Sample records for yoru chugoku changchun

  1. First Changchun Foreigners Sports Meet


    <正>The first Changchun Foreigners Sports Meet came to a successful close on June 3 after five days of fierce but friendly competition,in which participants showed that they attached great importance to participation and friendship.

  2. CHANGCHUN:Spring City of North China


    @@ Although Changchun has been more than 200 years old,it is still a young city compared with other historical cities in China.It is located at the central oart of Songliao Plain,covering a total area of 20,571 square kilometers (about 8,012 square miles).Being the capital city of Jilin province,Changchun is the political,economic and cultural center.

  3. Wrong Forms of some Yorùbá Personal Names: Some Phonological and Sociolinguistic Implications

    Reuben Olúwáfẹ́mi Ìkọ̀tún


    Full Text Available In this study, we examine the wrong forms of some Yorùbá sentences that have become personal names through compounding. The data were extracted from the Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB lists of candidates that were considered for admission into three Nigerian Universities between the 2005 and 2010 academic sessions. The names extracted from that source were compared with names written in the staff lists of the three Universities in Nigeria. The wrongly written names were recorded on tapes and some native speakers were asked to listen to them to determine their correctness. We argue that wrong forms of some Yorùbá sentential/personal names are common occurrences and establish that they are traceable to the freedom granted by Yorùbá orthography developers. We also argue that, the confusion that results from the different spelling forms of some Yorùbá personal names is seriously observable in social interactions, labour market, schools or Colleges of Education/Universities, Embassies and Nigerian civil service both Federal and State and that court affidavits become imperative to authenticate or reconcile both the wrong and the correct forms for the purposes of admissions, appointments and overseas travelling documents. Similarly, we show that the position of the Yorùbá orthography developers has resulted in a loss of the actual pronunciation of some Yorùbá personal names which has severe implications for the semantic contents of the names as well as implications for the rich religious, cultural and philosophical heritage of the Yorùbá people.

  4. Changchun Municipal Government Contributes to Japan’s Earthquake Relief Efforts


    <正>A 9.0-magnitude earthquake occurred off the east coast of Honshu,Japan on March 11,inducing a tsunami.Sendai,a twinned friendship city of Changchun,was seriously affected,so the Municipal Government of Changchun made a speedy decision to provide assistance.


    Hamadoun BOKAR; TANG Jie; LIN Nian-feng


    Groundwater in Changchun City, Jilin Province of China tends to be influenced by human activities.Chemical types of groundwater were detected in both shallow and deep groundwater were: HCO3- - Ca2+ and HCO3-of groundwater quality due to the increase of TDS, NO3- + NO2 (as Nitrogen) and TH contents have been observed from 1991 to 1998. Scatter analyses showed strong positive correlations between Ca2+, Cl- and NO3- ions and weak negative correlations between the depth of water table and Ca2+, 8O42-. C1- and NO3-ions. A mapping of contaminant index based on Chinese standard of groundwater showed that a large proportion of the groundwater in 1998 was deteriorated by human process. Despite their low values of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), the most of the sampled wells were not suitable for drinking and agriculture purposes due to higher contents of NO3-, NO2 and Mn2+ ions.

  6. GIS-based Analysis of Main Air Pollutants of Changchun City in Summer


    To gain a better understanding of the characteristics of air pollution of Changchun city, P. R. China, in summer, the analytical methods of geographical information system(GIS) and statistical analysis software SPSS were applied to the analysis of the monitored concentrations of SO2, NO2, and O3 in July of 2002 to 2004 in Changchun city. The results obtained show that the average hourly O3 concentrations in July 2002 and 2004 were higher than the first-level hourly standard of China. At the same time, the dynamic distribution of the O3 concentration and the relationship between the concentration of O3 and that of NOx were studied. The air quality evaluation result of Changchun city indicates that the southwest of this city was heavily polluted during the monitored period.

  7. Alternatives of Strategic Environmental Assessment for Road Traffic Development Planning-Case of Changchun City, China

    CHEN Chong; XU Ye; SHANG Jincheng; Gordon HUANG


    On analyzing the achievement of the goal in the modern urban road traffic development planning, the alternative of Strategic Environmental Assessment for urban traffic planning should include the basic scheme, the extended scheme and the environmental protection scheme. This study from different perspectives designed the alternatives for Changchun's county-level road and urban road system planning, and used the method of System Dynamics to simulate, optimize and analyze those alternatives. Thereafter, some methods including the correlation function method were used to comprehensively assess and rank those alternatives for recommending two best alternatives with the consideration to the indicators, such as the total emission amount of CO, the total emission amount of nitrogen oxides, the noise value, the road construction cost, the fossil oil consumption and the traffic capacity. The result showed that the study would provide substantial supports for decision-makers to make more scientific decisions and promote the sustainable urban traffic in Changchun City.

  8. The 6th International Workshipon Zinc Oxide and Related Materials Aug. 5~7, 2010, Changchun, China First Announcement and Call for Papers


    Dear Colleague: It is our great pleasure to announce that "The 6th International Workshop on Zinc Oxide and Related Materials" (6th ZnO Workshop) will be held by The Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, on August 5~7, 2010 in Changchun, China.

  9. Isolation and identification of naegleria species from environmental water in changchun, northeastern china.

    Wei Wang


    Full Text Available Naegleria is a free-living amoeba, and pathogenic Naegleria may pose a health risk to people exposed to recreational water. Our objective in this study was to determine if there are pathogenic amoebae in environmental water samples from Changchun, Northeastern China.During July to September 2012, a total of 70 water samples were collected from Changchun, Northeastern China, and Naegleria was enriched by in vitro culture and detected by PCR using Naegleria genus-specific primers. Resulting PCR products were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed to identify Naegleria species.Naegleria was detected in 65 (92.9% of 70 water samples. DNA sequence and phylogenetic analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA sequences revealed four Naegleria species, including N. pagei (n = 24 and N. Australiensis (n = 18, N. clarki (n = 13 and N. gruberi (n = 10, in which N. australiensis is pathogenic to mice. But the pathogenic species N. fowleri was not detected.This is the first report on Naegleria species in Northeastern China, showing that almost all environmental water samples were contaminated with Naegleria, including N. pagei, N. Australiensis, N. clarki and N. gruberi, which should be considered a potential public health threat.

  10. HIV-1 diversity and drug-resistant mutations in infected individuals in Changchun, China.

    Ming Yan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection has been detected in all provinces of China. Although epidemiological and phylogenetic studies have been conducted in many regions, such analyses are lacking from Jilin province in northeastern China. METHOD: Epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses, as well as detection of drug-resistant mutations, were conducted on 57 HIV-1 infected patients from Changchun city identified and confirmed through annual surveillance by local Centers for Disease Control in Jilin province of northeastern China in 2012. RESULTS: Sexual contact was determined to be the major pathway for HIV-1 transmission in Jilin, where hetero- and homosexual activities contributed almost equally. Phylogenetic analyses detected multiple subtypes of HIV-1 including subtype G circulating in Jilin, with multiple origins for each of them. Both subtype B and CRF01_AE were dominant, and evidence of subtype B transmitting between different high-risk groups was observed. Mutations in the viral protease at position 71 indicated the presence of a selective pressure. Several drug-resistant mutations were detected, although they were predicted with low-level resistance to antiviral treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Information from this study fills the gap in knowledge of HIV-1 transmission in Changchun city, Jilin province, China. By revealing the origin and evolutionary status of local HIV-1 strains, this work contributes to ongoing efforts in the control and prevention of AIDS.

  11. The Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Allergic Rhinitis: Further Epidemiological Evidence from Changchun, Northeastern China

    Teng, Bo; Zhang, Xuelei; Yi, Chunhui; Zhang, Yan; Ye, Shufeng; Wang, Yafang; Tong, Daniel Q.; Lu, Binfeng


    With the continuous rapid urbanization process over the last three decades, outdoors air pollution has become a progressively more serious public health hazard in China. To investigate the possible associations, lag effects and seasonal differences of urban air quality on respiratory health (allergic rhinitis) in Changchun, a city in Northeastern China, we carried out a time-series analysis of the incidents of allergic rhinitis (AR) from 2013 to 2015. Environmental monitoring showed that PM2.5 and PM10 were the major air pollutants in Changchun, followed by SO2, NO2 and O3. The results also demonstrated that the daily concentrations of air pollutants had obvious seasonal differences. PM10 had higher daily mean concentrations in spring (May, dust storms), autumn (October, straw burning) and winter (November to April, coal burning). The mean daily number of outpatient AR visits in the warm season was higher than in the cold season. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis was significantly associated with PM2.5, PM10, SO2 and NO2, and the increased mobility was 10.2% (95% CI, 5.5%–15.1%), 4.9% (95% CI, 0.8%–9.2%), 8.5% (95% CI, −1.8%–19.8%) and 11.1% (95% CI, 5.8%–16.5%) for exposure to each 1-Standard Deviation (1-SD) increase of pollutant, respectively. Weakly or no significant associations were observed for CO and O3. As for lag effects, the highest Relative Risks (RRs) of AR from SO2, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were on the same day, and the highest RR from CO was on day 4 (L4). The results also indicated that the concentration of air pollutants might contribute to the development of AR. To summarize, this study provides further evidence of the significant association between ambient particulate pollutants (PM2.5 and PM10, which are usually present in high concentrations) and the prevalence of respiratory effects (allergic rhinitis) in the city of Changchun, located in Northeastern China. Environmental control and public health strategies should be enforced to


    GUO Ping; XIE Zhong-lei; LI Jun; KANG Chun-li; LIU Jian-hua


    An extensive soil investigation was conducted in different domains of Changchun to disclose the fractionations of Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni in urban soils. Meanwhile correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regressions were used to define relationships between soil properties and metal fractions and the chief factors influencingthe fractionation of heavy metals in the soils. The results showed that Pb, Ni and Cu were mainly associated with the residual and organic forms; most of Cd was concentrated in the residual and exchangeable fractions. Zn in residual and carbonate fraction was the highest. The activities of the heavy metals probably declined in the following order: Cd, Zn,Pb, CuandNi. The chemical fractions of heavy metals in different domains in Changchun City were of significantly spatial heterogeneity. Soil properties had different influences on the chemical fractions of heavy metals to some extent and the main factors influencing Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu and Ni fractionation and transformation were apparently different.

  13. The Distribution of Cu Content of Soil in Different Land Use Types in the Suburbs of Changchun City

    Wei; SU; Dongmei; LIANG; Minghui; CHEN; Guisheng; SHEN


    In order to understand the heavy metal contamination of Cu in the farmland soil in the suburbs of Changchun City,and reveal the distribution of Cu content of soil in different farmland types,we use the methods field survey and laboratory analysis,to analyze the Cu content of soil in different farmland types in the suburbs of Changchun City. Using SPSS statistical analysis software and ORING mapping software,we process the data of Cu content in 60 sampling points and draw the normal distribution map,and then analyze the distribution of Cu content of soil in different land use types. The results show that the Cu content of the farmland soil in the suburbs of Changchun City is between 41. 71 mg /kg and 116. 77 mg /kg,with an average of 53. 35 mg /kg,and the content in all sampling points is higher than the background value; in terms of the Cu content of soil,different land use types are sequenced in descending order(vegetable field > paddy > dry land).

  14. Chemical Compositions of Dew and Scavenging of Particles in Changchun, China

    Yingying Xu


    Full Text Available Dew and rain water were collected during 2013 and 2014 in Changchun, China. The dew was analyzed and the following parameters were measured: pH, EC, TDS, major anions (F−, Cl−, SO42-, and NO3-, and major cations (NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+. The mean pH, EC, and TDS values of dew were comparable with the values for rainwater. The pH values of dew and rain were 6.72 and 6.16, respectively. Both EC (308 μS/cm and TDS (154 mg/L of dew were higher than those in rain samples. The concentration of main ions in dew was 1.5–5.7 times higher than levels in rainwater. The near-neutral pH values in dew were caused by the neutralization of acidity and buffering by the alkaline elements of soil origin (Ca2+. This neutralization was confirmed by a strong correlation between the acidic ions (SO42- and NO3- and the major cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+. Natural dust made an important contribution to the ions present in dews, but the presence of sulfate concentrations that are notably higher than rain water (up to 1584.5 μeq/L indicated a significant contribution of anthropogenic sources. Dew has the ability to capture particulates, and the purifying effect on the underlying surface was obvious.

  15. [Contamination of Organophosphorus Pesticides Residue in Fresh Vegetables and Related Health Risk Assessment in Changchun, China].

    Yu, Rui; Liu, Jing-shuang; Wang, Qi-cun; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Yang


    This study aims to investigate the concentrations of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in fresh vegetables. A total of Z14 samples from seven types of vegetables were collected from the suburb in Changchun City. The OPs were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with flame photometric detector (GC-FPD). Target hazard quotients (THQ) were applied to estimate the potential health risk to inhabitants. Results showed that OPs concentrations exceeded the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) in more than 23. 4% samples, and were not detected in only 7. 9% samples. Detection rates of OPs was as follow in the decreased order: diazinon (82. 2%) > phorate (45. 8%) > dimethoate (29. 4%) > parathion-methyl (27. 6%) > omethoate (23. 8%) > dichlorvos (22. 9%) > fenitrothion (21%) > fenthion (18. 7%) > parathion (18. 2%) > methamidophos (17. 3%) > malathion (12. 1%). The percentages above MRL for leaves were higher than for non-leafy vegetables. The order of percentages of OPs above MRL was as follows: green onion (82. 5%) > radish (37. 5%) > red pepper (17. 2%) > Chinese vegetable (14. 3%) > cucumber (3. 2%) > eggplant (2. 9%) > tomato (0%). 49. 5% vegetables samples showed more than one OP. The average target hazard quotients (ave THQ) were all less than one and the average Hazard Index (ave HI) was 0. 462, so that inhabitants who expose average OP levels may not experience adverse health effects.

  16. 数字集群GOTA在长春的应用与发展%Digital Trunking GOTA Application and Development in Changchun



    文章介绍了数字集群GOTA在长春的发展情况及所存在的主要问题,数字集群GOTA在长春的基本应用情况,以及数字集群GOTA今后在长春发展的方向。%This paper introduces the digital trunking GOTA in Changchtm and the current development status of the main problems,digital trunking GOTA in Changchun basic application,and digital trtmking GOTA the future direction of development in Changchun.

  17. Mass screening-based case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in Changchun, China

    Xiao-Meng Li; Jiang Li; Ichiro Tsuji; Naoki Nakaya; Yoshikazu Nishino; Xue-Jian Zhao


    Aim: To investigate possible correlation factors for prostate cancer by a population-based case-control study in China. Methods: We carded out a mass screening of prostate cancer in Changchun, China, using a prostate-specific antigen assisted by Japan International Cooperation Agency. From June 1998 to December 2000, 3 940 men over 50 years old were screened. Of these, 29 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. We selected 28 cases and matched them with controls of low prostate-specific antigen value (< 4.1 ng/mL) by 1:10 according to age and place of employment. A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer was then carded out. Results: After adjustment for education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, marriage and diet, intake of soybean product was discovered to be inversely related to prostate cancer. Men who consumed soybean product more than twice per week on different days had a multivariate odds ratio (OR) of 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-1.12). In addition, men who consumed soybean products more than once per day had a multivariate OR of 0.29 (95% CI, 0.11-0.79) compared with men who consumed soybean products less than once per week. The P for trend was 0.02, which showed significant difference. There was no significant difference in P trend for any dairy food. Even when we matched the cases and controls by other criteria, we found that soybean food was the only preventive factor associated with prostate cancer. Conclusion: Our study suggests that consumption of soybeans, one of the most popular foods in Asia, would decrease the risk of prostate cancer. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 551-560)

  18. Modeling the impact of urbanization on infectious disease transmission in developing countries: a case study in Changchun City, China

    Zhang, Ping; Atkinson, Peter; Yang, Changbao


    This paper presents an integrated model to model the effects of urbanization on infectious disease transmission by coupling a cellular automata (CA) land use development model, population projection matrix model and CA epidemic model. The improvement of this model lies in using an improved CA epidemic model that can divide individuals into three states (susceptible, infected and recovered) and combine connection factor, movement factor into the epidemic model to provide more helpful outcomes in infectious disease transmission. A population density surface model and a household density surface were used to bridge the gap between urbanization and infectious disease transmission. A case study is presented involving modelling infectious disease transmission in Changchun City, a rapidly urbanizing city in China. The simulation results for Changchun City over a 30-year period show that the average numbers of susceptible individuals, infected individuals and recovered individuals in the latter time are greater than those in the previous time during the process of urbanization. In addition, the average numbers of susceptible individuals, infected individuals and recovered individuals increase with higher population growth rate.

  19. Spatial Analysis of Property Crimes in Changchun%长春市财产犯罪的空间分析

    刘大千; 修春亮; 于嘉


    基于长春市公安局提供的警区层面的犯罪数据,分析了长春市2008年财产犯罪率的空间分布特征。研究发现长春市财产犯罪率呈现出城市中心高而外围低的圈层式空间模式。通过对犯罪高发区域的用地性质和功能的分析发现,长春市主要商业区和主要客运交通枢纽所在警区均具有较高的财产犯罪率。利用空间分析的方法,判定出长春市财产犯罪的热点地区,从统计学意义上验证了犯罪活动的空间集聚性,进而推测这些区域可能存在犯罪扩散和溢出效应。借鉴国外相关理论及实证研究,结合长春市实际情况,通过回归建模分析,探讨了长春市财产犯罪率同人口、社会经济、土地利用等各因子可能存在的相互关系,发现长春市财产犯罪率受到人口密度、就业活跃度、商业区、服务业活跃度、客运枢纽和年轻人口比例的显著影响,在一定程度上支持了日常活动理论的基本观点,但需结合长春市实际情况做具体分析与解释。%Based on the crime data in 2008 collected at the police-precinct level from the Public Security Bureau of Changchun,this article firstly analyzes the spatial pattern of property crimes in this typical city with a population around 3 × 106 in Northeast China.An approximate structure of layers was shown,which means more crimes in central areas and fewer crimes outside.After further investigation on the land use and function of the precincts with higher property crime rates,it is found that the busy areas such as the major commercial areas and the transport centers tend to possess higher probability of property crime occurrences.According to the routine activities theory which has been applied by western researchers in plenty of practical studies,the places where most of the opportunities of convergence in space and time of likely offenders,suitable targets and the absence of capable guardians against crime concentrate

  20. Municipal solid waste fueled power generation in China: a case study of waste-to-energy in Changchun City.

    Cheng, Hefa; Zhang, Yanguo; Meng, Aihong; Li, Qinghai


    With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization in China, many cities face the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal. With the lack of space for new landfills, waste-to-energy incineration is playing an increasingly important role in waste management. Incineration of MSW from Chinese cities presents some unique challenges because of its low calorific value (3000-6700 kJ/kg) and high water content (approximately 50%). This study reports a novel waste-to-energy incineration technology based on co-firing of MSW with coal in a grate-circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator, which was implemented in the Changchun MSW power plant. In 2006, two 260 ton/day incinerators incinerated 137,325 tons, or approximately one/sixth of the MSW generated in Changchun, saving more than 0.2 million m3 landfill space. A total of 46.2 million kWh electricity was generated (38,473 tons lignite was also burned as supplementary fuel), with an overall fuel-to-electricity efficiency of 14.6%. Emission of air pollutants including particulate matters, acidic gases, heavy metals, and dioxins was low and met the emission standards for incinerators. As compared to imported incineration systems, this new technology has much lower capital and operating costs and is expected to play a role in meeting China's demands for MSW disposal and alternative energy.

  1. The Compliance Tradition and Teachers' Instructional Decision-Making in a Centralised Education System: A Case Study of Junior Secondary Geography Teaching in Changchun, China

    Lam, Chi-Chung


    This paper reports a case study of how junior secondary geography teachers in Changchun, China, planned and delivered their lessons. From the observation and interview data, it was found that teachers in the China mainland were strongly influenced by a compliance culture and uncertainty avoidance stance. It is argued that these cultural traits…

  2. The timing of final closure along the Changchun-Yanji suture zone: Constraints from detrital zircon U-Pb dating of the Triassic Dajianggang Formation, NE China

    Wang, Bin; Zhou, Jian-Bo; Wilde, Simon A.; Zhang, Xing-Zhou; Ren, Shou-Mai


    The Dajianggang Formation is located in the Changchun-Yanji suture zone of central Jilin Province and unconformably overlies the Changchun-Yanji Accretionary Complex (CYAC), which is a mélange resulting from subduction of the Jiamusi-Khanka Block (JKB) beneath the North China Craton (NCC). LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of detrital zircon from four samples of the formation yields ages of 2516 to 216 Ma. Zircons with U-Pb ages at 2516-2501 Ma and 1897-1832 Ma indicate a provenance from Precambrian basement rocks of the NCC. The 525-482 Ma ages indicate a provenance from metamorphic rocks of Late Pan-African age in the JKB that have a tectonic affinity to the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Zircon grains with ages of 383-314 Ma and 275-250 Ma were likely derived from the underlying CYAC. The youngest population has a peak age of ca. 225 Ma, which together with Late Triassic fossils, suggests that deposition of the Dajianggang Formation was Late Triassic or younger. This result supports the view that the final collision of the JKB and NCC along the Changchun-Yanji suture took place before the Late Triassic. Furthermore, this closure time is at least 10-20 Ma later than closure along the Solonker-Xar Moron-Changchun suture in the Late Permian. We thus establish that the Changchun-Yanji suture is not related to the collision between the Siberia Craton (SC) and the NCC but was instead related to the Paleo-Pacific plate subduction. Consequently, the Changchun-Yanji suture is not the eastward extension of the Solonker-Xar Moron-Changchun suture as previously considered, but the southern margin of the Jilin-Heilongjiang high-pressure metamorphic belt (Ji-Hei HP belt), and resulted from westward subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean. Thus, the Late Triassic marked the switch in subduction from the Paleo-Asian Ocean to the Paleo-Pacific Ocean in NE China.

  3. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor dust from varying categories of rooms in Changchun city, northeast China.

    Wang, Zucheng; Wang, Shengzhong; Nie, Jiaqin; Wang, Yuanhong; Liu, Yuyan


    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were isolated from indoor dust from various categories of rooms in Changchun city, northeast China, including dormitory, office, kitchen, and living rooms. PAH concentrations ranged from 33.9 to 196.4 μg g(-1) and 21.8 to 329.6 μg g(-1) during summer and winter, respectively, indicating that total PAH concentrations in indoor dust are much higher than those in other media from the urban environment, including soils and sediments. The percentage of five- to six-ring PAHs was high, indicating that PAHs found in indoor dust mainly originate from pyrolysis rather than a petrogenic source. Rooms were divided into three groups using cluster analysis on the basis of 16 PAH compositions, namely smoke-free homes, homes exposed to smoke and offices. Results showed that the source of PAHs in smoke-free residential homes is primarily the burning of fossil fuels. In addition to the burning of fossil fuels, biomass combustion and cooking contributed to PAHs in houses exposed to smoke (including kitchens). Motor vehicles are an additional source of PAHs in offices because of greater interactions with the outdoor environment. The results of health risk assessment showed that the cancer risk levels by dermal contact and ingestion are 10(4)- to 10(5)-fold higher than that by inhalation, suggesting that ingestion and dermal contact of carcinogenic PAHs in dust are more important exposure routes than inhalation of PAHs from air. Although the results showed high potential of PAH concentrations in indoor dust in Changchun for human health risk, caution should be taken to evaluate the risk of PAHs calculated by USEPA standard models with default parameters because habitation styles are different in various categories of rooms.

  4. Changchun City Rosaceae Ornamental Plants Resources Investigation%长春市蔷薇科园林植物资源调查研究


      对长春市的公园、居住区、校园做详细调查,统计出长春市蔷薇科植物有46种11属。对这些蔷薇科园林植物进行分类,介绍其形态特征、园林用途,并对其应用方式进行评价。%The survey about the parks, residential area and campus in Changchun have been conducted and the statistics of results shows that Rosaceae plants of 46 species in 11 genera are growing in Changchun. We also did further classification and introduction of these Rosaceae plants, categorized them according to their morphological characteristics and gardens utility, and their application models are evaluated.

  5. 适宜长春地区栽植的芳香植物的引种试验%Introduction test of aromatic plants for planting in Changchun

    高明; 李莉娜; 李丽


    Nine kinds of aromatic plant were taken as objects to conduct introduction test in Changchun , results indicated that Thymus pulegoides L., Thymus vulgare L., Thymus citriodorata, Thymus citriodorus variegate Aurea, Nepeta mussini, Agastache rugosus ( Mey) O.Kuntze and Hyssopus officinalis L.showed excellent growth vigor that the same as secondary introduction land , which can not adopt any cold-proof measures to overwintering safely .Salvia officinalls L.showed weakly growth vigor , but may overwintering in Changchun .Melissa officinalis L.would not overwintering in Changchun that all of therm died.%在长春地区,对9种芳香植物进行引种栽培试验,结果表明:阔叶百里香、直立百里香、柠檬百里香、金边百里香、猫薄荷、藿香、海索草表现优异,长势与次生引种地相同,可以不采取任何防寒措施安全越冬;鼠尾草表现一般,长势较弱,但在长春可以越冬;香蜂花在长春无法露地越冬,全部死亡。

  6. A Preliminary Excowation of the Wujiazi site in Shuangyang District, Changchun Changchun Municipal Institute of Archaeology%长春市双阳区五家子遗址发掘简报


    In 2005, a rescuing execwation was done by Jilin oproincial Institute of Archaeology, and Changchun Municipal Institute of Archaeology. 5 house foundations, 3 ash pits, and 2 ash ditches were found, some stones and potteries were unearthed. The typical stones include stone axe, knife with a punched hole. Most of the potteries were made with clay pieces or rings in a lower heating temperature. Some smaller one was moulded with finger. The site should be of the Xituanshan Culture according to those relics found here.%2005年,吉林省文物考古研究所、长春市文物保护研究所联合对长春市双阳区五家子遗址进行了抢救性考古发掘,揭露了5座房址、3个灰坑、2条灰沟,并出土一批石器和陶器。石器制法为磨制或打磨结合,兼有琢制,典型器物有石斧、穿孔石刀等。陶器烧制火候比较低。从出土遗物特征判断,其应属西团山文化范畴。

  7. STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT ON LAND—USE PLANNING—A Case Study of Changchun Economic and Technological Zone

    ZHANGYan; SHANGJin-cheng; 等


    The study centers on the necessity,the workflow and the synthetically integrated methods (Principal Compo-nent Analysis(PCA),Andytical Hierarchy Process(AHP) and Fuzzy Comprerhensive Evaluation(FCE)of strategic environ-ment assessment(SEA)on land-use planning.The whole article includes three main parts:firstly,some attribute database,graphic-base and the spatial transform matrix,which reflect the change of regional land-use pattern,can be ob-tained by GIS technique;secondly,adopting fitting method of trend-suface analysis will convert environment monitoring data from scattered spots to regular control spots,based on which we can perform regional environment impact assess-ment;finally,Changchun Economic and Technological Developmen Zone is chosen as a case study on land-use planning.Through those efforts the results may be obtained as follows:1)according to transform matrix,the possibility of transforma-tion from one land-use to another can be obtained after the planning is carried out;2)environment ruality would change as a result of the change of land-use pattern;3)the SEA on land-use plan is an effective tool to make land-use pattern more reasonable.

  8. Research on community elderly quality of life and its influencing factors in Changchun City of Jilin Province

    Dong Fengge


    Full Text Available Objective: To understand the status and influencing factors of the quality of life of the elderly patients in the community of Changchun City, and provide the basis for drawing up the interventions about improving the quality of life of the elderly patients in the community. Methods: 498 elderly patients were investigated by using random sampling method and QOL - BREF and self-designed questionnaire. Results: The scores of the quality of life were: PSYCH (13.00±1.91, ENVIR (13.39±2.23, PHYS (13.47±1.71 and SOCIL (14.21±2.56. The scores of quality of life self-evaluation and health condition self-evaluation were respectively (72.01±17.14 and (66.30±14.23. The results showed that gender, age, degree of education, marriage situation, vocation, income level can affect four aspects of the quality of life. The main factors influenced the scores of QOL were: leisure opportunities, satisfaction with health care services, satisfaction with sleep, interpersonal relationship, self-appreciation in appearance and satisfaction with the degree of the ability of daily life. Conclusion: The effective measures should be taken to improve the quality of the elderly patients, such as improving the healthy care function, establishing great supporting system in community.

  9. STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT ASSESSMENT ON LAND-USE PLANNING-A Case Study of Changchun Economic and Technological Zone


    The study centers on the necessity, the workflow and the synthetically integrated methods (Principal Component Analysis(PCA), AndyticalHierarchyProcess(AHP) andFuzzy ComprerhensiveEvaluation(FCE)) of strategic environment assessment (SEA) on land-use planning. The whole article includes three main parts: firstly, some attributedatabase, graphic-base and the spatial transform matrix, which reflect the change of regional land-use pattern, can be obtained by GIS technique; secondly, adopting fitting method of trend-surface analysis will convert environment monitoringdata from scattered spots to regular control spots, based on which we can perform regional environment impact assessment; finally, Changchun Economic and Technological Developmen Zone is chosen as a case study on land-use planning.Through those efforts the results may be obtained as follows: 1 ) according to transform matrix, the possibility of transformation from one land-use to another can be obtained after the planning is carried out; 2) environment quality would changeas a result of the change of land-nsc pattern; 3) the SEA on land-use plan is an effective tool to make land-use patternmore reasonable.

  10. Study on the large-scale photovoltaic (PV) power generation in desert of China and its utilization. Development of energy and agriculture in solar farm; Chugoku ni okeru ogata taiyoko hatsuden to sono riyo ni kansuru kenkyu. Solar farm ni yoru energy to nogyo kaihatsu

    Nishioka, S.; Ohashi, Y.; Ito, H. [Tokyu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ojima, S. [Maeda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper proposes solar farm, a system suitable for China`s present circumstances, and describes its development plan. In this plan, agriculture and stock farming are promoted through irrigation using PV power in the desert zone, middle-east China. In addition, electric power is produced by laying PV power generation modules. The solar farm has 100 blocks of farmland equivalent to 700 ha, which includes 300 farmhouses (population of 1200). It can be a food supply base producing rice and wheat. The power generation capacity is at least 1000 kW, and the night power is supplied by battery installed in each farmhouse. The power generated in the daytime is used not only for agriculture but also for secondary industry such as processing of agricultural and stock farming products. The Chinese government requires 300,000 ha of farmland development every year up to 2030, the peak of population. When a half of this is developed by the solar farm, 200 solar farms are to be developed every year. For 30 years, 6000 solar farms are to be developed. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. FY 2000 report on the basic survey to promote Joint Implementation, etc. Energy conservation by modernization of a cement plant (Double Horse Cement Co.) in China; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Chugoku cement kojo (Double Horse Cement) kindaika ni yoru sho energy



    An investigational study was conducted of possibilities of energy conservation and greenhouse effect gas emission reduction in the cement production process of Double Horse Cement Co., Mianyang City, Sichuan Province, China. Double Horse Cement adopts the wet type long kiln production system and has a production ability of approximately 1.5 million t/y. In the project, as to three production lines out of the six production lines, improvement was planned to be made of the technologies on the following: mixing of raw materials, grinding of raw materials, NSP, clinker cooler, clinker pre-grinder, high-efficiency separator, waste heat use power generation, etc. As a result of the study, it was found that the energy conservation amount obtained was 54,646 toe/y. And, the amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction was 169,086 t-CO2/y. The total fund required for this project was approximately 5.553 billion yen and the internal earning rate was 7.36% after tax. When the project is carried out, expenses vs. effects are 9.8 toe/million yen in energy conservation amount and 30.4 t-CO2/million yen in greenhouse effect gas reduction. (NEDO)

  12. Study on the large-scale photovoltaic (PV) power generation in desert of China and its utilization. Development of energy and agriculture in solar farm; Chugoku ni okeru ogata taiyoko hatsuden to sono riyo ni kansuru kenkyu. Solar farm ni yoru energy to nogyo kaihatsu

    Nishioka, S.; Ohashi, Y.; Ito, H. [Tokyu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ojima, S. [Maeda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper proposes solar farm, a system suitable for China`s present circumstances, and describes its development plan. In this plan, agriculture and stock farming are promoted through irrigation using PV power in the desert zone, middle-east China. In addition, electric power is produced by laying PV power generation modules. The solar farm has 100 blocks of farmland equivalent to 700 ha, which includes 300 farmhouses (population of 1200). It can be a food supply base producing rice and wheat. The power generation capacity is at least 1000 kW, and the night power is supplied by battery installed in each farmhouse. The power generated in the daytime is used not only for agriculture but also for secondary industry such as processing of agricultural and stock farming products. The Chinese government requires 300,000 ha of farmland development every year up to 2030, the peak of population. When a half of this is developed by the solar farm, 200 solar farms are to be developed every year. For 30 years, 6000 solar farms are to be developed. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. 长春市制造业企业空间分布特征研究%Study on the Spatial Distribution Pattern of Manufacturing Enterprises in Changchun

    王丹; 刘大千; 卢艳丽


    This paper analyzed the distribution pattern and characteristics of the manufacturing enterprises in Changchun and generalized several inlfuential factors. Our research indicates that the manufacturing enterprises in Changchun display some typical characteristics such as peripheral agglomeration, transportation reliance, grouping distribution. Spatial distribution patterns of enterprises in four types of manufacturing industries in Changchun including the transport equipment, food processing, nonmetal mineral products, and medical and pharmaceutical products. The paper suggests that the locational factors, the historical factors, urban planning, manufacturing types, governmental guidance and other factors are exerting comprehensive inlfuences on the formation of the spatial distribution pattern of the manufacturing enterprises in the city.%文章分析了长春市各类制造业企业的空间分布特征及规律,总结出影响制造业企业空间分布格局的几个影响因子。研究发现,长春市主城区制造业企业呈现边缘集聚、交通依赖、组团分布等特征,同时交通运输设备制造业、农副食品加工业、非金属矿物制品业、医药制造业等类型企业表现出差异化的分布特征。文章认为,区位因素、历史因素、城市规划、制造业类型、政府引导及其他因素等是影响城市制造业企业空间分布格局的主要因子。

  14. Study on the Campus Soil of Changchun Normal University%长春师范学院校园土壤研究

    董炜华; 袁淑影; 刘志会; 宋玥蔷


    The soil of Changchun Normal University is gathered and tested.The results show that the soil moisture and organic content of the student canteen,the eighth apartment building and the first student building are less than the ones of forest and lawn.The organic content of soil is higher in the garden in front of inhabitant building because it may be fertilized by the inhabitants.From the vertical section of soil,it is found that organic matter content is less than the surface while soil moisture is reverse.The PH value of soil is neutral in Changchun Normal University,but the difference in various places is not obvious.The soil pollution of Changchun Normal University is becoming more and more serious,therefore some measures should be put forward to prevent and deal with this problem.%对长春师范学院校园内的土壤进行理化性质分析,发现第一食堂、学生第八公寓和第一教学楼路旁土壤的自然含水量和有机质含量低于人工林地和校园草坪土壤。家属区人工菜园土壤有机质含量较高,与居民人工施肥有关。从长春师范学院校园不同取样点土壤的垂直剖面来看,土壤亚表层的有机质低于表层土壤,但是自然含水量高于表层土壤。从整体来看土壤的pH值呈中性,各样点差别并不明显。长春师范学院的校园土壤污染加重,应采取相应措施进行防治。

  15. 长春市公务员睡眠质量调查%Analysis of Sleep Quality among Civil Servants in Changchun

    赵嘉珩; 张秀敏; 王桂茹; 李晶华; 王昕晔; 李琳; 徐丹; 黄晓燕


    目的:了解长春市公务员的睡眠状况和行为生活习惯,分析影响公务员睡眠质量的相关因素,为改善公务员睡眠质量提供建议.方法:采用方便抽样的方法,选取在吉林大学白求恩第一医院进行健康体检的440名长春市某直属机关在职公务员为调查对象,在调查人员现场指导下进行自填式问卷调查;使用中国心理卫生协会全国理事李建明编制的《睡眠状况自测量表》(SRSS),采集调查对象的睡眠状况,总分≥23分为睡眠障碍;利用自行设计的调查表调查一般人口学特征和生理健康状况等睡眠质量相关因素,并通过单因素x2检验和Logistic回归分析研究其与睡眠质量是否存在关联.结果:长春市公务员SRSS平均22±6分,睡眠障碍率为40.4%,x2检验结果显示:性别、年龄、值夜班情况共3个因素与睡眠质量不良的发生有关(P<0.05).Logistic回归分析表明,性别和值夜班情况为睡眠障碍危险因素.结论:长春市公务员睡眠质量不良情况非常普遍,应重点关注女性和值夜班的人,提倡保持良好的生活习惯和心态,并减少值夜班次数.%Objective: To realize the sleep quality and the lifestyle of civil servant in Changchun city, analyze its relevant influencing factors, and offer advice to improve the sleep quality of civil servant. Methods: 440 civil servant of Changchun who made the physical examination in Jilin university first hospital were surveyed as subjects with questionnaires through convenient cluster sampling method. Acquisition survey of sleep quality by the Self-rating Sleep State (SRSS), total score ≥ 23 is divided into sleep disorders; using self-designed questionnaire to survey general demographic characteristics and physical health status, finding the quality of sleep factors. Take χ2 test and logistic regression analysis to study whether there is associated with sleep quality. Results: The average score of SRSS in civil

  16. Effects of meteorological elements on admission rates of cerebral infarction patients with hypertensive nephropathy from nine hospitals in Changchun city, Jilin Province

    YANG Bo-yu; ZHANG Yue; XU Chang-yan; JIA Bo-ting; WANG Chun-jie; JIA Zhan-jun; NI Hui


    Background It is well recognized that meteorological factors have important influences on the onset and development of many kinds of diseases.The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the meteorological elements on admission rates of cerebral infarction patients with hypertensive nephropathy at Changchun city,Jilin Province,northeast China.Methods A total of 763 medical records of inpatients from nine hospitals at Changchun city,during a period from April 6 to April 17 in 2010,were reviewed.These patients were admitted to hospitals due to the occurrence of cerebral infarction.The hypertensive nephropathy was evidenced with certain diagnosis of essential hypertension and hypertension-related kidney injuries.The cerebral infarction was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization (Stroke) standard.All the meteorological data were from practical monitoring records in Jilin Province Meteorological Observatory.The relationships between the epidemiological prevalence of cerebral infarction and meteorological variables were analyzed using the time series models of statistics.Results Compared with admission rates before the violent change in meteorological status (April 6 to April 17,2010),the number of admission patients suffering from cerebral infarction remarkably peaked on April 12.Such an increase was highly correlated with heavy precipitation,elevation of daily average relative humidity,and reduction of average daily air temperature.With the betterment of the meteorological conditions on April 17,the admission rates of cerebral infarction patients dropped to the same level as the dates before snowing (April 6 to April 11).Conclusions The meteorological changes are highly associated with the occurrence of cerebral infarction in patients with hypertensive renal injury in northeast China.This study also suggested that an intensive medical interference for those patients with hypertension-induced organ injuries is very necessary in preventing

  17. Spatial Evolution and its Sociological Analysis of Urban Square in Changchun%长春城市广场空间演变及其社会学辨析

    庞瑞秋; 侯春蕾; 宋飏


    从社会学视角出发,以长春城市广场的整体空间格局为研究对象,梳理其演变历程,探讨演变的要素特征;分析长春城市广场空间演变与城市社会发展的内在关系,并讨论其社会学意义。得到如下结论:长春城市广场空间的发展经历了五个时期;城市广场空间的整体特点主要体现在数量、布局、功能、设计思想和形态上;长春城市广场是城市扩展的“吸管”,同时也是城市政治活动、城市形象和社会阶层分化的物质体现。%With the perspective of sociology, the paper takes the overall spatial pattern of urban square in Changchun as the research object. It firstly summarizes the evolution process and discusses the characteristics of the elements of urban square in Changchun. Then it analyzes the intrinsic relationship between the evolution of urban square and urban society, discusses the social significance concerning urban square. Finally it analyzes the evolution mechanism in regard to urban square in Changchun. The main conclusions are as follows: the development of urban square in Changchun has experienced five stages;the whole characteristics of urban square in Changchun are mainly embodied in the quantity, layout, function and design ideas; the urban growth in Changchun is controlled by the suction effect of urban square, and urban square is the material relfected on the politics, the image of the city and the social class differentiation.

  18. Research on asset securitization financing mode of municipal water supply infrastructure in Changchun%长春市市政供水基础设施资产证券化融资模式研究

    鲍杰; 毛应爽; 于萍


    This paper proposes the financial innovation tool of asset securitization in Changchun municipal water sup -ply infrastructure project financing ,financing the infrastructure itself ,in order to improve water infrastructure financing status in Changchun ,to solve the high costs ,the slow recovery of funds and financing difficulties of infrastructure con -struction .Based on the feasibility analysis of asset securitization which apply to municipal water supply infrastructure in Changchun ,this paper designs a reasonable operational pattern and gives the implementation strategy .%提出将金融创新工具资产证券化应用于长春市市政供水基础设施项目融资中,利用基础设施本身进行融资,以改善长春市供水基础设施建设融资状况,解决基础设施建设耗资大、资金回收慢等融资困境。在长春市市政供水基础设施资产证券化可行性分析的基础上,设计出交易运作模式并给出有关实施建议。

  19. 转型期长春市就业结构的空间分异%Spatial Pattern of Employment Structure of Changchun City in Transformation Era

    陈春林; 梅林; 刘继生; 韩阳


    Taking the blocks and townships as the basic units, this paper focuses on the spatial pattern of employment structure of Changchun City in the transforming period, using the data of the fifth national population census in 2000 and employing the methods of Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis. The author arrived some conclusions. Firstly, it is not obviously separated between residential area and working space at the given historical context. Secondly, based on the Factor Analysis, educational level, ordinary income groups, the proportion of non-native population and sex differentiation level are the main factors, which mostly influenced the employment's spatial pattern in Changchun. Thirdly, based on the results of Cluster Analysis, Changchun employment area can be divided into six types, which include mixed employment areas, traditional industrial areas, technology education concentration areas, logistics industry concentration areas, agricuhure-based outer suburbs and emerging industry concentration areas. These employment areas make up three kind of spatial structure patterns, that are single-core pattern, circle-type hybrid pattern, and integrated fan-shaped sector pattern.%在经济体制改革及产业空间重构初期,利用2000年第五次人口普查数据,以街道和乡镇为基本单位,运用因子生态分析和聚类分析方法研究了长春市这一老工业基地就业空间结构的特征.研究表明:①处在特定历史条件下的长春市工、居分离现象并不明显;②根据因子分析的结果,得到受教育水平、普通收入群体、外来人口比重、性别分化程度四个主要因子对2000年长春市就业空间结构影响较大;③运用聚类分析法将长春市划分为6大就业类型区:混合就业区、传统产业区、科技教育集中区、物流业集中区、以农业为主的远郊区、新兴产业集中区,并最终得出长春市就业结构的空间形态特征为:单核心、混合圈层式、综

  20. 长春地区孕妇牙周状况影响因素调查%Study on the Periodontal Influential Factors of Pregnant Women in Changchun

    张安玲; 林泓兵; 王丽萍; 贾林


    Objective To explore the periodontal influential factors of pregnant women in changchun,and then puts forward the oral healthy guidance.Methods Randomly selected 650 pregnant women,used correlation cross-sectional study through the questionnaire survey on the oral hygiene and periodontal status. SPSS 17.0 statistical was used to do variance analysis.Results The oral healthy cognition of pregnant women in changchun was generaly low. According to the questions of “brushing at least twice daily”,“brushing after breakfast and dinner”,”using floss daily”,“having a dental checkup at least twice yearly”,correct knowledge was the decisive factor for the correct practice,with statisticaly significance(P<0.05). But according to the questions of “should had a dental checkup during pregnancy” and “should not avoid dental treatment during pregnancy”,level of education and job status were the deciding factor,with statistical significance(P<0.05).Conclusion This study concluded that pregnant women in changchun area lack of oral healthy knowledge,so it is necessary to add the oral health education to the prenatal care.%目的:探讨影响长春地区孕妇牙周状况的相关因素,从而提出针对性的口腔卫生指导。方法随机选取650名孕妇,通过问卷调查对其进行口腔卫生习惯和牙周状况相关性的横向研究。应用SPSS 17.0统计软件进行方差分析。结果长春地区孕妇在口腔保健方面的认知普遍较低,而正确实践者所占的比率更少。针对“是否每日至少刷牙2次”、“是否饭后刷牙”、“是否使用牙线或牙间隙刷”及“每年是否接受至少2次口腔检查”等问题,正确认知是正确实践的决定因素,P<0.05有统计学意义。而对于“孕期是否需接受口腔检查”、“孕期是否可以进行口腔治疗”等问题,受教育程度和工作状况才是决定因素,P<0.05有统计学意义。结论本研究得出长春

  1. Intercity Business Travel Characteristics of the Changchun-Jilin High-speed Rail%长吉高铁城际商务客流出行特征

    赵渺希; 刘珺; 周璇; 陈晨


    高速铁路已成为城际商务出行的重要交通方式之一。选取长吉高铁出行群体为研究对象开展问卷调查,获取受访者基本信息和出行信息,探索城际商务客流出行特征。首先分析商务和非商务出行群体在社会经济属性、交通行为特征方面的差异。以非商务出行群体为参照,比较分析商务出行群体在区域层面和城市层面的空间分布特征。在区域层面,由于城市功能地位的差异,长春、吉林商务出行目的地在空间分布上呈现明显的不对称性;在城市内部,商务出行具有更为明显的出行目的地,而非商务出行相对离散。最后指出,相关规划应强调以高效的综合交通体系满足城市核心区之间的商务联系,同时在运输组织上进一步降低商务出行时耗。%High-speed rail has become one of the important modes for intercity business travel. Based on the survey of Changchun-Jilin High-speed Rail passengers, this paper investigates the intercity business travel characteristics. The paper first analyzes the differences in socioeconomic characteristics and travel behaviors between business and non-business travel groups, and then compares the spatial distribution characteristics of business travel group at the regional and the urban level using the non-business travel group as a reference. At the region level, there exists significant difference on spatial distribution of busi-ness travel destinations between Changchun and Jilin due to their different functionalities and locations. At the urban level, business travel shows obvious destinations while non-business travel shows relatively dis-perse destinations. Finally, the paper points out that planning should emphasize facilitating business con-nections between urban center areas with high-quality comprehensive transportation systems and further decrease business travel time through effective transportation organization.

  2. 长春市劳动公园植物配置调查研究%Research on Plant Configuration in Laodong Park of Changchun City



      Park green land plays an important role in improving city environment , beautifying city and shaping city image .This re-search, taking Laodong Park of Changchun City as the object , discusses the plant configuration situation by using the methods of field survey and data access technology .Combining with ecology principles , this paper analyzes the species composition and distribution of plant configuration, and gives some suggestions, hoping to have highlighted park features and to play its ecological and social benefits as a city park.%  公园绿地在改善城市生态环境、美化城市、塑造城市形象等方面发挥着重要作用。本课题的研究是以长春市劳动公园为对象,采用实地调查及查阅资料的技术手段来探讨长春市劳动公园的植物配置。结合生态学原理,分析植物配置结构中的物种组成、功能区分布等内容,并提出建议,期望能够突出公园特色,发挥其作为城市公园的生态效益和社会效益。

  3. Source apportionment of atmospheric PM10 in Changchun by UNMIX%应用UNMIX模型解析长春市大气中PM10来源

    王菊; 张悦悦; 金美英; 李翠玲; 房春生


    PM10is an important pollutant due to its adverse effects on visibility, climate change, and human health. To identify the regional pollution condition and develop effective control strategies to manage and maintain the urban air quality, it is important to study the pollution sources of PM10in the atmosphere. PM10 samples were collected at Jingyue Park, Labour Park, Clivia Park, sports academy, Children Park, bus hospital, business school and Post and Telecommunications College in Changchun during 2011 September to 2012 February using KC-120 PM10/TSP sampler (Application Research Institute of Laoshan Mountain in Qingdao) for the purpose to obtain the different source component and contributions of PM10. There are 40 samples were collected. After pretreatment, the samples of Be, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Ba, Tl, Pb, Na, Mg, K, Ca, a total of 19 kinds of inorganic elements were analyzed by ICP-MS. UNMIX method was used to qualitatively analyze the data that have standardized to study the sources of PM10in Changchun. Among them, Min Rsq=0.89 (89% of the data variance can be explained by the model), Min Sig/Noise=2.50. The result shows that there are three main sources of PM10 in Changchun : coal dust or industrial dust, vehicle exhaust or soil dust, the city’s comprehensive dust and other unknow dust source, the contribution rate were 19.5%, 13.1%, 67.4%, respectively. Correlation analysis was carried out on these 3 sources, the coefficient is not the theoretical value of 0, but from -0.553 to 0.345, source 1 and source 3 have the largest correlation was 0.553, followed by source 1 and source 2 for the 0.345. It shows that the PM10pollution in Changchun is the result of many factors. The predicted values of UNMIX were compared with the measured values and the result shows a linear positive correlationstatistically between the predicted values and the measured values with r2=0.98, and ther-Pearson is 0.713-0.980 for each species.%大

  4. Inerasable Memory-- On Kiyama Syouhei’s Documentary Fictions about Changchun around 1945%往事如烟烟未散--评木山捷平记述1945年前后长春的纪实小说



    Kiyama Syouhei, a Japanese modern writer, had been in Changchun for a short period of time during the Japanese invasion of China. Back in Japan, Kiyama’s later writing motif was based on his life experiences in China. Through a close reading of his novelsA Path on the ContinentandThe Fifth Avenue in Changchun in which Changchun is the setting, this article argues that Kiyama condemns the injustice of the war and criticizes Japanese militarism by depicting individual sufferings and destinies. This article also analyzes Kiyama’s limitations in his literary writing which had been ignored in previous studies of his works.%日本现代作家木山捷平在日本侵华战争期间曾短暂驻留长春,木山回国后主要以这段中国经历为题材完成了后半生的创作。本文重点解读木山以长春为舞台的《大陆小道》、《长春五马路》等作品,揭示出木山围绕个人经历与命运展示的对不义战争的谴责和对军国主义的批判,同时也分析了木山文学的局限性,这都是以往木山文学研究中被忽略的内容。

  5. 2010-2014年长春地区妇女病普查情况分析%Analysis on the General Situation of Women's Disease in Changchun Area During 2010-2014



    目的:分析长春地区的妇女疾病情况。方法选取2010—2014年长春地区的年报资料,回顾性分析妇女疾病普查情况。结果经过分析后得知,2010—2014年的长春地区发女普查率成逐年下降趋势,阴道炎、宫颈炎在妇女疾病中排名一、二位,然而五年总体下降。结论对于妇女疾病,需重视阴道炎、宫颈炎的筛选,将宫颈癌筛查作为妇女普查重要任务,强化普查科普宣传,有效宣传相关知识,进而保障妇女健康。%Objective To analyze the situation of women in Changchun. Methods To select the annual report of the Changchun area in 2010—2014 and retrospectively analysed the situation of women's disease screening. Results Showed that the rate of female census in Changchun in 2010 was found to be decreased year by year and vaginitis, cervicitis was the number one and the number two in the area while they overall declined about the disease after the five year. Conclu-sion For women's diseases, it was necessary to attach importance to the screening of vaginitis, cervicitis, cervical cancer screening as an important task of women's census, and strengthen the general survey of popular science propaganda and ef-fectively promoted the relevant knowledge in order to protect women's health.

  6. 长春地区孕妇牙周炎症状况相关性调查%Study on the Inflammatory State of Pregnant Women in Changchun

    张安玲; 林泓兵; 王丽萍; 贾林


    ObjectiveTo explore the periodontal influential factors of pregnant women in Changchun, and then puts forward the oral healthy guidance.Methods Randomly selected 650 pregnant women, 20~37 years old,12~36 pregnancy weeks,conducted correlation cross-sectional study through the questionnaire survey on the oral hygiene and periodontal status. SPSS 17.0 statistical was used to do variance analysis. The study was audited by ethics committee. ResultsAccording to periodontitis, level of education and job status were the deciding factors, with statistical significance (P=0.05), but age without statistical significance (P>0.05,P=0.960). According to the pregnant women with periodontitis, level of education, job status and age were the deciding factors, with statistical significance (P=0.000,0.003 and 0.000).Conclusion This study concluded that pregnant women in Changchun area lack of oral healthy knowledge, so it is necessary to do individualized instruction to the pregnant women.%目的:探讨影响长春地区孕妇牙周状况的相关因素,从而提出针对性的口腔卫生预防指导。方法随机选取2014年11月~2015年5月在吉林大学第四医院一汽总医院妇产科围产检查的650名孕妇,年龄20~37岁,孕周12~36周,通过牙周检查对孕妇进行牙周炎症状况相关性的横向研究。本研究通过医院伦理委员会审核,所有孕妇在明确了解此项调查目的的情况下自愿参加。应用SPSS 17.0统计软件,对牙周检查表中的数据进行t检验。结果受教育程度和工作状况对孕妇是否患有牙周炎症有统计学意义,P值均为0.000,有统计学意义。年龄对于孕妇是否患有牙周炎症无统计学意义,P=0.960。而对于患有牙周炎的孕妇,年龄、受教育程度和工作状况对于炎症的轻重程度有影响,P值分别是0.000,0.003和0.000,有统计学意义。结论通过本调查可得出,有必要对孕妇进行有针对性的个性化指导。

  7. 长春市鼠类携带汉坦病毒的基因型分析%Genotype analysis of Hantavirus carried by the rodents in Changchun city

    孙炳欣; 孙宇; 沈博; 吴静


    Objective To study the genotypes of the Hantavirus carried by the rodents in Changchun city. Methods Rat lung samples were collected in Changchun areas, and Hantavirus antigens in rat lungs were detected by immunofluorescence assay. The S gene fragment in HV?positive samples were amplified by RT?PCR and sequenced. The gene sequences were analyzed by using DNAman software and Mega 6.0 software. Results In this study, 100 Rattus norvegicus were captured in Changchun areas, of which 3 (3.0%) samples were positive for HV antigen. The S gene fragment of 3 strains were amplified from 3 positive samples. Homology analysis indicated that the nucleotide homology from the three S segment sequences was 100%, while that to other SEOV nucleotide homology was 95.4%-100%. All the 3 strains were SEOV. Phylogenesis analysis showed that the 3 strains were in the same group on the phylogenetic tree, which belonged to S3 sub?genotype. Conclusion The study shows that the Hantavirus carried by R. norvegicus in Changchun city was SEOV, the sub?genotype SEOV-3.%目的 了解长春市鼠类动物所携带的汉坦病毒基因型别.方法 采集长春市地区鼠肺样品,应用免疫荧光法检测鼠肺中汉坦病毒抗原,提取阳性样本中病毒RNA,利用RT?PCR法扩增S基因片段,并测序,利用DNAman软件和Mega 6.0软件进行序列分析.结果 在长春地区共捕获褐家鼠100只,检测到阳性样本3份,阳性率为3.0%.通过测序获得3株病毒的S基因片段序列,经同源性分析比较发现各序列间核苷酸同源性为100%,与其他汉城病毒(SEOV)核苷酸同源性在95.4%~100%之间,3株病毒全部为SEOV.系统发生树分析表明,3株病毒在同一组内,属于S3亚型.结论 研究表明长春市褐家鼠中携带的汉坦病毒为SEOV型,S3亚型.

  8. Improved source apportionment of PM10 in atmosphere of Changchun%长春市大气环境中PM10二重源解析研究

    王菊; 刘禹彤; 赵秀敏; 刘灿; 房春生


    PM10 receptor samples of heating and non-heating periods were collected at the eight existing atmospheric environment automatically monitoring stations in Changchun in 2011. Main sources samples of PM10 such as road dust, comprehensive urban dust, soil wind dust, construction dust, industrial coal dust and motor vehicle exhaust were collected in Changchun. Then inorganic elements contained in the source and receptor samples were analyzed and determined. This paper studied on source apportionment of PM10 in urban atmosphere of Changchun with improved source apportionment technique and its amending method based on the chemical mass balance model (CMB). The result shows that the amending method of improved source apportionment technique is easy to identify the large single dust sources for the atmospheric particulate matter. The result reflected the main sources of PM10 and provided the optimal technical support for the development of air pollution control measures and the prevention of key sources of pollution in Changchun.%  于2011年在长春市的8个大气环境自动检测站上采集了采暖期和非采暖期的PM10受体样品,并针对市区内PM10的主要污染源道路尘、城市综合扬尘、土壤风沙尘、建筑尘、工业燃煤尘和机动车尾气尘等采集了PM10源样品。对源和受体样品中所含无机元素进行了分析测定,使用以化学质量平衡模型(CMB)为基础的二重源解析技术及其改进方法对长春市大气环境中 PM10进行二重源解析研究。结果表明:改进后的二重源解析技术易于确定对 PM10贡献大的各单一尘源,能更好的反映城市大气中PM10的主要来源,为制定长春市大气污染治理方案及重点污染源防治提供科学的技术支撑。

  9. Mapping the Influence of Land Use/Land Cover Changes on the Urban Heat Island Effect—A Case Study of Changchun, China

    Chaobin Yang


    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal patterns of land use/land cover changes (LUCC can significantly affect the distribution and intensity of the urban heat island (UHI effect. However, few studies have mapped a clear picture of the influence of LUCC on UHI. In this study, both qualitative and quantitative models are employed to explore the effect of LUCC on UHI. UHI and LUCC maps were retrieved from Landsat data acquired from 1984, 1992, 2000, 2007, and 2014 to show their spatiotemporal patterns. The results showed that: (1 both the patterns of LUCC and UHI have had dramatic changes in the past 30 years. The urban area of Changchun increased more than four times, from 143.15 km2 in 1984 to 577.45 km2 in 2014, and the proportion of UHI regions has increased from 15.27% in 1984 to 29.62% in 2014; (2 the spatiotemporal changes in thermal environment were consistent with the process of urbanization. The average LST of the study area has been continuously increasing as many other land use types have been transformed to urban regions. The mean temperatures were higher in urban regions than rural areas over all of the periods, but the UHI intensity varied based on different measurements; and (3 the thermal environment inside the city varied widely even within a small area. The LST possesses a very strong positive relationship with impervious surface area (ISA, and the relationship has become stronger in recent years. The UHI we employ, specifically in this study, is SUHI (surface urban heat island.

  10. 长春市高校学生宿舍建筑风环境数值模拟研究%The wind environment numerical simulation research on student dormitory building group in Changchun City



    T his research, taking the student dormitories in Changchun City as examples, makes the numerical simulation and analysis to the different layout forms of student dormitories building groups in Changchun universities by utilizing the CFD simulation software Fluent. Through computer simulation, the dormitory wind environment is modeled to overall evaluation and some improved measures are put forward such as wind speed ratio, wind speed distribution.%以长春市高校学生宿舍为例,利用CFD模拟软件Fluent ,对不同布局形式的长春高校学生宿舍建筑群体进行数值模拟与分析。通过计算机模拟,从风速比、风速分布、风压分布角度出发,对风环境做出整体评估并提出可行的改进措施。

  11. 长春市青少年摔跤、柔道选材测试结果分析%The Selecting Talent Test Results of Youth Wrestling, Judo in Changchun

    王韵博; 梁广雷


    根据长春市青少年摔跤、柔道选材测试的结果,通过分析形态、机能、素质三大类指标,得出相应结论,并根据具体数据提出青少年摔跤、柔道运动员选材的合理化建议,希望可以对青少年摔跤、柔道的选材工作提供借鉴和帮助。%On the basis of the selecting talent test results of youth wrestling,judo, weightlifting in Changchun, this article draw appropriate conclusions by analyzing three indicator of form, function, quality, and made rationalization proposals depending on the data. It is believed that this paper would have a the sig- nificance of the selection of talents for youth wrestling and judo in Changchun city.

  12. 近代长春城市面貌的形成与特征(1900-1957)%The Making Of Modern Changchun: A Brief History, 1900-1957



    Changchun underwent drastic urbanization through different modernizing efforts since 1900. The nature of the city changed three times: from a frontier town through a railway city to a colonial capital, and was finally turned into a socialist industrial city. As such, modernity is not a constant but subject to changing political and cultural circumstances, and should be conceived as a cultural artifact that manifests itself in the built environment. The historical study of Changchun’s urban development helps to guide contemporary preservation in Changchun.%1900年以来,长春经历了快速的城市化和近代化过程,其城市功能发生了三次转变:从边疆集镇发展到铁路城市,再变为伪满的"政治中心"城市空间,最后通过"一五"建设成为综合性的工业城市。在不同历史阶段,"现代化"和"现代性"的定义和表达各不相同。梳理长春近代以来的发展历史,有助于指导长春今天的保护规划。

  13. 长春市社区工作者队伍建设的分析与思考%Analysis and Thinking of Changchun City Construction of Community Working Team



    在城市治理过程当中,城市社区工作者扮演着极其重要的角色。目前,长春市城市社区的发展以及社区工作者队伍存在着诸多需要厘清和解决的问题,比如,社区职能的转换问题和社区工作者自身的定位问题等。只有完善与社区工作者队伍相关的各项政策措施,大力加强长春市社区工作者队伍建设,才能推动城市社区各项工作的有效开展和深入推进。%In the process of urban governance, the working team of urban community plays an extremely important role. Effective development and further advance of various tasks of urban community objectively requires the comprehensive promotion of city community worker teams’ quality. The investigation and analysis of the development of Changchun urban community and community worker teams, and then to improve construction of the community worker teams is the effective guarantee of promoting happiness Changchun construction.

  14. 长春市跆拳道服装市场调查与探讨%Investigation and Discussion on Taekwondo CIothes Market in Changchun City



    2008年北京奥运会让跆拳道运动在中国推广开来,跆拳道运动中的激情与活力使越来越多的人喜爱上了这项运动,这就推动跆拳道服装市场得以不断发展。目前,跆拳道品牌产品在中国主要是以国外品牌为主,使得国内的跆拳道厂商不得不去贴牌生产,于是就有越来越多的各种质量各种样式的品牌跆拳道产品出现在消费者的视野里。文章以韩国 MOOTO、九日山、泰山、康瑞这四个品牌为例,通过文献资料法、调查问卷法、访谈法、数据整理法对长春市跆拳道服装市场进行分析,指出其中存在的问题,为更好规范跆拳道道服市场提供参考。%2008 Beijing Olympic Games popularized taekwondo in China. The passion and vitality shown in taekwondo attract more and more people to love this sport, thus pushing forward the constant development of taekwondo clothes market. At present, taekwondo brand products in China are mainly foreign brands, forcing domestic taekwondo manufacturers to conduct OEM and generating an increasing number of branch taekwondo products with different quality and varieties in the market for consumers to select. This paper takes four brands South Korean MOOTO, WESING, DAEDO and KANGRUI as examples, uses the approaches of document literature, questionnaires, interviews and data reduction to analyze the taekwondo clothes market in Changchun City, points out the existing problems and provides reference for a better management of the taekwondo clothes market.

  15. 长春胺缓释胶囊联合甲钴胺治疗中晚期青光眼术后%Changchun amine sustained-release capsules combinedcobalt amine treating middle-late glaucoma surgery

    蔡金玲; 张士宏; 姚雪辉; 高艳茹; 都艳红


    目的:观察长春胺缓释胶囊治疗中晚期青光眼术后的临床疗效。方法将符合原发性青光眼中晚期诊断标准的患者116例,随机分为治疗组和对照组各58例,各为68只眼,治疗组青光眼术后采用口服长春胺缓释胶囊+甲钴胺片治疗,对照组单纯给予口服甲钴胺片治疗,根据观察视力(为主)、视野、OCT(为辅)评分。结果治疗组患者治疗后视力、视野、OCT与治疗前比较具有统计学意义(P<0.05),对照组患者治疗后视力、视野、OCT与治疗前比较无统计学意义(P>0.05),视力:治疗组总有效率86.77%,对照组总有效率2.06%。结论长春胺缓释胶囊联合甲钴胺治疗中晚期青光眼术后较单纯应用甲钴胺疗效好。%Objective Changchun amine slow-release capsules on treating middle -late glaucoma postoperative clinical curative effect .Methods Would be in 116 patients with middle-late diagnosis standard of primary glaucoma,Were randomly divided into treatment group and control group,58 cases in 68 eyes,Treatment group using oral sustained-release capsules in changchun amine +armor after glaucoma surgery cobalt amine treatment ,Control simply giving oral a cobalt amine treatment , According to the visual acuity(mainly),vision,OCT(auxiliary)score.Results Vision,vision,OCT group of patients after treatment compared with before treatment with statistical significance(P0.05),Vision:treatment group total effectiveness 86.77%,control group total effective rate 2.06%.Conclusion Changchun amine sustained -release capsules combined a cobalt amine treating middle -late glaucoma surgery is a simple application of cobalt amine curative effect is good .

  16. An Investigation on the Sports Life Style of High- IQ Group in Changchun Normal University%长春师范学院高智人群体育生活方式的调查研究

    侯广庆; 张革; 许贵家


    With the methods of questionnaire survey and literature data, this paper systematically investigated and analyzed the sports life style of high - IQ Group in Changehun Normal University. Results showed that: the understanding of high - IQ Group in Changchun Normal University on sports was diverse, and their leisure time was relatively less, which means that the possibility of interrupting sports activities would increase.%本文采用问卷调查法、文献资料法,对长春师范学院高智人群体育生活方式进行了系统的调查分析。结果表明:长春师范学院高智人群对体育的认识呈多元化;其余暇时间相对较少而中断体育活动的可能性增大。

  17. 长春地区高校教室侧窗反光板设计研究%A Research On Side Window Design For Daylighting Of College Classrooms In Changchun Area

    李晨冉; 周春艳; 黄兆弘


    At present, it’s an ordinary question that the higher ilumination near the windows and the lower far away from them in side window design for daylighting. To remedy this situation, one of the tools available to address it is added reflector panels to the side windows. In this article, under simulated condition in Changchun area, we analyzed the width, height and position of reflector panels by using software simulation. Based on this, we ascertained the appropriate way to use the reflector panels in Changchun. So it can improve luminous environment quality of classrooms.%目前,利用侧窗采光的教室空间普遍存在着窗口区域光照过强、而教室里侧区域照度较低的采光不均匀的问题。为了改善这一状况,在侧窗加设反光板构件是解决这一问题的手段之一。文章针对长春市的气候特征,采用计算机模拟的方法,对侧窗采光板加设的高度、宽度、室内外位置进行模拟分析,从而确定适合该地区的反光板利用方法,提高高校教室空间的光环境质量。

  18. 宗教建筑的保护策略初探——以长春天主教堂为例%Elementary Research on the Protection Strategies of Religious Buildings——The Example of Changchun Catholic Church

    史艳妍; 于英龙; 杜雪


    Changchun Catholic Church has over a hundred years of history. Therefore ,the church had to be the city landmark of memorial and historical significance.Today, with rapid development of the city, it has been more concern at the coordinate of heritage protection and development of city .And concern at the reuse and protection of religion heritage. In this paper,baesed on protection of religion heritage in rapid urbanization by means of industy culture,to research the protection ways through Changchun catholic church. According to religion heritage designing code , analyze the characters of heritage.Explore the principles and strategies of religious heritage conservation in urban development.%长春天主教堂有百余年的历史,其纪念意义和历史意义已经使其成为城市的地标性建筑。在城市高速发展的今天,如何进行宗教文物建筑的保护和再利用,以及文物建筑保护与城市发展相协调的问题越来越受到人们的关注。本文以快速发展的城市化进程中的文物建筑中的宗教建筑保护为切入点,以长春天主教堂的保护和再利用为研究对象,通过对文物建筑的信息数据的采集和整理,以及对保护内容的分析整合,探讨文物建筑中宗教建筑在城市发展中的保护原则和策略。

  19. Analysis of atmospheric characteristics of PM10 pollution in Changchun, China%长春市大气中PM10污染特征分析

    房春生; 金艺娜; 孟莹; 温卓; 王菊


    近年来,大气环境质量的不断恶化受到了人们广泛的关注。利用长春市的食品厂、客车厂、邮电学院、儿童公园、净月潭以及甩湾子等6个自动监测中心提供的2011年PM10、SO2与NO2小时质量浓度的连续监测数据,分析了长春市PM10质量浓度(MPM)的时空分布特征、不同污染物之间的相关性及其形成的原因。结果表明:从空间分布上看,6个采样点的MPM从高到低依次为食品厂>儿童公园>邮电学院>客车厂>净月潭>甩湾子,其中除食品厂与儿童公园外均符合《环境空气质量标准》GB3095-1996的二级标准。从时间分布上看,绝大多数监测点位的冬季MPM是最高的,春季次之,主要是因为冬季采暖与春季沙尘天气,而夏季的MPM最低,主要是湿沉降作用所致。MPM逐日变化呈现出双峰双谷型分布,第一个峰值出现在早上7:00左右,其中最大值出现在5月份的早7:00左右,达到了0.223 mg·m-3,第1个峰值过后呈下降趋势,下午出现质量浓度低谷,其中最小值出现在11月份15:00左右,为0.036 mg·m-3,直到傍晚时缓慢回升,22:00左右达到第2个峰值。通过统计分析不同污染物之间的相关系数,得出PM10与NO2质量浓度的相关性显著,且较稳定,其原因可能是常年排放的机动车尾气尘影响较大,而PM10与SO2质量浓度的相关性不太稳定,这可能是冬季采暖排放的燃煤尘所致。%In recent years, the worsening of atmospheric environmental quality has received widespread attention. In this study, based on continuous hourly data of PM10, SO2 and NO2 which offered by 6 automatic monitoring stations in Changchun, special distribution of PM10, correlations between different pollutants and formation reasons were analyzed. The six automatic monitoring stations include Food Factory, Passenger Car Manufactory, Post and Telecommunications College, Children Park, Jingyue Tan

  20. 长春市高校女大学生参加课外体育锻炼的现状及对策%Current Situation and Countermeasures of Female College Students Parti-cipating in Extracurricular Physical Exercise in Changchun Universities



    The female university students in Changchun university participate in extracurricular sports activities as the object, in the form of a questionnaire about Changchun City, female college students to participate in extracurricular sports activities in the frequency, motivation, attitude and influencing factors, gave the feasible countermeasures in view of the present situ-ation, in order to provide a theoretical basis for improving the extracurricular physical exercise of female college students in Colleges and universities in Changchun City, and to provide a basis for college sports curriculum theory research.%文章以长春高校女大学生参与课外体育活动作为对象,以调查问卷形式了解长春市高校女大学生参与课外体育活动的频度、动机、态度及影响因素,针对现状给予可行对策,为提高长春市高校女大学生课外体育锻炼提供理论依据,为高校体育课程理论研究提供依据。

  1. A survey of power density of clinical curing-light units used in Changchun%长春市口腔临床应用光固化灯的调查

    郝新青; 罗梦; 冷鑫; 朱松


    目的调查长春市临床应用光固化灯的功率密度及其相关信息,为临床医师正确维护使用光固化灯提供参考。方法调查对象为长春市口腔专科医院、综合医院口腔科、民营诊所,采用简单随机抽样的方法,共检测270盏光固化灯的功率密度及相关信息,包括光固化灯的品牌、类型、使用年限、光导头数目及类型,光导头玷污、破损情况,使用频率,装置的检测及维修情况,灯数目/牙椅数。结果270盏光固化灯中,卤光灯174盏,发光二极管灯96盏,检测功率密度变化范围在0~1702 mW/cm2,平均功率密度为413.2 mW/cm2,73盏灯小于200 mW/cm2,不能充分聚合光固化复合树脂。光固化灯的平均使用年限为4.7年。大多数医师未检测过光固化灯的功率密度,84%(227/270)的光导头表面有树脂的玷污和破损。结论 长春市大部分光固化灯为卤光灯,部分灯老化明显,需要更新,大多数医师没有注意光固化灯需要定期检测和维修。%Objectives To investigate the power density and other relevant data of clinical curinglight units used in Changchun, and to provide practice recommendations to clinical dentists about maintaining of cuing-light units. Methods Stomatology hospitals, departments of stomatology in general hospitals, and private dental offices in Changchun were randomly selected to participate in the Survey. The investigation analyzed 270 curing-light units. The following data of curing-light units were gathered: brand, type, operation ages, numbers and types of light guide, resin build-ups on light guides, damages of light guides, use frequency, monitor and maintenance of curing lights, and unit numbers/chair nunbers. Results There were 174 QTH and 96 LED units. The distribution of power density was from 0 to 1702 mW/cm2. The mean power density was 413. 2 mW/cm2. The power densities of 73 lights were less than 200 mW/cm2 and could not

  2. Epidemiologic Investigation of Chronic Kidney Disease in Changchun Adult Male Population%长春市成年男性慢性肾脏病流行病学调查

    李银辉; 佟丹梅; 王晶; 刘水仙; 刘宝玲; 魏宇鹏; 闫利


    Objective To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease(CKD)in Changchun adult male population . MethodsQuestionnaire(anamnesis, smoking, drink)of risk factors of CKD; Physical Examination (blood pressure, height and body mass);Kidney related testing (uromicroprotein/creatinine ratio; urine and sediment;serum creatinine; and to estimate glomerular ifltration rate). Detection of risk factors including blood sugar, blood uric acid blood lipid. Through statistical analysis , to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of CKD in Changchun adult male population .ResultsEligible data of 3694 subjects were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of albuminuria was 15.29%. reduced of eGFR was 1.32%, hematuria was 4.87%. and CKD was16.24% ,the recognition was 6.17%.Independent risk factors of albuminuria were age, hypertension, high uric acid, high cholesterol and high BMI.Independent risk factors of CKD were age, hypertension, high uric acid, high cholesterol and high BMI.Conclusions The prevalence of CKD is quite high and the recognition rate is low in Changchun adult male population. Risk factors of CKD were age, hypertension, high uric acid, high cholesterol and high BMI.%目的:探讨长春市成年男性人群中慢性肾脏病(CKD)的患病情况和相关危险因素。方法通过对长春市成年男性健康体检,进行CKD及相关危险因素的问卷调查(既往史、吸烟、饮酒等)、体格检查(血压、身高和体重质量)和肾脏相关检测(尿微量白蛋白/肌酐比值;尿常规及沉渣;血清肌酐;并估算肾小球滤过率)。同时还进行危险因素相关检测包括血糖;血尿酸;血脂水平检测。了解长春市成年男性CKD的患病情况及相关危险因素。结果在3694例资料完整的人群中,白蛋白尿的患病率为15.29%,肾功能下降的患病率为1.32%,血尿的患病率为4.87%。该人群中CKD的患病率为16.24%,知晓率为6.17%。多因

  3. 长春净月经济开发区土地储备效益分析%The Benefit Analysis of Land Reserve of Jingyue Economic Development Zone in Changchun

    黄威; 李淑杰; 刘兆顺; 王楠; 窦森


    According to the statistics in history of land market of Jingyue Economic Development Zone in Changchun, the influence factors were selected including land-use scale, urban population and the second and third industrial added value through the time series analysis of land transferred price and relevant factors using SPSS software. The prediction model of BP neural network of land price of Jingyue Economic Development Zone in Changchun was constructed after training historical data with input of factors mentioned above and output of land transferred price, the transferred price of land reserved was predicted, and then the predicted results was corrected with Delphi technique. The accounting results of land reserved costs and land transferred income showed that the yields of land reserve of Jingyue Economic Development Zone in the planning of short, medium and long-term are 68.05 %, 70.09% and 66.37%.%根据长春净月经济开发区土地市场历史统计数据,利用SPSS软件对土地出让价格与相关因素进行时间序列分析,筛选出土地市场价格影响因素为土地利用规模、城镇人口数量和第二、三产业增加值;以上述因素作为输入量,以土地价格作为输出量,通过历史数据训练,构建长春净月经济开发区土地出让价格BP神经网络预测模型,对规划期内储备土地出让价格进行预测,并综合专家咨询法对预测结果进行修正;土地储备成本与出让收益核算结果表明:长春净月经济开发区土地储备收益率在规划近期、中期和远期分别为68.05%、70.09%、66.37%.

  4. Investigation of the Influencing Factors on Internet Addiction of Adolescents in Changchun%长春市青少年网络成瘾影响因素调查

    梅松丽; 郭金花; 柴晶鑫; 李敬阳


    Objective:This research is about the characteristics for the internet addiction of adolescents in Changchun , Jilin Province.Meth-ods:Stratified cluster random sampling method was used to recruit 1551 students from middle school as investigation subjects in Changchun .They were investigated by Young Internet Addiction Scale, Self-Control Scale.Results:Rate of internet addiction is 5.5% among the investigating ado-lescents (P<0.05).The numbers of addictive students which are male, non-key school, from low income family, low self-control are more than others.We analyzed multi-factor by using Logistic Regression Model which found that sex and low self -control were the main factors that influ-enced the internet addiction of adolescents (P<0.05).Conclusion:Adolescents should be improved self -control ability to avoid internet addiction.%目的:探讨吉林省长春市青少年网络成瘾的影响因素。方法:采用随机分层整群抽样方法,使用Young的网络成瘾诊断量表和自我控制量表,对长春市1551名中学生进行问卷调查。结果:长春市青少年网络成瘾发生率为5.5%,男生高于女生(χ2=5.386,P<0.05),非重点中学高于重点中学(χ2=5.068,P<0.05),家庭月收入<1000元的网络成瘾发生率高于其他组(χ2=26.792,P<0.001)。低自我控制水平的网络成瘾发生率高于其他组(χ2=32.45,P<0.005)。多因素分析发现性别和低自我控制是网络成瘾的主要影响因素。结论:教育者可从提高青少年自我控制能力方面对其网络成瘾进行心理干预。

  5. 2011年长春市一次持续浮尘天气成因分析%Forming reason of a continuous floating dust event in 2011 in Changchun

    马梁臣; 刘海峰; 王宁; 李杭癑


    利用气象探测资料和环境监测数据,采用统计分析、环流演变分析、物理量诊断以及后向轨迹法分析了长春市浮尘发生的气候特征和2011年5月12日长春市出现的一次持续时间较长、污染程度较重的浮尘天气过程。结果表明:长春地区浮尘天气整体上呈波动性减少趋势,3-5月是主要发生时期;本次浮尘天气过程沙源来自蒙古国中部和内蒙古中东部,并随高空急流的输送影响东北地区,本地沙源没有补充;高空急流明显、地面风速较小、温度露点差较大、内蒙古东部辽宁省北部存在弱风区、整层大气稳定是该区域未出现沙尘暴而出现浮尘的主要原因。%Based on the meteorological and environmental data,a continuous floating dust pollution event on May 12,2011 in Changchun was analyzed by methods of a climate statistics,a circulation evolution,a physical diagnosis and a back trajectory analysis.The results show that the annual dust day is in a fluctuant decreasing trend in Changchun.The dust weather mainly occurs during March to May.The sand source is originated from the central Mongolia and mid-eastern of Inner Mongolia,and the dust is transported to northeast China with upper jet stream. There is no local sand source in this process.It is a continuous floating dust process rather than a sandstorm be-cause of obviously upper jet stream,smaller surface wind speed,larger temperature dew point difference,weak wind areas in the eastern Inner Mongolia and northern Liaoning province and stable atmosphere in the whole layer.

  6. 长春市木本植物春季物候对气候变化的响应%Responses of the Spring Phenology of Woody Plants to Climate Change in Changchun

    神祥金; 吴正方; 刘彩伶; 杜海波; 李明; 宗盛伟


    According to the phenology material of Chinese phenophase observation network in Changchun and the climate material offered by national meteorological center, correlation and stepwise regression analysis and mathematical simulation method were applied to investigate the impact of temperature, precipitation and sunshine on spring phenology of the woody plants during 2003-2010. The author established the simulative models of the flowing dates of 4 kinds of woody plants. The results showed that temperature was the major influence factor in spring phenology, and that precipitation and sunshine influenced spring phenology inconspicuously. The influence of temperature on spring phenology mainly concentrated in the previous 2 months of the spring phenology. With the temperature increasing, the phenophase advanced. The sustained days of spring phenology period was related with January and February temperature, which had a positive correlation and negative correlation with budding and leaf stage, respectively. The numerical fitting of the predicted values and the observed values was better, which showed that people could use the models to forecast the flowing dates for several kinds of woody plants in Changchun.%根据中国物候观测网络长春观测站点的物候资料及国家气象中心提供的气象资料,采用相关分析、多元回归分析和数学模拟方法,分析了2003-2010年长春市木本植物春季物候与温度、日照、降水之间的相关关系,建立了模拟和预报4种木本植物开花始期的模型.结果表明:在各种气候因子中,温度对春季物候影响最大,日照、降水影响不显著;温度对春季物候影响集中在物候期前2个月,温度升高,春季物候期提前.春季物候期持续日数与1、2月份温度有关,分别与芽萌动期和展叶期成正相关和负相关.开花始期回归模型预测值与物候观测数值拟合较好,表明可以使用回归模型对长春几种木本开花期进行预测.

  7. Cloning and Sequencing of cSZ1 Gene of Eimeria acervlina Changchun Strain%堆型艾美耳球虫cSZ1基因的克隆与分析

    任科研; 苑淑贤; 李琳; 姚新华; 苑冬梅


    [目的]分析堆型艾美尔球虫cSZ1基因序列,为研制球虫疫苗提供候选抗原.[方法]根据堆型艾美尔球虫基因序列,设计合成引物,RT-PCR扩增堆型艾美尔球虫长春株cSZ1基因并测序.[结果]与GenBank中发表的堆型艾美尔球虫cSZ1基因序列相比,堆型艾美尔球虫长春株cSZ1基因发生了5个核苷酸变异,两者的核苷酸序列同源性为99.47%,两者编码区的核苷酸序列同源性为99.61%.堆型艾美尔球虫长春株cSZ1基因ORF内有2个变异位点.其中,A185G变异导致了所编码氨基酸由缬氨酸变为异亮氨酸.[结论]cSZ1基因编码蛋白可以作为球虫疫苗的候选抗原.%[Objective] To analyze Eimeria acervulina cSZl gene sequence and thus to find a candidate antigen for vaccine development. [ Meth od] According to the cSZl gene sequence of Eimeria acervulina published in GenBank,a pair of specific primers was designed. Then,the cSZX gene of Eimeria acervulina Changchun strain was amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. [ Result ] Compared with the published cSZl gene se quence, five nucleotide mutation sites appeared in the cSZl gene of Eimeria acervulina Changchun strain. They had a nucleotide sequence homol ogy of 99.47% ,and their encoding region had a nucleotide sequence homology of 99.61%. Among these mutation sites,two appeared in cSZX gene ORF.and A185C mutation led to substitution of valine by isoleucine. [ Conclusion] Protein encoded by cSZX gene can be used as a candi date antigen for vaccine development.

  8. 2012~2013年长春市急性弛缓性麻痹病例监测结果分析%Analysis and Surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis Cases in Changchun from 2012 to 2013

    陶育晖; 王崇


    Objective:To evaluate the working status of acute flaccid paralysis ( AFP) cases surveillance system in Changchun from 2012 to 2013 .Methods:All of AFP cases were analyzed by descriptive epidemiological method ,and the surveillance system was evaluated . Results:The reported average incidence of AFP of children under 15 years old was ×per 100,000 ,the investigation rate within 48 hours was 100%,the collection rate of two adequate stool samples within 14 days was 97.67%,the transport rate of stool samples within 7 days was 97.67%,the isolation rate of polio virus within 28 days in Jilin provincial center for disease control and prevention was 100%,the timely follow up rate within 75 days was 100%.Conclusion:AFP cases surveillance system maintained high quality in changchun from 2012 to 2013 ,all the surveillance indicators met the requirement of China Committee of Health and Family Planning .%目的:评价长春市2012~2013年急性弛缓性麻痹( AFP)病例监测系统的运转情况。方法:采用描述性流行病学方法进行AFP病例的数据分析,并评价AFP病例监测系统。结果:长春市2012~2013年共报告AFP病例43例,平均报告发病率为2.19/10万,48小时内调查及时率为100%,14天内双份合格粪便标本采集率为97.67%,标本7天内送检及时率为97.67%,省级实验室28天内病毒分离及时率为100%,病例75天内随访及时率为100%。结论:2012~2013年长春市AFP监测系统运转良好,各项指标均达到卫生部的要求。

  9. Status and Countermeasures of Nurse Occupational Stress in a Hospital,Changchun%长春市某医院护士职业压力现状及对策

    孟微; 姚瑶瑶; 高玉霞


    By analyzing the actuality of nurse occupational stress in Changchun, such as the overload work, unbalanced social evaluation, complex interpersonal relationships at work, and the enhanced patient rights awareness. The article explores the countermeasures of relieving clinical nurse occupational stress including to draw up the effective management solution in hospital, hospital should make some actions to enhance the quality training in nurse, so as to maintain the physical and mental health of nurses, improve the nurse position, reduce nursing errors and nursing disputes, improve the quality of nursing work.%通过分析长春市某医院护士的职业压力现状,针对目前护士超重的工作负荷,社会对其评价失衡,在工作中人际关系复杂、患者维权意识增强等问题,探索减轻临床护士职业压力的对策,提出医院应制定有效措施,维护护士身心健康,提高护士地位,减少护理工作中的差错及缓解护患纠纷,提高护理工作质量.

  10. 影响长春市高职院校学生体育态度的因素分析%Factors to Affect Students' Sports Attitude in Vocational Colleges in Changchun



    The rapid development of higher vocational institutions has laid a solid foundation for composition of higher education system. Because they are different from colleges and universities' characteristics of technical expertise, professional openness, more vocational schools reinforce the position in today's society. This paper analyzes Changchun vocational sports attitudes of college students from interest, the environment, education and other factors, hope to more effectively implement of the vocational schools of various reform measures of physical education, improve teaching quality, promote the development of vocational schools.%高职院校的迅速发展为我国高等教育体系的组成奠定了坚实的基础。因为其有区别于普通高校的技术专业性,职业开放性等特点,更加夯实了高职院校在当今社会中的位置。本文对兴趣、环境、教育等因素影响长春市高职院校学生体育态度的情况进行了分析,旨在能更有效地落实高职院校体育教学各项改革措施,提高教育教学质量,促进高职院校发展。

  11. Spatial Analysis on Robbery, Forcible Seizure, Vehicle Theft and Burglary in Changchun%长春市“两抢两盗”犯罪的空间分析

    刘大千; 宋伟; 修春亮


    Criminal geography which is one of the important branches in terms of crime studies is highly valued for its practicality. The studies concerning criminal geography in China are still at the beginning stage. More practical studies are needed so as to provide suggestions for the policing work. Different types of crimes usual-ly have various distribution patterns as well as influential factors, which in turn requires deeper understanding in order to make wiser measures to counter crimes. Based on the crime data collected at the police-precincts level in Changchun, we choose the robbery, forcible seizure, vehicle theft and burglary as studies subjects and examine their distribution patterns in 2008 using the method of location quotient. Further, the influential fac-tors of each crime are explored using the regression analysis and the mechanisms are also discussed. The re-sults show that different crimes display various patterns and characteristics in terms of the spatial distribution. Generally, the robbery and forcible seizures tend to concentrate in the central part of the city and become less in the peripheral suburbs, while vehicle theft and burglary rates present an opposite pattern that the outside po-lice-precincts are prone to higher crime risks. The regression analyses indicate that robbery, forcible seizures, vehicle theft are associated with some influential factors significantly in varying degrees. The robbery rates of Changchun are proved to be positively associated with the density of main roads and the proportion of commer-cial land use, and negatively related to the variables of the existence of vast industrial area and the number of high-rise buildings. The regression results also indicate that the forcible seizures rates are positively correlated to the variables of population density, the service activities as well as the existence of main commercial area. Meanwhile, the vehicle theft rates show a positively relationship with the existence of vast

  12. Investigation of Sexual Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of College Students in Changchun%长春市大学生性知识、性态度及性行为调查

    张瑞敏; 王玉晖; 吴莉侠


    目的:了解长春市大学生性知识、性态度及性行为现状.方法:采用大学生性知识、性态度与性行为调查问卷,对长春市776名大学生进行调查.结果:被调查大学生性知识维度均分为6.24±1.93分,男生性知识得分均分为6.12±2.04分,女生为6.31±1.85分(P<0.01);本次调查中有20.1%的大学生对婚前同居持赞成态度,30.5%的大学生认为婚前性行为是个人自由,不同性别大学生性态度差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);谈恋爱大学生性行为发生率为40.4%,男生性行为发生率为52.8%,女生为29.2%,不同性别大学生性行为发生率有显著性差异(P<0.01).结论:大学生性知识掌握程度一般,对性知识的掌握有局限性,女生对性知识掌握程度高于男生;大学生性度较为开放,不同性别大学生性态度有差异;大学生性行为发生率高,男大学生性行为发生率高于女大学生.%Objective:To study the sexual knowledge,sexual attitude and sexual behavior of college students in Changchun.Methods:Total of 776 college students were draw to study using the method of questionnaire,who were asked to answer questions about sexual knowledge,attitude and behavior in Changchun.Results:The total mean score of sexual knowledge was 6.24 ± 1.93 points,the mean score of male students was 6.12 ± 2.04 points,the mean score of female students was 6.31 ± 1.85 points (P < 0.01) ;20.1% of college students had a favorable view of premarital cohabitation,and 30.5% of college students thought that premarital sex was individual freedom.The difference between male and female students in sexual attitude was statistical significance (P < 0.01) ;The incidence of sexual behavior of college students who fell in love was 40.4%,the mail students' incidence was 52.8%,the female was 29.2%.The difference between male and female students in the dimension of sexual behavior was statistical significance (P < 0.01).Conclusion

  13. 长春市社区居民吸烟与控烟现状调查%Status Survey of Smoking and Tobacco Control among the Community Residents in Changchun City

    黄晓燕; 李晶华; 吴晓辉; 张秀敏; 王昕烨; 李琳


    Objective:To investigate the smoking and passive smoking status among the community residents in Changchun city,and the tobacco-control status in individuals,families and various public places,and to provide new evidence and recommendations for tobacco control policies.Methods:Convenience sampling method was used to investigate 1028 community residents in Cbangchun city in a self-administered questionnaire survey.Results:The current smoking rate and the passive smoking rate of the community residents were 31.51% and 43.00%.64.37% of the residents' families and 69.93% of the residents' working units had restrictions to smoking,but 92.89% of the residents reflected that they could see smoking or smell smoke in these working units.82.29% of the residents reflected that in the stores,restaurants,and other public places which they had visited within 6 months,non-smoking signs could be found,but 94.33% of the residents could still see smoking or smell smoke in these places.36.20% smokers once smoked in tobacco-controlling public places within 6 months.Conclusion:The smoking rate and passive smoking rate among the community residents in Changchun city were in high levd,and the residents' tobacco-control ability were still weak.Smoking is a serious problem in various public places.It's an urgent task to promote the tobacco-control policies among the families and the public places.%目的:了解长春市社区居民吸烟及被动吸烟现状,个人、家庭及各公共场所控烟情况,为相关部门制定有效的控烟措施提供依据.方法:采用方便抽样方法,对长春市1028位社区居民进行自填式问卷调查.结果:长春市社区居民的吸烟率为31.51%,被动吸烟率为43.00%.64.37%社区居民所在家庭对吸烟有限制;69.93%调查者所在的工作单位对吸烟有限制,但92.89%的调查者表示,所在单位可以见到吸烟或闻到烟味.82.29%的调查者表示,在最近6个月内所去过的饭店、

  14. 长春市部分社区护士职业价值观与工作倦怠状况的相关性%Correlation between Professional Values and Job Burnout Level of Community Nurses in Changchun

    胡海霞; 张敏敏; 高玉霞


    Objective To understand the situations of the professional values and job burnout levels of community nurses in Changchun and the correlation between them. Methods The professional values and job burnout scale were adopted to investigate 192 community nurses from Changchun by cluster sampling method. Results The total mean score of professional values,the total mean score of job burnout,and the detection rate of burnout were 3. 21±0. 64,2. 41±0. 63 and 90. 1% respectively. There was a negative correlation between the professional values and job burnout levels of community nurses(r=-0. 354,P< 0. 05). The influencing factors of professional value included job satisfaction degree and professional titles (P<0. 05,P<0. 01). The influencing factors of job burnout included education degree and working time and job satisfaction degree(P<0. 05,P<0. 01). Conclusion There was a negative correlation between the professional values and job burnout levels of community nurses. However, the detection rate of job burnout is higher in community nurses. The community nurses were neutral to positive for the professional. The nursing administrators should strengthen professional values education for community nurses with different qualifications,job titles and work experience,enhance their job satisfaction and prevent and reduce their job burnout.%目的 了解长春市部分社区护士的职业价值观与工作倦怠状况及两者的相关性.方法 采用护士职业价值观与工作倦怠量表,以整群抽样的方法对长春市192名社区护士进行问卷调查.结果 社区护士职业价值观总均分为(3.21±0.64)分,工作倦怠总均分为(2.41±0.63)分,倦怠检出率为90.1%.职业价值观与工作倦怠呈负相关(r=-0.354,P<0.05);职业价值观与护士职称及对护理工作满意度有关(P<0.05,P<0.01),工作倦怠与护士学历、工作年限及对护理工作满意度有关(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 尽管社区护士职业价值观呈中立偏积极,

  15. Investigation of Autonomic Nervous System Function and Influencing Factors of Employees in Changchun%长春市企业员工自主神经系统功能状况及影响因素调查

    赵璐; 张秀敏; 刘红箭; 李晶华; 吴方园; 刘妍妤; 刘莹圆; 王云


    目的:通过测量长春市企业员工的心率变异性,了解其自主神经系统功能状况,分析相关影响因素,为改善企业员工自主神经系统功能提供参考依据。方法:采用整群抽样的方法,以自填式调查问卷的形式收集企业员工的基本信息,采用SUN-8800健康检测系统对长春市两家企业427名员工进行心率变异性测定。结果:调查人群自主神经系统活性偏低的检出率为75.2%,调节功能异常的检出率为63.0%。多元线性回归分析显示,性别、年龄、企业性质、BMI指数、吸烟、饮酒对该人群的心率变异性频域指标的影响具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:长春市企业员工中普遍存在自主神经系统活性减低和调节功能失衡的现象,男性、大龄、超重与肥胖、吸烟、饮酒是企业员工自主神经系统功能的危险因素,其中,超重与肥胖、吸烟、饮酒是应进行干预的重要危险因素。%Objective: To know the status of autonomic nervous system function, analyze influencing factors, provide scientific basis for making policy of autonomic nervous system function improvement of employees in Changchun by measuring their heart rate variability. Methods:Questionnaire and SUN - 8800 health detecting system were conducted among 427 employees of 2 enterprises to gather essential information and determine heart rate variability through cluster sampling method. Results:There were 75. 2% of the survey population with lower functional ac⁃tiveness of the autonomic nervous system and 63. 0% with unbalanced regulation of autonomic nervous system. The results of multiple linear re⁃gression analysis indicated that there were statistical differences(P<0. 05) in frequency-domain indicators of heart rate variability because of different sex, age, type of enterprise, BMI index, smoking and drinking. Conclusion: The autonomic nervous system function of employees in

  16. 长春市商业用地基准地价演变过程及驱动因子分析%The Evolution Process and Driving Factors of Standard Land Price of Commercial Land in Changchun City,China

    张石磊; 毕忠德; 杨志毅; 王士君


    基准地价作为中国城市地价体系的重要组成部分,是政府法定的公示地价之一,也是目前中国地价评估的基础。城市基准地价的动态变化过程中,基准地价价格水平的提升和基准地价空间格局的变化是城市经济发展、城市规划建设共同作用的综合结果。论文以长春市商业用地基准地价为例,探索城市基准地价演变的规律。首先计算长春市1995年至2010年商业用地不同级别的地价环比结构的特征值,分析长春市商业用地基准地价的价格动态变化特征;然后利用ESDA分析工具,通过2006年和2010年长春市商业区段路线价的空间格局变化分析来概括讨论长春%As a momentous part of the urban land price system of China,standard land price(SLP) is one of the statutory public land price of the Chinese government,and it is also the foundation of land price evaluation in China.SLP is the instructive price for the urban land market.On the one hand,SLP reflects the premium level objectively,on the other hand,it is a basic way to government administration and control urban land market,and it is the basis of the appearance of land assets price and calculation of land assets income.In a process of dynamic change of urban SLP,the rise and spatial change of SLP result from comprehensive effects of economic development and city planning construction.Through calculations,the paper takes the SLP of Changchun City as an example to interpret the rule of evolution process.The thesis has first analyzed the dynamic change feature of commercial standard land price by calculation Chain index' eigenvalue in each price level of commercial SLP in Changchun City in 1994-2010.Using exploratory spatial data analysis(ESDA),the paper analyses the street price of commercial land in Changchun City in 2006 and 2010.After the analysis of the basic database structure and trend,the author chooses Kriging method to make interpolating and SLP

  17. 长春市老年护理满意度及影响因素分析%Nursing Satisfaction and its Influencing Factors of the Elderly in Changchun



    在我国民众生活和经济水平不断提高的同时,人口老龄化问题日益严重,目前我国是世界上老年人最多的国家;而且已经进入人口老龄化快速发展阶段,预计到2050年老年人将占总人数的30%以上,①关注老年人就是关注自己的未来。生活满意度是一个重要的心理社会变量,可以直接反映出老年人群的物质和精神生活现状,文章对老年护理院的老年人生活满意度及其影响因素进行粗浅的探讨,为提高长春市老年人的护理水平提供参考依据。%In our country as well as the increasing improvement of the people life and economic levels, population aging prob-lem is increasingly serious, at present our country is the world's most populous country in the elderly. And rapid development has entered into an aging population stage, predicts 2050 seniors will make up more than 30%of the total number of [1], pay attention to the elderly is concerned about their future. Life satisfaction is an important psychosocial variables, you can directly reflect the material and spiritual life in the elderly, nursing home for the elderly life satisfaction in the elderly and its influence factors are briefly discussed, Changchun, in order to improve the elderly care levels provide a reference basis.

  18. Current Situation of Staff Exercise in Catering Enterprises'of Changchun and Countermeasure Research%长春市餐饮企业员工体育锻炼发展现状与对策研究

    靖泽全; 肖博文


    This research uses methods of literature,expert -interview,mathematical statistics and logic analysis to investigate 250 employees of catering enterprises in Changchun.The paper draws the following conclusion:unclear exercise motivation of staff;little frequency of physical exercise;short exercise duration and single exercise program.The paper puts forward such recommendations as consolidating staff’s awareness of physical exercise,improving leaders'emphasis on employees'physical exercise and strengthening guidance and management of staff sports to set up their consciousness of lifelong physical exercise.%本研究采用文献资料法、专家访谈法、数理统计法、逻辑分析法等,对长春市餐饮企业250名员工的体育锻炼状况进行调研,结论显示:员工锻炼动机不明确,参与体育锻炼的频次较少,锻炼持续时间较短,锻炼项目比较单一。建议:加强员工对体育锻炼的认识,提升领导对员工体育锻炼的重视程度,强化对员工体育锻炼的指导与管理,以期树立员工终身体育锻炼的良好意识。

  19. Development of environmental assessment by tree ring (1). Characteristics of tree ring width in pine tree. Jumoku nenrin ni yoru kankyo eikyo hyoka shuho no kaihatsu (1). Matsu no nenrin haba no jittai to kiso tokusei

    Shinada, Yasushi; Nashimoto, Makoto; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu.


    In order to investigate the causal relation of change in vegetation status with the power station after starting the operation, pine trees in the surrounding area were studied in tree ring characteristics. The sampling was made at six stands ranged from the Tohhoku district to the Chugoku district. Pinus densiflora and P. Thunbergii were 0.1 to 16.2mm and 0.05 to 9.05mm, respectively, in tree ring width. They were, in frequency distribution, both a logarithmic normal distribution with 1.05 to 1.50mm in mode. Their frequency distribution being a logarithmic normal distribution, along with advance in years thereafter it transfers to a normal distribution, then to a logarithmic normal distribution, then to an L-shaped distribution. Pinus densiflora and P. Thunbergii were 6.5+-3.5mm and 6.5+-2.5mm, respectively, in maximum tree ring width, of which the appearance ratio was high in trees, 4 to 12 years old. While the minimum tree ring width appears, when the tree is very young in age and in specific calendar years during its second half of life. As for the time series of tree ring width, it, small when one year old, continues to enlarge along with advance in years until about ten years old, attains the maximum and, after then, diminishes along with advance in years. 6 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.


    徐桐; 刘光泽


    Historic Buildings of Changchun Film Corporation ( Changying for short) was listed in the 7th batch of National Protected Relic Unit, not only for its value of being"the Cradle of New China Movie Industry", but also its witness value on the cultural invasion of Japanese Militarism.Meanwhile, due to its usual huge space of Industrial Cultural Heritage, the new utilizations approach for historic building should also be analyzed besides their conservation.For such a process, Changying had experienced to discuss and trial for three years, before the new utilization of historic buildings as a Museum and Cinema.In this paper, Changying was studied as a case through its history and heritage value to reveal the Exhibition&Utilization assessment for Industrial Cultural Heritage.%"长春电影制片厂早期建筑"作为第七批全国重点文物保护单位,不仅仅是"新中国电影的摇篮",同时也是日本军国主义对中国"文化侵略"的历史见证;由于工业遗产通常体量较大,在保护长春电影制片厂早期建筑文物价值的同时,其空间的再利用也是亟待解决的现实课题. 长春电影制片厂早期建筑经过3年的利用改造,于2014年分别开放了"长影旧址博物馆"和"长影电影院",通过从文物保护及价值展示的角度,回溯其发展历程和综合价值评价,对以"长影"为代表的工业遗产面临的展示利用进行有针对性的策略评析和建议.

  1. Intelligent Displacement Back Analysis of Surrounding Rock Parameters of the Mined Subway Tunnel in Changchun%长春地铁暗挖隧道围岩参数智能位移反分析

    王志斌; 麻凤海; 张碧雪


    为了更加真实的反映岩土体整体特性主要力学参数的取值,以长春地铁某暗挖区间现场监测位移值为依据,通过敏感性分析,确定了该地区对地表变形影响最大的力学参数为弹性模量 E和内摩擦角φ,运用Madis GTS三维正算模型、BP神经网络模型组成的智能位移反分析系统对其进行了反分析。运用反分析得到的参数值进行数值模拟,将得到的监测断面位移值与实测值进行了对比,并根据断面的位移云图对隧道围岩的稳定性进行了评价,验证了反分析结果的合理性和准确性。%In order to determine the value of the main mechanical parameters that could truely reflect the global property of rock and soil ,the mining section of Changchun subway was taken as the engineering background ,and it was confirmed that the mechanical parameters with the greatest impact on the surface deformation were the elasticity modulus E and in-ternal friction angle φ,based on the sensitivity analysis of the field monitoring displacement data .And then the intelli-gent displacement back analysis system formed by the Midas GTS 3D forward solution model and BP neural network was applied for the back analysis of these parameters .The new parameters obtained from the back analysis were used in the simulation analysis ,and the displacement value was calculated and then compared with the monitoring data .According to the displacement cloud picture of the section ,the stability of the tunnel surrounding rock was evaluated ,and the rational-ity and accuracy of the back analysis result was verified .

  2. 长春和新乡雨衰时间序列的马尔科夫链模拟%Rain attenuation time series simulation by Markov chain about Changchun and Xinxiang areas

    李磊; 杨瑞科; 赵振维


    Based on the N-State Markov chain model established by Markov theory,the rain attenuation time series about Changchun and Xinxiang areas are simulated and the complementary cumulative distributions obtained by the simulatived and measured data at these areas are compared.The probability distribution about 50 simulative rain attenuation time series are compiled in statistics.The results agree with the results predicted by ITU-R model at 12.5 GHz and 92°Eorbital position of the geostationary satellite.Hence,the usability of this model is validated at partial areas in China.This research establishes a basis for the development of the rain fade mitigation techniques in communication and radar systems at Ku and above Ku band.%基于马尔科夫理论建立的N阶马尔科夫链模型,模拟了长春和新乡地区的降雨衰减时间序列,比较了长春和新乡地区单个模拟和实测雨衰时间序列的概率分布;分别统计了长春和新乡地区50组模拟雨衰时间序列的百分概率分布,并与国际电信联盟无线电通信研究组(ITU-R)提供的卫星轨道位置为92°E、频率为12.5GHz在线极化情况下长春和新乡雨区不同降雨衰减值下的时间百分概率进行了比较,一致性很好,从而验证了N阶马尔可夫链模型在中国部分地区的可用性。模拟结果对我国在Ku及以上频段通信卫星的抗衰落技术的发展具有重要的应用价值。

  3. Pediatric reference intervals of serum alkaline phosphatase for healthy Han population in Changchun%长春市汉族儿童血清碱性磷酸酶参考区间的建立

    王迪; 杨春; 周琪; 许建成


    目的:建立0~14岁长春市汉族儿童血清碱性磷酸酶(ALP)的参考区间。方法采用日立7600-210全自动生化分析仪检测4211名健康体检儿童(男2090名,女2121名)血清 ALP。弃离群值后,判断数据是否正态分布。One-Way ANOVA 比较组间差异及确定是否需性别、年龄分组。非参数方法计算参考值的2.5百分位数和97.5百分位数,R 语言计算90%置信区间。结果长春市儿童 ALP 参考区间有年龄及性别差异。婴儿出生1个月内 ALP 水平较低,此后开始增高,1个月至11岁儿童 ALP 水平相对稳定且无性别差异。12岁后儿童 ALP 水平逐渐出现性别差异,12~14岁女孩 ALP 水平逐渐下降,而12~14岁男孩 ALP 水平高于同年龄段女孩。年龄、性别合并后的参考区间包括0~30 d、1~12月、1~10岁、11岁、12~14岁(男)、12岁(女)、13岁(女)及14岁(女)。结论建立儿童年龄、性别相关的血清 ALP 参考区间对儿童预防保健及疾病状况分析具有临床应用价值。%Objective To establish pediatric reference intervals of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for healthy children with an age range of 0-14 years old in Changchun. Methods A total of 4 211 healthy children (2 090 males and 2 121 females) were enrolled in Changchun. ALP was performed on Hitachi 7600-210 automatic biochemical analyzer. After outlier data exclusion, data were estimated to or not to follow Gaussian distributions. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the differences of gender and age groups. The 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of ALP were calculated by nonparametric method and 90%confidence intervals were computed by R language. Results The study showed there were apparent age and gender variations of the reference intervals for ALP. After a temporary low level in newborns, there was an increase from 1 month. The reference intervals of ALP were relatively stable and there was no significant gender

  4. 长春市汽车产业开发区妊娠期糖尿病的流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation on gestational diabetes mellitus in development area of automobile industry in Changchun

    王丽萍; 李杰; 王晓梅; 单秀娟; 李晓波; 寇长贵; 刘雅文


    Objective:To investigate the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in development area of automobile industry in Changchun, analyze the related risk factors of GDM, provide a theoretical basis for early recognition, diagnosis and intervention. Methods:The general conditions and clinical data of 857 pregnant women receiving prenatal examination were collected, glucose screening was carried out at 24 ~28 gestational weeks, the cases with positive results or high risk factors of GDM received 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), all the data investigated were input into SPSS12. 0 software and analyzed. Results: The abnormal rate of glucose screening during pregnancy was 20. 37% ( 174/854), the incidence of gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT) was 1.75% ; the incidence of GDM was 1.28%, the total incidence of GDM was 3.03%. Single factor analysis showed that age, body mass index (BMI) and the history of GDM were related to GDM; multifactor logistic analysis also showed that the history of GDM, age and BMI were the high risk factors of GDM. Conclusion:The prevalence rate of GDM in development area of automobile industry in Changchun is sinilar to the data reported in other areas in China; BMI, the history of GDM and age are the high risk effect factors of GDM; the screening of GDM should be enhanced, the women with high risk factors of GDM should be paid more attention to; early diagnosis, early intervention and systematical management may improve the pregnancy outcomes and the quality of birth population obviously.%目的:调查长春市汽车产业开发区妊娠期糖尿病的发病情况,分析导致妊娠期糖尿病的相关危险因素,为临床早期识别、诊断和干预提供理论依据.方法:收集接受产前检查的857例孕妇的一般情况和临床资料,并于孕24~28周进行糖筛查,对筛查阳性者或具有GDM高危因素者行75g口服葡萄糖耐量试验(OGTT),将调查到的信息录入SPSS 12.0进行分

  5. Clinical study of Changchun fluoxetine combined with Mecobalamin in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy%长春西汀联合甲钴胺治疗糖尿病周围神经病变的临床研究



    目的:探讨长春西汀联合甲钴胺治疗糖尿病周围神经病变的临床效果。方法:2012年3月-2014年3月收治糖尿病周围神经病变患者68例,随机分成试验组和对照组,每组34例。对照组予以单纯性甲钴胺进行治疗,试验组采用长春西汀和甲钴胺联合方案进行治疗。结果:试验组总有效率(91.18%)明显优于对照组(67.65%),且神经传导速度显著高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:长春西汀联合甲钴胺治疗糖尿病周围神经病变临床疗效确切,安全系数高,值得临床大力推广与应用。%Objective:To investigate the clinical effect of changchun fluoxetine combined with mecobalamin in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.Methods:68 cases of diabetic peripheral neuropathy were selected from March 2012 to March 2014.They were divided into the experimental group and the control group with 34 cases in each.The control group were given simple mecobalamin treatment,and the experimental group used changchun vinpocetine and mecobalamin treatment.Results:The total effective rate of the experimental group(91.18%) was significantly higher than that of the control group(67.65%),and the nerve conduction velocity was significantly higher than that of the control group.There was statistically significant difference(P<0.05).Conclusion:The clinical effect of changchun fluoxetine combined with mecobalamin in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is curative,and the safety coefficient is high,so it is worth the clinical promotion and application.

  6. 长春西汀与奥扎格雷钠注射液联合治疗椎-基底动脉系统眩晕的疗效%The effect of Changchun vinpocetine combined ozagrel sodium injection in the treatment of vertebrobasilar vertigo

    丁文东; 丁晓燕


    目的:观察长春西汀与奥扎格雷注射液联合治疗椎-基底动脉系统眩晕疗效。方法:入选患者70例,经TCD证实均为椎-基底动脉系统供血不足患者,治疗组35例常规治疗给予长春西汀20 mg与奥扎格雷注射液40 mg分别加入5%葡萄糖注射液250 mL和5%葡萄糖注射液100 mL中静脉滴注,1次/d。对照组给予常规治疗及血栓通注射液300 mg加入5%葡萄糖注射液中静脉滴注,1次/d,疗程均10 d。结果:治疗组有效率88.57%,显效率68.57%,与对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:长春西汀与奥扎格雷注射液联合治疗椎-基底动脉系统眩晕疗效好,起效快,值得推广。%Objective:To observe the effect of changchun vinpocetine combined ozagrel sodium injection in the treatment of vertebrobasilar vertigo.Methods:70 patients with vertebrobasilar insufficiency were all confirmed by TCD.35 cases in the treatment group were given the conventional treatment of changchun vinpocetine 20 mg and ozagrel injection 40 mg added into the 5% glucose injection 250 mL and 5% glucose injection 100 mL respectively intravenous drip,1 time/d.The control group was given the conventional treatment and Xue Shuan Tong injection 300 mg added into the 5% glucose injection intravenous drip,1 time/d.The course of treatment of them were 10 days.Results:The effective rate of the treatment group was 88.57%,and effective was 68.57%.Compared with the control group,there was significant difference statistically(P<0.05).Conclusion:The curative effect of changchun vinpocetine combined with ozagrel injection in the treatment of vertebro basilar artery system vertigo is good,fast effect,and it is worthy of promotion.

  7. 长春市市售猪肉鸡肉中金黄色葡萄球菌和沙门氏菌分离及耐药性分析%Isolation and Drug Resistance Analysis of S. aureus and Salmonella spp. from Retail Chicken and Pork in Changchun

    王莹; 陈萍; 王佳男; 冯书章; 郭学军


    对肉品中金黄色葡萄球菌及沙门氏菌进行耐药分析,以期为其风险评估提供依据。采集吉林省长春市市售猪肉、鸡肉样品,按照国标方法分离金黄色葡萄球菌、沙门氏菌,利用K-B法药敏试验检测金黄色葡萄球菌和沙门氏菌对头孢噻肟钠、左旋氧氟沙星、庆大霉素、四环素4种抗生素的耐药性。结果显示:共分离出金黄色葡萄球菌46株,检出率为46%;沙门氏菌48株,检出率为16.84%。金黄色葡萄球菌对4种抗生素的耐药率在0~56.52%之间,共产生6种耐药谱。沙门氏菌对4种抗生素的耐药率在16.67%~87.5%之间,共产生9种耐药谱。长春市肉品中金黄色葡萄球菌、沙门氏菌耐药现象普遍。%This study aimed at updating knowledge on the antimicrobial resistance characteristics of S.aureus and Salmonella spp. from chicken and pork in Changchun. The results collected during this study provided the first baseline data for risk assessment. Chicken and pork samples were collected in Changchun. S. aureus and Salmonella spp. were isolated according to National Food Safety Standard. The susceptibility to CEX,GEN,LVX and TET was performed according to the disk diffusion testing. Results showed that 46 S.aureus and 48 Salmonella spp. were separated from fresh chicken and pork. The resistance frequency of S. aureus to all antibiotics was 0~56.52%. 6 resistance profiles of S.aureus were found in this study. The resistance frequency of Salmonella spp. to all antibiotics was 16. 67%~87. 5%. There were 9 resistance profiles. Antibiotic resistance of S. aureus and Salmonella spp. was common in the isolates from chicken and pork in Changchun.

  8. Design and Accomplishment of MVC-based Expert System for Maize Pest and Nutrient Deficiency Diagnosis in Changchun%基于 MVC 的长春市玉米病虫害与缺素诊断专家系统的设计与实现

    司秀丽; 李伟为


    The maize pest and nutrient deficiency diagnosis expert system based on MVC framework was developed according to the maize planting characteristics in Changchun City to provide real-time technical services on maize planting for farmers and agricultural researchers.Meanwhile,the software architecture,the realization of reasoning machine,and the function application examples of the system were introduced.%为农户及农技人员在玉米种植中不熟知的技术提供实时服务,针对长春市玉米种植的特点,采用 MVC 框架设计并实现了长春市玉米病虫害与缺素诊断专家系统,介绍了系统的软件架构、推理机制实现,系统的功能与应用示例。

  9. On Attempt of Private College Teacher Team Reform:Case Study of Tourism Management Specialty in the Tourism College of Changchun University%浅谈民办高校师资队伍改革的尝试--以长春大学旅游学院旅游管理专业为例



    To strengthen teachers team construction in private schools and cultivate high quality skillful talents, this article takes the tourism management specialty in the Tourism College of Changchun University as an example, and discusses the reform of tourism management professional teachers team: to construct academic, double-role and skillful famous teacher team. Good results have been achieved.%为加强民办学校教师队伍建设,培养高素质技能应用型人才,本文以长春大学旅游学院旅游管理专业为例,探讨了旅游管理专业师资队伍改革的尝试---“学术型、双师型和技能名师型”相结合的教学队伍建设,并取得了良好的效果。

  10. 长春实行“低自付”管理防止重特大病患因病致贫%Through the Management of"Low Self-payment"to Reduce Prevent the Risk of Poverty due ;to Serious Illness in Changchun

    张兵; 俞海; 胡丹


    In Changchun, 22 kinds of Catastrophic diseases with high rate of incidence and high cost have been included in"personal low pay"management, and the patients can access outpatient or inpatient treatment in the whole year with low payment. As a result, the risk of poverty caused by illness has been reduced and the win-win goal for both doctors and patients has been achieved.%长春医保将本地区发病率高、费用高的22种重特大疾病医疗费用纳入“个人低自付”管理,个人只拿起付线就可实现全年住院或门诊治疗,因病致贫难题得以破解,医患保实现共赢。

  11. 长春地区肺结核病人归口管理调查分析%Analysis on situation of pulmonary tuberculosis cases belong to administration survey in Changchun city

    李晓坤; 赵红艳; 刘启艳; 杨光旭; 张跃梅; 刘丽华; 张喜珍; 叶春艳


    Objective In 1998~1999 all kinds of general hospital puluonary tuberculosis patients belong to administration situation was reported in Changchun.Method Investigate medical unit respitatouy clinic registration hospitalized cases,X-ray chest film examination registration,sputum swear.Microscopic examination registration,epidemic situation report,transfer bill combine with the registration of antituber culosis institute really turn over,epidemic situation cord check,no reporters was called fail to report.Results 35 general hospital pulmonary tuberculosis patients have 1 293 cases,The rate of transfer diagnosis,turn over,expidamic stiuation fail.Sputum suear microscopic examination to report are 77.34% 52.00% 18.95% 26.06% respectively.Conclusion University and college hospitals is superior of all kinds of general hospital.Item couhtry is suporior to non-item county(P<0.005).Belong to the rate of sputum swear microscopic examination,Country hospitals is superior to all kinds of non-country hospitals,Factory and university and college hospitals is the worst,Item county is superior to non-item county(P<0.05).%目的:为了解长春地区1998年7月~1999年6月各级各类综合性医院肺结核病人归口管理情况。方法:检查1998年7月~1999年6月各级综合性医院呼吸内科门诊及住院病例,X线胸片、痰涂片检查登记、疫情报告卡、转诊单,并与结核所实际接到报告卡、转诊单核对,无报告卡者为漏报。结果:35家医疗卫生单位肺结核病人1 293例,其中转诊率77.34%,转诊到位率52.00%,疫情漏报率18.95%,查痰率26.06%。结论:①在转诊及报卡方面大专院校医院明显优于其他各级综合性医院,项目县优于非项目县(P<0.005)。②查痰率县(市)区级医院优于其他各级综合性医院,厂矿医院及大专院校医院查痰率最低,项目县优于非项目县(P<0.005)。

  12. 长春市社区婴幼儿喂养行为的抽样调查及教育方案%Investigate and education project of infant feeding behaviors in communities in Changchun

    马俊; 刘晓丹


    目的 了解喂养者对喂养知识的知晓率和社会因素对婴幼儿喂养行为的关系,为今后教育和干预提供依据.方法 对长春市5个区、25个社区进行抽样调查.在取得知情同意的情况下,对525名2岁以内婴幼儿的喂养者进行面对面询问,调查喂养者对婴幼儿喂养知识的知晓率、态度、行为.结果 喂养者为婴幼儿的父母亲一组对母乳喂养优点及合理添加辅食认知正确率最高为91.3%和85.9%.喂养者的职业在母乳喂养优点的认知(x2=71.26)与合理添加辅食认知(x2=65.14),差异有统计学意义,P<0.05.主动学习喂养知识组对科学喂养知识的知晓率最高,其次是被动了解组.结论 根据喂养者的不同的学历、职业在社区加强婴幼儿科学喂养知识的健康教育.%Objective To investigate the relationship among knowing-rate of feeding knowledge and society-demology factors and feeding behavior for the infant in order to provide reference for the education and nursing intervention.Methods 525 feeding persons (feed children <2 year-old ) in 5 districts (25 communities) of Changchun were investigated.After having got their agreement, interview was performed face to-face to investigate their knowing-rate of feeding knowledge and attitude and behavior.Results The group of parents as feeders showed higher recognition on breast-feeding and reasonable complement food adding, the highest correct recognition rate about the two aspects above were 91.3%and 85.9% respectively.The recognition on breast-feeding and reasonable complement food adding was significant difference between the feeders with various occupations (P<0.05 ).The feeders learning feeding knowledge initiatively showed higher rate of knowing knowledge about scientific feeding than those passively.Conclusions Health education on infant feeding in community should be strengthened according to the feeding person's education background and career.

  13. Prevalence of Periodontal Disease among Children Aged 7 to12 Years Old in Changchun.%长春市138名7~12岁儿童口腔牙周健康状态调查

    倪雪岩; 吕亚林; 铃木基之; 黄洋; 井上美津子


    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and distribution of periodontal disease among children aged 7 to12years old ,living in Changchun, China. and to provide the foundation for prevention and treatment strategies of periodontal disease. Methods.. Periodontal examination, the gingival index(Gl) , bleeding on probing (BOP) and probing depth (PD) were recorded. The plaque sample was collected from the right maxillary central incisor (11) and the right maxillary first molar(16). Extracted DNA from plaque samples was used for PCR analysis. Results.. The rate of gingivitis was almost 100% (98.2%). The rate of BOP(+) was 29.5%. 12.7% of the subjects was PD≥ 4mm . In molars,the number of subjects with PD≥4mm was 18.2%, 2.5 times that of incisors(7.3%). The PD trend generally increased with aging. For children, the detection rates for over 3 types of pathogens were 33.3 % in the positive BOP gingival, and 19.6% in negative BOP gingival, which showed statistically discrepancy. Conclusion: In juveniles,the periodontal conditions were deteriorated, the molars were most susceptible to periodontitis,which was severe and early, and the presence of periodontal pathogens was related to periodontal parameters,indicating the necessity of its early prevention.%目的:了解长春市小学7~12岁儿童牙周疾病患病状态及4种牙周致病菌检出情况,为进一步大规模系统的儿童口腔疾病调查提供依据.方法:以上颌第一磨牙颊面为被检部位,记录探诊后出血(bleeding on probing,BOP)联邦、探诊深度(probing depth,PD)后,判断牙龈指数(gingival index,GI),同时取龈上菌斑、应用PCR法检测4种牙周致病菌.结果:长春儿童牙龈炎患病率98.2%,探诊后出血阳性率为29.5%.被检部位PD≥4mm比例为12.7%,磨牙区PD≥4ram比例(18.2 0A)高于切牙区(7.3%)2.5倍.PD值随年龄增长探诊深度加深趋势.同部位检出3种以上牙周致病菌的比例,BOP阳性部位(33.3%)

  14. The changchun Economic and Technological Development Zone



  15. Investigation of Crop-stalks Energy Utilization of Barter Contract in Changchun%吉林长春秸秆能源化利用的易货合同模式调查



    Under the support of National Energy Administration and the Energy Administration of Jilin Province, Changchun in Jilin Province actively explore the mode of crop-stalks energy utilization of barter contract, a new model of crop stalks energy utilization, show a favorable economic and social value in the crop stalks burning ban, substitution of coal, settlement of farmers' winter heating issue, improvement of rural living environment, job creation of farmers and any other aspects. It can be observed from the survey on the utilization of crop stalks through barter contract in Changchun: as an approach to develop renewable energy sources ( biomass pellet fuel) , the signing of the barter contract contributes to the combination of the settlement of energy shortage in rural areas and steady development of renewable energy, is conducive to the link of prohibition of straw burning and utilization biomass pellet fuel and the link between collecting of the crop straws and market development of biomass pellet fuel. It can also motivate the government, enterprises and farmers to develop the use of renewable energy hence. It is a better solution to the difficulty in crop straws collecting for biomass power generation and conventional pellet bio-fuels development. Meanwhile, the farmers can use clean and efficient biomass energy without any cost;the companies can reduce the business risk and achieve stable income and durative growth;the aims of the renewable energy development, job creation and straw burning problems have been achieved. The development of biomass pellet bio-fuels through the signing of barter contract can effectively change the traditional way of cooking and heating by burning straw so as to achieve a large-scale use of biomass energy. The problems in the development of crop stalks pellet fuel ( CSPF ) as follows: Firstly, from the investigation, we found that, under a large background that still existing poverty of rural energy in China, our country ' s

  16. 长春市儿童和青少年原发性高血压与肥胖相关性分析%Relationship between primary hypertension and obesity in children and adolescents of Changchun City

    秦阳; 吴艳英; 金东辉; 闫小萍


    目的:总结长春市3~18岁儿童和青少年超重肥胖和原发性高血压的发生率,分析原发性高血压与超重肥胖的相关性,为儿童和青少年超重、肥胖、高血压的防治提供科学依据。方法2012-07至2012-09,采用整群随机抽样对长春市4860名3~18岁儿童和青少年进行高血压、肥胖流行特点的横断面调查。对资料进行统计学分析。结果(1)3~18岁儿童和青少年高血压发生率8.9%。超重肥胖总发生率20.9%,肥胖的高峰期出现于9~11岁。(2)超重组高血压发生率13.17%,肥胖组高血压发生率32.85%,显著高于体重正常组高血压发生率(5.3%),BMI值增加对收缩压升高产生的影响高于对舒张压升高产生的影响。(3)BMI、腰围、腰围身高比(waist to height ratio,WHtR)与收缩压和舒张压均呈正相关,腰围和BMI与血压的相关性优于WHtR,没有明显性别差异。(4)有家族史者超重肥胖发生率为56.3%,无家族史者超重肥胖发生率为18.7%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。(5)高血压更易出现糖、脂代谢紊乱,多元Logistic回归分析显示BMI、腰围、血脂水平是影响血压的主要因素, BMI对收缩压的影响显著,腰围对舒张压的影响差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 BMI能够敏感预测儿童及青少年高血压,目前我国儿童和青少年超重肥胖发生率明显升高,此类人群中高血压发病的危险性显著增强。%Objective To determine the relationship between primary hypertension and obesity in 3-18-years-old children and adolescents of Changchun City so as to provide scientific basis for early prevention of hypertension.Methods Children aged from 3 to 18 years were sampled by random-cluster.Height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure were measured.Questionnaire survey, t-test, and Chi-squared test were conducted

  17. Form Analysis of Heavy Metals (Cr, Hg) in Soil - Crop Systems in Western Suburb Areas of Changchun City%长春市西郊保护地土壤-作物系统铬、汞的形态研究

    丁鹏; 赵荟薇; 苏慧杰; 唐艳茹


    本文以长春市西郊保护地土壤-作物系统为研究对象,分析了土壤-作物系统重金属铬、汞的含量及形态分布,并以单因子污染指数法和内梅罗综合污染指数法评价了该地区土壤及农作物的环境质量。结果表明:长春市西郊保护地土壤 pH值为7.11, Cr、Hg 含量分别为0.4212和54郾6625mg·kg-1,未超过土壤环境质量二级标准限值;综合污染指数为0.7144,已经处于警戒水平;该地区土壤重金属形态铬以残渣态为主,可达89.71%左右;汞以氧化物结合态与有机结合态为主。该地区6种农作物样品中Cr、Hg含量均未超过国家食品中污染物限量标准,处于安全水平。%Distribution and chemical form analysis of heavy metals ( Hg, Cr) were carried out by Tessier sequence extraction in soil-crop system in western suburb areas of Changchun. The environmental quality in the area of the soil and the crops was examined based on a single gene pollution index and comprehensive pollution indexes. Results showed that the pH was 7. 11;the average contents of Cr and Hg in soil samples were 0. 4212 and 54. 6625mg·kg-1 . Both of the two figures did not exceed the secondary standard limits accord-ing to the soil environmental quality standards. The comprehensive pollution index of 0. 7144 showed that the soil in western suburb areas in Changchun was clean but at the alert level. The heavy metal Cr in the soil was mainly residue state and reached up to about 89.71%. The heavy metal Hg was in oxide combination state and organic combination state mainly. At the same time contents of Cr and Hg in 6 kinds of crop samples were not more than“national food contamination in limited standards”, which meant crops were all in safe level .

  18. Medical Care Insurance for Disabled People Acting Coordinately with Social Insurance ;Reform--Exploration Based on the Practice of Changchun City%失能人员医疗照护保险彰显改革呼应感--基于长春市的实践探索



    长春市探索建立的医疗照护保险适应了老龄化社会对失能人员社会照护的需求,失能人员和他们的亲属在精神和经济上的双重负担有效减轻,填补了社会保险的一项制度空白。与此同时还初步形成一支专业化的照护队伍,带动了社会养老机构、职业教育和技能培训的发展,并成为一条新的就业渠道,一举多得。%The exploration of establishing a nursing care insurance in Changchun has met the social needs of disabled care in a aging society. It has not only filled a gap in social insurance system, but also reduced the spiritual and economical burden of the disabled and their relatives. At the same time, it has established a professional care team, which drives the development of social aged-care institutions, vocational education and skills training, and has brought new employment opportunities. As a result, multiple effects have been obtained.

  19. 公共图书馆政府决策参考咨询服务模块化设计策略--以长春图书馆为例%The Modular Design Strategy for Public Library ’s Reference Service for Government Decision-making---Taking Changchun Library as an Example



    阐述了公共图书馆政府决策参考咨询服务模块化设计的必要性、原则及组织方式,从主体设计和固定模块设计两方面探讨了图书馆决策参考专刊服务的模块化设计,介绍了长春图书馆政府决策信息服务模块化设计的实践。%This paper expounds the importance, principles and organization modes of the modular design strategy for public library’s reference service for government decision-making, and from two aspects of the main body design and the fixed module design, probes into the modular design of library’s special service for government decision-making, and introduces the practice of Changchun Library in the modular design of its reference service for government decision-making.

  20. 数字化阅读与社区教育创新的探索--以长春广播电视大学为例%The Exploration of Digital Reading and Community Education Innovation--The Case of Changchun Radio and Television University

    谢复玉; 温平


    数字化阅读由于其自身特点,可以在社区教育中发挥重要作用。长春广播电视大学充分发挥开放大学优势,构建数字化阅读环境,通过搭建i-阅读网站,打造阅读微信平台,为数字化阅读提供支撑,同时开展线下阅读活动,以及延伸阅读,搭建政府、社区、学校三方联动的保障机制,建设学习港推动全民阅读,推动区域社区教育发展。%Due to its characteristics, digital reading can play an important role in the community education. Changchun Radio and Television University gives full play to the advantage of the Open University to construct digital reading environment, and construct the I-reading website and the reading WeChat platform to provide support for digital reading. Meanwhile, it conducts the offline reading activities as well as the extending reading, sets up the government-community-school tripartite joint guarantee mechanism, constructs learning port to promote the nationwide reading and the regional community education development.

  1. Studies on Hotel Public Sign Translation from Functional Translation Theory---A Case Study of Hotels in Changchun City%功能翻译理论视角下酒店公示语翻译研究--以长春市酒店为例



    公示语翻译代表了一个城市的人文素养和对外形象,但目前公示语翻译还存在很多不足之处。本文根据所收集的长春市酒店公示语翻译语料,运用功能翻译理论进行分析,找出了酒店公示语翻译存在的语言错误、语用错误和文化错误,并提出了相应的策略来减少类似错误的出现。%The translation of public signs represents the humanistic quality and external image of a city.But at present,the translation of public signs still has many shortcomings.From the perspective of functional translation theory,according to the collected hotel translation of public signs in Changchun City,this paper finds out the language errors,pragmatic errors and cul-tural errors,and comes up with appropriate strategies to reduce the appearance of similar errors.

  2. 长春地区2008年婴幼儿轮状病毒腹泻临床与病原学研究%Study of Etiology and Clinical Data for Infants with Rotavirus Diarrhea in Changchun Province in 2008

    张晓杰; 贺岩; 田玉玲; 李丽红; 孙利伟; 王承训; 黎伟明; 杨显达; 刘愉; 赵艳玲; 邓琳菲


    Objective To find out the clinical and etiology situation of infants with rotavirus diarrhea in Changchun Area in 2008. Methods 441 stool specimens selected from the in-patients of Changchun Children' s Hospital were tested by the method of PAGE and / or ELISA and reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)in 2008. And the clinical data were studied. Results The detection rate of infant diarrhea caused from rotavirus was 53.29%. March and October are the 2 peaks of rotavirus infection in 2008. Distribution of G genotype shows that epidemic type in Changchun was G3 type (40.85%), followed by it was the G1 type( 12.34% ), then G2、 G9(6.81% )、 G4、 G8、 G11、 G13、 G14、G15、 G18 type(0.43% ), no type was 27.66% in 2008. Distribution of P genotype shows that epidemic type was P8 type (45.11% ), then P4( 17.02% ), P6( 1.70% ), P10( 1.28% ) P8、 P11 (0.43%), no type was 34.04%; The average age of the infants is 11.07±6.73 months. 97.36% infants were ≤ 24 months.Ratio of male and female was 1.87:1.43.83% (103/235) have fever, 50.64% (119/235) vomiting, 1.28%(3/235) had symptom of nervous system, 42.13 % (99/235) had respiratory tract symptom, the average day of hospitalization was (5.13 ± 2.09). Conclusions Rotavirus is the main pathogen of infant diarrhea in Changchun in 2008; Strains of rotavirus have uncommon diversity: Viral diarrhea of rotavirus often accompany with respiratory tract symptom.%目的 了解长春地区2008年婴幼儿轮状病毒(Rotavirus,RV)腹泻临床及病原情况.方法 用聚丙烯凝胶电泳和/或酶联免疫吸附试验及逆转录-聚合酶链反应,对2008年长春市儿童医院因腹泻住院婴幼儿粪便标本441份进行检测,并对临床资料进行分析.结果 婴幼儿腹泻RV检出率53.29%;人(Human)RV(HRV)感染有3月和11月两个高峰.基因型分布:G分型,流行优势型为G3(40.85%),其次为G1(12.34%),然后是G2、G9(6.81%),G4、G8、G(11)、G(13)、G(14

  3. Analysis of hepatitis B virus genotype and variation of drug resistance in 598 patients in Changchun region%长春地区598例乙型肝炎病毒基因分型及耐药变异分析

    刘淑荣; 黄显娇; 赵文静; 张紫玉


    Objective To investigate Hepatitis B virus genotype and drug-resistant mutation patterns in 598 patients with hepatitis B in Changchun region. Methods Serum of a total 598 patients with hepatitis B whose HBVDNA was higher than the lower limit of detection (more than 1000copies/mL) were collected. To detect HBV genotype and drug-resistance site mutation by PCR reverse dot blot hybridization method.Results Of the 598 serum samples, there were 35 samples(5.85%) of genotype B, 525 samples(87.79%) of genotype C, 32 samples(5.35%) of B and C mixed genotype, 2 samples(0.33%) of genotype D and 4 samples(0.67%) of undifferentiated type. Drug-resistant mutation were detected in 79 samples, accounting for 13.21%, which included 3 samples(3.80%) of genotype B, 73 samples(92.41%) of genotype C, 2 samples(2.53%) of B and C mixed genotype and 1 case(1.27%) of undifferentiated type. The most frequently detection rate of rtM204 mutation was 75.94%(60/79). There were 10 types of patterns in rtM204 site mutation.Conclusion The main HBV genotype is genotype C in patients infected by HBV in Changchun region, and the detection rate of rtM204 site mutation is the highest among all the drug-resistance site mutations detected in patients with hepatitis B, what's more the mutation patterns are complicated.%目的:研究长春地区598例乙型肝炎患者乙型肝炎病毒(hepatitis B virus)基因分型及耐药基因突变情况。方法收集598例HBVDNA高于检测下限(>1000拷贝/mL)乙型肝炎患者血清,PCR反向点杂交法检测HBV基因型和耐药变异位点。结果598例样本中, B基因型35例(5.85%), C基因型525例(87.79%),BC混合基因型32例(5.35%),D基因型2例(0.33%),未分型4例(0.67%)。79例发生HBV耐药变异,总体变异率为13.21%,其中B基因型3例(3.80%),C基因型73例(92.41%),BC混合基因型2例(2.53%),未分型1例(1.27%); rtM204检出率最高75.94%(60/79), rtM204

  4. The clinical effect and adverse reaction of Changchun vinorelbine combined with cisplatin in the treatment of breast ;cancer%长春瑞滨联合顺铂治疗中晚期乳腺癌的临床效果及不良反应观察

    汪志春; 张利群; 徐胜昔


    Objective The incidence of clinical effects and adVerse reactions of Vinorelbine combined with cisplatin in the treatment of breast cancer. Methods 72 patients with adVanced breast cancer who had not receiVed surgical treatment, according to the order of admission,diVided into control group and treatment group,36 cases in each group. The control group was treated with cisplatin,calcium Folinate-SF and 5-fluorouracil. The obserVation group was giVen changchun Vinorelbine com-bined with cisplatin in the treatment. The efficacy and adVerse reactions of the 2 groups were compared. Results The total ef-fectiVe rate of the obserVation group was 83. 3% which was significantly higher than that of 63. 9% in the control group(P﹤0. 05);The incidence of nausea and Vomiting in the obserVation group was significantly higher than that in the control group, the difference was statistically significant(P﹤0. 05);Two groups of phlebitis,alopecia,Anemia,white blood cells and platelets decreased,abnormal function of the liVer and kidney rate was no significant difference(P﹥0. 05). Conclusion The clinical effect of changchun Vinorelbine combined with cisplatin in the treatment of breast cancer was significantly,can effectiVely im-proVe the treatment effect. in addition to the adVerse reaction of gastrointestinal tract,the other adVerse reactions were not in-creased. clinical treatment should be combined with the use of antiemetic drugs,in order to improVe the tolerance of patients.%目的:探讨长春瑞滨联合顺铂治疗中晚期乳腺癌的临床效果及不良反应发生情况。方法选取2012年1月-2015年1月医院收治的中晚期未行手术治疗的乳腺癌患者72例,根据入院先后分为对照组与观察组各36例。对照组给予顺铂、叶酸钙、5-氟尿嘧啶治疗,观察组给予长春瑞滨联合顺铂治疗,比较2组治疗效果及不良反应发生情况。结果观察组治疗总有效率为83.3%明显高于对照组的63.9%

  5. Study on the distribution of groundwater contamination based on Kruskal-Wallis Test MEthod:taking Changchun area a example%基于Kruskal-Wallis检验的地下水污染质分布的研究——以长春地区为例

    高彦伟; 陈殿友


    To exactly assess the spatial distribution ofduoyinsu groundwater contaminants, in this paper, we take the important component of groundwater, NO-3 as example and test with the Entropy-moment Method in statistics the probability distribution of the data collected in 2008 from the 56 groundwater sample points in Changchun area. We conclude that the data don't obey the normal distribution. Based on this, we choose in this paper the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis Method, which doesn't require population to obey the normal distribution,to test the difference of mass concentration of NO-3 in the groundwater of sub-regions in Changchun and conclude that the mass concentration of NO3 in city area and around and in Shuangyang, among the seven regions tested, isn't quite different but is obviously different from that of the rest four sub-regions. Thus, we draw contour maps of NO3 regionally for uni-parameter evealuation according to the difference among the studied sub-regions. The results suggest the method of drawing regional contour maps, based on the comparison among multiple samples, can reflect the difference of the spatial distribution of groundwater contaminants under the influence of multiple factors.%为准确评价地下水污染质空间分布,本文以长春地区地下水重要组分NO3-为例,利用统计学的熵—矩检验法对长春地区2008年56个水质采样点的检测数据的概率分布进行了检验,得出数据不服从正态分布的结论.在此基础上,选择不要求总体服从正态分布的非参数Kruskal-Wallis检验方法对长春地区所属的各个行政子区域地下水中的NO3-质量浓度的差异性进行了检验,发现7个区域中城区、环城、双阳之间NO3-质量浓度没有显著性差异,而与其它4个子区域地下水中的NO3-质量浓度存在显著性差异,从而按照各个子区域之间的差异性分区绘制了NO3-的单项评价等值线图.结果表明在多样本比较的基础上分区绘制等

  6. 中国和加拿大两所医院乳腺癌病人术后生存分析比较%Comparison of survival among patients with breast cancer treate d at First Teaching Hospital,Changchun,China and at Saint-Sacrement Hospital,Q uebec,Canada

    范志民; 付彤; 辛志泳; 孙淑滨; 司序


    Objective:To explore th five year survivals and some prognostic factors for bres at cancer patients in the north areas of China,and the indentification or differ e nces on these variables among breast cancer patients between in China and in Can ada.Methods:All Data were collected from the hospital records of 1 002 breast cancer patients who were initially treated at the First Hospital of Jilin Uni versity (116 cases FTH,Changchun China) and the Sain t-Sacrement Hospital (886 cases in SSH,Quebec Canada) respectively by use of Historical Cohort survey,and the survival propotions were calculated and comp ared stradly by use of Kaplan-Meier method.Results:Age at diagnosis was substantially lower (average of age about 10 years less) among breast cancer patients seen at FTH compared to those treated at SSH (P<0.0001).Patients in the two hospitals differed in respect to tumor size at pathology (P=0.036).The proportion of women with lymph node involvement was greater at FTH (61.1%) than that at HSS(37.3%)(P<0.0001).Surgical treat ment of breats cancer was varied considerably:the radical mastectomy was frequen tly performed for andy stage of breast cancer patients in Changchun,but the part ial mastectomy was mainly used for patients with stage Ⅰ or Ⅱ in Quebec.The fi ve year survival was 74.2% among breast cacer patients seen at FTH compared to 7 6.3% among women treated at HSS,and there was no singnificant differrence (P =0.302). Conclusion:Five year survival of breast cancer patients treated surgically in C hangchun,China,was similar to that of patients treated surgically in Quebec,Can ada except for differences in age at diagnosis,tumor size and lymph node involve ment%目的:探讨我国北方地区乳腺癌病人的5年生存率、主要预后因素及其与加拿大类似气候地 区的异同。方法:收集吉林大学第一医院(中国长春,简称FTH)和拉瓦尔大学圣萨可门医 院(加拿大魁北克,简称SSH)1 002例乳腺癌病人的资料

  7. 长春市某三甲医院护士职业价值观与工作倦怠相关性研究%The Correlation Study Between the Professional Values and Job Burnout of a Three Level of First-class Hospital Nurses in Changchun

    刘丽婷; 鲍丽; 高玉霞


    Objective:To investigate the correlation between nurse professional values and job burnout in a three level of first-class hospital of Changchun. Methods: 184 nurses in a three level of first-class hospital were investigated by answering the nurse professional values scale (NPVS-R) and the nurse job burnout (MBI) questionnaire. Results: The job burnout score are 49.83 + 12.70 points, the professional values and job burnout is negatively related (r=-0.193, P=0.009). The influence factors of the both include Professional Titles, age, the job seniority, labor properties, the situation whether they satisfy with their jobs, monthly income, etc. Conclusions: Nurse professional value in a three level of first-class hospitals is neutral partial positive, and job burnout is in a high rate. The professional values and job burnout is negatively related.%目的:探讨三甲医院护士职业价值观与工作倦怠的相关性.方法:对184名某三甲医院护士采用一般资料调查表、护士职业价值观量表和工作倦怠问卷进行调查.结果:工作倦怠得分为49.83±12.70分,职业价值观与工作倦怠呈负相关关系(r=-0.193,P=0.009).其影响因素包括职称、年龄、工作年限、用工性质、工作满意度、月收入等.结论:三甲医院护士职业价值观与工作倦怠呈负相关关系,职业价值观中立偏积极,工作倦怠检出率高.

  8. A Study of status and disease burden in children with acute respiratory tract infection of Changchun area in 2008%2008年长春地区小儿急性呼吸道感染状况与疾病负担的研究

    刘迎新; 孙利炜; 刘愉; 张晓杰


    目的:了解2008年长春地区小儿急性呼吸道感染发病情况与疾病负担,为控制小儿急性呼吸道感染提供依据.方法:以2008年长春市儿童医院住院的急性呼吸道感染患儿为研究对象,用荧光定量PCR方法进行肺炎支原体检测,对患儿临床资料进行流行病学分析.结果:2008年长春地区小儿急性呼吸道感染发病率为33.67% (4923/14620),其中临床诊断急性上呼吸道感染(包括鼻炎、咽炎、扁桃体炎、喉炎)为14.08% (693/4923)、急性支气管炎为4.12% (203/4923)、急性毛细支气管炎为1.95% (96/4923)、支气管肺炎为76.88%(3785/4923)、大叶性肺炎1.14% (56/4923)、肺炎支原体肺炎1.83% (90/4923);患儿年龄均值为(28.59±20.32)月龄;发病人数1月份最多,5月份开始下降,10月份再次增多;平均住院天数为7天,平均每个患儿住院医疗费用3275.15元,总耗资约1912万元,1例因急性呼吸道感染死亡.结论:长春地区小儿急性呼吸道感染住院人数多、耗资大,控制小儿急性呼吸道感染是对社会和家庭的挑战也是儿科医务工作者的当务之急.%Objective; To study on the status and disease burden in children with acute respiratory tract infection of Changchun area in 2008 and to provide a basis for the control of acute respiratory infections. Methods; Children with acute respiratory infections in our hospital were studied. Using the method of fluorescence quantitative PCR to detect Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Clinical data of the children were studied by epidemiological method. Results: In 2008, in Changchun area, the incidence rate of acute respiratory tract infection in children was 33. 67% (4 923/14 620) . In which the rate of acute respiratory tract infection (including rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis) was 14. 08% (693/4 923), acute bronchitis was 4.12% (203/4923), acute bronchiolitis was 1. 95% (96/4923), bronchial pneumonia was 76. 889% (3 785/4 923), lobar

  9. Survey of Joint Implementation activities in China; Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo kanren chosa



    It is a large task for Japan to positively promote the Joint Implementation activities related to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Rapid increase in the emission of greenhouse-effect gases, especially CO2, is predicted in China with remarkable economic growth and population of 1.2 billion. It is essential to promote the Joint Implementation activities in China. In this survey, framework, organization, problems and tasks were investigated to effectively promote the Joint Implementation activities in China. Construction of framework for the real Joint Implementation activities has been proposed. Current problems for promoting the Joint Implementation activities in China are that the distinct guideline for the Joint Implementation is not established in the government, that the receiving system including receiving, planning and arranging sections is not established, and that the burden problems for the costs of project evaluation, data acquisition, monitoring, and verification are not solved. 5 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. [Survey of Trichophyton tonsurans Infection in the Kyushu, Chugoku and Shikoku areas of Japan].

    Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Honma, Kizou; Shinoda, Hidekazu; Ogasawara, Yumie


    A survey on the infestation of dermatophytosis caused by T. tonsurans was made by inquiry to dermatologists. Patients strongly suggestive of having skin lesions due to T. tonsurans were seen in all areas examined, and were mainly schoolboys, including those practicing judo, of high schools and junior high schools. In Nagasaki, a mycological examination was done on 21 judo students and their teacher in a high school in which a patient with T. tonsurans infection was mycologically confirmed and treated by antimycotics. Mycological examinations failed to isolate T. tonsurans, but even after the examination sporadic cases were reported among the group members. In Saga prefecture, Kyushu, a mycological screening for T. tonsurans infection among judoists and wrestlers in 13 high-schools and 7 junior high schools was done using the blush sampling method. Fifty-six strains of T. tonsurans were isolated from 248 students. The problems concerning the control of this infection were discussed.

  11. Mitsubishi chemistry: Spreading of carbon business in China; Kasseitan. Chugoku seisan wo kakudai



    Mitsubishi chemistry strengthens the overseas development of activated carbon business. The matter that this rank worked from October is received, and activated carbon equipment of Shanshi expands global development. The policy that joint company establishment in China and the annual production that it hits present double as that part after 2001 build a system 10000 tons. The case that a headquarters area is secured in Asia recently is on the increase in activated carbon manufacturer. Regardless of the coconut tree shell and the coal, a reason is because it is favorable on the cost side. After having secured it, a production position is turned to the world market in China of the raw material location, and Mitsubishi chemistry works for the product extreme development. On the other hand, high value added development is taken about the domestic position, and a role assignment is defined. (translated by NEDO)

  12. Trend of natural gas demand/supply in China; Chugoku no tennen gas jukyu doko

    Furuta, T. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)


    Confirmed recoverable reserves of natural gas are increasing at a sharp rate, with 1.7-trillion meters{sup 3} reported in 1995. Production also increased to reach 17.6-billion meters{sup 3} in the same year. The produced natural gas is all for domestic consumption at the present time. Sichuan Province occupies more than 40% of the total production. Exploration and exploitation are under way in the Shanganning district, Sichuan district, Sinkiang district, South China Sea, East China Sea, etc. Natural gas occupies 1.9% of China`s primary energy consumption, and it is urgently required that more natural gas be used in big cities in view of environmental problems. As for the transportation capability of pipelines, they handle 9-billion meters{sup 3}/year, mainly in Sichuan Province. There are large-scale pipeline systems in the Tarim basin and some other land locations and on the sea bottom of the `cliff 13-1,` partly in service already and partly under construction yet. It has been decided that Export-Import Bank of Japan invest in a submarine pipeline project off Shanghai. In 2000, China will need to import natural gas. Natural gas-fired thermal power stations and LNG storage facilities are under construction. 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. REE in cretaceous to tertiary granitoids of Chugoku and Shikoku district, SW Japan

    Imaoka, Teruyoshi [Yamaguchi Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Harada, Michiru


    `Niho plutonic composite rocks` distributed in Niho Kamigo area in the northeast of Yamaguchi-city in Japan. It is small plutonic composite rocks, of about 2 km in long length and 1 km of short length. The rocks were studied by the geological survey. Many kinds of rock and rare earth elements were determined. The constitution process is estimated by these results. It consists of gabbro-quartz diorite-tonalite{center_dot}granodiorite-granito. The more inside of rock existed, the more felsic rock are discovered. Chemical compositions were TiO{sub 2}, FeO, MnO and K{sub 2}O. It is estimated that intrusion of tonalite and successive intrusion of granodiorite generated and then formed in situ crystallization differentiation. (S.Y.)

  14. Study on Spatial Distribution Characteristics of PM 2 .5 and PM10 in Jingyue University Town in Changchun%长春市净月大学城区PM2.5及PM10空间分布特征初步研究

    冯致力; 肖婷婷; 陈春林; 杨萱; 盛连喜; 张刚


    To master the spatial distribution characteristics of PM 2.5 and PM10 mass concentration in Jingyue University town lo-cated in the southeast of Changchun City and explore its potential impact on the health of local residents .The eight outdoor environ-ments were selected, namely, the sun light rail station square, forest before the second dining room, the first dining room, a former field, basketball court, students baths, track and backstreet business district, using the YT-HPC3000C instrument to monitor the various points on PM2.5 and PM10 concentration.The light rail station is the highest area in the eight samples in PM10 concentration. The other seven samples are better than the secondary standard.Among the four indoor samples, the dining room is not up to sec-ondary standard both in PM2.5 and PM10 concentration.The other three samples reached the secondary standard.PM2.5 and PM10 spa-tial distributions of every indoor environment decreases as height increasing .PM2.5 and PM10 of every outdoor environments have no significant correlation with its vertical position .%为掌握长春市主城区净月大学城区PM2.5和PM10质量浓度的空间分布特征,选择了8处室外环境空间,使用YT-HPC3000 C型主动采样激光粉尘仪,对各样点进行了质量浓度监测。结果表明,与区域内室外8处样点的PM10质量浓度,以轻轨站处为最高,其他7处样点均好于二级标准;室内4处样点的PM2.5和PM10的质量浓度,食堂均未达标,其他3处样点均达标。在室内各样点,PM2.5与PM10的浓度空间分布呈现随高度升高而降低的趋势;在室外各样点,PM2.5与PM10的浓度分布与其所处垂向位置无明显相关关系。

  15. 丘陵地貌区高程内插适宜方法选择——以长春净月潭为例%The Choose of Altitude Interpolation Appropriate Methods at Hills Landform Area:Taking the Jingyuetan Area of Changchun as An Example

    费龙; 田秋艳


    The suitable method used to realize spatial interpolation of different landforms is different. Elevation of Changchun Jingyuetan area is the research object, this area is typical hilly and gully region,we interpolated elevation with inverse distance weighting, nearest neighbor,trend interpolation and Kriging on ArcGIS9.2. We obtained the accuracy of elevation of inverse distance weighting method, nearest neighbor, trend surface meth-od, spline function and Kriging with Cross Validation, the conclusion is the nearest neighbor is the most accu-rate, followed Kriging, spline function, elevation of inverse distance weighting method, trend surface method. This research provide reference of selection for interpolation of the elevation data such as Jingyuetan area of hill landform.%对不同的地貌区进行空间内插时选择的适宜方法不同,以典型丘陵地貌区长春市净月潭地区的高程为研究对象,用ArcGIS 9.2分别作反距离权重法、最近邻点法、趋势面分析和克里金法做高程内插.应用交叉检验方法对其内插的精度作出分析,检验其科学性和可靠性,得出反距离权重法、最近邻点法、趋势面法、样条函数法和克里金法高程内插的不同精度,并对各种方法的适用性进行讨论.结果表明最近邻点法精度最高,以下依次为普通克里金插值法、样条函数、反距离权重法、趋势面法.为类似于净月潭地区的丘陵地貌区高程内插提供选择参考.

  16. Exploration and Practice of the Basic Curricula Group Construction of“Large Engineering Specialty”in Normal Colleges--The Case of the Basic Curricula Group Construction of Changchun Normal University%普通高师院校“大工科”专业基础课程群建设的探索与实践--以长春师范大学工科专业基础课程群建设为例

    张小奇; 张英波; 杨树臣


    普通师范院校在开办工科专业的过程中面临许多共性问题。以长春师范大学工程学院4个工科专业建设的实践为例,围绕地方应用型工科专业的人才培养目标,提出构建由图学课程群、力学课程群、材料课程群和电学课程群构成的“大工科”专业基础课程平台,在此基础上加强专业教学团队建设。%Normal colleges are faced with many common problems in the process of building engineering specialty. The specialty core curriculum platform of “large engineering”, which including graphics curriculum group, mechanics curriculum group, material curriculum group, electricity curriculum group, are building around the personnel training goal of applied undergraduate colleges, for example of the practice on four engineering specialties of Changchun Normal University. This paper advances some countermeasures and suggestions on strengthening construction of teaching team on this basis.

  17. 长春市城乡结合部小学生体质现状与增龄变化研究%Research on Current Situation of Primary School Students’Physical Fitness and Age -increase Change in Urban -rural Fringe of Changchun



    The paper investigates physical fitness of 1629 primary school students who age from 7 to 12 and are in urban -rural fringe schools of Changchun with methods of testing and mathematical statistics.Results show that subjects’stature and weight are generally rather low;speed and endurance are rather poor;body flexibility of 7 or 8 -year old boy and 8 -year old girl and abdominal muscle endurance of 10 -year old girl are good;other testing items are either lower than or the same with national average level;So,the overall testing results are not satisfactory and needs more attention.Analysis according to the changing tendency of physical fitness and age -increase comes to the results that stature and weight of both boys and girls increases rapidly with the growing age;both speed quality and girls’abdominal muscle endurance display the change of "first low,then high and then low”;flexibility of 8 or 9 -year old boys and 8 -year old girls significantly decreases,but that of 11 -year old boys and 8 -year old girls obviously increases;in endurance,both boys and girls demonstrate decreasing tendency,but lung capacity (a marker of endurance)significantly increases.This proves that there are other factors affecting students’endurance level.%本研究主要采用测试法和数理统计法对长春市城乡结合部7-12岁的1629名的小学生进行体质调查,结果显示:调查对象的身高和体重普遍偏低;速度和耐力较差;7岁男生、8岁男女生的身体柔性和10岁女生的腰腹肌耐力较好,其他测试项目均低于或与国家平均值持平,总体测试结果不容乐观,需要给予一定的关注。根据体质年龄变化趋势分析结果显示:男女生的身高和体重都随年龄的递增呈快速增长的趋势;速度素质和女生的腰腹肌耐力均呈“先低后高再低”变化;8、9岁男生和8岁时女生的柔韧性显著下降,11岁男生和8岁时女生显著增长;耐力方面

  18. 长春市不同利用方式土壤有机碳数量特征的初步研究%Preliminary Study on the Quantitative Characteristics of Organic Carbon in Soils under Different Land Use Patterns in Changchun City

    王永; 李春阳; 李翠兰; 韩旖旎; 吕艳; 张晋京


    以吉林省长春市为例,研究了几种不同利用方式(包括城区街道、城区广场、城区公园、近郊菜地、近郊耕地)表层(0~20cm)土壤中总有机碳、水溶性有机碳、易氧化有机碳、颗粒有机碳和黑碳的数量特征.结果表明:与菜地和耕地相比,城区(即街道、广场、公园)土壤中总有机碳、水溶性有机碳、易氧化有机碳、颗粒有机碳和黑碳均存在富集现象,其中街道土壤中总有机碳、颗粒有机碳和黑碳的富集现象更加明显,而广场和公园土壤中水溶性有机碳和易氧化有机碳的富集现象更加明显;从土壤有机碳组分的分配比例(即各组分有机碳占总有机碳含量的百分比)来看,城区土壤中各有机碳组分的分配比例均高于菜地和耕地,其中街道土壤中颗粒有机碳和黑碳的分配比例高于广场和公园,而水溶性有机碳和易氧化有机碳的分配比例则低于广场和公园.城区特殊的环境条件决定了土壤有机碳数量特征不同于近郊的菜地和耕地土壤,而城区土壤中有机碳数量特征亦受到土地利用方式的影响.%Urban soil organic carbon plays an important role in the regional and global carbon cycle. The quantitative characteristics of the total organic carbon (TOC), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC),easily oxidizable organic carbon (EOC), particular organic use patterns (including urban street, urban square, urban park, suburban vegetable land, suburban arable land) in Changchun city,carbon (POC) and black carbon (BC) were analyzed of 95 soil samples collected from 0-20 cm soil layer under five different land Jilin province, China. Compared with the vegetable and arable soils, the TOC, WSOC,EOC, POC and BC were more abundant in the urban soils. Among the urban soils, the TOC, POC and BC were more in the street soils, while the WSOC and EOC were higher in the square and park soils. On the other hand, the proportions of the organic carbon

  19. Investigation on Smoking Status and Tobacco Control Environment of Enterprise Workers Engaged in Transportation Equipment Manufacturing in Changchun%长春市运输设备制造企业员工吸烟状况及控烟环境调查

    庄程; 许兆瑞; 章春宇; 赵萍; 刘晓石


    目的:了解长春市从事运输设备制造的企业员工吸烟现状以及企业控烟环境状况,为制定政策创建无烟企业提供科学依据。方法:选择长春市具有代表性的3个大型企业的814名员工作为研究对象,采取随机抽样方法,集中自填问卷方式调查。结果:企业员工现在总体吸烟率41.6%,男性吸烟率明显高于女性,比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05);每日吸烟者平均每天吸烟量为(12.58±6.86)支,不同性别每日吸烟量比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);吸烟者的主要吸烟场所为卫生间、办公室及走廊;控烟环境严格企业员工的吸烟率、吸烟者在工作场所吸烟率及二手烟暴露率均低于控烟环境不严格的企业,比较差异均有统计学意义(P0.05).Daily smokers smoked(12.58±6.86) cigarettes per day on average,there was no statistically significant difference between males and females in daily smoking(P>0.05).The main places that smokers smoked was the toilet, office and corridor.The smoking rate,the proportion of smokers smoking in the workplace and the rate of exposure to second-hand smoke in factories with strict smoking ban were significantly lower than those in factories without strict smoking ban,the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:The current smoking status of enterprise workers in Changchun city is serious,the rate of smoking is at a high level.Though all the factories investigated have the tobacco control policy,the enforcement is not enough.The tobacco control workers shall provide professional technical and services according to the actual situation of the enterprise and help the enterprise to formulate corresponding measures as soon as possible so as to change the status quo.

  20. 依托东北历史文化资源,推动历史学特色专业建设——长春师范学院历史学国家特色专业建设的探索%Promoting the construction of Characteristic Subject of History Based on the Resources of History and Culture in Northeast China --On the Construction of National Characteristic Subject of History in Changchun Normal University

    张淑贤; 姜维公


    长春师范学院历史学院通过充分利用外部环境和内部教学资源条件使得历史学国家级特色专业取得了长足的进步。其原因在于:确立准确的定位,特色是特色专业建设的灵魂,特色的定位是特色专业建设的关键环节;以学科建设带动特色专业建设,以地方特色课程建设为切入点;以实践教学改革为突破口,满足特色专业建设的最终目的——培养满足社会需要的高素质应用型人才。%The academy of history of Changchun Normal University fully used the outside surroundings and the inside didactical resources to make the national characteristic subject of history acquire rapid progress. The reason was: first, the exact position: characteristic was the soul of the construction of characteristic subject, and the characteristic position was the key point of the construction of characteristic subject; Second, promoting the construction of characteristic sub- ject based on the construction of course, using the endemic course as breakthrough point. Third, using the educational reform as sally port to satisfy the final goal of the construction of characteristic subject cultivating the talented per- son with high-quality and practical ability needed by society.

  1. 长春市某小学7~12岁儿童福赛斯坦氏菌和中间普氏菌分布状态调查%Colonization of Tannerella forsythus and Prevotella intermedia in dental plaque samples from children of Changchun Ziqiang primary school

    倪雪岩; 伊田博; 吕亚林; 铃木基之; 魏秀峰; 井上美津子


    目的 应用聚合酶链反应(PCR)法对儿童口腔内福赛斯坦氏菌(Tannerella forsythus,Tf)和中间普氏菌(Prevotella intermedia,Pi)进行检测,探讨检出结果与牙周临床指标之间的关系.方法 选取长春市自强小学151名7至12岁儿童为研究对象,选择右上颌中切牙和第一磨牙为被检牙位,取龈上菌斑、记录探诊出血(bleeding on probing,BOP)、探诊深度(probing depth,PD)、牙龈指数(gingival index,GI),应用PCR法对儿童龈上菌斑中的Tf和Pi进行检测.结果 儿童龈上菌斑中Tf、Pi的检出率分别为40.3%(1 18/293)、46.4%(136/293);6颊面Tf、Pi的检出率分别为55.2%(80/145)、53.8%(78/145)均显著高于(1)唇面的Tf和Pi的检出率[分别为25.7%(38/148)、39.2%(58/148)],差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);Pi检出率随年龄增长呈逐渐减低趋势,Tf检出率在7~8岁组最高,其次为11~12岁和9~10岁组;BOP阳性部位的Tf、Pi检出率[分别为43%(35/81)、49%(40/81)]均高于BOP阴性部位二者的检出率[分别为37%(72/194)、45%(87/194)].在BOP阳性部位,随PD加深Tf检出率逐渐增高,特别是在PD 4 mm以上时Tf检出率明显增高(P<0.01),Tf检出率与BOP阳性、PD增加呈正相关.结论 7~12岁儿童龈上菌斑中高频度分布着Tf和Pi;上颌前牙区与磨牙区菌丛构成不同,Tf、Pi在磨牙区检出率更高,Tf的检出率与PD呈正相关,Tf检出率在7~8岁组最高,Pi检出率随年龄增长呈减低趋势,儿童时期进行牙周病早期预防是非常必要的.%Objective To detect the presence of Tannerella forsythus(Tf)and Prevotella intermedia (Pi) using polymerase chain reaction(PCR) in the oral plaque samples from children and investigate the relationship between bacteria and clinical parameters. Methods A total of 151 children aged 7 to 12 years were selected from Changchun primary school. The supragingival plaque sample was collected from the mesiobuccal and labial surfaces of the right maxillary central

  2. 长春市某小学7~12岁儿童牙周致病菌分布状态调查%Distribution of periodontal pathogens in dental plaque samples from 7 to 12-years-old children of Changchun Ziqiang primary school

    倪雪岩; 伊田博; 鈴木基之; 吕亚林; 魏秀峰; 井上美津子


    目的 应用聚合酶链反应(PCR)法对儿童口腔内牙龈卟啉单胞菌(Porphyromonas gingivalis,Pg)、伴放线放线杆菌(Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans,Aa)分布状态进行检测,探讨检出结果与牙周临床指标之间的关系.方法 选取长春市自强小学151名7至12岁儿童为研究对象,选择右上颌中切牙唇面和右上颌第一磨牙颊面为被检部位,取龈上菌斑、记录探诊出血(bleeding on probing,BOP)、探诊深度(probing depth,PD)、牙龈指数(gingival index,GI),应用PCR法对两菌种进行检测.结果 ①儿童龈上菌斑中Pg、Aa检出率为27.6%、54.3%;②6颊面Pg、Aa的检出率(40.0%、57.9%)均高于1 唇面(15.5%、50.7%),Pg检出率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),且与BOP、PD、GI呈正相关;③Pg检出率随年龄增长呈逐渐增高趋势,Aa检出率在11~12岁组最高,其次为7~8岁组和9~10岁组;④BOP阳性部位Pg、Aa检出率(38.3%、65.4%)均高于BOP阴性部位(23.2%、50.5%),P<0.05.在BOP阳性部位,随PD加深Pg检出率逐渐增高,特别是在PD≥4mm时,Pg检出率明显增高(P<0.05),显示Pg检出率与BOP阳性、PD增加呈正相关.结论 7~12岁儿童龈上菌斑中高频度分布着Pg、Aa;上颌前牙区与磨牙区菌丛构成不同,Pg在磨牙区定植更早;两菌种检出率随年龄增长而增加,且与牙周临床指标密切相关,儿童早期采取牙周病的预防措施是非常必要的.%Objective To detect the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans(Aa) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the oral plaque samples from children and investigate the relationship between bacteria and clinical parameters. Methods A total of 151 children aged 7 to 12 years were selected from Changchun Ziqiang primary schooL The supragingival plaque sample was collected from the mesiobuccal and labial surfaces of the right maxillary central incisor and the right maxillary first molar. Extracted DNA from plaque

  3. Water monitoring and its information management system in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu monitoring to joho kanri system

    Quan, H.


    This paper summarizes the water monitoring system (WMS) in China applied mainly to surface water and operated within the competence of the Environmental Protection Agency. The WMS consists of a national water monitoring network and a water information system that monitors surface water periodically. The WMS comprises water monitoring stations classified from class 1 to class 4, which are located in 2,222 locations. Stations from class 1 to class 3 are operated by using computers, but class 4 stations are still incapable to use floppy disks to perform information transmission. When an information management system is completed at the China-Japan Friendship Environmental Protection Center being constructed by gratis assistance from the Japanese Government, transmission of water quality data will become possible by means of the cable line system in addition to the table system and the floppy system. The water quality data are published to general people in the forms of Chinese gazette for the environmental conditions, the environment yearbook, and the reports on environmental quality. However, the more important is to publish more publications to make people aware of the actual state of water pollution and have them cooperate in environment preservation. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Studies on water treatment by adsorption. Kyuchaku ni yoru mizushori

    Suzuki, M. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science)


    This paper summarizes studies on the water treatment by adsorption, as for the adsorption during water treatment, reactivation of activated charcoal, and clarification of heating process. Reactivation of activated charcoal for the water treatment is carried out through drying in the heating furnace. Basic problems are the recovery degree of adsorption performance of reactivated activated charcoal and the recovery yield. Behavior of the activated charcoal in the heating reactivation furnace is divided into three stages including drying process, heating process, and gasification process. Among these processes, behaviors of organic matters during heating process are described. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted for activated charcoals adsorbing various organic matters in aqueous solutions. Three types of organic matters were classified from the TGA pattern, i.e., organic matters with relatively low boiling point (type-I), organic matters with higher boiling point (type-II), and phenol and lignin (type-III). Organic matters belonging to type-I and type-II are desorbed or decomposed, to be disappeared. Effectiveness of alkali cleaning is suggested for the type-III organic matters. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Integrated Assessment and Obstacle Factors of Environmental Carrying Capacity of National Strategic Economic Zones Based on Entropy and Catastrophe Progression Methods:A Case Study in Changchun-Jilin-Tumenjiang Development and Opening-up Pilot Area%基于熵值-突变级数法的国家战略经济区环境承载力综合评价及障碍因子——以长吉图开发开放先导区为例

    赵宏波; 马延吉; 苗长虹


    The environmental carrying capacity is a parameter to measure the capacity degree between human being social activities and the environment. To study the theories and quantification, methods of environmental carrying capacity is of significance in reality for directing human beings economic behaviors and harmonizing the relationships between social development and environment. With the rapid development of social economy and population growth sharply in National Strategic Economic Zones, the resource consumption and pollutant emission are increasing accordingly, which made resources and environment system under tremendous pres-sure, this situation would impact the level of environmental carrying capacity of National Strategic Economic Zones. According to the catastrophic characteristics of environmental carrying capacity of National Strategic Economic Zones, we selected Changchun-Jilin-Tumenjiang development and opening-up Pilot Area as the re-search object. Based on the entropy and catastrophe progression methods, we built an index system to evaluate the environmental carrying capacity, in which Nature-Economy-Society (N-E-S) indexes are included. Using obstacle degree models, we analyzed the temporal pattern of environmental carrying capacity and the obstacle factors from 2000 to 2011.Results are shown as follows:1) Temporally, the level of environmental carrying ca-pacity rose from weak to moderate level from 2000 to 2011. 2) The proportion of environmental protection in-vestment in GDP, industrial waste water emissions, cultivated land fertilizer usage, the per Capita GDP, the en-ergy consumptions per GDP and economic density are the main obstacle factors affecting the environmental carrying capacity. The approach established in the article has a lot advantages when dealing with municipal projects under complex evaluation problems and it does not use any weight, only need to arrange indicators in an order of important degree according to the inherent logic

  6. Detection of Neospora caninum-DNA in brain tissues from pigeons in Changchun, Jilin (China).

    Du, Ling; Yang, Dongsheng; Zhai, Tao; Gong, Pengtao; Zhang, Xichen; Li, Jianhua


    Neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan infecting many domestic and wild animals. The domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus) and the sparrow (Passer domesticus) are known as natural intermediate hosts of N. caninum, whereas the role of other birds such as pigeons is still unclear. In the present study, pigeon brain tissues collected in Jilin of China were screened by N. caninum specific-nested PCR to determine whether pigeons functioned as the natural intermediate hosts of N. caninum. The prevalences of N. caninum DNA and Toxoplasma gondii DNA among the brain samples were 30% (63/210) and 13.33% (28/210), respectively. One brain sample was co-infected with N. caninum and T. gondii in naturally infected pigeon. Of the 63 positive samples 42 could be assigned to the NC-PR genotype, 10 to the NC-1 genotypes and 5, 3 and 3 respectively to the each of the three new genotypes identified, indicating genetic polymorphism of N. caninum in pigeons in Jilin of China. The present study expanded the list of intermediate hosts of N. caninum to include pigeons which suggests that pigeons are involved in the transmission of the N. caninum.

  7. Measurement and temperature effect on soil thermal conductivity in Changchun area

    Liliang GONG; Yanjun ZHANG; Liqing ZHAO; Long ZHAO; Ziwang YU; Jihua HU; Cheng WANG


    The study on soil thermal conductivity (STC) was an important side of research on ground source heat pump technique,geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes,heat distribution of buried cable. Especially owing to technical requirement for shallow terrestrial heat recently, it directly influenced the design and solution in engineering problems. The authors measured the STC in the studied area with QTM-D2 and discussed the effect of samples in size, the measurement error between the samples in lab and in site. The results indicate measuring STC by heat pole method with less influence upon the samples in size, and measuring results on the different geometry size approach very much. The STC is fit for the empirical relation between the temperature and TC under the condition of normal temperature. It is significance for understanding STC in northern China and simulation of temperature field.

  8. Report on survey of promotion of activities implemented jointly in China in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo no suishin chosa)



    Rapid economy growth has been observed in Asia including Japan. On the other hand, problems of population and environment grew even worse with the economic growth. Especially, China is the second CO2 emission country in the world. Large energy demand is still forecasted with its economic growth in the future. It is well-known that the energy consumption per unit GDP is very large. Therefore, it is very significant to promote the activities implemented jointly with China for mitigating the emission of greenhouse gases including CO2, which provides a significant meaning for solving global environmental issues as well as for improving regional environmental issues. It is necessary for the above to recognize the appropriate current situations and to promote the activities implemented jointly suitable for the country. Based on the discussions and information exchanges about environmental issues with staffs concerning environmental policies and scientists as well as the field surveys, methods for the activities implemented jointly were investigated to provide some proposals. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Research report for fiscal 1998. Promotion of activities implemented jointly etc. in China; 1998 nendo Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo nado suishin chosa



    The Kyoto Protocol allows some flexibility in the implementation of methods for achieving the goal, such as emission trading, activities implemented jointly (AIJ) among advanced countries, construction of clean development mechanisms (CDM) with developing countries, etc., and Japan intends to positively make use of them for the achievement of the goal. For China, who holds second place in the list of greenhouse gas emitting countries in the world, the promotion of CDM is quite important. With the situation taken into consideration, interaction was effected with Chinese officers and scientists of government agencies and academic institutes involved in environmental matters, and researches were conducted. Views and information were exchanged regarding environmental problems and, after on-site investigations, researches were conducted and suggestions were presented as to how AIJ and CDM should be. The suggestions covered Chinese policies toward AIJ and CDM, current state of AIJ projects in China and systems for their promotion, means for enhancing such projects, and discovery of candidates for AIJ and CDM project application. (NEDO)

  10. FY 1998 annual report on power generation by waste heat from cement production in China; Chugoku ni okeru cement hainetsu hatsuden 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho



    This project is to implement a feasibility study for applying waste heat power generation, which have been already commercialized in Japan and producing remarkable results, to China's cement plants producing 3,500 t/d or more of clinker, and thereby to try to establish a link with the Japan's clean development mechanism. It is expected that introduction of these systems improves energy use efficiency and environments in China. The study results indicate that the project for a Tongling Conch plant could generate power of 15,000 kW, reducing CO2 emissions by 89,178 t/y and cumulatively 1,783,560 tons in the 20-year period. The results also indicate that the project will be highly profitable, with an estimated internal return rate of as high as 33.78%. The project for a Huaxin plant could generate power of 8,400 kW, reducing CO2 emissions by 48,412 t/y and cumulatively 968,240 tons in the 20-year period, annually saving power charges by 325 million yen and bringing an internal return rate of 10.72%. (NEDO)

  11. Technical engineers exchange project (coal mine technology field). Training in China; Gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun`ya). Chugoku no kenshu ni tsuite

    Adachi, T. [Japan Coal Energy Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    The paper described JCOAL`s project on the exchange of technical coal engineers of China. In the project on sending of engineers to China in the first term, coal mine engineers of Japan (Taiheiyo Coal Mine, Kushiro Works, Training Center) were sent to the Daitun coal-thermal power plant, Peixuan city, Jiangsu province, in September, 1997 to introduce the production control technology in Japan. They contributed to the heightening of productivity in coal mines in China. Eighteen Chinese participated in the training. Mechanization has been comparatively well in progress, and it was 83% in coal mining and 91% in drilling. The kind of coal is mostly a raw material coal. The stuff members are 30,000, and expert engineers are 4,200. The plant has an output of 130,000 kWh, owns its railroad, is run on the general multiple management, and is largely developing. The project on sending of engineers to China in the last term was carried out in February 1998 for tracing/confirming how the results of the training conducted in September are made the most of and if or not there is something bad and for obtaining the detailed data. A certain degree of promotion and effects were able to be confirmed. A project on training of the head, sub-head, etc. who were invited to Japan to lean production/management control was also carried out in November and December 1997. 1 tab.

  12. Combined process of pyrolyzer/combuster for gas production and power generation; Chugoku ni okeru chukibo hatsuden to toshi gas seizo no tame no fukugo process no kaihatsu

    Ooka, I. [The University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Ma, T.


    In China, they are using a lot of coal by direct firing for domestic cooking, space heating and industrial use. Therefore air pollution is the big problem in every cities in winter season. And at moment, they do not have enough infrastructure for supplying energy such as gas and electric power. There is a great need for facilities for supplying gas and electric power from coal in big cities with much less pollution. This paper d a combined process of medium size plant of gas production and power generation by using fluidized circulation bed pyrolizer and combuster, to contribute to the energy supply which greatly reduces air and water polution and coal consumption. 1 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Hydrogenation of heteroaromatics by high pressure DTA techniques. 3; Koatsu DTA ho ni yoru hokozoku kagobutsu no suisoka (rutenium tanji shokubai ni yoru kakusuisoka datsu hetero hanno)

    Yamamoto, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Kotanigawa, T. [Japan International Cooperation Agency, Tokyo (Japan)


    Ring-opening of heteroaromatics and heteroatom-removal reaction were studied experimentally using the acidic catalyst containing phosphoric acid for improvement of an upgrading method of coal derived oils. In experiment, some Ru-carrying metal oxide catalysts such as RMZ, RML and RMN catalyst, and MNP catalyst containing phosphoric acid were used as specimens. Nuclear hydrogenation reaction and hydro-denitrogenation reaction of dibenzothiophene and carbazole were compared with each other. The experimental results are as follows. Both RMN and RMNP catalysts offer a superior selectivity in nuclear hydrogenation reaction and hydro-denitrogenation reaction of carbazole. Although both catalysts offer an extremely high nuclear hydrogenation activity at 360{degree}C, these offer the high selectivity of denitrogenation products at 430{degree}C. In comparison of the activities of MN and MNP catalysts with the same Mn2O3:NiO ratio, MNP catalyst offers the higher denitrogenation activity than MN catalyst at 430{degree}C. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  14. Emission inventory of air pollutants in East Asia. Anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide in China; Higashi Asia chiiki wo taishotoshita taiki osen busshitsu no haishutsuryo suikei. Chugoku ni okeru io sankabutsu no jin`i kigen haishutsuryo suikei

    Higashino, H.; Tonooka, Y.; Yanagisawa, Y. [Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Kyoto (Japan); Ikeda, Y. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). College of Engineering


    Anthropogenic emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in China was investigated to establish an emission inventory on air pollutants in East Asia. Major objectives of the study were to establish the emission inventory having the most detailed emission categories and regional resolution comparing with previous works, and being expandable to other air pollutants. Under popularization of desulfurization, conventional methodologies face to limitation of data quality, but in this work the contribution of SO2 removal by recent installation of desulfurization units was also taken into account. China was selected as the first subjective country because China has the largest emission sources of SO2 in East Asia, which contribute a significant portion of acid deposition in Japan. By our estimation total amounts of 21 Tg of SO2 were emitted in China in 1990. About 90% of the SO2 came from coal combustion, and power and heat generation part was responsible for over 30% of the total discharge. The total amounts of the SO2 emission were classified by provinces, major cities, and two grid systems such as 80{times}80 km square and 1{degree}{times}1{degree} resolution. Emissions in Sichian, Shandong and Jiangus provinces were ranked as the top three. Chongqing, Shanghai and Chengdu were selected to be major cities for the SO2 emission. 30 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Fiscal 1998 overseas geological structure survey. Japan-China joint coal survey Mei-Xian project; 1998 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa hokokusho. Nippon Chugoku sekitan kyodo tansa Mei-Xian project



    Japan-China joint coal survey was made through seismic prospecting by Japanese group and drilling prospecting by Chinese group. Mei-Xian mine property includes coal seams of the Jurassic period, and is covered with the quaternary period stratum without any coal seam. The base of the quaternary period stratum exists at depth of 50-400m, while the coal seams at depth of 300-700m. Among 11 existing seams, the 1st and 5th seams are main objects for prospecting. The 5th seam of 0.2-8.96m (2.95m in average) thick is the most expected important one, distributing all over the mine property. The 5th seam also has branch seams spreading over 2.5km from east to west and 1.2km from south to north in the center part of the mine property. The 1st seam of 0-8.62m (2.90m in average) thick is most thick in the south part of the mine property. The theoretical amount of coal deposits in the whole coal seam is estimated to be nearly 290,000,000t by Chinese group (nearly 50% of it in the 5th seam). That is also estimated to be nearly 346,000,000t by Japanese group (155,000,000t in the 5th seam). Both 1st and 5th seams are composed of sub-bituminous coal. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 2000 survey of geological structures overseas. Exchange of engineers with China (Coal mining technology); 2000 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa hokokusho. Gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kenshu Chugoku



    A coal mining engineer exchange project was implemented by Japan and China for improving on coal mining engineers' production and management technologies in the Asia-Pacific region. Six engineers were dispatched to the jurisdiction of Kailuan Co., Ltd., Tangshan City, who stayed there in the period November 12 through December 2, 2000. The six engineers gave lectures and training on the coal situation in the world, coal mining technology, degassing technology, production control technology, safety management technology, management technology, and the like. Ten trainees were received, who were given lectures and training at Taiheiyo Coal Mining Corporation, Kushiro City, in the period November 12 through December 2, 2000. Coal mining technologies that were taught involved drift excavation, rock-bed excavation, rock bolting, and transportation. Production control technologies that were taught involved production control, equipment management, technology development, quality control, risk control, and management technologies. (NEDO)

  17. FY 2000 international exchange project on exchanges of engineers - Coal mine technology field. Overseas workshop (China); 2000 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Kaigai workshop (Chugoku)



    For the purpose of making technical exchanges with coal mine related engineers in China and surveying levels of coal production technology and the needs in China and possibilities of technology transfer from Japan, workshop was held and technical tours were made. On December 13, 2000, a workshop was held in China which was named 'Japan-China Joint Coal Project Workshop: Environment/Production/Security.' Participants were 112 including 16 from Japan and 96 from China. Subjects were as follows: subjects on coal resource and technical strategy in the 21st century, technical exchange project and technical development, Japan-China technical cooperation project, report on the operational situation of China Coal Industry Environmental Preservation Safety Training Center, Japan-China Joint Project on spontaneous combustion prevention technology, CMG recovery/utilization system joint demonstration project, Japan-China joint coal exploration project, Japan-China coal field geology joint exploration project, etc. (NEDO)

  18. Research report for fiscal 1998 on the basic research on the promotion of joint implementation and so forth. Coalbed methane collection and utilization project in China; 1998 nendo Chugoku ni okeru tanko methane gas kaishu riyo project chosa hokokusho



    China is surveyed for promotion of joint implementation, which is one of the flexibility measures in the Kyoto Protocol, the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The project aims to collect methane for global warming suppression and to use it as town gas and for power generation as well. The survey covers the 2 coalfields of Yangquan and Panjiang. The Yangquan coalfield is the largest anthracite yielding base in China, with 6 mines in operation. Power generation centering on a 100MW plant is discussed, and generation fired by a mixture of debris out of the coal preparation facility and gas is compared with another fired by town gas, on the assumption that 130-million m{sup 3} is available under the current circumstances. In the case of the Panjiang coalfield, which is expected to develop into a large coal base in the southern part of China, power generation centering on a 50MW plant fired by a mixture of debris and gas is discussed, on the assumption that 63-million m{sup 3} is collectable from the existing 5 mines. Use of town gas is also studied. When Japan's coalbed methane collection technology is applied, the gas drainage rate will be elevated to 40-35% or higher. It is desired that the use of gas drainage will be further diffused for the prevention of disasters of coal mine gas explosion. It is hoped that the use of environmentally friendly energies will be enhanced. (NEDO)

  19. FY 1998 annual report on the survey on overseas geological structures. Program for exchanging engineers (coal mining area) with China; Gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) Chugoku 1998 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo chosa



    Japanese coal mining engineers were dispatched to China, to transfer techniques for mining in mine cavities and general production management techniques covering, e.g., safety, transportation and ventilation, and techniques for discovering and solving problem, in order to help improve productivity in China's coal mining. In this year, the lectures were given to managers of including manager of Meitan Industrial Zhenzhou in Henan province in China. A total of 7 lecturers, 6 from Taiheiyo Coal Mining and one from Coal Energy Center, were dispatched from Japan. The themes included outline of Taiheiyo Coal Mining; excavation techniques; transportation techniques/ventilation management/production management; equipment management/technological development/improvement of working conditions/cost management; quality management/emergency management/management of enterprises/education of employees; outline of management techniques; entering of Chaohua meitan Mine; group discussion/problems listing-up/5-stage problem solution procedure (introduction of examples); questionnaire analysis/group discussion; preparation of self check lists/roles of managers. It is considered that Japan's advanced techniques are very useful for the Chinese coal industry. (NEDO)

  20. Adsorption of rare earth metal ion by algae. Sorui ni yoru kidorui ion no kyuchaku

    Kuwabara, T.; Yazawa, A. (Miyagi National College of Technology, Miyagi (Japan))


    This paper reports the result of investigations on adsorption of rare earth metal ion by using algae, and adsorption of different metal ions by using egg white and soy bean protein. Rare earth metal ion is adsorbed at a considerably high rate with alga powder of different kinds. The adsorption has been judged to be cation exchange reactive adsorption, while with use of spirulina and chlorella a maximum value of adsorption rate has been observed at pH from 3 to 4.5. Therefore, selective adsorption and separation of metal ions other than rare earth metal ion has become possible. When the blue pigment extracted from spirulina, the spirulina blue, is used, the rare earth metal ion had its selective adsorption and separation performance improved higher than using spirulina itself at pH from 3 to 4.5. As a result of adsorption experiment using egg white and soy bean protein, it has been found that the metal ion adsorption behavior of the spirulina blue depends on coagulative action of protein structure to some extent. However, the sharp selective adsorption performance on rare earth metal ion due to particular pH strength has been found because of actions unique to the pigment structure of phycocyanin, a major component in the spirulina blue. 7 refs., 19 figs.

  1. Indoor air pollution by particulate matter; Ryushijo busshitsu ni yoru osen

    Irie, T. [Shinshu Univ., Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Education


    This paper explains the standards and the purport of the law for maintenance of sanitation in buildings, the outbreak of sickness relating to the sick-building syndrome and its countermeasures, etc., in connection with particulate matters in the indoor environment. The law of 1970 specified 0.15mg/m{sup 3} as the standard of indoor maintenance control for suspended particulate matters. As a number of data were subsequently accumulated, however, it was revealed that tobacco smoke particles were the very cause of the indoor particulate pollution though it was unpredicted at the beginning. As a result, it led to the development of high level filters, improvement of air conditioning operation, measures for smoking, and so on, for which the regulation of 0.15mg/m{sup 3} has been believed to be correct after all. The most frequently disqualified item was particulate matters at the initial enforcement of the law, but the moisture standard has been ranked first in recent years. The problems of tobacco smoke, asbestos and allergens are particularly to be watched among many problems involved. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation; Hoshako reiki ni yoru hyomenko hanno process

    Imaizumi, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Materials Research; Yoshigoe, A. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Urisu, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan). Institute for Molecular Science


    This paper introduces the surface photo reaction processes using synchrotron radiation, and its application. A synchrotron radiation process using soft X-rays contained in electron synchrotron radiated light as an excited light source has a possibility of high-resolution processing because of its short wave length. The radiated light can excite efficiently the electronic state of a substance, and can induce a variety of photochemical reactions. In addition, it can excite inner shell electrons efficiently. In the aspect of its application, it has been found that, if radiated light is irradiated on surfaces of solids under fluorine-based reaction gas or Cl2, the surfaces can be etched. This technology is utilized practically. With regard to radiated light excited CVD process, it may be said that anything that can be deposited by the ordinary plasma CVD process can be deposited. Its application to epitaxial crystal growth may be said a nano processing application in thickness direction, such as forming an ultra-lattice structure, the application being subjected to expectation. In micromachine fabricating technologies, a possibility is searched on application of a photo reaction process of the radiated light. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Laser material purification of neodymium. Hikari reiki seiseiho ni yoru neodymium no kojundoka

    Ogawa, Y.; Ozaki, T.; Yoshimatsu, S. (National Research Institute for Metals, Tokyo (Japan)); Chiba, K.; Umeda, H.; Saeki, M. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    Selective photoexcitation and photoionization of neodymium atoms were studied basically by using laser. Also, using their properties, feasibility of laser material purification (LPM) technology in gaseous phase was presented. In the selective 3-step ionization, laser beam with two kinds of proper wave length causes resonance exitation of the target element, which goes up to the excitation level of the first step, and the element is ionized by the second laser beam and the third laser beam. The 3-step ionization scheme by a single wave length laser beam of 577.612nm was used for the ionization of Nd. Nd ionized selectively by laser beam was recovered as thin layer at the negative potential side of plane electrodes placed at both sides of the laser irradiation area. In the layer formed by the TPD technology with this scheme, it is possible to decrease impuritis such as Pr by 1/16 and to form highly purified thin layer. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Continuous gravity monitoring of geothermal activity; Renzoku juryoku sokutei ni yoru chinetsu katsudo no monitoring

    Sugihara, M. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    To clarify the geothermal activity in the geothermal fields in New Zealand, gravity monitoring was conducted using SCINTREX automatic gravimeter. The measurements were conducted between the end of January and the beginning of March, 1996. Firstly, continuous monitoring was conducted at the standard point for about ten days, and the tidal components were estimated from the records. After that, continuous monitoring was conducted at Waimangu area for several days. Continuous monitoring was repeated at the standard point, again. At the Waimangu area, three times of changes in the pulse-shape amplitude of 0.01 mgal having a width of several hours were observed. For the SCINTREX gravimeter, the inclination of gravimeter is also recorded in addition to the change of gravity. During the monitoring, the gravimeter was also inclined with the changes of gravity. This inclination was useful not only for the correction of gravity measured, but also for evaluating the ground fluctuation due to the underground pressure source. It is likely that the continuous gravity monitoring is the relatively conventional technique which is effective for prospecting the change of geothermal reservoir. 2 figs.

  5. Groundwater exploration by self-potential method; Shizen den`iho ni yoru chikasui tansa

    Onaru, I.; Irie, S.; Mizunaga, H.; Ushijima, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper describes results measured from the field experiments and data analysis of the groundwater exploration by self-potential method. The field survey was conducted in the vicinity of spring water source in the suburbs of Fukuoka City. For the field experiments, potential differences from the standard potential electrode set at the distance about 200 m were measured at multi-points, simultaneously. For the laboratory experiments, assuming that the groundwater flows in a permeable layer, streaming potential change was observed against the changes of flow rate and electrical conductivity. Thus, the generation of streaming potential was investigated. For the experiment using specimens obtained at the spring water source, the potential changed to negative and was stabilized in around -80 mV after 15 minutes. Numerical simulation was conducted by means of the three-dimensional finite difference method using parameters obtained from the laboratory experiments. From these results, the groundwater flow image could be obtained. It was also confirmed that the self-potential observed in the spring water source area was caused by the streaming potential. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  6. 3D pre-stack time migration; Kiruhihoffuho ni yoru sanjigen jugo mae jikan migration shori

    Nakajima, Y.; Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper reports pre-stack migration in elastic wave exploration as to its algorithm and examples of processed data. The time migration processing hypothesizes that seismic waves propagate linearly. It calculates travel time by dividing the sum of the straight distance from a vibration transmitting point to an image point and the straight distance from the image point to a vibration receiving point with RMS velocity given as a parameter. To maintain the relative relation of amplitude sizes, the signal on an elliptic body is made smaller in inverse proportion to the size of that elliptic body. With regard to apparent interval of input trace as seen from the reflection surface, or with regard to density, the signal is made smaller by cos{theta} times. While this program deals with three-dimensional migration, its output turns out as an arbitrary two-dimensional plane. The program requires a huge amount of data processing, whereas a method is used, that the input trace is divided, each group is processed by using separate computers, and the results are summed up. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Depolymerization of coal by oxidation and alkylation; Sanka bunkai to alkyl ka ni yoru sekitan kaijugo

    Tomita, H.; Isoda, T.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hayashi, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology


    Change in depolymerization degree and coal structure was studied for depolymerization treatment of coal in various alcohol containing aqueous hydrogen peroxide. In experiment, the mixture of Yallourn coal, alcohol and aqueous hydrogen peroxide was agitated in nitrogen atmosphere of normal pressure at 70{degree}C for 12 hours. As the experimental result, the methanol solubility of only 5% of raw coal increased up to 35.2% by hydrogen peroxide treatment, while the yield of insoluble matters also decreased from 94% to 62%. Most of the gas produced during treatment was composed of inorganic gases such as CO and CO2, and its carbon loss was extremely decreased by adding alcohol. From the analytical result of carbon loss in hydrogen peroxide treatment, it was clarified that alkylation advances with introduction of alkyl group derived from alcohol into coal by hydrogen peroxide treatment under a coexistence of alcohol, and depolymerization reaction of coal itself is thus promoted by alcohol. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Surface improvement of asbestos by wet process. Shisshiki shori ni yoru asbesto no hyomen kaishitsu

    Yasue, T.; Kojima, Y.; Obata, H.; Ogura, T.; Arai, Y. (Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering)


    The eluting process of each ion in asbestos was pursued up to the decomposition by processing with hydrochloric acid and phosphoric acid to verify the acid processing condition making asbestos harmless and holding the fibrous structure. The decomposition of asbestos is significantly affected by the eluting condition. When treated by 3N hydrochloric acid, Mg{sup 2+} in asbestos elutes perfectly after 7days at 20 centigrade and after 30 minutes at 100 centigrade, remaining amorphous silica of comparatively high purity. When asbestos fiber which was acid-processed to exchange almost all sites with Ca{sup 2+} ion after Mg{sup 2+} in the first to fifth layers eluted, is put in Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} solution, hydroxyapatite is formed on the surface. When this asbestos is hydrothermally processed in the Ca(OH){sub 2} solution adjusted so that the atomic ratio of Ca{sup 2+}/Si{sup 4+} to silicate radical remained on the surface becomes 0.8, calcium silicate hydrate is formed on the surface. 22 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Preparation of hydroxyapatite whiskers by hydrothermal method; Suinetsuho ni yoru hidorokishi apataito hoisuka no gosei

    Asaoka, N. [Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Electronics Technology Research Center; Suda, H. [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshimura, M. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Lab. of Engineering Materials


    In order to make good use of crystallographic anisotropy of hydroxyapatite (HAp : Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) positively, synthesizing method for whiskery HAp crystals which are elongated along the C-axis has been investigated. Adding suitable amounts of citric acid (Cit.) on HAp slurries with two different concentrations of 1.7 and 4.4 wt%, these slurries became clear solutions. Each solution of 1.0L was hydrothermally treated respectively in an autoclave at a temperature 200{degree}C for 0,1,2,3,5 and 10h. As a result, no HAp whiskers could be obtained from the solutions containing 4.4 wt% of HAp. From the solutions containing 1.7% of HAp, whiskers could be obtained only when the Cit. /HAp ratio was more than 14.8 and the time of hydrothermal treatment was more than 3h. The whiskers were from 10 to 30{mu}m in length and about 0.5{mu}m in diameter. Excepting the above conditions, plate-like calcium hydrogenphosphate (monetite) was obtained in return. This writer took into consideration about the reason on the rise and fall of obtaining the whiskers. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Countermeasures for increasing sequence continuous casting; Renchu kinosei taikabutsu zaishitsu, kozo kaizen ni yoru renrenchusu kojosaku

    Tsuda, Masato; Shinagawa, Hiroaki; Kamada, Ryuji; Hiraga, Yutaka; Hara, Takayasu [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    In the second continuous casting line of Kure Iron Works, Nisshin Steel Co., Ltd. improvement of the continuous casting counts per tundish was attempted for a target of max. 20. The results are as follows: (1) Non-SiO{sub 2} conversion of material for the long nozzle immersed part: About 20% improvement of durability compared with a conventional material to clear 0.059 mm/min of the targeted erosion speed when 20 CCC/TD is realized, (2) Durability improvement of SN plate: About 20% durability improvement was attained compared with a conventional material by the adoption of a non-SiO{sub 2} material, (3) Erosion resistance improvement of the immersed nozzle slug line part: Castable period was extended to 1 ch life improvement by increasing zirconia content, (4) Rise of stopper full open position: The rise of the full open position produced less variation of melt level than the conventional structure without increase of the SN opening, enabling plugging prevention between the stopper head and the upper nozzle which was an objective of this improvement, (5) Structure improvement of the upper nozzle: This improvement successfully prevented leaks from damage of the casting stop nozzle metal case and enabled casting under low gas flow even in TD nozzle plugging. These improvements gave a possibility to achieve max. 20 CCC/TD. (NEDO)

  11. Faults survey by 3D reflection seismics; Sanjigen hanshaho jishin tansa ni yoru danso chosa

    Tsuchiya, T.; Ejiri, T.; Yamada, N.; Narita, N.; Aso, H.; Takano, H.; Matsumura, M. [Dia Consultants Company, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes fault survey by 3D seismic reflection exploration. Survey has been conducted mainly at flat land area without pavement not in urban area in Japan. Subsurface structure is complicated with intersecting multiple faults. In this area, a lot of geological investigations have been done prior to the seismic reflection exploration. Fairly certain images of faults have been obtained. However, there were still unknown structures. Survey was conducted at an area of 170m{times}280m in the CDP range. Measurements were carried out by using 100 g of dynamite per seismic generation point combined with 40 Hz velocity geophones. Fixed distribution consisting of lattice points of 12{times}12 was adopted as an observation method. In and around the lattice, a great number of explosions were carried out. The CDP stacking method and the method of migration after stacking were used for the data processing. The 3D structures of six horizons and five faults could be interpreted. Interpreted horizons were well agreed with the logging results. 3 figs.

  12. Foods hygiene management according to HACCP.; HACCP ni yoru shokuhin eisei kanri

    Seki, T. [Niigata Enginering Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    New foods hygiene management system HACCP(Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) was explained, which prevents food poisoning. Followings are described; (1) Outline of HACCP, (2) History of HAPPC, (3) Process to perform HACCP, (4) Infrastructure for HACCP, (5) How to promote HACCP, (6) Certification system in Japan. HACCP secures the safety in foods hygiene by making rules of Critical Control Points (CCP) on foods hygiene and by administrating strictly their performance. Details of works, frequency and person in charge of the work and methods to confirm and record the work are prescribed in PP (Prerequisite Program) and SSOP (Sanitation Standard Operation Procedure). (NEDO)

  13. Active control of aerodynamic noise; Active control ni yoru furyoku soon no seigyo

    Nishimura, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper introduces summary and examples of active noise control (ANC) and active flow control (AFC) as the aerodynamic noise control techniques. The ANC is a technique to generate noise of a reverse phase which cancels the original noise. Noise reduced especially effectively by the ANC is noise from fans and ducts used for engine air supply and exhaust. The ANC is effective in low frequencies, and when used with a passive method, a compact exhaust silencer can be realized, which has high noise reducing performance over the whole frequency band and has low pressure loss. Signal processing in active noise reduction system is always so adjusted that noise is discharged from a secondary noise source in which signals detected by a detection microphone is given a digital filter treatment, and output from an error microphone is minimized. The AFC has been incapable of realizing a reverse phase over a wide frequency band when depended on analog treatment. However, the authors have developed an adaptive type feedback control system, and verified that the system can be applied to any frequency variation and control it in a stable manner. 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Characterization of earthquake fault by borehole experiments; Koseinai sokutei ni yoru jishin danso no kenshutsu

    Ito, H.; Miyazaki, T.; Nishizawa, O.; Kuwahara, Y.; Kiguchi, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    A borehole was excavated to penetrate the Nojima fault at the Hirabayashi area, to investigate the underground structures of the fault by observation of the cores and well logging. The borehole was excavated from 74.6m east of the fault surface. Soil is of granodiorite from the surface, and fault clay at a depth in a range from 624.1 to 625.1m. Observation of the cores, collected almost continuously, indicates that the fault fracture zone expands in a depth range from 557 to 713.05m. The well logging experiments are natural potential, resistivity, density, gamma ray, neutron, borehole diameter, microresistivity and temperature. They are also for DSI- and FMI-observation, after expansion of the borehole. The well logging results indicate that resistivity, density and elastic wave velocity decrease as distance from fault clay increases, which well corresponds to the soil conditions. The BHTV and FMI analyses clearly detect the fault clay demarcations, and show that elastic wave velocity and BHTV results differ at above and below the fault. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Monitoring of ground water aquifer by electrical prospecting; Denki tansaho ni yoru chikasui monitoring

    Ushijima, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Faculty of Engineering (Japan)


    This paper describes three case studies for monitoring ground water aquifers by electrical prospecting. An example in the Hofu plain, Yamaguchi Prefecture is presented, where the ground water environment has been monitored for more than 30 years from the viewpoint of hydrology. Then, transition from the fresh ground water to sea water is evaluated by a sharp boundary as salt-water wedges through the field survey in a coastal area of a large city for a short term using vertical electrical prospecting. Moreover, streaming potential measurements are described to grasp the real-time behavior of ground water flow. From the long-term monitoring of ground water aquifer, it was found that the variation of ground water streaming can be evaluated by monitoring the long-term successive change in the resistivity of ground water aquifer. From the vertical electrical prospecting, water quality can be immediately judged through data analysis. From the results of streaming potential measurements and vertical electrical prospecting using Schlumberger method, streaming behavior of ground water in the area of spring water source can be estimated by determining three-dimensional resistivity structure. 17 refs., 15 figs.

  16. Berthing control with multi-agent system; Multi agent system ni yoru chakusan seigyo

    Ito, H. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)


    The berthing of a ship is a kind of control operations of position, speed and direction of a ship in order to bring a ship alongside a quay. Berthing control is accompanied with a hard problem in which the 6 freedoms of position and speed in 3 directions such as fore and behind, right and left and a revolution must be controlled. In this study, a concept of the agent was introduced as a means of berthing. The agent is a computer program which can be worked in a person`s place. If an autonomous intelligence is carried on each element such as a tugboat or a propeller of ship, the element is able to act based on judgement decided by itself without an instruction from a control center. Thereby, the berthing control system as a multi-agent system having an adaptability and a cooperativeness will be realized. Then the multi-agent system to help berthing was constructed by applying the Muller`s three phase model as a cooperative autonomous agent and by sharing the role of each phase. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Purification of carbon nanotube by wet oxidation; Shisshiki sanka ni yoru carbon nanotube no seisei

    Morishita, K.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan)


    In order to efficiently recover carbon nanotubes, the purification method by wet oxidation with orthoperiodic acid and perchloric acid is investigated. The reactivity of the carbonaceous material toward the acids depends on the type of carbon. Carbon nanotubes are selectively recovered under the mild oxidation conditions. The degree of purification depends on the concentration of orthoperiodic acid. It is suggested that wet oxidation is an effective method for purification of carbon nanotubes. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Spray visualization by laser sheet tomography; Laser sheet ni yoru funmu danmen no kashikaho

    Oda, T.; Hiroyasu, H. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Laser sheet tomography was applied to the visualization of the cross section of a spray. In this method, fluorescent dye, eosine-Y(C20H6Br4Na2O), was used at a concentration of 10 g/l of the injectant, water, and the light source which illuminated the spray was a Nd: YAG laser (532 wavelength, 20ns pulse width) in laser sheet tomography. The thickness of the laser sheet which was scattered by the spray was measured to elucidate the effect of the concentration of fluorescent dye in the injected liquid. In the case of water without eosine-Y, multiscattered light-illuminated drops were observed outside of the laser sheet therefore the thickness of the laser sheet increased. However, in the case of water with eosine-Y, there were few drops which were illuminated by the multiscattered light, and only drops which existed within the laser sheet scattered green laser light and emitted the yellow fluorescent light of eosine-Y. 11 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Biomodification of edible fats and oils by yeasts; Kobo ni yoru shokuyo yushi no seibutsugakuteki kaishitsu

    Fujimoto, K.; Endo, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture


    Lipid-biomodification ability was examined for yeasts isolated from soil using culture medium containing beef tallow (2%). Some yeasts, e.g. Candida, Trichosporon and Rhodotorula species were able to grow on fats and oils. Fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions were modified in lipids of some strains. Candida sp. MIS-1 and YM1-1 preferentially produced oleic acid. Candida sp. MIS-1 had high level of triacylglycerol with a melting point like olive oil. Fatty acid composition of lipids in Candida lipolytica IAM4948 and Rhodotorula sp. AO3-5 was similar to that of cacao butter. Yeast oils obtained from C. lipolytica provided the melting characterization different from beef tallow. 30 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Simulation of Korotkoff sounds by starling resistor; Sutaringu rejisuta ni yoru korotokofu on no mogi

    Hayashi, S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Fluid Science


    Starling resistor is a device in which the both ends of a collapsible tube are connected to a solid tube and external pressure is applied from the circumference to flatten the tube, and is used as a constant flow maintenance device in biological experiments. The validity of a mathematical model is established by numerical analysis of the static characteristics of starling resistor, stability of constant flow, and produced self-excited oscillation. Using the model, transient artery blood flow is simulated under the same conditions as those of human indirect blood pressure measurement. Oscillatory waves similar to Korotkoff sound are obtained in sectional area time differential waveform when the external pressure is between the blood pressure in contraction stage and that in expansion stage. It is confirmed by the locus of phase plane that this characteristic oscillation is produced in unstable region of the tube static characteristics. This fact seems to suggest that Korotkoff sound is closely related to unstable behavior due to non-linearity particular to collapsible tubes. 13 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Ground water contamination by electrical prospecting; Denki tansaho ni yoru chikasui osen chosa

    Irie, S.; Fujii, Y.; Sakaguchi, S.; Ushijima, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A report is made about the result of vertical electric sounding conducted in the MK district, Fukuoka City, where Kyushu University is about to move. As for the method of electrical prospecting, in consideration of the need for probing a depth of 50m at the shallowest, vertical electrical sounding with a Schlumberger array of electrodes was employed. Measurements were made for 57 locations on the planar ground, the interval between electrodes gradually increased from 1 to 200m. In the 2D structure model analysis, a 2D inversion program was utilized in the ABIC minimization method. Also investigated were the relationship of electric prospecting and the geology, geological conditions, water level in the well, water quality, salt water, and pore rate from the previously-conducted investigative boring. As the result, it was estimated that the boundary between the first and second layers detected by electric prospecting reflected the level of underground water and that the boundary between the second and third layers reflected the portion where the N-value sharply increases. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Archaeological prospecting by DEF method; Denkai zansaho ni yoru iseki tansa

    Kishikawa, H.; Aono, T.; Tanaka, T.; Mizunaga, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A study is made of a newly-developed differential electric field (DEF) method, wherein potentials between potential electrodes equidistant from a current electrode is measured for directly detecting the secondary potential attributable to an anomalous-resistivity body. In this method, a current is fed into the ground from a point source C1, and four potential electrodes, two each on the X-axis and Y-axis, are provided equidistant from the point source C1 for the measurement of the potentials in the directions of X and Y. Numerical experiments and field experiments in a playground were conducted for this DEF method, and it was found that this method is effective in detecting an anomalous-resistivity bodies (ruins, etc.) situated in a homogeneous medium or in a horizontal multi-layer structure, is capable of displaying anomalous vectors enabling the estimation of the direction from the observation point of the anomalous-resistivity body, improves on work efficiency over the conventional mapping method, enables the estimation of the boundary of the anomalous-resistivity body on the basis of the peak of the anomalous electric field residue on the display, and that the obtained data can be easily processed by use of a personal computer on the site. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Seismic traveltime tomography by use of gridpoints discritization; Koshitenho ni yoru danseiha tomography kaiseki

    Hirai, T.; Watanabe, T.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Efforts were made to enhance analytical precision and stabilize the results in seismic traveltime tomography by use of a method wherein the velocity distribution is expressed as a continuous function interpolated by parameters respectively assigned to the gridpoints. In this method, the slowness data are regarded as the parameters respectively assigned to the gridpoints, and the slowness value at a given point is determined after interpolation by the gridpoints surrounding the said point. A method based on the variation principle was used for ray tracing. As the result, it was confirmed that this method determines the ray path and traveltime with high precision. A method of least squares using Lagrange`s multiplier was applied for inversion. Comparison was made between the use of cells and the use of gridpoints in the results of inversions performed for an inclined 4-layer structure model, when it was found that the values involving the boundaries between layers, inclinations of the layers, and velocities of seismic waves are ambiguous with the cells while those with the gridpoints are reconstructed roughly correctly. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. FY1995 community support by mobile agents; 1995 nendo mobile agent ni yoru community keisei shien



    The purpose is to develop fundamental technologies for navigation systems and mobile computing systems in museums, theme parks and cities. Concretely, we implement software agents into the mobile computing environment which consists of PHS, mobile computers and mobile robots, and realize various functions to access regional information. We have studied on Communityware which supports human activities and communities by using mobile agents implemented into mobile computers and town robots. The mobile agents, which intelligently process information obtained in physical and virtual worlds, access regional information which is omnipresent in the environment. With respect to the approach using mobile computers, we have provided one hundred mobile computers in the international conference on multiagent systems 1996 and carried out the first experimentation of mobile computing in the world. The mobile computer has two functions: Community Viewer which displays interactions between members of communities and Social Matchmaker which supports to hold meetings by searching for people who have common interests. With respect to the approach using town robots, we have developed a robot system which can robustly behave in a complex outdoor environment by using vision agents embedded in the environment. The system aims at support of people in streets. (NEDO)

  5. Keynote report by special guest. Tokubetsu guest ni yoru kicho hokoku


    A lecture at the Maui meeting of U.S.-Japan Energy Policy Consultations was delivered by Mr.Yoichi Funabashi, General Director in the U.S., Asahi Shimbun Publishing Company. The historical significance of Japan's diplomatic policy since the U.K.-Japan Alliance and the present situation in Japan, the U.S. and China were explained. As a present problem in Japan, it was pointed out that the votes of urban electors were not fully reflected in the number of parliamentary seats, and votes in agricultural and rural districts applied imbalanced pressure to Japanese politics, and negative pressure to politic parties insisting market liberation and with an international global view. In addition, since the Hosokawa administration, there has been power vacuum, political and financial power weakened, and the Ministry of Finance has filled the vacuum. According to his lecture, it was unclear who promoted regulation relaxation, and administration reforms in their true sense. The economic community should propose policy plans independently, and should have them reflected in decision making of the nation. Also it was important to maintain and strengthen the value of the U.S.-Japan alliance relation.

  6. Separation of flavonoids by means of solvent extraction; Yobai chushutsuho ni yoru flavonoid rui no bunri

    Kitazaki, H.; Ishimaru, M. [Tsumura and Co., Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, K.; Nakamura, S. [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering


    Some herb medicines may contain various flavonoids. The bioactivity of them has been attracted attention. In this paper, the separating purification method by solvent extraction was investigated. The extractant is di (ethylhexyl) amine, tributyl phosphate, N,N-dioctyl hexanamide, trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO), and Cyanex 925. Flavonoids are considered to be separated based on the difference of solubility in an ethanol solution, the existence of a glycoside in flavonoids, and the number of hydroxyl groups or their bonding position. For example, flavone, flavonol, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, baicalein, and baicalin are used as the representative substance of flavonoids. If a target substance is baicalin, this mixture is dissolved in an ethanol solution to eliminate insoluble matter such as flavonol. Next, flavone is extracted and eliminated by hexane. In the last step, the target baicalin is left in raffinate by TOPO or Cyanex 925. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Three dimensional wavefield modeling using the pseudospectral method; Pseudospectral ho ni yoru sanjigen hadoba modeling

    Sato, T.; Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Saeki, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    Discussed in this report is a wavefield simulation in the 3-dimensional seismic survey. With the level of the object of exploration growing deeper and the object more complicated in structure, the survey method is now turning 3-dimensional. There are several modelling methods for numerical calculation of 3-dimensional wavefields, such as the difference method, pseudospectral method, and the like, all of which demand an exorbitantly large memory and long calculation time, and are costly. Such methods have of late become feasible, however, thanks to the advent of the parallel computer. As compared with the difference method, the pseudospectral method requires a smaller computer memory and shorter computation time, and is more flexible in accepting models. It outputs the result in fullwave just like the difference method, and does not cause wavefield numerical variance. As the computation platform, the parallel computer nCUBE-2S is used. The object domain is divided into the number of the processors, and each of the processors takes care only of its share so that parallel computation as a whole may realize a very high-speed computation. By the use of the pseudospectral method, a 3-dimensional simulation is completed within a tolerable computation time length. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Nondestructive material characterization with laser ultrasound. Laser choonpa ni yoru hihakai zaishitsu keisoku

    Suzuki, N.; Takamatsu, H.; Arai, A.; Yanai, S.; Ogawa, T.; Akamatsu, M. (Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe (Japan). Electronics Research Lab.)


    From the requirement of shortening time for delivery of goods, an equipment of evaluating the characteristics of steel plates in on-line is expected. Concerning this problem, development of an equipment for measuring the lankford value (r-value) of the cold rolled steel plates at outlet in the continuous annealing line by using the Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) was reported. However, since measurement is performed by using the electromagnetic force in this equipment sensor is necessary to be put near a steel plate, so that its application is limited. In this paper, the multiple reflecting echos of laser ultrasound to the thin steel plates were measured by using the Fabry-Perot interferometer that is suitable to be applied in the wide-band measurement of ultrasound. Application to measurement of crystal grain size of steel plates by using this method was clarified. In evaluating the measurement of crystal grain size, the necessaries were described concerning which bottom echos would be selected for reducing the errors caused by widening range of echos due to the irradiating diameter of excitation laser. Components of low frequencies occurred among multiple reflects would be removed by a filter. 11 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Study on Cloud Detection and Cloud Phase Retrieval in Changchun Area%长春地区云检测及云相态反演研究

    杨春燕; 陈圣波; 包书新; 宋金红


    采用经ENVI几何校正、定标及裁剪等预处理的2008年10月1日04:25和18:00(UTM)的MODIS L1B数据,利用MODIS云检测Ackerman方法及云相态反演红外二光谱技术,对长春地区进行了云检测和云相态反演.从检测及反演结果中看出,云检测及白天云相态反演效果都很好,而在夜晚条件下,由于低温,存在较大面积的不确定相态区域.

  10. Research on the Industry-Academia-Research Cooperation Mechanism of Local University and College--Take Changchun University of Science and Technology as an Example

    Yang, Qiong; Li, Bo


    Local university and college take as their own responsibilities to serve local economy and promote social development. For them, the cooperation mechanism "Industry-Academia-Research" is not only inevitable to keep up with the development of the times and education, but also necessary to adapt themselves to market demands. It is also the…

  11. 忆长春第一军医大学航空医学系%Recollections of Department of Aviation Medicine,Changchun 1st Military



    @@ 20世纪50年代初期,正值空军初创时期.建设空军,离不开高素质的航空医生队伍,长春第一军医大学航空医学系就是在这样的背景下成立的.1954年4月末,从第三、五、七军医大学、协和医学院和空军、海军抽调13名青年教学、医务干部作为进修生,在长春第三军医大学(第一、三军医大学合并后改称第一军医大学)成立了航空生理训练班,陈定一教授、孙景好指导员作领导,苏联专家保保夫为顾问,还有3名翻译,2名实验室技术员.后来,通过调进、毕业学员留系等途径,教学、技术人员队伍不断充实.至1958年6月,第一军医大学移交吉林省,改组为白求恩医科大学,航医系撤消为止,全系工作人员累计多达36人(含后期已调走的).4年间共完成第1期大学本科毕业生、第2期军医学校毕业生两个班100余名航医培训的工作,还完成了各军医大学、军医学校18名青年教师航空医学师资训练班的教学工作,并开展了一些科研课题的实验工作.

  12. Research on Revision of Training Program of the Economics and Management Specialties Based on the Training Mode--A Case Study from Changchun University of Science and Technology

    Qi, Dianwei; Yu, Shili


    With China's economic development and international competition intensifications, the society requires for talents from number requirements into the quality requirements, especially. Complex and high-class trend of modern industrial development demands compound talents. There are eight majors in college of the economics and management in Changchun…

  13. Drag reduction of high altitude airships by active boundary layer control. Effect of a cusp on the reduction; Nodo kyokaiso seigyo ni yoru koso hikosen no teiko teigen. Cusp ni yoru teigen koka

    Yamamura, N. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Matsuuchi, K.; Yamazaki, S.; Sasaki, A. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Onda, M. [Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tokyo (Japan)


    The aerodynamic character of station-keeping airships at high Reynolds numbers is examined. The boundary layer developing on the surface is sucked by an axial flow fan through a slot located at the rear part of the airship and the sucked gas is blown out as a jet. To know the effect of the cusp two models with and without a cusp attached to the inlet of the suction slot were used. The flow field near the inlet, in particular the pressure on the surface, was measured as the suction discharge was varied. We obtained the form drag by integrating the pressure distribution in a wide range of Reynolds number and of suction discharge. Taking into account the jet thrust and the calculated friction drag, we finally determined the total drag and evaluated the role of the cusp. It was found that the cusp plays an efficient role in reducing the drag. 7 refs., 12 figs.

  14. Study on the active noise control method and the effect of noise reduction due to the multi-connected branch dusts. Gyakuiso no fukaon ni yoru soon seigyoho no kento to tarengata bunkikan ni yoru soon keigen koka

    Nakao, Kiyoatsu.


    This paper reports the results of experimental studies on the utility of the active noise control method, and the effects of the multi-connected branch pipes silencer, concerning the reduction of noise. In the experiments of active noise control by using ducts, when the canceling sound was produced by the speaker set at the end of the short-length pipe corresponding to the one forth wave-length, the sound pressure of canceling noise was less one sixth as compared with setting the speaker at the wall of pipe. The noise reduction quantity to the random noise by the active noise control method was about as much as 15db. This method is not adaptable for noise with wide ranges of frequency. A branch pipe silencers, when it was used as multi-connected branch pipe, could extend the bounds of noise frequency which was able to be reduced and could increase the noise reduction quality. This silencer can deal with the fluctuation of frequency od noise and has higher practicability. 10 refs., 21 figs.

  15. Imaging technique for magnetic susceptibility and resistivity by electromagnetic tomography. 1. Numerical experiments; EM tomography ni yoru taijiritsu to hiteiko no imaging gijutsu. 1. Suchi jikken ni yoru kisoteki kento

    Sakashita, S.; Fukuoka, K. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper proposes imaging techniques which utilize electromagnetic waves in a wide frequency band for magnetic susceptibility and resistivity, and describes the basic investigation results by numerical experiments. The electromagnetic tomography generates electromagnetic waves by passing current through a receiving coil, to measure their magnetic components by an induction coil. The magnetic field generated by the electromagnetic waves can be handled as a pseudo-static one, when the current is passed at a sufficiently low frequency, and the field response measured by an induction coil contains information mainly regarding magnetic susceptibility. The field generates induction as transmitting frequency is increased, and the measured magnetic response contains mainly regarding resistivity. They can be measured for imaging susceptibility, when distance between the holes is 50 to 100m or less and transmitting frequency is 100 to 10Hz or less. The use of the expanded Born approximation allows to establish a high-speed model for imaging resistivity. 23 refs., 13 figs.

  16. Decomposition of water-soluble dyes by ozonation and its evaluation by color measurement methods; Suiyosei senryo no ozon sanka ni yoru dasshoku to shikido sokuteiho ni yoru hyoka

    Takahashi, N.; Nakai, T.; Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)


    In order to control colors in waste waters from dye making factories and dying factories, aqueous dye solutions having different hues and coloration were ozonated to measure and discuss the decoloration process by using different hue measurement methods. Sixteen kinds of dyes were selected, which have poor treatment efficiency in bio-treatment or coagulative precipitation. For absorbance method for hue measurement, two methods were used: a method to estimate absorbance at wavelengths of every 50 nm from 350 nm to 700 nm to measure its reduction rate, and a method for reduction rate of absorbance at the maximum absorption wavelength. The color difference method performed calculations using the permeability and coefficient at selected wavelengths divided into ten segments. In the dilution method, the hue was indicated by distilled water dilution magnification which was compared with that for the reference liquid. The absorbance method expressed the decoloration reaction in a pseudo-first order reaction expression, but the color difference method was incapable of indicating the decoloration process. The dilution method was capable of indicating the decoloration process by a behavior close to that in the absorbance method. Values derived from the absorbance method and the dilution method are related by a certain expression, based on which a proposal was made on a due control method approximated to visual decoloration sense. 13 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Formation of concentrated solid cluster in a liquid-solid mixture by ultrasonic wave. 3rd Report. Simulation by superposing Oseen`s flow field; Choonpa ni yoru suichu ryushi no cluster keisei. 3. Oseen sokudo kasaneawaseho ni yoru simulation

    Asakura, K.; Nakajima, I. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kaneko, T. [Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan); Hashimoto, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Imai, T. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The numerical calculation was carried out on the reported empirical result in the cluster formation of particles in water by ultrasonic wave. In addition, the attenuation of an ultrasonic wave was measured from sound pressure in a tube. Since the Reynolds number of the particles was less than 2, a method of using a local analytical solution was employed as the calculation method. A method superposing Oseen`s flow field was used for calculating the relative speed of the particles and the fluid. The following knowledge was obtained. It was observed from the actual measurement that the soundwave attenuated with the energy consumed through dispersion and absorption by the polyethylene particles in the fluid. The attenuation coefficient became larger in proportion to the particle concentration, with no difference caused by the particle size. Improvement was found necessary for the method of measuring attenuation factor in a high concentration area. It was judged possible, by verifying the mathematical method, to qualitatively calculate the interaction of the particles by the 1st order Oseen approximation. This method was applicable to a particle flow such as a standing wave in which particle movement is different in direction depending on the position. The method was effective to grasp the interaction of a discrete small number of particles but was limited in a large number. 14 refs., 16 figs.

  18. Exhaust heat recovery in internal combustion engine; Netsukokan ni yoru nainen kikan no hainetsu kaishu no kento

    Goto, E.; Kase, S.; Dong, D. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo (Japan)


    Discussions were given as measures to solve thermal efficiency and environmental problems on recovery of waste heat from an internal combustion engine by means of heat exchange. Means are used to increase the thermal efficiency and the output without changing any of the compression ratio, maximum temperature and maximum pressure in the internal combustion engine. The means consist of nearly isothermal compression of suction air and simultaneous exchange of heat in the compressed suction air with that in high-temperature exhaust gas to recover the heat. Since the isothermal compression and simultaneous heat exchange with the exhaust gas are carried out in place of adiabatic compression, the thermal efficiency increases by 4% to 11% in the compression ratio ranging from 10 to 20, and the output per working fluid unit flow rate increases by 19% to 37%. If the heat generated in catalytically purifying exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine is recovered by means of heat exchange, the thermal efficiency in an automotive engine may improve by more than 10%, serving for reducing pollutant production and saving the fuel consumption. Such concepts may also be conceivable as recovering vehicle braking energy as air pressure to be re-utilized for accelerating the restarting, and recovering the backpressure of exhaust gas by converting it into mechanical energy through expansion. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Production of energy and chemical substances by microalgae. Bisai morui ni yoru energy oyobi kagaku busshitsu no seisan

    Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Miura, Yoshiharu (Osaka Univ., Osaka, (Japan). Faculty of Pharamaceutical Science)


    Microalgae can fix carbon dioxide by photosynthesis but the conversion rate is only 5 to 6%. Dried algae contain different lipids of 20 to 40%. Therfore, it is desirable to culture a large amount of an alga or algae having high photosynthetic and lipid producing abilities in order to effectively convert photoenergy to liquid fuel. It is reported that US established the target of 50g dry wt/m{sup 2}/day by greatly improving the productivity for 4 years since 1982 and the lipid amount exceeded 60% in 1986. A method to make photosysnthesis during daytime to avoid the interference with oxygen and to generate hydrogen by decomposing stored organic substances during night is studied and regarded as promising. In addition, the production of vitamines and other fine chemicals by microalgae is also paid attention. 15 refs., 5 tabs., 3 tabs.

  20. Method for analyzing electromagnetic-force-induced vibration and noise analysis; Denjiryoku reiki ni yoru dendoki no shindo hoshaon kaisekiho

    Shiohata, K.; Nemoto, K.; Nagawa, Y.; Sakamoto, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Ito, M.; Koharagi, H. [Hitachi, Ltd, Tokyo (Japan)


    In this analysis method, electromagnetic force calculated by 2-dimensional analysis is transformed into external force for 3-dimensional structural-vibration analysis. And a modeling procedure for a vibrating structure is developed. Further, a space-modal-resonance criteria which relates electromagnetic force to structural-vibration or noise is introduced. In the structural-vibration analysis, the finite element method is used; and in the noise analysis, the boundary element method is used. Finally, vibration and noise of an induction motor are calculated using this criteria. Consequently, high-accuracy modeling is achieved and noise the calculated by the simulation almost coincides with that obtained by experiments. And it is clarified that the-space-modal resonance criteria is effective in numerical simulation. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Glass marking with diode-pumped Nd:YLF laser; Handotai reiki Nd:YLF laser ni yoru glass marking

    Sakai, F.; Hayashi, K. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The compact marking system based on a beam scanning system in which the fourth harmonic (FHG: 262 nm in wavelength) of a diode-pumped Nd:YLF (Nd:LiYf4) laser is used for the source of ultraviolet light is described. The result of application to the glass marking that caused a problem due to the generation of cracks is also explained. The machining characteristics significantly vary depending on the type of glass. During actual marking, sample processing must be beforehand carried out to optimize the processing conditions after confirming that there is no problem in practical use. For marking on the glass used for liquid-crystal board, it is valid to improve the density of a dot and increase the number of shots per dot for obtaining high visibility. However, cracks may occur in the clearance of each dot because of the thermal effect. Therefore, the processing conditions must be optimized according to the glass type and crack generation state. The generation of cracks can be suppressed by setting the processing conditions to the optimum level. As a result, satisfactory marking is obtained. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Glyco change of the vancomycin due to the chemical glycosylated; Kagaku gurikoshiruka ni yoru bankomaishin no tohenkaku

    Fukuzawa, Seiketsu


    Glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin is drawing attention of the organic composition chemist as a target of the composition from the peculiarity of that structure and the demand in medical treatment. I had the part of the aglycone, which consists of peptides made all the composition in 1997. However, effective activation isn`t shown, and the addition of the part of the sugar is indispensable only with an aglycone. The glycosylated of the part of the aglycone was done, and the re-composition was attained, and this completed all the formal composition. (NEDO)

  3. Application of vector CSAMT for the imaging of an active fault; CSAMT ho ni yoru danso no imaging

    Kobayashi, T.; Fukuoka, K. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    With an objective to identify three-dimensionally resistivity in deep fault in the Mizunawa fault in Fukuoka Prefecture, a measurement was carried out by using the CSAMT method. The measurement was conducted by arranging seven traverse lines, each line having observation points installed at intervals of about 500 m. Among the 68 observation points in total, 33 points performed the vector measurement, and the remaining points the scaler measurement. For observation points having performed the vector measurement, polarized wave eclipses were depicted in the electric field to discuss which direction the current will prevail in. For analyses, a one-dimensional analysis was performed by using an inversion with smoothing restriction, and a two-dimensional analysis was conducted by using the finite element method based on the result of the former analysis. The vector measurement revealed that the structure in the vicinity of a fault was estimated to have become complex, and the two-dimensional analysis discovered that the Mizunawa fault is located on a relatively clear resistivity boundary. In addition, it was made clear that the high resistivity band may even be divided into two regions of about 200 ohm-m and about 1000 ohm-m. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Detection of buried pipes by polarimetric borehole radar; Polarimetric borehole radar ni yoru maisetsukan no kenshutsu jikken

    Sato, M.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Nakauchi, T. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)


    If the borehole radar is utilized for detection of buried pipes, the underground radar measurement becomes possible even in the situation where the mesurement on the earth surface is difficult, for example, such a place as under the road where there is much traffic. However, since buried pipes are horizontally installed and the existing borehole radar can send/receive only vertical polarization, the measurement conducted comes to be poor in efficiency from a viewpoint of the polarization utilization. Therefore, by introducing the polarimetric borehole radar to the detection of buried pipes, a basic experiment was conducted for the effective detection of horizontal buried pipes. Proposing the use of a slot antenna which can send/receive horizontal polarization in borehole in addition to a dipole antenna which sends/receives vertical polarization, developed was a step frequency type continuous wave radar of a network analyzer basis. As a result of the experiment, it was confirmed that reflection from buried pipes is largely dependent on polarization. Especially, it was found that in the slot dipole cross polarization mesurement, reflection from buried pipes can be emphasized. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Structural changes in deashed coals induced by heat treatment; Kanetsu shori ni yoru dakkaitan no kozo henka

    Sugano, M.; Sekita, M.; Muramatsu, Y.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology


    Change in structures of 3 kinds of coals with different coal ranks and their deashed coals was studied by heat treatment below 200{degree}C. In experiment, crushed Adaro, Taiheiyo and Huaibei coals below 200mesh and their deashed coals were used as specimens. The coal and deashed coal specimens dried in vacuum at 110{degree}C for 3 hours were filled into an autoclave, and the heat-treated coal specimens were prepared by holding them under initial nitrogen pressure of 2kg/cm{sup 2} at a fixed temperature for 30min. Extraction using pyridine as solvent, volumetric swelling using methanol or benzene as solvent, and measurement of the amount of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl functional groups were conducted for these coal specimens. The experimental results are as follows. Huaibei coal has developed aromatic ring structure, and its structure is hardly affected by heat treatment. The oxygen containing functional groups decrease by heat treatment over 100{degree}C in Adaro coal and 150{degree}C in Taiheiyo coal, and PS, MQ and BQ also decrease due to aggregation between molecules. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Upgrading of brown coal by slurry-dewatering; Kattan no yuchu dassui ni yoru clean kotai nenryo no seizo

    Okuma, O.; Shimizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Shigehisa, T.; Deguchi, T.; Katsushima, S. [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)


    This paper describes an outline of solid fuel production process from brown coal and the investigation results of its elemental techniques. Dried coal is produced by this process which consists of a dewatering of crushed brown coal in oil-based solvent, a solid and liquid separation of slurry, and a remained oil recovery by heating. This process is characterized by the higher thermal efficiency compared with usual drying and the restraint of spontaneous combustion of product coal. It was revealed that solid fuel with low moisture, low ash, low sulfur, and suppressed spontaneous combustion property can be produced from Australian brown coal through this process. From the comparison between kerosene and fuel oil A, it was confirmed that the oil content during dewatering was smaller and the oil recovery by heating was easier by using a solvent with lower boiling point. It was also confirmed that the spontaneous combustion property can be suppressed using small amount of asphalt by solving asphalt in the solvent and adsorbing asphalt on the surface of brown coal. From these results, low rank coals including brown coal, which are difficult to use, are expected to be used as clean coal with low ash and low sulfur through this process. 2 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Wide area stabilization of a magnetic bearing using exact linearization; Genmitsuna senkeika ni yoru jiki jikuuke no koiki anteika

    Matsumura, F.; Namerigawa, T.; Murata, T. [Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan)


    An active magnetic bearing (AMB) is a bearing to suspend a rotor by magnetic forces without any contact. Feedback control is indispensable for a magnetic bearing, because it is essentially an unstable system. To design a feedback control system, a linear mathematical model of the plant is convenient, however the force of electromagnet is highly nonlinear. Then usually a linear approximation around the operating point is employed, but the obtained linearized model can not express the exact behavior of the system at any other operating points. In this paper, we discuss the wide area stabilization of magnetic bearing using exact linearization approach. At first, we derive a nonlinear mathematical model for a magnetic bearing, then we show this nonlinear system is belong to a class of exactly linearizable nonlinear systems. Next, by using exact linearization method, we transfer the nonlinear model of a magnetic bearing to a linear time invariant state model in spite of change of the operating point and the rotational speed of the rotor. Then we construct the state feedback control system by conventional LQ method. Finally, we evaluate the validity of our proposed method by experiment. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Quantification of tactile effect of building materials. Shokkaku ni yoru kenchiku shiage zairyo no kaiter dot fukaikan no teiryoka

    Okajima, T.; Wu, J. (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)); Takeda, Y. (Imamiya Technical High School, Osaka (Japan))


    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the quantification of the tactile effect of building finishing materials from their physical properties. On the basis of psychology and physiology, sensation and perception were interpreted. Three fundamental physical values, i.e., warmth, hardness, and roughness were taken up as the physical properties of the materials, and the relationship between these physical properties and the pleasant and unpleasant sensation was analyzed. For the measurement of perception of pleasant and unpleasant sensation, the method of sensory inspection or mental measurement was applied. Then, the concept of psychophysio-dynamics was proposed connecting psychophysics with psychodynamics. As a result, it was found out that the tactile effect of building finishing materials can be predicted from the physical values of warmth, hardness, and roughness. Furthermore, a psychological experiment was performed using 66 building finishing materials. As a result, the applicability of the method proposed in this paper was verified. 35 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Investigation of iron current measurement to detect combustion quality; Ion denryu ni yoru nensho jotai kenshutsu no kento

    Nakata, K.; Mogi, K. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    The possibility and problems were investigated in detecting the combustion quality by means of ion current measured at the spark plug. The ion current has two peaks during one combustion stroke; first peak is generated by flame around the spark plug just after ignition and second one appears with the rise in temperature of burned gases. As the result of investigations, it was confirmed that the first ion peak might be useful to forecast the combustion quality, but it would be hard to practice owing to the spark duration. And the second peak offered the information of combustion chamber pressure. 4 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Emission and combustion characteristics of multiple stage diesel combustion; Nidan nensho ni yoru diesel kikan no nensho to haishutsubutsu tokusei

    Hashizume, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Tsujimura, K. [New A.C.E. Institute Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, S.; Shimizu, K. [Japan Automobile Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)


    A new concept of multiple stage diesel combustion was studied by means of engine test, combustion observation and numerical simulation, in order to reduce NOx emissions at high load conditions. With this concept, the premixed combustion occurs under the fuel lean conditions and the diffusion combustion occurs under the high temperature conditions. As seen in the result of combustion observation, a first stage combustion occurs with no luminous flame. A second stage combustion occurs with a luminous flame after very short ignition delay period. However the luminous flame is disappeared immediately. Because cylinder temperature is high, and hence soot oxidizes immediately. 5 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Adaptation of topology optimization on truck-structure; Kinshitsukaho ni yoru iso saitekika shuho no truck kozo eno tekiyo

    Tachibana, H.; Kojima, A.; Chiba, S. [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    An optimization using the homogenization method has been applied to a truck-structure on the concept design stage. A truck-structure is grouped into 3 classes (thin plate structure , thick plate structure and solid structure), then example, effectiveness and method for the application for the purpose of weight reduction , high rigidity and high eigen-frequency are introduced. 3 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Modeling of power train by applying the virtual prototype concept; Kaso genkei ni yoru power train no model ka

    Hiramatsu, S.; Harada, Y.; Arakawa, H.; Komori, S. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Sumida, S. [U-Shin Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes the simulation of power train that includes the model developed by applying the virtual prototype concept. By this concept, subsystem models which consist of functional model and mechanism models are integrated into a total system model. This peculiarity in architecture of model, which is called the hierarchical structure, enables us to model a system of large scale with many units, systems and parts easily. Two kinds of computer simulations are performed. One is engine revolution fluctuation by accessory load input, and the other is changing gears by automatic transmission. They are verified to have sufficient accuracy. 2 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Wavefield analysis in inhomogeneous media by wavelet transform; Wavelet henkan ni yoru fukinshitsu baitai no hadoba kaiseki

    Matsushima, J.; Rokugawa, S.; Kato, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yokota, T.; Miyazaki, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Ichie, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    Data processing techniques have been investigated for clarifying structures and physical properties of geothermal reservoirs in the deep underground by seismic exploration using multiple wells. They include the initial motion time-distance tomography, amplitude tomography, diffracted wave tomography, and structure imaging using reflected wave or scattered wave. When applying these data processing methods to observed records, weak and minor signals essentially required are canceled due to averaging the analytical fields. In this study, influence of inhomogeneous media on the wavefield was evaluated. Data were analyzed considering frequency by using wavelet transform by which time-frequency can be easily analyzed. From the time-frequency analysis using wavelet transform, it was illustrated that high frequency scattered waves, generated by scatterer like cracks or by irregularity on the reflection surface, arrive behind direct P-wave and direct S-wave. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Monitoring of EOR operations by electrical prospecting. 2; Denki tansaho ni yoru sekiyu kyosei kaishuho no monitoring. 2

    Ushijima, K.; Mizunaga, H.; Tanaka, T.; Masuda, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tamagawa, T. [Japex Jeoscience Institute, Tokyo (Japan)


    Fluid flow tomography (FFT) was applied to monitor the behavior of underground fluid in steam enhanced oil recovery (EOR) for oil sand reservoirs. FFT uses electrode arrangement of a mise-a-la-masse method, and continuously measures time variation in charged and spontaneous potential at various surface points to obtain realtime the images of underground seepage flow. It continuously measures ground surface potentials of 120 channels at intervals of 2s by applying alternative DC between a casing pipe and distant current electrode. It separates charged and spontaneous potential components, and converts them into time series data. It estimates the time and spacial distributions of seepage flow from time variation in spontaneous potential. It determines the change rate distribution of time-sliced apparent resistivity from charged potential to estimate the scale and area of seepage flow. As the experimental result, positive and negative electrodes in the change rate distribution were observed, and the direction connecting each electrode agreed with that of resistivity anomaly. FFT could observe realtime time variation in apparent resistivity due to steam injection. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Monitoring of IOR/EOR operations by electrical prospecting; Denki tansaho ni yoru IOR/EOR monitoring

    Ushijima, K.; Mizunaga, H.; Ikeda, H.; Masuda, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Fluid flow tomography (FFT) was developed to monitor enhanced oil recovery IOR/EOR operations. This method uses a casing pipe as linear current source by connecting a current electrode with a well inlet, and the other electrode is grounded at a point far different from the well. Potentials are rapidly measured at the same time by multi-channel receiving electrodes installed on the ground to obtain time series data composed of charged potential and superimposed spontaneous potential. After separation of both potentials, the charged potential data are processed by the conventional mise-a-la-masse method to extract local anomaly, determine the residual distribution and relative change distribution of time-sliced apparent resistivity, and obtain the 3-D profile of fluid. The spontaneous potential is also processed to obtain the deflection distribution of time-sliced potential at a specific time. Quantitative 3-D interpretation is conducted focusing attention on the generation mechanism of spontaneous potential. Behavior of underground permeated flow is determined as time series animation images to image fluid direction. This method was effective in real fields. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Hydrogen production from garbage by the bacterium enterobacter aerogenes; Daidokoro no namagomi wo riyoshita bakuteria ni yoru suiso seisan

    Tanisho, S.; Fujii, Y. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This writer, aiming at hydrogen production by fermentation using biomass, has studied production from various carbohydrates, organic acids and alcohols by using Enterobacter aerogenes strain E.82005 which bacterium was picked from leaves of four-o`clock and has high ability of hydrogen production. This bacterium being facultative anaerobic, it need not intercept O2, and the gas generated from its common culture solution which contains inorganic ingredients (YNOB3), peptone and glucose was composed of only H2 and CO2. As the tests for kitchen garbage, from each garbage of apples, oranges, bananas and spinage, H2 were obtained at the rate of 0.51, 0.27, 0.09 and 0.15 m mol/g respectively. Guts of fishes, tofu, tofu-refuse and eggs were alternative nitrogen sources of peptone. Especially, miso, soy sauce and soybean flour were very good substrates for hydrogen production as well as good nitrogen sources. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Production of ethyl alcohol with a repetitive batch fermentation method. Kurikaeshi kaibun hakkoho ni yoru alcohol no seizoho

    Saiki, T. (Tokyo (Japan)); Takagi, Y. (Chiba (Japan)); Shiba, M. (Kagashima (Japan))


    This invention aims to present a production method of ethyl alcohol with a repetitive batch fermentation method in which each batch fermentation is performed rapidly with high concentration of yeast to overcome weak points of conventional procedures and the end point of the fermentation is determined accurately and quickly to switch to the next batch with long-term stability. This invention relates to a production method of ethyl alcohol with repetitive batch fermentation by use of carbohydrate and starchy raw materials, in which a gas flow meter to measure velocity water head is equipped and the end point of the fermentation is judged when the flow rate of fermentation exhaust gas is 0.35-0.1 m[sup 3]/kl[center dot]hr or under. This invention produces ethyl alcohol effectively from raw materials and enables efficient repetitive batch fermentation with less damage of the yeast. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Production of ethyl alcohol by a repeated batch fermentation method. Kurikaeshi kaibun hakkoho ni yoru arukoru no seizoho

    Saiki, T. (Tokyo (Japan)); Takagi, Y. (Chiba (Japan)); Shiba, M. (Kagoshima (Japan))


    This invention relates to a production method of ethyl alcohol from sugar and starch raw materials by a repeated batch fermentation method and aims to provide a method to produce ethyl alcohol efficiently by accurate repetition. Conventional batch fermentation methods require the experiences and skill to confirm an end point of the fermentation and have a problem in a control of repeated batch fermentation. This invention uses a gas flow meter of a velocity head measurement type and judges an end point of fermentation at a time when the amount of the exhaust gas flow from the fermentation is 0.35 to 0.1 m[sup 3] per hour and per 1 kl fermentation liquid or below and the next batch fermentation is started. By this invention, ethyl alcohol is produced efficiently from the raw materials with less damage of the yeast and efficient repeated batch fermentation is realized. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. nimpu no LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS GG yoguruto sesshu ni yoru nyujiki soki no cho nai BIFIDOBACTERIUM zokukin keisei sokushin

    小峰, 由美子


    主査 : 舘田一博 / タイトル : Maternal consumption of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG yogurt during pregnancy promotes bifidobacteria growth in intestinal microflora of infants /著者 : Yumiko Komine, Misa Watanabe, Takehiko Soutome, Koichi Uchino, Takako Uchino, Tsutomu Saji /掲載誌 : 東邦医学会雑誌 /巻号・発行年等 : 61(1):3-12, 2014 /本文ファイル: 出版者版 /

  20. Hydrogen production from food processing waste by anaerobic bacteria; Kenkisei saikin ni yoru shokuhin kako haikibutsu kara no suiso seisei

    Mizuno, O.; Ohara, T.; Noike, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)


    To produce hydrogen from bean-curd refuse discharged from bean-curd production process, effects of solid concentration on the hydrogen production activity and the final amount of hydrogen production are clarified using hydrogen production sludge obtained from a soybean silo with hydrogen explosion. Decomposition characteristics of bean-curd refuse by hydrogen fermentation are also investigated. Hydrogen contents of fermentation gas produced from decomposed bean-curd refuse were between 54 and 78%. It was found that bean-curd refuse can be used for hydrogen fermentation. The final amounts of hydrogen production were between 0.014 and 0.020 m{sup 3}centre dotkgVS{sup -1}, which was not greatly affected by the solid concentration. Even under high solid concentration conditions, sufficient hydrogen was produced. The hydrogen production activity was affected by the solid concentration. During the hydrogen production process, concentrations of alcohol and volatile fatty acid increased with decreasing the concentration of soluble sugars in the liquid phase. Acetate, propionate, n-butyrate and ethanol were the main metabolic products. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Fracture mapping in rock slope using geophysical instruments; Butsuri tansa ni yoru ganban shamennai no kiretsu bunpu hyoka

    Kurahashi, T.; Inazaki, T. [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Watanabe, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    An attempt was made to visualize distribution of cracks in a rock slope by applying geophysical survey onto a rock slope. Geophysical logging and seismic survey using the reflection method were used as the methods for the geophysical survey. The rock slope subjected to the survey is located in a gorge along the Yoshino river in Yamashiro Town, Tokushima Prefecture. The slope has a width of 25 m and a height of 30 m. Its overhang in a nose form may has a possibility of causing collapse due to sliding. Cracks developed by horizontal schistosity were detected by performing geophysical logging on VSP, calipers, natural gamma-ray spectra, temperature and borehole in a borehole drilled vertically from the top of the slope. The seismic survey using the reflection method detected the cracks by emphasizing joints in the perpendicular direction. A possibility was shown to visualize the crack distribution with high resolution by using the above geophysical survey on the rock slope. In order to detect the crack distribution with still higher resolution, development into a three-dimensional exploration in the future is desired, not to speak of improvement in signal receivers, and discussions on geometry. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  2. Free convective heat loss from cavity-type solar furnace; Sora reshiba karano shizen tairyu ni yoru netsu sonshitsu

    Fujii, I.; Ito, N. [Meiji Univ., Tokyo (Japan)


    Heat loss by free convective heat transfer from the solar furnace is investigated experimentally, and the result is arranged in formulas. It may be unjustifiable somewhat to apply the result of the experiment as it is to actual systems, but it seems that the result is not apart so far from those of actual systems, at lease when there is no wind. Moreover, arrangement of the experimental point in a formula can be considered to be a very useful result. A simulated receiver system is prepared which heats air in the cavity of the receiver by an electric heater, and has been used for experiments. In addition, a glass receiver having affixed transparent heaters on the bottom and side surfaced is prepared separately for the observation of convective phenomenon of air in the receiver and leaking of heat with air flow from the aperture, which enables visualization of the air flow. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Fundamental study of noise reduction by active noise control. Active soon seigyo ni yoru soon taisaku no kiso kenkyu

    Sugiyama, T.; Naganawa, A. (Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan))


    Fundamental experiments were conducted on active noise control as sound insulation fence. This control method generates a sound source with the same amplitude and opposite phase as noise, and reduces noise through the interference of acoustic wave from the source. However, this method has too many problems with the three-dimensional sound field to be actually exploited in this environment. The following experiments were conducted to apply the active noise control to the sound insulation fence: one method of installing a geometric path along the inner side of the sound insulation fence used the acoustic delay process generated on the source side to attenuate the sound pressure level on top of the fence through interference of routing difference sound. The other method used an additional sound source attached to the bottom of the geometric path above to obtain a higher attenuation than using the simple sound insulation fence. At the second step, the active control duct model was used for the test. Then, the three-dimensional model test was conducted for active control of the sound insulation fence. The results of these fundamental experiments have indicated that each method can reduce the relative sound pressure level and the active noise control system using the acoustic phase difference can effectively reduce noise with dominant components in a low frequency band. There are still several problems with the three-dimensional mock-up model. 4 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Vision system for driving control using camera mounted on an automatic vehicle. Jiritsu sokosha no camera ni yoru shikaku system

    Nishimori, K.; Ishihara, K.; Tokutaka, H.; Kishida, S.; Fujimura, K. (Tottori University, Tottori (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Okada, M. (Mazda Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)); Hirakawa, S. (Fujitsu Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    The present report explains a vision system, in which a CCD camera, used for the model vehicle automatically traveling by fuzzy control, is used as a vision sensor. The vision system is composed of input image processing module, situation recognition/analysis module to three-dimensionally recover the road, route-selecting navigation module to avoid the obstacle and vehicle control module. The CCD camera is used as a vision sensor to make the model vehicle automatically travel by fuzzy control with the above modules. In the present research, the traveling is controlled by treating the position and configuration of objective in image as a fuzzy inferential variable. Based on the above method, the traveling simulation gave the following knowledge: even with the image information only from the vision system, the application of fuzzy control facilitates the traveling. If the objective is clearly known, the control is judged able to be made even from vague image which does not necessitate the exact locative information. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Biological treatment of dialysis wastewater by PUF fluidized-bed; PUF ryudoshoho ni yoru toseki haisui no seibutsugakuteki shori

    Toyoda, A. [Envisys Ltd., Hyogo (Japan); Kanki, T.; Momoda, S.; Marukami, M.; Maeda, Y. [Himeji Institute of Technology, Hyogo (Japan)


    For the purpose of high-efficiency microorganism treatment in bicarbonate type saccharated dialysis wastewater, a study has been made on a fluidized-bed method using porous polyurethane foam (PUF) as a carrier. Discussions have been given especially on the effects of substrate load, carrier size, and the number of carrier cells on the treatment characteristics from the initial stage of cultivation to the steady-state operation. The carried and suspended microorganisms grew while showing oscillatory variation. The larger the number of carrier cell becomes, the more the carried microorganism quantity becomes, and the less the suspended microorganism quantity becomes. A carrier with a size of 10 mm forms more stable living organism phase than that with a carrier with a size of 5 mm. While the carried and suspended microorganism quantity increases with the load, the lower the load, the carried microorganism ratio increases. With regard to the microbial phase immediately after the substrates having flown in, the dispersive bacteria and the Colpidum group grow preferentially. In the steady-state region, the flock-forming bacteria and the Vorticella group grow preferentially. The carried microorganisms disperse over the whole carrier during the initial stage, form flock-formed lumps thereafter, and grow concentratedly in the vicinity of the carrier surface in the steady-state region. 10 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Evaluation of permeability of Nojima fault by hydrophone VSP; Hydrophone VSP ni yoru Nojima danso no tosuisei hyoka

    Kiguchi, T.; Ito, H.; Kuwahara, Y.; Miyazaki, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    The multi-offset hydrophone VSP experiments were carried out using a 750m deep borehole as the oscillation receiver, which penetrates the Nojima fault, to detect water-permeable cracks and evaluate their characteristics. Soil around the borehole is of granodiorite, and fault clay is found at a depth in a range from 623 to 624m. A total of 4 dynamite tunnels were provided around the borehole as the focus. The VSP results show that the tube waves are generated at 22 depths, including the depth at which fault clay is found. However, these waves are generated at only 6 depths in an approximately 150m long fracture zone, suggesting that the cracks in the zone are not necessarily permeable. It is also found that crack angle determined by the analysis of tube waves almost coincides with that of fault clay determined by the core, BHTV and FMI, and that permeability is of the order of 100md at a depth of fault clay or shallower. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Velocity structure of Nojima-fault by VSP method; VSP ho ni yoru Nojima danso no sokudo kozo

    Kuwahara, Y.; Ito, H.; Kiguchi, T.; Miyazaki, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    In order to investigate in detail structures of the fractured fault band, the VSP tests were conducted using a 750m deep borehole penetrating the Nojima fault in Awaji Island. The borehole penetrates the fault clay band at a depth of 624m in the Hirabayashi area. The offset VSP survey, conducted by the aid of hydrophone through the naked borehole, detects many characteristic phenomena resulting from the fault fracture. Largely fractured lithofacies are found by the core observation at a depth in a range from 557 to 673m. P-waves propagate at 4.6 and 5.1km/s above and below the fractured band, respectively. The fractured band is subdivided into 2 sections, both being of low speed of 4.5 and 3.1km/s. The X1 and X2 phases resulting from the fault fracture are also observed, above and below the fractured band. The causes for these wave phases are now under investigation. 4 figs.

  8. Structural analysis of microtubule-kinesin complex; Mota tanpakushitsu bunshi no kozo kaiseki ni yoru undo hassei kiko no kenkyu

    Toyoshima, Yoko [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Arts and Sciences


    To understand the molecular mechanism of motor proteins which work in cell motility, the information of three dimensional structure of the complex between motor proteins and cytoskeletal filaments is important. Although crystal sacarato of kinesin motor domain and tubulin are determined respectively, their relative position in interacting state is unidentified. In this study, we made a series of several mutant kinesin motor domains which have reactive cystein using protein engineering methods, and labelled with gold clusters. Next, we formed the complex of these proteins and microtubules, and then embedded in amorphous ice. Three dimensional reconstitution of the complexes from the electron microscopic images can decide the position of the specific residue and relative position of kinesin motor domain and microtubules, which brings the structural basis to elucidate the molecular mechanism of motor proteins. (author)

  9. SCWO characteristics of organics in a vertical type continuous reactor; Renzokushiki tategata hannoki ni yoru yukibutsu no chorinaki suisanka kyodo

    Sekikawa, R.M.; Usui, T.; Nishimura, T.; Sato, H.; Hamada, S.; Sekino, H. [Ebara Research Co., Kanagawa (Japan). Center for Advanced Research


    SCWO characteristics are investigated for a vertical type, down stream continuous reactor system with mixing nozzle and sapphire windows. 2-propanol, hexane and biphenyl solution are used as fuel and air as oxidizer. 2-propanol is observed to be effective as makeup fuel to keep a stable autogenic SCWO reaction. Even for low air ratio as 1.1, high decomposition rate without CO, NO, NO{sub 2} or soot production is achieved. Calculated and experimental flue gas composition is in good agreement for a wide range of air ratio. Spontaneous flame formation is observed for SCWO of 2-propanol using air ratio over 1.8. These flame formations are not particular to 2-propanol and are also confirmed when using hexane and biphenyl solution as fuel. (author)

  10. Study on effects of high pressure injection for DI diesel combustion. Koatsu funsha ni yoru chokufun diesel no nensho kaizen

    Watanabe, S.; Takahashi, T.; Sami, H. (Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)); Nakakita, K.; Osawa, K. (Toyota Centeral Research and Development Lab., Aichi (Japan))


    A study was conducted on properties of exhaust gas of diesel engine by using high pressure injection type diesel engine equipped with pressure-reservoir for changing injection pressure, together with improvement of combustion conditions by high pressure injection of fuel. Equipments for the experiments were explained by figures. As for experiment, effects of injection pressure and its timing on emission quantities of NO {sub x} and paticulate were measured. Based upon the obtained results, those were understood that NO {sub x} and particulate were to be reduced by adjusting injection pressure and injection timing, and that, by reducing initial injection pressure, trade-off effect between NO {sub x} and particulate were improved. Observation of combustion conditions by inside-visible engine, those were recognized that low injection pressure caused poor atomization and, by that, delay of vaporization, that propagation of flame rapid to whole combustion room in case of pressure-reservoir type, and that lower injection rate at initial stage suppressed combustion rate and reduced NO {sub x} generation. 4 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Test on qualitative improvement of reservoir water by fountain. Funsui ni yoru chosuichi suishitsu kaizen no kokoromi

    Miyanaga, Y.; Toyota, K. (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)); Kimura, M. (The Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan))


    Qualitative improvement of water was tested by fountain as measures for enriching the water reservoir with nurture. Moored at a bank which was 5km upstream from the dam, a fountain unit sucked cold water at a water depth of 10m. Then, a region of 35m in diameter was sprayed with it by 32 nozzles. The flow rate was 5.0m[sup 3]/min. In the region of 30m in distance from the unit, it was confirmed from the experiment that the largest drop in water temperature and that in concentration of chlorophyll-a were 0.9 centigrade and 4.0mg/m[sup 3], respectively. It was also known that a flow existed at a 1m-waterdeep spot which was 20m distant from the unit. Judging from the above, the water was qualitatively improved by the fountain as far as 30m in radius. The field experiment was analyzed by a numerical analysis model which treated the fountain flow as a two-dimensional axially symmetric flow. It was confirmed that the change in water temperature and flow can be roughly evaluated, if the oblique incidence of fountain flow is taken into consideration. It was also known that the fountain flow converges in a 1 to 2m-waterdeep surface layer. Though there is a possibility of amplifying the region to be influenced, it is not a specifically effective method. 5 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Study on effects of high pressure injection for DI diesel combustion. Koatsu funsha ni yoru chokufun diesel no nensho kaizen

    Watanabe, S.; Takahashi, T.; Sami, H.; Nakakita, K.; Osawa, K. (Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi, (Japan) Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc., Aichi, (Japan))


    Accumulator type high pressure fuel injection equipment (HPIE), able to freely set the fuel injection pressure, was applied to a 94mm bore small type high speed direct injection Diesel engine (with turbo-charger), of which exhaust gas characteristics were investigated. Also by using a 102mm bore visualized single-cylinder engine, was observed combustion improvement effect by the HPIE. As a result, partial load exhaust gas characteristics were investigated at the rotation, 60% of the maximum number of rotations. That accumulator type HPIE changed in initial injection ratio due to the injection pressure. NO {sub x} emission depending upon both the injection pressure and timing, increase in NO {sub x} emission due to increase by 20MPa in injection pressure could be balanced with a CA delay by about 2 degrees in injection timing angle. Particulate is different by load in exhaust characteristics. In combustion observation, soot decreased in produced quantity with diminution in luminous portion of flame. 3 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Design and model experiments on thruster assisted mooring system; Futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu no thruster ni yoru choshuki doyo seigyo

    Nakamura, M.; Koterayama, W. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Kajiwara, H. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan). Faculty of Computer Science and System Engineering; Hyakudome, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)


    Described herein are dynamics and model experiments of the system in which positioning of a floating marine structure by mooring is combined with thruster-controlled positioning. Coefficients of dynamic forces acting on a floating structure model are determined experimentally and by the three-dimensional singularity distribution method, and the controller is designed by the PID, LQI and H{infinity} control theories. A model having a scale ratio of 1/100 was used for the experiments, where 2 thrusters were arranged in a diagonal line, one on the X-axis. It is found that the LQI and H{infinity} controllers of the thruster can control long-cycle rolling of the floating structure. They allow thruster control which is insensitive to wave cycle motion, and efficiently reduce positioning energy. The H{infinity} control regulates frequency characteristics of a closed loop more finely than the LQI control, and exhibits better controllability. 25 refs., 25 figs.

  14. Separation of baicalein from baicalin by means of solvent extraction; Yobai chushutsuho ni yoru baicalein /baicalin no bunri

    Kitazaki, H.; Ishimaru, M. [Tsumura and Co., Ibaraki (Japan); Inoue, K.; Yoshida, K. [Saga University, Saga (Japan)


    In this work, solvent extraction behaviors of some commercial extractants such as tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO), Cyanex 923 and Cyanex 925 for baicalein and baicalin decocted from Suctellaria root, which is a crude drug, were examined to elucidate their mutual separation by solvent extraction. Baicalein was extracted selectively by trialkylphosphine oxides over baicalin. From analyses of the extraction mechanism the equilibrium constant of extraction reaction and enthalpy change were evaluated. A porous resin impregnated with Cyanex 923 in XAD-7 was prepared to remove baicalein from baicalin by using a column packed with the resin. Baicalein was able to be completely removed by this column operation. 10 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Phase Transformation of Zirconia Ceramics by Annealing in Hot Water; Jirukoniaseramikkusu no suichu aniru ni yoru soten`i

    Omichi, Nobukatsu.; Kamioka, Kunikazu.; Ueda, Kuniyoshi.; Matsui, KOji.; Ogai, Michiharu. [Tosoh Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    The tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} polycrystals (Y-TZP) was investigated by annealing at 140 degree C in hot water. Sintered bodies of Y-TZP were prepared by sintering at temperatures ranging between 1300 and 1500 degree C, using a 3 mol% Y-TZP fine powder, synthesized by means of the hydrolysis method, as a starting powder. X-ray diffraction measurements on the sample surfaces and Rietveld analyses revealed that the amount of cubic phase increased and the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration within the tetragonal phase decreased as the sintering temperature increased. Scanning electron microscopy measurements also showed that the grain size on the sample surfaces increased as the sintering temperature increased. When the sinered bodies were subjected to annealing in hot water, the phase-transformation rate on their surfaces increased as the sintering temperature increased. This behavior can be explained by both the decrease in the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration within the tetragonal phase and the increase in the grain size. (author)

  16. nimpu no LACTOBACILLUS RHAMNOSUS GG yoguruto sesshu ni yoru nyujiki soki no cho nai BIFIDOBACTERIUM zokukin keisei sokushin

    小峰, 由美子


    主査 : 舘田一博 / タイトル : Maternal consumption of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG yogurt during pregnancy promotes bifidobacteria growth in intestinal microflora of infants /著者 : Yumiko Komine, Misa Watanabe, Takehiko Soutome, Koichi Uchino, Takako Uchino, Tsutomu Saji /掲載誌 : 東邦医学会雑誌 /巻号・発行年等 : 61(1):3-12, 2014 /本文ファイル: 出版者版 /

  17. Suppression of 3D coherent noise by areal geophone array; Menteki jushinki array ni yoru sanjigen coherent noise no yokusei

    Murayama, R.; Nakagami, K.; Tanaka, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center


    For improving the quality of data collected by reflection seismic exploration, a lattice was deployed at one point of a traverse line, and the data therefrom were used to study the 3D coherent noise suppression effect of the areal array. The test was conducted at a Japan National Oil Corporation test field in Kashiwazaki City, Niigata Prefecture. The deployed lattice had 144 vibration receiving points arrayed at intervals of 8m composing an areal array, and 187 vibration generating points arrayed at intervals of 20m extending over 6.5km. Data was collected at the vibration receiving points in the lattice, each point acting independently from the others, and processed for the composition of a large areal array, with the said data from plural vibration receiving points added up therein. As the result of analysis of the records covering the data collected at the receiving points in the lattice, it is noted that an enlarged areal array leads to a higher S/N ratio and that different reflection waves are emphasized when the array direction is changed. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  18. Evaluation of bio-energy potential using world energy models; Sekai energy model ni yoru bio energy no potential hyoka

    Fujino, J.; Yamaji, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    Bio-energy potential is evaluated using world energy models. The world energy model is a dynamic model by which the total cost of energy systems between 1995 and 2055 can be minimized on the basis of the optimization type world energy demand and supply model. For the given utilization costs of transportation, recovery and planting, the utilization of bio-energy is promoted even under the cost minimization condition. However, the utilization amount varies in a wide range by changing the utilization costs. Among conversion technologies of bio-energy, it is biomass liquefaction that provides the largest utilization amount. Thermal demand, direct combustion for power generation, and biomass gasification follow to the above. Biomass-integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) is to be used up to 2020. It is not to be used after 2030, due to the complete shift to the biomass liquefaction. For a model including the utilization of fast breeder after 2030, the utilization amount of bio-energy is not to change. Competition with food and land utilization is to be investigated. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Design and model experiments on thruster assisted mooring system; Futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu no thruster ni yoru choshuki doyo seigyo

    Nakamura, M.; Koterayama, W. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Kajiwara, H. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan). Faculty of Computer Science and System Engineering; Hyakudome, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)


    Described herein are dynamics and model experiments of the system in which positioning of a floating marine structure by mooring is combined with thruster-controlled positioning. Coefficients of dynamic forces acting on a floating structure model are determined experimentally and by the three-dimensional singularity distribution method, and the controller is designed by the PID, LQI and H{infinity} control theories. A model having a scale ratio of 1/100 was used for the experiments, where 2 thrusters were arranged in a diagonal line, one on the X-axis. It is found that the LQI and H{infinity} controllers of the thruster can control long-cycle rolling of the floating structure. They allow thruster control which is insensitive to wave cycle motion, and efficiently reduce positioning energy. The H{infinity} control regulates frequency characteristics of a closed loop more finely than the LQI control, and exhibits better controllability. 25 refs., 25 figs.

  20. Tidal energy conversion. Renewable energy; 3-3 choseki / choryu hatsuden. II. saisei kano energy ni yoru hatsuden

    Makino, T. [Tobishima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    There are not much examples applying tidal energy conversion, but tide and tidal current phenomena can be forecasted so correctly regardless of weather that the applying tidal energy is to be expected in the future. The largest tidal power plant is at Reims in France and install 24 Kaplan turbines each of which outlet power is 10,000kW (rotational direction is reversible) on the breakwater (750m is length). Tidal range at this place being 8.5m on an average, during the period of flowing seawater into the reservoir and on the contrary during the period of discharging seawater to the sea generation is both performed. Though there is no actual result of tidal power plant in Japan, in tidal current power system experimental generators have been installed at Kurushima channel and Naruto channel. Nihon University carried out various kinds of experiment using a Darius turbine (1.6m in dia.) at Kurushima channel and got outlet power of 3kW at the maximum (1983-`88). There are few coasts which have sufficient tide range in Japan, but there are so good many applicable coasts in China and Southeast Asia that the tidal power generation is to be expectatively. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Development of low rank coals upgrading and their CWM producing technology; Teihin`itan kaishitsu ni yoru CWM seizo gijutsu

    Sugiyama, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Tsurui, M.; Suto, Y.; Asakura, M. [JGC Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, J.; Yui, M.; Takano, S. [Japan COM Co. Ltd., Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    A CWM manufacturing technology was developed by means of upgrading low rank coals. Even though some low rank coals have such advantages as low ash, low sulfur and high volatile matter content, many of them are merely used on a small scale in areas near the mine-mouths because of high moisture content, low calorification and high ignitability. Therefore, discussions were given on a coal fuel manufacturing technology by which coal will be irreversibly dehydrated with as much volatile matters as possible remaining in the coal, and the coal is made high-concentration CWM, thus the coal can be safely transported and stored. The technology uses a method to treat coal with hot water under high pressure and dry it with hot water. The method performs not only removal of water, but also irreversible dehydration without losing volatile matters by decomposing hydrophilic groups on surface and blocking micro pores with volatile matters in the coal (wax and tar). The upgrading effect was verified by processing coals in a pilot plant, which derived greater calorification and higher concentration CWM than with the conventional processes. A CWM combustion test proved lower NOx, lower SOx and higher combustion rate than for bituminous coal. The ash content was also found lower. This process suits a Texaco-type gasification furnace. For a production scale of three million tons a year, the production cost is lower by 2 yen per 10 {sup 3} kcal than for heavy oil with the same sulfur content. 11 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Confinement of solar thermal energy by Nesa film; Nesa maku ni yoru taiyo netsu energy no fujikome

    Shimizu, A.; Yano, K.; Kasuga, M.; Daigo, Y. [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper reports a Nesa (SnO2) film as selective transmissive film for effective confinement of solar thermal energy. Solar light spectrum ranges from 0.3 to 2.0{mu}m, while thermal radiation from bodies at 100-200degC is infrared ray more than 2{mu}m. Consequently, a solar water heater using the film which can pass rays below 2.0{mu}m while reflect rays over 2.0{mu}m for windows is very efficient. The Nesa film reflects rays with wavelengths more than plasma wavelengths (controllable from 1 to several {mu}m) by plasma action of free electrons. The Nesa films with different carrier densities were fabricated by spraying deposition method at dopant rates (Sb/Sn) from 0 to 2mol%. The solar water heaters were prepared using normal glass and specific glass coated with the Nesa film as selective transmissive film. The heater using the glass coated with the Nesa film of 2{mu}m plasma wavelength for windows could efficiently confine solar heat. The Nesa film of 700nm plasma wavelength which can pass visible light while reflect infrared ray was effective to reduce cooling/heating losses. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Realization of an accelerator for environmental refreshment in case of soil; Fukyugata kasokuki ni yoru kankyo sosei eno koka

    Isogai, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)


    Learning from a history of the earth of ancient times, the paper studies effects of refreshing environment and soil or making them natural and harmless mostly using primitive bacteria, and develops element technology which is industrially accelerating. The spread type accelerator working only by solar energy was installed and operated for experiment. As indices of refreshment effects, a study was comparatively made between a sugar degree of sweet potato and a yield shown in the number of potatotimesunit weight. An EM propagation garbage layer is formed, and the two sections were installed of a site of the actual installation of the spread type accelerator and a site naturally left alone. Other effects of weather, temperature and humidity which are external factors and general fertilization are offset as common modes, and a consideration was so made that only refreshment effects of primitive bacteria can be relatively compared. Acceleration effects in using accelerator for growing sweet potato could be quantitatively confirmed. As to sugar degree, because the last study was made in the beginning of summer, the underground temperature was high enough. Even only EM effects were fully effective. This time, the weather was much colder, and it was found to be a must to use accelerator. 2 figs.

  4. Preparation of mullite fiber sol-gel method. Sol-gel ho ni yoru mullite sen prime i no gosei

    Nishio, T. (Unichika Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Fujiki, Y. (National Institute for Research and Inorganic Materials, Tsukuba (Japan))


    This report discribes a method to prepare mullite fiber by a new process using aqueous solution of aluminum nitrate, aluminum isopropoxide, and tetraethoxisilane(TEOS). Presursors of mullite were obtained by a method to add aluminum isopropoxide and TEOS simultaneously to the solution of aluminum nitrate, or by another method to add TEOS after adding aluminum isopropoxide. Then, structural analyses on the spinning solution, precursor fibers, and calcination process were carried out by {sup 27}Al- and {sup 29}Si-NMR, X-ray diffraction analysis, and DTA. The spinnable range of the method to add aluminum isopropoxide and TEOS at the same time was wider when it was shown with H{sub 2}O mol/(Al+Si)mol and Al(OPr{sup i}){sub 3} mol/Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} mol. Manifastation of spinnability deeply related to the bonding condition of Al and Si formed in the solution. 27 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Treatment wastewater containing dyestuffs by adsorption technology; Kyuchaku gijutsu ni yoru senryo gan`yu haisui no shori

    Yoshida, H. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    For treatment of wastewater containing dyestuffs, the adsorption/separation recovery method using chitosan fiber was studied. Acid orange as acid dye and brilliant yellow as direct dye were used in experiment, and the pH, inorganic electrolyte and temperature dependency of dye adsorption into chitosan fiber were studied together with the dissolution curve of dyestuffs by NaOH aqueous solution. The result showed the possibility of adsorption, dissolution and concentrating recovery of dyestuffs. This method has the following features: (1) Efficient separation of dyestuffs and water + dyeing auxiliaries from dyeing wastewater, (2) recycling of water and dyeing auxiliaries in dyeing process, (3) high- concentrating recovery of dyestuffs by NaOH aqueous solution and recycling of fibers, (4) separation of dyestuffs from NaOH aqueous solution by cooling and salting out of desorption solution, (5) recycling of NaOH aqueous solution in desorption process, and (6) the possible closed system discharging no new wastewater in wastewater treatment. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. High-accuracy measurement of ship velocities by DGPS; DGPS ni yoru sensoku keisoku no koseidoka ni tsuite

    Yamaguchi, S.; Koterayama, W. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics


    The differential global positioning system (DGPS) can eliminate most of errors in ship velocity measurement by GPS positioning alone. Through two rounds of marine observations by towing an observation robot in summer 1995, the authors attempted high-accuracy measurement of ship velocities by DGPS, and also carried out both positioning by GPS alone and measurement using the bottom track of ADCP (acoustic Doppler current profiler). In this paper, the results obtained by these measurement methods were examined through comparison among them, and the accuracy of the measured ship velocities was considered. In DGPS measurement, both translocation method and interference positioning method were used. ADCP mounted on the observation robot allowed measurement of the velocity of current meter itself by its bottom track in shallow sea areas less than 350m. As the result of these marine observations, it was confirmed that the accuracy equivalent to that of direct measurement by bottom track is possible to be obtained by DGPS. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Three-dimensional TDEM modeling using integral equation method. 2; Sekibun hoteishikiho ni yoru TDEM no sanjigen modeling. 2

    Noguchi, K.; Endo, M. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering


    A study was made about integral equation-assisted numerical calculation in a time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) 3D modeling. The total number of cells should be minimized now that the time required for calculation depends a great deal upon the total number of cells. On the assumption of a thin plate-like layer of anomaly in presence, with its center positioned just below the receiving point and with its entirety buried in a homogeneous 100 Ohm m medium, the correlation between the distance and the maximum cell length in the horizontal direction and the method of dividing were examined. As the result, it was found that a dividing method respecting the exponential function shortens the calculation time and that, for obtaining a true response and for minimizing the calculation time, the length of the horizontal side of the cell nearest to the transmission source needs be set to be not more than 1/2 of the distance. It was also found that the length of the side in the direction of depth of the topmost cell needs be set to be not more than approximately 1/3 of the depth of the upper surface of the plate-shaped anomaly. 2 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Three dimensional reflection velocity analysis based on velocity model scan; Model scan ni yoru sanjigen hanshaha sokudo kaiseki

    Minegishi, M.; Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Introduced herein is a reflection wave velocity analysis method using model scanning as a method for velocity estimation across a section, the estimation being useful in the construction of a velocity structure model in seismic exploration. In this method, a stripping type analysis is carried out, wherein optimum structure parameters are determined for reflection waves one after the other beginning with those from shallower parts. During this process, the velocity structures previously determined for the shallower parts are fixed and only the lowest of the layers undergoing analysis at the time is subjected to model scanning. To consider the bending of ray paths at each velocity boundaries involving shallower parts, the ray path tracing method is utilized for the calculation of the reflection travel time curve for the reflection surface being analyzed. Out of the reflection wave travel time curves calculated using various velocity structure models, one that suits best the actual reflection travel time is detected. The degree of matching between the calculated result and actual result is measured by use of data semblance in a time window provided centering about the calculated reflective wave travel time. The structure parameter is estimated on the basis of conditions for the maximum semblance. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  9. Research on crystal growth by using pressure as a control parameter; Atsuryoku seigyo ni yoru kessho seicho ni kansuru kenkyu



    This research project aims to establish a technique for crystal growth using pressure as a principal control parameter, and combining it with a microgravity condition, to develop a novel process material fabrication. Since the solubility of materials depends on pressure, it is possible to control a supersaturated condition for crystal growth by changing pressure. The growth condition can be controlled precisely, which is not possible by conventional methods that vary temperature and other factors. On the other hand, because a concentration diffusing field is formed autonomically around crystals in association with their growth, density convection is generated under gravity as a result of difference in the concentrations, making the growth conditions severely complex and uncontrollable. Ideal crystal growth condition control may be possible if the pressure control is performed under micro-gravity by which generation of the density convection can be suppressed. Realization has been achieved on in-situ observation by using high-magnification microscope which uses a diamond anvil cell, development of a hydraulic type optic pressure cell, and a high- speed crystal growing technology by means of pressure control utilizing the cell. New findings were also obtained on effects of pressure on crystal forms, and the pressure induced solid phase transfer mechanism. 67 refs., 49 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Flat plate approximation in the three-dimensional slamming; Heiban kinji ni yoru sanjigen suimen shogeki keisanho ni tsuite

    Toyama, Y. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A slamming load generated by interactive motions between a ship body and water face is an important load in ensuring safety of the ship. A flat plate approximation developed by Wagner is used as a two-dimensional slamming theory, but it has a drawback in handling edges of a flat plate. Therefore, an attempt was made to expand the two-dimensional Wagner`s theory to three dimensions. This paper first shows a method to calculate water face slamming of an arbitrary axisymmetric body by using circular plate approximation. The paper then proposes a method to calculate slamming pressure distribution and slamming force for the case when shape of the water contacting surface may be approximated by an elliptic shape. Expansion to the three dimensions made clear to some extent the characteristics of the three-dimensional slamming. In the case of two dimensions or a circular column for example, the water contacting area increases rapidly in the initial stage generating large slamming force. However, in the case of three dimensions, since the water contacting area expands longitudinally and laterally, the slamming force tends to increase gradually. Maximum slamming pressure was found proportional to square of moving velocity in a water contacting boundary in the case of three dimensions, and similar to stagnation pressure on a gliding plate. 12 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Evaluation of bio-energy potential using world energy models; Sekai energy model ni yoru bio energy no potential hyoka

    Fujino, J.; Yamaji, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    Bio-energy potential is evaluated using world energy models. The world energy model is a dynamic model by which the total cost of energy systems between 1995 and 2055 can be minimized on the basis of the optimization type world energy demand and supply model. For the given utilization costs of transportation, recovery and planting, the utilization of bio-energy is promoted even under the cost minimization condition. However, the utilization amount varies in a wide range by changing the utilization costs. Among conversion technologies of bio-energy, it is biomass liquefaction that provides the largest utilization amount. Thermal demand, direct combustion for power generation, and biomass gasification follow to the above. Biomass-integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) is to be used up to 2020. It is not to be used after 2030, due to the complete shift to the biomass liquefaction. For a model including the utilization of fast breeder after 2030, the utilization amount of bio-energy is not to change. Competition with food and land utilization is to be investigated. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Estimation of the charge quantity from solar cell to battery; Taiyo denchi ni yoru chikudenchi eno juden yosoku

    Tsutsumi, K.; Nishitani, M. [Daiichi University, College of Technology, Kagoshima (Japan)


    In performing an experiment of running a small electric vehicle by installing solar cells in it and by charging the storage battery at a specific voltage, an estimation was made on the charge quantity to the battery for each solar altitude and inclination of a module at different hours. The solar altitude was determined at Daiichi University, College of Technology, according to the month and the time of day from a formula using day-declination and time equation of a chronological table of science. The quantity of global solar radiation was determined by resolving the solar radiation into its direct and diffuse components on the basis of the extra-terrestrial solar radiation quantity with the change in radius vector taken into consideration; and then, the global solar radiation on the inclined face was obtained from the angle of inclination and incidence. On the roof of a Daiichi University building, solar cell modules were installed facing north and south at 0{degree}, 30{degree}, 45{degree}, 60{degree} and 90{degree} each, so that a short-circuit current was measured for each differently inclined angle. As a result of the experiment, shown in an regression formula is a relation between the temperature conversion value of the maximum output of the solar cell at the standard temperature of 25{degree}C and the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface. Consequently, it enabled the prediction of a charging quantity, in the case of running a small vehicle with solar cells installed, from the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface in the clear weather. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Free convective heat loss from cavity-type solar furnace; Solar receiver kara no shizen tairyu ni yoru netsusonshitsu

    Fujii, I.; Ito, N. [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)


    Free convective heat loss from solar heat receivers was studied, using three laboratory model receivers (different in depth L and aperture diameter d) heated by electric heaters. Most of the heat produced by heaters was transmitted to the air inside. The cylindrical vessel walls were fully insulated against heat. Heat loss being supposed to result mainly from transfer by free convection, the experiment results were edited by use of Nusselt number Nu and Rayley number Ra. Relations between Nu(D/d){sup m1} and Ra(L/D){sup m2} were plotted in a chart. Here, D is the receiver inner diameter, and m1 and m2 are constants that can be determined by computation. Tests points were provided approximately lineally, irrespective of D, L, or receiver inclination. Air currents were found to produce one or more swirls inside, thanks to the current visualization technique, when the receiver inclination was not sharper than 120{degree} (except 0{degree}). The number of swirls increased as the inner wall temperature rose. This kind of behavior of air currents directly affects the degree of heat loss. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Cooling effects of artificial water facilities by using a moving type turbulence promoter; Kudo ranryu sokushintai ni yoru suireikyaku jikkenho

    Miyake, K.; Nomura, T.; Nishimura, N.; Iyota, H. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan)


    Artificial water facilities present an effective means to alleviate trying micrometeorological phenomena such as warming of the urban space. For the reproduction of such an alleviating means by use of a model in a wind tunnel, a moving disturbance promoter (moving spire) was developed so as to render disturbances in a wind tunnel current similar in scale to ones in the real atmosphere, and an air current cooling experiment was conducted using a model fountain. The effort was intended for a small-size wind tunnel without a space large enough for disturbance promoter installation, and a moving type spire was developed for promoting disturbance effectively. The new spire is driven by a driving unit consisting of a motor and cam and can change its angle relative to the main current by 140{degree} at a rotation cycle of 1.7Hz., and this changes the flow direction of the main current periodically. As compared with the generally used combination of a roughness block and stationery spire, this new spire produced a disturbance intensity two times greater and a disturbance scale three times larger. When the disturbance intensity and scale were increased, the cooling characteristics of the air current changed in response to changes in the state of flow. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Membrane thickness of microcapsules generated by complex coacervation method; Coacervation ho ni yoru microcapsule no capsule makuatsu

    Kage, H.; Ogura, H.; Matsuno, Y. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan); Yada, N. [Idemitsu Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kunimasa, M. [Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)


    Microencapsulation of glass beads was carried out by complex coacervation of gelatin and acacia. Glass beads were chosen as the core material, because their surface was easily treated to be hydrophobic. We succeeded in excluding the complicated influence of emulsion on microencapsulation by the use of the coacervation method and a solid core material with narrow size distribution. The membrane of the microcapsule became thick with the increase of acetic acid dosage, while encapsulation was prevented by its excess addition because of the low pH value in the hardening process. Hydrophobizing of the core surface decreased the amount of acetic acid required to microencapsulate. A thin membrane was obtained due to the existence of salt, however the membrane thickness conversely became thick with a minute quantity of salt. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  16. Detection of multiple AE signal by triaxial hodogram analysis; Sanjiku hodogram ho ni yoru taju acoustic emission no kenshutsu

    Nagano, K.; Yamashita, T. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)


    In order to evaluate dynamic behavior of underground cracks, analysis and detection were attempted on multiple acoustic emission (AE) events. The multiple AE is a phenomenon in which multiple AE signals generated by underground cracks developed in an extremely short time interval are superimposed, and observed as one AE event. The multiple AE signal consists of two AE signals, whereas the second P-wave is supposed to have been inputted before the first S-wave is inputted. The first P-wave is inputted first, where linear three-dimensional particle movements are observed, but the movements are made random due to scattering and sensor characteristics. When the second P-wave is inputted, the linear particle movements are observed again, but are superimposed with the existing input signals and become multiple AE, which creates poor S/N ratio. The multiple AE detection determines it a multiple AE event when three conditions are met, i. e. a condition of equivalent time interval of a maximum value in a scalogram analysis, a condition of P-wave vibrating direction, and a condition of the linear particle movement. Seventy AE signals observed in the Kakkonda geothermal field were analyzed and AE signals that satisfy the multiple AE were detected. However, further development is required on an analysis method with high resolution for the time. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Photoelasticity analysis of thermal stresses in the plastic ICs. Hikari danseiho ni yoru IC package nai oryoku no keisoku

    Hasegawa, T.; Shibuya, Y. (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    Recent highly integrated semiconductors have tendencies of being finer patterns and larger silicon chip area. Plastic packages excellent in productivity have been proved to be highly reliable in moisture resistance due to improved sealing resin and have become the main part of IC packages. However, in such devices featuring larger chip area and finer circuit pattern as large capacity memories, the problem of internal stress due to sealing resin contraction has been highlighted as a new problem. In this study, a photoelasticity which is a relatively simple method is employed to evaluate stress within sealing resin, and the review on effects of stress on the interior of sealing resin and chip are reported. Further, the effect of a buffer coat formed on the chip to reduce the stress on a silicon chip, and the effect of package shape on the thermal stress has been examined by means of photoelasticity, and the result is also shown. 10 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Contents and Abstracts


    Li Ying, Ph.D Candidate, Institute tor the History orAncient Civilizations, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin, 130024, China; Wu Yuhong, Professor, Institute for the History of Ancient Civilizations, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin, 130024, China.

  19. Your Paper's Title Starts Here:

    Hans Neber-Aeschbacher


    Jun 5, 2012 ... 1College of Life Science, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin,130118, China. 2Changchun Vocational .... Different additives of medium had a great impact ... the nature (Zhang, 2011; Atlas and Atlas, 1991), including.

  20. Leveling of battery load and extension of battery life by serial connection of electric double layer capacitors with batteries for electric vehicles. Experimental results on the small model; Denki jidoshayo denchi to denki nijuso capacitor no chokuretsu setsuzoku ni yoru denchi futan no heijunka oyobi denchijumyo no enshinka. (kogata model ni yoru jikken seika). Kogata model ni yoru jikken seika

    Takehara, J.; Okubo, N.; Miyaoka, K. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)


    The load leveling method of batteries for electric vehicles was studied for extension of a battery life and mileage every charging. Under large load fluctuation conditions such as deceleration and acceleration, use of electric power sources other than battery for peek load at acceleration can improve a battery life, output power capacity and mileage every charging. Combination of effective recovery of regenerative power at deceleration with its discharge at acceleration is one of the effective methods. The electric double layer capacitors are serially connected with the batteries, regenerative power is charged only into the capacitors, and both voltages of the battery and capacitor are applied to a power circuit. Battery load is reduced by load on the capacitor. Until the capacitor is re-charged by regenerative power after full discharge, power is supplied only by battery through a diode. Capacitor power is used as effectively as possible until approaching considerably low voltage. As peak load of the battery is reduced by 30%, the mileage increases by 5.7%, and the battery cycle life becomes 1.5 times longer. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. ChinAfrica focuses on universities in China that recruit foreign students


    Changchun University of Science and Technology LOCATED in Changchun,capital city of Jilin Province in northeast China,Changchun University of Science and Technology (CUST) is a provincial key university featured in engineering.Having four campuses,it covers an area of 800,000 square meters. CUST was founded in 1958.After over 50 years of development,CUST has now

  2. Basic survey project for joint implementation in fiscal 1998. Study of BFG mono-firing gas turbine combined cycle power plant application for the steel mill of China; 1998 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa. Chugoku seitetsu kaishamuke koro gas sensho combined cycle hatsuden setsubi



    Discussions were given on application to the steel mills in China of a 1100-degree C class high-efficiency combined cycle power plant (CCPP) exclusively firing blast furnace gas developed jointly by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. of Japan and ABB Corporation of Switzerland. The CCPP can utilize the energy possessed by a fuel without waste from high temperature zones to low temperature zones, being capable of attaining high efficiency that cannot be achieved with the single cycle. The CCPP has the efficiency exceeding that of the BTGP by about 10% or more in absolute value. The investigations and discussions were given on Shougang General Corporation, Anshan Steel Corporation and Wuhan Steel Corporation. As a result, in the plan for the power plant of Shougang General Corporation on which both parties have agreed, the project implementation can be expected to result in electric power generation of 110 MW in annual average, factory air supply of about 100 tons per hour in annual average, and annual reduction of carbon dioxide of 841 kilo tons. Wuhan Steel and Anshan Steel will require implementation of further detailed investigation, but the possibility of realization is considered high (NEDO)

  3. Geothermal energy development activities. Report of the field trip of the Development and Utilization of Geothermal Resources in Tianjin, the 30th International Geothermal Congress; Dai 30 kai IGC chugoku tenshinshi ni okeru chinetsu chokusetsu riyo no kengaku ni sanka shite

    Matsubayashi, O. [Geological Survey of Japan Ibaragi (Japan)


    The 30th International Geothermal Congress (IGC) was held in August, 1996, in the Beijing Great Hall of People`s Congress, Beijing, China. The author of the paper took part in an excursion being a part of IGC titled the Development and Utilization of Geothermal Resources in Tianjin and reported the summary in this paper. Because the Tianjin area has relatively high geothermal gradient, the direct utilization of the geothermal resources has been pushed forward from the 1980`s. An electron controlled hot water production and supply system developed by the Geothermal Resources Center, Tianjin Environment Protection Bureau is characterized in not utilizing any heat exchanger and conducting chemical treatments to prevent scaling. This system adopts a fuzzy-control, calculates the most suitable operating condition based on 48 kinds of observed parameters (hot water flow rate, pressure, external temperature, etc.) and controls automatically all the hot water production and supply system. The system can supply warming for 95,000 square meters including a municipal library and the neighboring 6 buildings. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Efficiency improvement project for district heat supplying plants in Dailian City in China; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Chugoku/Dailian shi chiiki netsu kyokyu plant kokoritsu kaizen project



    Investigations and discussions have been given on energy saving possibilities at two medium-sized heat and power supplying plants in the city of Dailian in China. The project will improve the operation methods of the heat and power plants so that the energy cost can be minimized, and attempt to improve the boiler heat efficiency and save the energy by means of heat recovery and utilization. The draft modification plan for energy conservation has planned operation optimization for energy conservation, control of boiler operation under variable pressure, modification of the external boiler heat converter, use of inverters for the large capacity motors for boilers, and recovery of heat from the boiler blow-down water. In the analysis, models were structured from the operation data, and the effects of applying the energy saving measures were derived from simulation. As a result, the energy saving effect was found to be about 13,000 tons at the Chunhai plant and about 7,000 tons at the Pulandian plant annually (converted to oil). The reduction in greenhouse gas emission was found to be about 40,000 tons at the Chunhai plant and about 20,000 tons at the Pulandian plant annually. The number of years for investment payback is about 4.1 years at the Chunhai plant, and about 4.9 years at the Pulandian plant, wherein good profitability can be estimated. (NEDO)

  5. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Survey of the actual state and trend of the environmental regulation in China (area for survey: Hunan Province, Sichuan Province and Chongquing City); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Chugoku ni okeru kankyo kisei no jittai to doko chosa (Chosa taisho chiiki: Hunan sho, Sichuan sho, Chongquing shi)



    In China where approximately 3/4 of the primary energy depends on coal, the survey focused especially on the area around the Yangtze River and the South area which suffer from the serious acid rain caused by combustion of the coal with much sulfur content. The paper surveyed the air pollution in terms of the actual state and trend of the environmental regulation and aimed at collecting the basic data useful in planning the international cooperation of Japan which supports the promotion of CCT introduction/spread to China. The survey was conducted in Yunnan Province, Guangxi Zhaungze, and Guizhou Province in fiscal 1996, and Hunan Province, Sichuan Province, and Chongquing where the problem is the SOx emission in fiscal 1997. The items for survey are economy and industry, energy supply/demand, the actual state of coal production/consumption and coal flow among provinces, etc., SOx emitted from coal combustion facilities, data on dust emission and the state of damages, emission standards, air environmental standards and the present status and subjects of the execution of air environmental regulation/surcharge system, administrative systems and policies on industry/environment, etc. 16 refs., 17 figs., 75 tabs.

  6. Basic survey project of advanced efficiency of energy consumption in developing countries. Engineer invitation project from developing countries such as Vietnam, Philippines, China and Thailand; Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa nado jigyo. Hatten tojokoku gijutsusha shohei jigyo (Betonamu, Philippine, Chugoku, Tai)



    For contributing to the promotion of energy saving and environmental conservation, eighteen officers and engineers were invited to Japan during the period between January 14th and 23rd in 1997, from Vietnam, Philippines, China and Thailand. This report summarizes the invitation project for training conducted under a theme `Energy saving and environmental conservation.` Lectures were given concerning activities of global environmental conservation by NEDO, history and measures of overcoming the Yokkaichi pollution, outline of new energy, outline of energy saving, outline of basic environment law, outline of final industrial waste treatment facilities, and global environmental issues. Site training was conducted at Hekinan Thermal Power Station of Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Fujiwara Works of Onoda-Chichibu Cement Co., Ltd., and Yokkaichi Works of Kyowa Petroleum and Chemistry Co., Ltd. Questions and answers were exchanged. The new energy and energy saving were impressive, and were new concept for the trainees. This project was considered to be continued. The inspection of works was also well received, which was considered to be continued

  7. Survey of technological advancement of coal exploitation in Asia and Pacific for fiscal 1997. Formulation of production plans for model coal mines in China; 1997 nendo Asia Taiheiyo sekitan kaihatsu kodoka chosa. Chugoku ni okeru model tanko no seisan keikaku no sakutei



    In view of the prospective demand for coal in China and of the current state of transportation, a development plan is formulated for Tangkou Mining Area (of model mines) for the purpose of realizing efficient exploitation of coal. The infrastructures for coal transportation are complete in this area, and delivery of coal is easy from this area to the coal demanding regions. Although coal seams are quite deep in the ground, the important ones contain rich reserves. Exploitation is carried out under a vertical shaft scheme, in which pits extend horizontally at the level of 950m below the sea surface. As for production, an annual yield of 3-million ton is predicted thanks to two compositely mechanized coal faces. Coal is won by the monolayer side hole method in the case of seams not thicker than 4.0m, and by the caved stope method in the case not thinner than 4.0m. Employed for the mines are 1077 people. Operation days are 300, efficiency 15t/man/shift. The annual sale in total is expected to be worth 759-million 534.6-thousand yuan. To be required for the construction will be 1.2-billion yuan for mines and 0.2-billion yuan for coal dressing facilities, or 1.4-billion yuan in all, and the figures indicate that the plan is economically promising. 43 figs., 119 tabs.

  8. Fiscal 1995 survey report on the feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Survey on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the coal preparation sector in China; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Chugoku no sentan bumon ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system ni kansuru chosa



    Specifying the coal preparation technology among clean coal technologies (CCT) in China, the paper investigated governmental policies, plans, standards of coal preparation technology, subjects, etc. toward the introduction/spread of coal preparation technology, and studied decision, introduction and spread of the coal preparation system suitable for the coal utilization status in China. The survey was conducted in Shanxi and Henan Provinces which are main provinces of coal production, and field survey was made at some selected coal preparation plants having different operational conditions. In the field survey, problems on the operation were extracted, and points of improvement were studied at the same time. Further, to grasp the positioning of coal preparation in CCT in China, survey was carried out on laws and regulation on coal preparation in terms of energy and environmental policies. Finally, the result of the field survey was analyzed, a coal preparation system of which the introduction/spread in medium- and long-term are enabled was proposed considering the coal utilization status and economic situation in China, and how to introduce/spread it was studied. 35 figs., 42 tabs.

  9. Predicting utterance pitch targets in Yoruba for tone realisation in speech synthesis

    Van Niekerk, DR


    Full Text Available -velar stop />gb/ and certain nasalised vowels indicated by a succeeding n, for example o.n refers to /O˜/). The syllable structure is relatively simple, with all syllables being open or consisting of syllabic nasals with no consonant clusters; thus any... of consonant-vowel (CV), vowel only (V) and syllabic nasal (N). A more detailed presentation of these language details can be found in Section 2 of O. de´. jo. bı´ et al. (2006). The Yoru`ba´ tone system is based on 3 tonemes (H, M and L), with rising...

  10. 浅谈以PPP模式建立长春市地下综合管廊%Discussion on the underground pipe gallery construction of Changchun based on PPP mode

    关强; 陈洋


    城市地下综合管廊的建设是城市智能化的标志之一,是衡量一个城市是否充分利用地下空间的标准,更是未来城市地下管网管理综合化的趋势。城市地下综合管廊的成功建设及合理管理,是保障城市安全运行、提高城市综合承载能力的必要条件之一。作为智慧城市建设的重要组成部分,城市地下管廊的建设已经成为未来十年各大、中型城市规划建设的重点项目。 PPP( Private-Public-Partnership)模式能够使政府与企业形成一种良好的合作伙伴关系,能够在城市地下综合管廊的成功建设中起到积极作用。%The construction of urban underground pipe gallery is one of the symbols of intelligentization, but also the symbol of the full use of urban underground space, and even the trend of the corridor of the urban pipeline management. The successful construction and rational management of urban underground pipe gallery is one of the necessary conditions to ensure the safe operation of the city and improve the city′s comprehensive carrying capacity. As an important part of urban construction, the construction of urban underground pipe gallery has become the key project of the large and medium-sized city planning in the next ten years. PPP ( Private-Public-Partnership) model can make the government and enterprises form a good cooperative partnership, and can play an active role in the construction of underground comprehensive pipe gallery.

  11. 长春市腰红嘴子与北红嘴子遗址发掘简报%Excavation on the Yaohongzuizi and Beihongzuizi Sites in Changchun City

    吉林省文物考古研究所; 长春市文物管理委员会办公室


    The Yaohongzuizi and Beihongzuizi sites excavated in May~August 1994 belong to theNeolithic and Bronze ages. Their Neolithic remains are of the same type, featuring principally cylindricaljars with impressed and incised bow string and zigzag patterns. As regards Bronze Age remains, thevestiges of Yaohongzuizi yielded mainly plain ding tripods, li tripods and jars, while those of Bei-hongzuizi, large-sized ding, li and jars with incised short lines along the rim and incised nets on thebelly. The discovery of the two sites being at a short distance and belonging to the same two ages is ofgreat significance to studying the cultural sequence of the Neolithic and Bronze ages in the Jilin region.

  12. 巢式PCR方法检测长春地区单纯疱疹病毒感染状况%HSV infection in Changchun area detected with nested polymerase chain reaction

    于海滨; 陈世义; 徐斌; 郑华


    目的:探讨巢式PCR方法检测单纯疱疹病毒(HSV)的临床应用价值,同时对HSV-1、HSV-2在生殖器疱疹(GH)、梅毒(syphilis)、念珠菌病(candidiasis)、非淋菌性尿道炎(NGU)、淋病(gonorrhea)、尖锐湿疣(CA)6种性病患者(STD)及其性伴和健康人群中的感染情况及分布特点进行对比研究.方法:应用HSV-1糖蛋白D(gpD)基因序列和HSV-2糖蛋白G(gpG)基因序列为靶基因,设计了普通PCR和巢氏PCR方法,检测6种STD患者及其性伴和健康人群中HSV的感染情况.结果:6种STD患者共1223人,HSV-1阳性率15.70%(192/1223),HSV-2阳性率28.29%(346/1223),HSV总阳性率43.41%(538/1223);检测性伴153例,HSV-1阳性率12.42%(19/153),HSV-2阳性率21.57%(33/153) ,HSV总阳性率34.0%(52/153);检测健康人群263例,HSV-1阳性率3.42%(9/263),HSV-2阳性率6.08%(16/263),HSV总阳性率9.51%(25/263).结论 :STD患者中HSV-2感染率高于HSV-1感染率;STD患者及其性伴中HSV-1、HSV-2感染率均高于健康人群.

  13. 长春市某大学一起非典型麻疹暴发调查%Investigation on an outbreak of measles at a university of Changchun, Jilin province

    郭立春; 刘慧慧; 来学惠; 周剑惠; 陈超; 田鑫; 程涛; 曹凤瑞; 付思美; 林琳; 邓立权


    目的:调查2014年长春市某大学一起麻疹暴发原因。方法采用统一调查表,对所有疑似病例进行调查,并采集其血液和咽拭子标本进行实验室检测,采用描述流行病学方法进行分析。结果共搜索到28例疑似麻疹病例,其中确诊19例,症状不典型比例为94.74%,学校罹患率为0.15%;麻疹PCR病毒核酸检测阳性率为67.86%,麻疹IgM血清学检测阳性率为3.57%;全校麻疹评估接种率约为80%,有免疫史人群中,续发率为29%。结论本起疫情是由麻疹典型病例引起的不典型麻疹暴发,病原学检测可提高早期诊断率;建议全国范围内,对新入学大学新生接种1剂麻疹疫苗,以加速麻疹消除进程。%Objective To investigate the cause of measles outbreak and risk factors of infection in order to provide evidence of controlling measures. Methods All of the suspected measles cases were investigated by unified questionnaires , and the serum and pharyngeal swab samples were tested. The distribution of cases was described by descriptive epidemiology. Results A total of 28 suspected measles cases were screened, including 19 confirmed case. The proportion of atypical symptoms was 94.74%. The measles attack rate of the university was 0.15%. The viral nucleic acid positive rate of the cases of measles screened by RT-PCR was 67.86%, and the IgM serologically positive rate was 3.57%. The vaccination rate was about 80%, was and the unprotect rate was 29%. Conclusion This was an atypical measles outbreak caused by the typical cases of measles. For atypical measles cases, etiology test can improve the early diagnosis rate; inoculate measles vaccine again for new students in the country may be able to accelerate the process of eliminating measles.

  14. GIS技术在长春市地下水水质评价中的应用%The utilization of Groundwater quality-evaluation on GIS in ChangChun city

    姜哲; 傅春



  15. 基于长春市某沼气工程搅拌方式模拟分析%The Simulation Analysis of a Biogas Project Mixing Method Based on Changchun City

    张润; 齐俊峰; 原帅



  16. Investigation on quality of life of senile people in community in Changchun city%长春市城市社区老年人生活质量调查研究

    章旭玲; 高玉霞; 邢沈阳



  17. Changchun City College Teaching yoga classes Current Situation and Countermeasures%长春市普通高校瑜伽课教学现状与对策分析

    姚春华; 金慧侠



  18. 长春市社区老年高血压患者膳食结构现状调查%Survey on dietary pattern of aged patients with hypertension in community of Changchun

    李程; 李文涛; 柴春燕; 王月琦; 陈秀明


    目的 了解社区老年高血压患者膳食结构,为实施护理干预提供依据.方法 通过方便取样对长春市某社区104名老年高血压患者膳食结构进行自制问卷调查.结果 被调查的老年高血压患者平均每人每日食物摄入中三大营养索供能比例不平衡,脂肪供能偏高,占34%,碳水化合物供能偏低,占54%,蛋白质供能较合理,占12%;相关营养素摄人量:钠偏高,而钾、钙、镁偏低.结论 与中国居民膳食指南比较,目前老年高血压患者膳食结构不合理,应通过合理的、有针对性的护理干预使老年高血压患者建立正确的膳食观念、膳食习惯.%Objective To investigate the dietary pattern for aged patients with hypertension in the community and provide basis for implementing the nursing intervention. Methods 104 aged patients with hypertension in one cummunity of Changehun City were sampled to be surveyed by diet questionnaire at random. Results The daily intakes of grain, meat, oils and salt for everyone were (279.9±31.4), (73.1±40.6), (36.9±10.5) and (9.2±3.5) g/d, respectively The daily intakes of fruit, fish and milk were (176.9±115.5), (16.5±14.7) and (120.2±124.1) g/d, respectively. The ratio of carbohydrate, protein and fat was improper. The percentages of energy from fat, carbohydrate and protein were 34%, 54% and 12%, respectively. So, the energy from fat was relatively high, and the energy from protein was reasonable. The daily intake of natrium was excessive. However, the daily intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium were not enough. Conclusions Compared with Dietary Guideline and Balance Diet Pagoda for Chinese Residents, current dietary pattern for aged patients with hypertension is unreasonable. Reasonable and pertinent nursing intervention should he carried out in order to help aged patients with hypertension acquire correct concepts of dietary and good habits of dietary.

  19. Analysis on influencing factors of intelligence development and psychomotor development of 126 infants in Changchun%长春市126例婴儿智力及运动发育影响因素分析

    丁珍; 李响; 甘振威; 邓娟; 陈雪妍; 吴义霞; 谢林



  20. 长春市朝阳区社区护理人力资源状况调查%A survey of human resources state of community nursing care in Chaoyang district of Changchun city

    姜波; 安力彬; 李文涛


    @@ 1997年颁布的《中共中央、国务院关于卫生改革与发展的决定》中明确提出"改革城市卫生服务体系,积极发展社区卫生服务,逐步形成功能合理、方便群众的卫生服务网络."

  1. 长春南湖水耐冷菌的筛选及其产酶特性%Screening and Properties of Enzyme Production of Psychrotrophs from Nanhu Lake of Changchun

    黄继国; 杨柳; 王玉; 朱婧; 丛伟


    The samples from the South Lake at a low temperature were taken and diluted onto coated tablet for concentration inoculation. A total of 35 cold-adapted-strains were isolated, which contained 14 bacteria and 21 fungi. The colony morphology and physiological and biochemical results show that the psychrotrophic bacteria belong to Lactobacilus, Saccharococcus, Staphyloccus, Actinomyces and the fungi belong to molds and yeast.Some of them can produce hydrolases including oxidase, catalase, amylase and gelatinase, and some of psychrotrophs can make nitrate reduction, nitrite reduction and so on.%采用低温环境下的南湖湖水为样品,稀释后涂布平板进行富集培养,并进行细菌菌落形态及生理生化性质测定.实验共培养出耐冷菌35株,包括细菌14株,真菌21株.其中细菌分属于乳杆菌属、葡萄球菌属、糖球菌属、放线菌属;真菌分属于霉菌和酵母菌.分离的菌种能产生多种大分子物质水解酶类,包括氧化酶、接触酶、淀粉水解酶、明胶酶等,并且大多数菌种具有硝酸盐还原作用阳性,还有一些耐冷菌具有亚硝酸盐还原作用阳性、反硝化作用阳性等.

  2. 长春地区无偿献血者HPA1-6,15基因分型%Genetic frequency distribution of HPA1-6,15 in ChangChun in China

    于江虹; 杨帆; 焦立新; 刘铁梅


    Objective This study is devised to discover the frequencies and principle of HPA genes in Han ethinity in North East of China and to build a donor group with HPA-1a,-2a,-4a,-5a,-6a negative or known HPA antigen types.Methods We randomly collected 172 blood samples from regular paletlet donors ,distracted DNA using TIANGEN kit, measured DNA concentration and purity ,tested using PCR-SSP then did the statistic analysis.Results The frequency of each HPA phenotype is HPA-1aa 0.988 ,HPA-1ab 0.012, HPA- 2aa 0.833 ,HPA- 2ab 0.159, HPA- 2bb 0.008 ,HPA-3aa 0.355, HPA-3ab 0.482, HPA-3bb 0.163, HPA-4aa 0.988,HPA-4ab 0.012, HPA-5aa 0.971 ,HPA-5ab 0.029, HPA-6aa 0.977 ,HPA-6ab 0.023, HPA-15aa 0.286, HPA-15ab 0.498, HPA-15bb 0.216, respectively.We didn ,t find HPA-1bb、-4bb、-5bb、-6bb.The frequency of each HPA genotype is HPA-1a 0.994,HPA-2a 0.913, HPA-3a 0.596, HPA-4a 0.994, HPA-5a 0.985, HPA-6a 0.988, HPA-15a 0.535, respectively.Among them,the frequency of HPA-1a、-4a is above 99%.The mismatch rate of each genotype is HPA-1a 0.011, HPA-2a 0.147, HPA-3a 0.366 ,HPA-4a 0.011, HPA-5a 0.028, HPA-6a 0.023, HPA-15a 0.374 ,respectively.Conclusion This study helps to build a donor group with known HPA antigen types.It will help to promote the detection rate of platelet antibody and to supply the patients with HPA-matched platelets.%目的 调查北方汉族人群人类血小板抗原(HPA)的基因频率及分布规律.建立一支HPA-1a,-2a,-4a,-5a,-6a阴性及已知HPA抗原的献血者队伍.方法 随机抽取172名长春地区固定无偿血小板捐献者静脉血3ml,枸橼酸钠抗凝;采用TIANGEN试剂盒提取DNA.基因定量仪测定DNA的浓度和纯度.采用PCR-SSP方法进行试验.最后进行统计学分析.结果 各表现型的频率分别是:HPA-1aa 0.988,HPA-1ab 0.012,HPA-2aa 0.833,HPA-2ab 0.159,HPA-2bb 0.008,HPA-3aa 0.355,HPA-3ab 0.482,HPA-3bb 0.163,HPA-4aa 0.988,HPA-4ab 0.012,HPA-5aa 0.971,HPA-5ab 0.029,HPA-6aa 0.977,HPA-6ab 0.023,HPA-15aa 0.286,HPA-15ab 0.498,HPA-15bb 0.216.未发现HPA 1bb、4bb、5bb、6bb.各基因型的频率分别是:HPA-1a 0.994,HPA-2a 0.913,HPA-3a 0.596,HPA-4a 0.994,HPA-5a 0.985,HPA-6a 0.988,HPA-15a 0.535.其中基因频率占99%以上的有HPA-1a、-4a.各基因型的不配合率分别是HPA-1a 0.011,HPA-2a 0.147,HPA-3a 0.366,HPA-4a 0.011,HPA-5a 0.028,HPA-6a 0.023,HPA-15a 0.374.结论 本研究有助于在长春地区建立已知HPA抗原的机采血小板捐献者队伍,可以提高血小板抗体的检出率,为同种免疫性血小板减少症患者提供HPA相合的血小板.

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Swine in Changchun%长春地区猪源大肠杆菌的分离鉴定和耐药性分析

    王基伟; 冯书章; 孙洋; 纪雪; 刘军; 祝令伟; 周伟; 佟盼盼; 郭学军; 李晓慧


    为了解吉林省长春地区猪源大肠杆菌的耐药情况,于2013年采集318份猪源样品,分离鉴定大肠杆菌275株。以氨苄西林、头孢噻肟等15种药物进行了药物敏感性实验,多重 PCR 方法进行系统进化分群。结果表明,大肠杆菌分离株对四环素、氨苄西林和磺胺甲基异恶唑耐药最严重(83.63%、52.72%、51.27%),全部菌株对美洛培南、多粘菌素敏感,其中176株菌表现为对3类以上抗生素的多重耐药(64.00%)。从仔猪腹泻样品分离大肠杆菌对β-内酰胺类抗生素、喹诺酮类抗生素、四环素、氯霉素及磺胺甲基异恶唑的耐药率显著高于健康猪和猪肉样品分离株的耐药率。大肠杆菌分离株主要为 A 群和 B1群。研究获得了吉林长春地区猪源大肠杆菌耐药性的基本流行病学数据,为指导养殖业的临床用药及耐药性监测提供了依据。%In order to investigate the antimicrobial resistant of Escherichia coli from swine, a total of 275 Escherichia coli were recovered from 318 swine origin samples in Chuangchun in Jilin province, The phylogenetic background determinated by multiplex PCR. Susceptibility of 275 isolates to fifteen antimicrobial agents were tested. Among swine E. coli isolates, 83.63% were resistant to tetracycline, 52.72% to ampicillin and 51.27% to sulfamethoxazole. Most of the isolates (176) were multiple resistant bacteria strains; it meant that 64% of the E. coli strains were resistant to more than 3 kinds of antimicrobial agents. All of the isolates were sensitive to meropenem and polymyxin B. In addition, the drug-resistant rates to quinolones, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, sulfanilamide, and β-lactam antibiotics of the E. coli isolates from diarrhea piglets are remarkbly higher than those isolates from healthy swine and pork. The majority of isolates belonged to phylogenetic group A and B1. In this study, epidemiological background and basic data of drug resistance of E. coli from swine in Chuangchun in Jilin province. It could give some directions to clinical medication and drug resistance surveillance.

  4. 电视行业产业化发展探析——以长春电视台为例%On the Industrialization of TV Profession in China——take Changchun TV as an example



    At present,TV profession faces up with fierce market competition.Entertainment forbidden and the advertisement are forbidden in TV plays decrease the income of TV.Face up with fierce market competition environment,how to create a innovative way and how to be alive in the competition and get social effect and economic effect are difficult for the TV people.So the future development of TV determined the life and death of TV people.%当前,电视行业面临着激烈的市场竞争,限娱令和限制电视剧里插播广告的一纸条文,无疑将影响电视台的经营收入。如何在生存中走出一条创新之路,取得社会效益和经济效益双丰收,是所有电视台面临的一道难题。电视台未来的发展走向,决定着电视人的生死存亡。

  5. The Energy Saving and Techno-economic Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pump in Changchun%长春地区土壤源热泵的节能与经济技术性分析

    甄勃; 焦迎新


    在能源和环保成为影响和制约人类生存、发展的背景下,介绍了土壤源热泵的工作原理,结合工程实例,分析了土壤源热泵系统的节能、经济性及技术性,给出我国严寒地区土壤源热泵大规模开发及工程应用的可行性建议.%The energy and environmental protection becomes background influenced and restricted to human survival and development,the work principle of ground-source heat pump is introduced in the paper.Combined with engineering example,energy,technology and economy,analyses of ground-source heat pump system is implemented,feasibility suggestions of the large-scale development and engineering application by ground-source heat pump are provided in cold region.

  6. 净月潭国家森林公园凋落物层土壤动物群落多样性%Community Diversity of Litter Invertebrates in Jingyuetan National Forest Park of Changchun, China

    王子健; 刘佳; 王尚; 杨巽; 席景会; 王军


    为了解中温带地区城市森林凋落物层土壤动物群落结构及大面积针叶人工林对凋落物层土壤动物群落多样性的影响,对长春净月潭国家森林公园凋落物层土壤动物进行调查,共采获土壤动物8 630头,隶属于3门6纲18个类群,其中弹尾目、蜱螨目、膜翅目、鞘翅目、鳞翅目幼虫、蜘蛛目、双翅目幼虫和石蜈蚣目是该地区森林生态系统凋落物层土壤动物的主要类群,其个体数占土壤动物个体总数的97.91%.天然次生林与针叶人工林间凋落物土壤动物的类群数、密度、多样性指数、均匀度指数、Simpson优势度指数和密度-类群指数均无显著差异(P>0.05),而2种林分间伪蝎目、石蜈蚣目、缨翅目和鳞翅目幼虫的密度及蜱螨目和弹尾目个体数之比差异明显.2种林分Jaccard相似性系数为0.67.%To understand community structure of the litter invertebrates in urban forests in the Central Temperate Zone and effects of large-area artificial coniferous forests on community diversity of the litter invertebrates, investigation of litter invertebrates was carried out in the Jingyuetan National Forest Park, with a total of 8 630 invertebrate individuals collected, belonging to 18 orders in 6 classes under 3 phyla. Results show that Collembola, Acarina, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera larvae, Araneae, Diptera larvae, and Lithobiomorpha were the dominant groups, which accounted for 97. 91% of the total individuals collected. No significant differences were found between the litter invertebrate communities in natural secondary forests and in artificial coniferous forests in number of groups, density, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Pielou evenness index, Simpson dominance index, and density-group index, whereas big differences were between the two kinds of forests in density of larvae of Pseudoscorpionida, Lithobiomorpha, Thysanoptera and Lepidoptera, and in ratio of Acarina to Collembola in number of individuals. Jaccard similarity index of soil invertebrate was 0. 67 in both of the two kinds of forests.

  7. 长春南湖底栖动物群落特征及其与环境因子的关系%Community characteristics of benthonic animals and its relationship to environmental factors in the Nanhu Lake, Changchun

    孙刚; 盛连喜; 李明全


    There are only 21 species of benthonic animals in the Nanhu Lake, Changchtm. The dominant species in the banthos community axe obvious, and the individual quantity of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, Branchiura sowerbyi, and Tendipus plumosus accounts for 87 % of the total individual quantity of all benthonic animals. It indicates that the water in the Nanhu Lake is suffering serious organic pollution, and belongs to an eutrophic lake. The peak values of benthos biomaas and energy axe found in July(48.23gWW· m- 2 and 241.16kJ· m- 2 spectively), while the maximum individual qttantry is appeared in May(401ind· m-2). The distribution of ligochaeta and aquatic insects has a significant positive cor relation to organic content in the sediment(a< 0.05 ). The community structure of benthonic animals reflects adequately the feature of the Nanhu Lake as an eutrophic lake in temperate zone.

  8. 长春市中年女性乳腺癌及乳房自我检查认知状况调查%Cognition of breast cancer and breast self examination in middle aged women in Changchun

    王双艳; 吕静; 王楠; 周丹; 徐红艳; 迟晓彤; 张娟


    目的 通过对长春市中年女性乳腺癌及乳房自我检查相关知识、行为的调查分析,提高中年女性对乳腺癌及乳房自我检查方法的认知度.方法 随机抽取长春市35~ 55岁中年女性200名发放调查问卷,填写后当场收回,进行科学的统计和分析.结果 97.95%的女性听说过乳腺癌这个疾病,但是,72.8%的女性对乳腺癌的好发部位不了解,65.64%的女性对乳腺癌早期症状不了解;59.5%的女性从未听说过乳房自我检查,了解乳房自检方法的只占18.5%,一点也不了解的占13.8%,了解大概意思的占67.7%;会定期做乳房自我检查的只有21.54%,在身体不适的情况下才会检查和从来不做检查的占78.5%.结论 长春市中年女性对乳腺癌及乳房自我检查的认知度较低,需要通过健康教育方法提高女性对乳腺癌及乳房自我检查的知晓程度,进而提高乳腺癌的早期发现率.

  9. McNamara cephalometric analysis of the 240 Changchun children with normal occlusion%长春地区正常(牙合)儿童X线头影测量McNamara分析

    陈远萍; 冯小东; 周德春; 李霞



  10. Direct control of stabilization for nonlinear systems using power state feedback; Hisenkei system no beki jotai feedback ni yoru chokusetsutekina anteika seigyo

    Okubo, S. [Yamagata Univ. (Japan)


    The design method for stabilization of nonlinear systems by direct feedback without using evaluation function is shown. This method is a very important controlling method which is the basis for nonlinear system control, and it is expected to be applied to very wide fields. It is made clear that numerical solution is not possible because the number of equations exceeds that of variables in the extended Lyapunov equation which becomes an equation for the design. There is no concept of pole of linear system in nonlinear systems although stabilization of nonlinear system is natural extension of stabilization of linear system in case of using Lyapunov function. Numerical difficulty is avoided by the use of genetic algorithm in the design calculation, and strict designing with finite degree becomes possible as a result. This method can design strictly nonlinear feedback control law of bounded power degree to stabilize globally nonlinear system of odd highest degree polynomial. The effectiveness of this system is shown an instance of numerical calculation. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Fission track dating using sphene. ; Example of the Hanawa pluton. Sphene wo mochiita fission track ho ni yoru nendai sokutei. ; Hanawa shinsei gantai no rei

    Ohira, H. (Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)); Honda, T. (Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Laboratory)


    As for the Hanawa pluton which distributes near the boundary between Fukushima and Ibaraki Prefectures, the fission track (FT) dating was conducted by using sphene. The inside surfaces of the polished samples of sphene crystal were stuck by outside detectors and the grain-by-grain method was used to determine the age by the calibration method where a Mount Dromedary Complex sphene was used as the age standard sample. The spontaneous track density differed greatly from a sample to another sample, and even in the same sample the number of crystal grains which could be the measuring subject was limited. The FT ages determined on 5 samples were 67.4Ma for mylonite-like subfacies, 91.9 Ma and 92.5Ma for large shpene bearing subfacies, and 92.5 Ma and 93.1 Ma for fine grained quartz diorite-tonalite. Furthermore, the effect of ratio of Th content to U content on the measured age was also studied. 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Investigation of flow field inside a savonius rotor by image processing technique with conditional sampling. Joken chushutsuho ni yoru savonius fusha no naibu nagareba no gazo keisoku

    Fujisawa, N.; Taguchi, Y.; Sato, T.; Nagaya, K.; Ikai, S. (Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Uemura, T. (Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    The particle image measuring system, or particle-tracking velocimetry was applied and validity estimation was made for the purpose of quantitatively estimating the flow rate field inside a Savonius rotor. This image measuring system is constituted by a CCD camera, image processing board, microcomputer, and 120byte hard disk. The experiment was carried out at a mean flow rate of 0.1m/s and a Reynolds number of 4[times]10[sup 3]. The binary correlation algorithm was applied to two consecutive images with an interval of 1/60s to make correspondence between tracer particles and calculate the instantaneous velocity vector. The experimental results showed that the instantaneous velocity distribution for each of various rotational angles of rotor in the inner flow of a Savonius rotor was obtained and consistent with the visualization data using the smoke-wire method. As for the output mechanism of the windturbine a wind-collecting effect contributing to generation of windturbine torque in the flow field of the advancing blade was recognized. On the other hand, formation of a separated shearing layer was found in the vicinity of the blade tip on the return blade side. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Method for solving an inverse problem of wing type by using a simple panel method; Kanbenna panel ho ni yoru yokugata gyaku mondai no ichikaiho

    Ando, J.; Matsumoto, D.; Maita, S.; Nakatake, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper describes one method for solving an inverse problem of wing type based on the source and quasi continuous vortex lattice method (SQCM) in designing marine propellers and underwater wings. With the SQCM, vortices and control points are distributed on wing camber according to the QCM, and wing surface is divided into certain number of panels. This is the method to decide vortex intensity and blow-out intensity simultaneously from the condition that vertical speed on the camber and the wing surface is zero, upon having distributed blow-out with certain intensity inside the panel. The method solves the inverse problem with the following process: specific point distribution is so determined that the targeted velocity on the wing surface is satisfied when wing surface pressure distribution and uniform flow velocity are given; and then the panels are so rearranged as in parallel with direction of the flow on the surface of the wing calculated by using these specific points to derive the targeted wing shape. This paper describes the problem solving procedure in great detail. It also introduces examples of numerical calculations. It shows one method for solving the inverse problem in wing type using the SQCM as a simple panel method, whereas its good convergence and stability were verified. Considerations on effects of free surface and expansion of the method into three-dimensional problems will be implemented in the future. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Estimation of performance of a high-speed boat by using the Rankine source method; Kosokutei no rankinsosuho ni yoru seino suitei ni tsuite

    Eguchi, T. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes estimation of performance of a high-speed boat by using the Rankine source method. An orthogonal coordinate system is considered, which uses the center of a hull as the zero point, and is made dimensionless by using the hull length. The catamaran boat or the single hull boat being the subject of the discussion is supposed to have a transom stern, and to be sailing at a constant speed in the -X direction. A governing equation and a border condition were formulated using disturbance speed potential and X-direction speed differentiation. An inverse specular image was employed as a specular image system upon considering attitude change in the high-speed boat. As to the division of hull surface, the portions protruded above the static water surface were cut off from among the panel data of boat CAD. Considering a high speed condition in which the water surface is completely separated at the transom section, the water level at the transom section was supposed to be at the same height as at the rear end of the hull. Blow-out intensity at the water surface was derived in such a way that a CAD panel of the rear end of the hull is searched and wave height agrees with the height of the transom in the Z direction. A resistance curve may be obtained easily by using a personal computer. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Method for calculating wave resistance in a catamaran by using a simple panel method; Kanbenna panel ho ni yoru katamaran no zoha teiko keisanho

    Kataoka, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper describes a method for calculating wave resistance in a catamaran by using a simple panel method. Two Wigley models were put side by side to make a catamaran, speccular images were taken on a face symmetrical in the left and right sides, and only one side (the demi-hull) was used as a region to be calculated. Considering blow-out onto the demi-hull surface and still water surface, a model was constituted, in which discrete vortices were distributed on the demi-hull camber to flow the vortices out to an infinitely distance place from the stern. A free surface condition according to double model linearization by Dawson was derived for this model in terms of numerical analysis. The Kutta`s condition is incorporated when SQCM is used concurrently with the Rankine source method, but not incorporated when not used. Calculations were performed on both conditions. Wave resistance was derived by using pressure integral on the hull surface. It is better to consider the Kutta`s condition when the distance between the demi-hulls is small. However, if the distance is large, or speed is great for the boat length resulting in less interference between the demi-hulls, there is very little difference due to the Kutta`s condition. Difference in the wave shapes causes how waves are made to vary. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Surface wettability control by titanium dioxide photo-induced reaction. Super-hydrophilic properties. Sanka chitan ni yoru hikari reiki shinsuika gijutsu. Hikari shokubai chosinsuisei

    Watanabe, T. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology)


    Hydrophilicity results when the surface of titanium dioxide is reduced for the specified oxygen to be replaced by hydroxyl groups. The ease with which such a structural change occurs is subject to variation between titanium dioxide crystal surfaces, and is dependent greatly on the atmosphere. No hydrophilic trend is observed in an atmosphere of oxygen only without moisture and, in darkness without light, hydrophobicity occurs early. Although the contacta angle titanium dioxide with water with stability is not known, yet it is presumed, on the analogy of the case of strontium titanate, that it is in the range of 20-40 degrees. A hydrophilic trend below the range is attrributed to structural changes. The control of surface wettability is one of the basic tasks to fulfill in various kinds of mechanisms and manufacturing processes. The technology of wettability control using a titanium dioxide coating which is quite durable will be applied not only to functions involving defogging, dripproof, and self-cleaning, but also to the control of heat transmission in the mechanism and to the bonding process. (NEDO)

  17. Surface wettability control by titanium dioxide photo-induced reaction. Super-hydrophilic properties; Sanka chitan ni yoru hikari reiki shinsuika gijutsu. Hikari shokubai chosinsuisei

    Watanabe, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology


    Hydrophilicity results when the surface of titanium dioxide is reduced for the specified oxygen to be replaced by hydroxyl groups. The ease with which such a structural change occurs is subject to variation between titanium dioxide crystal surfaces, and is dependent greatly on the atmosphere. No hydrophilic trend is observed in an atmosphere of oxygen only without moisture and, in darkness without light, hydrophobicity occurs early. Although the contacta angle titanium dioxide with water with stability is not known, yet it is presumed, on the analogy of the case of strontium titanate, that it is in the range of 20-40 degrees. A hydrophilic trend below the range is attrributed to structural changes. The control of surface wettability is one of the basic tasks to fulfill in various kinds of mechanisms and manufacturing processes. The technology of wettability control using a titanium dioxide coating which is quite durable will be applied not only to functions involving defogging, dripproof, and self-cleaning, but also to the control of heat transmission in the mechanism and to the bonding process. (NEDO)

  18. Control of population of excited nitrogen molecules by mixing hydrogen in low pressure discharge; Chisso jun`antei reiki bunshi mitsudo no quenching ni yoru seigyo no kento

    Uematsu, K.; Yumoto, M.; Sakai, T. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    The authors have studied on surface treatment of PTFE by a low pressure discharge. It is deduced that excited nitrogen molecules contribute to introduce polar components on the surface. To confirm the speculation, we tried to change population of metastable nitrogen N2 (A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) by quenching precursor N2 (B{sup 3}{pi}g), with hydrogen molecule. The decrease of relaxation time which indicates a change of excited molecule and measured by emission spectroscopy using a time after glow method was obtained. As a result, the relaxation times of N2 (B{sup 3}{pi}g) and N2 (A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) decreased to 55% and 20% respectively, when mixing ratio of hydrogen was 3%. It was also deduced that hydrogen atom may take a part in a quenching process of N2 (A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}). 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Numerical simulation of an excited round jet under helical disturbances by three-dimensional discrete vortex method; Helical kakuran ni yoru reiki enkei funryu no uzuho simulation

    Izawa, S.; Kiya, M.; Mochizuki, O. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)


    The evolution of vortical structure in an impulsively started round jet has been studied numerically by means of a three-dimensional vortex blob method. The viscous diffusion of vorticity is approximated by a core spreading model originally proposed by Leonard (1980). The jet is forced by axisymmetric, helical and multiple disturbances. The multiple disturbances are combinations of two helical disturbances of the same mode rotating in the opposite directions. The multiple disturbances are found to enhance both the generation of small-scale structures and the growth rate of the jet. The small-scale structures have highly organized spatial distributions. The core spreading method is effective in aquiring the core overlapping in regions of high extensional rate of strain. 21 refs., 12 figs.

  20. Production of Nd-Fe-B alloys by mechanical alloying; Mechanical alloying ni yoru Nd-Fe-B gokin no sakusei

    Saito, T. [Chiba Inst. of Tech., Narashino (Japan)


    Nb-Fe-B system magnet known as a high performance permanent magnet is produced by powder metallurgy and quench solidification methods. At present, although for a magnetic powder for Nd-Fe-B magnet an isotropic powder coarsely crashed after conducting heat treatment to and Nd-Fe-B amorphous thin belt produced by melt-spin method, research and development on an anisotropic magnetic powder are being propagated earnestly for magnetic powder with high magnetic property alternating with this. For a new producing method of magnetic powder alternating with the melt spin method, manufacturing methods using mechanical alloying method and using hydrogen storing feature of the Nd-Fe-B alloy called HDDR method are studied. In this study, mechanical alloying of mixed powders of Nd, Fe and B was conducted under hydrogen or nitrogen atmosphere to investigate the reaction to atmospheric gas such as hydrogen, nitrogen and so forth. And, by conducting the obtained powders to vacuum treatment, it was also investigated if Nd2Fe14B ferromagnetic phase formed or not. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Change of the electron attachment coefficient caused by corona discharge in oxygen. Sanso gas chu, corona hoden ni yoru denshi fuchaku keisu no henka

    Kajita, Shogo; Kondo, Yoshitaka; Ushiroda, Sumio (Toyota College of Tech., Aichi (Japan))


    The relationship between the electron attachment coefficient of ozone which is one of gases genearated during discharge and the ozone concentration was determined by discharging negative corona discharge in pure oxygen to research and develop a small and highly efficient ozonizer. These measured results are useful as the basic data necessary for simulation of a ozonizer using oxygen as the raw material. The experiment was carried out by releasing photo-electrons generated by pulse glow discharging with a Xe lamp in oxygen sealed into a drifttube, by generating negative ions due to attaching electrons to gaseous molecules and by measuring the induced current accompanied by the transfer. As the results, if ozone of hundreds of ppm is contained in oxygen, followings were confirmed: electron attachment coefficient increased for E/N of about 10Td or less, where E is electric charge and N is molecular density of gas; electron attachment coefficient increased by the dissociative attachment of ozone for E/N of about 10Td or less; and further, the cross section of dissociative attachment for ozone could be estimated by solving the Boltzmann equation. 12 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Numerical simulation for submerged body fitted with hydrofoil by boundary element method; Kyokai yosoho ni yoru yokutsuki bossuitai mawari no nagare keisan

    Masuda, S.; Kasahara, Y.; Ashidate, I. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    In a high-speed boat of a type using hydrofoils, lifting force increases in proportion to square of its length, while displacement is proportional to the third power. Therefore, an idea has come up that speed of a large boat may be increased by combining the hydrofoils with a submerged body. In other words, the idea is to levitate a ship by using composite support consisting of buoyancy of the submerged body and lifting force caused by the hydrofoils. Insufficiency of the lifting force may be complemented by the buoyancy of the submerged body which increases in an equivalent rate as that in the displacement. However, combining a submerged body with hydrofoils render a problem that lifting force for hydrofoils decreases because of interactions among the submerged body, hydrofoils, and free surface. Therefore, assuming a model of a submerged body with a length of 85 m cruising at 40 kt, analysis was given on decrease in lifting force for hydrofoils due to interactions between the submerged and lifting body and free surface by using the boundary element method. As a result, it was verified that the lifting force for the hydrofoils decreases as a result of creation of a flow that decreases effective angle of attach of the hydrofoils. It was also made clear that making the submerging depth greater reduces the decrease in the lifting force. 9 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Numerical prediction with `DMDF` model of pack ice motion in the Okhotsk sea; DMDF model ni yoru Okhotsk kai ryuhyo undo no suchi yosoku

    Matsuzawa, T.; Yamaguchi, H.; Suzuki, S.; Kato, H. [The University of Tokyo (Japan); Rheem, C. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science


    A simulation was performed on pack ice motion in the Okhotsk Sea in winter by using the distributed mass/discrete floe (DMDF) method that carries out a dynamic numerical calculation of pack ice motion. Several kinds of cases were compared and calculated. As a result, effectiveness was verified on a DMDF model with boundary conditions which are relatively large in range and complex in nature. At the same time, it was possible to estimate part of the characteristics of pack ice motion in this sea area. The numerical calculation used the floe distribution on February 1, 1994 as the initial condition, and performed calculations on conditions until February 8 giving considerations on meteorological and hydrographic data. As a result, the calculation result showed the same movements as those in the observed ice conditions. If an ocean current is hypothesized steady, the calculation is affected more than necessarily by the ocean current, and it derives a result departed from reality. From these findings, it was elucidated that floe motions are governed mainly by wind; and in making a numerical modeling, a consideration including composition with the ocean current is necessary. Shear stress of wind has its acting direction displaced from the wind direction because of effect of the Corioli`s force. 6 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Simulation of tandem hydrofoils by finite volume method with moving grid system; Henkei koshi wo tsukatta yugen taisekiho ni yoru tandem suichuyoku no simulation

    Kawashima, H. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Miyata, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    With an objective to clarify possibility of application of time-advancing calculated fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation by using a finite volume method with moving grid system, a simulation was performed on motion of a ship with hydrofoils including the control system therein. The simulation consists of a method that couples a moving grid system technology, an equation of motion, and the control system. Complex interactions between wings and with free surface may be considered automatically by directly deriving fluid force from a flow field by using the CFD. In addition, two-dimensional flows around tandem hydrofoils were calculated to solve the motion problem within a vertical plane. As a result, the following results were obtained: a finite volume method using a dynamic moving grid system method was applied to problems in non-steady tandem hydrofoils to show its usefulness; a method that couples the CFD with the equation of motion was applied to the control problems in the tandem hydrofoils to show possibility of a new technology for simulating motions; and a simulation that considers such wing interference as wave creation, discharged vortices, and associated flows was shown useful to understand characteristics of the tandem hydrofoils. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  5. Vibration suppression of robot arm feedforward control with on-line parameter identification; Online kansei dotei ni yoru robot arm no feedforward shindo yokusei seigyo

    Iwasaki, M.; Kuze, Y.; Otsuka, K.; Matsui, N. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)


    Generally, robot arms with flexible joints are multi-mass resonant systems, thus causing mechanical vibration. Since the vibration deteriorates the arm position control accuracy, the vibration suppression is indispensable to achieve the high performance arm motion. The authors have already proposed a feedforward vibration suppression scheme using an optimal control command shaping. The scheme is suitable for practical industrial use because of its simple control algorithm, however, there still remains a problem inherent in feedforward techniques that parameter setting errors in controller have significant effects on the suppression control accuracy. This paper presents an adaptive feedforward control of the vibration suppression with on-line mechanical parameter identifier, based on the proposed command shaping. In this scheme, the on-line identification of arm inertia using a method of least squares is performed during acceleration in arm motion. The identified parameter is used during deceleration to suppress the residual vibration. Experimental results using a prototype show the effectiveness of the proposed control. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Experimental study on condensation heat transfer enhancement by various kinds of integral finned tubes. Hankei hoko ni tokki wo motsu shuhoko fin ni yoru gyoshuku netsudentatsu sokushin

    Hijikata, K. (Tokyo Inst. of Technology., Tokyo (Japan)); Wang, S.


    Condensation heat transfer enhancement by a finned tube having radial ridges on the fin surface (called the R-tube), was investigated. Thermoexcel-C has a flat fin surface, while the R-tube has ridges on the fin surface, consequently the mean heat-transfer coefficient of the R-tube is 30-40% higher than that of Thermoexcel-C, in spite of same condensing areas in the two. The function of ridges on the fin surface of the R-tube to heat transfer enhancement, is remarkable. It is considered that a thin condensate film is formed on the tip of ridges, in the same way as that on the tip of fin without having ridges. The ridges disturb the flow of condensate in the channel, and promote a convective heat transfer due to an agitation action. Though the R-tube shows superior performance than other heat transfer tubes, the mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement are different in the upper part and the lower part of the tube. In the upper part of the tube, the effect of heat transfer enhancement due to the formation of thin film region by the ridges, is predominant. And in the lower part, the enhancement effect due to the convective heat transfer by the agitation of the condensate, is important. 13 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Rapid production of metallurgical coke by use of a simulated moving bed reactor. Mogi idoso wo mochiita kyusoku shoon ni yoru cokes no jinsoku seizo

    Miura, K.; Hayashi, J.; Sano, N. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Research Laboratory of CArbonaceous Resources Conversion); Hashimoto, K. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Iwakiri, H. (Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan))


    An experiment to manufacture coke with rapid temperature raising was carried out using an equipment simulating a vertical moving bed coke oven. Two kinds of trial manufacturing patterns were tested: Pattern A to raise coal temperature rapidly to about 450[degree]C, which is held for about 20 minutes, and then raised again to 800[degree]C at a rate of about 5[degree]C/min, and pattern B to raise the temperature from about 300[degree]C to 800[degree]C at a rate of about 5[degree]C/min. An experiment on test samples from heavy caking coal (PDH coal) and light caking coal (OP coal) revealed the following results: The PDH coal applied with the pattern A produced in about two hours a coke with quality equivalent to or better than practically used coke; the temperature raising pattern B resulted in no full lump formation even with the PDH coal; according to the temperature raising pattern A, manufacturing coke from the OP coal is impossible; however, if the PDH coal or pitch is mixed with the OP coal, coke may be manufactured. 6 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Identification of Fusarium oxysporum in the fluid of hydroponic culture using DNA analysis; DNA kaiseki ni yoru suiko saibai yoekichu no horenso ichobyokin

    Oyama, K.; Kawabata, T. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)


    In the case of circularly using a fluid of the hydroponic culture for crops such as vegetable, the destructive damage is caused when specified harmful germs multiply in the growing crop. therefore, it is necessary to find the germs in question out and deal with them as quickly as possible. In this paper, studies were made on a sure identification technology of F. oxysporum using DNA analysis and the measures to prevent crop damages caused by diseases. The results of the study are reported. (translated by NEDO)

  9. Development of power transmission tower monitoring system. Landslide detection by GPS carrier sensor; Soden tetto ijo kanshi system no kaihatsu. GPS carrier sensor ni yoru jisuberi kenshutsu



    In order to reduce labor required for monitoring, patrolling, and checking anomalies in power transmission towers, a development has been made on a remotely controlled monitoring system that can detect landslides easily by detecting carrier waves from the global positioning system (GPS) in combination with use of cellular phones. The present system does not use code signals from the GPS, but receives carrier waves used for its transmission at two locations, measures precisely the phase difference therein, and calculates a very small change in the distance between two points from difference in arrival time of the waves. Receivers are placed at base points (substations) and GPS measuring points (transmission towers). Pocket bells are called from a personal computer at the maintenance location (a power center) during observation, and power is supplied into the receivers from solar cells. The data of GPS carrier waves received at both locations are transmitted to the power center through a cellular phone. The phase difference is calculated and the amount of movement is displayed on the personal computer screen to carry out remote surveillance. A measurement of accuracy of about 1 cm may be realized. Demonstration tests have begun in 1995 at towers installed in the Shiga plateau district where landslide occurs frequently, and the feasibility of the system was verified. 5 figs.

  10. Potential evaluation of cold heat and hot heat supply by solar heat; Taiyonetsu ni yoru reinetsu onnetsu no kyokyu potential hyoka

    Akizawa, A.; Ishida, K.; Kashiwagi, T. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    When the recovered solar heat is supplied to demands such as heating, cooling by absorption refrigerator and hot water supply, the maximum available heating value was determined using a model in which solar heat collector was installed in the residence, to investigate the possibility of alternative demand. In this study, the supply temperatures were 80 {degree}C for cooling, 50 {degree}C for heating, and 50 {degree}C for hot water supply, where a flat plate type heat collector was employed. It was assumed that the heat storage can be conducted for 24 hours. Results obtained are as follows. For detached houses, most of the monthly demand can be supplied due to the actual predominant fine days in each month. For the cold and intermediate periods, it was supposed that monthly demand can be supplied by using excess heating value of fine days in the case of sufficient capacity of heat storage tank. For the model with heat insulating structure, demands except hot water supply can be supplied from solar energy. It was found that the heat insulation greatly contributes to the energy saving. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Ultra long-term simulation by the integrated model. 1. Framework and energy system module; Togo model ni yoru tanchoki simulation. 1. Flame work to energy system module

    Kurosawa, A.; Yagita, H.; Yanagisawa, Y. [Research Inst. of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Kyoto (Japan)


    This paper introduces the study on the ultra long-term energy model `GRAPE` with considering global environment and the results of trial calculation. The GRAPE model is to consist of modules of energy system, climate change, change of land use, food demand/supply, macro economy, and environmental impact. This is a model that divides the world into ten regions, gives 1990 as a base year, and enables the ultra long-term simulation. In this time, emission of carbon is calculated as a trial. In the case of constrained quantity of carbon emission, energy supply in the latter half of 21st century is to compose photovoltaic energy, methanol from coal gasification, and biomass energy. In addition, the shear of nuclear energy is to remarkably increase. For the constitution of power generation, IGCC power generation with carbon recovery, wind power generation, photovoltaic power generation, and nuclear power generation are to extend their shears. In the case of constrained concentration of carbon emission, structural change of power generation option is to be delayed compared with the case of constrained quantity of carbon emission. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Archaeological prospecting using electrical resistivity method. Case history of Kaibukiyama ancient tomb; Denki tansaho ni yoru iseki tansa. Kaibukiyama kofun no chosarei

    Mizunaga, H.; Ushijima, K.; Kishikawa, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    To grasp the three-dimensional structure of ancient tomb during the archaeological prospecting of Kaibukiyama ancient tomb, various electrical resistivity methods were tried. For the survey, firstly, in order to clarify the electrical resistivity structure of rear circular part of ancient tomb, roughly, mapping was conducted by means of two-electrode method using a multi-channel measuring system. Then, the vertical prospecting was conducted densely with a mesh form having VES intervals of 2 m as a detailed survey by means of Schlumberger method. For the three-dimensional inverse analysis of apparent electrical resistivity data by the two-electrode method, a program with high calculation speed was developed by using algorithm where Jacobian with a homogeneous model is adopted for the Jacobian calculation. As a result of the analysis, an outline of underground 3-D resistivity structure was determined. The resistivity anomaly with high values obtained from the results of 2-D inverse analysis of VES curve by means of Schlumberger method agreed well with the central part of the ancient tomb, which was confirmed during the archaeological survey. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Three dimensional numerical modeling for investigation of fracture zone filled with water by borehole radar; Borehole radar ni yoru gansui hasaitai kenshutsu no sanjigen suchi modeling

    Sanada, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Ashida, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Hasegawa, K.; Yabuuchi, S. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Water bearing fracture zones existing in rock mass largely influence the underground water flow and dynamic property of rock mass. The detailed survey of the location and size of water bearing fracture zones is an important task in the fields such as civil engineering, environment and disaster prevention. Electromagnetic waves of high frequency zones can be grasped as a wave phenomenon, and the record obtained in the actual measurement is wave forms of time series. In the exploration using borehole radar, this water bearing fracture zone becomes the reflection surface, and also becomes a factor of damping in the transmitted wave. By examining changes which these give to the observed wave forms, therefore, water bearing fracture zones can be detected. This study made three dimensional numerical modeling using the time domain finite difference method, and obtained the same output as the observed wave form obtained using borehole radar. By using this program and changing each of the parameters such as frequency and resistivity in the homogeneous medium, changes of the wave forms were observed. Further, examples were shown of modeling of detection of water bearing fracture zones. 5 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Cavity detection based on EM migration of TEM data; TEM ho data no denji migration ni yoru kudo kenshutsu no kokoromi

    Shiga, N.; Wada, K.; Tsutsui, T. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hara, T. [Toda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    With an objective to discuss applicability of resistivity imaging using electromagnetic migration to detection of underground cavity, an applicability test was carried out on calculation of a numerical model and measurement data. By using the numerical model, a calculation was performed on a hypothetical case that a cubic cavity with sides each at 40 m exists in a homogenous medium of 200 ohm-m, with the cavity top located 20 m below the ground surface. As a result, it was possible to structure in a very short calculation time an image of the cavity which cannot be identified by one-dimensional inverse analysis. In the case of this cavity, a center of the image was structured on its lower face. It was shown that a location to indicate the image must be changed according to difference in the measurement locations. In a test on data measured in an underground cavity in the city of Utsunomiya, Tochigi Prefecture, it was found that the result may vary largely depending on structure of the background necessary for migration. Referring to a result of measurement performed in a location in which no target has been set can provide a good result. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Fault detection by Turam TEM survey. Numerical model studies and a case history; TEM ho Turam sokutei haichi ni yoru danso kenshutsu no kokoromi. Model keisan to jisshirei

    Wada, K.; Tsutsui, T. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ito, T. [Chiba Univ., Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science; Takeuchi, A. [Toyama University, Toyama (Japan). Faculty of Science; He, P. [Power Reactor and Nuclear fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    With an objective to detect faults estimated to exist along the Shigesumi valley in the Kamioka mine, discussions were given by using electromagnetic survey, which uses the Turam measurement arrangement based on the TEM method, and three-dimensional model calculations. The Turam measurement arrangement, which installs transmission loop fixedly, is used to identify nature and distribution of electrically conductive objects upon noticing abnormal portions in magnetic fields in the measurement data. In the model calculation, the plate model calculation method and the FDTD method were used, and so was the calculation code TEM3DL. The result revealed that strong topographical influence is seen from steep V-shaped valley existing along the traverse line in the measurement data, but an abnormal resistivity band accompanying remarkable distortion in the curve was detected. According to the result of the model calculation, anomaly detection may be found difficult in locations where a low resistivity band has not grown enough locally. It was possible from these facts to assume a model in which the low resistivity band exists directly below the Shigesumi valley, suggesting existence of faults. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Laboratory study on streaming potential for exploring underground water flow; Shitsunai jikken ni yoru ryudo den`i wo mochiita mizu michi tansa no kanosei no kento

    Sato, H.; Shima, H. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    To investigate a possibility of exploration of underground water flow as well as to grasp the underground fluid flow by measuring streaming potential at the ground surface, some experiments were conducted using a model unit by considering the difference of permeability. For this experimental unit, water is driven by adding head difference between the polyethylene vessel filled with water and the experimental water tank. The size of water tank is 350{times}160 mm with a height of 160 mm. Twenty platinum electrodes are set on the cover of water tank. Toyoura standard sand and Kanto loam were used for the experiments. For the experiments, fluid was injected in various combined models by considering the permeability, to measure the streaming potential. As a result, it was explained by the streaming potential that the fluid flows in a form of laminar flow in the experimental water tank, and that the movement of fluid in the Kanto loam is quite slow. It was also confirmed that the streaming potential method is an effective technique for grasping the movement of fluid. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Fundamental study on leak detection of underground gas pipeline using passive acoustic method; Judogata onkyo keisoku ni yoru maisetsu gas dokan hason kasho no kenshutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Jinguji, M.; Imaizumi, H.; Kunimatsu, S.; Isei, T. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)


    With an objective to detect gas leaking from an underground gas pipeline, discussions have been given on a method which utilizes acoustic characteristics of leakage. On leaking sound generated from damaged portions, the form of damaging was hypothesized as pinholes, and spectra of leaking sounds from holes with different diameters were measured. The dominant frequency decreases as the hole diameter increases, while it is in a region of relatively high frequency of 1 kHz or higher. However, detection from the ground surface was impossible when cover soil has thickness from 0.5 to 1.5 m. In an experiment to measure leaking sound inside the pipe, pressure in the pipe was adjusted to 0.02 atm which is a standard pressure for a low-pressure pipe, and the sound was measured when the hole diameters were varied. In any of the results obtained by varying the hole diameter, spectra having the dominant frequency in the region of 1 kHz or higher were measured. In addition, it was found that sound pressure difference of as much as 50 dB at maximum is generated as compared with a case of no sound leakage. The above results verified that monitoring the high frequency of 1 kHz or higher is effective in detecting leakage from small damages. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Experiment for buried pipes by stepped FM-CW radar; Step shiki FM-CW radar ni yoru maisetsukan tansa jikken

    Suzuki, K.; Ito, M. [Kawasaki Geological Engineering, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tanabe, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    The underground radar exploration is adopted to surveys of cavity under the road and buried pipes since the result of high resolution is obtained. However, the explorative depth of the radar is shallow, 2-3m in soil basement, and its applicable field has been limited. The continuous wave radar (FM-CW radar) was devised to get deeper explorative depth, but has been used for the geological structure survey such as the fault survey since it is lower in resolution as compared with the pulse radar. Therefore, to make use of characteristics of the continuous wave radar and enhance resolution in the shallow part, an experiment on buried pipes was conducted for the purpose of assessing and improving the FM-CW radar. In this processing, the wave form treatment used in the reflection method seismic survey was adopted for the radar survey. There are some problems, but it is effective to adopt the same algorithm to that used in the seismic survey to the radar exploration. The explorative depth was discussed from the damping rate of electromagnetic waves and dynamic range of facilities of the experimental site, and 7m was obtained. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Polarimetric borehole radar measurement near Nojima fault and its application to subsurface crack characterization; Polarimetric borehole radar ni yoru Nojima danso shuhen no chika kiretsu keisoku jikken

    Sato, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Miwa, T.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Ikeda, R. [National Research Institute for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba (Japan); Makino, K. [Geophysical Surveying and Consulting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Practical application of subsurface crack characterization by the borehole radar measurement to which the radar polarimetric method was introduced was attempted to measuring objects for which the borehole radar has not been much used, for example, the inside of low loss rock mass or fracture zone where cracks tightly exist. A system was trially manufactured which makes the radar polarimetric measurement possible in the borehole at a 1000m depth and with a about 10cm diameter, and a field experiment was conducted for realizing the subsurface crack characterization near the Nojima fault. For the measuring experiment by the polarimetric borehole radar, used were Iwaya borehole and Hirabayashi borehole drilled in the north of Awaji-shima, Hyogo-ken. In a comparison of both polarization systems of Hirabayashi borehole, reflected waves at depths of 1038m and 1047m are relatively stronger in both polarization systems than those with the same polarization form and at different depths, whereas reflected waves around a 1017m depth are strong only as to the parallel polarization system. Characteristics of the polarization in this experiment indirectly reflect crack structures. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Regulation of gene expression by carbohydrates. Part 1. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene; Tansui kabutsu ni yoru idenshi hatsugen seigyo ( 1 ). Phosphoenolpyruvate san carboxykinase idenshi ni tsuite

    Oda, H. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)


    Focusing on Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), recent knowledge on the transcription regulating function by carbohydrates via hormone is introduced. PEPCK exists mainly in the liver, kidney, adipose tissue, and small intestine, and the synthetic rate of PEPCK protein is regulated virtually by the transcription of PEPCK gene. Most part of the change is regulated via insulin and glucagon, and glucagon accelerates transcription while insulin suppresses transcription. Suppression by insulin becomes smaller in transgenic mice having reporter genes which lack RE containing part, but sufficient suppression of PEPCK gene expression by high carbohydrate diet is observed. Fasting and high protein diet increase glucagon concentration in the blood to increase cAMP concentration in cells. High PEPCK gene expression is observed with diabetes, which is the main cause for the increase in the value of blood glucose in diabetes. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Improvement of D.I. diesel engine combustion using numerical simulation; Chokufun diesel kikan no nensho kaizen shuho. Suchi kaiseki ni yoru torikumi

    Minami, T.; Adachi, T.; Isyii, Y. [Isuzu Motors Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    For the purpose of improving DI diesel engine combustion, it is important to predict air flow of intake and exhaust manifold, intake port flow, combustion chamber swirl and fuel spray combustion. This paper describes the application of numerical simulation to the engines, the analysis of phenomena and a problem of simulation model modification. (author)

  2. Dynamic stability analysis of circular arch subjected to follower forces with small disturbances; Judo kaju wo ukeru enkei arch no yuran ni yoru doteki kyodo to anteisei kaiseki

    Fukuchi, N.; Okada, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hirano, Y. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes the deformation and dynamic stability of circular arch subjected to follower forces in a submerged membrane type marine structure reinforced by arch frames. Governing equations for finite deformations of the circular arch subjected to follower forces are introduced using an embedded curve coordinate, which are formulated by applying Galerkin method. In addition, equations of motion due to small disturbances under given condition of loading are introduced. Based on these equations, dynamic stability of the arch is analyzed by means of Runnge-Kutta-Gill method, to clarify the relationship between disturbances and instability regions and the resulting phenomena. Near the boundary regions of stability, both amplitude and cycle of deformation are greatly affected by the amplitude of disturbances. The dynamic instability is governed by the inverse symmetry primary mode with minimum characteristic frequency which is specific for the circular arch. The dynamic stability has high parameter dependency, and the instability regions have a complicated shapes. Although flattened arch has a smaller static critical load, it provides the dynamic stability against the disturbance. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Development of spherical fine powders by high-pressure water atomization using swirl water jet; Senkaisui jet wo mochiita koatsusui atomize ni yoru kyujo bifun no kaihatsu

    Kikukawa, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Inaba, T.; Iwatsu, O.; Takeda, T. [Fukuda Metal Foil and Powder Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)


    In order to obtain spherical fine powders, a new high-pressure water atomization method using swirl water jet was developed. In this paper the effects of jet swirl angle ({omega}) upon the properties of powders were investigated. Cu-10 mass%Sn alloy was atomized by this method at the constant water pressure of 83.3 MPa and constant metal orifice diameter of 4mm, while {omega} was varied from 0 to 0.18 rad. Median diameter of the powder by the laser diffraction method (D{sub 50}) decreased from 12.5 {mu}m to 7.5{mu}m with increasing {omega}, and this corresponded to Fisher average diameter (D{sub FS}) at about w=0.18 rad. The apparent and tap density of the powder increased about 1 and 1.5 Mg/m{sup 3} respectively, and the particle shape observed by SEM became spherical with increasing {omega}. (author)

  4. Treatment of photographic processing wastewater by biological activated carbon fixed-bed reactor. Seibutsu kasseitan ni yoru shashin haieki no shori

    Shirota, H.; Kishino, T. (Ube College, Yamaguchi (Japan)); Ukita, M.; Nakanishi, H. (Yamaguchi Univ., Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    Since photographic processing wastewater includes very small quantity but high density of organic and inorganic chemicals, it is one of the difficult wastewaters for water treatment. Although ozone oxidation methods or chemical oxidation methods to reduce COD or BOD have been examined as treatment processes for photographic wastewater, their commercialization have not been progressed yet from the view of efficiency or of costs. In this paper, aerobic microbial film fixed-bed reactor, of which microbes carrier was granular activated carbon (GAC), was used to treat photographic processing wastewater, and its characteristics of biological treatments have been examined. As a result, by treatment experiments of photographic processing wastewater distinguished depending on their resources, it was clarified treatment characteristics were different depending on a sort of photographic wastewater, and that COD was increased by biological treatments. Moreover, based on experiments to be carried out by changing COD loads using mixed wastewater by each photographic processing wasterwater with generic propotion, it could be considered that loading quantity without pH adjustment was approximately 10g{center dot}Kg{sup {minus}1}GAC {center dot}d{sup {minus}1} of COD loading based on carrier weight. Further, there was closed relationship between COD load and COD removal speed. 10 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Solution to non-steady two-dimensional hydrofoil problems by using a simple panel method; Kantanna panel ho ni yoru hiteijo nijigen`yoku mondai no kaiho

    Maita, S.; Ando, J.; Nakatake, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A simple panel method, the source and quasi continuous vortex lattice method (SQCM) was expanded to two-dimensional non-steady hydrofoil problems. Discussions were given on the results of calculations on two-dimensional hydrofoils making a simple non-steady motion. In calculating hydrofoils which move suddenly from a still state with angle of elevation {alpha} at a velocity U, the following results were obtained: the time differential item in a pressure equation gives a considerably strong effect on lifting power; and the lifting power converges to a steady state with lapse of time, and the lifting power coefficient in that state shows that the lifting power increases as hydrofoil thickness increases. This result agrees with the hydrofoil thickness effect in the two-dimensional steady problem, proving the reasonability of this calculation method. In the calculations of time history of the lifting power acting on hydrofoils passing a sinusoidal gust and hydrofoils in a pitching motion, the calculated values from the SQCM were found to approach analysis solution to thin hydrofoils as the hydrofoil thickness becomes thinner for both cases. This result also proves the result of calculations on non-steady state by using the SQCM reasonable. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Marine pollution by heavy oil and bio-purification. Bacteria decomposing oil hydrocarbon; Juyu ni yoru umi no osen to seibutsu joka. Juyu tanka suiso wo bunkaisuru saikin

    Itagaki, E. [Kanazawa Univ., Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of Science


    It is said that 23 genuses of bacteria decomposing hydrocarbon such as bacterium species, actinomycetes species, mold species and yeast of 10-10{sup 5}/ml live in seawater. No survey has been made on bacteria decomposing heavy oil hydrocarbon in the area contaminated by heavy oil from Russian tanker `Nakhodka` in the Sea of Japan. Survey was thus made on the existence and distribution of bacteria decomposing heavy oil hydrocarbon along the coast of Kaga district, Ishikawa prefecture. Such bacteria were successfully separated by repeated cultivation. The bacteria are short bacillus of nearly 1{mu}m long, and show a spherical shape as preserved at low temperature. Since the bacteria change their shape according to growth conditions, those are the germ of `Arthrobacter` genus. The bacteria of nearly 10{sup 5}/g lived along the sand beach in spite of low seawater and air temperatures in the early spring. The bacteria increased to nearly 10{sup 7}/g in May, however, decreased with a progress of oil decomposition in June. 3 figs.

  7. Characterization of interactions of coal surface with solvent by flow microcalorimetric measurement. 3; Netsuryo sokutei ni yoru sekitan hyomen to yozai tono sogo sayo no hyoka. 3

    Wang, N.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Kotanigawa, T. [Japan International Corporation Agency, Tokyo (Japan)


    An investigation was given on the relationship between methanol adsorbing behavior of reformed coal surface and oxygen containing functional groups in coal. Akabira bituminous coal was air-oxidized or Yallourn brown coal was decarbonated in oil as a reformation treatment. Both of the treated and untreated coals showed an adsorption heat curve of the Langmuir type. The Akabira coal had its oxygen content and the adsorption heat increased as a result of the air oxidizing reformation treatment. The Yallourn coal had its oxygen content and adsorption heat decreased as a result decarbonation reformation treatment. Oxygen containing functional groups act as strong adsorption sites for methanol, and the maximum adsorption amount depends on oxygen content in the coals. Since the coal surface is non-uniform in terms of energy, methanol is adsorbed first into sites with higher molar adsorption heat, and then into lower sites sequentially. Therefore, distribution of the molar adsorption heat can be derived from the relationship between adsorption amount and adsorption heat by changing methanol adsorption amount. The distribution of molar adsorption heat becomes broader when the oxygen content is high, and narrower when low. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Explosive treatment of Illinois No.6 coal with a mixed solvent of water and cyclohexanol; Mizu-cyclohexanol kongo yozai ni yoru Illinois tan no bakusai shori

    Hashimoto, T.; Takada, H.; Asami, K.; Yano, M. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Coal was treated at high temperature under high pressure in the binary system mixed solvent of water and organic solvent, and the solvent treated coal was liquefied. When the treated coal was treated again by the explosive method in which high temperature and pressure were released immediately, the oil yield was higher than that by the normal method in which high temperature and pressure were reduced gradually to room temperature and atmospheric pressure. In this study, an explosive treatment unit with increased scale of sample amount was newly fabricated. Illinois No.6 coal was treated by the explosive method in a mixed solvent of water and cyclohexanol using this unit. Changes in shape on the surface, specific surface area, and functional groups were analyzed. The explosively treated coal contained more amount of low boiling point components than the normally treated coal. It was suggested that the oil yield of explosively treated coal increased due to the liquefaction of these components during the successive hydrogenation process. For the explosively treated coal, micro pores were fractured by the rapid change in the volume of solvent molecules, and the specific surface area was smaller than that of the normally treated coal. When the treatment temperature was increased from 300{degree}C to 350{degree}C, specific surface areas of both the treated coals increased. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Coal structure construction system with construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation; Kochiku chishiki to bubunteki energy hyoka ni yoru sekitan bunshi kozo kochiku system

    Okawa, T.; Sasai, T.; Komoda, N. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The computer aided coal structure construction system is proposed, and a computational construction example is presented. The coal structure construction engine of this system fabricates molecular structure by connecting fragments sequentially inputted through a user interface. The best structure candidate is determined using construction knowledge and partial energy evaluation every addition of one fragment, and this process is subsequently repeated. The structure evaluation engine analyzes the 3-D conformation candidate by molecular dynamics, and evaluates the conformation by determining the energy value of an optimum structure. As an example, this system was applied to construction of coal molecular structure based on the actual data of partial structure composed of 26 structures from 2l kinds of aromatic cluster structures, 27 bonds from 2 kinds of bridged bonds, and 16 groups from 2 kinds of terminal substitutional groups. As a result, this system could construct a superior structure according to expert knowledge from the viewpoint of energy. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Depolymerization of coal by O2 oxidation followed by acid hydrolysis; Sanso sanka-kasui bunkai ni yoru sekitan no teionkai jugo

    Aizawa, S.; Hayashi, J.; Kumagai, H.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    With an objective to elucidate characteristics of oxygen addition to coal, and characteristics of solvent extraction by means of depolymerization, experiments were performed on oxygen oxidation and acid hydrolysis of brown coals. Coals used for the experiments are Morwell (MW), Yallourn (YL) , South Banko (SB) and Wyoming (WY) coals. Test samples were suspended in weak alkaline aqueous solution, and then oxygen was blown into them with pressure kept at atmospheric pressure. After a lapse of a predetermined time, the samples were cooled, and made as acidic as pH 1.3 in hydrochloric acid, followed by acid hydrolysis. Oxygen consumption increased with the reaction time, and with the MW coal, one mol oxygen reacted to 11 mols of coal. Spectral analysis on the YL and WY coal experiments revealed that aliphatic carbon combined with aromatic carbon or ether group has turned to peroxide, whose C-C or C-O bond was broken down as a result of acid hydrolysis of the peroxide, producing oxygen containing compounds. As a result of the depolymerization, the rate of extraction by using DMF, DMSO and methanol/THF mixed solvent increased to 90% or higher. Proportion of bond and cutting-off affects largely collapse of the cross-link structure. The carbon conversion to volatiles was at most 4%. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  11. Estimation for origin of coals on biomaker analysis; Jinko sekitan oyobi tennen sekitan no biomaker bunseki ni yoru sekitan kigen busshitsu no suitei

    Suzuki, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Sugimoto, Y. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to study coal production processes, an estimation study was carried out on coal originating materials by using biomaker analysis. Test samples are original coals collected directly from a mine in Hokkaido (not having been subjected cleaning). Mixing and solvent extraction were performed after pulverization, and then tests were given on saturated hydrocarbon components divided by using a silicagel column chromatograph for the present study. It can be known from n-alkane distribution in the coal that low molecular alkane increases with increasing degree of coalification. Artificial coal made by wet-heating Metasequoia leaves contains only little n-alkane. Diterpenoid compound exists in the Taiheiyo and Akabira coals. Tetra-cyclic diterpernoid is contained abundantly in subtropical coniferous trees, serving as a parameter for warm environment. The compound is contained also in the Fushun coal, but not in Indonesian coals. Hopanoid constitution shows very high similarity, but H/C atomic ratio may vary largely even if the coalification is at the same degree. This is likely to be caused from difference in originating materials. Hopanoids are bacteria attributed substances, whose activities are not affected by the originating materials. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Energy-saving by teh reduction of the pressure loss in tge water supplying system of boilers. Boiler kyusui keito no atsuryoku sonshitsu keigen ni yoru sho energy

    Nakayama, T. (Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan))


    In the water supplying system of boilers for the power generators scale deposits are mainly composed by Fe {sub 3} O {sub 4}. With removing this scale by the chemical cleaning the recovery of the heat transfer efficiency and the reduction of the pressure loss were expected. Generally scale in the narrow tubes is removed with the jet cleaning which uses high pressure water, but in this method scale is not removed completely. To raise the pH of the supplying water is also tried, but it is not sufficient to solve the problem. Therefore, the chemical cleaning using the citric acid and the hydroxy acid was done. In this case, a part of scale which can not be solved in the cleaning water might be left in the pipe as sludge. So the best conditions of the solvent flow for the removal of this sludge were investigated in the experiments and those conditions were applied. Further, the sludge catchers were used. As a result of those cleaning, the gains obtained in 2 years were 199 million yen in No.5 generator, 519 million yen in No.6 generator in Chita thermal power plant, and 187 million yen in Chita second thermal power plant. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Sterilization of microorganisms by photocatalyst of thermal sprayed TiO{sub 2} coatings; Chitania yosha himaku ni yoru biseibutsu no sakkin

    Horie, Y.; Hirano, T. [Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Shimane Prefecture, Shimane (Japan); Shibata, H.; Kono, Y. [Shimane University, Shimane (Japan)


    It has been known that when titania (TiO{sub 2}) is exposed to light in the presence of water, active oxygen species such as {center_dot} OH and O{sub 2} are generated through photocatalysis. These oxygen species degrade poisonous compounds and bad smells and also have antimicrobial effects. Here, we investigated the amount of {center_dot} OH generated from thermal sprayed TiO{sub 2} coatings and their sterilizing effects on microbials. (1)Malondialdehyde assay revealed that a photocatalytic reaction was induced on the coatings by UV light at less than 366nm and {center_dot} OH was generated. The amount of malondialdehyde production (Y:nmol/10{sup -4}m{sup 2}/1.8ks), corresponding to the amount of {center_dot} OH was proportionate to the content of anastase titanium oxide (X:wt%) in the coatings, showing the presence of a relation expressed as Y=e{sup -0.397}X{sup 0.867} between the two. (2)Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichta coli and Salmonella enteritidis were spread on the coatings to examine the sterilizing effects through photocatalysis induced by fluorescene. All of these bacteria died within 1.2-1.8ks. For anti-bacterial ceramic tiles on the market, the survival rates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia colt and Salmonella enteritidis after UV exposure for 1.8ks were 60.4, 52.7 and 26.9%, respectively, showing that these tiles are inferior to the coatings in respect to sterilizing effects. (author)

  14. Implementation of IIR ADF for narrow band noise elimination by using of DSP; DSP ni yoru kyotaiiki zatsuon jokyoyo IIR-ADF no jitsugen

    Nakanishi, T.; Yamaguchi, E.; Takumi, I.; Hata, M. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Nakano, M. [Denso Corp., Nagoya (Japan)


    An Adaptive Digital Filter (ADF), which has palarel connected 2nd order IIR filters, for narrow band noise elimination is proposed already. The proposed adaptation algorithm, however, does not take account of delay caused by anti-alias Low-Pass Filter (LPF) and Analogue to Digital (A/D), and Digital to Analogue (D/A) converter. So, in real applications, the ADF implemented with Digital Signal Processor (DSP) shows poor capability of eliminating narrow band noise. In this paper, we propose a method to compensate phase of output signal from ADF. The compensation is accomplished with 1st order FIR filter inserted in the output line of the ADF. We also show how to set the coefficient values of the FIR filter. And, we scrutinize ability to eliminate noise and computational cost through practical implementation of the ADF and the proposed phase compensation filter. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Evaluation of the force rum flotation result by the ion exchange using the rubidium; Rubijiumu wo mochiita ion kokan ni yoru karamu fusen kekka no hyoka

    Kamiyama, Jun' ichi [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Fujimoto, Hidekazu; Matsukata, Masahiko


    The following are contained: Hydroxyl group and carbonyl, functional oxygen group and mineral like the carboxyl group in which the coal is the hydrophilic component. The column flotation result is greatly different, since existence proportion of these components is different by the coal type. We regarded it as whether it could not simply evaluate the force rum flotation result of the coal at area proportion of the syneresis site on the coal particle exterior. In this study, the force rum flotation was carried out using balance wheel (bituminous coal), mountain west (anthracite), bituminous coal, and Illinois (lignit) charcoal it is almost same (bituminous coal). The ladder of carbon material recovery rate was the balance wheel > Kawanishi > almost same > Illinois charcoal. Next, area proportion ({alpha}{sub ex-OH}, {alpha}{sub in-OH} respectively) of the hydrophilic site in coal particle exterior and particle inside {alpha}{sub ex-OH} was obtained. In case of the almost same charcoal, was bigger than {alpha}{sub in-OH}. It seems to slightly oxidize the particle surface the almost same charcoal. In 3 kinds of bituminous coal, the ladder of carbon material recovery rate and {alpha}{sub in-OH} agreed. However, it is necessary to consider not only area proportion but also wettability of the hydrophobic site of the hydrophilic site for the planktonic of mountain west charcoal which is the anthracite. (translated by NEDO)

  16. Immobilization of biocatalysts using crosslinked acetoacetyl polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels. Acetoacetyl ka polyvinyl alcohol kakyo suisei gel ni yoru seitai shokubai no kateika

    Kondo, M.; Mannen, T. (Food Research Institute, Aichi Prefectural Government, Nagoya (Japan)); Shimokawa, w.; Fukumori, k. (Hoechst Gosei Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan))


    In order to develop crosslinked hydrogels competent for immobilization of biocatalysts, gelation of acetoacetyl polyvinyl alcohol (AA-PVA) and immobilization of biocatalysts using the gel were investigated. AA-PVA solution formed crosslinked hydrogels when it was treated with bifunctional gelating agents such as albehyde and hydrazide. Since the gelating times were adjustable at appropriate pH, the hydrogels were able to be formed in various shapes such as granules and thin films. The appearance of the hydrogels was similar to calcium alginate gels, and they were stable under conditions which would cause decomposition of the latter. Acetic acid fermentation by immobilized growing cells were tested using the hydrogels, and then acetic acid productivity up to 3.7 g{center dot} l{sup {minus}1} {center dot} h {minus}1 and stability over six months were exhibited. In addition, activities of immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase using the hydrogels were measured. As the results, the hydrogels were concluded to be useful as immpbilization supports for microorganisms and enzymes. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Hydrophobization og the surface fo malachite with some fluorosurfactants. 2,3 no fussokei kaimen kasseizai ni yoru malachite hyomen no sosuika

    Kobayashi, M. (National Reserach Institute for Pollution and Resources, Tsukuba (Japan)); Wakamatsu, T. (Kyoto University, Kyoko (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    The depleting trends of high-grade ores in recent years make it unavoidable to float ores in fine powder forms. To achieve this, research and development is important on such a recovering agent that can hydrophobize the surfaces of useful ores selectively and powerfully. This paper describes the discussion on three kinds of fluorosurfactant, namely perfluorooctanoic acid, Ftergent-100 and Ftergent-150, whic were used to hydrophobize the surface of malachite, and compared of its utilization possibility as a recovery agent with other surfactants. As a result, it was found that the Ftergent-100, which contains five CF{sub 3}{sup {minus}} in one molecule having extremely low critical surface tension, and the Ftergent-150 can hydrophobize sufficiently the malachite surface and provide good deposition. The region providing good deposition was at a weak-acidic to weak-alkali region in the case of the Ftergent-150. Therefore, both materials are thought they could be used as a recovering agent. 8 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Evaluation of building envelopes from the viewpoint of capability of controlling thermal environment; Onnetsu kankyo chosei noryoku ni yoru kenchiku gaihi no hyoka no kokoromi

    Umeda, K.; Ono, S. [Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shukuya, M. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    The ability that architectural space improves the thermal environment in comparison with outdoor environment is called the `capability of controlling thermal environment.` As the value becomes higher, the indoor thermal environment is more improved. In this paper, the controlling capability of six building envelopes with different window systems was compared. The heat transfer in the wall and window system is approximated using a lumped mass model of heat capacity to obtain a heat balance equation and combined with the heat balance equation in indoor air for backward difference. The wall surface temperature and indoor air temperature in a calculation model are then calculated. A radiation absorption coefficient is used for mutual radiation on each wall. In the model, the adjoining room or first- and second-floor rooms were made the same in conditions as the model on the assumption that the one-side lighted office in an RC reference floor is in the non-illumination and non-airconditioning state. In summer, the controlling capability remarkably varies depending on the window system. For the window facing the south, the annual capability is more advanced than in other directions and the indoor thermal environment is improved on the average. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Development of fuel cells using biogas and effects for environmental protection; Bio gas ni yoru nenryo denchi no kaihatsu to kankyo hozen no torikumi

    Saito, K. [Sapporo Breweries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The Chiba plant of Sapporo Breweries Ltd. has introduced a biogas-using fuel cell system as one of its efforts for environmental protection, and the system generated power in June, 1998, for the first time in the world. This paper discusses the efforts for environmental protection, power generating system, and future tasks. The biogas-using fuel cell system makes use of fermentation gas (biogas), produced when wastewater from the plant is subjected to anaerobic treatment, as fuel for the generation of electricity (200kW), steam (160 degrees C, 5.3kg/cm{sup 2}), and higher-temperature water (80-120 degrees C). The biogas is a low-calorie gas consisting of approximately 70% methane gas and approximately 30% CO2 gas. Since the gas contains trace quantities of approximately 1,000-1,500ppm sulfur compounds, and salts and ammonia not higher than several dozens in ppm, a pre-treatment device is installed upstream the fuel cell power generation unit for their removal. The merits brought about by the adoption of the system include the lowered electricity rate, reduced CO2 emission, damped noise, and enhanced maintainability. It is believed that the system introduced here will work advantageously in satisfying the ISO14001 requirements. (NEDO)

  20. Detection of bit location by acoustic emission technique in horizontal directional drilling. Kojo sakushin koho ni okeru bit ichi no AE ho ni yoru hyotei

    Abe, M.; Niitsuma, H. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Sugimori, S. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Grauduate School); Nakajima, T. (NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    The accuracy of the bit location in the excavation of pilot holes with horizontal drilling technique must be kept less than several tens of centimeters. Such an accuracy is hard to be achieved by the existing controlling technology. The depth of the bit tip can be measured comparatively accurately using a clinometer and the like. The azimuth meter, gyroscope, underground radar, locator, etc. are used for the detection of azimuth of the bit, but every one of them has its own problem. Therefore, new measuring methods to be used in combination with the conventional methods are required which can cover up the shortcomings of the conventional methods. Acoustic emission (AE) technique is employed for the detection of the bit location, and the accompanying problems as well as detecting performance are investigated. It is used for the measurement in the drilling test performed at the reclaimed land on the premises of Keihin ironworks of NKK Corp. In connection with the detection of the bit location in horizontal pilot drilling, a study is made on the zone detection technique for AE signals generated by the bit when striking ground and those generated during drilling. 7 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Encouraging chemical biology / international academic exchange programs promoted by the Ministry of Education; Chemical biology no susume / monbusho ni yoru kokusai gakujutsu koryu no suishin ni tsuite

    Imanaka, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    Described herein is encouraging chemical biology. Chemistry to elucidate fundamental elementary reactions involved in various phenomena and actual conditions of key molecules must be supported by physics for understanding behavior of electrons. The research themes attracting attention recently include sex pheromones of insects, photosynthesis, reactions involving antigens or antibodies, recognition of molecules, memorizing and leaning, and so on. Fundamentals of the life-related phenomena are being elucidated from structures of the related substances and reaction mechanisms involved by the NMR and X-ray diffraction analyses to determine structures of these substances and also by theoretical quantum chemistry to understand electron transfer phenomena within life-related molecules. Also described are international academic exchange programs promoted by the Ministry of Education. Academic researches for the pursuit of truth are crossing the borders in nature. International exchange to promote information exchange and joint researches by researchers of different nationalities pursuing common themes is indispensable for scientific development. The Ministry of Education has been promoting the international academic exchange programs by providing subsidies for international academic researches, promoting international exchange projects at various institutions, such as national universities, inter-university organizations and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, and supporting scientific projects promoted by UNESCO. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Impact three-point bending tests on FRP by split-Hopkinson bar technique. Hopkinson boho ni yoru FRP no shogeki santenmage shiken

    Higashida, F.; Ogawa, K. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    Fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) are widely used as high ratio strength structural material and strong interest is taken in their impact strength. In their impact bending test, observation is made of stress waveform, with which largely interferes high frequency fluctuation. Various measurement methods being studied to eliminate that interference, the present report used a split-Hopkinson bar technique, not influenced by the reflection of stress wave in the tester, and made impact three-point bending tests, up to about 15cm/s in impact speed, on CFRP and GFRP by having loosely ramped incident stress act. The result gave a smooth relation, almost free from high frequency fluctuation, between the load and time, which relation could accurately derive bending rigidity, breaking strength, etc. Of the CFRP and GFRP, elucidation was further made of independency of bending strength upon the strain speed, relation between the maximum stress and strain speed, effect of deformation speed on the three-point bending strength, etc. 35 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Computational study on full-wave inversion based on the acoustic wave-equation; Onkyoha hado hoteishiki full wave inversion no model keisan ni yoru kento

    Watanabe, T.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Uesaka, S. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The effect of initial models on full-wave inversion (FWI) analysis based on acoustic wave-equation was studied for elastic wave tomography of underground structures. At present, travel time inversion using initial motion travel time is generally used, and inverse analysis is conducted using the concept `ray,` assuming very high wave frequency. Although this method can derive stable solutions relatively unaffected by initial model, it uses only the data of initial motion travel time. FWI calculates theoretical waveform at each receiver using all of observed waveforms as data by wave equation modeling where 2-D underground structure is calculated by difference calculus under the assumption that wave propagation is described by wave equation of P wave. Although it is a weak point that FWI is easily affected by noises in an initial model and data, it is featured by high resolution of solutions. This method offers very excellent convergence as a proper initial model is used, resulting in sufficient performance, however, it is strongly affected by initial model. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Study of heart rate variability in driving situation by fractal analysis; Fractal kaiseki ni yoru untenchu no shinpaku hendo no bunseki

    Hirata, Y.; Nagaoka, M. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)


    This paper will explain method of fractal analysis for heart rate variability, as measuring method of mental stress in vehicle driving. In the previous, although there was a measuring method of mental stress by RSA, a issue arise such as reliability of analysis, because driver`s heart rate affect by respiration and muscle motion as well. We have established a method to measure mental stress by fractal dimension. And tried it is the proving ground and public road driving. We have confident that it is more reliable than RSA to quantify driver`s mental stress and fatigue. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Stall margin improvement of an axial flow fan with end wall injection and suction; Hekimen fukidashi suidashi ni yoru han'yo jikuryu sofuki no shissoku kaizen

    Nishioka, K.; Kuroda, H.; Obata, S.; Chimura, O. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)


    The experimental studies are conducted to reveal the mechanism of stall margin improvement of an axial flow fan by injection or suction from the end wall. In case of injection, the largest improvement is obtained by the injection at about 0. 14 {approx} 0 .21 times axial chord length downstream from leading edge. The reason for large improvement is that stall vortex, shed intermittent separation vortex and tip leakage vortex are dissipated by this injection, and also that this blowing suppresses the separation of boundary layer. In case of suction, the largest improvement is found for the suction from the end wall near leading edge. The amplitude of periodic static pressure after stall inception becomes smaller in comparison with injection cases. These effects are increased with the increase of suction flow rate, because the discharge of the vortex occurs more easily. On the other hand, the suction from the upstream of leading edge reduces the axial velocity near rotor tip, and then it induces stall. Also we tried to visualize the tip region flow, The suppression mechanism is discussed based on the visualization. The suppression of stall is successfully photographed. (author)

  6. Life prolongation and cost reduction of steel ladles with improving refractories and their structure; Taikabutsu zaishitsu to kozo kaizen ni yoru shuka taikabutsu no chojumyoka to kosuto teigen

    Nakai, Masato; Kasahara, Hajime; Fukutani, Fujio; Imai, Hiroyuki [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Steel Making Plant, Hirohata Iron Works, Nippon Steel Corp. succeeded to reduce the cost of furnace materials by measures described below down to 49% compared to that in 1992. (1) For tuyre bricks, cleanability against oxygen was improved by compacting by vacuum cast forming. (2) For SL bricks, the cost was reduced by applying imported bricks and optimization of the range of use. (3) For alumina-magnesia amorphous refractories for side walls, low expansion and breaking resistance were improved by optimization of magnesia quantity and silica ultra fine powder quantity. (4) For side wall structure, improvement of tie-in between the ground part and the side wall and lining with efficient thickness were carried out. (NEDO)

  7. Improvement of lean combustion characteristics of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels with hydrogen addition; Suiso tenka ni yoru kokyu tanka suisokei nenryo no kihaku nensho no kaizen

    Sakai, Y. [Saitama Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Ishizuka, S. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The Lewis numbers of lean heavy-hydrocarbon fuels are larger than unity, and hence, their flames are prone to extinction in a shear flow, which occurs in a turbulent combustion. Here, propane is used as a representative fuel of heavy-hydrocarbon fuels because the Lewis number of lean propane/air mixtures is larger than unity, and an attempt to improve its combustion characteristics by hydrogen addition has been made. A tubular flame burner is used to evaluate its improvement, since a rotating, stretched vortex flow is established in the burner. The results show that with' hydrogen addition, the fuel concentration, the flame diameter and the flame temperature at extinction are reduced and its combustion characteristics are improved. However, it is found that the effective equivalence ration at extinction cannot become so small as that of lean methane/air mixture, which has a Lewis number less than unity. (author)

  8. Application of monolithic lining to tundish and extension of tundish life with improvement of refractories; Tandeisshu futeiseika to taikabutsu kaizen ni yoru jumyo kojo

    Mori, Eiichiro; Fujta, Takashi; Tanikawa, Kanji [Kobe Steel Corp., Hyogo (Japan)


    As a part of realization of monolithic liming of a tundish lining refractory, a study on 2CC and 3CC tundish monolithic refractories was carried out to improve placing efficiency and extend its life. Main inspection points were set on (1) casting facility specifications and (2) structure and material. A force feeding pump system with a high degree of freedom for placing layout was selected. It was judged preferable than a hopper dolly type ladle repair facility in the degree of freedom for a placing site and facility expenses, though little inferior at maintenance. A force feeding pump is combined with a boom to enable the facility to cast for plural objects. Low expansion and creep properties were given to the refractory by reviewing the addition of the expansive material and the structure was improved by setting anchor blocks at corner parts. The cost of refractories was reduced and labor saving of refractory placing workers was achieved by widely extending the life. (NEDO)

  9. Improvement of wells turbine performance by means of 3D guide vanes; Sanjigen annai hane ni yoru wells turbine seino no kaizen

    Takao, M.; Kim, T.H. [Saga University, Saga (Japan); Setoguchi, T. [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Inoue, M. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Performance of a Wells turbine was improved by equipping 3D guide vanes before and behind a rotor. For further improvement, 3D guide vanes have been proposed in this paper. The performance of the Wells turbine with 2D and 3D guide vanes have been investigated experimentally by model testing under steady flow conditions. Then, the running and starting characteristics in irregular ocean waves have been obtained by a computer simulation. As a result, it is found that both of the running and starting characteristics of the Wells turbine with 3D guide vanes are superior to those of the turbine with 2D guide vanes. (author)

  10. Improvements of diesel combustion with pilot and main injections at different piston positions; Piston iso wo koryoshita pilot funsha ni yoru diesel nenshono kaizen

    Li, C.; Ogawa, H.; Miyamoto, N. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Sakai, A. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The fuel spray distribution in a DI diesel engine with a pilot injection was actively controlled by pilot and main fuel injections at different piston positions to avoid the main fuel injection from hitting the pilot flame. A CFD analysis demonstrated that the movement of the piston with a cavity divided by a central lip along the center of the sidewall effectively separated the cores of the pilot and main fuel sprays. The experiments showed that more smoke was emitted with pilot injection in an ordinary cavity without the central lip while smokeless and low NO{sub x} operation was realized with pilot injection in a cavity divided by a central lip even at heavy loads where ordinary operation without pilot injection emitted smoke so much. The indicated specific energy consumption ISEC was a little bit higher with the pilot injection, mainly because of the reduction in the degree of constant volume combustion. With the advanced pilot injection, ISEC was improved more than that with the retarded pilot injection while the NO{sub x} is a little higher than the retarded pilot injection maintaining still much lower than in ordinary operation. (author)

  11. Quantitative measurements of air-fuel mixture distribution in a cylinder using LIF; LIF ni yoru tonai kongoki nodo no teiryoteki keisoku

    Kato, S.; Kadoi, N. [Subaru Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    It is necessary to understand the mechanisms of mixture formation in a cylinder to improve engine performance, especially for a gasoline direct injection engine. In this study, a quantitative air-fuel mixture measurement technique using PLIF was developed. Across a laser sheet, a transparent liner was placed between two calibration cells which increased the reliability of fuel concentration. This technique was applied to gasoline direct injection engine to clarify the effect of injection timing on stratified charged mixture. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Study on heavy duty truck stability control by braking force control; Seidoryoku seigyo ni yoru truck no sharyo kyodo anteika ni taisuru ichikosatsu

    Matsuda, K.; Shinjo, H.; Harada, M.; Ohata, K.; Sakata, K. [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Now a days we are discussing about the vehicle stability control system which freely controls the braking force of each wheel to apply the yaw t and decelerate the vehicle. The system drastically improve the vehicle cornering performance and stabilize the vehicle behavior in its critical area. This paper discusses a point to notice in case of applying this technique for heavy duty trucks, and describes the possibility of the stabilization for vehicle cornering behavior about heavy duty truck. 3 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Analysis of combustion in an ATAC engine with measurement of radical luminescence; Radical hakko keisoku ni yoru ATAC engine no nensho kaiseki

    Park, Y.; Oguma, H.; Ueda, H.; Iida, N. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to make clear of the combustion mechanism and the frame structure in two stake, so called, active thermo-atmosphere combustion (ATAC) engine fueled by gasoline and methanol, we measured the 2-demensional images of OH, CH and C2 radical band spectra in both ATAC and SI combustion mode. From the results of pressure data in the cylinder, the heat release rate was calculated. We evaluated the correlation of radical luminescence intensity and the rate of heat release. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Measurements of apex seal behavior in a rotary engine using four displacement sensors; Rotary engine no apex seal kyodo. Yon`i sensor ni yoru sokutei

    Matsuura, K. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Engineering


    Behavior measurements of an apex seal of three-piece slanted horizontal split type were made, using an overhanging eccentric shaft-type single-rotor engine equipped with a multichannel packaged slip ring. To analyze the behavior, a computer plotting program was developed, by means of which the sequences of the configuration of top and bottom parts in the slot at given eccentric shaft angles were plotted on the trochoidal curves from the measured displacement data. The measurement results revealed the details of the behavior. Under high working chamber pressure, the top part of the leading apex seal is flush with the leading side of the slot, while that of the trailing apex seal is considerably tilted with respect to the trailing edge of the slot. 8 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Improvement of power system stability by high speed power control of adjustable speed machine; Kahensokuki no koshutsuryoku seigyo ni yoru denryoku keito no anteido kojo

    Nojiri, K.; Kikuchi, T.; Nakagawa, H. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Goto, M. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nohara, H. [Hitachi Nuclear Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Large capacity adjustable speed machines (ASMs) at pumped storage power station have been put into full operation and the operating characteristics of ASM have been highly evaluated from the view point of power system operation. The output power (input power) of ASM can be controlled very quickly by applying a vector control scheme to the excitation control. This quick responsive feature of ASM can make it possible to improve the stability of the neighbor sub-power system. For improvement of transient stability, the output power of ASM is reduced very quickly in order to control the acceleration of neighbor generators during and after transmission line faults. For improvement of dynamic stability, the output power of ASM is modulated in accordance with the stabilizing signals detected from the swing of generator rotor or the power flow fluctuation on the transmission line. This paper describes the design concepts and method of control system for improving the transient and dynamic stability and proposes a power system stabilizing control system. The effects of the proposed stabilizing control system have been verified by a power system simulator. 9 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  16. SVC control method to improve the stability of power systems applying fuzzy control. Fuzzy seigyo wo riyoshita SVC ni yoru denryoku keito no anteika seigyoho

    Uezato, K.; Senju, T.; Shiroma, T. (University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan))


    The SVC (static var compensator) control method featured by fuzzy control is proposed to improve the stabilization of power systems. The method is applicable to a simple single-machine infinite bus system, and SVC is allocated at the center of a transmission line to keep the line terminal voltage constant. The SVC controller is composed of the PI controller to keep the terminal voltage constant and the fuzzy controller-1 parallel to the PI controller for determining SVC admittances to suppress system fluctuation. The fuzzy controller-2 switches control between stabilizing control during system fluctuation and constant voltage control in normal operation. The fuzzy rules are remarkably simple because those are constructed qualitatively on the basis of sliding mode control. System fluctuation can be also reduced rapidly by using not only the terminal information such as terminal voltage and power flow on an interconnection line but also the generator information such as load angle and slip. 10 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Power system stabilizing control by superconducting magnetic energy storage using neural network; Newral network wo mochiita chodendo energy chozo sochi ni yoru keito anteika seigyo

    Osawa, Y.; Kanemitsu, T.; Kawakami, T.; Shintaku, M.; Arai, K. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan)


    In order to solve the difficulty of realizing power system stabilization using non-linear optimal control, this paper discusses a power system stabilization control by superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) using a neural network. This system consists of a kind of feedback control system that derives an optimal stabilizing control on various initial system operating conditions and failure conditions applied with the maximum principles, and learns the best stabilization using the control as tutorial signals and using the neural network. The object model system is a one-unit infinite busbar system, whose generator terminal is installed with the SMES. With respect to the system learning using the neural network, the network output to the learned failure patterns has agreed with the tutorial signals nearly completely. As a result of simulating example systems, it was confirmed that the operating conditions within a reasonable range and failure conditions were learned well, control effects close to the optimal control were shown, and the oscillation suppressing effect of the SMES can be utilized effectively. 11 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Operating condition and membrane thickness of microcapsules generated by complex coacervation method; Coacervation ho ni yoru seisei microcapsule no sosa joken to capsule makuatsu

    Kage, H.; Ogura, H.; Matsuno, Y. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan); Kunimasa, M. [Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Kawahara, H. [Dainippon Ink Chemicals, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)


    Microencapsulation of glass beads with a narrow size distribution was carried out by complex coacervation of gelatin and acacia. The coacervation process was observed in detail and the effects of agitation strength, cooling rate, addition time of core material, addition plans of acetic acid and distilled water, and heating rate in the hardening process on membrane thickness of the microcapsules were investigated systematically. The membrane thickness of the microcapsules increased under the operating conditions where low cooling rate and relatively strong agitation were utilized, and pH was changed moderately by discrete addition of acetic acid or distilled water over a certain time interval. It became clear that strict control of operating conditions at 19{degree}C in the cooling process where the viscosity of the coacervate suddenly increases is remarkably important for the control of membrane thickness. 3 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Laboratory investigation on streaming potential for sandy soil and weathered rock; Shitsunai jikken ni yoru sashitsu jiban oyobi fuka ganban no ryudo den`i no kento

    Sato, H.; Shima, H. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Laboratory experiment on sandy soil and weathered rock was conducted to clarify the generation mechanism of streaming potential due to underground fluid. Streaming potential is caused by underground fluid flow, namely by fluid flow in porous substances as electrokinetic phenomenon. In experiment, Inagi sand, Toyoura sand and strongly decomposed weathered granite were used. In Inagi and Toyoura sands, positive streaming potential was observed downstream in fluid flow. Streaming potential could be nearly determined as primary function of fluid velocity, and generated streaming potential increased with fluid resistivity. Streaming potential was higher in Inagi sand than Toyoura sand, probably depending on hydraulic radius, size of bleeding channel, and conductivity of sand surface. In weathered granite, negative streaming potential was measured. In the case of positive {zeta} potential, negative streaming potential is theoretically generated downstream in fluid flow. This experiment suggested possible generation of negative streaming potential in some kinds of ground. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Inversion of Love wave phase velocity using smoothness-constrained least-squares technique; Heikatsuka seiyakutsuki saisho jijoho ni yoru love ha iso sokudo no inversion

    Kawamura, S. [Nippon Geophysical Prospecting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Smoothness-constrained least-squares technique with ABIC minimization was applied to the inversion of phase velocity of surface waves during geophysical exploration, to confirm its usefulness. Since this study aimed mainly at the applicability of the technique, Love wave was used which is easier to treat theoretically than Rayleigh wave. Stable successive approximation solutions could be obtained by the repeated improvement of velocity model of S-wave, and an objective model with high reliability could be determined. While, for the inversion with simple minimization of the residuals squares sum, stable solutions could be obtained by the repeated improvement, but the judgment of convergence was very hard due to the smoothness-constraint, which might make the obtained model in a state of over-fitting. In this study, Love wave was used to examine the applicability of the smoothness-constrained least-squares technique with ABIC minimization. Applicability of this to Rayleigh wave will be investigated. 8 refs.

  1. Study of highly efficient power generation system based on chemical-looping combustion; Chemical loop nenshoho ni yoru kokoritsu hatsuden system no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Ishida, S.; Suzuki, T.; Yamamoto, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization


    This paper describes the research and development of power generation system by means of chemical-looping combustion. For this system, fuel flows in a reduction reactor and air flows in an oxidation reactor. These two flows are separated. As a result, recovery of CO2 without energy consumption, drastic improvement of power generation efficiency, and suppression of NOx emission are expected. To realize the above, two promising candidates, NiCoO2/YSZ and NiO2/NiAl2O4, have been found as recycle solid particles between the both reactors. These have excellent oxidation/reduction cycle characteristics. By these particles as well as the existing particle, NiO/YSZ, practical application of the chemical-looping combustion is realized. Besides LNG, coal and hydrogen were considered as fuels. When using coal or hydrogen, it was found that temperature of the reduction reactor should be increased the same as that of the oxidation reactor. This is a different point from a case using LNG as a fuel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Studies on utilization of nitrogen-fixing bacteria for saving energy; Chisso koteikin no katsuyo ni yoru sho energy no kenkyu

    Uozumi, T.; Koyama, R.; Horiuchi, M.; Hidaka, M.; Masaki, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Shigematsu, T.; Inoue, A. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)


    This paper describes analysis and enhancement of nitrogen-fixing gene of rice root bacteria, such as Klebsiella oxytoca, Azospirillum lipoferumn and Sphingomonas paucimobilis, for realizing energy saving through conservation of nitrogenous fertilizers. For K. oxytoca, modified strain R-16 was developed, which can fix nitrogen effectively even in the presence of NH4{sup +}. Nitrogen-fixing ability of A. lipoferumn depends on the activity control by the modification of nitrogen-fixing enzyme as well as on the adjustment of transcription level by the transcription activating gene, nifA. The control gene relating to the above was analyzed by making clones. As a result, a modified strain TAl without the control by NH4{sup +} was developed. The R-16 and TAl strains were inoculated into rice sterile-cultured without nitrogen. Consequently, inoculated strains were settled in the root, which resulted in the increased vegetation weight of plant to two times heavier than that without inoculation. 9 refs.

  3. Feasibility of hydrogen production from seaweeds by fermentation; Kaiso wo kishitsu ni riyoshita hakoho ni yoru suiso seisan no kanosei ni tsuite

    Tanisho, Shigeharu; Suganuma, Takeshi [Yokohama National University, Kanagawa (Japan)


    To use kelps as a substrate for fermentative hydrogen production by Enterobacter aerogenes strain E.82005, hydrogen evolution rates and yields from mannitol were measured under various salt-concentration cultures. Under non-salt condition, they were 13 mmol per litter culture per hour and 1.6 mol H{sub 2} per mol mannitol, as compared with these, under salt condition 1%, 2%, and 3%, they were 9.9 and 1.5, 4.3 and 1.2, and 3.0 and 0.9, respectively. From these results, we concluded that the production of hydrogen is suitable under non-salt condition, but lower salt condition than seawater especially around 1% is allowable for practical production of hydrogen. The higher yield of H{sub 2} from mannitol than from glucose was clearly shown from the mass balance between evolved H{sub 2} and calculated H2 from metabolite. (author)

  4. Quality assurance in welded structures. Part 3. ; NDT technology enhanced by computer. Yosetsu kozobutsu no hinshitsu hosho. 3. ; Computer riyo ni yoru hihakai shiken no kodoka

    Matsumura, H.; Ogata, T. (Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan))


    The basic theory of nondestructive testing (NDT) technology enhanced by computer and its practical example are outlined. Higher reliability of the products, reduction in production cost by automation, countermeasures for dirty, hard and dangerous works, technical communication by skilled workers, and higher efficiency of the products are the principles of enhancement of nondestructive testing. The fields of application of computer to the NDT specially handy, light and cheap micro-computer are numerical analysis, drawings, image processing, automation, artificial intelligence, measurement/control, data reserve and so forth. As for the trend of NTD advancement, radiation penetrating test, automation of probe in ultrasonic flow detection or real time measurement of inspection, three dimensional graphic expression of defect results and so forth are advanced. Future topics are the normalization of appropriate thinking of quality level and improvement and clarification of reliability of NDT. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Global environmental benefits of industrial heat pumps (fiscal 1993); 1993 nendo koon heat pumping gijutsu ni yoru chikyu ondanka keigen koka ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho



    An investigational study was conducted aiming at making a quantitative grasp of effects of the spread of industrial heat pumps on energy conservation and greenhouse gas reduction and at promoting the spread. Finally, the following eight countries joined this international joint research: Canada, France, Japan, Holland, Norway, Sweden, the U.K. and the U.S. Each country share the work and expenses for the research with each other. Japan made investigational researches on the application of heat pumps to processes of the chemical industry, oil refining industry, food industry, paper/pulp industry, and dyeing/weaving industry, and on the effects of greenhouse gas reduction. As procedures taken, values up to 2010 were estimated of energy prices in each country, energy supply/demand, rates of the heat source configuration for electric power supply, etc., the heat flow of the above-mentioned process was made clear, and analyses were conducted of annual profits, energy consumption, and depreciation period in the case of adopting heat pumps. Moreover, the energy conservation amount and greenhouse effect gas reduction amount were estimated based on the result of the analyses. 69 figs., 196 tabs.

  6. Concurrent multidisciplinary mechanical design based on design task analysis and knowledge sharing; Sekkei task bunseki to joho kyoyu ni yoru mechatronics kyocho sekkei

    Kondo, K.; Ozawa, M.; Mori, T. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    We have developed a systematic design task planning method based on a design structure matrix(DSM) and a lumped model- based framework for knowledge sharing in a concurrent design environment as key techniques for developing higher quality products in a shorter design time. The DSM facilitates systematic analysis of dependencies among design tasks and optimization of the design process. The framework based on a lumped model description of mechanical systems enables concurrent and cooperative work among multidisciplinary designers at an early stage of the design process. In this paper, we also discuss the relationships between these techniques and the product development flow from product definition to detailed design. (author)

  7. Improvement of diesel engine performance by hydraulically powered electronic control (mechatronics) system. Hakuyo diesel kikan no mechatronics system ni yoru seino kojo

    Sonoda, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Kajima, T.; Sato, S.; Fujii, T.; Tobe, Y. (Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    This paper describes new hydraulically-actuated mechanisms for both fuel injection and inlet/exhaust valve operation of diesel engines through solenoid valves, which obviate the conventional cam-driven system. These mechanisms were integrated with an electronic control unit also developed in this study and they were mounted as a mechatronics system'' on a power-increased single-cylinder engine. This mechatronics system was mainly composed of an injection control. boost and accumulation component, an inlet and exhaust valve control component, a solenoid valve, an electronic control equipment, a hydraulic power unit, and a maneuvering unit. The verification test was carried out for the improvement of diesel engine performance by the hydraulically powered mechatronics system. As a result, it was proved not only that these mechanisms provide stable operating characteristics over a wide range of conditions, but also that the electronic control system allows accurate, smooth response. 3 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Mass spectra of benzaldehyde using time resolved ion trapping mass spectrometer. Jikan bunkai ion trapping shitsuryo bunsekikei ni yoru benzaldehyde no mass spector

    Ishigane, M.; Isa, K. (Fukui Univ., Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Education); Nishioka, K. (Fukui Univ., Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    An ion trapping mass spectrometer for time resolved analysis has been set up. The time resolved analysis function of this system is excellent and the ion detecting sensitivity is also high. Benzaldehyde is used as the specimen for the measurement of the A group of the mass spectra (m/z 105 106 and 107) by this system and similar mass spectra are obtained at delay time zero to those reported by now. Big changes are observed in the spectra when the delay times are varied. It is found that mass spectra which are different from those reported already are obtained when the mass spectrometer is pulse operated. In other words it can be said that the time dependence of the data on ion decomposition ( fragmentation) and ion/molecule reactions can be obtained in the state where solvent has no influence if this new system is adopted. 6 refs. 12 figs.

  9. On-line temperature control of fluidized bed incinerator using fuzzy algorithm; Fuzzu seigyo donyu ni yoru ryudosogata shokyakuro unten no jidoka

    Okayasu, S.; Kuratani, T.; Imai, H. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)


    Automatic control of incinerators for their stable operation has been desired for the preservation of the environment in the factory. An on-line fuzzy control system has been successfully introduced for temperature control of the fluidized bed of incinerator for industrial wastes. In this case, manual control can be applied to the plant instead of a PID control system, because of the complexity of the waste materials and the large delay in detection of the temperature change in the fluidized bed sand. On the basis of analyzing the dynamic performance of the process and the know-how of skilled operators, membership functions and fuzzy control rules are selected, then determined carefully for the system. Introduction of the system resulted in almost the same performance as manual control. Subsequently the operators are freed from manual operation in the control room for an hour. 6 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Preparation and space charge accumulation characteristics of acrylate-grafted polyethylenes using reaction extrusion; Hanno oshidashi ni yoru acrylate polyethylene no seizo to kukan denka chikuseki tokusei

    Lee, C.; Okamoto, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Suh, K. [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Space charge accumulation characteristics of chemically modified polyethylenes which were grafted with acrylates like acrylic acid and n-butylacrylate using reactive extrusion were investigated. In LDPE-g-Acrylic Acid (LDPE-g-AA), it was showed that the heterocharge found in low-density polyethylenes (LDPE) decreased with the increase of acrylic acid graft ratio and changed to the homocharge formation above 0.1 wt% due to the introduction of carbonyls. Conduction currents and charge mobilities of LDPE-g-AA decreased with the increase of AA graft ratio, while the conduction mechanism remains unchanged. However, in the LDPE-g-n-Buthylacrylate (LDPE-g-nBA), the change of space charge accumulation characteristics were not observed and charge mobilities of them not affected by the graft ratio. The differences of space charge formation between two grafted polyethylenes were closely related to the ability of trap site in monomer grafted to LDPE and the chemical structure of it. 18 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Evaluation of anticorrosive films on copper by a low-energy photoelectron emission measurement. Tei energy hikari denshi ni yoru do hyomen boshoku himaku no hyoka

    Asabe, Y.; Wakasa, H.; Mori, S. (Iwate Univ., Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    As a result of investigation on the effect of inhibitor based on the emission initiating energy E{sub t} (threshold) of low energy photoelectron emitted from the surface of the BTA (benzotriazole) treated specimen, it is found that E{sub t} shifts to the high energy side if copper is treated with effective inhibitor BTA, but no shift is observed with iron even if it is treated with BTA. The shift of E{sub t} is eminent at BTA concentration of larger than 1{times} 10{sup {minus}4} mol/l, which agrees well with the tendency of corrosion inhibition obtained from the polarization curves. When copper specimens are coated with films of oxide and others, E{sub t} shifts to the high energy side. From this fact, the shift of E{sub t} to the high energy side when copper is treated with BTA can be considered to be corresponding to the thickness of anticorrosion film. The effect of inhibitor on copper surface can be evaluated easily by this method even in low BTA concentration region. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Interactive steering of supercomputing simulation for aerodynamic noise radiated from square cylinder; Supercomputer wo mochiita steering system ni yoru kakuchu kara hoshasareru kurikion no suchi kaiseki

    Yokono, Y. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Fujita, H. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Precision Engineering Lab.


    This paper describes extensive computer simulation for aerodynamic noise radiated from a square cylinder using an interactive steering supercomputing simulation system. The unsteady incompressible three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the finite volume method using a steering system which can visualize the numerical process during calculation and alter the numerical parameter. Using the fluctuating surface pressure of the square cylinder, the farfield sound pressure is calculated based on Lighthill-Curle`s equation. The results are compared with those of low noise wind tunnel experiments, and good agreement is observed for the peak spectrum frequency of the sound pressure level. 14 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Experimental analysis of the structure attenuation characteristics on engine noise by pseudo cylinder pressure excitation; Giji tonaiatsu kashin ni yoru engine kozo no soon tokusei hyoka

    Ozawa, H.; Nakada, T. [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    The engine structure attenuation has been experimentally analyzed by the newly developed in-cylinder excitation system. It can reproduce the complete cylinder pressure in non-running engine conditions by adopting the hydraulic and the piezoelectric actuator. The structure attenuation measured in this system has a good coincidence with the ones measured in actually engine operating conditions, meanwhile the current method, which applied only high frequency components as the excitation pressure, was shown to have the unsatisfied agreement. As a result, the proposed system has been concluded to be very useful to estimate the engine noise characteristics in non-running conditions. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Case study of geostructural prospect of a tunnel by using geophysical methods; Butsuri tansa ni yoru tunnel chisan yosoku to jissai

    Ueda, H. [Japan Railway Construction Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kawakami, J. [Taisei Construction Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nagasue, I.; Hiwatashi, S.; Wakuno, M. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A preliminary survey was carried out by combining elastic wave exploration (using a refraction method) and electrical exploration (using a resistivity imaging method) on a long tunnel planned in a granite distributed area. This paper describes a case of verifying geological condition in the area by using a trial survey well and horizontal boring. This tunnel goes through the Seburi mountainous area on the border of Fukuoka Prefecture and Saga Prefecture for a total distance of 12 km. The refraction method and the resistivity imaging method were selected from the necessity of identifying the weathering condition in natural ground, and distributions of fault crush zones and underground water in a section extending 560 m from the well entrance. As a result of comparing the natural ground condition interpreted from the geophysical survey results with the construction records, the fault was detected as a cracked or deformed section in the part where the resistivity value changes abruptly or where the resistivity is low. The tunnel natural ground classification showed a good correspondence with the elastic wave velocities. The largest flooding section showed a good agreement with the section where the resistivity changes suddenly to a lateral direction. Thus, the geological information interpreted from both surveys presented a good correspondence with the construction records, leading to a judgment that the prediction is possible. 3 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Results of geophysical survey on Hanaore-fault in the Kyoto urban area; Butsuri tansa ni yoru Kyoto shigaichi ni okeru Hanaore danso chosa

    Yoshioka, T. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Echigo, T. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan); Toshioka, T.; Matsubara, Y. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper reports results of gravity survey and seismic survey using the shallow bed reflection method to identify distribution of the Hanaore fault in the Kyoto urban area. In the gravity survey, level differential structure caused by the fault was identified as an abrupt change in Bouger anomalous values. The continuity therefrom made the estimation possible on existence and positions of such faults as the Hanaore fault belonging to the Hanaore fault system, the Shishigaya fault, the Kaguraoka fault, and the Okazaki fault. The estimation as a result of the gravity survey include the following findings: the Hanaore fault runs from south of the Yoshidayama in the south-north direction; the distribution of the Okazaki fault has a level differential structure falling on the east side; the structure shows low Bouger anomaly distribution; and this area forms a rift valley belt. In the seismic survey using the shallow bed reflection method, no distinct reflection plane considered as the basement was verified because of influence from urban area noise. However, it was possible to estimate such an underground structure as a monoclinal fold from shapes of the reflection plane and the distribution depths. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Solidification point measurements of high melting ceramics by digital pyrometry with solar furnace; Taiyoroyo tanshoku hosha ondokei ni yoru koyuten ceramics no gyokoten sokutei

    Yamada, T. [National Industrial Research Inst. of Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Yoshimura, M. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)


    In order to measure a solidification point or melting point, it is necessary to the heating methods to be sufficient to melt the subject to be measured. In particular, as for the method to melt ceramics having high melting point (>200K), radiation heating, plasma heating, electron beam heating, resistance heating, induction heating and so forth are cited. This time, a solar furnace utilizing natural energy is used as a heating method. Authors carried out the remesurement of the solidification point of high melting ceramics using apparatus equipped a digital pyrometry with solar furnace system. Samples and in the experiment are MgO(3063-3124K), CaO(2873-3223K) and HfO2, comparative less evaporation at high temperature, especially having a large scattering value on literatures. Based on the measurements of effective emissivity and luminance temperature, the solidification points were determined to be 314K{+-}13K for MgO, 3174K{+-}7K for CaO and 3076K{+-}3K for HfO2, respectively. 21 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Nonlinear system control by extended feedback system with forward model; Jun moderu wo riyoshita kakucho fido bakku kei ni yoru hisenkei system no seigyo

    Oyama, E. [Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tachi, S. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    For controlling a nonlinear system with unknown characteristics, utilization of learning elements such as multi-layer neural networks has been studied. For such control, the techniques of control by learning an inverse model of the target system have been proposed, but there are many drawbacks to obtain an inverse model. The technique to calculate a control command by using a forward model is based on iterative methods, including the Newton`s method, which are based on local information, and there could be the cases when the precise control command cannot be calculated including the case when it converges to the local optimal solutions. In this paper, as the control technique of a discrete nonlinear system with unknown characteristics, the control method by an extended feedback system utilizing a forward model of the target system and the utilization technique of the inverse model have been proposed and their effectiveness have been shown by simulation. In case when an inverse model is not available or in case when an inverse model has not been learned, the search for the initial value and the iterative methods are repeated in calculating control signals by the extended feedback system, but this will be avoided thanks to the improvement of the computer capacity. 16 refs., 11 figs.

  18. Forward prediction of tunnel face by use of equi-traveltime planes; Tosojimen no riyo ni yoru tunnel kiriha zenpo tansa

    Ashida, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hirano, T. [Nishimatsu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The result is reported herein of a depth transform algorithm application utilizing equi-traveltime planes in reflection seismic exploration for the purpose of knowing the structure configuration in front of the tunnel face in a tunnel excavation process. A vibration producing hole was provided 0.5m above the ground surface while a vibration receiving hole was provided at 1.5m above the ground surface, and the excavated lengths were 1.5m and 0.5m, respectively. There were 24 recording channels, from which inline offset records were taken. The on-site records were subjected to 100-1000Hz band pass filtering. The elastic wave propagation rate in the rock used for depth conversion was set at 400m/s in consideration of the distance and direct wave travel time from the vibration source to the vibration receiving point. As the result of study, weak layers were found in the neighborhood of 230-240m, 260-270m, and 280-290m. This method requires less core memory for calculation and completes calculation in a shorter period of time, which enables a conclusion that it will be effective in grasping the 3-dimensional structure in front of the tunnel face in the working scene. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Reduction of nitrogen in the excretion on Japanese flounder using Ulva and Capitellid; Anaaosa to itogokai ni yoru hirame haisetsubutsuchu no chisso shori

    Honda, H.; Kikuchi, K.; Sakaguchi, I. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    To develop the culture residue treatment technique using aquatic organisms, the ammonia and nitrate uptake rates of seaweed Ulva and the nitrogen reduction rate of polychaeta annelid Captella sp. with organic sediment predaceous ability were examined in the excretion of Japanese flounder. Nitrogen uptake rate of Ulva was affected by water temperature. It was highest at 20degC, followed at 15degC and 25degC in the order. It was not affected by light intensity between 1500 and 6000 lux. Ammonia and nitrate uptake rates by Ulva were estimated to be 28.2 and 14.6 {mu}g-N/g/h at 20degC under 3000 lux, respectively. Proportion of feces excreted from Capitellid to ingested sediments was 0.38. At 25degC, Capitellid population of one thousand individuals ingested-N at the rate of 24 mg-N/day, and excreted the feces-N of Capitellid at the rate of 7 mg-N/day. About 70% of nitrogen in the sediment was reduced through this process. 15 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Preparation of Y123 superconducting tape by organic acid salt (2); Yukisan'en tofu netsubunkai ho ni yoru Y123 chodendo senzai no sakusei (2)

    Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T. [Showa Electric Wire and Cable Co., Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)


    A method of forming superconductive film by firing substrate coated organ solution consisting of organic metal compound and organic solvent was investigated. After spin coating of octyl acid salt solution on Ag tape, YBCO film was produced by heat treatment at 920 degrees of centigrade for 10-60 minutes. Three kinds of Ag tapes with different of surface roughness was used, but oriented film in film plane of them could not be obtained. However, oriented YBCO film in film plane could be obtained on (100) substrate of LaAlO{sub 3}. (NEDO)

  1. Preparation o Y123 superconducting tape by organic acid salts; Yukisanen tofu netsubunkaiho ni yoru Y123 chodendo senzai no sakusei

    Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T. [Showa Electric Wire and Cable Co., Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)


    Critical current characteristics in the magnetic field is excellent in the Y system oxide superconducting wire rod, and it is expected as next generation wire rod, because the magnetic field dependence is good even in the liquid nitrogen temperature. We have carried out the examination of the Bi system superconductor tape wire rod by the applicator in respect of organic metal raw material on the metal tape state backing since the convention continue. This time, we newly made the octyl acid salt to be a raw material, and we examined the Y system superconductive film manufacture on the polycrystal Ag tape substrate. (NEDO)

  2. Formation of NiCrAlY laser cladding with preplaced method; Funtai tofu reza kuraddingu ho ni yoru NiCrAlY himaku no keisei

    Iwamoto, H. [Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] Sumikawa, T. [Isuzu Motors Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] Nishida, K. [Ehime Univ., Ehime (Japan). Graduate School; Nishida, M.; Araki, T. [Ehime Univ., Ehime (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Cladding technique on the surface of structure materials using high corrosion resistance and wear resistance materials has been used in many fields as compared to conventional one. The heat source for cladding was mainly arc welding, however, these recent years, laser cladding where laser having special characteristics like high control, high output density and so forth is used as a heat source, has been studied. In this report, in order to cope with the change in composition of base material, coating layer formation with preplaced method was studied systematically using NiCrAlY powder formed by mixing mechanically commercial metal powder with raw material powder and low power (1200W) CO2 laser. As a result, good NiCrAlY cladded layer with good composition and with no defect was achieved using basic powder formed by mixing mechanically the metallic powder and commercial organic binder. Cladding of broad area was possible by weaving method even at low power (1200W) CO2 laser. Cladded layer with lower dilution ratio and higher cross sectional area was achieved with smaller powder particle diameter. 9 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Analysis on the R-R interval time series of automobile long distance drivers; Kosoku doro no chojikan soko ni yoru R-R kankakuji keiretsu kaiseki

    Moyoshi, M.; Takata, K. [Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Yokoyama, K. [Nagoya Municipal Women`s College, Nagoya (Japan); Yoshioka, T.; Watanabe, Y. [Toyota National College of Technology, Aichi (Japan)


    Analyses were performed on change in living body information as time elapses while driving a car, the differences between automobile drivers and fellow passengers, and between automobile drivers and motorcycle drivers. A comparison on body temperatures in automobile drivers and motorcycle drivers shows sharper changes in the motorcycle drivers. Motorcycles, being different from automobiles, put the drivers exposed to atmosphere during driving, applying larger living body load. Adrenalin increases its concentration when a human is under mental load, so does noradrenalin when under physical load. Both of adrenalin and noradrenalin showed an increasing trend in the afternoon as compared with in the morning. From the comparison with the normal daily life, fellow passengers have also large mental living body load, who were found to have concentration change of nearly two times or more than that in normal conditions. A subject who rode in a car in the first experiment and drove a motorcycle in the second experiment was discovered to have his right hand grasping power decreased remarkably after the second experiment. Fatigue factors unique to motorcycle driving are thought the engine vibration, the hot air, the need of taking balance of the motorcycle attitudes, and stress from noise. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Evaluation for characteristics of around the Nojima fault; Butsuri tansa ni yoru `Nojima jishin danso` shuhen no jiban bussei ni kansuru ichihyoka

    Shimizu, K.; Tsuji, T. [Newjec Inc., Osaka (Japan); Tsuji, M. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Various surveys were conducted for the area around the Nojima fault, including ground surface, two-dimensional electrical and boring surveys and elastic wave tomography, in order to grasp properties of the ground around the `Nojima earthquake fault.` The resistivity image method as one of the two-dimensional electrical methods was used to grasp fault shapes over a wide range of the 1.6km long section extending between Esaki and Hirabayashi. The courses of traverse were set in the direction almost perpendicular to the fault. Boreholes were excavated and elastic wave tomography was conducted between the boreholes on the 9th and 17th courses of traverse, to confirm ground/mountain conditions and to compare the results with observed elastic wave velocities. Very low resistivities are observed at places where granite is distributed, suggesting that the fault-induced changes are not limited to the area around the fault. The zone in which elastic wave velocity decreases is narrow, 10m at the longest, at a velocity of 2.4km/s or lower, which is a low velocity for that propagating in granite. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Controllability of expansion of light-weight aggregates with natural zeolites on firing. Tennen zeolite ni yoru keiryo kotsuzai no shoseiji no bochosei no control

    Guo, Y. (Tsinghua University, Beijing, BJ (China))


    Light-weight aggregates were prepared by using raw materials of natural zeolites consisting mainly of clinoptilolites from Heilongjiang Province, China. Chemical analyses and ion exchange of the natural zeolite materials were carried out. By the ion exchange method, only chemical composition of the natural zeolite was able to be changed without destroying their structures. Changes in shape during firing and expansion of the prepared light-weight aggregates were illustrated. In addition, fracture surfaces were observed by using a scanning electron microscope. For the Ca type, Na type, and Ca-Na type zeolites obtained by the ion exchange, volume expansion took place at relatively low temperatures during their firing, and they exhibited high expansion coefficients. Consequently, it was found that expansion of the natural clinoptilolite during firing can be controlled by this preparation method. An optimum chemical composition range of zeolite was provided for obtaining the light-weight aggregates with high quality. 13 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Load leveling by a battery system in an electric power system with a photovoltaic system; Taiyoko hatsuden system ga donyusareta denryoku keito no chikudenchi ni yoru fuka heijunka

    Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)


    Storage battery-aided load leveling system is introduced into a power system having a photovoltaic power generation (PV) system, and the effect of the introduction is examined. For this purpose, the resultant improvement on the load factor and reduction in the annual cost are evaluated. Used as the load factor in the studies are the hourly records of power transmitted and received by Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., in 1995. The output of the PV system is calculated using weather data collected in Nagoya City in the same year. Findings as the result of the studies are stated below. The maximum power is suppressed but a little if it is only the PV system that is introduced into the system. That is, a 2GW PV system introduced into the system suppresses the maximum power only by 0.5GW or less. The maximum power is suppressed more effectively when a storage battery is added, and it decreases linearly with an increase in the storage battery capacity. As for reduction in the cost, the reducing effect is higher when the rate of storage battery capacity/introduced PV capacity is higher in the presence of an introduced PV capacity of 0.8GW or more. 2 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Study on load levelling by means of the control of air conditioner operation; Kuchoki kado seigyo ni yoru fuka heijunka ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Sasaki, H. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Sadakuni, S. [Japan Broadcasting Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    The recent drastic increase in the number of air conditioners has caused sharp and narrow peaks in summer seasons due to the inherent temperature sensitive characteristics. The authors proposed to reduce the peak power demand by controlling air conditioner operations, verifying its effectiveness on peak demand clipping. However, the former study has shortcomings in that any qualitative treatment of room temperatures or pleasant feeling was not attempted and it did not provide a way of assessing peak demand clipping in a power system as a whole. In this paper, we shall first propose a new control method that can compromise pleasant feeling and reduction in power demand. Although air conditioners are used to pursue `pleasant feeling`, this contradicts to reduce power consumption and further more the concept of `pleasant feeling` is very vague. Hence, `Weber-Fechner`s law` is utilized to quantify the pleasant feeling which is treated as fuzzy quantity. Fuzzy co-ordination method is used to compromise power demand curtailment and pleasantness. In the second part of this paper, we shall propose an approach of assessing the amount of peak load clipping when the newly proposed control strategy is adopted in a real size power system: A decrease in the required generation capacity is estimated provided that the Loss of Load Probability (LOLP) is maintained at the same level before and after the application of the new control strategy. The reduction can be regarded as a dividend of load management. 5 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Thermochemical recuperative combined cycle with methane-steam reforming combustion; Tennengasu kaishitsu nensho ni yoru konbaindo saikuru hatsuden no kokoritsuka oyobi denryoku fuka heijunka taio

    Kikuchi, R.; Essaki, K.; Tsutsumi, A. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Chemical System Engineering; Kaganoi, S.; Kurimura, H. [Teikoku Sekiyu Co., Tokyo (Japan); Sasaki, T.; Ogawa, T. [Toshiba Co., Tokyo (Japan)


    Thermochemical recuperative combined cycles with methane-steam reforming are proposed for improving their thermal efficiency and for peak-load leveling. For targeting higher thermal efficiency, a cycle with methane-steam reforming reaction heated by gas turbine exhaust was analyzed. The inlet temperature of gas turbine was set at 1,350 degree C. Low-pressure steam extracted from a steam turbine is mixed with methane, and then this mixture is heated by part of the gas turbine exhaust to promote a reforming reaction. The rest of the exhaust heat is used to produce steam, which drives steam turbines to generate electricity. The effect of steam-to-methane ratio (S/C) on thermal efficiency of the cycle, as well as on methane conversion, is investigated by using the ASPEN Plus process simulator. The methane feed rate was fixed at constant and S/C ratio was varied from 2.25 to 4.75. Methane conversion shows an increasing trend toward the ratio and has a maximum value of 17.9 % at S/C=4.0. Thermal efficiency for the system is about 51 % higher than that calculated for a conventional 1,300 degree C class combined cycle under similar conditions. A thermochemical recuperative combined cycle is designed for peak-load leveling. In night-time operation from 20 : 00 to 8 : 00 it stores hydrogen produced by methane steam reforming at S/C=3.9 to save power generation. The gas turbine inlet temperature is 1,330 degree C. In daytime operation from 8 : 00 to 20 : 00 the chemically recuperated combined cycle operated at S/C=2.0 is driven by the mixture of a combined cycle operated at constant load with the same methane feed rate, whereas daytime operation generated power 1.26 times larger than that of the combined cycle. (author)

  9. Ion exclusion chromatography for the purification of L-glutamine; Ion haijo chromatography ni yoru L-glutamine no seiseiho no kenkyu

    Ito, H.; Nishi, A.; Naruse, M. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Kawasaki (Japan)


    Ion exclusion chromatography for the purification of L-glutamine is studied. L-glutamine is usually produced by fermentation and used in pharmaceuticals. By using a model solution of L-glutamine and L-glutamic acid, the optimum cation exchange resin is examined. As a result of the experiments, it is found that a cation exchange resin which has smaller crosslinkage and smaller diameter is better. Ammonium sulfate, L-glutamic acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid, which are usually contained in fermentation broth as impurities, are effectively separated by this method. Moreover, the experimental data of the chromatography is expressed fairly well by the differential equations which express the mass transfer in the fixed bed. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Cultivation of spirulina platensis and its growth behavior controlling cultivation medium; Baiyoeki sosei no seigyo ni yoru spirulina platensis no baiyo oyobi sono zoshoku kyodo

    Kobayashi, K.; Fujita, K. [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Tokyo (Japan)


    Cultivation of Spirulina platensis while controlling pH and nitrate ion in the culture medium was investigated in order to obtain a high density culture. In the cultivation of Spirulina platensis using sodium bicarbonate as a carbon source, the pH value increased during growth of Spirulina, and then the growth stopped at a pH value of more than 12. The cell concentration reached 2.2g/l by maintaining a pH range of 8.5 to 10.0 using CO2 gas without controlling the nitrate ion concentration. By controlling the pH and adding nitrate to a concentration of 2.0g/l, the cell concentration reached 4.2g/l at 350 hours. It was found that the cell concentration was about four times that of the culture without controlling pH and nitrate. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Calculation of electric potential around line electrode by 2.5-D FEM; 2.5 jigen FEM ni yoru sen denkyoku shuhen no den`i keisan

    Sugimoto, Y. [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    A new method to calculate 2.5-D electric potentials around line electrodes in an inhomogeneous medium was developed. While certain conventional analyses of electric potentials due to line sources have assumed that current density is constant along the line source, this assumption is invalid for electrically inhomogeneous media. In the newly developed method, line electrodes are modeled approximately using line elements of 1-D FEM. Since line elements cannot be combined directly with a 2.5-D FEM model, equivalent scattered sources were introduced to evaluate the effect of the line elements on the 2.5-D potentials (equivalent scattered source method). The equivalent scattered sources represent current interchange between the line elements and the 2.5-D FEM elements. A simulation test was carried out and the following results were obtained. 1. In the uniform formation model, potentials calculated by the equivalent scattered source method agreed with the solutions obtained by analytical and charge simulation methods. 2. The results of the equivalent scattered source method indicate that current density increases slightly as depth increases and is concentrated at the tip of the electrode. This phenomenon was also observed in the results of the charge simulation method. Current concentration is considered an effect of the finite radius of the electrode. 3. In the horizontal multi-layered model, calculated current density along line electrodes is inversely proportional to the layer resistivity. 13 refs., 15 figs.

  12. Detecting technology of buried pipes and hollow areas by using physical detecting method; Senbu chika deno butsuri tansaho ni yoru maisetsukan, kudo chosa

    Nagashima, Y. [NTT Technical Assistance and Support Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    No precise records are available on positions of buried pipes which constitute such life lines as electric power, water supply, gas supply, and telecommunications under roads. This record unavailability is causing troubles of damaging these pipes when road excavating constructions are carried out. Therefore, a technology has been demanded, which can measure positions of buried pipes non-destructively from the ground surface. To meet this requirement, development has been performed on a technology to explore pipes buried in depths up to 3 meters. Research results thereon have made achievements today causing a large number of practically usable devices to emerge into existence. Major exploration methods include the electromagnetic wave method and the electromagnetic induction method. This paper describes principles, problems, and exploration application examples of the pulse radar electromagnetic wave method and the electromagnetic induction method, and some considerations thereon. No devices have been completed to date, which can fully satisfy the requirements in exploring buried objects. This is because electromagnetic waves get attenuated sharply under the ground, and because a large number of boundary faces exist underground to reflect electromagnetic waves. It is necessary to continue research and development efforts. 7 refs., 32 refs.

  13. New magnetotelluric inversion scheme using generalized RRI method and case studies; GRRI ho ni yoru MT o nijigen inversion kaiseki to sono tekiyorei

    Yamane, K.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Lee, K. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ashida, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    This paper describes a new two-dimensional (2-D) magnetotelluric (MT) inversion scheme. For the 2-D Frechet derivative scheme, the model correction values are calculated from the Jacobian matrix after the Taylor expansion of Maxwell`s equation. Although numerical solutions with high calculation accuracy and reliability can be obtained, it requires very large computer capacity and high speed load. While, the RRI (rapid relaxation inversion) approximation scheme proposed by Smith and Booker provides high efficiency in the computer capacity and speed load. However, since horizontal changes in the electric field or magnetic field are determined only from a single observation point for the calculation of model correction values, the calculation accuracy is inferior to that by Frechet scheme. In this study, improvement in the calculation was tried with keeping the efficiency of RRI scheme. The Maxwell`s equation was modified into form of perturbation method using magnetic field or electric field and conductivity of ground. The perturbed equation was then multiplied by a test function, to relate the boundary integral and region integral. A modified equation with 2-D property similar to RRI scheme could be obtained. Thus, results similar to those from the Frechet scheme could be obtained in a period similar to that by the RRI scheme. 11 refs., 17 figs.

  14. Estimation of bainite transformation temperatures in steels by the empirical formulas; Hagane no bainite hentai ondo no jikkenshiki ni yoru suitei

    Okada, Y. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Kunitake, T.


    Relational formulas were proposed for bainite transformation temperatures and chemical compositions in steels. Thirty-one isothermal transformation charts were selected, whose forms are such that transformation regions in both of pearlite stage and bainite stage are separated, and bainite transformation starting temperature reaches a constant value on the longer duration side in isothermal retention. Multiplex analysis was performed on the charts. Then, an experimental formula was presented to derive the bainite transformation temperature from chemical compositions of the steels. An assessed value very close to the measured value was derived. Another experimental formula was presented to estimate the bainite transformation temperature from the chemical compositions of the steels during continuous cooling, which is more practicable than isothermal transformation in heat treatment of the steels. Two kinds of parameters, B {sub 1} and B {sub 2} were introduced into the formula. The parameter B {sub 1} is a bainite transformation starting temperature in the case when cooling is performed at a critical cooling rate in which the pearlite transformation can appear, and B {sub 2} is a bainite transformation starting temperature when cooling is performed at such a critical cooling rate that a structure containing bainite is transformed completely to a pearlite transformed structure. A formula more versatile than conventional formulas was obtained. 9 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Electricity demand and the structure in Japan. Examination using time series analysis; Nippon denryoku juyo no suii to sono kozo. Jikeiretsu bunseki ni yoru kento

    Kato, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    Stable supply of power was studied by applying the time-series analytical technique to the analysis of domestic power demand time series shift and power demand structure. Unit root tests were performed for four series of demands for power, that is, the great demand, business demand, small demand, and lighting demand. Then, the null hypothesis advocating the presence of unit roots in them could not be rejected but, on the other hand, the null hypotheses was discarded in some tests advocating their steady presence. Furthermore, a power demand function was derived and the relationship of power demand with the cointegration component as the income and price factor was examined, when it was found that the power demand function itself gives a long-range, stable relationship. Utilizing this conclusion, an error correction model and vector autoregression model were induced. It was then shown that a short-range disequilibrium in the long-range stable relationship is corrected approximately in 2 years in the case of the great demand, and approximately in 9 months in the case of the lighting demand. Again, a conclusion was reached that the price factor did not involve any causality in the case of the lighting demand. 14 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Flow channel design of a multi-cavity mold by filling simulation for thermosets. Netsu kokasei jushi ryudo kaiseki ni yoru cavity tasuko tori kanagata no ryuro sekkei

    Saeki, J. (Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Kaneda, A. (Hitachi Chemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    A study was made on the flow channel design of a multi-cavity mold by filling simulation for thermosets. A practical analytic method was developed for the calculation of pressure losses at various locations in the channel following the estimation of viscosity change in the thermosets in the mold with optional shape. The runner and gate are designed for equal flow distribution to each cavity, and a newly developed model and a conventional type model were trially made for various evaluation using the conditions set at the time of designing. Ideal filling was achieved with the newly developed type model, and the design method of the type was confirmed to be reasonable. Characteristic values were studied which can be considered to give effect on the deformation of gold wires and void formation in molded devices. The effects on the prevention of gold wire deformation, decrease in void formation, and widening formation margin were confirmed. By the developed mold designing method, less diameter gold wire may be used without decreasing the quality of the package. 10 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Preliminary experiments on the growth of plants exposed to DC corona discharge in a hydroponics. Chokuryu corona hodenkadeno suiko sanbaini yoru shokubutsu seiikuno yobiteki kento

    Shigemitsu, Tsukasa; Watanabe, Yasunori


    For the purpose of utilizing electrical phenomena to agriculture fields, preliminary experiments were carried out hydroponically to evaluate especially the effects of ion by DC corona discharge on the growth of plants such as lettuce or radish. The influences of various shapes of discharge electrodes on a water evaporation rate, ozone production rate and ion current change were studied, and the indirect stimulation effects on plants by more water evaporation under discharge, and the direct stimulation effects on plants with discharge by the electrode fixed 45cm above plants were studied. As a result, the water evaporation rate was 2 or 3 times more than that of control plots by positive or negative corona discharge, however, for the growth of plants, no remarkable direct or indirect stimulation effects by discharge were observed. As subjects, the clarification of water behavior change under discharge and of effects on plants in cellular level were pointed out to be necessary. (14 figs, 12 tabs, 12 refs)

  18. Analysis of forces from the subframe into sidemembers for road noise reduction; Riya subframe keijo no saitekika ni yoru road noise no kaizen

    Arakawa, M.; Asai, M.; Kiyota, Y.; Akiyama, A. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    In a rigidity added rear subframe structure, an analysis was made of the internal force working on the joint with the sidemember, for studying how to reduce road noise. In the frequency domain giving rise to low noise related problems in a rigidity added rear subframe structure, the rear subframe and floor crossmember produces bending oscillation with the sidemember section serving as the point of articulation. Now that the floor is the location wherein the low noise originates, what is important in the effort to reduce noise is to suppress the up-and-down oscillation of the floor crossmember. The result of the analysis indicates that the floor oscillation, responding to the up-and-down force inputted by the rear subframe, reduces when the position of installation of the rear subframe is changed and rigidity is secured two times more than the rigidity required for optimization in the central cross section. In an application to a service vehicle, the road noise during a run along a tennis court evaluation road resulted in a 2.0dB reduction, which enables the conclusion that the technique introduced herein is better than the technique of providing a rear subframe with a dynamic damper. 2 refs., 14 figs.

  19. Production of L-aspartic acid by bioreactors using immobilized microorganisms. Koteika biseibutsu wo mochiiru baio riakuta ni yoru L-asuparagin san no seizo

    Sato, T. (Tanabe Seiyaku Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))


    A developmental progress of a continuous process is introduced, wherein L-aspartic acid is produced in an industrial scale from fumaric acid with immobilized aspartase. First, immobilization of aspartase extracted from Escherichia coli was tried by entrapping it in polyacryllamide gel. The enzyme was proved unstable to be used in an industrial scale because of being taken out of bacterial organism. It was found that E. coli with 10-fold high enzymic activity can be held by entrapping the bacteria in polyacrylamide gel without extracting enzyme. In consideration of optimum temperature, pH, heat resistance and other properties of E. coli, and of exothermic reaction, a continuous enzyme reactor was designed of a radiation (heat exchanger) type with E. coli packed multi-step columns. Using this reactor, the production cost of L-aspartic acid could be reduced to about 60 % of that by conventional batch-wise type. Further, the productivity has been raised remarkably by improving immobilizing efficiency with use of [kappa]-carrageenan instead of polyacrylamide and by using mutant strains with 7-fold high aspartase activity. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Tidal simulation of a bay with a very large floating structure using multi level model; Taso moderu ni yoru choogata futai mawari no ryukyo keisan

    Hu, Changhong; Kyozuka, Y. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School


    Tidal currents and drift currents in a bay with a pontoon type very large floating structure are calculated using a multi-level model. A method of solving two dimensional Poisson equation is proposed to obtain the hydrodynamic pressure under the floating structure. Vertical displacement of the floating structure due to the calculated surrounding water levels can also be calculated. Computation is performed also for tidal flows of a bay to study the effect of the vertical displacement of the pontoon. Lastly, building an airport in the Ariake Sea is assumed as an example, and the effect of the structure on tidal currents is calculated using this method. A floating airport has less effect on tidal currents and residual currents in comparison with a reclaimed island. The horizontal flow velocity under a floating structure increases more than in the case of no platoon, and the effect on the flow rate becomes smaller relatively. There is a little difference in the vertical flow rate between the case of allowing vertical displacement of the platoon and the case of restricting the displacement, but the change in the horizontal flow rate is very little. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Improvement of soft clays of construction debris by using quicklime and the mechanism of hardening; Nanjakuna kensetsu zando no seisekkai no yoru kairyo to sono mekanizumu

    Onitsuka, K. [Saga Univ., Saga (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Nanri, M.


    In areas having vast expanses of soft ground, a large amount of soft clay debris emerges with construction, and to secure the place for disposal becomes a great problem. Particularly, the Ariake clay which is widely distributed along the coast of the Ariake Sea in Kyushu is one of the few soft clays, the development of the technology for using the clay effectively is expected. In particular, because the reduction of water ratio is the first target in processing the Ariake clay having high water ratio, quicklime is mainly used. In this paper, in order to know the properties and the mechanism of the improvement of clays having high water ratio by using quicklime, observations were conducted concerning the physical and chemical properties of the construction debris, the reduction of water ratio caused by the heat evolution and expansion of quicklime and the reaction of quicklime with the silica and alumina elements in the debris, which were considered to having effects on hardening. Moreover, the effect of the amount of addition, the curing period and compaction method on strength properties were discussed. 10 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Studies on sleep patterns and fatigue due to shift work and their work adaptability. Kotai sagyo ni yoru suimin dotai to hiro oyobi sono sagyo tekiosei no kenkyu

    Matsuoka, N.; Yokota, A. (Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Studies were made on sleep patterns and fatigue due to shift work and their work adaptability with respect to the following items: (1) With a nurse work system as the object, a survey of rectum temperature, heart rate and rhythm before and after a midnight shift, and sleep at rising in the morning using the OSA survey method; (2) To analyze actual conditions of cumulative fatigue felt by shift workers and fatigue factors, a survey on shift work history, overtime work time, work patterns, symptoms of cumulative fatigue, and and life satisfaction; (3) A survey on daytime sleep record maintained at working places of guards including those of middle or advanced age, and sleep as affected by a nap; (4) A method of improving complains of circadian rhythm disorders because of variations in sleep and emergence rhythms experienced by shift workers, and discussions of usability of light radiation; and (5) Establishment of a technique to indicate effects of psychological burdens and psychogenic stress on visual functions of shift workers using tensions in focal adjustment. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Vowel recognition by fuzzy inference and application to recognition of continuous Korean speech. Fuzzy suiron ni yoru boin ninshiki to kankokugo renzoku onsei eno oyo

    Choi, W.K.; Akizuki, K. (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Lee, H.H. (Fukuoka Inst. of Tech., Fukuoka (Japan))


    The target of voice recognition is to recognize continuous speech which is effective for speech recognition of unspecified persons. As a new matching method, the variations of feature parameters of speakers are represented as fuzzy variables to express the variation by membership functions. It is a new pattern matching method of fuzzy inference using feature parameters, fuzzy relation and synthesis of each formant, and the fuzzy rule. It is a recognition method for the inference of best formant which matches the fact by providing each characteristic quantity and fuzzy rule for composite calculation. For consonant recognition, pitch, logarithmic energies, zero crossing rates, etc. are used which represent features of each formant. KOSRES 2, recognition system for continuous Korean speech, was structured using this method which was subjected to recognition experiments on continuous Korean speech, and the recognition method by fuzzy inference is found to be effective for speech recognition of unspecified persons. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Application of information theory to the sensitivity analysis of cogeneration system performance; Johoryo no gainen ni yoru kojenereshon system ni okeru fuka deta eikyo bunseki

    Takahashi, K.; Ishizaka, T.; Honnma, I. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)


    Cogeneration system (CGS) is anticipated by department of energy to play an important role in environment preservation. Cogeneration system`s estimation is depended on the preconditions, heat and electricity load data. Since the recognition of heat and electricity load is difficult, efficiency in load data is demanded repeatedly for the evaluation of cogeneration system. Necessary load factors for the estimation of cogeneration system from the energy department`s point of view as well as what measure may become good while recognizing load factors are investigated in this paper. Based on this, a proposal is made by considering load factors of buildings as a standard for estimation of the system. Further fixed quantity assessment is made with the results of computer simulation. From the obtained results, following observations are noted. Recognization of total load capacity is become very important when base load is introduced considerable amount for houses. Load factor`s information is very important for hotel when heat and electricity are used in balance. It is concluded that irrespective of motor capacity, whole day load factor information is necessary for office buildings. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Study on the inside gas flow visualization of oxygen sensor cover; Kashika ni yoru O2 sensor cover nai no gas nagare hyoka

    Hocho, S.; Mitsuishi, Y.; Inagaki, M. [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Hamaguchi, S.; Mizusawa, K. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    In order to make clear the difference of the response time between the oxygen sensors with different protection covers, we visualized gas flow inside of sensor covers by means of two experimental methods: One is `Smoke Suspension Method` using liquid paraffin vapor as the smoke. With smoke suspension method, we detected the streamlines inside of the covers. The other is `Color Reaction Method` using the reaction of phenolphthalein and NH3 gas. With color reaction method, we confirmed the streamline inside of the cover and furthermore detected the difference of the response time of each sensor. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Development of generator-cooling hydrogen purity improvement system using hydrogen absorbing alloy; Suiso kyuzo gokin ni yoru hatsudenkinai suiso jundo kojo system no kaihatsu

    Nishimura, Y.; Sato, J.; Haruki, N.; Kogi, T.; Okuno, Y. [The Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Takeda, H.; Wakisaka, Y. [The Japan Steel Works, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fujita, T. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A generator-cooling hydrogen purity improvement system was developed by utilizing hydrogen absorbing and discharging functions of hydrogen storage alloy. For demonstration test with an actual machine, four elements, Ca, Ni, Mm and Al, were used as hydrogen storage alloys. To treat hydrogen gas with a wide range of purity and reduce hydrogen gas feed, flow operation for hydrogen purity improvement, batch operation, and recycle operation for maintaining the hydrogen purity were performed. As a result of the generator-cooling hydrogen purity improvement demonstration test, it was found that the hydrogen purity can be enhanced from 97.69% before operation to 99.9% after operation for 104 hours and to 99.95% after operation for 140 hours. The hydrogen recovery rates during flow test and batch test were between 92 and 95%. For the hydrogen purity maintaining test, it was confirmed that the high hydrogen purity of 99.9% has been continuously maintained for 140 days, and that the hydrogen recovery rate was over 99%. 2 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Improvement of heat degradation in Y-TZP by surface modification. Y-TZP no hyomen kaishitsu ni yoru netsu rekka no kaizen

    Shikata, R.; Yamamoto, T. (Osaka Cement Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Shiono, T.; Nishikawa, T. (Kyoto Inst. of Tech., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering and Design)


    Since Y-TZP (stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals by Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) shows superior mechanical properties, it is expected to be applied to structural ceramics. However, currently, anxiety for a long term reliability to heat degradation has been still observed. Therefore, in order to enhance the long periodical heat stability in low temperature as well as to keep the high intensity of Y-TZP, it is desirable to reform only the surface of Y-TZP to the one which has a superior characteristic of heat stability. In this paper, to obtain such Y-TZP with heat stability on the surface, zirconia product was fabricated at first using sintered raw material powder in low temperature, and subsequently impregnate it by nitric acid yttium solution to increase Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} solids on the surface. As a result, impregnation depth from the surface of cubic zirconia and nitric acid yttrium on the surface of Y-TZP has been increased in proportion to the impregnation volume of nitric acid yttrium, and the surface of Y-TZP could be completely coated by cubic zirconia. 20 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Construction of a highway tunnel with TBM. ; No. 2 Yuda tunnel of Akita motorway. TBM ni yoru doro tonneru no seko. ; Akita jidoshado Yuda daini tonneru

    Miura, M. (Obayashi Corp., Osaka (Japan))


    The tunnel excavator TBM has an ability of executing excavation works rapidly and is attractive for excavating speedily and efficiently a tunnel which has a trend to be larger in cross section and longer in length in the future. In order to study possibility and workability of the excavation techniques using this TBM, TBM has been adopted for excavating No.2 Yuda tunnel of Akita motorway. It is the technique to execute an excavation work of a top heading with a TBM whose diameter is 3.5m, then to expand the heading by cutting the earth to a predetermined cross section through the total cross sectional excavation technique with an auxiliary bench. The total length of the tunnel is 2,413m. The temperature in the winter is low, snowfall is heavy and rocks are volcanic. In planning the usage of TBM, it has been considered to design and build a TBM capable of digging the soft earth, not to let the TBM caught by the expansive earth, to be able to take muck out even in case of voluminous gushing water and to grasp the earth in front quickly and exactly. Also an automatic operation system has been adopted taking into consideration that no individual difference of operator would be reflected and manpower saving would be expected in the future. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Improvement of performance of non-equilibrium MHD disk generator by means of segmented loads; Hiheiko disk gata MHD hatsudenki ni okeru bunkatsu fuka ni yoru seino kaizen

    Kobayashi, H.; Okuno, Y.; Kabashima, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    The performance of non-equilibrium MHD disk generator with segmented loads is examined with {gamma}-{theta} two dimensional numerical simulations. The use of segmented loads is found to improve the generator performance when a low electron temperature plasma is introduced to the channel. The simulation results reveal the desired values of load resistances connected in upstream and downstream regions, respectively. The concept of the segmented loads is considered to be superior to rearranging seed fractions and load resistances. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Geoelectrical structure by electrical logs and Schlumberger sounding at the Akinomiya geothermal field, Akita Prefecture; Denki kenso oyobi Schlumberger ho ni yoru Akinomiya chinetsu chiiki no hiteiko kozo

    Kajiwara, T.; Takemoto, S.


    Based on the electrical logging data of the existed well and Schlumberger sounding data obtained in 1974, a two-dimensional inversion analysis of the specific resistance profile was conducted at the Akinomiya geothermal field, Akita Prefecture. From the electrical logging data, relationships between the geology and the specific resistance were illustrated. The specific resistance values of basement rocks showed more than 100 ohm-m, which were higher than those of the other seams. Intrusive rocks and tuffs in the basement rocks showed locally low values less than 100 ohm-m. Younger volcanic rocks showed low values around 10 ohm-m. As a result of the two-dimensional inversion analysis, the basement rocks could be detected as high specific resistance layers. Accordingly, it was considered that the basement rocks in this field can be detected as high specific resistance layers by analyzing the results of field survey sufficiently. Low specific resistance zones were observed in the shallow depth, which corresponded to the fumarolic gases. There were some layers with remarkably varied specific resistance values, which were considered to be related with alteration. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Vertical vibration control system for PC cable-stayed bridge during cantilever construction; Shuketa jogedo seishin sochi ni yoru haridashi sekoji no PC shachokyo no seishin

    Oshio, M.; Nakano, R.; Niihara, Y.; Yano, K.; Takeda, T. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A PC cable-stayed bridge under extension construction having long span length may have long-cycle vibration generated because of wind. The vibration puts workers working on main girders into a state of seasick causing the workability to drop. Therefore, with an objective to reduce vibration occurring on the main girders during construction, discussions were given on application of an active type vertical vibration absorbing device. The vibration absorbing device is an active system that a weight is driven vertically by a hydraulic actuator. The device was developed with a target that damping ratio when a maximum extension is 120 m becomes three times that when no vibration is absorbed for a 5-span continuous PC cable-stayed bridge with a length of 675 m, a central span of 260 m, and a width of 11 m. A cage housing the weight is connected with the actuator at its top by using pins, and the weight is supported being suspended from the top of the actuator. Vibration is absorbed by utilizing reactive force generated when the weight is driven vertically by the hydraulic actuator. The hydraulic actuator contains a gas spring that supports the dead weight of the weight. Experiments have verified the effectiveness of the vertical vibration absorbing device. 4 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Identification of dynamic characteristics by field vibration test in Tsurumi Tsubasa bridge; Tsurumi Tsubasakyo no shindo jikken ni yoru doteki tokusei no dotei

    Yamaguchi, H. [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Takano, H.; Ogasawara, M.; Shimosato, T. [Metropolitan Expressway Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kato, M.; Okada, J. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Field vibration test of the Tsurumi Tsubasa Bridge, a long span cable stayed bridge, has been conducted. Focusing on its dynamic characteristics, an identification method from test results and its validity were investigated. The natural frequency identified using mode circle and resonance curve from steady vibration test agreed with that identified by the peak method from free damping test. Accordingly, there was no difference due to identification methods, and both methods provided appropriate accuracy. The natural vibration mode obtained from the steady vibration test agreed with that obtained by the eigenvalue analysis. The dispersion of experimental values, which indicates the adaptation to mode circle method, became a scale indicating reliability of identified values. When the damping obtained by the half power method for the microtremors test is compared with that identified from the steady vibration test and free damping test, it is required to compare them at lower amplitude level region, considering that the amplitude level of microtremors test is very low. For the dynamic characteristics of the Tsurumi Tsubasa Bridge, it was found that it has lower natural frequency and higher modal damping compared with other cable stayed bridges with similar scale of span. 18 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Reduction of seismic response long-span PC cable-stayed bridge by passive dampers; Damper ni yoru saidai PC shachokyo no jishinji oto no teigen

    Takeda, T.; Yamanobe, S.; Niihara, Y. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    It is important in designing a PC cable-stayed bridge to properly estimate the seismic response of the bridge for reduction of the response. In this paper, an improvement of the seismic resistance of PC cable-stayed bridges when dampers are installed between the deck and piers and lateral vibration of the deck is restricted is investigated using a time history response model. PC cable-stayed bridges with a span length of 400 m, particularly two types of bridges of harp and semi-harp are investigated and the following is found by analyzing the case where there are installed hysteresis type dampers (with 1 cm yield displacement and secondary rigidity assumed to be 1/10 times that of initial rigidity, the initial rigidity being parametrically changed.) or viscous type dampers (a damping factor is changed.) The result shows that the dampers can reduce the seismic response of a PC cable-stayed bridge and that a semi-harp configuration of stay cables where stay cable members are substantially vertically arranged is more effective than a harp configuration for the seismic performance of PC cable-stayed bridges. The damper partly bear inertial force of the bridge upon earthquake whereby tension of the stay cable members is reduced and bending moment of the deck is reduced. There is existing an optimum characteristic value of the damper concerning the bending moment of the piers. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Rational design for SPAC to counter wash-away by waves and discharge waster; Nami to hosuiryu ni yoru senkutsu taisakuko SPAC no goriteki sekkei

    Shimizu, T.; Ikeno, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Ujiie, H.; Yamauchi, I. [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Sendai (Japan)


    Investigations were made as to how to design an SPAC (Spreading Armor Coat) for the prevention of wash-away from landfill-protected shores by warm water discharge. In this method, the sandy sea bottom in front of the discharge outlet is dredged and a stone layer is placed therein, and the spread of the layer forms an armor coat. This method is advantageous in that it requires less stone and less dredging than others. In the experiment, a discharge outlet model was used, and data were collected concerning the spread of the stone layer, etc. Findings are to be stated below. The deployment width of the stone layer is to be determined in view of the coverage of the junction slope sharing an angle of repose of 20 degrees with the wash-away width. In case the discharged current drifts under attacks by tall waves coming in obliquely, some allowance needs be added to the SPAC width in consideration of the drifting. A drift may be evaluated by some empirical formulae now available. For the prevention of sand from being drawn out through between the stones after the stone layer deployment, pebbles (1/3 of the stone in diameter) should be mingled with the stones, which will narrow the gap to 5% from 20%, the latter being the percentage with stones only. Pebbles work effectively when they are placed on the dredge-formed slope in the SPAC deployed area. 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Survey of ancient river trace in Hotta stockade site using vertical electrical method; Denki tansa (suichoku tansa) ni yoru futsudenssaku sekinei no kasenseki chosa

    Nishitani, Tadasho; Takano, Kasumi; Matsuno, Katsutoshi [Akita University, Akita (Japan); Kodama, Jun


    The vertical electric prospecting was carried out at a high density to investigate the characteristics of ancient river trace in Hotta stockade site, and therefore the ancient river trace at the final stage, the distribution of sand soil and gravel layers due to flooding were clarified. It has been known that the rive terrace was roughly divided into two and merged into one near the government office trace. When estimating the river trace at the final stage, it was also found that the watercourse was divided into two on the east side. It was considered that there were two watercourses existing simultaneously or the watercourse had changed and moved. (translated by NEDO)

  16. Flame-Retarding of Cotton/Polyester Blended Yarn Fabrics Using Two-Component Sequential Treatment; Nidankai shori ni yoru men/poriesuteru konboshifu no nannenka

    Kubokawa, Hiroo. [Textile Research Institute of Gunma Prefecture, Gunma (Japan)


    Cotton/polyester (C/P) blended yarn fabrics were treated with several flame retardants used for poly (ethylene terephthalate)(PET) using pad-dry-cure method. The relationships between the chemical structures of the flame retardants and their partition into PET fibers were investigated. When tetrabromobisphenol A (TBP-A) was tested, the amount of sorption increased with increasing concentration of TBP-A in treating acetone solution, and reached 4.0%o.w.f. (% on the weight of the fibre) at 10 wt%. THis treated fabric was again treated with a flame retardant for cotton, Pyrovatex CP New, which contains dimethyl 2-(N-hydroxymethylcarbamovl)ethylphosphonate as a main component. However, sufficient flame retardancy was not obtained. The second partition of TBP-A to cotton during heating was thought to lower the sorption efficiency of Pyrovatex CP New. Based on this assumption, for the case of the two-component sequential treatment, the Pyrovatex CP New treatment, which generates covalent bonds with hydroxy groups of cellulose, should be carried out prior to the TBP-A treatment. When a C/P blended yarn fabric was treated with Pyrovatex CP New and then with TBP-A, the amount of sorption of Pyrovatex CP New was 9.6%o.w.f. and the amount of sorption of TBP-A was 4.6%o.w.f. The limiting oxygen index of the treated fabric was 27.2%, a sufficient value for flame retardancy. Fromthis result, it was concluded that the practica flame-retardant finishing of c/p blended yarn fabrics could be carried out by using a simple finishing machine. (author)

  17. Optimal operation by dynamic programming in a solar/electric hot-water system; Taiyonetsu/denryoku kyuto system no doteki keikakuho ni yoru saiteki un`yo

    Edo, S.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)


    With regard to utilization of a solar/electric hot-water system, a discussion was given by using a dynamic programming method on operation of a system which minimizes power charge. The discussed system is an installation in a welfare facility accommodating 100 persons, where solar heat is stored in a heat storage tank from a heat collector, and utilized for hot water supply. If the solar heat is insufficient for required hot water quantity, the water is heated by using an electric heater. The discussion compared the system operation using the dynamic programming method with the following two systems: the operation method 1, which does not utilize insolation forecast and the operation method 2, in which insolation forecast is utilized and late-night electric power is utilized for heating water in shortage. As a result of the calculation, the operation using the dynamic programming method conducts heat storage by utilizing the late-night power even if insolation is sufficient in winter in order to suppress heating by utilizing late-night power for days with less insolation. Thus, suppression is given on excessive utilization of day-time power and on rise in annual maximum power demand. It was found that the present system reduces power consumption by 37.7% when compared with the operation method 1, and 22.7% when compared even with the operation method 2. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Economical effect of introducing a photovoltaic system on future electric power system; Shorai no denryoku keito eno taiyoko hatsuden system donyu ni yoru keizaiteki eikyo

    Akata, N.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan)


    Economic impact of introduction in the future of photovoltaic power generation (PV) systems into the commercial power system is discussed from the electric utilities` point of view. In the discussion, future demand for power is predicted from the demand for power in the base year, and the optimum power source configuration corresponding to the future demand and power generation curve are worked out by use of linear programming. Then, the fixed cost and variable cost are calculated for each of the power source components, and then the expected reduction in cost per unit of power generated is calculated. As the power sources, the hydroelectric, pumped storage, oil-fired, coal-fired, LNG-fired, combined cycle, and atomic technologies are considered. The conclusion is stated below. Upon introduction of PV power equivalent to 10% of the maximum demand power, the maximum power in the service area of Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., will be reduced by 1.23GW in 2025, and the yearly demand power by 5472GWh. Since PV lowers the peak, an increased number of power sources low in variable cost will be used although such will be low in tracking capability. An increase in power demand will enhance the cost reducing effect of the PV system. 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Assessment of global environmental impacts by utilizing methodology of LCA on solar water heater for dwellings; LCA shuho ni yoru taiyonetsu onsuiki no kankyo fuka hyoka

    Kamoshida, J. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Asai, S. [Yazaki Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    CO2 emission was quantified through the life cycle of a solar water heater to assess its environment impact. Although LCA (life cycle assessment) originally sums up I/O of all materials and energy through the whole life cycle of a product to examine environment impact, this assessment was carried out for only CO2. Calculation of CO2 emission assumed a natural circulating solar water heater of 200 l in effective hot water capacity, 2.78m{sup 2} in effective collecting area, and 0.5 in average annual collecting efficiency of total solar radiation, and an auxiliary city gas heat source for compensating insufficient heat quantity. The total CO2 emission in the life cycle of a solar water heater was obtained from an industrial association table assuming the life cycles of 10 and 20 years. CO2 emission was estimated to be 5407.1kg-CO2 and 10665.2kg-CO2 for 10 and 20 years, respectively. CO2 emission due to city gas was largest in the total CO2 emission in the life cycle. As a result, for reduction of CO2 emission due to a solar water heater, improvement of equipment efficiency was most important. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Investigation of the simulation for the solar DHW system by TRNSYS; TRNSYS ni yoru kaihogata tank wo mochiita solar kyuto system no simulation chosa

    Oishi, M.; Noguchi, T. [Japan Quality Assurance Organization, Tokyo (Japan); Okumiya, M. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)


    With an objective of establishing a method for evaluating performance of a photovoltaic hot water supply system, a discussion was given on utilization of the simulation program, TRANSYS. The discussion was addressed on a photovoltaic hot water supply system of forcible circulation type using commercially available open-type heat storage tanks. An experiment was performed as an indoor test using an artificial solar light source. The TRANSYS makes available a type 04 which handles each node as a complete mixture by fixing and dividing the heat storage tank, and a type 38 which expresses heat transfer between temperature layers by means of piston flow as a heat transfer coefficient. Both types were subjected to calculation. The result of the discussion may be summarized as follows: both types provided values close to the experimental values of quantity of heat derived by utilizing solar heat; however, with the type 04, heat transfer cannot be modeled if the system is left still with temperature difference in the heat storage tank being large; and with the type 38, modeling is possible when the system is left still with temperature difference in the heat storage tank being large, but temperature gradient is difficult to be modeled during heat collection and when hot water is supplied. 1 ref., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Simulation by using model of two species of biomass on biological phosphorus removal processes. Seibutsugaku teki datsu rin katei no niso seibutsu model ni yoru simulation

    Cho, H.; Suzuki, M. (Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Inst. of Industrial Science)


    This study experimented with a simple model on the process of biological phosphorus removal by anaerobic/aerobic processes in order to estimate the changes in the concentration of phosphorus and biomass. In this model, assuming that an active sludge is constituted of two phases of phosphorus removability and non-phosphorus removability in microorganisms, characteristics in the change of concentrations of phosphous and biomass in a cycle period were examined. According to the study on the factors affecting the phosphorus concentration change during a cycle period, content of microorganisms capable of removing phosphorus in the chamber and the concentration of organic materials in the initial anaerobic stage greatly influence the behavior of phosphorus. In addition, the comparative study with the experimental results indicates that this model can roughly, accurately express the characteristics of concentration change. However, the future problem left is a proposal of a model which can apply to the accummulation and and decomposition of the biomass in the non-phosphorus microorganisms. 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Analysis of taste qualities and ingredients of beer by taste sensing system; Mikaku sensor ni yoru beer no ajishitsu to seibun no bunseki

    Ezaki, S.; Yuki, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan); Toko, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Tsuda, Y.; Nakatani, K. [Suntory Ltd., Osaka (Japan)


    The taste of beer was measured using a taste sensing system with eight kinds of lipid membrane. The output from the sensor has high discriminating power and high correlation with taste substances in beer and sensory test by human. The estimation of the concentration of taste substances by multiple regression analysis was fairly well. The taste sensor also well estimated the result of sensory test of many keywords concerning beer taste. 16 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Resistance test of high-speed ship by means of attitude control method. Part 2; Shisei seigyo hoshiki ni yoru kosokutei no teiko shiken. 2

    Hayashida, S. [Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan)


    The previous paper has proposed a resistance test method by controlling the attitude of a high-speed model ship using a personal computer without making a data base. For this method, the fluid force acting on the hull of model ship is measured, to change its attitude based on the measurement, and then, the fluid force is measured again, to change the attitude again. The traveling attitude is created by repeating this, to measure the force acting on the hull. Since the attitude is changed by calculating using the fluid force measured, various factors can be considered in the calculation process. For example, a test with an arbitrary displacement in an arbitrary position of center of gravity can be conducted in spite of actual displacement and position of center of gravity of the model ship. A test for a high-speed ship was conducted through this method, to obtain nearly satisfactory results compared with a usual resistance test. Occasionally, a lot of repetitions were required to satisfy the balancing condition of the force. In this study, the improvement of testing efficiency has been planned by modifying the analyzing program. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Optimization of the ship type using waveform by means of Rankine source method; Rankine source ho ni yoru hakei wo mochiita funagata saitekika ni tsuite

    Hirayama, A.; Eguchi, T. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Among the numerical calculation methods for steady-state wave-making problems, the panel shift Rankine source (PSRS) method has the advantages of rather precise determination of wave pattern of practical ship types, and short calculation period. The wave pattern around the hull was calculated by means of the PSRS method. The waveform analysis was carried out for the wave, to obtain an amplitude function of the original ship type. Based on the amplitude function, a ship type improvement method aiming at the optimization of ship type was provided using a conditional calculus of variation. A Series 60 (Cb=0.6) ship type was selected for the ship type improvement, to apply this technique. It was suggested that optimum design can be made for reducing the wave making resistance by means of this method. For the improvement of Series 60 ship type using this method, a great degree of reduction in the wave making resistance was recognized from the results of numerical waveform analysis. It was suggested that the ship type improvement aiming at the reduction of wave-making resistance can be made in shorter period and by smaller labor compared with the method using a waveform analysis of cistern tests. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Evaluation stationariness of triaxial seismic while drilling and detection of reflected wave; Kosei kussaku ni tomonau danseiha no sanjiku kaiseki ni yoru hiteijo hyoka to hanshaha no kenshutsu

    Yoshida, T.; Asanuma, H.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper reports a method to detect reflected wave components contained in an elastic wave caused in association with well drilling. Measurement was made on an elastic wave caused in association with well drilling in an experimental field by using a triaxial elastic wave detector disposed in a measurement well. Analyzing the particle motion tracks in the derived elastic wave signals (to derive the main axial direction of a three-dimensional hologram) revealed that oscillation direction of the signals changes non-steadily by time centering around the S-wave oscillation direction. In addition, a sound source position was estimated during the drilling. Existence probability of the S-wave signal in the non-steady continuous signals was estimated by handling the particle motion tracks stochastically. In addition, this existence probability was used as a weighting function for a correlative analysis to detect a reflected wave from directly reaching wave components in the non-steady continuous signals. Thus, improvement in reliability of reflected wave detection was attempted. Effectiveness of this method was endorsed by the field data. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Interpretation SP anomaly caused by subsurface fluid flow; Chika ryudokei ni yoru shizen den`i anomaly no kaishaku ni tsuite

    Yasukawa, K. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Mogi, T.; Kawahira, M. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A PTSP simulator, developed by combining a fluid flow simulator and a simulator for computing the spontaneous potential (SP) out of flow velocity distribution, was used to investigate the impact of the distribution of terrain, permeability, and resistivity upon the ground surface SP. SP computation using simple models such as highlands or cliffs indicated that the terrain-caused SP anomaly was negatively dependent upon elevation. It was also indicated, however, that, in some types of resistivity distribution, the SP profile changes, the peak goes out of place, and even the apparent polarity may reverse in extreme cases. In the study of the SP profile for the Takeyu hot spa, Oita Prefecture, PTSP-aided modeling was carried out. It was then found that fluid flows caused by the terrain were not enough to explain the peak at the middle of the mountain, which suggested the existence of a fluid flow caused by temperature distribution. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Interpretation of seismic section by acoustic modeling. Study of large amplitude events; Hadoba modeling ni yoru jishin tansa danmen no kaishaku. Kyoshinhaba event ni taisuru kosatsu

    Tamagawa, T.; Matsuoka, T.; Sato, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Minegishi, M.; Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    A large amplitude event difficult to interpret was discovered in the overlap section in offset data beyond 10km targeting at deep structures, and the event was examined. A wave field modeling was carried out by use of a simplified synclinal structure model because it had been estimated that the large amplitude event had something to do with a synclinal structure. A pseudospectral program was used for modeling the wave field on the assumption that the synclinal structure model would be an acoustic body and that the surface would contain free boundaries and multiple reflection. It was found as the result that a discontinuous large amplitude event is mapped out in the synclinal part of the overlap section when a far trace is applied beyond the structure during a CMP overlap process. This can be attributed to the concentration of energy produced by multiple reflection in the synclinal part and by the reflection waves beyond the critical angle. Accordingly, it is possible that phenomena similar to those encountered in the modeling process are emerging during actual observation. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Development of the electromagnetic tomography system. Field test results using existing equipment; EM tomography system no kaihatsu. Kison sochi ni yoru test sokutei kekka

    Kumekawa, Y.; Miura, Y.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    With the purpose of developing an electromagnetic tomography system, an observation was carried out with existing equipment combined, and the data was analyzed. The measuring equipment consisted of existing borehole vertical magnetic field sensors as the sensor part, MT method receivers as the receiving device, and existing CSMT method transmitters as the transmitting device. The measuring was performed at the Richmond Field Station which was abundant in existing data and which had a comparatively simple resistivity structure. The borehole vertical magnetic field sensors were lowered inside the borehole, and signal sources were arranged at 10m apart on the traverse line in the direction from northeast to southwest with the borehole as the center. The analysis of the data was made with the use of EM1D by three models, namely, 10 ohm{center_dot}m homogeneous earth model, 100 ohm{center_dot}m homogeneous earth model, and horizontal 7 layer model prepared on the basis of electric logging results; and a comparative examination was made against the measured data. As a result, it was demonstrated that the test measurement agreed very well with the model from the electric logging results and that it was the data reflecting a resistivity structure. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Study of underground structure of Osaka basin and seismic ground motions; Osaka bonchi no chika kozo chosa to Hyogoken nanbu jishin ni yoru jishindo

    Iwasaki, Y. [Geo-Research Institute, Osaka, Osaka (Japan)


    This paper describes the following matters on the study of underground structure of Osaka Basin and seismic ground motions caused by the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake. Elastic wave investigations using reflections intended for deep structures were carried out in the Hyogo prefectural area and the Osaka bay area by an association of the Geological Survey Institute, Hyogo Prefectural Government, Kobe Municipality and Universities. Reflection investigations were conducted in the Osaka land areas using the east-west traverse line along Yamato River (by the Geological Survey Institute), the south-north traverse line along the Naniwa street in the city of Osaka, and the east-west traverse line at the south end of the Uemachi fault. In addition, investigations using shallow bed reflections were performed in the Osaka bay area by the Hydrographic Office. Results of the active fault investigations using the reflection method may not agree with positions of faults which are estimated topographically. An existing structure model of the Osaka basin (something like of a primary approximation) and the result of inverse analysis on epicenter faults in the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake were used as the base for calculating seismic motions in the Abeno area in Osaka City. The result agreed relatively well with observations if the calculation is intended for waves having cycles longer than about two seconds. 6 figs.

  10. Simulation on breakage of heterogeneous materials caused by detonative loading; Bakugo shogeki ni yoru fukinshitsu zairyo no hakai gensho no simulation

    Sassa, K.; Watanabe, T.; Ashida, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Investigations were conducted by simulation of breakage of inhomogeneous materials (rock) attributable to detonative loading, which simulation used the Days-2 Code. During the simulation, one-free-face blastings were used for testing a homogeneous structure, horizontal 2-layer structure, and horizontal 3-layer structure. Property values were assigned to the rocks on the assumption that they were sedimentary rocks such as sandstone or mudstone or hard rocks such as granite. As the result, it was found that a detonative loading resulted in shear failure in a sphere near the focus that was followed by radially developed cracks due to tension breakage, that more area is damaged in a soft rock than in a hard rock, that cracks due to breakage are produced by the overlapping of waves directly from the focus and those reflected from the free face in case of one-free-face blastings, that such cracks propagated along the soft rock layer in case there is a soft rock layer in a hard rock, but that breakage does not extend beyond the soft rock layer. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Subsurface geology by shallow seismic reflection survey and microgravity survey in Kobe area; Senso hanshaho danseiha tansa oyobi seimitsu juryoku tansa ni yoru Kobe chiiki no chika chishitsu

    Endo, H.; Makino, M.; Murata, Y.; Watanabe, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    This paper reports discussions on subsurface structure of the Kobe area by means of microgravity survey. A Bouguer anomaly distribution graph was obtained (which is close to a near straight line) by measuring the gravity at measurement points with an interval of about 25 m along a traverse line (with a total length of about 1.7 km) in an approximately NNW-SSE direction crossing the downtown of the city of Kobe. Viewing the residuals to a straight line linking the values at both ends of the traverse line revealed that the gradient in the Bouguer anomaly distribution changes as if it is bent at a point near the center of the traverse line as a boundary. Deriving the residuals from fine changes seen in a distribution graph for the residuals made clear that this residual distribution has two discontinuous points. The paper indicates that the bending point in the former case corresponds to a reverse fault in a base bed of a flat land as compared with the result of model calculation on the base structure and gravity distribution. The discontinuous points in the latter case agree with positions of fault distribution derived by a reflection elastic wave survey. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Development of the electromagnetic tomography system. Sensitivity study of anomalous body by model studies; EM tomography system no kaihatsu. Model kaiseki ni yoru ijotai no kando chosa kekka

    Kumekawa, Y.; Miura, Y.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    An examination was made by a model analysis on sensitivity and the like against a resistive anomalous body, in connection with an electromagnetic tomography system with surface earthquake sources and underground receiver arrangements. A resistivity model was of a three-dimensional structure, and built with a 5 ohm{center_dot}m low resistivity anomalous body assembled in a 100 ohm{center_dot}m homogeneous medium. As a result of the examination, it was shown that the size limitation of an analyzable anomalous body was 50{times}50{times}20m at a frequency of 8 to 10kHz and that a system with high precision in a high frequency range was necessary. The examination of effects under a shallow anomalous body revealed, for example, that the fluctuation of a low frequency response was large compared with a deep anomalous body and that, where a second anomalous body existed under it, the effect also appeared with a surface earthquake source positioned in the opposite side from the anomalous body. The examination of effects under the three dimensional structure revealed, for example, that a remarkable change appeared in the data with the change in the inclined angle of the transmission line against the strike of the anomalous body. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Model experiments on imaging subsurface fracture permeability by pulsed Doppler borehole televiewer; Pulse doppler borehole televiewer ni yoru kiretsu tosuisei hyoka ni kansuru model jikken

    Inagaki, Y.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper reports model experiments to evaluate flow rates of fluids passing through a fracture by using a Doppler borehole televiewer (DBHTV). A supersonic transducer disposed on a well axis transmits transmission pulses, and a transducer receives scattered waves generated by particulates in water and waves reflected on a well wall. This signal is applied with time gating to extract only the scattered waves from particulates in the vicinity of the well wall. Deriving spectra in the recorded Doppler signal obtains flow velocity components in the direction of the well radius. A model was made with a polyvinylchloride pipe with a diameter of 14.6 cm to simulate a well, to which an aluminum pipe with an inner diameter of 2 mm is connected to be used as a simulated fracture, and mud water is circulated in the pipe. The result of deriving a passed flow volume in this model by integrating flow rate distribution derived by using the above method to a predetermined range in the vicinity of the fracture showed a good proportional relationship with actual flow rate in the simulated fracture. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  14. Estimation of subsurface-fracture orientation with the three-component crack-wave measurement; Kiretsuha sanjiku keisoku ni yoru chika kiretsumen no hoko suitei

    Nagano, K.; Sato, K. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)


    This paper reports experiments carried out to estimate subsurface-fracture orientation with the three-component crack-wave measurement. The experiments were performed by using existing subsurface cracks and two wells in the experimental field. An air gun as a sound source was installed directly above a subsurface crack intersection in one of the wells, and a three-component elastic wave detector was fixed in the vicinity of a subsurface crack intersection in the other well. Crack waves from the sound source were measured in a frequency bandwidth from 150 to 300 Hz. A coherence matrix was constituted relative to triaxial components of vibration in the crack waves; a coherent vector was sought that corresponds to a maximum coherent value of the matrix; and the direction of the longer axis in an ellipse (the direction being perpendicular to the crack face) was approximated in particle motions of the crack waves by using the vector. The normal line direction of the crack face estimated by using the above method was found to agree nearly well with the direction of the minimum crust compression stress measured in the normal line direction of the crack face existed in core samples collected from the wells, and measured at nearly the same position as the subsurface crack. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Fundamental principles of a new EM tool for in-situ resistivity measurement; Denji yudoho ni yoru den`ichi hiteiko sokutei sochi no kento

    Noguchi, K.; Aoki, H. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Saito, A. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    For the purpose of measuring in-situ resistivity without contact with the rock, a study was made about a measuring device using electromagnetic induction. This measuring device has two concentric transmission loops and a receiving point at the center of the loops, and performs focusing by canceling the primary magnetic field at the receiving point. Using this device, a trial was made to eliminate the influence of surface undulation. In the model calculation, response was calculated after the structure with a heavily undulated ground surface was replaced by a two-layer structure with the first layer provided with a higher resistivity. In the model, the first layer had a resistivity of 10000 Ohm m, and the second layer 1000 Ohm m. Using the ratio between the transmission loop radii as a parameter, relationship with the thickness of the first layer was studied, and it was found that the sensitivity to the second layer resistivity increases when the inner and outer loops are nearer to each other in terms of radius and that this eliminates the influence near the surface layer. A decision needs to fall within a scope assuring good reception because response intensity decreases as the ratio between the transmission loop radii approaches 1. 3 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Experimental study on onset of asthma like symptoms by diesel exhausts particles (DEP); Diesel haiki biryushi (DEP) ni yoru zensoku yo byotai no hassho ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyu

    Sagai, M. [National Research Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)


    By experiments using mice, facts which suggest that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) produce a large amount of superoxide (O2{sup -})by chemical or biochemical reaction and this superoxide causes lung injury with a result of asthma like symptoms. It is verified, by the use of mice, that four fundamental symptoms of the onset of asthma like symptoms, i.e. rise of blood vessel permeability, mucus hypersecretion, inflammation accompanying chronic eosinophil infiltration, and airway hyperresponsiveness, are caused by DEP. It can be derived from the fact that mankind asthma may also be caused by DEP. The knowledge obtained by this experiment, which indicates that DEP causes chronic inflammation accompanying eosinophil infiltration, may add important information to the study on the causal relationship of DEP with asthma symptoms. 31 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Study on LXe system for particle detector. Liquefaction test by pulse tube refrigerator; Ryushi kenshutsuyo ekitai Xenon shisutemu no kenkyu. Parusu kan reitokini yoru ekika

    Haruyama, T.; Kasami, K. [High energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba (Japan)


    It is supersensitively used for the particle detection from electrons and that they release the light, that it can deal with fast process, etc. for the high-energy particle which emits liquid Xenon. It recently proposes the experiment which uses large liquid Xenon as a calorimeter in order to detect {gamma}ray of the high energy. It examines the thermal characteristic of liquid Xenon, while this study attempts the optimization in liquefying Xenon by pulse tube refrigerating machine. This time, the following are reported: Introduction of the Xenon gas system for the small-scale liquefaction experiment and experiment near 165K of small pulse tube refrigerating machine on a refrigerating capacity. (NEDO)

  18. Robust control of wire-driven system using linear DC motor; Linear DC motor ni yoru wire kudokei no robust seigyo

    Ikeda, M. [Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hashimoto, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science


    The driving system and its control method were studied to miniaturizing the robot and multiplying its degree of freedom. Through designing the composition of force-transferring device driven by wire and actuator done by thin linear motor, the space can be saved by separating the places needing the force-transferring device and those doing the actuator. However, the driving by wire has the unknown stiffness, backlash, friction and other hardly controllable elements. Three types of robust control, observer-based control, sliding-mode control and H{infinity} control were applied and mutually compared. The H{infinity} control was a H{infinity} norm which was adopted, with optimization, into the evaluation function to measure the objective transfer function. Enabling the comparatively easy designing of high-gain controller to comply with the objective, the H{infinity} control theory was known to be effectively applicable even to the objective having the backlash, friction and resonance point. The present control was robust also against the fluctuation in load. 10 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Ultra long-term simulation by the integrated model. 1. Framework and energy system module; Togo model ni yoru tanchoki simulation. 1. Flame work to energy system module

    Kurosawa, A.; Yagita, H.; Yanagisawa, Y. [Research Inst. of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Kyoto (Japan)


    This paper introduces the study on the ultra long-term energy model `GRAPE` with considering global environment and the results of trial calculation. The GRAPE model is to consist of modules of energy system, climate change, change of land use, food demand/supply, macro economy, and environmental impact. This is a model that divides the world into ten regions, gives 1990 as a base year, and enables the ultra long-term simulation. In this time, emission of carbon is calculated as a trial. In the case of constrained quantity of carbon emission, energy supply in the latter half of 21st century is to compose photovoltaic energy, methanol from coal gasification, and biomass energy. In addition, the shear of nuclear energy is to remarkably increase. For the constitution of power generation, IGCC power generation with carbon recovery, wind power generation, photovoltaic power generation, and nuclear power generation are to extend their shears. In the case of constrained concentration of carbon emission, structural change of power generation option is to be delayed compared with the case of constrained quantity of carbon emission. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Potential evaluation of cold heat and hot heat supply by solar heat; Taiyonetsu ni yoru reinetsu onnetsu no kyokyu potential hyoka

    Akizawa, A.; Ishida, K.; Kashiwagi, T. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    When the recovered solar heat is supplied to demands such as heating, cooling by absorption refrigerator and hot water supply, the maximum available heating value was determined using a model in which solar heat collector was installed in the residence, to investigate the possibility of alternative demand. In this study, the supply temperatures were 80 {degree}C for cooling, 50 {degree}C for heating, and 50 {degree}C for hot water supply, where a flat plate type heat collector was employed. It was assumed that the heat storage can be conducted for 24 hours. Results obtained are as follows. For detached houses, most of the monthly demand can be supplied due to the actual predominant fine days in each month. For the cold and intermediate periods, it was supposed that monthly demand can be supplied by using excess heating value of fine days in the case of sufficient capacity of heat storage tank. For the model with heat insulating structure, demands except hot water supply can be supplied from solar energy. It was found that the heat insulation greatly contributes to the energy saving. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Research on giving antibacteria activity of tailored dental materials; Gin ion ni yoru shikayo zairyo no kokinsei fuyo ni kansuru kenkyu



    The secondary dental caries easily occur by breeding of bacteria in cavities between living body and composite resin, false tooth or root of tailored tooth as tooth repairing materials. The antibacteria activity of tailored dental materials was thus studied by implanting Ag ion. The antibacteria effect with time after culture of caries bacteria was studied by implanting Ag ion into SiO2 powder, PMMA samples and Ti alloy samples at 20 and 200keV in energy of ion. In addition, the antibacteria activity of SiO2 powder as composite material was found at 25keV which was previously effective for the antibacteria activity. This SiO2 filler (Ag{sup +} filler) showed the antibacteria activity on every bacteria sample after 2h, and in particular, could kill all of 3 kinds of bacteria obtained from a composite resin surface after 12h. The number of living S. salivarius was reduced by half after 12h. The application of the composite resin filler implanted with Ag{sup +} is significant to prevent recurrence of caries. 5 refs., 27 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Comprehensive evaluation of biomass resources using SD method-aided world energy/land utilization model; SD shuho no sekai energy tochi riyo model ni yoru

    Yamamoto, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Yamaji, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    For the evaluation of the world-wide conflict between the utilization of biomass resources and the restrictions on land utilization, analysis was made using the system dynamics method. In the advanced area, there is scarcely any changes in land utilization, thanks to stable demand for biomass and perfect forestry protection. On the other hand, in the developing area, demand for biomass is increasing and areas of mature forests are decreasing due to imperfect forestry protection. In 2050 and after when the forests will be enjoying the same protection as that in practice in the advanced area, the forest area will stabilize. Mature forests, however, will not stop shrinking, and there will be only 400-million ha of mature forests remaining in 2100. There will be serious food shortage in the developing area because there will be a huge demand for food for livestock. Accordingly, there will be no room at all for the production of energy making crops. Both in advanced and developing areas, the potential is high of cereal residue, livestock`s dung, raw material timber residue, by-products, and refuse energy resources. On the contrary, the potential is low of kitchen refuse, paper, and chemical industry products refuse. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Investigation on innovation of technology development by means of strategic energy intelligence; Energy senryakurontekina approach ni yoru gijutsu kaihatsu no kakushin ni kansuru chosa



    For the purpose of developing the future innovative energy technology, the paper described a strategic point of view. Effects of the energy issue are remarkable on the next generation and thereafter as seen in the finite of energy resource, global-scale environmental changes, the increasing energy demand, natural/social influences of large-scale technology development. If the technological development is going on in the same way as until now, there will appear limits. Relating to the strategies, to seek what energy should be among the strategies, it is necessary to consider not only global-scale problems but particular conditions in Japan (self-sufficiency, international cooperation, creativity, etc.) Also, wisdom and technique are necessary to attain it. Technological development in a wide sense plays a major role in the energy strategy. Technology innovation must be advanced according to the energy strategy. Integrating ideology into the development of energy technology and selecting therefrom developmental subjects which meet the purpose, required is the construction of the energy system with high flexibility and functionality. Looking at the conventional way of thinking from a different angle and posing a future pull plan, Japan should show leadership to the world. 20 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Maneuvering response of slender ship with sinusoidal steering in shallow waters; Sensuiiki ni okeru saichosen no seigen soda ni yoru soju oto

    Yasukawa, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to grasp memory effect of wake vortices on the maneuvering hydrodynamic characteristics and motions in shallow waters, this paper discusses maneuvering performance of ship advancing with sinusoidal steering. The unsteady slender body theory is used for analyzing the hydrodynamic characteristics acting the hull obliquely advancing or turning around, and hinge-flap model is employed for analyzing the rudder force characteristics. A method has been proposed by which variable components of bearing and transverse displacement of ship advancing with sinusoidal steering in shallow waters can be calculated. Differential coefficient of hull and rudder was calculated by varying the frequency. It was confirmed that the differential coefficient of hull agreed with the test results using cistern. Using this method, maneuvering response using hydrodynamic coefficient in the actual motion frequency was compared with that near the zero frequency. As a result, it was found that memory effect of wake vortices on the maneuvering response of ship can not be ignored in very shallow waters. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Measurement of a jet issuing from a circular pipe with a laser doppler velocimeter. Laser ryusokukei ni yoru enkan kara no funryu no keisoku

    Kita, Y.; Kitamura, Y.; Yamamoto, K. (Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Yoshinaga, K. (Daikin Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Hirose, K. (Okayama University of Science, Okayama (Japan))


    In case that the liquid jet issues under gravity from a vertical circular pipe into the atmosphere, the present research investigated the aspect of jet prior to forming the flapping free surface with droplets and then, measured the flow rate, by a laser Doppler velocimeter, in the jet immediately before and after its issuing. Thus, the jet surface profile and change in flowing condition were demonstrated to be relatively expressible by the three dimensionless numbers, i.e., Reynolds, Froude and Weber numbers. The experimental unit forms a circulating loop of lower water tank to pump to main water tank to valve to sub water tank (fitted with an air valve) to acrylic pipe (1m in length, and 8, 12 and 16mm in diameter) to laser probe to lower water tank. The outlet of acrylic pipe is contracted to 30{degree} and opened in the lower water tank. As liquid, used were water, aqueous solution of glyceline and kerosene. As an experimental result, the in-pipe flow also properly maintain its characteristics for the Poiseuille velocity distribution in the flowing region from approximately 12mm in diameter to the issuing extremity in the vicinity of outlet. The other different particulars are also expressible by the above three dimensionless numbers. 4 refs., 13 figs.

  6. Characterization of the interface states in ZnO varistors by DLTS method. DLTS ho ni yoru ZnO barisuta kaimen jun'i no hyoka

    Tsuda, Koichi; Mukae, Kazuo (Fuji Electric Corporate Research and Development Ltd., Kanagawa, (Japan))


    The Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy(DLTS) technique was applied to characterize the interface states at the grain boundaries of ZnO varistors, such as Bi-type and Pr-type. The ordinary DLTS method gave similar spectra showing two peaks, which were assigned as bulk traps. Then, a new technique called zero-biased DLTS method was tried for observing the interface states at the grain boundaries. A peak for the interface states of ZnO varistors was detected at higher temperatures for the first time. The Arrhenius plots of the emission rate gave the depths of the interface states of 1.03eV and 0.94eV for Pr-type and Bi-type varistors respectively. Numerical simulation of the DLTS peak revealed that the interface states are distributed monoenergetically. Furthermore, since the nonlinear exponent({alpha}) depended strongly on the peak height, the concentration of the interface states should give a large effect on the nonlinearity of the ZnO varistors. The origin of the interface states was suggested to be identified as chemisorbed oxygen ion at the ZnO grain boundaries. 22 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Development of multi-filter spectroradiometry; Filter hoshiki ni yoru bunka hosharyo no keisoku hoho to sono supekutoru no hyogen hoho ni tsuite

    Miyake, Y.; Aoshima, T.; Minoda, T.; Kato, T.; Kondo, S. [Eiko Instruments Trading Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Described in this paper is a technique of solar radiation spectroradiometry in which high-resolution wavelength computation adds to a multi-filter method. The solar spectrum upon entering the atmosphere is scattered and absorbed by parameter-constituting elements such as gas, aerosol, cloud particles, etc., and its spectral contour is complicatedly deformed relative to wavelength. Taking advantage of the fact that the scattering and absorbing characteristics of some of the elements are constant relative to wavelength, a simple equation was constructed to enable high-resolution spectrum measurement wavelength-wise, and this compensates for the limit in measurable wavelength that the conventional multi-filter method suffers from. The new method discussed here is not so expensive as the grating method thanks to the employment of filters, is capable of determining spectral radiation quantities with a precision of {plus_minus}5%, and is reduced in terms of the capacity of memory for data storage. The new method enables data collection under various atmospheric conditions that the four seasons present, which the difficult-to-apply and expensive spectroradiometer fails. It is expected that this method will find its use in collecting basic data for the designing of photovoltaic power generation systems, in the study of photochemical reaction in agriculture, and in collecting basic data for daylight lighting. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Characteristics on the heat storage and recovery by the underground spiral heat exchange pipe; Chichu maisetsu spiral kan ni yoru chikunetsu shunetsu tokusei

    Imai, I. [Kure National College of Technology, Hiroshima (Japan); Taga, M. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan)


    The consistency between the experimental value of a soil temperature and the calculation value of a soil temperature given by a non-steady heat conduction equation was confirmed. The experimental value is obtained by laying a spiral heat exchange pipe in the heat-insulated soil box and circulating hot water forcibly in the pipe. The temperature conductivity in soil significantly influences the heat transfer in soil. The storage performance is improved when the temperature conductivity increases because of the contained moisture. As the difference between the initial soil temperature and circulating water temperature becomes greater, the heat storage and recovery values increase. A thermal core heat transfer is done in the spiral pipe. Therefore, the diameter of the pipe little influences the heat storage performance, and the pitch influences largely. About 50 hours after heat is stored, the storage performance is almost the same as for a straight pipe that uses the spiral diameter as a pipe diameter. To obtain the same heat storage value, the spiral pipe is made of fewer materials than the straight pipe and low in price. The spiral pipe is more advantageous than the straight pipe in the necessary motive power and supply heat of a pump. 1 ref., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Clearness index in cloudy days estimated with meteorological information by multiple regression analysis; Kisho joho wo riyoshita kaiki bunseki ni yoru dontenbi no seiten shisu no suitei

    Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Study is under way for a more accurate solar radiation quantity prediction for the enhancement of solar energy utilization efficiency. Utilizing the technique of roughly estimating the day`s clearness index from forecast weather, the forecast weather (constituted of weather conditions such as `clear,` `cloudy,` etc., and adverbs or adjectives such as `afterward,` `temporary,` and `intermittent`) has been quantified relative to the clearness index. This index is named the `weather index` for the purpose of this article. The error high in rate in the weather index relates to cloudy days, which means a weather index falling in 0.2-0.5. It has also been found that there is a high correlation between the clearness index and the north-south wind direction component. A multiple regression analysis has been carried out, under the circumstances, for the estimation of clearness index from the maximum temperature and the north-south wind direction component. As compared with estimation of the clearness index on the basis only of the weather index, estimation using the weather index and maximum temperature achieves a 3% improvement throughout the year. It has also been learned that estimation by use of the weather index and north-south wind direction component enables a 2% improvement for summer and a 5% or higher improvement for winter. 2 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Heat storage characteristics of latent microcapsules using hot air bubbles by direct contact heat exchange; Onshitsu kihogun to sennetsu microcapsule tono chokusetsu sesshohku kokan ni yoru chikunetsu tokusei

    Nakagawa, K.; Sugiura, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan)


    This paper has dealt with the heat storage characteristics of fine microcapsules packed with latent heat storage material in the water layer. The heat storage operation to the latent microcapsules was carried out using hot air bubbles by direct contact heat exchange. The microcapsule consists of n-paraffin as a core latent-heat storage material and melamine resin as a coating substance. The relation of the completion time of latent-heat storage to some parameters was examined experimentally. The non-dimensional correlation equations for the completion time of latent-heat storage process had were derived in terms of the ratio of water layer height to diameter of microcapsule, Reynolds number for air flow, Stefan number and modified Stefan number for absolute humidity of flowing air. (author)

  11. Microbial degradation of crude oil on the sea surface by adding nutrient microcapsules. Eiyo ennaiho microcapsule no tenka ni yoru kaimen deno genyu no biseibutsu bunkai

    Yamane, Akiko; Okada, Mitsumasa; Murakami, Akihiko (Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Tech., Tokyo (Japan))


    Microbial degradation of spilled crude oil on the sea surface has been studied. It was found that the concentration of nutrient was a large rate-determining factor in microbial degradation of oil, consequently microbial degradation can be enhanced by adding nutrient. While, a nutrient microcapsule was developed so as to keep a certain concentration of nutrient on the sea surface, and the biodegradation capacity and the dosing condition were investigated through experiments. In the up-and-down shaking apparats modeled on sea surface, crude oils were degraded by a marine bacteria. The percentages of total oil removal were 18-22% in the sea water, on the other hand, by dose of the nutrient microcapsules they were enhanced to 43-56%. On the biodegradation of 5g of crude oil, the oil removal was amounted roughly to maximum when 116mg of the microcapsule per vessel (11.6% to crude oil) was added 5 times every 4 days, and the dosage effect was not increased even if more nutrient microcapsules were added. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Synthesis of calcium-deficient by hydroxyapatite-collage composite by the electrolytic deposition method; Denkai sekishutsu ho ni yoru karushiumu kesson hidorokishiapataito-coragen fukugotai no gosei

    Okamura, H. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Graduate School Of Science and Technology; Yasuda, M.; Oota, M. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)


    Hydroxyapatite is known as that it has a good joining property with teeth and bone, and a study on the application to the living body was conducted by using this property. Its application examples were given as the cement used in dentistry, the artificial tooth root, the artificial bone, the bone cement and the artificial joint. However, they were a sinter heated at more than 1000degC, and were put into use by means of reinforcement using a titanium alloy since their mechanical strength was low. In this study, synthesis of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (DAp) and collagen composite by the electrolytic deposition method was attempted in order to develop bionic materials, and the correlation of various physical properties of the obtained composite and the electrolytic deposition conditions were investigated. When the electrolytic voltage is more than 22.0V, a single phase of DAp could be obtained. It was clarified that a DAp and collagen composite was synthesized from results of IR and ESR. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Cross-polarization borehole radar system with a RF analog optical transmission link. Hikaridenso ni yoru chokko henpa bore hole radar keisoku system

    Miwa, T.; Sato, M.; Niitsuma, H. (Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    The cross-polarization borehole radar system (BRS) was reported. The RF analogue optical transmission system (using the optical fiber cable) was introduced into the signal transmission between the sonde and the surface station to broaden the band and to heighten the S/N ratio. The sonde consisted of cable head (to transmit the trigger signal), receiving antenna, and transmitting antenna. The transmitting antenna was excited by the trigger signal from the surface to generate the pulse by the pulse generator. The signal received by the receiving antenna was sent to the oscilloscope on the surface. The field test of cross-polarization borehole system revealed that the effect of noise associated with the BRS employing the eccentric cable did not appear on the BRS. Examples of field test of the cross-polarization borehole measurement system employing the BRS were described. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Improvement of output characteristics of a wind turbine generator by output current control. Shutsuryoku denryu seigyoho ni yoru furyoku hatsuden system no shutsuryoku tokusei kaizen

    Kawahito, T. (Takamatsu National College of Technology, Kagawa (Japan)); Suzuki, T. (Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)


    Conformity was studied between the wind turbine and generator's output characteristics to effectively collect the wind energy which fluctuates with time. According to the theoretical analysis, it is necessary for the generator-driving torque to be proportional to the revolving speed (n) squared of wind turbine in order that the wind turbine may generate the highest output always regardless of wind velocity. In the output current control method by current controller, the generator's output current (i[sub a]) is controlled so as to satisfy i[sub a]=cn[sup 2], where c is the output current control coefficient, the optimized value of which is 2[alpha][sup 2]Kw/Kt if the generator loss is nil. Therefore, that value is fixed independently of the wind velocity. [alpha] and Kw are the characteristic constants of wind turbine while Kt is the torque coefficient of generator. In order to confirm the effect of the present control method, the output characteristics were studied through simulation with already known systems. In both cases of constant and variable wind velocity, the change in output is similar against the change in c. Different from the resistance load control method, the present control method improves the output characteristics in a wide range of wind velocity even if the c remains fixed. 7 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Maximizing output power of wind turbine generator by output current control. Shutsuryoku denryu seigyo ni yoru furyoku hatsuden system no denryoku saidaika

    Kawahito, T. (Takamatsu National College of Technology, Kagawa (Japan)); Suzuki, T. (Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan))


    This paper reports a method in a wind power generation system to control output current from a generator so that it fits automatically the wind turbine characteristics where the turbine characteristics are unknown and the generator characteristics are known. The paper details the following methods: a method that rotation speed of a wind turbine is observed to make the output current from the generator proportional to a square of the turbine rotation speed, and optimize the proportion coefficient so that the generator output at an equilibrium operation point of this system (wind turbine generated torque is in equilibrium with the generator driven torque) is maximized; and a method to derive an optimal proportion coefficient in discrete time control using a digital computer. The paper then describes the following matters: a simulation that assumes a pseudo natural wind velocity has verified the effectiveness of this control method; discovering an optimal proportion coefficient has required about ten minutes; and the way this control method handles fluctuation in wind velocity has a room of further improvement. 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Research of environmental bioecosensing technology using ecological information. Part 2; Seitaikei joho ni yoru kankyo bio ecosencing gijutsu ni kansuru chosa. 2



    Basic considerations of exploring and cultivating environmental reporter organisms are summarized. Mechanism of genetic engineering amplification and molecular biological amplification, and approach to combining them to a hardware as a bioindicator system are investigated. For the current status of molecular biological measurement technology for measuring ecological environment and its application, environmental diagnosis from a phyropathological viewpoint, environmental diagnosis using microorganisms, test fabrication of genetic sensor, and overseas examples of environmental monitoring network are described. For the application of ecological information and functions for developing innovative environmental remediation technology, issues and potential areas for research and development regarding the bioremediation technology in which the US has achieved a progress for the benefit of soil environment remediation are summarized. For the phytoremediation, an area of bioremediation, the metabolism of microorganisms which live in the rhizosphere, and the technology for controlling the microorganisms in the soil through plants are investigated. 66 refs., 50 figs., 17 tabs.

  17. Fracture inspection by BHTV logging through a vinyl chloride tube; Enbi pipe ga sonyusareta kosei deno BHTV ni yoru kiretsu chosa

    Horikawa, H.; Okabe, T.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yamauchi, Y.; Imanishi, H. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)


    A borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging was conducted to investigate cracks in bored wells. The logging process shoots ultrasonic waves onto bore walls and utilizes reflection waves from the bore walls. If the bores are filled with muddy water, or the ultrasonic waves can pass through even if vinyl chloride tubes have been inserted after excavation, the state of the bore walls can be investigated in principle. Conventional optical scanners are, however, incapable of making this investigation. The BHTV logging can be used for identifying lithofacies from reflection intensities from bore walls (it depends on sound impedance of rocks), not to speak of finding cracks. As a result of making logging upon setting time windows from 105 to 145 {mu} sec in a bored well inserted with a vinyl chloride tube, cracks in the bore wall were identified clearly through the vinyl chloride tube. If the distance between the bore wall and the vinyl chloride tube becomes smaller, setting the time window becomes difficult, making reflection data acquisition more difficult. Impacts of decentering in the vinyl chloride tube on the data and the crack analysis result are small. The reflection intensity has decreased by about half as a result of having the circular vinyl chloride tube inserted. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Recognition and detection of seismic phases by artificial neural network detector; Jinko neural network ni yoru jishinha no ninshiki to kenshutsu

    Yamazaki, K.; Wang, W. [Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo (Japan)


    Initial parts of P-waves, medium or high in intensity, are detected using an artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN is the generic name given to information processing systems of the non-Neumann type configured to human brain in point of information processing function, and is packaged into computers in the form of software capable of parallel processing, self-organizing, learning, etc. In this paper, a hierarchical ANN-assisted seismic motion recognition system is constructed on the basis of an error reverse propagation algorithm. It is reported here, with a remark that this study wants much more data from tests for the evaluation of the quality of the recognition, that P-wave recognition has been achieved. When this technique is applied to the S-wave, much more real-time information will become available. For the improvement of the system, a number of problems have to be solved, including the establishment of automatic refurbishment through adaptation-and-learning and configuration that incorporates frequency-related matters. It is found that this system is effective in seismic wave phase recognition but that it is not suitable for precision measurement. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Computational study on full-wave inversion based on the elastic wave-equation; Dansei hado hoteishiki full wave inversion no model keisan ni yoru kento

    Uesaka, S. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Watanabe, T.; Sassa, K. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    Algorithm is constructed and a program developed for a full-wave inversion (FWI) method utilizing the elastic wave equation in seismic exploration. The FWI method is a method for obtaining a physical property distribution using the whole observed waveforms as the data. It is capable of high resolution which is several times smaller than the wavelength since it can handle such phenomena as wave reflection and dispersion. The method for determining the P-wave velocity structure by use of the acoustic wave equation does not provide information about the S-wave velocity since it does not consider S-waves or converted waves. In an analysis using the elastic wave equation, on the other hand, not only P-wave data but also S-wave data can be utilized. In this report, under such circumstances, an inverse analysis algorithm is constructed on the basis of the elastic wave equation, and a basic program is developed. On the basis of the methods of Mora and of Luo and Schuster, the correction factors for P-wave and S-wave velocities are formulated directly from the elastic wave equation. Computations are performed and the effects of the hypocenter frequency and vibration transmission direction are examined. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Development of micro capacitive accelerometer for subsurface microseismic measurement; Micromachining ni yoru chika danseiha kenshutsu no tame no silicon yoryogata kasokudo sensor no seisaku

    Nishizawa, M.; Niitsuma, H.; Esashi, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A silicon capacitive accelerometer was fabricated to detect subsurface elastic waves by using micromachining technology. Characteristics required for it call for capability of detecting acceleration with amplitudes from 0.1 to 1 gal and flat amplitude characteristics in frequency bands of 10 Hz to several kHz. For the purpose of measuring transition phenomena, linear phase characteristics in the required bands must be guaranteed, cross sensitivity must be small, and resistance to water, pressure and heat is demanded. Sensitivity of the sensor is determined finally by noise level in a detection circuit. The sensor`s minimum detection capability was 40 mgal in the case of the distance between a weight and an electrode being 3 {mu}m. This specification value is a value realizable by the current micromachining technology. Dimensions for the weight and other members were decided with the natural frequency to make band width 2 kHz set to 4 kHz. Completion of the product has not been achieved yet, however, because of a problem that the weight gets stuck on the electrode plate in anode bonding in the assembly process. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Study on vibration fatigue damage due to the blow of OPGW aluminum tube; OPGW aluminium kan no kyofu ni yoru shindo hiro hason ni kansuru kenkyu

    Aikawa, S.; Kohara, H. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)


    The cause of damage in the cashing portion of an aluminum tube incorporating OPGW (OPAC 120mm{sup 2}) was investigated and proper measures for the prevention of recurrence were examined. The investigation result of the past accident of the same kind or the result of stress measurement showed that the cause of aluminum tube damage is the fatigue rupture based on the repeated stress occurring by the rolling of OPGW. Moreover, it was known that the attached wire in a jumper lead-in system is most effective and valid as preventative measures of damage. (translated by NEDO)

  2. Study of lightning attack location by detecting polarization fluctuation in OPGW; OPGW denpako no henpa hendo ni yoru sodensen raigekiten hyotei no kento

    Kurono, M.; Kuribara, M.; Asakawa, S. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Sumitani, H. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)


    A method has been established by which lightning attack location can be automatically measured by detecting polarization fluctuation in OPGW. A return transmission method and a two way transmission method were proposed, and their characteristics were made clear. For the both methods, optical fiber is used as detecting and transmission media. Additional equipment such as fault locator, the conventional linkage apparatus to transmission line is not required. Optical fiber can be also used as optical communication circuit using wavelength multiplex. For the return transmission method, two times of rising polarization fluctuations can be separated using delaying fiber. Tailings of the fluctuation are often overlapped. A value of polarization fluctuation velocity d{beta} was determined from instantaneous differential values of three measured polarization components. Thus, a method has been proposed by which the lightning attack time can be derived from the peak time. The fluctuation peak could be distinguished from the waveform of d{beta} using data of largest lightning attack polarization fluctuations, and the distances to the lightning attack spots could be calculated. The lightning location agreed well with the result of location by LLS. 9 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Experiment on measuring temperature distribution in OPGW as a result of electric heating; OPGW tsuden kanetsu ni yoru ondo bunpu sokutei jikken

    Yamashita, I. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    An experiment was performed on measuring variation in temperatures in the lengthwise direction when optical fibers laid on an overhead power transmission line (OPGW) are heated electrically and by using arc discharge. The OPGW has a structure that the optical fibers are wrapped by a metallic sheathing made of aluminum for example. The OPGW can be heated when the sheathing is energized electrically or given arc discharge. A 40-m OPGW was laid in insulated condition with a tensile force of 500 kg. The core wire was extended for 100 m by using an optic fiber cord, and connected to a temperature measuring instrument. Large current pulse was applied for electric heating to measure temperature variation in the OPGW. A change in which temperature rises sharply during the energization was measured successfully. The measured value agreed well with that from a thermocouple. Both ends of the OPGW were grounded, and arc discharge was made from a discharge electrode connected to a central voltage generator. Experiments were carried out with three patterns of charge of 50C, 100C and 200C with the discharge time set to 20 ms. It was possible to measure the temperature rise variation during the discharge. Measurements using GI fibers achieved good results on time resolution and temperature resolution, verifying the effectiveness of an optical fiber sensor as the temperature measuring technology. (NEDO)

  4. Editor s Note


    The JOURNAL OF ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS (JAC) is published annually by the Institute for the History of Ancient Civilizations (Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin Province, People's Republic of China).

  5. Development of technology for organic wastewater treatment by microorganisms and production of materials for conserving environment. Part 1. ; Organic wastewater treatment by photoshynthetic bacteria and microalgae. Biseibutsu ni yoru yukikei haisui shori to yojo biseibutsu no shigenka ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. ; Kogosei saikin to sorui ni yoru haisui shori ni kansuru kihonteki kento

    Kato, A.; Kita, D.; Kubotera, T.; Tsuji, H. (Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    The present report introduces a system which simultaneously executes the purification of organic wastewater and recovery of recyclable matters. The system uses photosynthetic bacteria and microalgae as well as the conventionally used activated sludge bacteria. Environmental maintenance use agents are produced by processing bacteria and algae generated during the wastewater treatment. The photosynthetic bacteria are purple non-sulfuric bacteria, which also contain amino acid, vitamin and other useful physiologically activated matter. The wastewater treatment which utilizes them has the advantage of miniaturizing the plant and lowering the power. As algae, chlorella and spirulina are used in order to remove the nitrogen and phosphorus in the water to be treated. The following is an actual result of wastewater treatment in a beancurd maker's plant: if purple non-sulfuric bacteria are used, high concentration organic wastewater can be treated without dilution so that the plant can be miniaturized. The chlorella culture is so effective that the nitrogen and phosphorus remaining in the wastewater are absorbed and removed by the chlorella with its increasing. 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Suppression of inducer stall based on inlet recirculation in a centrifugal impeller. 1st Report. Improvement in stall limit by ring groove arrangement; Enshin haneguruma iriguchi junkanryu ni yoru inducer shissoku no yokusei. 1. kanjoko ni yoru shissoku genkai no kaizen

    Ueki, H.; Ishida, M.; Sakaguchi, D.; Sun, Z. [Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A ring groove arrangement is proposed to suppress unstable flow or surge in a centrifugal blower. The ring groove arrangement connects the upstream position of impeller inlet and the inducer throat tip through a bypass. The recirculation flow 'vas formed by the pressure difference between the two positions, and the recirculation flow rate was changed by increasing the ring groove widths. The inlet recirculation results in a decrease in the flow rate of unstable flow inception, and an up to 800 improvement in stall limit was obtained by the ring groove arrangement at a small expense of the delivery pressure drop. The improvement of stall limit in the present experiment seems to be mainly due to decrease in flow incidence based on the inlet recirculation flow. Tre flow incidence decreases more as the recirculation flow rate increases, thus resulting in a larger improvement in stall limit. (author)

  7. Developments of DPF systems with mesh laminated structures. Performances of DPF systems which consist of the metal-mesh laminated filter combustion with the alumina-fiber mesh, and the combustion device of trapped diesel particles; Mesh taso kozo no DPF no kaihatsu. Kinzokusen to arumina sen`i mesh ni yoru fukugo filter to filter heiyo heater ni yoru DPF no seino

    Kojima, T.; Tange, A.; Matsuda, K. [NHK Spring Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)


    For the purpose of continuous run without any maintenance, new DPF (diesel particulate filter)systems laminated by both metal-wire mesh and alumina-fiber mesh alternately, are under the developments. The perfect combustion of trapped diesel particulate can be achieved by a couple of the resistance heating devices inserted into the filter. 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Investigation of the near-field structure of jet diffusion flames by the laser sheet method. 2nd Report. Mechanism of flame stabilization by speaker excitation; Laser sheet ho ni yoru funryu kakusan kaen no kibu kozo no kaimei. 2. Speaker kashin ni yoru kaen anteika no mechanism

    Noda, S.; Kamitakahara, Y.; Onoreda, K.; Onuma, Y. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Kamiya, S. [Yokogawa Analytical Systems Inc., Tokyo (Japan)


    The near-field structure of jet diffusion flames excited by a speaker has been investigated to make clear the mechanism of flame stabilization obtained by the excitation. Vortices in flames induced by the excitation were visualized using laser sheet method. The acoustic excitation lifts flames off under the stretch of large scale vortices, but the higher frequency excitation leads reattachment of lifted flames. This phenomenon has been reproduced by the numerical approach under the axisymmetric assumption. Consequently, the vortex push mechanism of flame propagation caused by small-scale vortex rings has been clarified. Moreover, the laser sheet visualization unveiled azimuthal structures attributed to streamwise vortices. Roles of baloclinic torque and pressure pushes related to the azimuthal structure have been also discussed. 32 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Studies on power augmentation of horizontal axis wind turbine with variable speed control. 2nd Report. Determination of optimum slip due to second-power torque control; Kahensoku unten ni yoru field suiheijiku fusha no koseinoka ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Jijo torque seigyo ni yoru saiteki suberi no kettei

    Shimizu, Y.; Takada, M.; Maeda, T. [Mie University, Mie (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kamikawa, H.; Marumo, T. [Mie University, Mie (Japan)


    An inverter-assisted variable speed power generation system is subjected to a field test and the optimum slip for optimum operation against changing wind velocities is determined. The system is a horizontal-axis wind turbine of the up-wind type provided with three variable-pitch blades. The rotor is 8.2m in diameter, the rotation axis is positioned 12.7m above the ground, and the output is rated at 8kW. The rotation of the rotor is multiplied nine times by a step-up gear using a timing belt, and drives the 8-pole/3-phase squirrel-cage 8kW induction generator whose rotation is rated at 900rpm. The generated AC power is converted into DC by transistors before being charged into storage batteries. In the experiment, power is generated at variable speeds using the inverter and four types of second-power torque control are tested, different from each other in the magnitude of slips. After an overall evaluation of the amount of generated power and system efficiency, it is found that a slip of -2.0% is the optimum for the control of power generation in this type of wind turbine. 1 ref., 8 figs.

  10. Study on rapid curing for laminated rubber using induction heating. 3rd Report. Uniform heating by ultra low frequency magnetic field; Yudo kanetsu ni yoru sekiso gomu no kosoku karyu ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Choteishuha jiba ni yoru kin'itsu kanetsu

    Fukumoto, H.; Kurokawa, Y.; Sakiyuama, K.; Adachi, S. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe (Japan)


    The authors are doing research to develop a rapid curing device by using inductive heating for the production of a laminated rubber bearing. In the previous paper, it was shown that three problems exist; i.e. (i) the slit mold necessary, (1) lower uniform temperature in the radial direction, and (3) necessary temperature control by the internal location temperature, when the e frequency (60 Hz) induction heating was used to vulcanize a laminated rubber. This paper demonstrates that ultra low frequency heating is adequate to cope with the above problems. It will be shown that (i) the mold is not necessary a slit, (2) the radial temperature difference is within {+-}5 degree C, and (3) the internal temperature can be controlled by the side mold temperature, as the result of ultra low frequency induction heating test. (author)

  11. Development of a new numerical method for visco-elastic flows using the GSMAC-method and the MUSCL-TVD method. Flows of Maxwell fluid through planer abrupt contraction; Kosei hoteishiki ni TVD gata MUSCL ho wo mochiita GSMAC ho ni yoru nendansei ryutai no kaiseki ni tekishita scheme kaihatsu. Maxwell ryutai no kyushuku shoheibannai nagare ni yoru kensho

    Fujieda, T.; Tanahashi, T.; Okada, A. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Kato, Y. [Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    In this paper, we propose a new GSMAC-FEM (generalized simplified marker and cell-finite element method) which is suited to the numerical analysis of visco-elastic fluids. The equation of continuity and the equation of momentum are solved by the GSMAC-FEM algorithm and the constitutive equation is solved by the finite volume method. This scheme employs the third order MUSCL (Monotone Upstream-centered Schemes for Conservation Law) in order to guarantee the absence of spurious oscillation near the steep gradients of the variable. This method uses a minmod limiter in order to satisfy the TVD (Total Variation Diminishing) condition. The present method employs the simultaneous relaxation of velocity and pressure for the incompressible condition. The flows of Maxwell fluid through two-dimensional planer abrupt contraction are calculated by the present method and the effects the Weissenberg number and the Reynolds number are discussed. 13 refs., 12 figs.

  12. Technology to prevent deposition of marine organisms by means of electrically conductive coating. Discussions on current and potential distribution by using experiments; Doden tomaku ni yoru kaiyo seibutsu fuchaku boshi gijutsu. Denryu den`i bunpu ni kansuru jikken ni yoru kento

    Usami, M.; Masaki, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ueda, K.


    Steel structures in sea water and surface of hulls are deposited with such marine organisms as microorganisms, algae and shellfish. The deposition causes a large problem such as occurrence of abnormal local corrosion in the structures, and increase in cruising resistance in ocean vessels. The present study has introduced a simplified equation of estimation for current and potential distribution in parts coated with an electrically conductive film, and verified its reasonability by an experiment. The equation of estimation was introduced by following a model of current flow in the electrically conductive coating. The experiment has the conductive coating applied to the interior of a concrete water tank with a length of 10.8 m, a width of 5 m and a depth of 3 m to measure potential at different locations. The conductive coating was energized from copper foils attached on each applied face, whereas the current was applied to two faces between the conductive films as a pair among the four coating applied faces to measure potential in each location. A simulated calculation revealed that the potential range in the depth direction is made smaller if specific resistance of the conductive film is decreased, and made greater if increased. Effectiveness of the equation of estimation was verified by an experiment. This method has provided a prospect of achieving optimization of the specification for application of the conductive film. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Contents and Abstracts


    [Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations] Title: The Autobiographical Inscription ofMethen: A Chinese Translation and Commentary /2 Author: Wang Liang, Doctoral Candidate, Institute for the History of Ancient Civilizations, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin, 130024, China; Guo Dantong, Professor, Institute for the History of Ancient Civilizations, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin, 130024, China.

  14. City Improves State Enterprises



    As China's new leadership drafts measures to help ailing Stateowned enterprises(SOEs),Changchun,a strategic city in the Rust Belt,is reaping benefits unseen in more than a decade of SOE reform.Home to a large number of SOEs,Changchun has had its share of bureaucracy and stagnation.The city initiated a program called,“Saving SOEs




    Beijing and northeast China are fast becoming an area of growing interest to international investors. Here we highlight some aspects of the major cities and consider options for setting up business in this area. Changchun China’s car city Changchun means cars. The city’s most famous enterprise, First Automobile Works (FAW), created China’s very first road vehicle, the "Jiefang" truck, back in 1956. FAW now covers an enormous area stretching for several kilometers in the Changchun Auto Economic Trade Development

  16. Estimation of real ship propelling performance by the surface velocity lattice method using model ship flow field data; Mokeisen ryujo data wo mochiita hyomen uzu koshiho ni yoru jissen suishin seino no suitei

    Kai, H.; Ikehata, M.; Sakai, S. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This is basically a technique wherein the wing element method is replaced by a surface vortex lattice method. A horseshoe vortex of unknown intensity and source surface of known intensity are distributed on the wing surface and, under conditions that the fluid will not cross the boundary, the intensity of horseshoe vortex circulation is calculated for the solution of the fluid field. For the simulation of a real ship in navigation, the required propeller revolution thrust is determined using the real ship resistance value and real ship thrust reduction factor estimated from a model ship resistance test by extrapolation. The calculation of propeller performance is conducted in the quasi-steady condition using the force of fluid working on one wing for each wing angle (with the wing rotated at the increment of 6 degrees), and the thrust and torque are determined using the averages of values obtained in one cycle. It is found that the torque value is overestimated in a considerable degree in the wing element theory. In the surface vortex lattice method, both thrust and torque values agree with experimental values mostly, and this method is found to be accurate enough as a navigation element calculation tool when many panels are considered. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Development of ELID mirror surface grinding by cast iron bond grinding wheel. Ohkochi memorial technology prize; Chutetsu bond toishi ni yoru denkai inpurosesu doresshingu (ELID) kyomen kensakuho no kaihatsu. Okochi kinen gijutsusho jusho ni yosete

    Omori, H.; Takahashi, I. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Hagiuda, Y.; Karikome, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan College of Aeronautical Engineering, Tokyo (Japan)


    Development was accomplished on the electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID) mirror surface grinding process using a cast iron bonded grinding wheel. This paper describes the history of the development, which may be summarized as follows: a study was begun on powder forging of cutting chips in 1970; a research was started on powder forging of decarburized cast iron powder; developments were made on powder metallurgy of cast irons and cast iron bonded lapping tools in 1980, and cast iron bonded diamond grinding wheels were put on the market; a high-efficiency grinding process using MC and cast iron fiber-bonded grinding wheels were developed in 1985 and the grinding wheels made therefrom were put on the market; and a study was begun on the ELID grinding in 1987, and marketing was started on power supply, grinding liquid and tools for the ELID grinding process in 1990. Discussions on converting raw materials for the powder forging into cutting chips have triggered developing the cast iron bonded grinding wheel. The cast iron bonded diamond grinding wheel improves dressability and sharpness of conventional grinding wheels. The grinding wheel is fabricated by mixing carbonyl iron powder, diamond grinding grains and cast iron powder, pressing the mixture in a die, sintering it at 1140 degC, and assembling and dressing the sinter. The grinding stone can grind high-tech materials. 4 figs.

  18. Detection of the oscillation mode of measured waveforms in power systems by Prony analysis; Puroni kaisekiho ni yoru denryoku keito ni okeru jissoku hakei no doyo mode kenshutsu ni tsuite

    Shibata, K. [Kansai Electaric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    This paper describes the detection method of the oscillation modes by Prony analysis from measured data on power systems. A Prony analysis method can obtain the oscillation frequency and logarithmic damping rate corresponding to eigenvalue directly, and is suitable for detecting the oscillation modes. The analysis result showed that longer sampling intervals of 0.2-0.4s allows detection of the long-period oscillation modes from less data, and the index corresponding to waveform areas allows evaluation of the significance of each mode. It was also confirmed that a low-pass filter with a time constant of nearly 0.2s is effective for poor data including various noises, and correction of amplitude and phase shifts is possible by filter. In addition, the study result on application of a Prony analysis method to instantaneous value waveforms showed that analysis of harmonic characteristics is possible by selecting proper analytical parameters, and a Prony analysis method is applicable to analysis of measured data enough. (NEDO)

  19. FY1995 study on high speed manipulation of photons and electrons by nanostructures for photonic devices of next generation; 1995 nendo handotai nano kozo ni yoru chokosoku hikari denshi seigyo to jisedai hikari device no kenkyu



    In this project, we manipulate interaction between photons and electrons in semiconductor nanostructures to study fundamental understanding of electron-photon interaction in ultra-small space and Ultrafast time domain. In addition, on the basis of these results, we explore the optoelectronics nanostructure devices of the next generation. In this research project, we developed new techniques for fabricating quantum dot structures. First, quantum dots of 10nm were grown in two-dimensional V-grooved structures which were formed on SiO{sub 2} patterned substrates by MOCVD. In the same V-grooves, vertical quantum wires were also formed. As the second new technique, we developed self-assembling growth technique for the quantum dots utilizing Spinodal phase separation. In order to investigate the quantum dots using nano-scale characterization technique, we developed low-temperature scanning near-filed optical microscope. Luminescence from as single quantum dot and a single quantum wire were obtained. In addition, luminescence from a single quantum dot through tunneling current excitation by STM was also successfully obtained. Furthermore, micro-photoluminescence measurement achieved time and spatially resolved photoluminescence from a single quantum dot. This micro-photoluminescence also revealed electron dynamics in mesoscopic structures and point contact structures through carrier drag effect. Finally we have succeeded in fabricating vertical microcavity quantum dot lasers by MOCVD and obtained picosecond pulses form the devices. (NEDO)

  20. Measurement of excited oxygen (O2:[sup 1][Delta]g) concentration by spontaneous emission. Hakko kyodo ni yoru reiki sanso ([sup 1][Delta]g) nodo no sokutei

    Takahashi, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Yamashita, I. (Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))


    The concentration of excited oxygen ([sup 1][Delta]g), which was generated by microwave discharge in a pure oxygen flow, was measured from the intensity of spontaneous emission. The conversion factor to density was determined by spectroscopic analysis of the rotational structure and calibration of the emission intensity using a black-body furnace as light source. Consequently, a good agreement was found between the observed profiles and those calculated from spectroscopic data, and it was illustrated that the absolute concentration can be obtained by coupling band analysis and the calibration method. In addition, even when the concentration was low, it was shown that the excited oxygen concentration can be measured by considering the reflection at the cell wall. The excited oxygen concentration at the microwave discharge cavity was estimated to be around 1% under the pressure ranging from 0.5 torr to 2 torr. Furthermore, the comparison of the profiles calculated at different temperature provided that the band profile can be a good indicator of gas temperature when the signal-to-noise ratio is high. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Characteristics of the fluorescent substances in the Yodo River system by three-dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy; Sanjigen reiki/keiko kodoho ni yoru yodogawa suikeichu no keiko busshitsu no tokucho

    Suzuki, Y.; Nakaguchi, Y.; Hiraki, K.; Kudo, M.; Kimura, M.; Nagao, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)


    Organic substances in the river water in Yodo River system were analyzed by three-dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy. Fluorescent substances were taken as an index of organic substances. The amount of fluorescent substances varied widely depending on the environment of river basin. It is suggested that the fluorescent substances are composed of organic substances which is not directly originated from biological activity. It is suggested that the fluorescent substances were produced by leaching of river bottom sediment. The fluorescent substances in Yodo River system consists of fulvic acid-like substances and protein. The analysis of fluorescent substances in river water by three-dimensional excitation emission matrix spectroscopy can be useful means for estimation of variation and origin of fluorescent substances. For better understanding of features of fluorescent substances in the surface water into which various kinds of substances enter, it is necessary to determine the exact sampling points based on the consideration of different sources and to make a database of peak positions for identification of fluorescent substances from fluorescence intensity peak. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Non-contact estimation of the bond quality in soldered thin laminate by laser generated lamb waves; Laser reiki ramuha ni yoru handazuke sekisohaku no setsugo seijo no hisesshoku hyoka

    Kasama, H.; Futatsugi, T.; Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama-Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering


    The bond quality of a solder-bonded copper laminated plate was modeled into rigid contact (rc) and slip contact (sc) to calculate the velocity dispersion of lamb waves. The velocity dispersion of laser generated lamb waves was measured, and the bond quality or the thickness of a solder layer was evaluated by non-contact. In the model whose bond surface is rc, the velocity dispersion of lamb waves can be calculated under conditions where the stress and displacement in an interface are continuous. In the model whose bond surface is sc, it can be calculated under conditions where an interface slips freely. Weak bond indicates the velocity dispersion between rc and sc. In this model, the velocity dispersion can also be calculated by a change in the thickness of a solder layer and used for quantitative evaluation of a bond interface. A three-layer solder bond manufactured for trial could be evaluated from the velocity dispersion of laser lamb waves. At the room temperature, the change in bond quality near the solder melting point of bond laminate that was judged as rc was investigated. When the solidus temperature is exceeded, the amplitude of lamb waves and the velocity dispersion changed largely. The amplitude of lamb waves increases as the liquid phase ratio increases. The bond quality near the solder melting point can be evaluated using lamb waves. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Acoustic excitation of diffusion flames with coherent structure in a plane shear layer.; Effects of acoustic excitation on combustion properties; Soshiki kozo wo tomonau sendan kakusan kaen no onkyo reiki.; Onkyo reiki ni yoru nensho tokusei no henka

    Ishino, Y.; Kojima, T.; Oiwa, N.; Yamaguchi, S. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)


    This paper reports on experiments for acoustic excitation of plane shear structured flame. Flows of air separated into the higher velocity side and the lower velocity side by a partition on the center of a flow path merge at the measuring point to form a mixed layer with coherent structure. Fuel is supplied to this mixed layer with the flows so adjusted that the generated flame will attach to the partition on the lower velocity side. Acoustic excitation (at a sound pressure level of 100 dB to 120 dB) is performed in a speaker fitted on a wall on the higher velocity side. The paper mentions the results of the experiments as follows: the acoustic excitation produces such changes to diffusion flame in the plane shear layer as shorter flame and blue flame combustion and clarification of flame structures; as seen from spectral characteristics of temperature change in the flames, a flame acoustically excited strongly presents remarkable improvements in periodicity of the structure; as seen from sound pressure distribution in the flow direction at the measuring point, the flame zone of the flame acoustically excited strongly is positioned at the middle of the node and loop of a standing wave. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Amplification of picosecond pulse by electron-beam pumped KrF laser amplifiers. Denshi beam reiki KrF laser zofukuki ni yoru piko byo pulse no zofuku

    Okuda, I.; Tomie, T.; Owadano, Y.; Yano, M. (Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))


    Experiments on the amplification of a picosecond pulse by electron-beam pumped KrF laser amplifiers were carried out for the purpose of its application to the field such as excitation light source for soft X-ray laser which requires large energy besides peak power. The picosecond pulse was amplified by a discharge pumped KrF amplifier and two electron-beam pumped KrF amplifiers(at the middle stage and the final stage). The energy of 4J, which was the largest energy for short pulse excimer laser so far, was obtained by these devices. About 90% of the window area of the final amplifier with 29cm diameter was filled by the input beam, and energy density of the picosecond beam reached 3.9 times saturation energy density. Measured energy of amplified spontaneous emission(ASE) showed good agreement with the theoretically estimated value. Most of ASE was derived from the discharge pumped laser as the first amplifier. As for the focused power density, the power density ratio of the picosecond pulse to ASE was estimated to be as large as 10{sup 5}. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Effect of surface irradiation during the photo-CVD deposition of a-Si:H thin films. Hikari CVD ho ni yoru amorphous silicon sakuseiji no kiban hikari reiki koka

    Tasaka, K.; Doering, H.; Hashimoto, K.; Fujishima, A. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan))


    This paper shows the impact of the irradiation from an additional light source during the deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon by photo-CVD deposition. Using a mercury sensitized photo-CVD process from Disilan (Si {sub 2} H {sub 6}) and hydrogen, silicon was deposited. A 40W low pressure mercury lamp was applied as the light source. A portion of the substrate was in addition irradiated using an Xg-He lamp through a thermal filter. Irradiation of the substrate using only Xg-He lamp produced no deposition, since this light has a wavelength which is too long to produce the SiH {sub 3}-radicals needed for Si deposition. The additional Xg-He light source was discovered to cause an increased thickness of deposited a-Si:H film and a transmission of the band structure. The reasons of these are considered that the influence of irradiation is not limited to film thickness, but that irradiation also impacts the composition of the a-Si:H film so as to cause a reduction in the hydrogen content. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Low temperature formation of ferroelectric PbTiO3 films by laser ablation with 2nd laser irradiation; Reiki hikari laser heiyo laser ablation ho ni yoru kyoyudentai PbTiO3 usumaku no teion keisei

    Tabata, H.; Kawai, T. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)


    The unique advantage of the pulsed laser deposition is its ability to produce highly oriented stoichiometric films at a low substrate temperature. Ferroelectric PbTiO3 thin films have been formed using 2nd laser assisted laser ablaion technique at low temperature, i.e., 350degC, on Sr7iO3 single-crystal substrates and Pt/MgO electrodes. The second laser irradiation at the substrate surface is quite effective for crystallization of the films at low substrate temperature below 400degC. The suitable energy density (fluence) of the irradiation laser is in the range of 30-100 mJ/cm{sup 2}. X-ray diffraction patterns of PbTiO3 thin films show c-axis orientation, with a rocking angle of 1.0 - 0.5deg. These films exhibit ferroelectric hysteresis loop. The dielectric constant and remanent polalyzation of the PbTiO3 films are in the range of 120-150 and 60-80 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}, respectively. 31 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Excitation of tsunami by a pure strike-slip earthquake. ; Izu Oshima kinkai earthquake tsunami on Feb. 20, 1990. Yokozure danso jishin ni yoru tsunami no reiki. ; 1990 nen 2 gatsu 20 nichi Izu Oshima kinkai jishin tsunami

    Abe, K. (Nippon Dental University, Tokyo (Japan). Niigata Junior College); Okada, M. (Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan))


    A numerical experiment was performed to reproduce the tsunami from the Izu-Oshima Kinkai Earthquake which occurred on February 20, 1990, using a tsunami excited by a pure strike-slip fault. An existence of a vertical fault with a length of 15 km and a width of 12 km was hypothesized in the south-north direction on the ocean bottom around the focal region. Then, a tsunami was assumed to have been excited when the fault was given a side-slip movement to create discrepancies of 1 m in the fault. Water level change for one hour after onset of the tsunami was calculated in one-second interval in each unit square with a side length of 1 km over an ocean area of 200 km from east to west and 150 km from north to south centering on the wave source. The results obtained from the calculation were harmonious with tsunami waveforms observed at five stations in the subject region and their spectral analytic results. Reproduced were the two predominant frequencies commonly observed at more than two stations, and difference in predominant cycles that appear according to azimuths of the observation points to the epicenter. These facts endorse the reasonability of the above hypothesis. 9 refs., 11 figs.

  8. Sputter deposition of pure titanium onto complete denture base of Ti-6Al-4V deformed by superplastic forming. Chososei keiseishita Ti-6Al-4V gishi zenbusho eno sputter jochaku ni yoru jun Ti no hifuku

    Kato, M.; Sonoda, T. (Government Industrial Research Institute, Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan))


    In order to improve the biocompatibility of TiNi shape memory alloy and Ti-6Al-4V alloy of functional Ti base alloys which are paid attention as the dental materials or implant materials, the sputter deposition coating using bio-inactive Ti metal was studied. DC source was superior to RF source in characteristics of sputtered film and the rate of deposition. The wiping with gauze impregnated by acetone followed by the ultrasonic cleaning was more effective for the precleaning of the substrate. The sputtered Ti film thickness was nearly proportional to electric power and showed the orientation which depended highly on the heating temperature of the substrate. The complete surface of denture base of Ti-6Al-4V deformed by superplastic forming was well coated with pure Ti and the prospect of biocompatibility of this Ti alloy could be obtained. But the film deposited by the heating condition showed the different characteristics of film compared with that formed under the cooling condition, and it is necessary that the effect of this on the biocompatibility must be investigated. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  9. Assessment of environment in the rural-urban fringe using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data and a personal computer. Jinko eisei deta no pasokon ni yoru toshi kinko noson no kankyo haaku

    Watanabe, K. (Miyazaki Univ., Miyazaki (Japan). Graduate School); Kunitake, M. (Miyazaki Univ., Miyazaki (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)


    The purpose of this study was to examine the progress of development in the vicinity of Kibana district which was formerly surrounded by forests on the mountain and agricultural fields, but is currently a village in the rural-urban fringe transfigured by a large-scale educational city project after the removal of Miyazaki University. It was conducted by making a comparison with the relation between the development and the rise in land surface temperature. Changes in the environment were investigated using remote sensing technologies through preparation of a land classification map and a land surface temperature map by a utilization of a personal computer together with the obtained Landsat Thematic Mapper Data for the years of 1989 and 1990. As a result, it was found out that though the result of temperature comparison between 1989 and 1990 was 1.4[degree]C and 2.8[degree]C higher in 1990 at the lowest temperature and the average daytime temperature respectively, more difference was observed at land surface temperature in the land surface temperature map; and also, although evolution of mountainous areas to populated areas, overpopulation in residential quarters and expansion of populated areas, etc. were observed in the land classification map, agricultural and grass field areas augmented their image element number due to the unusual warm winter in 1990 and the inevitable rapid growth of grasses and flowers. 4 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Prediction method for VC-value of roller compacted dam concrete using neural network; Neural network ni yoru RCD yo concrete no VC chi no suitei shuho ni kansuru kenkyu

    Yasuda, N.; Tsutsumi, T.; Sekine, Y.; Akamatsu, H. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Matsushima, M. [Tokyo Electric Power Service Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The applicability of a neural network was investigated to predict the quality management item (i.e., VC-value) of roller compacted dam (RCD) concrete. In this study, the aggregate amount, binding agent amount, input water amount, water amount on the fine aggregate surface, aggregate specific gravity, water absorption percentage, and power consumption during mixing were set as an input value to construct the neural network according to the result of the mixing test made in an actual plant during test construction. Moreover, the real-time VC-value in an actual plant was predicted. As a result, the conclusion below was given. The VC-value could be predicted in higher precision by adding the moisture percentage measurement data on the fine aggregate surface as well as mixing conditions and power consumption to the input items. The prediction system for a VC-value of RCD concrete using a neural network has a precision of about 5 sec. Considering that the conventional management standard of a VC test made by the test examiner is 20 {+-} 10 sec, the precision is high sufficiently. 20 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Experimental conditions for the fabrication of multilayered metal base composite made by single-shot explosive welding technique; Bakuhatsu assetsuho ni yoru kinzokuki sekiso fukugo zairyo no seizo joken

    Hokamoto, K.; Fujita, M.; Chiba, A.; Nishida, M. [Kumamoto Univ, Kumamoto (Japan)


    The explosion method presented in this report is a means for bonding multilayered metal plates at a stroke by single-shot explosion. Multilayered composites are fabricated by combining such light metals as aluminium and titanium with various kinds of steel. In particular, experimental conditions necessary for the fabrication of multilayered composites consisting of several layers are clarified. The explosive welding conditions for multilayered composites are obtained by analytical analysis using difference calculus to clarify its relation to the bonded conditions at the boundary. In the case of copper base composite, it is important to make uniform the collision speed of metal plate and the amount of energy dissipated by collision at every collision point as far as possible. In the fabrication of stainless steel/aluminium multilayered composite, it is difficult to fabricate composites using multilayered plates with the same thickness, and adjustment of the distance between metal plates is required to make {Delta}KE (the amount of energy dissipated by collision) within the range of good explosive conditions so as to achieve satisfactory bonding. 10 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Planar contraction flow of diluted polymer solution. ; Experiment and numerical simulation considering inertia force. Kishaku kobunshi suiyoeki ni yoru kyu shukusho nagare. ; Kansei ko wo koryoshita suchi kaiseki to kashika jikken

    Kawabata, N.; Tachibana, M.; Yoshida, K. (Fukui Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Fujita, K. (Fukui National College of Technology, Fukui (Japan)); Kimura, K. (Fukui Univ., Fukui (Japan). Graduate School)


    Studies on viscoelastic fluid flows have been carried out while focusing on cases of high viscosity fluid such as polymer solutions so as to meet industrial demand. In a viscoelastic fluid flow, inertia force, viscous force, and elastic force act on the flow field. As the velocity of the flow increases, the effects of the viscous force outgrow the others. The authors showed that stable calculations are possible even in a region where the inertia and elastic forces become important by applying Lax method to solving the constitutive equation. However, the Lax method has a drawback in that numerical viscosity is high. In this study, the CIP method is applied to solving the constitutive equation, and a comparison with respect to the two-dimensional planar contraction flow was made between the results from numerical calculation by means of this method and the results of visualizing experimentations using polymer solutions of relatively low concentration. As a result, it was confirmed by the visualizing experimentations that a flow pattern which is inherent in the viscoelastic fluid and which does not appear in the case of high viscosity fluid. Furthermore this characteristic pattern was also obtained by numerical calculations by this method. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Study on computer graphics. PC graphic system for supposed landscape images of substations and transmission lines; Computer graphics ni kansuru kenkyu. Pasokon ni yoru hendensho sodensen keikan kansei yosozu sakusei system ni tsuite

    Matsuda, Y.; Usagawa, Y.; Kawamoto, A. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)


    In order to obtain the understanding of residents around sites for landscape images in construction of power plants, substations and transmission lines, preparation of supposed landscape images was studied using computer graphics (CG). The system developed on a graphics workstation in 1994 was expensive and poorer in operability than PC although real clear images were obtained. The system was thus improved to be usable on PC. The improved system is usable on OA systems in offices, and possible to transmit image data and print out high-quality images. In addition, the system offers the preparation function of facility layouts and computer graphics. The system is featured by necessary training only for 2-3 days, lower cost and necessary lower initial investment. Since its user interface was, in particular, considered to make it possible for designers to easily operate and timely cope with demands of residents, flexible selection out of various cases, rapid simulation and efficient business became possible. 3 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Research cooperation project in fiscal 1998. General report on research cooperation related to mine waste water treatment technology by utilizing biotechnology; 1998 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo. Bio riyo ni yoru kohaisui shori gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku sokatsu hokokusho



    This paper describes cooperative development of bio-treatment technology for mine waste water generated by operating mines in China. Certain types of bacteria have capability to oxidize ferrous iron in the waste water into ferric iron ions. The bacteria cause ferric iron oxides in low pH regions to get deposited, and can remove them from sedimentation by using cheap calcium carbonate as a neutralizer. Volumetric reduction in waste sediments may also be achieved during removing heavy metals in a pretreatment process. Great advance may be expected in taking actions to prevent water quality contamination. This paper summarizes activities taken in fiscal 1998. Eight site surveys in total were carried out using 47 persons in total. Major activities included operation study guidance of a pilot plant, and surveys for measures on heavy metal generation sources in Wushan Mine. In addition, site surveys were performed at Dexing Mine and Yinshan Zinc Mine. Subsequently from fiscal 1997, a bench scale testing equipment used in Japan and consumables were transported to China. The operation study data on the pilot plant were put into order and analyzed. Concept design was also made on a waste water treatment facility for Wushan Mine. (NEDO)

  15. Condensation heat transfer on finned tubes with radial ridges on the fin surfaces. 2nd Report. ; Theoretical study. Hankei hoko ni tokki wo motsu shuhoko fin ni yoru gyoshuku netsu dentatsu sokushin. 2. ; Rironteki kenkyu

    Hijikata, K.; Nakabeppu, O. (Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)); Wang, P.


    A model of finned tubes is developed to predict condensation performance of R-tubes with radial ridges circumferential fin surfaces. Results predicted by this model make an accurate explanation of experimental data, and the condensation mechanism of R-tubes and freon {prime} s condensation heat transfer to R-tubes are predicted by the model R-tubes have high condensation heat transfer coefficients because the ridges on the fin surfaces of the R-tube extend the thin condensate film area and also promote convective heat transfer in the film. In condensation of high performance finned tubes, load values like local temperature differences, local heat flux, local heat transfer coefficient change circumferentially. Therefore, it is necessary to consider this change using theoretical models. 17 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Separation of ethylene glycol and sodium salt of serine by use of a simulated moving-bed adsorber; Giji idoso ni yoru ethylene glycol to serine no Na en no bunri

    Seto, T.; Hirata, K.; Odagiri, M.; Imanari, M. [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Separation of ethylene glycol and sodium salt of serine is important in the processing of serine by the Strecker method using glycol aldehyde produced from ethylene glycol. The separations were successfully carried out using a simulated moving-bed four-zone type adsorber which was composed of a sodium salt of strongly acidic cation exchange resin. The moving-bed adsorber used was slightly different from a conventional one in the manner of setting up Raffinate 2. Separation of this type was simulated by calculations using an analytical solution of steady state rate equation concerning the adsorption and desorption of the ingredients and the moving bed. The condition needed for separation in the four-zone type with Raffinate 2 was discriminated, being generally coincident with the conventional condition of {beta} value. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Experiment for estimating phase velocity and power fraction of Love wave from three component microtremor array observation in Morioka area; Moriokashiiki deno bido no sanseibun array kansoku ni yoru love ha no iso sokudo oyobi power hi suitei no kokoromi

    Yamamoto, H.; Yakuwa, A.; Saito, T. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Three component microtremor array observations were carried out in two locations in the city of Morioka for an attempt of estimating phase velocity and power fraction of Love wave by applying the expanded three component spatial self-correlation method. The microtremors were observed by using a seismograph with a natural period of one second. The arrays were so arranged as to form an equilateral triangle consisted of seven points. The maximum radii were 100 m, 50 m, 25 m and 12.5 m for vertical movements, and 100 m and 30 m for horizontal movements at the Iwate University, and 80 m, 40 m, 20 m and 10 m for vertical movements and 90 m for horizontal movements at the Morioka Technical Highschool. The analysis has used three sections, each with relatively steady state of about 40 seconds as selected from records of observations for about 30 minutes. The result of the discussions revealed that it is possible to derive phase velocity of not only Rayleigh waves but also Love waves by applying the expanded spatial self-correlation method to the observation record. Thus, estimation of underground structures with higher accuracy has become possible by using simultaneously the Rayleigh waves and Love waves. 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Estimation of underground velocity structure using short-period microtremor array observation in Morioka area; Tanshuki bido no arei kansoku ni yoru Moriokashiiki no chika sokudo kozo no suitei

    Yamamoto, H.; Saito, T.; Iwamoto, K. [Iwate Univ., Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yoshida, Y. [Oyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Obuchi, T. [Kawasaki Geological Engineering (Japan)


    Shallow underground velocity structure is important information on prediction of seismic characteristics of short-period component closely related to earthquake damages. Array observations of short-period microtremor were carried out at several sites in Morioka city area and the shallow underground velocity structures were estimated using frequency-wavenumber analysis and the inversion technique. At nine sites with different underground structure, the dispersion phenomena of phase velocities of Rayleigh wave with good continuity were observed and the shallow underground velocity structure were estimated from the phase velocities using two types of the inversion techniques, one for the case that unknown is S-wave velocity, and the other for the case that unknown is layer thickness. The results were consistent with those from the bore hole data. Short-period microtremor array observation has advantages of easy observation and no environmental problems and was shown to be effective for prospecting shallow underground structure beneath urban areas difficult with other geophysical prospecting techniques. 17 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Trend survey of the global environment adaptation type industry technology. Chikyu kankyo tekiogata sangyo gijutsu doko chosa. ; Shizen energy ni yoru CO2 global recycle system no kanosei-chosa


    The paper studies a global CO2 recycling system which combines utilization of natural energy and CO2 recovered from combustion of fossil fuel. In the model, CO2 recovered at the place of energy demand is transported to the place where energy is produced, and from the CO2 fuels are synthesized by use of solar energy and transported to the place of energy demand. Facilities worth a large amount of money are required to transmit electric power generated by the photovoltaic power generation in the desert to the fuel synthesizing plant. Therefore, production of electrolytic hydrogen by the on-site power generation and transport by pipe may be considered. As a synthetic fuel being sent back by ocean transport, methanol is considered, and synthetic methane (LNG) can also be a candidate. CO2 is recovered as liquid carbon dioxide. Possibility of CO2 recycling is dependent on development of the desert solar base, as well as depletion of fossil fuel and price increase, CO2 penalty. It has still been difficult to say which of the fuel synthesis, CO2 tanker or securing of the solar base becomes a bottleneck. Entry of recycling fuels to the market will be possible in proportion to restrictions on fossil fuels, and evaluation of the system depends almost on the rate of energy arriving from the energy-producing region. 112 refs., 70 figs. 36 tabs.

  20. Exploration of shallow subsurface resistivity structure using a portable TEM system: TEM-FAST prosystem; Kan`igata TEM ho sochi TEM-FAST prosystem ni yoru senbu hiteiko chosa

    Miura, Y.; Kumekawa, Y.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Discussions were given on effectiveness of the TEM-FAST ProSystem which is a portable TEM system developed recently for use in exploration of shallow subsurface resistivity. The system consists of a loop type antenna, the TEM-FAST as the main equipment, and a host computer, the host computer controlling the entire system. The system acquires transient response data in secondary induced magnetic fields lasting 4 {mu} sec to 1 m sec. The number of data is 5490 stacks in one measurement, and the data acquisition time is about three minutes. Measurements were carried out by using the TEM-FAST in the vicinity of a well, whose results were compared with those of electric logging, and discussions were given on them. Although the electric logging results had no data available for depths shallower than 35 m, the measurement results from the TEM-FAST were found highly harmonious with those of the electric logging. In addition, there were transmission and telephone lines in locations about 10 m away from the well during the measurement, but extremely high data quality was discovered. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Alkylation reaction by the 2-chloropropane of benzene on the hyper saline element processes alumina catalyst; Koenso shori arumina shokubaijo deno benzen no 2-kuroropuropan ni yoru arukiruka hanno

    Imanishi, Kazuhiro; Saeki, Takayuki; Sawada, Tetsuro; Shobu, Akinori


    The semibatch reactor was used at atmospheric pressure, 273K in respect of isopropyl reaction by 2-chloropropane (2CP) of benzene on aluminia catalyst (AmLSA) chlorinated in the high temperature. The AmLSA catalyst showed the activity, which was higher than the AlCl{sub 3} catalyst. Main products were isopropyl benzene (IPB) and para - diisopropyl benzene (dj-IPB) - 1,3,5-triisopropyl benzene (tri-IPB) and, and the generation of 4 substitutes was as a trace. Product composition at 2CP 100% conversion ratio is IPB 76%, di-IPB I9%, tri-IPB 5% Di-IPB in the isopropyl reaction of IPB be 82%, tri-IPB It was 18%. The catalyst was perfectly toxified, even if it is deaerated at the temperature of pyridine adsorption post 573K or less, and it began to recover in the de-aeration of 673K, and it recovered after the de-aeration at 873K to active 43% before the toxification. It was concluded, when the reaction perfectly stops, when the catalyst is removed from system of reaction, and when the elution of the active species has not been generated. In comparison with the result of result of the superscription and alkylation reaction by 1 - chloropropane (ICP) and isopropyl reaction by the aluminum chloride catalyst, the reaction on the AmLSA catalyst was explained with that it progressed by the mechanism of the Friedel-Crafts type. (translated by NEDO)

  2. Development of a ceramics filter technology for aluminum recycling. Discussion on an unnecessary constituent reducing process by means of solid-liquid separation; Recycle arumiyo ceramics filter gijutsu no kaihatsu. Koeki bunrini yoru fuyo seibun teigen process no kento

    Saegusa, T.; Honma, K. [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan); Narita, T.; Suzuki, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Matsubara, H.; Aoki, S. [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Nagoya (Japan)


    A problem in recycling aluminum scraps is the existence of Fe and Pb as impurities, in addition to added alloy elements (Cu, Si, Mg and Zn). Discussion was given on an Fe concentration reducing method, in which molten Al-Cu-Fe-based alloy to simulate scrapped materials is filtered by an alumina ceramics filter at the solid-liquid phase coexisting temperature zone. The ceramics filter was formed by mixing thermally hardening resin into fine powder material. By using a method to drill through-holes during the forming stage, fine pores were optionally controlled in the sub-millimeter to millimeter order. In the filtration, if the Fe concentration is lower than that in the eutectic composition, Cu and Fe are condensed in the permeate phase, whereas primary crystal of aluminum is accumulated on the filter as the remaining phase, enhancing the aluminum purity. Filtration, repeated three times, has reduced the Fe concentration from 0.75 to 0.63% by atoms. If the Fe concentration is higher than eutectic concentration, since Fe is condensed in the form of intermetallic compound of FeAl{sub 3} as the remaining phase on the filter, the Fe concentration is reduced in the permeation phase, and three-time filtration reduced the Fe concentration from 1.5 to 0.70% by atoms. (NEDO)

  3. FY 1998 annual report on the improvement of toughness of silicide-based intermetallic compounds by controlling their composite structures; 1998 nendo fukugo soshikika ni yoru shirisaidokei kinzokukan kagobutsu no kyojinsei kaizen chosa hokokusho



    Intermetallic compounds, although attracting much attention as most promising materials serviceable at superhigh temperature, are very fragile at normal temperature, which is one of their major disadvantages. Structures of these compounds prepared by the melting method are controlled to improve their toughness by, e.g., changing phase ratio of the initial crystal for the Mo-Si-Nb system to prevent cracking during the melting and casting stages, addition of a third element (e.g., Zr, Ti or Hf) or a mixed component of Nb and Zr to control the structure of Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} considered to be a cause for the cracking, and controlling melting and solidification rates for the FZ melting method. The three-phase microstructures with added Hf or Zr show improved toughness, but need additional procedures for controlling solidification and cooling conditions. For the powder method, the MA conditions are investigated with a two-element system, and the effects of Al or Zr as the third element added to the base composition on the composite microstructures and constituent phases are also investigated. Unlike the melting method, the powder method causes no cracking problems during the stock preparation stage and hence is expected to be applicable to production of larger stocks. However, the products by this method are found to be insufficient both in toughness and high-temperature strength. It is necessary to develop methods for cutting down and controlling oxides in the grain boundaries, in order to prevent deterioration of their strength at high temperature. (NEDO)

  4. Improvement of life and NO{sub x} emission of radiant tube heating system by elastic-plastic creep analysis; Dansosei kuripu kaiseki ni yoru hosha dennetsukan kanetsu shisutemu no jumyo to NO{sub x} haishutsuryo no kaizen

    Nakagawa, Tsuguhiko; Nuta, Kunihiro [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Okayama, (Japan). Mizushima Warks


    The radiant tube heating system has been widely applied to the furnaces which require isolation of the heating atmosphere from the combustion atmosphere. However, the conventional system has a short life and it is difficult to reduce NO{sub x} emission when it is used at a high furnace temperature under high combustion load, because the fuel is burned in a small space. In order to solve this problem, we have studied the cause of radiant tube life depends on the uniformity of the temperature distribution along the radiant tube. We have developed a new burner using a two-stage combustion method with exhaust gas self-recirculation. As a result, the file of the new system has been increased by a factor of two or more, and NO{sub x} emission has been reduced by 20 % from previous levels. This paper presents an outline of the elastic-plastic creep analysis and the new burner, and describes the effect of its use on system life. (author)

  5. Countermeasures for exhaust prevention of organic solvents at print shop. 3. Removal of organic solvents by catalytic oxidation method; Insatsu kojo ni okeru yuki yozai haishutsu boshi taisaku. 3. Shokubai sankaho ni yoru yuki yozai no jokyo

    Yano, H. [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shoda, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization


    This paper summarizes circumstances of a catalytic oxidation type deodorizing experiment and a demonstration test on exhaust gas discharged actually from a print shop. The catalytic oxidation method is a method to burn the odor constituents, which are ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol and toluene, at temperatures of 200 to 300 degC. Space velocity was used as a parameter, and two kinds of platinum systems and two kinds of manganese + copper systems were used as catalysts. Elucidation was made on the space velocity and removal efficiency, removal efficiency of each catalyst, unreacted decomposition originated constituents at low temperatures (150 to 180 degC), and efficiency of each catalyst to remove each constituent. The result revealed that nearly 100% removal is possible at a space velocity of 33000 hr {sup -1} when the platinum-based catalyst and the manganese + copper based catalyst (both in pellet form) are combined. It was also found that the combination is advantageous in terms of cost. A demonstration test was performed at a new factory. Under a condition of combination of the above catalysts at 1:1 ratio, the space velocity of 30000 hr {sup -1}, and gas temperature at catalyst layer inlet of 200 degC, the removal efficiency was 97.9% to 98.7%, which clears the exhaust regulation value specified by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Average concentration in the working environment was 120.9 ppm, which cleared the maximum permissible concentration. 7 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Countermeasures for exhaust prevention of organic solvents at print shop. 1. Removal of organic solvents by activated carbon adsorption method; Insatsu kojo ni okeru yuki yozai haishutsu boshi taisaku. 1. Kasseitan kyuchakuho ni yoru yuki yozai no jokyo

    Yano, H. [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shoda, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Resources Utilization


    This paper describes the state of discharge of organic solvents from a print shop and a deodorizing experiment using a deodorizing equipment of activated carbon adsorption type of a bench test scale. The subject existing print shop has a working space volume of 2000 m{sup 3} and total air exhaust volume of 32000 m{sup 3} per hour. The identified main solvents are ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol and toluene. Solvent exhaust concentration at a duct was more than two times greater than the exhaust regulation value. The experiment was performed by using an equipment having an adsorption tower filled with activated carbons of particle form and pellet form made from coconut shell respectively. The gas concentration at an inlet to the deodorizing equipment was 394 ppm as the total concentration, exceeding the exhaust regulation value of 200 ppm. It was verified that the activated adsorption process has high removal effect. The break-through time which expresses life of activated carbon was 38 hours for the particle-formed carbon and 29 hours for the pellet-formed carbon when the total outlet gas concentration was set to 10 ppm. If the adsorption continues after the break-through time has been reached, a displacement phenomenon (displacement among constituents due to selective adsorption) can occur. The required length of the adsorption belt was derived. It was verified that the activated carbons can be regenerated and re-used. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Numerical simulation on flow and density field in summer in Kagoshima bay by using a multi-layer model; Taso model ni yoru Kagoshimawan no kaki no ryudo to mitsudoba no suchi simulation

    Iwakiri, Y. [Water Works Bureau of Kagoshima City, Kagoshima (Japan); Kyozuka, Y. [Kyushu University, Kyushu (Japan)


    Numerical simulation was performed on sea water circulation and density field in Kagoshima Bay by using a multi-layer model to verify a model by comparing the simulation result with observation values. The numerical computation model had the Coriolis parameters constant and used the Cartesian coordinates. Based on the fact that the scale in the perpendicular direction is very small as compared with that in the horizontal direction, a hydrostatic pressure approximation was used for the pressure, and an approximation that keeps density constant was used for all the other items than buoyancy. Processes for scales smaller than the lattice size were expressed by vortex viscosity terms and vortex diffusion terms. As a result of calculations, good agreement with observation values was derived in counterclockwise flow in the end of the bay and flow from the bay center to the entrance of the bay. The vertical distribution of density depicts well how density forming layers are created. In the calculation values of water temperature and salt content, good agreement with the observations was shown in the water temperature even in a quantitative aspect, but not as good agreement in the salt content as in the water temperature. In calculations that consider precipitation and evaporation, only the salt content showed values close to the observation values. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Development of membrane bioreactor system. 1. ; Selective permeation of protein solutions by electric microfiltrations. Mokei bioreactor system no kaihatsu. 1. ; Denki seimitsu roka ni yoru tanpakushitsu no sentaku toka

    Matsumoto, Y.; Totsuka, Y.; Kuwahara, H. (Shizuoka Industrial Research Institute, Shizuoka (Japan))


    Investigation was carried out to apply electric microfiltration to the separation of fungus under fermentation from protein. A charged-type ultrafine filtration membrane was experimentally prepared to be combined with an electric field for the purpose of examining the permeation behaviour of membrane. First, a mixed suspension of bakers' yeast and bovine serum albumin was used as model ferment liquid so as to examine filtering conditions. In consequence, it was found that pH adjustment can control permeability; albumin content is increased as the electric field is strengthened; the current of less than 0.3A is practical in consideration of denaturation of protein and so forth. A ferment liquid yielding bacteriolytic enzyme was used as actual ferment liquid so as to confirm the above information. This method was judged to be effective for concentration and penetration of enzyme in bioreactors from the data on the relation between the blocking rate of enzyme and the change-over of polarity. It is considered possible from the investigation in which sulfonated polysulfon ultrafine filtering membrane as charge type membrane is combined with electric field to separate nucleic acids of similar molecular weight by their electric charge. 20 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Thermal relaxation of bituminous coal to improve donation ability of hydrogen radicals in flash pyrolysis; Sekitan kozo kanwa ni yoru suiso radical kyoyo noryoku no kojo wo mezashita netsubunkai mae shori

    Mori, T.; Isoda, T.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hayashi, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology


    In terms of coal conversion reaction, the behavior of bituminous coal heated beyond a glass transition point was examined on the basis of pyrolyzed products, and the effect of an increase in proton mobility on promotion of coal decomposition was evaluated. In experiment, after Illinois bituminous coal specimen was heated up to a specific temperature in N2 or He gas flow at a rate of 5K/min, the specimen was directly transferred to a pyrolyzer for instantaneous pyrolysis. As the experimental result, the glass transition temperature of the Illinois coal specimen was calculated to be 589K from a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) profile. From the pyrolysis result of the Illinois coal specimen heated up to 623K, the char yield decreased by 3kg as compared with that of the original coal, while the tar yield increased by 4kg up to 27kg per 100kg of the original coal. This tar increase was larger than that of cooled coal. These results suggested that the donation of hydrogen radicals to coal fragments is improved with an increase in proton mobility. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Analysis of the relationship between the coal properties and their liquefaction characteristics by using the coal data base; Tanshu data base ni yoru tanshitsu to ekika tokusei no kaiseki

    Kanbayashi, Y.; Okada, K. [Coal Mining Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    The relationship between coal properties and liquefaction or gasification characteristics was analyzed by using the analysis and test results and liquefaction characteristics in the coal data base. On liquefaction reaction, the close relation between an oil yield and coal constituent composition or a coal rank is well-known. Various multivariable regression analyses were conducted by using 6 factors as variables such as calorific value, volatile component, O/C and H/C atomic ratios, exinite+vitrinite content and vitrinite reflectance, and liquefaction characteristics as variate. On liquefaction characteristics, the oil yield of dehydrated and deashed coals, asphaltene yield, hydrogen consumption, produced water and gas quantities, and oil+asphaltene yield were predicted. The theoretical gasification efficiency of each specimen was calculated to evaluate the liquefaction reaction obtained. As a result, the oil yield increased with H/C atomic ratio, while the theoretical gasification efficiency increased with O/C atomic ratio. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. BTX production by in-situ contact reforming of low-temperature tar from coal with zeolite-derived catalysts; Zeolite kei shokubai wo mochiita sekitan teion tar no sesshoku kaishitsu ni yoru BTX no seisei

    Matsunaga, T.; Fuda, K.; Murakami, K.; Kyo, M.; Hosoya, S.; Kobayashi, S. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College


    On BTX production process from low-temperature tar obtained by pyrolysis of coal, the effect of exchanged metallic species and reaction temperature were studied using metallic ion-exchanged Y-zeolite as catalyst. In experiment, three kinds of coals with different produced tar structures such as Taiheiyo and PSOC-830 sub-bituminous coals and Loy Yang brown coal were used. Y-zeolite ion-exchanged with metal chloride aqueous solution was used as catalyst. Zn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and In{sup 3+} were used as metal ions to be exchanged. The experiment was conducted by heating a pyrolysis section up to 600{degree}C for one hour after preheating a contact reforming section up to a certain proper temperature. As a result, the Ni system catalyst was effective for BTX production from aromatic-abundant tar, while the Zn system one from lower aromatic tar. In general, relatively high yields of toluene and xylene were obtained at lower temperature, while those of benzene at higher temperature. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Solubilization of meso-carbon microbeads by potassium- or dibutylzinc-promoted butylation and structural analysis of the butylated products; Mesocarbon microbeads no butyl ka ni yoru kayoka to erareta butyl kabutsu no kozo kaiseki

    Murata, S.; Zhang, Y.; Kidena, K.; Nomura, M. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Tetrahydrofuran (THF) solubility and structure of the butylated products of meso-carbon microbeads (MCMB) were studied experimentally. In experiment, MCMB-A and MCMB-B obtained from two kinds of coal-tar pitch were used as specimens. MCMBs were butylated by BZ method using dibutylzinc-butyl iodide and KT method using K-butyl iodide-THF, and the butylated products were successfully obtained. The butylated products were investigated through THF solubility test, {sup 13}C-NMR measurement and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurement. As the experimental result, a BZ method produced the butylated products at a yield of nearly 170%, while a KT method produced them at a yield of nearly 130%. The THF solubility was estimated to be 89-97%. As the study result of molecular weight distributions by GPC measurement of solvent solubles, the molecular weight of raw material MCMB was estimated to be 590-770 in terms of polystyrene. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Development of the EM tomography system. Part 2. Sensitivity studies of anomalous body by model studies; EM tomography system no kaihatsu. 2. Model kaiseki ni yoru ijotai no kando chosa kekka

    Kumekawa, Y.; Miura, Y.; Takasugi, S. [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E. [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)


    A model analysis was used to investigate sensitivity of a two-dimensional structure on a resistivity anomalous body by using an electromagnetic tomography system. The resistivity model handled a three-dimensional structure. The model was prepared as a pseudo two-dimensional model in which a low resistivity anomalous body with 1 ohm-m was incorporated that has a basic length of 1000 m in the Y-direction in a homogenous medium having 100 ohm-m. As a result of the analysis, the following matters were elucidated: if a low resistivity anomalous body is present in a shallow subsurface, its impact starts appearing from lower frequencies than when the anomalous body exists only at a greater depth; if a high resistivity anomalous body exists, the detection sensitivity is lower than for the low resistivity anomalous body, but the analysis would be possible by using the phase because the phase has made a greater change; the source TxZ shows a change from lower frequencies than for the source TxX, and the amount of change is greater, hence the detection sensitivity on an anomalous body may be said higher with the source TxZ; however, for the anomalous body in shallow subsurface, the source TxX is more effective since it is not subjected to a too great impact at a greater depth. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Co-C binding cleavage by the hydrolysis reaction of the Vitamins B{sub 12} coenzyme; Bitamin B{sub 12} hokoso no kasui bunkai hanno ni yoru Co-C setsugo kairetsu

    Yonemura, T. [Kochi Univ., Kochi (Japan)


    Vitamin B{sub 12} isolated as antineoplastic anemia agent in 1948 were organometallic complex found in the nature at first, and it was noticed as a metal compound with the unique cobalt-carbon sigma (Co-C{sigma}) combination. Halpern et al. had estimated the dissociation energy to be 26-31kcal/mol when the Co-C combination of the segregated adenosylcobalamin clove in the homolysis, and Finke et al. reported that the cleavage speed is hastened over 10 {sup 10} times under the enzymatic reaction condition inside such a protein. Based on this important factor, the contribution of the electro-donicity of the shaft configuration base was indicated, and other factors to cause the Co-C binding cleavage were recently examined by Halpern and Finke et al. According to the research by Halpern, homolysis reaction and heterolysis reaction were competitively generated, and pH value, temperature, type of the alkyl ligand had a great influence. Especially, it has been clarified that the difference due to the substituent is remarkable. (NEDO)

  15. Discrimination of aromas from several kinds of alcohol using synthetic-resin-film-coated quartz resonator smell sensor; Gosei jushimaku wo tofushita suisho shindoshishiki nioi sensor ni yoru sake no shurui hanbetsu

    Kondo, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Morita, T. Dogami, N.; Nanto, H. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan); Doguchi, Y. [Industrial Research Institute of Ishikawa Prefecture, Ishikawa (Japan)


    Transient response curves for aromas from several kinds of alcohol such as Fruit Liquor (8%), Wine (14%), Japanese Sake (15%) and Whisky (43%) are observed using quartz-crystal-resonator gas sensor coated with synthetic-resin-film(acrylic resin, alkyd resin or urethane resin). The pattern recognition analysis using principal component analysis or neural network analysis is carried out using four parameters which characterize the transient response curves. The recognition probability of neural network for four kinds of alcohol is 100% for 20 trials. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Total eco-monitoring system 'EcoEASIEST' using a wireless network; Flexible musen network ni yoru 'sogo eko kanshi system' 'EcoEASIEST'

    Ando, N.; Fukuda, E.; Yamamo, H. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Fuji Electric's total eco-monitoring system mainly consists of analysis, computerization, and transmission. The design concept is 'consideration to the field,' 'a serviceable database,' and 'a flexible network.' This is an optimum system to minimize environmental degradation and reduce energy consumption stated in the ISO14001 and the amendment to the Energy Saving Act. (author)

  17. Investigation of phenomena of Southern Hyogo Earthquake, and observation of thunderbolts in winter using the integrated thunderbolt observation system; Hyogoken nanbu jishin no gensho no kaimei, sogo kaminari kansoku system ni yoru toki kaminari kansoku

    Kurihara, C.; Shindo, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    The focal region of this earthquake was in the upper part of crusher zone of granite, and the maximum horizontal acceleration was about 300 gal which was increased at the surface into two times. Energy input would be concentrated between the first and second waves, to act on the structures resulting in the immediate destruction. The non-linear analysis method based on the effective stress was applied. As a result, the damping of horizontal acceleration and enhancing of vertical acceleration accompanied with liquefaction, and the amount of ground subsidence at the foundation of main tower of Akashi Bridge on the sand/gravel ground could be well simulated. The position of the fault and deformation structure in the surface layer could be detected down to the depth of more than 10 m by means of high density electrical exploration and underground radar exploration. (2) To observe thunderbolt field at various points and collect these data effectively, a remote control thunderbolt observation system was constructed. Thunderbolts in winter at Fukui were observed by integrating this system with the conventional optical observation, observation of thunder current, and observation of thunder cloud using Doppler radar. About a half of thunderstrokes in winter were due to the straight polarity discharge. It was also confirmed that generation of upward thunderbolts relates closely to the electrical activities in the thunder cloud. 6 figs.

  18. Development of a working face condition detector utilizing electromagnetic wave and its application to sites. Denjiha ni yoru kiriha no jokyo tanchi sochi no kaihatsu to genba eno tekiyo

    Ito, Tatsuo; Murakawa, Tadao (Mitsui Construction Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    This report outlines the development of a facing condition detector which detects the circumstances of faces in shield tunnelling utilizing electromagnetic wave and its application to sites. An underground radar which emits electromagnetic wave from the earth surface to the underground, receives the electric wave reflected from the surface of the target in the underground, and detects the existence or non-existence of and the position of the target is already put to practical use. Principle of this detector is the same as that of the underground radar. Difference is that it utilizes the dielectric constant of the reflected wave. The reflected wave comes back from the boundary of media of different dielectric constants such as the boundary of water and earth and the boundary of gravel and earch. Difference in time of emission and reception indicates the distance, and the strength of the reflected wave indicates the value of the dielectric constant. The distance and the dielectric constant help to judge the circumstances of the face. As a result of using this detector at sites, it was found out that this detector can be used satisfactorily at the present level as a digging administration equipment to detect abnormalities at the early stage although the indicated distance is quite ambiguous and experience is required to judge displays. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Development of buried cable location survey system by underground rader for power distribution cables under pavements. Haiden chichuka no tame no chika radar ni yoru maisetsukan tansa system no kaihatsu

    Suzuki, K.; Kitano, K.


    To execute construction work for power distribution cables under pavements reasonably, it is important to develop a technology capable of non-destructive detection of the location of existing buried cables from the ground surface. This study is to clarify the principle, measurement method, effectiveness, and limitation of the underground radar system which is at present considered as the most effective survey method for buried cables. In this system, accuracy in measuring the depth of underground cable location by a separated type antenna has been improved, software to improve resolution by a migration process has been developed, and a compact survey system which can analyze the data on the site has been realized. As aresult of the survey at city areas, all pipes buried less than 1m in depth with the resistivity value of more than 100 {Omega} m were detected as well as those less than 2m in depth with more than some 100 {Omega} m. However, non-metal pipes buried deeper than 1m in the ground of less than 100 {Omega} m were not detected. Consequently, improvement of the system is necessary in future. 7 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Manufacturing of semi-solid ferrous alloys. 3. ; Manufacturing of semi-solid metals by SCR (shear-cooling roll) process. Tetsukei gokin no hangyoko shorizai no seizo. 3. ; Sendan reikyaku roll ho ni yoru hangyoko shori kinzoku no seizo

    Sugiyama, S.; Kiuchi, M.; Yamamoto, J. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science)


    This paper reports on devising a shear-cooling roll (SCR) process that differs from the rheocasting process, and on trial manufacturing of semi-solid metals using ferrous alloys. Test specimens were made from three kinds of graphite cast iron (FC30, one corresponding to FC20, and FCD40), stainless steel (SUS304), and carbon steel (S45C). The experimental result revealed the following matters: semi-solid metals can be manufactured in a wide range of states such as foil, high and low solid-phase slurries; preheating temperatures of the roll and fixed cooling shoe affect largely the appearance and internal structure of SCR-processed materials; and the internal structure of an SCR-processed material forms a uniform isometric system and progresses recrystallization if it is heated and retained above the solid phase line. These results indicate nearly the same phenomena as those presented by low melting point alloys including solder and aluminum alloys. The processing procedure consists of injection of molten test specimen of a predetermined weight (about 10 kg) into the roll and fixed cooling shoe in the SCR machine preheated to the same temperature as that of the melt, and air-cooling the discharged metal in a container having heat insulated inner face. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.