Wygnanski-Jaffe, Tamara; Morad, Yair; Mezer, Eedy

    2016-02-01

    The precise correction of refractive error is especially important in young adults. It is unclear whether cycloplegic refraction is necessary in this age group. The purpose of this study was to compare the non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) refractive error measured in young adults. This was a prospective study of 1400 eyes (n = 700) of enlisted soldiers aged 18 to 21 years who were consecutively evaluated in an outpatient army ophthalmology clinic. One drop of cyclopentolate 1 % was installed twice 10 min apart, and cycloplegic refraction was performed in both eyes 40 min later using an auto-refractor. The difference between non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic refractive measurements was analyzed. The mean difference in SE between non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic measurements was 0.68 ± 0.83 D (95 % CI, 0.64-0.72). Significantly greater differences were observed in hypermetropes than myopes (1.30 ± 0.90 D versus 0.46 ± 0.68 D, p 5 D) hypermetropes (1.71 ± 1.18 D versus 1.19 ± 0.74 D and 1.16 ± 1.08 D respectively, p pseudomyopia of -0.5 D. Cycloplegic refraction should be performed in young hypermetropic adults complaining of various signs of asthenopia.

  9. Self-initiated object-location memory in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Mandelbaum, Anat; Magen, Hagit

    2017-11-20

    The present study explored self-initiated object-location memory in ecological contexts, as aspect of memory that is largely absent from the research literature. Young and older adults memorized objects-location associations they selected themselves or object-location associations provided to them, and elaborated on the strategy they used when selecting the locations themselves. Retrieval took place 30 min and 1 month after encoding. The results showed an age-related decline in self-initiated and provided object-location memory. Older adults benefited from self-initiation more than young adults when tested after 30 min, while the benefit was equal when tested after 1 month. Furthermore, elaboration enhanced memory only in older adults, and only after 30 min. Both age groups used deep encoding strategies on the majority of the trials, but their percentage was lower in older adults. Overall, the study demonstrated the processes involved in self-initiated object-location memory, which is an essential part of everyday functioning.

  10. Reducing Young Adults' Health Care Spending through the ACA Expansion of Dependent Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Novak, Priscilla

    2017-10-01

    To estimate health care expenditure trends among young adults ages 19-25 before and after the 2010 implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) provision that extended eligibility for dependent private health insurance coverage. Nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data from 2008 to 2012. We conducted repeated cross-sectional analyses and employed a difference-in-differences quantile regression model to estimate health care expenditure trends among young adults ages 19-25 (the treatment group) and ages 27-29 (the control group). Our results show that the treatment group had 14 percent lower overall health care expenditures and 21 percent lower out-of-pocket payments compared with the control group in 2011-2012. The overall reduction in health care expenditures among young adults ages 19-25 in years 2011-2012 was more significant at the higher end of the health care expenditure distribution. Young adults ages 19-25 had significantly higher emergency department costs at the 10th percentile in 2011-2012. Differences in the trends of costs of private health insurance and doctor visits are not statistically significant. Increased health insurance enrollment as a consequence of the ACA provision for dependent coverage has successfully reduced spending and catastrophic expenditures, providing financial protections for young adults. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  11. Complicated grief and bereavement in young adults following close friend and sibling loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberman Mash, Holly B; Fullerton, Carol S; Ursano, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the association between types of loss (i.e., sibling or close friend) and relationship quality (i.e., depth and conflict) with complicated grief, depression, somatic symptoms, and world assumptions in bereaved young adults. Participants were 107 young adults aged 17-29 years who were either bereaved or had never experienced a loss. Among bereaved participants, 66 lost a close friend and seven lost a sibling within the past 3 years (M = 1.63 years). Nineteen percent of the young adults met criteria for complicated grief and 31% had mild to severe depression. Participants with a deceased sibling reported greater depth in the relationship as compared to those who lost a friend. They were also more likely to have complicated grief (57% versus 15%) and report significantly higher levels of grief, depression, and somatic symptoms. Those who lost a sibling reported a lower sense of meaningfulness and benevolence of the world and self-worth as compared with those who lost a close friend or had not experienced a loss. Complicated grief and depression are common among bereaved young adults. Sibling loss is particularly distressing to young adults, due in part to the high level of relationship depth, and is associated with increased psychological and physical symptoms postloss. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Life History Strategy and Young Adult Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    George B. Richardson; Ching-Chen Chen; Chia-Liang Dai; Patrick H. Hardesty; Christopher M. Swoboda

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS) and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict...

  13. Effect of food prices on the prevalence of obesity among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, E; Powell, L M

    2011-03-01

    To examine the extent to which various food prices were associated with the obesity status of young adults. Retrospective cohort study of 6537 men and 5324 women in the USA using panel data from the Monitoring the Future Surveys (1992-2003), which were merged with two food-at-home and one food-away-from-home price measures from the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association. Longitudinal individual random effect and fixed effect models were estimated. This study found that food prices did not have a significant effect on the prevalence of obesity among young female adults. For young adult men, an individual random effect estimator suggested that a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with a 13.2% decrease in the probability of obesity, but this effect lost its economic and statistical significance once individual fixed effects were controlled for in the estimation. Overall, the results imply that observed time-varying individual characteristics, such as working status, marital status and school enrolment status, may over-ride the effect of changes in food prices for young adults. More research employing longitudinal data is necessary to determine if food subsidies or taxes, particularly soft drink and fast food taxes or subsidies for fruit and vegetables, could be effective policy measures to curtail the increasing prevalence of obesity among young adults. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Josep-Maria; Oriol, Albert

    2009-10-01

    Today, long-term survival is achieved in more than 80% of children 1 to 10 years old with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, cure rates for adults and adolescents and young adults (AYA) with ALL remain relatively low, at only 40% to 50%. Age is a continuous prognostic variable in ALL, with no single age at which prognosis deteriorates markedly. Within childhood ALL populations, older children have shown inferior outcomes, whereas younger adults have shown superior outcomes among adult ALL patients. The type of treatment (pediatric-based versus adult-based) for AYA has recently been a matter of debate. In this article the biology and treatment of ALL in AYA is reviewed.

  15. Ovary volume in young and premenopausal adults: US determination. Work in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munn, C.S.; Kiser, L.C.; Wetzner, S.M.; Baer, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Normal adult ovary volume determined by ultrasonography (US) is often stated to be less than 6 cm/sup 3/. This is based on data from teenagers and young adults aged 12-20 years. Recently, the mean normal volume determined by US was reported to be considerably higher. The authors measured the volumes of 28 ovaries from 15 healthy young adults and found them to range as high as 13.84 cm/sup 3/, with an average of 6.48 cm/sup 3/

  16. An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis Study of Simple Motor Movements in Older and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turesky, Ted K.; Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Eden, Guinevere F.

    2016-01-01

    The functional neuroanatomy of finger movements has been characterized with neuroimaging in young adults. However, less is known about the aging motor system. Several studies have contrasted movement-related activity in older versus young adults, but there is inconsistency among their findings. To address this, we conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on within-group data from older adults and young adults performing regularly paced right-hand finger movement tasks in response to external stimuli. We hypothesized that older adults would show a greater likelihood of activation in right cortical motor areas (i.e., ipsilateral to the side of movement) compared to young adults. ALE maps were examined for conjunction and between-group differences. Older adults showed overlapping likelihoods of activation with young adults in left primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1), bilateral supplementary motor area, bilateral insula, left thalamus, and right anterior cerebellum. Their ALE map differed from that of the young adults in right SM1 (extending into dorsal premotor cortex), right supramarginal gyrus, medial premotor cortex, and right posterior cerebellum. The finding that older adults uniquely use ipsilateral regions for right-hand finger movements and show age-dependent modulations in regions recruited by both age groups provides a foundation by which to understand age-related motor decline and motor disorders. PMID:27799910

  17. Use of traditional cooking fuels and the risk of young adult cataract in rural Bangladesh: a hospital-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geater Alan F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate the independent relationship between the use of various traditional biomass cooking fuels and the occurrence of cataract in young adults in rural Bangladesh. Methods A hospital-based age- and sex-matched case-control study incorporating two control groups was conducted. Cases were cataract patients aged 18 and 49 years diagnosed on the basis of any opacity of the crystalline lens or its capsule and visual acuity poorer than 6/18 on the Log Mar Visual Acuity Chart in either eye, or who had a pseudophakic lens as a result of cataract surgery within the previous 5 years. Non-eye-disease (NE controls were selected from patients from ENT or Orthopaedics departments and non-cataract eye-disease (NC controls from the Ophthalmology department. Data pertaining to history of exposure to various cooking fuels and to established risk factors for cataract were obtained by face-to-face interview and analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Results Clean fuels were used by only 4% of subjects. A majority of males (64-80% depending on group had never cooked, while the rest had used biomass cooking fuels, mainly wood/dry leaves, with only 6 having used rice straw and/or cow dung. All females of each group had used wood/dry leaves for cooking. Close to half had also used rice straw and/or cow dung. Among females, after controlling for family history of cataract and education and combining the two control groups, case status was shown to be significantly related to lifetime exposure to rice straw, fitted as a trend variable coded as never, ≤ median of all exposed, > median of all exposed (OR = 1.52, 95%CI 1.04-2.22, but not to lifetime exposure to wood/dry leaves. Case status among females showed an inverse association with ever use of cow dung as a cooking fuel (OR 0.43, 95%CI 0.22-0.81. Conclusions In this population, where cooking is almost exclusively done using biomass fuels, cases of young adult

  18. Use of traditional cooking fuels and the risk of young adult cataract in rural Bangladesh: a hospital-based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the independent relationship between the use of various traditional biomass cooking fuels and the occurrence of cataract in young adults in rural Bangladesh. Methods A hospital-based age- and sex-matched case-control study incorporating two control groups was conducted. Cases were cataract patients aged 18 and 49 years diagnosed on the basis of any opacity of the crystalline lens or its capsule and visual acuity poorer than 6/18 on the Log Mar Visual Acuity Chart in either eye, or who had a pseudophakic lens as a result of cataract surgery within the previous 5 years. Non-eye-disease (NE) controls were selected from patients from ENT or Orthopaedics departments and non-cataract eye-disease (NC) controls from the Ophthalmology department. Data pertaining to history of exposure to various cooking fuels and to established risk factors for cataract were obtained by face-to-face interview and analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Results Clean fuels were used by only 4% of subjects. A majority of males (64-80% depending on group) had never cooked, while the rest had used biomass cooking fuels, mainly wood/dry leaves, with only 6 having used rice straw and/or cow dung. All females of each group had used wood/dry leaves for cooking. Close to half had also used rice straw and/or cow dung. Among females, after controlling for family history of cataract and education and combining the two control groups, case status was shown to be significantly related to lifetime exposure to rice straw, fitted as a trend variable coded as never, ≤ median of all exposed, > median of all exposed (OR = 1.52, 95%CI 1.04-2.22), but not to lifetime exposure to wood/dry leaves. Case status among females showed an inverse association with ever use of cow dung as a cooking fuel (OR 0.43, 95%CI 0.22-0.81). Conclusions In this population, where cooking is almost exclusively done using biomass fuels, cases of young adult cataract among females

  19. Comparative study of the blinking time between young adult and adult video display terminal users in indoor environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Tânia Mara Cunha; Schaefer, Arthur Rubens Cunha; Abib, Fernando Cesar; José, Newton Kara

    2009-01-01

    Investigate the average blinking time in conversation and in Video Display Terminal use of young adults and adults in the presbyopic age group. A transversal analytical study in a readily accessible sample consisting of Volkswagen do Brasil - Curitiba, Paraná employees was performed. The cohort group consisted of 108 subjects divided into two age groups: Group 1, the young adult group (age range 20-39): 77 employees, mean age of 30.09 +/- 5.09; Group 2, the presbyopic adult group, (age range 40-53): 31 employees, mean age of 44.17 +/- 3. Subjects under 18 years of age, with a history of ocular disorders, contact lens wearers and computer non-users were excluded. The subjects had their faces filmed for 10 minutes in conversation and VDT reading. Student's t-test was used and the statistical significance level was 95%. The average time between blinks in Group 1 for conversation and VDT reading was 5.16 +/- 1.83 and 10.42 +/- 7.78 seconds, respectively; in Group 2. 4,9 +/- 1.49 and 10.46 +/- 5.54 seconds. In both age groups, the time between blinks in VDT reading situations was higher (pgroups were compared (p>0.05). There was an increase in the blinking time between young adults and the presbyopic group in VDT use situations when compared with reading situations. The difference in the blinking frequency between young adults and the presbyopic group in VDT use and reading situations was not statistically significant.

  20. Tensions in Teaching Adolescence/ts: Analyzing Resistances in a Young Adult Literature Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    Identifying English Education courses focused on young adult literature as apposite sites for exploring teacher conceptions of youth and the texts aimed for youths' consumptions, this article addresses the multiple sources of tension--and pedagogical potential--of teaching a young adult literature course centrally framed around controversial…

  1. The Relationship of Parenting Styles to Commitment to the Church among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Roger L.; Wisbey, Randall L.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effects of parenting style experiences during childhood has on the religious commitment of young adults. Surveyed Seventh-day Adventist young adults (n=653) in United States and Canada. Reveals that the affectionate constraint parenting style produced the largest percentage of members. Includes references. (CMK)

  2. Emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents and young adults with food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, M A; Van Lieshout, R J; Ohayon, J; Scott, J G

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents with food allergy have poorer psychosocial outcomes compared with their nonallergic counterparts; however, few studies have prospectively examined the mental health of adolescents and young adults in this vulnerable population. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems in an epidemiological sample of adolescents and young adults with food allergy; determine whether food allergy is associated with adolescent and maternal reports of such problems; and examine the patterns of change in emotional and behavioral problems from adolescence to young adulthood among individuals with and without food allergy. Data came from 1303 participants at 14 and 21 years of age in the Mater University Study of Pregnancy. Emotional and behavioral problems were measured using self- and maternal-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Maternal, but not self-reports suggested that emotional and behavioral problems were higher among adolescents with food allergy. Food allergy was associated with increased odds of elevated levels of maternal-reported symptoms of depression [OR = 4.50 (1.83, 11.07)], anxiety [OR = 2.68 (1.12, 6.44)], and ADHD [OR = 3.14 (1.07, 9.19)] in adolescence. Food allergy was also associated with depressive symptoms that persisted from adolescence to young adulthood [OR = 2.05 (1.04, 4.03)]. Emotional and behavioral problems, particularly symptoms of depression, anxiety, and ADHD, are common among adolescents with food allergy in the general population and, in the case of elevated levels of depressive symptoms, persist into young adulthood. Healthcare professionals should seek adolescent and parental perspectives when assessing emotional and behavioral problems and monitor mental health during the transition to adulthood. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Determinants of compulsive buying behavior among young adults: The mediating role of materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Tahir; Wei, Jiuchang; Sheikh, Zaryab; Hameed, Zahid; Azam, Rauf I

    2017-12-01

    This research seeks to determine what makes young adults materialistic. The study examines the mediating role of materialism between the contextual factors and compulsive buying. Data was gathered from 219 Pakistani undergraduate university students. Partial Least Square (PLS) technique was used to analyze the data. The study confirms the intuition that more materialistic young adults are more likely to be involved in compulsive buying than are less materialistic young adults. The results were similar with the previous literature conducted in the western culture, indicating that also applies in a modern Islamic society. The findings of the study reveal that materialism mediated the relationship between certain sociological factors (i.e., group, media Celebrity endorsement, and TV advertisement) and compulsive buying. The study highlights the importance of understanding young adults' materialistic attitudes and consumption decisions and provides key knowledge for researchers, policymakers, and managers of leading brands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Understanding and Targeting Indonesian Young Adult Internet Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Chang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available As the number of global internet users increases, companies’ online advertisement expenditure also grows rapidly. Companies face challenges in targeting the right customers. Understanding which websites are often visited by target users and what they do on the internet will help companies direct their online advertisement to the right target. Using questionnaires, this study examines which sites are most often visited by Indonesian young adult internet users and what they do on the internet. It aims to understand the patterns of behavior of these users. The findings of this study provide some understanding to the marketers. Of consequence, such understanding would help them to select where and what to do with their advertisements when they are targeting the young adult internet users in Indonesia. 

  5. Metabolic syndrome and Framingham risk score in obese young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix F. Widjaja

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase number of the metabolic syndrome (MetS among young adults was mostly caused by obesity. MetS increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD which can be estimated by Framingham risk score (FRS. The study was aimed to know the prevalence of MetS and FRS in obese young adults and to associate them with the components of MetS. Methods: A total of 70 male and female students aged 18 to 25 years with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia were selected consecutively. The blood samples used to test fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride were examined in Department of Clinical Pathology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital after fasting for 14 to 16 hours. International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition was used to diagnose MetS. Univariate and bivariate analysis were done. Results: The prevalence of MetS based on IDF definition was 18.6% among obese young adults. The most associated MetS components was hypertriglyceridemia (OR 12.13; 95% CI 2.92-50.46; p = 0.001, followed with high blood pressure (OR 9.33; 95% CI 2.26-38.56; p = 0.001, low-HDL (OR 8.33; 95% CI 2.17-32.05; p = 0.003, and impaired fasting glucose (p = 0.03. Four subjects had FRS ≥ 1% and 66 subjects had risk < 1%. Increased FRS was not associated with MetS (p = 0.154. There was no component of MetS associated with increased FRS. Conclusion: Prevalence of MetS in obese young adults was similar with obese children and adolescents. Although no association of MetS and FRS was found, they are significant predictors for CHD which should not be used separately. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:100-6Keywords: Abdominal obesity, Framingham risk score, metabolic syndrome, young adults

  6. Psychological, social, and behavioral issues for young adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrack, Brad J

    2011-05-15

    Theories of human development suggest that, although all cancer patients experience a common set of life disruptions, they experience them differently, focus on different issues, and attach different levels of importance to different aspects of the experience depending on the time in life at which they were diagnosed. During the critical developmental transition from childhood to adulthood, older adolescents and young adults in particular have typical concerns with establishing identity, developing a positive body image and sexual identity, separating from parents, increasing involvement with peers and dating, and beginning to make decisions about careers or employment, higher education, and/or family. Accordingly, cancer-related issues such as premature confrontation with mortality, changes in physical appearance, increased dependence on parents, disruptions in social life and school/employment because of treatment, loss of reproductive capacity, and health-related concerns about the future may be particularly distressing for adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial and behavioral interventions for young adult cancer patients and survivors often involve assisting these individuals in retaining or returning to function in significant social roles, such as spouse, parent, student, worker, or friend. Successful interventions will enable these young people to overcome the detrimental impact of a health crisis and strengthen the internal and external coping resources available to them. © 2011 American Cancer Society

  7. Smoking initiation among young adults in the United States and Canada, 1998-2010: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Kit S; Nelson, Nanette M; Feldman, Laura L

    2012-01-01

    Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the United States and Canada, and recent data indicate that they often initiate smoking as young adults. The objective of this study was to systematically review peer-reviewed articles on cigarette smoking initiation and effective prevention efforts among young adults. We searched 5 databases for research articles published in English between 1998 and 2010 on smoking initiation among young adults (aged 18-25) living in the United States or Canada. We extracted the following data from each study selected: the measure of initiation used, age range of initiation, age range of study population, data source, target population, sampling method, and sample size. We summarized the primary findings of each study according to 3 research questions and categories of data (eg, sociodemographic) that emerged during the data extraction process. Of 1,072 identified studies, we found 27 articles that met our search criteria, but several included a larger age range of initiation (eg, 18-30, 18-36) than we initially intended to include. Disparities in young adult smoking initiation existed according to sex, race, and educational attainment. The use of alcohol and illegal drugs was associated with smoking initiation. The risk of smoking initiation among young adults increased under the following circumstances: exposure to smoking, boredom or stress while serving in the military, attending tobacco-sponsored social events while in college, and exposure to social norms and perceptions that encourage smoking. Effective prevention efforts include exposure to counter-marketing, denormalization campaigns, taxation, and the presence of smoke-free policies. Much remains to be learned about young adult smoking initiation, particularly among young adults in the straight-to-work population. Dissimilar measures of smoking initiation limit our knowledge about smoking initiation among young adults. We recommend developing a standardized

  8. From Fiction to Fact to Potential Action: Generating Prosocial Attitudes and Behaviors Using Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Alice

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the impact reading Young Adult Literature (YAL) has on students' empathetic responses as well as their capacity to take action regarding a social justice issue chosen by the student. Drawing on data from a 10th grade honors classroom at a Title 1 school in the Southwest, this ethnographic case study investigates how…

  9. Measurement equivalence of the BDSx scale with young and older adults with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Norm; Bachner, Yaacov G; Canham, Sarah L; Sixsmith, Andrew; Study Team, Badas

    2018-05-01

    Instruments developed for mental health research are commonly devised and validated with young adults only. However, the measurement properties of these scales may differ over the lifespan. For this study, we set out to demonstrate the psychometric equivalence of the BDSx scale with an international sample of young and older adults with bipolar disorder (BD). We independently replicated the 4-factor model of BDSx responses with young and older participants (M = 45.63, range 19-87 years of age); we then compared the psychometric properties between models. This allowed us to compare responses to each BDSx item between groups, and the strength of association among depression and hypo/mania factors (cognitive depressive symptoms, somatic depressive symptoms, affrontive symptoms of hypo/mania, elation/loss of insight). Young and older adults responded to 19 of 20 BDSx items in similar ways. Only responses to the 'talkative' item were significantly higher for younger adults. Correlations between depression and mania factors are statistically indistinguishable between age groups. This suggests that symptoms cluster and present similarly for young and older adults with BD. The BDSx is currently being used for ecological momentary sampling of mood by the BADAS (Bipolar Affective Disorder and older Adults) Study app for iPhone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Parent Perceptions of Time Spent Meaningfully by Young Adults with Pervasive Support Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Zachary; Lehr, Donna; Lederer, Leslie; Pelerin, Dana; Huang, Shuoxi

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study that examined how 23 young adults with pervasive support needs and limited functional communication spent their time and how their parents (n = 23) and direct support professionals (DSPs; n = 2) defined meaningfulness in relation to the young adults' experiences. Data were collected through…

  11. Notable Books in Spanish for Children and Young Adults from Spanish-Speaking Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    1985-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of books recently published in Mexico, Spain, Argentina, and Peru for Spanish-speaking children and young adults. The books are grouped by the following levels: (1) preschool and primary grades; (2) grades 3 to 6; (3) junior high and up; and (4) young adult. (SED)

  12. Healthy Behaviors and Lifestyles in Young Adults with a History of Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurangirwa, Jacqueline; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Schendel, Diana; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Measure select Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators in young adults with and without a history of developmental disabilities (DD) using a population-based cohort. Methods: Young adults were interviewed to assess the prevalence of seven Leading Health Indicators: physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance…

  13. The effects of Vitamin A on tear break-up time of young adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Vitamin A on tear break-up time of young adults. ... healthy young adults; 50 males and 50 females all within the ages of 18 and 30 years were used for this study. Results showed a range of 13-28 seconds and a mean TBUT of

  14. Comparing young adults to older adults in e-cigarette perceptions and motivations for use: implications for health communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maria; Harrell, Melissa B; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-08-01

    Use of electronic cigarettes ('e-cigarettes' is rapidly rising, and is especially prevalent among young adults. A better understanding of e-cigarette perceptions and motivations for use is needed to inform health communication and educational efforts. This study aims to explore these aspects of use with a focus on comparing young adults to older adults. In this qualitative study, the investigator conducted semi-structured interviews among a purposive sample of e-cigarette users. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data and document themes. e-cigarettes were most commonly used for smoking cessation among both age groups. Young adults described other motivations for use including doing smoke tricks, being able to consume a wide variety of flavors, and helping them study. Some interviewees (11%) believed e-cigarettes were a healthy alternative to conventional cigarettes, while many other users (30%) expressed concerns about the unknown risks of e-cigarettes. Findings were generally consistent across both age groups in their perceptions of harm from e-cigarettes and in subjective effects such as perceived addictiveness. However, individuals under 30 described unique motivations for e-cigarette use. Health messaging targeted to young adults should emphasize the potential health risks of e-cigarette use and recognize their distinct motivational aspects. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Mature Young Adult Books Are Given a Bad Reputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Julia

    1998-01-01

    Presents the viewpoints of a tenth grader on novels for young adults that portray troubled teens dealing with alcoholism, drugs, depression, suicide, sexual abuse, and violence. Suggests that contrary to adult opinions that these novels are not always age-appropriate, they in fact broaden teens' outlooks and prepare them for the real world. (LRW)

  16. Seeing Health Insurance and HealthCare.gov Through the Eyes of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Charlene A; Asch, David A; Vinoya, Cjloe M; Ford, Carol A; Baker, Tom; Town, Robert; Merchant, Raina M

    2015-08-01

    We describe young adults' perspectives on health insurance and HealthCare.gov, including their attitudes toward health insurance, health insurance literacy, and benefit and plan preferences. We observed young adults aged 19-30 years in Philadelphia from January to March 2014 as they shopped for health insurance on HealthCare.gov. Participants were then interviewed to elicit their perceived advantages and disadvantages of insurance and factors considered important for plan selection. A 1-month follow-up interview assessed participants' plan enrollment decisions and intended use of health insurance. Data were analyzed using qualitative methodology, and salience scores were calculated for free-listing responses. We enrolled 33 highly educated young adults; 27 completed the follow-up interview. The most salient advantages of health insurance for young adults were access to preventive or primary care (salience score .28) and peace of mind (.27). The most salient disadvantage was the financial strain of paying for health insurance (.72). Participants revealed poor health insurance literacy with 48% incorrectly defining deductible and 78% incorrectly defining coinsurance. The most salient factors reported to influence plan selection were deductible (.48) and premium (.45) amounts as well as preventive care (.21) coverage. The most common intended health insurance use was primary care. Eight participants enrolled in HealthCare.gov plans: six selected silver plans, and three qualified for tax credits. Young adults' perspective on health insurance and enrollment via HealthCare.gov can inform strategies to design health insurance plans and communication about these plans in a way that engages and meets the needs of young adult populations. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. LGBTQ+ Young Adults on the Street and on Campus: Identity as a Product of Social Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Rachel M; Tyler, Kimberly A

    2018-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and other sexual and gender minority (LGBTQ+) young adults face unique identity-related experiences based on their immersion in distinctive social contexts. The predominant framework of performing separate analyses on samples of LGBTQ+ young people by their primary social status obfuscates more holistic understandings of the role of social context. Using 46 in-depth interviews with LGBTQ+ college students and LGBTQ+ homeless young adults, we ask: How are LGBTQ+ young adults' capacities for "doing" their gender and sexual identities shaped by their distinctive social contexts? In developing their identities, both groups of LGBTQ+ young adults navigated their social environments to seek out resources and support. Most college students described their educational contexts as conducive to helping them develop their identities, or "undo" rigid norms of gender and sexuality. Homeless young adults' social environments, meanwhile, imposed complex barriers to self-expression that reinforced more normative expectations of "doing" gender and sexual identities.

  18. Young adult conservation jobs and worker health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen L. Wolf; Elizabeth Housley

    2017-01-01

    Decades of research studies demonstrate links between healthy environment, healthy lifestyles, and healthy people. This study evaluated the correlations between young adult conservation workers’ perceived stress, personal effectiveness, and nature experience using quantitative and qualitative social science methods. The study cohort numbered nearly 300 individuals...

  19. Sociodemographic Characteristics Of Young Adults Screened For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: HIV screening was performed on all (n = 673) young adults referred to the retrovirology unit of the Haematology Department of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January 2003 to December 2003 comprising of 205 males and 432 females were screened for HIV using a double ELISA ...

  20. Synthetic Cannabis Overdose and Withdrawal in a Young Adult: A Case Report, Commentary on Regulation, and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Samaan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Marijuana has been used for its psychotropic effects including enhanced relaxation and perceptual alterations. However, the use of synthetic marijuana (SM leads to more frequent and drastic side effects than the typical use of regular marijuana, owing to the fact that SM has a shorter duration and an earlier peak of action. Despite all the potential adverse health effects associated with SM use, current health policies on SM are very limited. It is believed that the popularity of SM has increased, due to its easy accessibility in the US and lack of detection in typical urine drug screens for THC. Case Report. One case presented is of a young adult patient, with histories of recurrent synthetic cannabis and recreational cannabis use, who had developed drastic physiological and psychiatric symptoms, including the development of acute-onset psychosis. Conclusion/Discussion. This case, as many others nationwide, exemplifies the impact of synthetic cannabinoid use and abuse in adolescents. Side effects and adverse health consequences of synthetic cannabinoid use warrant stricter regulations and policies in order to decrease psychiatric hospital admissions and associated healthcare costs.

  1. A forensic pathology approach to sudden death in children and young adults in Biscay and Seville (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Morentin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sudden death (SD in children and young adults is a complex multifactorial problem that entails medical forensic and socio-familial implications. Forensic pathology plays an important role in these cases due to the fact that they tend to occur unexpectedly, and therefore a postmortem examination is needed to determine cause and mechanism of death. Most of these deaths are of cardiovascular origin and many of them have a hereditary component. The autopsy may be the only way to establish the correct diagnosis of the underlying condition enabling the family to receive proper medical counseling, to identify asymptomatic relatives at risk, and to prevent subsequent deaths. A proper approach requires the collaboration of various medical specialties (coroners, pathologists, pediatricians, cardiologists, microbiologists, geneticians, who must work in coordination in accordance to international protocols. In this article, the epidemiologic and clinical-pathological features of the main conditions that may lead to SD in children and young adults are reviewed and a case series from Seville and Biscay provinces is presented. Finally, the importance of forensic pathology in the management and prevention of these cases is underlined.

  2. Tobacco and Marijuana Initiation Among African American and White Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sara M; Patel, Roshni P; Cheh, Paul; Hsia, Jason; Rolle, Italia V

    2016-04-01

    African American youth use marijuana at similar rates and tobacco at lower rates compared with white youth; however, in adulthood, tobacco use is similar. Tobacco and marijuana use are closely associated; differing initiation patterns may contribute to observed racial differences in tobacco prevalence by age. Therefore, it is important to assess tobacco and marijuana initiation patterns by race. Data were obtained from 56,555 adults aged 18-25 who completed the 2005-2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. The analysis was restricted to those who reported ever use of marijuana and combustible tobacco (cigarettes and/or cigars). Three mutually exclusive categories of initiation patterns were evaluated: use of marijuana before tobacco; marijuana and tobacco at the same age; and tobacco before marijuana. Multivariable regression models were used to assess changes over time and compare these outcomes by race while controlling for sociodemographics, risk perceptions, and current substance use. In 2005, 26.6% of African American and 14.3% of white young adults used marijuana before tobacco, compared with 41.5% of African American and 24.0% of white young adults in 2012 (P young adults had greater odds of using marijuana before tobacco (AOR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.67, 1.91) compared with whites. African American young adults were more likely than whites to use marijuana before tobacco and both groups were increasingly likely to use marijuana before tobacco over time. A greater understanding of how marijuana initiation interacts with tobacco initiation could inform more effective tobacco and marijuana use prevention efforts. Among ever users of combustible tobacco and marijuana, greater proportions of African American young adults used marijuana before tobacco or at the same age than their white counterparts. Moreover, both African Americans and whites were more likely to use marijuana before tobacco in 2012 compared with 2005. Tobacco control policy may benefit from a

  3. YOUNG ADULT DATING RELATIONSHIPS AND THE MANAGEMENT OF SEXUAL RISK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A; Flanigan, Christine M

    2012-04-01

    Young adult involvement in sexual behavior typically occurs within a relationship context, but we know little about the ways in which specific features of romantic relationships influence sexual decision-making. Prior work on sexual risk taking focuses attention on health issues rather than relationship dynamics. We draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 475) to examine the association between qualities and dynamics of current/most recent romantic relationships such as communication and emotional processes, conflict, demographic asymmetries, and duration and the management of sexual risk. We conceptualize 'risk management' as encompassing multiple domains, including (1) questioning the partner about previous sexual behaviors/risks, (2) using condoms consistently, and (3) maintaining sexual exclusivity within the relationship. We identify distinct patterns of risk management among dating young adults and find that specific qualities and dynamics of these relationships are linked to variations in risk management. Results from this paper suggest the need to consider relational dynamics in efforts to target and influence young adult sexual risk-taking and reduce STIs, including HIV.

  4. YOUNG ADULT DATING RELATIONSHIPS AND THE MANAGEMENT OF SEXUAL RISK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Flanigan, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Young adult involvement in sexual behavior typically occurs within a relationship context, but we know little about the ways in which specific features of romantic relationships influence sexual decision-making. Prior work on sexual risk taking focuses attention on health issues rather than relationship dynamics. We draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 475) to examine the association between qualities and dynamics of current/most recent romantic relationships such as communication and emotional processes, conflict, demographic asymmetries, and duration and the management of sexual risk. We conceptualize ‘risk management’ as encompassing multiple domains, including (1) questioning the partner about previous sexual behaviors/risks, (2) using condoms consistently, and (3) maintaining sexual exclusivity within the relationship. We identify distinct patterns of risk management among dating young adults and find that specific qualities and dynamics of these relationships are linked to variations in risk management. Results from this paper suggest the need to consider relational dynamics in efforts to target and influence young adult sexual risk-taking and reduce STIs, including HIV. PMID:23805015

  5. ‌‌‌‌‌Recourse Allocation in Young and Elderly Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bazrafkan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The role of cognitive process for postural control was shown in dual task studies. However, there was no definite evidence how verbal instructions influence the allocation of attention to postural control. This study determined whether young and elderly adult are able to deliberately control the resource allocation when performing a sensorimotor and cognitive task simultaneously and are there any differences between young and older adults in this regard. Methods: Cross-sectional study was performed in 16 young adults aged (23.95±3.31 and 20 older adults (61±2.21. Participants selected by non-probable sampling method. Parallel standing and tandem standing on hard surface were used as postural tasks. Force plate was used for postural performance. Postural sway was measured and the choice reaction time task was conducted as cognitive task. Dual- task performance was measured under three different instructions including pay attention to cognitive task, postural task, and equal attention to both tasks. Results: for postural performance the main effect of instructions and interactions by difficulty and groups were not significant (P≥0.05 for cognitive performance, the main effect of group was significant (F=5.672, P=0.023, showing that elderly adult have longer reaction time. The interaction of instruction by group effect and also interaction of instruction by postural difficulty on mean reaction time was also significant, (F=3.710, P=0.030, (F=5.242, P=0.008 respectively. Discussion: Because of age related changes in brain, flexibility in older adults are less than young adults.

  6. Changing pattern in the risk factors for diabetes in young adults from the rural area of baluchistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawad, A.; Alvi, S.F.D.; Hakeem, R.; Basit, A.; Ahmedani, M.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe changing pattern in the risk factors for diabetes as overweight, obesity, smoking, hypertension and family history of diabetes in young adults in the rural area of Baluchistan. Methods: A community based observational study was carried out in the rural area of Baluchistan by conducting two surveys, in the years 2002 and 2009 respectively. The survey was further subdivided into two groups i.e. young adults (15-25 years) and adults (>25 years). In this study, data of young adults was analyzed. Data obtained in 2002 was also analyzed according to the current guidelines and compared with 2009 survey. Results: A total of 230 and 197 young adults participated in 2002 and 2009 surveys respectively. Obesity increased significantly (p <0.001) from 20 (10.15%) young adults in the year 2002 to 64 (27.82%) in 2009. Similarly 15 (7.61%) young adults were overweight in 2002 which increased to 24 (10.43%) in 2009 (p <0.317). Smoking increased from 8 (4.06%) to 49 (21.3%) in 2009 (p <0.001). Family history of diabetes mellitus also showed a significant increase (p <0.005). Hypertension increased from 13 (6.6%) young adults in 2002 survey to 17 (7.39%) in 2009, the increase was not statistically significant (p <0.749). Conclusion: The present study showed that risk factors for diabetes such as overweight, obesity, smoking, hypertension and family history of diabetes increased over time in the young adults of rural Baluchistan. (author)

  7. The importance of assistive technology in the productivity pursuits of young adults with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripat, Jacquie D; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2017-01-01

    Young adults with disabilities often use assistive technology (AT) to address personal needs, engage in communities and pursue educational and vocational goals. Little is known about their personal experiences and challenges of accessing and using AT for productivity-related activities. This study aimed to learn from young adults about their experiences and use of AT in supporting their productivity. Using a qualitative approach, 20 young adult AT users engaged in semi-structured interviews and a photovoice process. Data were analysed inductively. Three primary themes were identified: I Have to Figure it out Myself, With the Right AT, and Relational Aspects of AT Use. Although participants were experienced AT users, they were often left alone to figure out their emerging needs. They relied on AT to participate in productivity pursuits however stigma around AT use in unsupportive work environments were new concerns. Young adults with disabilities draw on their experiences of AT use but may need to develop advocacy skills to ensure their needs are met in productivity-related environments. Employers and supervisors should recognize AT as essential to young adult's engagement with productivity-related activities and have an important role in developing inclusive work environments.

  8. Enhancing the Career Planning Self-Determination of Young Adults with Mental Health Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Jo-Ann; Swank, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The impact of an intervention on the self-determination and career planning engagement of young adults with mental health challenges was studied. Sixty-seven young adults, 20 to 30 years of age, with mental health diagnoses (e.g., depression, bipolar disorder) were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Statistically significant greater increases were made by the intervention group versus the control group for self-determination and career planning engagement, and self-determination at least partially mediated increases in career planning engagement. With career planning self-determination interventions, young adults with mental health challenges might be able to achieve better career and life outcomes than is typical for this population.

  9. The procrastination of Internet gaming disorder in young adults: The clinical severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Wang, Peng-Wei; Huang, Mei-Feng; Lin, Pai-Cheng; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Ko, Chih-Hung

    2017-08-01

    Young adults with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) usually postpone the tasks of their daily lives to engage in Internet gaming. This study evaluates the association between procrastination and IGD and the association between the negative consequences of IGD and procrastination. We recruited 87 individuals with IGD and 87 controls without a history of IGD. All participants underwent a diagnostic interview based on the DSM-5 IGD criteria to assess the clinical global score. They also completed questionnaires regarding IGD, procrastination, impulsivity, depression, and hostility. Young adults with IGD had higher levels of procrastination. Procrastination was positively associated with depression, hostility, and impulsivity. After controlling for depression, hostility, and impulsivity, procrastination was still found to be associated with IGD. Further, procrastination was positively associated with the clinical global impressions score among young adults with IGD. Procrastination is associated with IGD independent of depression, hostility, and impulsivity. Procrastination is also associated with the clinical severity of IGD. The results suggest that procrastination should be carefully evaluated and intervention should be taken with young adults with IGD. This intervention might attenuate the negative consequences of IGD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Food Insecurity among Young Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in the United States: Evidence from the National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Debra L.; Nord, Derek

    2016-01-01

    People with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD) face higher levels of poverty than others, which can lead to concerns regarding areas of well-being, such as food security. Young adults with IDD who are, in many cases, transitioning from the system of educational, health care, and income supports of their youth into the adult world may…

  11. Similar representations of sequence knowledge in young and older adults: A study of effector independent transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sebastiaan Barnhoorn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is highly relevant in day-to-day motor activity and facilitates generalization of learning to new contexts. By using movement types that are completely unrelated in terms of muscle activation and response location, we focused on transfer facilitated by the early, visuospatial system.We tested 32 right-handed older adults (65 – 74 and 32 young adults (18 – 30. During practice of a discrete sequence production task, participants learned two 6-element sequences using either unimanual key-presses (KPs or by moving a lever with lower arm flexion-extension (FE movements. Each sequence was performed 144 times. They then performed a test phase consisting of familiar and random sequences performed with the type of movements not used during practice. Both age groups displayed transfer from FE to KP movements as indicated by faster performance on the familiar sequences in the test phase. Only young adults transferred their sequence knowledge from KP to FE movements. In both directions, the young showed higher transfer than older adults. These results suggest that the older participants, like the young, represented their sequences in an abstract visuospatial manner. Transfer was asymmetric in both age groups: there was more transfer from FE to KP movements than vice versa. This similar asymmetry is a further indication that the types of representations that older adults develop are comparable to those that young adults develop. We furthermore found that older adults improved less during FE practice, gained less explicit knowledge, displayed a smaller visuospatial working memory capacity and had lower processing speed than young adults. Despite the many differences

  12. Parenting adolescents with cystic fibrosis: the adolescents' and young adults' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    and the influence of different parenting styles on the adolescents’ adherence to treatment is still limited. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the types of parental support that adolescents and young adults with CF want and find helpful in terms of preparing them for adult life. Methods: Sixteen Danish...... was conducted. Results: The adolescents and young adults wanted their parents educated about the adolescent experience. They wanted their parents to learn a pedagogical parenting style, to learn to trust them, and to learn to gradually transfer responsibility for their medical treatment. Additionally......: chronic illness, parenting style, qualitative research, patient preferences, interpretive description...

  13. Hypertension awareness and control among young adults in the national longitudinal study of adolescent health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Holly C; McGinty, Shannon; Richmond, Tracy K; Gillman, Matthew W; Field, Alison E

    2014-08-01

    Young adults are less likely than older adults to be aware they have hypertension or to be treated for hypertension. To describe rates of hypertension awareness and control in a cohort of young adults and understand the impact of health insurance, utilization of preventive care, and self-perception of health on rates of hypertension awareness and control in this age group. Cross-sectional study of 13,512 young adults participating in Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in 2007-2008. We defined hypertension as an average of two measured systolic blood pressures (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressures (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg, or self-report of hypertension. We defined hypertension awareness as reporting having been told by a health care provider that one had high blood pressure, and assessed awareness among those with uncontrolled hypertension. We considered those aware of having hypertension controlled if their average measured SBP was young adults with hypertension, 2,531 (76%) were uncontrolled, and 1,893 (75%) of those with uncontrolled hypertension were unaware they had hypertension. After adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, weight status, income, education, alcohol and tobacco use, young adults with uncontrolled hypertension who had (vs. didn't have) routine preventive care in the past 2 years were 2.4 times more likely (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.68-3.55) to be aware, but young adults who believed they were in excellent (vs. less than excellent) health were 64% less likely to be aware they had hypertension (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.57). Neither preventive care utilization nor self-rated health was associated with blood pressure control. In this nationally representative group of young adults, rates of hypertension awareness and control were low. Efforts to increase detection of hypertension must address young adults' access to preventive care and perception of their need for care.

  14. Parenting adolescents with cystic fibrosis: the adolescents' and young adults' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    When suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF), a number of problems may arise during adolescence; for example, poor adherence. The problems may be attributed to the adolescent being insufficiently prepared for adult life. Research on different ways of parenting adolescents with CF and the influence of different parenting styles on the adolescents' adherence to treatment is still limited. The aim of this study was to identify the types of parental support that adolescents and young adults with CF want and find helpful in terms of preparing them for adult life. Sixteen Danish adolescents with CF, aged 14-25, participated in the study. Two focus group interviews were carried out, one for 14-18-year-olds and one for 19-25-year-olds. Individual interviews were conducted, with three subjects. Using interpretive description strategy, a secondary analysis of the interview data was conducted. The adolescents and young adults wanted their parents educated about the adolescent experience. They wanted their parents to learn a pedagogical parenting style, to learn to trust them, and to learn to gradually transfer responsibility for their medical treatment. Additionally, the adolescents noted that meeting other parents may be beneficial for the parents. The findings of this study suggest that adolescents and young adults with CF want their parents to be educated about how to handle adolescents with CF and thereby sufficiently prepare them for adult life.

  15. Laparoscopic cryoablation of angiomyolipomas in adolescents and young adults: A report of four cases associated with tuberous sclerosis and 1 case of sporadic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trelborg, Karina; Nielsen, Tommy Kjærgaard; Østraat, Ernst Øyvind; Olsen, Lars Henning

    2016-12-01

    Renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs) can be of sporadic origin or associated with tuberous sclerosis (TS). TS-associated AMLs often present in childhood, tend to be bilateral and multiple, and often exhibit a faster growth rate with an increased risk of hemorrhage. Renal cryoablation is well described in adults, whereas experiences with adolescents and young adults are limited. We present here for the first time a series of renal AMLs within adolescents and young adults treated with laparoscopic assisted cryoablation (LCA). The aim was to evaluate whether LCA of AMLs in adolescents and young adults is a safe and feasible treatment modality. From October 2009 to September 2013 a total of five patients at our institution were diagnosed with AMLs requiring treatment. Four patients had TS and one had AML of sporadic origin, all five patients underwent LCA. Data were retrospectively collected by a systematic review of patient material and reassessment of renal imaging. The median age was 16 years (range 13-27 years). Eight AMLs with a median size of 3.9 cm (range 2.1-7.7 cm) were treated in five patients because of tumor size and rapid growth. Follow-up was a median 37 months (range 20-62 months), and all tumors showed a reduction in tumor size, and no regrowth was recognized (see summary table). The procedure was well tolerated, with only few perioperative complications and no postoperative complications. When considering the indication for treating AMLs, the origin (sporadic or TS associated) and size of the tumor are the decisive factors. To preserve renal function and prevent spontaneous hemorrhage caution should be intensified when tumors reach 4 cm, particularly if TS is present. After the diagnosis is established, patients should be monitored with renal imaging at regular intervals to identify rapid-growing tumors. As an alternative to current treatment modalities such as partial nephrectomy and super selective angioembolization, cryoablation is an emerging approach

  16. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalwa, J; Byarugaba, B B; Kabagambe, E K; Kabagambe, K E; Otim, A M

    2010-12-01

    Obesity in young adults is rising and predicts diabetes and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Data on prevalence and determinants of obesity in developing countries are needed for primary prevention. To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in urban (Kampala city) and rural areas (Kamuli District) of Uganda. Cross-sectional survey of 683 randomly selected young adults aged 18-30 years. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) and overweight as BMI > 25 kg/m(2). Distribution of BMI by socio-demographic characteristics was determined. Of the 683 participants, 50.5% were female and 53.2% were from Kampala. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 2.3% and 10.4%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 4.4% in Kampala and 0% in Kamuli while the prevalence of overweight was 10.2% and 10.6% in Kampala and Kamuli, respectively. Compared to males, females were more likely to be obese (2.9% vs. 1.8%) or overweight (17.4% vs. 3.3%). Residing in the city, alcohol consumption, smoking, non-engagement in sports activities, commuting to school by taxi or private vehicle and being from a rich family were the main factors significantly associated (Pobesity. Being female (p = 0.0001) and not engaging in any sports activities (P = 0.002) were two factors significantly associated with being overweight. We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight.

  17. [Endocrine consequences in young adult survivors of childhood cancer treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, C; Cortet-Rudelli, C; Desailloud, R

    2015-10-01

    Endocrine complications (particularly gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary and metabolic) of childhood cancer treatments are common in young adults. Gonadal damage may be the result of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Fertility preservation must be systematically proposed before initiation of gonadotoxic treatment if only the child is eligible. Hypothalamic-pituitary deficiency is common after brain or total-body irradiation, the somatotropic axis is the most sensitive to irradiation. Pituitary deficiency screening must be repeated since this endocrine consequence can occur many years after treatment. Hormone replacement must be prudent particularly in case of treatment with growth hormone or steroids. Metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular damage resulting from cancer treatments contribute to the increase of morbidity and mortality in this population and should be screened routinely even if the patient is asymptomatic. The multidisciplinary management of these adults must be organized and the role of the endocrinologist is now well established. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Circumvention of suddenly appearing obstacles in young and older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnappels, M.; Kingma, I.; Van Dieën, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Reduced ability to circumvent an obstacle, which is noticed only shortly before collision, could be a cause of falls and injury, especially in older adults. In this study, we investigated differences in strategies and their characteristics between young and older adults when circumventing a suddenly

  19. Cocaine Use and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Ching; Ryan, Kathleen A; Qadwai, Saad A; Shah, Jay; Sparks, Mary J; Wozniak, Marcella A; Stern, Barney J; Phipps, Michael S; Cronin, Carolyn A; Magder, Laurence S; Cole, John W; Kittner, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    Although case reports have long identified a temporal association between cocaine use and ischemic stroke (IS), few epidemiological studies have examined the association of cocaine use with IS in young adults, by timing, route, and frequency of use. A population-based case-control study design with 1090 cases and 1154 controls was used to investigate the relationship of cocaine use and young-onset IS. Stroke cases were between the ages of 15 and 49 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between cocaine use and IS with and without adjustment for potential confounders. Ever use of cocaine was not associated with stroke with 28% of cases and 26% of controls reporting ever use. In contrast, acute cocaine use in the previous 24 hours was strongly associated with increased risk of stroke (age-sex-race adjusted odds ratio, 6.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-18.6). Among acute users, the smoking route had an adjusted odds ratio of 7.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.8-35.0), whereas the inhalation route had an adjusted odds ratio of 3.5 (95% confidence interval, 0.7-16.9). After additional adjustment for current alcohol, smoking use, and hypertension, the odds ratio for acute cocaine use by any route was 5.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.7-19.7). Of the 26 patients with cocaine use within 24 hours of their stroke, 14 reported use within 6 hours of their event. Our data are consistent with a causal association between acute cocaine use and risk of early-onset IS. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Factor V Leiden does not have a role in cryptogenic ischemic stroke among Iranian young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradmand, Ehsan; Pourhossein, Meraj; Amini, Gilda; Saadatnia, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Different risk factors have been suggested for ischemic stroke in young adults. In a group of these patients despite of extensive diagnostic work-up, the primary cause remains unknown. Coagulation tendency is accounted as a possible cause in these patients. Previous studies on factor V Leiden (FVL) as the main cause of inherited thrombophilia for clarifying the role of FVL in stroke have resulted in controversial findings. The current study investigates the role of this factor in ischemic stroke among Iranians. This case-control study was performed between September 2007 and December 2008 in Isfahan, Iran. The case group comprised of 22 patients of which 15 were males and 7 were females with age range of ≤50 years, diagnosed as ischemic stroke without classic risk factors and the control group consisted of 54 healthy young adults. After filling consent form, venous blood samples were obtained and sent to the laboratory for genetic examination. No FVL mutation was found in the case group. There was one carrier of the mutation as heterozygous in the control group (relative frequency = 1.85%). Based on our study, FVL might not be considered as an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke in Iranian individuals who are not suffering from other risk factors of ischemic stroke.

  1. Permanent tooth loss and sugar-sweetened beverage intake in U.S. young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunkyung; Park, Sohyun; Lin, Mei

    2017-03-01

    In young adults, sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake is associated with dental caries, which in turn is a major contributor to tooth loss. The independent role of SSB intake on tooth loss, however, has not been well-described. This cross-sectional study examined associations between tooth loss and SSB intake among U.S. young adults. The outcome was number of permanent teeth lost because of dental caries or periodontal disease (0, 1-5, ≥6 teeth). Data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used. The 22,526 adults aged 18-39 years completed the Sugar Drink Module. The exposure variable was daily frequency of SSB intake. We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the adjusted associations between tooth loss and daily SSB consumption (0, >0 to 2 times/day). Approximately, 26% of young adults reported losing at least one permanent tooth. Tooth loss was positively associated with SSB intake frequency; the odds of losing 1-5 teeth were higher among adults drinking SSBs >0-2 times/day (OR = 1.97, 95%CI = 1.51-2.58) than non-SSB consumers. The odds of losing ≥6 teeth were higher among adults drinking SSBs 1-2 times/day (OR = 2.20, 95%CI = 1.15-4.22) and >2 times/day (OR = 2.81, 95%CI = 1.37-5.76) than non-SSB consumers. Frequency of SSB consumption was positively associated with tooth loss among young adults even when the average SSB intake was less than one time per day. This study suggests that efforts to reduce SSB intake among young adults may help to decrease the risk of tooth loss. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  2. Sweet and sour preferences in young children and adults: role of repeated exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.G.; Graaf, de C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the influence of repeated exposure to orangeades with added sucrose and different concentrations of citric acid, on the taste preferences of 6- to-11-year-old children and young adults. During an intervention study of 8 days, 59 children (9.2±0.9 years) and 46 young adults

  3. Prospective memory in young and older adults: the effects of task importance and ongoing task load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebekah E; Hunt, R Reed

    2014-01-01

    Remembering to perform an action in the future, called prospective memory, often shows age-related differences in favor of young adults when tested in the laboratory. Recently Smith, Horn, and Bayen (2012; Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 19, 495) embedded a PM task in an ongoing color-matching task and manipulated the difficulty of the ongoing task by varying the number of colors on each trial of the task. Smith et al. found that age-related differences in PM performance (lower PM performance for older adults relative to young adults) persisted even when older adults could perform the ongoing task as well or better than the young adults. The current study investigates a possible explanation for the pattern of results reported by Smith et al. by including a manipulation of task emphasis: for half of the participants the prospective memory task was emphasize, while for the other half the ongoing color-matching task was emphasized. Older adults performed a 4-color version of the ongoing color-matching task, while young adults completed either the 4-color or a more difficult 6-color version of the ongoing task. Older adults failed to perform as well as the young adults on the prospective memory task regardless of task emphasis, even when older adults were performing as well or better than the young adults on the ongoing color-matching task. The current results indicate that the lack of an effect of ongoing task load on prospective memory task performance is not due to a perception that one or the other task is more important than the other.

  4. Social Media Use and Access to Digital Technology in US Young Adults in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amanda L; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Jacobs, Megan A; Graham, Amanda L; Rath, Jessica M

    2017-01-01

    Background In 2015, 90% of US young adults with Internet access used social media. Digital and social media are highly prevalent modalities through which young adults explore identity formation, and by extension, learn and transmit norms about health and risk behaviors during this developmental life stage. Objective The purpose of this study was to provide updated estimates of social media use from 2014 to 2016 and correlates of social media use and access to digital technology in data collected from a national sample of US young adults in 2016. Methods Young adult participants aged 18-24 years in Wave 7 (October 2014, N=1259) and Wave 9 (February 2016, N=989) of the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort Study were asked about use frequency for 11 social media sites and access to digital devices, in addition to sociodemographic characteristics. Regular use was defined as using a given social media site at least weekly. Weighted analyses estimated the prevalence of use of each social media site, overlap between regular use of specific sites, and correlates of using a greater number of social media sites regularly. Bivariate analyses identified sociodemographic correlates of access to specific digital devices. Results In 2014, 89.42% (weighted n, 1126/1298) of young adults reported regular use of at least one social media site. This increased to 97.5% (weighted n, 965/989) of young adults in 2016. Among regular users of social media sites in 2016, the top five sites were Tumblr (85.5%), Vine (84.7%), Snapchat (81.7%), Instagram (80.7%), and LinkedIn (78.9%). Respondents reported regularly using an average of 7.6 social media sites, with 85% using 6 or more sites regularly. Overall, 87% of young adults reported access or use of a smartphone with Internet access, 74% a desktop or laptop computer with Internet access, 41% a tablet with Internet access, 29% a smart TV or video game console with Internet access, 11% a cell phone without Internet access, and 3% none of these

  5. 76 FR 23479 - Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Young Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... 0720-AB48] Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Young Adult... Year 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult (TYA) program to provide an extended.... The TRICARE Young [[Page 23480

  6. CE: Original Research: The Lived Experience of Social Media by Young Adult Burn Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Marie S

    2016-08-01

    : Young adult burn survivors who were burned before they reached young adulthood (before the age of 18) face particular challenges in meeting their needs for socialization. Social media are widely used by adolescents and young adults, and permit socialization without face-to-face communication. This qualitative, phenomenological study was conducted in order to explore and describe the lived experience of social media by young adult burn survivors. Five women and four men between the ages of 20 and 25 years were interviewed; before the age of 18 years, each had sustained burns over more than 25% of their total body surface area. Van Manen's phenomenological methodology provided the study framework. Five essential themes emerged: identity, connectivity, social support, making meaning, and privacy. The participants used social media as a way to express their identity while safeguarding their privacy, and as a way to make meaning out of their traumatic experiences. Connecting with others facilitated a flow of social support and information, which was motivating and encouraging. The findings indicate that the use of social media by young adult burn survivors may be warranted as a way to further their healing processes. The knowledge gained from this study may also be useful in facilitating the development of nursing interventions aimed at preparing young adult burn survivors for reentry into society.

  7. Comparing indicators of health and development of singleton young adults conceived with and without assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Jane; Wilson, Cate; Hammarberg, Karin; Doyle, Lex W; Bruinsma, Fiona; McLachlan, Robert; McBain, John; Berg, Turi; Fisher, Jane R; Amor, David

    2014-04-01

    To compare outcomes for young adults conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART) with non-ART-conceived young adults. Cohort study. Not applicable. Mothers and their offspring (aged 18-28 years) conceived by ART; mothers and their non-ART-conceived offspring, randomly selected from the same source population. Structured telephone interviews, one with mothers and another with their young adult offspring. Maternal report on young adult offspring hospitalizations and chronic illness accumulated over the first 18 years of their lives; young adult self-report on perceived current quality of life, body mass index, pubertal development, and educational achievement. Of 1,480 eligible ART mothers, 80% were traced and contacted. Of those, 656 (55%) participated, reporting on 705 ART-conceived offspring; 269 (23%) declined participation and 262 (22%) did not respond. Of the participants, 84% consented to contact with their young adult offspring, of whom 547 (92%) participated. Random-digit dialing recruited 868 non-ART mothers and 549 offspring. Compared with non-ART young adults, the ART group had significant increases in three maternally reported outcomes: 1) hospital admissions, including those in the secondary school years; 2) atopic respiratory conditions; and 3) combined endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic disease ICD-10 category. Young adult reported outcomes were similar for both groups. This study addresses gaps in knowledge of outcomes beyond adolescence for those conceived by ART. Results show few adverse outcomes in this large cohort of young adults, but additional assessment through clinical review is required to address issues unable to be examined in this study. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Survival Outside Home: Sexual Behaviour of Homeless and Runaway Young Adults in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Wilberforce Amoah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although homeless young adults are often seen on the streets of Ghana, little research had examined the nature of sexual behaviour among these homeless and runaway young adults. Due to the culturally sensitive nature of such studies in the Ghanaian setting, only fifty (50 respondents agreed to participate in the study. A thirty–five (35 item questionnaire, comprising of twenty-eight (28 closed-ended and seven (7 open-ended questions was used for data collection. The findings indicated poverty, inability of parents to cater for the young adult’s needs, peer pressure and lack of parental acceptance as the main causes of homelessness. Consequently, the findings also showed a trend of school dropout, teenage pregnancy and use of illicit drugs as effects of homelessness. These findings have implications for future studies, policy reform and care for homeless young adult.

  9. Negative and positive impact of internet addiction on young adults: Empericial study in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shah Alam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore and identify the impact of internet addictions of young adults in Malaysia. There are six impacts identified, of which five are negative impacts and one is positive impact.Design/methodology/approach: This study comprised sample of 200 young adults in Malaysia. A cross-sectional research design was used to examine the impact of Internet addiction. Data were gathered based on personal administered questionnaire.Findings and Originality/value: This study results show that five negative impacts of excessive internet usages such as interpersonal problem, behavioural problem, physical problem, psychological problem, and work problem of young adults.The young adults believed that the internet usage can help them to improve their skills for doing their work better. This study also reveals that males have a great impact on working problems, psychological problems, behavioural problems and interpersonal problems than female adults. On the other hand, females are leading with their physical problems by getting Internet addiction.Research limitations/implications: The data for this study are collected by self-administered questionnaire, a method with well-known shortcomings. Secondly, this study done only on young adults from only two universities in Malaysia.Practical implications: An important implication of this research is that the interesting findings give some insight to the Internet users to focus on improving Internet usage habits. Originality/value: The findings are original and unique and are based on the literature from different western researches. The results are based on a sample of young adults in Malaysia. The research findings are useful to academics and heavy Internet users those are hooked with Internet to their everyday life.

  10. Metabolic syndrome among urban Indian young adults: prevalence and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, Dinaker; Uthappa, Chengapp Kechamada; Kattula, Sri Rama; Allam, Ramesh Reddy; Chava, Nalini; Oruganti, Ganesh

    2014-09-01

    We estimated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among urban Indian young adults (18-25 years) as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), Internation Diabetes Federation (IDF), and Indian consensus statement criteria. We included 473 urban young adults through simple random sampling methodology to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was estimated to be 3.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-5.8], 6.6% (95% CI 4.6-9.1), and 8.7% (95% CI 6.4-11.6) using the NCEP ATP III, IDF, and Indian consensus statement criteria, respectively. Men had significantly higher waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides, whereas mean concentrations of both high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol were significantly higher among women. Low HDL-C (38.9%), high blood pressure (26%), and central obesity (16.1%) were the most common component risk factors. Although less than 4% of normal weight adults met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, rates increased in overweight individuals and reached a prevalence of 87% in the obese participants. In all, 61.3% of the total population had one or more risk factors for metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is high among urban young adults in India, and it increased with increase in body mass index (BMI). Each component risk factor in isolated form-increased BMI, smoking, and history of hypertension--is an associated risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Although it is unclear whether metabolic syndrome screening in young Indians as a means to prevent adverse cardiovascular health outcomes is appropriate, healthy lifestyles should nevertheless be encouraged, and young adults should be considered as an important group for cardiovascular risk reduction programs.

  11. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (...

  12. Individual and parental psychiatric history and risk for suicide among adolescents and young adults in Denmark: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenager, Kirstina; Qin, Ping

    2008-11-01

    Both individual and familial histories of mental illness are substantial risk factors for suicide in young people. To explore suicide risk among adolescents and young adults according to detailed aspects of individual and parental psychiatric admission history. A nested case-control study was undertaken using data from Danish population registers to include 4,142 suicide cases and 82,840 matched controls aged 9-35 years. Data were analyzed with conditional logistic regression. A history of hospitalized psychiatric illness was a strong risk factor for suicide in adolescents and young adults, and the effect of such a history was greater in females than males. The elevated risk peaked in the two periods immediately after admission and discharge for both sexes, and exceeded in females who had multiple admissions and in males who were diagnosed with schizophrenia, affective disorders or substance abuse disorders. At the same time, a parental psychiatric history constituted a substantial risk factor for suicide in young people, in particular, if having a mother admitted for psychiatric illness. The elevated risk associated with parental psychiatric history was greater in females than in males, and tended to be more prominent during the first few years after admission of a parent. Prevention strategies should aim at improving treatment and care to young people with psychiatric problems and at providing social support and psychological consultation to children with parental psychiatric illness.

  13. Right ventricular lipomatous mass and biventricular multifocal fat in a young woman: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bo Rahm; Park, Jae Hyeong; Ahn, Kye Taek; Kim, Song Soo; Jeong, Jin Ok; Choi, Si Wan; Jin, Seon Ah; Lee, Jae Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac lipoma is a rare neoplasm of encapsulated mature adult adipose tissue. It is usually asymptomatic, but it may be related to hemodynamic obstruction depending on its location. We report a typical case of right ventricular lipomatous mass and multifocal fat infiltration of both ventricles, which were detected incidentally in a young woman.

  14. Needs of Adolescents and Young Adults with Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Comparisons of Young People and Parent Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Hanna; Findon, James; Cadman, Tim; Hayward, Hannah; Murphy, Declan; Asherson, Philip; Glaser, Karen; Xenitidis, Kiriakos

    2018-01-01

    This study used the Camberwell Assessment of Need for adults with Developmental and Intellectual Disabilities (CANDID) to examine the social, physical health and mental health needs of 168 young people (aged 14-24 years) with neurodevelopmental disorders and compared young person and parent ratings of need. Agreement was poor in 21 out of 25…

  15. Expectations from different perspectives on future work outcome of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Groothoff, Johan W; van der Klink, Jac J L

    2015-03-01

    Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities from special needs education, their parents and their school teachers regarding future work and the extent to which these expectations predict work outcome. Data on 341 young adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities, coming from special needs education, aged 17-20 years, and with an ability to work according to the Social Security Institute were examined. The school teacher's expectation was the only perspective that significantly predicted entering competitive employment, with a complementary effect of the expectation of parents and a small additional effect of the expectation of the young adult. Expectations of school teachers and parents are valuable in predicting work outcome. Therefore, it is important for professionals working with the young adult in the transition from school to work to incorporate the knowledge of school teachers and parents regarding the abilities of the young adult to enter competitive employment as a valuable source of information.

  16. Neuropsychological and MRI assessment of young adults with hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukamachi, Makoto; Tsuru, Akira; Morikawa, Minoru; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Yukiyoshi

    2004-01-01

    We assessed 12 young adults with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, aged from 14 to 33 years, by intellectual quotient (IQ) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and obtained the following findings. First, the IQ scores were relatively lower than those predicted by their social activities. Second, there were two cases who seemed to have right or bilateral hemisphere representatives of language; their IQ scores were within normal range, while MRI demonstrated extensive brain damages including usual ones in language areas. Third, IQ scores and MRI findings were correlated to some extent; however, a case of limited brain damage on MRI had low IQ score, while five cases of brain damage located excluding their language areas had normal or high IQ scores. The results of the present study indicate the necessity of follow-up MRI for prospective observation of the brain damage acquired at or around birth. (author)

  17. Personality traits of a group of young adults from different family structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, J; Nel, E M; Steel, H R

    1992-07-01

    The impact of parental divorce and remarriage and young adults' gender on second-order personality traits, such as extraversion, anxiety, tough poise and independence, was examined. The responses of 227 young adults on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF; Cattell, Eber, & Tatsuoka, 1970) were subjected to a parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Results revealed significant differences between the anxiety scores of the young men and women as well as between those of the three different family-structure groups, but divorce and remarriage was not associated with either positive or negative personality development in this sample.

  18. Factors influencing young adults' attitudes and knowledge of late-life sexuality among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rebecca S; Petro, Kathryn N; Phillips, Laura L

    2009-03-01

    Although sexuality is valued throughout the lifespan, older women's sexual expression can be influenced by physical, mental and social factors, including attitudes and stereotypes held by younger generations. By gaining an understanding of what influences negative attitudes toward sexuality and beliefs about sexual consent capacity, the stigma associated with sexuality in late life may be reduced. Using vignette methodology in an online survey, we examined older women's health and young adults' (N = 606; mean age = 18.86, SD = 1.42, range 17-36) general knowledge and attitudes toward aging and sexuality, personal sexual behavior, religious beliefs and perceived closeness with an older adult on attitudes towards sexual behavior and perceptions of consent capacity among older women. The health status of older women proved important in determining young adults' acceptance and perception of sexual consent capacity regarding late-life heterosexual/autoerotic and homosexual behaviors. Specifically, young adults expressed lower acceptance and more doubt regarding capacity to consent to sexual expression when the older woman was described as cognitively impaired. Additionally, young adults' personal attitudes toward late-life sexuality, but not knowledge, predicted acceptance toward sexual expression and belief in sexual consent capacity. Attention toward the influence of older women's cognitive health and young adults' attitudes toward late-life sexuality may prove beneficial in designing interventions to decrease the stigma associated with sexual activity in later life.

  19. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results from the National Young Adult Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…

  20. Food security among young adults with disabilities in the United States: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Debra L

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has suggested that young adults with disabilities face economic, health and social disadvantage. Food security, an area of disadvantage that can influence overall health, has not been fully explored for this population. To examine levels of food security between young adults with and without disabilities, controlling for individual characteristics. Logistic regression analysis of a nationally representative sample of young adults (age 18-25) (n = 32,795) with and without disabilities, using pooled data form the 2011-2013 National Health Interview Survey. Young adults with disabilities have significantly higher odds (OR: 2.58, p young adults without disabilities, even when controlling for individual characteristics. Odds of living in a household that is food insecure are particularly high (OR: 5.35, p young adults with high levels of psychological distress, controlling for other factors. Young adults with disabilities have increased odds of living in a household that is food insecure. This study has important policy and community program implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. More Than Kids Stuff: Can News and Information Web Sites Mobilize Young Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, Arthur; Philpot, Tasha S.

    Many young adults are not politically active. Since 1972, their participation and interest levels have declined not only in absolute terms but also relative to other voting-age groups. This paper examines how the Internet can reverse this trend. It focuses on how leading news and political information Web sites affected young adults during the…

  2. Reading for a Better World: Teaching for Social Responsibility with Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Teaching for social responsibility should be one of the vital aims of our schools. Young adult literature offers an authentic, meaningful, and critical way to teach for social responsibility. This article offers an overview of the different elements of social responsibility and some young adult novels and graphic novels that could be used to teach…

  3. Young Adult Capacity Initiative Cross-Site Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This cross-site analysis presents findings about the implementation, impact, and outcomes of the Young Adult Capacity Initiative (YACI), at 13 community-based organizations in New York City. These agencies received technical assistance and small incentive grants from the Fund for the City of New York Youth Development Institute (YDI) to build…

  4. Health-related quality of life in young men with testicular cancer: validation of the Cancer Assessment for Young Adults (CAYA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Cano, Stefan J; Saigal, Christopher S; Stanton, Annette L

    2013-12-01

    Patient-reported outcome instruments are needed to measure health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in young adults with cancer. The purpose of this project was to establish a conceptual model and measurement instrument for assessment of HRQOL in young men with testicular cancer. Patient interviews and a literature review were used to develop a conceptual framework of biopsychosocial domains of cancer-related quality of life and an initial pool of questionnaire items. Items were piloted and refined. Revised items were administered to a sample (N = 171) of young (ages 18-29) men with testicular cancer and repeated 4 weeks later. Rasch measurement methods guided item reduction and scale construction. Traditional psychometric analyses were also performed to allow for comparison with existing measures. The conceptual framework included seven biopsychosocial domains: physical, sexual, intrapersonal, cognitive-emotional, social-relational, educational-vocational-avocational, and spiritual to form independent scales of the resulting questionnaire, the Cancer Assessment for Young Adults-Testicular (CAYA-T). Each scale fulfilled Rasch and traditional psychometric criteria (i.e., person separation index, 0.34-0.82; Cronbach's alpha, 0.70-0.91; and an expected pattern of convergent and discriminant validity correlations). The CAYA-T can be used to assess HRQOL across a comprehensive set of domains as identified by young men with cancer. It passes strict psychometric criteria and has potential as a useful research and clinical tool. The CAYA-T has potential research and clinical value for addressing inter-related aspects of HRQOL in young adult men with cancer. The measure may assist with assessing and monitoring HRQOL across a range of domains and contributing to more comprehensive assessment of biopsychosocial needs of young adults.

  5. Later Life Parental Divorce and Widowhood: Impact on Young Adults' Assessment of Parent-Child Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, William S.

    1994-01-01

    Explored implications of later life parental divorce and widowhood for relationship between parents and young adult children among 3,281 young adults who grew up in intact families. Family disruption that occurred after children were grown had sizable effects on parent-adult child relations, with later life divorce lowering relationship quality…

  6. Parents' Traditional Cultural Values and Mexican-Origin Young Adults' Routine Health and Dental Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Wheeler, Lorey A

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the prospective associations between Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' traditional cultural values and young adults' health and dental care utilization and to test the moderating role of youth gender. Mexican-origin parents and youth (N = 246 families) participated in home interviews and provided self-reports of parents' cultural values (time 1) and young adults' health status and routine health and dental care (time 2; 5 years later). Logistic regressions tested parents' traditional cultural values as predictors of routine health and dental care, accounting for parent nativity, parent acculturation, family socioeconomic status, youth gender, youth age, and youth physical health status. We also tested whether youth gender moderated the associations between parents' cultural values and young adults' routine care. Young adults whose mothers endorsed strong familism values when they were in mid-to-late adolescence were more likely to report at least one routine physician visit in the past year as young adults (odds ratio [OR] = 3.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-9.83, p = .019). Furthermore, for females only, mothers' more traditional gender role attitudes predicted reduced odds of receiving routine health (OR = .22; 95% CI: .08-.64, p = .005) and dental care (OR = .26; 95% CI: .09-.75, p culturally specific mechanisms to identify targets for addressing ethnic/racial disparities in health care utilization among Mexican-origin young adults, during a period of increased risk for health-compromising behaviors and reduced access to care. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Millennials at work: workplace environments of young adults and associations with weight-related health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Allison W; Laska, Melissa N; Larson, Nicole I; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the workplace environments of young adults and examine associations with diet, physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional data were collected (2008-2009) from 1538 employed young adult participants in Project EAT (Eating and Activity among Teens and Young Adults), a diverse population-based sample. Survey measures assessed height, weight, diet, moderate-to-vigorous PA, transportation-related PA and perceptions of the workplace food and PA environments (eg, soda availability, coworker support). Healthful characteristics were summed to reflect overall workplace healthfulness. Modified Poisson regression analyses conducted in 2015 identified associations between workplace food and PA environments and diet, PA and BMI. The healthfulness of workplace environments was suboptimal. Greater exposure to healthful workplace characteristics was related to more young adults engaged in favourable diet and PA behaviours and a lower prevalence obesity. For example, adjusted rates of obesity were 24% and 17% among those reporting low (≤1 characteristic) versus high (≥3 characteristics) exposure to healthful food environments, respectively (pwork and perceived ease of eating a healthy diet or being active at work. A more healthful workplace environment overall, including physical attributes and perceived social norms, may contribute to more favourable weight-related behaviours and lower prevalence of obesity among young adults. Employer-initiated and community-initiated policies may represent one way to create healthier workplace environments for young adults. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Thyroid Dysfunction among Young Adults in Uganda | Galukande ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroid Dysfunction among Young Adults in Uganda. ... The mean age of participants was 23 years, there were slightly more males 1.3:1. ... The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in this cohort was low but falls in the range found elsewhere.

  9. The Role of Personality Traits in Young Adult Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, Tamlin S.; Thompson, Laura M.; Knight, Rachel L.; Flett, Jayde A. M.; Richardson, Aimee C.; Brookie, Kate L.

    2017-01-01

    This project investigated how individual differences in the big-five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and agreeableness) predicted plant-food consumption in young adults. A total of 1073 participants from two samples of young adults aged 17–25 reported their daily servings of fruits, vegetables, and two unhealthy foods for comparison purposes using an Internet daily diary for 21 or 13 days (micro-longitudinal, correlational design). Par...

  10. Mandibular fractures: a comparative analysis between young and adult patients in the southeast region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Atilgan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to review and compare the differences between mandibular fractures in young and adult patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients treated at the Oral and Maxillofacial Department of Dicle University during a five-year period between 2000 and 2005 were retrospectively evaluated with respect to age groups, gender, etiology, localization and type of fractures, treatment methods and complications. RESULTS: 532 patients were included in the study, 370 (70% males and 162 (30% females, with a total of 744 mandibular fractures. The mean age of young patients was 10, with a male-female ratio of 2:1. The mean age of adult patients was 28, with a male-female ratio of 3:1. The most common causes of injury were falls (65% in young patients and traffic accidents (38% in adults. The most common fracture sites were the symphysis (35% and condyle (36% in young patients, and the symphysis in adults (36%. Mandibular fractures were generally treated by arch bar and maxillomandibular fixation in both young (67% and adult (39% patients, and 43% of the adult patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation. CONCLUSION: There was a similar gender, monthly and type of treatment distribution in both young and adult patients in the southeast region of Turkey. However, there were differences regarding age, etiology and fracture site. These findings between young and adult patients are broadly similar to those from other studies. Analysis of small differences may be an important factor in assessing educational and socioeconomic environments.

  11. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, Michelle M; Thomas, Brandon J; Wee, Kathleen; Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R; Smale, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development.

  12. Relationship between maternal depression as a risk factor for childhood trauma and mood disorders in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Porto Barbosa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Maternal depression may be a risk factor for childhood trauma (CT, with resultant offspring development of mood disorders (MD in adult life. Objective To verify the relationship between maternal depression (as a risk factor for childhood trauma and mood disorders in young adults. Methods The sample was composed of 164 young adults and their mothers. Maternal depression was identified through the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.. Mood Disorders in the young adults were confirmed with the Structured Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID, whereas the CT was evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Results In the group of young adults with MD, individuals who had depressed mothers presented higher mean scores of CT in comparison to the ones who did not have mothers with Depression (p < 0.005. Childhood trauma was also associated with lower social classes (p < 0.005. In the group of young adults without MD, the only variable that was associated with CT was the young adult’s (not current work (p < 0.005. Discussion Maternal depression was considered to be a risk factor for CT and MD in young adults. Thus, preventing and treating maternal psychiatric disorders may diminish the risk of offspring childhood trauma, and, consequently, avoid negative effects in the offspring’s adult life.

  13. Cardiovascular Risk and Statin Eligibility of Young Adults After an MI: Partners YOUNG-MI Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Avinainder; Collins, Bradley L; Gupta, Ankur; Fatima, Amber; Qamar, Arman; Biery, David; Baez, Julio; Cawley, Mary; Klein, Josh; Hainer, Jon; Plutzky, Jorge; Cannon, Christopher P; Nasir, Khurram; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Bhatt, Deepak L; Blankstein, Ron

    2018-01-23

    Despite significant progress in primary prevention, the rate of MI has not declined in young adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate statin eligibility based on the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for treatment of blood cholesterol and 2016 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations for statin use in primary prevention in a cohort of adults who experienced a first-time myocardial infarction (MI) at a young age. The YOUNG-MI registry is a retrospective cohort from 2 large academic centers, which includes patients who experienced an MI at age ≤50 years. Diagnosis of type 1 MI was adjudicated by study physicians. Pooled cohort risk equations were used to estimate atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score based on data available prior to MI or at the time of presentation. Of 1,685 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 210 (12.5%) were on statin therapy prior to MI and were excluded. Among the remaining 1,475 individuals, the median age was 45 years, there were 294 (20%) women, and 846 (57%) had ST-segment elevation MI. At least 1 cardiovascular risk factor was present in 1,225 (83%) patients. The median 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score of the cohort was 4.8% (interquartile range: 2.8% to 8.0%). Only 724 (49%) and 430 (29%) would have met criteria for statin eligibility per the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines and 2016 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations, respectively. This finding was even more pronounced in women, in whom 184 (63%) were not eligible for statins by either guideline, compared with 549 (46%) men (p adults who present with an MI at a young age would not have met current guideline-based treatment thresholds for statin therapy prior to their MI. These findings highlight the need for better risk assessment tools among young adults. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by

  14. Healthcare needs and access in a sample of Chinese young adults in Vancouver, British Columbia: A qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine H.K. Ou, RN, BN, MSN

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Chinese young adults share similar issues with other young adults in relation to not having a primary care provider and accessing preventive care but their health beliefs and practices make their needs for care unique from other young adults.

  15. Cognitive and attentional functioning in adolescents and young adults with Tetralogy of Fallot and d-transposition of the great arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lexa K; Compas, Bruce E; Reeslund, Kristen L; Gindville, Melissa C; Mah, May Ling; Markham, Larry W; Jordan, Lori C

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate cognitive and attentional function in adolescents and young adults with operated congenital heart disease. Previous research has indicated that children with congenital heart disease have deficits in broad areas of cognitive function. However, less attention has been given to survivors as they grow into adolescence and early adulthood. The participants were 18 non-syndromic adolescents and young adults with tetralogy of Fallot and d-transposition of the great arteries that required cardiac surgery before the age of 5 years, and 18 healthy, unaffected siblings (11-22 years of age for both groups). Cases with congenital heart disease and their siblings were administered Wechsler Intelligence scales and reported attention problems using the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessments. Cases were compared to both healthy siblings and established norms. Cases performed significantly lower than siblings on full scale IQ and processing speed, and significantly lower than norms on perceptual reasoning. Cases also reported more attention problems compared to both siblings and norms. Effect sizes varied with medium-to-large effects for processing speed, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and attention problems. Findings suggest that neurocognitive function may continue to be affected for congenital heart disease survivors in adolescence and young adulthood, and that comparisons to established norms may underestimate neurocognitive vulnerabilities.

  16. Peer Influence on IPV by Young Adult Males: Investigating the Case for a Social Norms Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKool, Marissa; Stephenson, Rob; Winskell, Kate; Teten Tharp, Andra; Parrott, Dominic

    2017-08-01

    Nearly 32% of women report experiencing physical violence from an intimate partner and more than 8% report being raped by a significant other in their lifetime. Young people's perceptions that their peers perpetrate relationship violence have been shown to increase the odds of self-reported perpetration. Yet, limited research has been conducted on this relationship as individuals begin to age out of adolescence. The present study sought to examine the link between the perception of peer perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) and self-reported IPV perpetration among a sample of predominately young adult (21-35 years) males. This study also explored the discordance between the perception of peer IPV behavior and self-reported perpetration. Data from 101 male peer dyads ( n = 202) were taken from a study on the effects of alcohol and bystander intervention in Atlanta, Georgia. Thirty-six percent ( n = 73) of men reported perpetrating physical IPV and 67% ( n = 135) reported perpetrating sexual IPV in the past 12 months. Nearly 35% ( n = 55) of the sample reported that none of their peers had perpetrated physical IPV, which contradicted their friend's self-report of physical IPV perpetration. Similarly, 68% ( n = 115) of the men perceived none of their peers to have perpetrated sexual IPV, which contradicted their friend's self-report of sexual IPV perpetration. Discordance variables were significantly associated with self-reported perpetration for both physical (χ 2 = 152.7, p peer IPV perpetration among young adult males. Findings suggest a traditional social norms approach to IPV prevention, which seeks to persuade individuals that negative behaviors are less common than perceived, may not be the best approach given a significant number of men believed their friends were nonviolent when they had perpetrated violence.

  17. How Philip Morris built Marlboro into a global brand for young adults: implications for international tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, N; Ling, P M

    2005-08-01

    To describe Philip Morris' global market research and international promotional strategies targeting young adults. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Philip Morris pursued standardised market research and strategic marketing plans in different regions throughout the world using research on young adults with three principle foci: lifestyle/psychographic research, brand studies, and advertising/communication effectiveness. Philip Morris identified core similarities in the lifestyles and needs of young consumers worldwide, such as independence, hedonism, freedom, and comfort. In the early 1990s Philip Morris adopted standardised global marketing efforts, creating a central advertising production bank and guidelines for brand images and promotions, but allowing regional managers to create regionally appropriate individual advertisements. Values and lifestyles play a central role in the global marketing of tobacco to young adults. Worldwide counter marketing initiatives, coupled with strong, coherent global marketing policies such as the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, are needed to break associations between young adult values and tobacco brands. As globalisation promotes the homogenisation of values and lifestyles, tobacco control messages that resonate with young adults in one part of the world may appeal to young adults in other countries. Successful tobacco control messages that appeal to young people, such as industry denormalisation, may be expanded globally with appropriate tailoring to appeal to regional values.

  18. Awareness of and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperstein, Neil M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines awareness and knowledge of and attitudes toward direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising among young adults between 18 and 24 years of age. The study finds that young adults are not as aware of prescription drug advertising as older consumers, however, they are aware of specific heavily advertised drugs, especially those for allergy medications, birth control, and sleep aids. Young adults hold mixed to negative views about advertising in general, and they do not view DTC prescription drug advertising as a beneficial source of information, nor do they believe such advertising serves to educate consumers.

  19. Disparities in Debt: Parents' Socioeconomic Resources and Young Adult Student Loan Debt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Jason N.

    2014-01-01

    In an era of rising college costs and stagnant grant-based student aid, many young adults rely on their parents' resources and student loans to pay for their postsecondary education. In this study I ask how parents' income and education are linked to young adults' student loan debt. I develop and test two perspectives regarding the…

  20. Development of Religiousness in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rydz, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    In the chapter forming of religiousness in young adults in the view of current concepts, both normative (stadial concepts of religiousness) and non-normative, will be presented. The majority of research on religiousness of youth is carried out in the normative understanding of development, which refers to general trends of human psychological development, especially cognitive development (cognitive developmental concepts of religiousness), personality development (humanistic concepts of the d...

  1. Acute Exercise and Neurocognitive Development in Preadolescents and Young Adults: An ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Heng Chu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a single bout of exercise on neurocognitive function in preadolescent children and young adults by determining the modulatory role of age and the neuroelectrical mechanism(s underlying the association between acute exercise and executive function. Twenty preadolescents and 20 young adults completed the Stroop test, and neuroelectrical activity was recorded during two treatment sessions performed in a counterbalanced order. Exercise treatments involved moderate intensity aerobic exercise for 20 min as the main exercise and two 5 min periods of warm-up and cool-down. The control treatment participants read for a similar duration of time. Acute exercise improved participant reaction times on the Stroop test, regardless of Stroop congruency, and greater beneficial effects were observed in young adults compared to those in preadolescents. The P3 amplitudes increased after acute exercise in preadolescents and young adults, but acute exercise induced lower conflict sustained potential (conflict SP amplitudes in preadolescent children. Based on these findings, age influences the beneficial effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance in general. Furthermore, the event-related brain potential differences attributed to acute exercise provide a potential clue to the mechanisms that differentiate the effects of acute exercise on individuals from preadolescence to young adulthood.

  2. Designing a packaging to promote healthy and low-fat foods: Adolescents versus young-adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-López, Natalia; Küster-Boluda, Ines; Sarabia-Sánchez, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    Packaging is a relevant tool when adolescents and young adults search for low-fat and healthy foods. However, the power of a packaging is not homogenous. In this framework, two main objectives guide our work: (i) to investigate to what extent visual cues (size, colors, images etc.) are more important than informational cues (label); (ii) to analyze if adolescents and young adults pay equal attention to both packaging cues. 590 adolescents between 12 and 18years of age were interviewed at the door of both public and private schools. Additionally, 300 young adults between 19 and 25years of age were contacted. Their opinions were analyzed twice using structural modelling techniques: (i) without considering age differences and (ii) splitting the sample into adolescents (590 participants) and young-adults (300 participants) to compare their perceptions. Our results have showed that when looking for healthy and low-fat aliments visual cues (size, colors, images etc.) are more important than informational cues (label design, easily understandable words, size of the letters). Additionally, age is a pertinent variable to explain alternative packaging strategies, because adolescents and young adults do not pay equal attention to both packaging cues. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Clinical characteristics and outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Arntz, R.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2014-01-01

    Data on determinants of prognosis after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in young adults are scarce. Our aim was to identify clinical determinants of prognosis after ICH in adults aged 18-50. We investigated 98 consecutive patients with an ICH, aged 18-50 years, admitted to our hospital between 1980

  4. Long-Term Prognosis of Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Varona, Jose F.

    2010-01-01

    There is limited information about long-term prognosis of ischemic stroke in young adults. Giving the potentially negative impact in physical, social, and emotional aspects of an ischemic stroke in young people, providing early accurate long-term prognostic information is very important in this clinical setting. Moreover, detection of factors associated with bad outcomes (death, recurrence, moderate-to-severe disability) help physicians in optimizing secondary prevention strategies. The prese...

  5. The Empathetic Librarian: Rural Librarians as a Source of Support for Rural Cyberbullied Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Abigail Leigh

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a problem many young adults ages 12 to 18 have experienced on a daily basis. Adult support is critical in both the prevention and intervention of cyberbullying. Although parents, teachers, and school administrators have been highlighted as sources of support for cyberbullied young adults, librarians have not been studied as a…

  6. Identifying "social smoking" U.S. young adults using an empirically-driven approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Johnson, Amanda L; Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie; Vallone, Donna M; Abrams, David B; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2017-07-01

    The phenomenon of "social smoking" emerged in the past decade as an important area of research, largely due to its high prevalence in young adults. The purpose of this study was to identify classes of young adult ever smokers based on measures of social and contextual influences on tobacco use. Latent class models were developed using social smoking measures, and not the frequency or quantity of tobacco use. Data come from a national sample of young adult ever smokers aged 18-24 (Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort Study, N=1564). The optimal models identified three latent classes: Class 1 - nonsmokers (52%); Class 2 - social smokers (18%); and Class 3 - smokers (30%). Nearly 60% of the "social smoker" class self-identified as a social smoker, 30% as an ex-smoker/tried smoking, and 12% as a non-smoker. The "social smoker" class was most likely to report using tobacco mainly or only with others. Past 30-day cigarette use was highest in the "smoker" class. Hookah use was highest in the "social smoker" class. Other tobacco and e-cigarette use was similar in the "social smoker" and "smoker" classes. Past 30-day tobacco and e-cigarette use was present for all products in the "non-smoker" class. Young adult social smokers emerge empirically as a sizable, distinct class from other smokers, even without accounting for tobacco use frequency or intensity. The prevalence of hookah use in "social smokers" indicates a group for which the social aspect of tobacco use could drive experimentation and progression to regular use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cessation Strategies Young Adult Smokers Use After Participating in a Facebook Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Ramo, Danielle E

    2017-01-28

    Young adults underutilize current evidence-based smoking cessation strategies; yet social media are widely used and accepted among this population. A better understanding of whether and how young adults try to quit smoking in the context of a social media smoking cessation intervention could inform future intervention improvements. We examined frequency, strategies used, and predictors of self-initiated 24-hour quit attempts among young adults participating in a Facebook intervention. A total of 79 young adult smokers (mean age = 20.8; 20.3% female) were recruited on Facebook for a feasibility trial. Participants joined motivationally tailored private Facebook groups and received daily posts over 12 weeks. Assessments were completed at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. In 12 months, 52 participants (65.5%) completed 215 quit attempts (mean = 4.1; median = 4; range 1-14); 75.4% of attempts were undertaken with the Facebook intervention alone, 17.7% used an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), 7.4% used nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and 3.7% used additional professional advice. Non-daily smokers, those who smoked fewer cigarettes, and those in an advanced stage of change at baseline were more likely to make a quit attempt. E-cigarette use to aide a quit attempt during the study period was associated with reporting a past year quit attempt at baseline. No baseline characteristics predicted NRT use. After participating in a Facebook smoking cessation intervention, young adults predominantly tried to quit without additional assistance. E-cigarettes are used more frequently as cessation aid than NRT. The use of evidence-based smoking cessation strategies should be improved in this population.

  8. Memory of the Present: Empathy and Identity in Young Adult Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nikolajeva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in cognitive literary criticism have provided scholars of literature with new, stimulating approaches to literary texts and neuroscientists with new insights about human emotions, empathy, and memory through evidence from fiction. What have so far been largely neglected are the implications of cognitive criticism for the study of literature targeting a young audience, whose theory of mind and empathic skills are not yet fully developed. A cognitive approach to children's and young adult literature has to meet several challenges less relevant in general fiction. Firstly, how is a young fictional character's consciousness represented by an author whose cognitive and affective skills are ostensibly superior? Secondly, how do texts instruct their young readers to employ theory of mind in order to assess both the young protagonist's emotions and their understanding of other characters' emotions (higher-order mind-reading? Thirdly, how can fiction support young people's development of their theory of mind? The paper will discuss these issues with a particular focus on memory and identity, expressed textually through tense and narrative perspective. Drawing on work by Lisa Zunshine (2006 and Blackey Vermeule (2010, the predominantly theoretical argument will be illustrated by a contemporary young adult novel, Slated (2012, by Teri Terry.

  9. Tobacco industry direct mail receipt and coupon use among young adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Lewis, M; Bover Manderski, Michelle T; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2015-02-01

    To examine young adult smokers' receipt of tobacco industry direct mail and use of coupons to purchase cigarettes. A total of 699 young adults from a 2011 national survey who reported smoking every day/some days provided self-report data on past-six month receipt of direct mail and past-six month use of coupons to purchase cigarettes. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds of direct mail receipt and coupon use. Overall, 25.1% of young adult smokers reported receiving direct mail from a tobacco company and 24.2% had used a coupon to buy cigarettes in the past 6 months. Direct mail receipt and coupon use to purchase cigarettes were significantly higher among females, daily smokers, and whites. Nearly 70% of smokers who received direct mail had also used a coupon to purchase cigarettes in the preceding 6 months. Brand websites were the most commonly reported means of joining a direct mailing list. This study adds to limited research showing receipt of direct mail and use of price reducing coupons by young adults. Also, higher rates of direct mail receipt and coupon use among females suggest that these strategies may be especially effective in encouraging smoking in females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlates of e-cigarette ad awareness and likeability in U.S. young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, Jessica M.; Teplitskaya, Lyubov; Williams, Valerie F.; Pearson, Jennifer L.; Vallone, Donna M.; Villanti, Andrea C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes has rapidly increased among U.S. adults. The aim of this study was to examine awareness and likeability of e-cigarette print advertisements in a national sample of young adults and to examine ad likeability as a correlate of intended e-cigarette use among never e-cigarette users. Methods Participants (n?=?2110, unweighted) of the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort (January 2013) were randomized to see four print ads (blu, Fin, NJOY, and W...

  11. Schatzki ring in children and young adults: clinical and radiologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, K.; Buonomo, C. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Husain, K.; Nurko, S. [Division of Gastroenterology, Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Background. The Schatzki ring is a well-known clinical and radiologic entity in adults, but is thought to be rare in childhood. Objective. To review the clinical presentations and radiologic findings of children and young adults with Schatzki rings. Materials and methods. A retrospective review of all barium swallow examinations done between 1990 and 1996 revealed 20 patients with Schatzki rings. Results. The most frequent presenting symptoms of these patients were progressive dysphagia with solid food and acute food impaction. Radiographic findings of Schatzki rings were typical in all cases. Twelve patients had endoscopy and all had evidence of esophagitis. Conclusion. Schatzki rings are not rare in childhood. The patients are symptomatic, presenting with either progressive dysphagia with solids or acute food impaction. A thorough evaluation of the distal esophagus should be performed in patients with a suggestive clinical history. (orig.) With 2 figs., 8 refs.

  12. Education and Employment Outcomes of Young Adults with a History of Developmental Language Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin; Toseeb, Umar; Botting, Nicola; Pickles, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Background: Developmental language disorder (DLD) presents a considerable barrier for young adults to engage in further education and training. Early studies with young adults with DLD revealed poor educational achievement and lack of opportunities to progress in education. More recent studies have provided more positive findings. Relatively…

  13. Understanding Tobacco-Related Attitudes among College and Noncollege Young Adult Hookah and Cigarette Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege young adults. Participants: Time-location samples of young adult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…

  14. Physical fitness, weight, smoking, and exercise patterns in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyk, Dieter; Rüther, Thomas; Witzki, Alexander; Sievert, Alexander; Moedl, Anne; Blettner, Maria; Hackfort, Dieter; Löllgen, Herbert

    2012-11-01

    The health and physical fitness of adolescents and young adults are important not just to the individuals concerned, but also to society as a whole. Many studies from many different countries have dealt with the prevalence of overweight, the risk factors for it, and the morbidity it causes, but no more than a few have addressed the effects of unhealthy lifestyles on physical fitness. In this study, we show that young adults' physical performance depends on the number of risk factors they possess. We also compare the young adults' physical performance with that of adolescents aged 10 to 17. We obtained cross-sectional data on the weight, smoking status, athletic activity, time to run 1 km, and ability to perform a chin-up on a horizontal bar of 8048 subjects aged 10 to 25. The young adults were divided into groups depending on the number of risk factors they possessed from the following list: overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. 28.4% of the men and 35.4% of the women aged 18 to 25 had none of these risk factors and exhibited the best physical performance. The more risk factors were present, the worse physical performance became. The 24- and 25-year-olds performed at the same level as the 14- and 15-year-olds. Unhealthy lifestyles can impair physical fitness even before any chronic disease arises. Possession of even a single risk factor is associated with significantly worse performance. Unless comprehensive and effective interventions are introduced in school and at work, the further cementation and worsening of unhealthy lifestyles will be hard to stop.

  15. The characteristics and experiences of anticipatory mourning in caregivers of teenagers and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Rachel; Davies, Kerry; Lavender, Verna

    2015-11-01

    This article reports a systematic review of literature undertaken to identify characteristics and experiences of anticipatory mourning in caregivers of teenagers and young adults with life-limiting or life-threatening conditions. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the key words 'anticipatory', 'mourning', 'grief', and synonyms. This review focused on six studies that met inclusion criteria and reported characteristics of anticipatory mourning in caregivers of teenagers and young adults. Characteristics and experiences were sorted into four main themes: symptoms; a sense of loss; caregiver behaviour; and the unique experience of caring for, or losing, a teenager or young adult. The review suggests that there are characteristics and experiences of anticipatory mourning that are unique to caregivers of this age group. The review also suggests that consideration of anticipatory mourning is important in offering holistic care to young adults and their caregivers, and points to the need for further research in this area.

  16. Intestinal microbiota in healthy U.S. young children and adults--a high throughput microarray analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Ringel-Kulka

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that the infant's microbiota is established during the first 1-2 years of life. However, there is scarce data on its characterization and its comparison to the adult-like microbiota in consecutive years.To characterize and compare the intestinal microbiota in healthy young children (1-4 years and healthy adults from the North Carolina region in the U.S. using high-throughput bacterial phylogenetic microarray analysis.Detailed characterization and comparison of the intestinal microbiota of healthy children aged 1-4 years old (n = 28 and healthy adults of 21-60 years (n = 23 was carried out using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip (HITChip phylogenetic microarray targeting the V1 and V6 regions of 16S rRNA and quantitative PCR.The HITChip microarray data indicate that Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Clostridium cluster IV and Bacteroidetes are the predominant phylum-like groups that exhibit differences between young children and adults. The phylum-like group Clostridium cluster XIVa was equally predominant in young children and adults and is thus considered to be established at an early age. The genus-like level show significant 3.6 fold (higher or lower differences in the abundance of 26 genera between young children and adults. Young U.S. children have a significantly 3.5-fold higher abundance of Bifidobacterium species than the adults from the same location. However, the microbiota of young children is less diverse than that of adults.We show that the establishment of an adult-like intestinal microbiota occurs at a later age than previously reported. Characterizing the microbiota and its development in the early years of life may help identify 'windows of opportunity' for interventional strategies that may promote health and prevent or mitigate disease processes.

  17. Screening for thyroid cancer in survivors of childhood and young adult cancer treated with neck radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonorezos, Emily S; Barnea, Dana; Moskowitz, Chaya S; Chou, Joanne F; Sklar, Charles A; Elkin, Elena B; Wong, Richard J; Li, Duan; Tuttle, R Michael; Korenstein, Deborah; Wolden, Suzanne L; Oeffinger, Kevin C

    2017-06-01

    The optimal method of screening for thyroid cancer in survivors of childhood and young adult cancer exposed to neck radiation remains controversial. Outcome data for a physical exam-based screening approach are lacking. We conducted a retrospective review of adult survivors of childhood and young adult cancer with a history of neck radiation followed in the Adult Long-Term Follow-Up Clinic at Memorial Sloan Kettering between November 2005 and August 2014. Eligible patients underwent a physical exam of the thyroid and were followed for at least 1 year afterwards. Ineligible patients were those with prior diagnosis of benign or malignant thyroid nodules. During a median follow-up of 3.1 years (range 0-9.4 years), 106 ultrasounds and 2277 physical exams were performed among 585 patients. Forty survivors had an abnormal thyroid physical exam median of 21 years from radiotherapy; 50% of those with an abnormal exam were survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma, 60% had radiation at ages 10-19, and 53% were female. Ultimately, 24 underwent fine needle aspiration (FNA). Surgery revealed papillary carcinoma in seven survivors; six are currently free of disease and one with active disease is undergoing watchful waiting. Among those with one or more annual visits, representing 1732 person-years of follow-up, no cases of thyroid cancer were diagnosed within a year of normal physical exam. These findings support the application of annual physical exam without routine ultrasound for thyroid cancer screening among survivors with a history of neck radiation. Survivors with a history of neck radiation may not require routine thyroid ultrasound for thyroid cancer screening. Among adult survivors of childhood and young adult cancer with a history of radiation therapy to the neck, annual physical exam is an acceptable thyroid cancer screening strategy.

  18. Trends in the Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension Among Young Adults in the United States, 1999 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyi; Moran, Andrew E

    2017-10-01

    Overall hypertension prevalence has not changed in the United States in recent decades although awareness, treatment, and control improved. However, hypertension epidemiology and its temporal trends may differ in younger adults compared with older adults. Our study included 41 331 participants ≥18 years of age from 8 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999-2014) and estimated temporal trends of hypertension, awareness, treatment, and control among young adults (age, 18-39 years) compared with middle-age (age, 40-59 years) and older adults (age, ≥60 years). In 2013 to 2014, 7.3% of the US young adults had hypertension. During 1999 to 2014, young adults saw larger increases in hypertension awareness, treatment, and control than did older adults. However, all of these components of hypertension control were lower among young adults compared with middle-aged or older adults (74.7% younger versus 81.9% middle versus 88.4% older for awareness; 50.0% versus 70.3% versus 83.0% for treatment; and 40.2% versus 56.7% versus 54.4% for control). Worse hypertension awareness, treatment, and control in young adults overall were mostly driven by worse measures in young adult men compared with young adult women. More frequent healthcare visits by young adult women explained ≈28% of the sex-related difference in awareness, 60% of the difference in treatment, and 52% of the difference in control. These findings suggest that improved access to and engagement in medical care might improve hypertension control in young adults, particularly young adult men, and reduce life-time cardiovascular risk. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Adolescent predictors of young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization among Australian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Heerde, Jessica A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the current article was to examine the adolescent risk and protective factors (at the individual, peer group, and family level) for young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Data from 2006 (Grade 9) to 2010 (young adulthood) were analyzed from a community sample of 927 Victorian students originally recruited as a statewide representative sample in Grade 5 (age, 10-11 years) in 2002 and followed-up to age 18-19 years in 2010 (N = 809). Participants completed a self-report survey on adolescent risk and protective factors and traditional and cyberbullying perpetration and victimization and young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. As young adults, 5.1% self-reported cyberbullying perpetration only, 5.0% reported cyberbullying victimization only, and 9.5% reported both cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. In fully adjusted logistic regression analyses, the adolescent predictors of cyberbullying perpetration only were traditional bullying perpetration, traditional bullying perpetration and victimization, and poor family management. For young adulthood cyberbullying victimization only, the adolescent predictor was emotion control. The adolescent predictors for young adult cyberbullying perpetration and victimization were traditional bullying perpetration and cyberbullying perpetration and victimization. Based on the results of this study, possible targets for prevention and early intervention are reducing adolescent involvement in (traditional or cyber) bullying through the development of social skills and conflict resolution skills. In addition, another important prevention target is to support families with adolescents to ensure that they set clear rules and monitor adolescents' behavior. Universal programs that assist adolescents to develop skills in emotion control are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of inhibitory processes on affective theory of mind in young and old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, Caitlin E V; Vetter, Nora; Kühn-Popp, Nina; Löcher, Carolin; Krautschuk, Susan; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of an inhibition manipulation on the effect of age on theory of mind (ToM) in an ecologically valid, affective ToM task. Participants were 30 young and 30 old adults. The Cambridge Mindreading Face-Voice Battery was used to measure ToM; in addition, measures of fluid and crystallized intelligence were taken. Participants were subjected to three levels of inhibitory demand during ToM reasoning: emotional inhibition, non-emotional inhibition, and no inhibition. Old adults performed worse than young adults. The emotional and non-emotional inhibition conditions resulted in worse ToM performance compared to the no inhibition condition. There were no differences in the impact of the inhibition conditions on old and young adults. Regression analyses suggested that old adults' crystallized intelligence was a significant predictor of ToM performance, whereas it did not predict young adults' ToM performance. Results are discussed in terms of verbal ability as a possible compensatory mechanism in coping with verbal inhibitory load in ToM reasoning.

  1. The prediction of poor outcome in young adults: comparison of the Young Adult Self-Report, the General Health Questionnaire and the Symptom Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, R F; Verhulst, F C

    1994-06-01

    The ability of the Young Adult Self-Report (YASR), the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) to predict maladjustment across a 2-year time-span was assessed in a general population sample of 528 18- to 22-year-olds. Referral for mental health services and need for professional help were predicted by total problem scores of the YASR, the GHQ-28 and the SCL-90 and by the internalizing scale of the YASR. Furthermore, the internalizing scale predicted suicide attempts or suicidal ideation, whereas the externalizing scale predicted police contacts. The YASR delinquent behavior syndrome was the only significant predictor of alcohol abuse. The findings supported the validity of the YASR as an instrument for the assessment of psychopathology in young adults.

  2. Greek Young Adults with Specific Learning Disabilities Seeking Learning Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonti, Eleni; Bampalou, Christina E.; Kouimtzi, Eleni M.; Kyritsis, Zacharias

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons why Greek young adults with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) seek learning assessments. The study sample consisted of 106 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for SLD. Data were collected through self-report records (clinical interview) of adults…

  3. Social Media Use and Access to Digital Technology in US Young Adults in 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Johnson, Amanda L; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Jacobs, Megan A; Graham, Amanda L; Rath, Jessica M

    2017-06-07

    In 2015, 90% of US young adults with Internet access used social media. Digital and social media are highly prevalent modalities through which young adults explore identity formation, and by extension, learn and transmit norms about health and risk behaviors during this developmental life stage. The purpose of this study was to provide updated estimates of social media use from 2014 to 2016 and correlates of social media use and access to digital technology in data collected from a national sample of US young adults in 2016. Young adult participants aged 18-24 years in Wave 7 (October 2014, N=1259) and Wave 9 (February 2016, N=989) of the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort Study were asked about use frequency for 11 social media sites and access to digital devices, in addition to sociodemographic characteristics. Regular use was defined as using a given social media site at least weekly. Weighted analyses estimated the prevalence of use of each social media site, overlap between regular use of specific sites, and correlates of using a greater number of social media sites regularly. Bivariate analyses identified sociodemographic correlates of access to specific digital devices. In 2014, 89.42% (weighted n, 1126/1298) of young adults reported regular use of at least one social media site. This increased to 97.5% (weighted n, 965/989) of young adults in 2016. Among regular users of social media sites in 2016, the top five sites were Tumblr (85.5%), Vine (84.7%), Snapchat (81.7%), Instagram (80.7%), and LinkedIn (78.9%). Respondents reported regularly using an average of 7.6 social media sites, with 85% using 6 or more sites regularly. Overall, 87% of young adults reported access or use of a smartphone with Internet access, 74% a desktop or laptop computer with Internet access, 41% a tablet with Internet access, 29% a smart TV or video game console with Internet access, 11% a cell phone without Internet access, and 3% none of these. Access to all digital devices with

  4. Social cognitive correlates of young adult sport competitors' sunscreen use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Nadine C; O'Riordan, David L; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville

    2011-02-01

    Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis (n = 48) completed a sun habits survey. Almost half (n = 113) of the participants used sunscreen inadequately and 30% (n = 70) reported not using sunscreen. In fully adjusted models, social cognitive attributes significantly (p competitors and as a result may be useful in informing behavior change interventions within the sporting context.

  5. An Electronic Asthma Self-Management Intervention for Young African American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Aimee L; Hess, Michael; Baptist, Alan P

    2016-01-01

    Health disparities are seen in many chronic conditions including asthma. Young African American adults represent a population at high risk for poor asthma outcomes due to both their minority status and the difficult transition from adolescence to adulthood. Recruitment and retention has been challenging in this demographic stratum, and traditional asthma education is often not feasible. The objective of this study was to develop and assess the feasibility of an electronic asthma self-management program for young African American adults. A total of 44 African American adults (age 18-30 years) with uncontrolled persistent asthma were enrolled in an asthma self-management program. The 6-week Breathe Michigan program (predicated on the social cognitive theory) was tailored specifically to the concerns and preferences of young African American adults. The entire program was completed electronically, without any specialized human support. At 2 weeks and 3 months after program completion, participants were contacted for follow-up. A total of 89% of enrolled subjects completed the 6-week intervention, and 77% were available for evaluation at 3 months. All subjects completing the 2-week postprogram survey reported that the program was helpful, and 97% would recommend it to others. Asthma control as measured by the Asthma Control Test improved from 16.1 to 19.3 (P young African American adults. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The characteristics of lung cancer in young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahajlova, R.; Kasan, P.; Cerna, M.; Martak, M.; Vesela, M.; Denkova, L.; Svihelova-Liskova, Z.; Dordayova, L.; Cavarga, I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We create characteristics of lung cancer in young adults using the own group of patients and published data. Patients and methods: 23 young adults (from 23 to 39 years old) were treated at our oncology department from May 2006 till february 2016. Monitored characteristics were mean age, gender, histological type of tumor, mutation status, anatomical location, the incidence of cancer in the family and abuse of cigarettes. Results: The group consists of 23 patients aged from 23 to 39 years, including 12 women and 11 men. Histologically, 21 patients had diagnosis of adenocarcinoma (91.3 %), one squamous cell cancer and one small cell lung cancer. In 4 patients was found ALK mutation, one patient had an activating EGFR mutation (deletion of exon 19), 1 patient had detected ROS-1 mutation. The mutation status was unknown in 13 cases. 16 subjects were diagnosed at stage IV of disease. Nevertheless, the majority of them were in good performance status. 8 patients were smokers (34.8 %). Lung cancer were documented in relatives of 2 patients. Except for one subject, all patients had at least one treatment regimen (surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy). Conclusion: Lung adenocarcinoma was strongly dominant histological type of cancer in our patients´ group. The superiority of adenocarcinoma histology has been confirmed by other published studies, too. 8 patients were smokers, there was slight women prevalence. The mutation status was examined in the low percentage of patients. However, we can see 4 ALK positive tumors, 1EGFR and one ROS-1 positive tumor. 16 patients were in stage IV at the time of diagnosis. Despite of this fact, their performance status was satisfactory to start the oncology treatment. (author)

  7. Regulating Emotions-Young Children's Views on What Adults Can Do

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to understand the emotion regulation experience of young children, aged three to four, attending a nursery school of a Local Authority. This study aimed to reveal young children’s perspectives on emotion regulation and in particular on the way the children see adults playing a part in the children’s emotion regulation. It also aimed to explore ways of engaging young children and eliciting their views.\\ud A sample size of 6 participants together with a...

  8. Young Adult Outcome of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, Linda C.; Ho, Helena H.

    2008-01-01

    To learn about the lives of young adults with ASD, families with children born 1974-1984, diagnosed as preschoolers and followed into adolescence were contacted by mail. Of 76 eligible, 48 (63%) participated in a telephone interview. Global outcome scores were assigned based on work, friendships and independence. At mean age 24, half had good to…

  9. Together is better?: effects of relationship status and resources on young adults' well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soons, J.P.M.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines differences in well-being among young adults across relationship status. Multilevel regression analyses on two waves of data of the Dutch Panel Study of Social Integration (N = 2818) show that singles have the lowest level of well-being, followed by young adults who are steady

  10. Vampires and Witches Go to School: Contemporary Young Adult Fiction, Gender, and the Gothic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michelle J.; Moruzi, Kristine

    2018-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, the Gothic has experienced a cultural resurgence in literature, film, and television for young adult audiences. Young adult readers, poised between childhood and adulthood, have proven especially receptive to the Gothic's themes of liminality, monstrosity, transgression, romance, and sexuality (James, 2009, p. 116). As…

  11. The Social Inclusion of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Phenomenology of Their Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    Social inclusion enhances the quality of life of young adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Young adults with ID continue to face prejudice and discrimination that limit their social inclusion. They experience limited social inclusion because there are not enough appropriate activities available and they have limited opportunities to…

  12. Quality of life, self-esteem and worries in young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, N. E.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Voûte, P. A.; de Haan, R. J.; van den Bos, C.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed quality of life, self-esteem and worries in young adult survivors of childhood cancer compared to a group of young adults with no history of cancer. The impact of demographic, medical and treatment factors and self-esteem on survivors' quality of life and worries was studied.

  13. The Really Useful Book of Learning & Earning for Young Adult Carers. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning and Work Institute, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "The Really Useful Book of Learning and Earning for Young Adult Carers" is aimed at young adults (aged 16-25) in England who are looking after somebody else. The first edition of the book was printed in 2011. This third edition is full of new and up-to-date useful information about looking after your health and wellbeing, job hunting,…

  14. Psychological needs, purpose in life, and problem video game playing among Chinese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Lei, Lamis L M; Ku, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    The negative impacts of excessive and problematic video game playing on both children and adults are attracting increasing concern. Based on self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000), this study hypothesized that the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness are positively associated with purpose in life, which in turn acts as a protective factor against problem video game playing among Chinese young adult players. Through a questionnaire survey with a sample of 165 Chinese adults aged between 18 and 30 years (mean age = 22.7 years), we found that perceived autonomy, competence, relatedness, and purpose in life were all negatively correlated with problem game playing. The demographic and psychological factors explained 38% of the variances of problem game playing. Specifically, gender, perceived relatedness, and purpose in life emerged as the three most salient predictors of problem game playing among the Chinese young adults. The mediating role of purpose in life was evidenced and it was found that purpose in life mediated the influences of the psychological needs proposed by SDT on problem game playing. Moreover, young men were significantly more susceptible to problem game playing than their female counterparts. To conclude, psychological needs and purpose in life influenced Chinese young adults' vulnerability to problem game playing directly or indirectly. Intervention programs that encourage social involvement and voluntary work, as well as counseling service that helps clients to search for life purpose, are suggested for intervening in problem game playing among Chinese young adults.

  15. Everyday Life of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Inclusionary and Exclusionary Processes among Young Adults of Parents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Mikaela

    2013-01-01

    Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and…

  16. List memory in young adults with language learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T; McGregor, Karla K; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list recall experiment. Participants listened to 12-item word lists that converged on a nonpresented critical item (e.g., rain) semantically (umbrella, drench, weather, hail), phonologically (train, main, ran, wren), or dually in a hybrid list (umbrella, train, drench, main) and recalled words in no particular order. Group comparisons were made on veridical recall (i.e., words that were presented) and false recall of nonpresented critical items. Recall performance was analyzed by list type and list position to examine potential differences in the quality of memorial processes. The LLD group produced fewer veridical recalls than the controls. Both groups demonstrated list type and list position effects in veridical recall. False recall of the critical items was comparable in the 2 groups and varied by list type in predictable ways. Young adults with LLD have verbal memory limitations characterized by quantitatively low levels of accurate recall. Qualitative patterns of recall are similar to those of unaffected peers. Therefore, the memory problem is characterized by limited capacity; memorial processes appear to be intact.

  17. Effects of 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride on anterior segment parameters obtained with Pentacam in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyhun Arici

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the effects of topically applied 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride on anterior segment parameters obtained with a Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug camera in healthy young adults. Methods: Anterior segment analyses of 25 eyes from 25 young adults (Group 1, before and after 45 min of 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride application, were performed. For a control group (cycloplegia-free, Group 2, 24 eyes of 24 age- and sex-matched healthy cases were evaluated twice at 45 min intervals. The results obtained from the groups were compared statistically. Results: The mean ages of the groups were 23.04 ± 3.42 (range, 18-29 and 22.4 ± 2.05 (range, 18-27 years for Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.259. In Group 1, measurements between the two analyses were significantly different for the values of anterior chamber depth (ACD, anterior chamber angle (ACA, and anterior chamber volume (ACV (p<0.05, whereas no statistical difference was found for the central corneal thickness (CCT and keratometry (K1, K2 measurements. In Group 2, none of these parameters were statistically different between the two analyses. Conclusions: Topically applied 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride caused an increase in the ACD and ACV values, and a decrease in the ACA value. However, it had no significant effect on the CCT and keratometry measurements. It is important to consider these effects when using the Pentacam device on young adults with cycloplegia and when applying it for various reasons.

  18. State-by-State Variation in the Number of Children and Young Adults in Nursing Homes, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Evan; Agrawal, Rishi

    2017-12-01

    Objectives One goal of Healthy People 2020 is to reduce the number of children and young adults living in nursing homes. However, little is known about the prevalence of nursing home use among children and young adults on a state-by-state basis. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of nursing home use among children and young adults in each state from 2005 to 2012. The study also looked for prevalence trends between 2005 and 2012. Methods The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Minimum Data Set and US Census data were used to calculate the prevalence of nursing home residents among children and young adults aged 0-30 in each US state in 2012 and assess trends in each state from 2005 to 2012. Results In 2012, the prevalence of nursing home residents among children and young adults aged 0-30 varied across states, ranging from 14 in 100,000 (New Jersey) to 0.8 in 100,000 (Alaska). Testing for trends from 2005 to 2012 also revealed significant trends (p young adults aged 0-30 across states. There is also variation in the nursing home prevalence trends across states. Observed variations may represent potential opportunities for some states to reduce their population of children and young adults in nursing homes.

  19. The Aalborg case - GPS tracking of 169 young adults in a Danish central city area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Bro, Peter; Knudsen, Anne-Marie

    Recent developments in the global positioning system (GPS) and the global system for mobile communications, or third generation technology (GSM/3G), have enabled an increasingly simple and cost-effective tracking of human activity in urban areas through the use of mobile telephony...... was based on a unique sample of movement data gleaned from 169 young adults aged 16 to 20 years. Each person was GPS-tracked over a period of seven days in 2008-2009 to record their movements in and uses of spaces in the central city area of Aalborg, which is Denmark’s fourth-largest city, with 122 461...

  20. Reproductive health in young male adults with chronic diseases in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf; Mohamed, Yassin

    2013-01-01

    The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention have defined a chronic diseases as an "illnesses that are prolonged, do not resolve spontaneously, and are rarely cured completely". Approximately 20% of all children have a chronic illness and 65% of them the illness is severe enough to interfere with daily activities. Failure of pubertal growth, delay or absence of sexual development, infertility and sexual dysfunction due to hypogonadism and defective spermatogenesis are well recognized disturbances among adolescents and young male adult patients with chronic diseases. The causes are multifactorial and can be due to disease itself, associated complications or drugs. Haemoglobinopathies, endocrine disorders, gastrointestinal and renal diseases are some examples that frequently cause some degree of disability. Infertility affects the future quality of life of these patients and is a predictor of stress in current and future relationships. Health care providers often neglect the reproductive health of chronically ill adolescents and young adults, although many studies indicate that they are sexually active and interested in knowing about their future fertility. This review article provides an overview of the literature concerning the impact of some chronic diseases in adolescents and young adults on reproductive health but will not address patients with cancer because it has been tackled adequately in the literature.MEDLINE database search of English-language medical journal articles published between 1975 and 2012 for papers related to reproductive health in adolescents and young adults with chronic diseases since childhood was done. Several Authors, recommend that all young adult patients with severe/prolonged chronic disease in childhood should be offered reproductive health care in a specialized center with appropriate expertise, involving a multidisciplinary team, including endocrinologists, andrologists, geneticists, psychologists, urologists and specialist