WorldWideScience

Sample records for york city energy-water

  1. New York City Energy-Water Integrated Planning: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt,V.; Crosson, K. M.; Horak, W.; Reisman, A.

    2008-12-16

    The New York City Energy-Water Integrated Planning Pilot Study is one of several projects funded by Sandia National Laboratories under the U.S. Department of Energy Energy-Water Nexus Program. These projects are intended to clarify some key issues and research needs identified during the Energy-Water Nexus Roadmapping activities. The objectives of the New York City Pilot Project are twofold: to identify energy-water nexus issues in an established urban area in conjunction with a group of key stakeholders and to define and apply an integrated energy and water decision support tool, as proof-of-concept, to one or more of these issues. During the course of this study, the Brookhaven National Laboratory project team worked very closely with members of a Pilot Project Steering Committee. The Steering Committee members brought a breadth of experience across the energy, water and climate disciplines, and all are well versed in the particular issues faced by an urban environment, and by New York City in particular. The first task was to identify energy-water issues of importance to New York City. This exercise was followed by discussion of the qualities and capabilities that an ideal decision support tool should display to address these issues. The decision was made to start with an existing energy model, the New York City version of the MARKAL model, developed originally at BNL and now used globally by many groups for energy analysis. MARKAL has the virtue of being well-vetted, transparent, and capable of calculating 'material' flows, such as water use by the energy system and energy requirements of water technology. The Steering Committee members defined five scenarios of interest, representing a broad spectrum of New York City energy-water issues. Brookhaven National Laboratory researchers developed a model framework (Water-MARKAL) at the desired level of detail to address the scenarios, and then attempted to gather the New York City-specific information

  2. Foodscape gastropolis New York City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der A.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Men slurp banana pudding from the hips of a black-latex-clad woman lying on atable in a room filled with liquid nitrogen smoke. This is just a single episode inthe culinary life of New York City (Parasecoli, 2009). Elsewhere, a long queue ofAfrican-Americans is patiently waiting for a soup kitchen

  3. New York City, New York: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of New York City, NY, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  4. New York: Multi-Speak City!

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Economic Development Council, NY.

    This guide was written to help teachers make students aware of the multilingual and multi-ethnic nature of New York City in order to experience and explore different languages and customs. New York is a center for variety in language and culture in the areas of diplomacy, international commerce, media and communications, foods and fashion, the…

  5. New York City's Children First: Lessons in School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Under Mayor Michael Bloomberg, New York City's education system embarked on a massive change effort, known as Children First, that produced significant results: new and better school options for families, more college-ready graduates, and renewed public confidence in New York City's schools. New York City's reform effort has also produced…

  6. Who are the Devils Wearing Prada in New York City?

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, KuanTing; Chen, Kezhen; Cong, Peizhong; Hsu, Winston H.; Luo, Jiebo

    2015-01-01

    Fashion is a perpetual topic in human social life, and the mass has the penchant to emulate what large city residents and celebrities wear. Undeniably, New York City is such a bellwether large city with all kinds of fashion leadership. Consequently, to study what the fashion trends are during this year, it is very helpful to learn the fashion trends of New York City. Discovering fashion trends in New York City could boost many applications such as clothing recommendation and advertising. Does...

  7. New York City's fight over calorie labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Thomas A; Caffarelli, Anna; Bassett, Mary T; Silver, Lynn; Frieden, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, New York City's Health Department amended the city Health Code to require the posting of calorie counts by chain restaurants on menus, menu boards, and item tags. This was one element of the city's response to rising obesity rates. Drafting the rule involved many decisions that affected its impact and its legal viability. The restaurant industry argued against the rule and twice sued to prevent its implementation. An initial version of the rule was found to be preempted by federal law, but a revised version was implemented in January 2008. The experience shows that state and local health departments can use their existing authority over restaurants to combat obesity and, indirectly, chronic diseases.

  8. The Multilingual Apple: Languages in New York City. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ofelia, Ed.; Fishman, Joshua A., Ed.

    This collection of papers tells the story of how languages other than English have contributed to making New York City a culturally vibrant and linguistically diverse city. Part 1, "Introduction to the Multilingual Apple," features "New York's Multilingualism: World Languages and Their Role in a U.S. City" (Ofelia Garcia). Part…

  9. Trends in Birth Rates: New York City 1970-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon L.; Elkin, Elena

    2001-01-01

    Examined teen birth rates in New York City health districts over 25 years, noting ethnic variations. Data from Department of Health vital statistics indicated that the decline in the birth rate among New York City teens was most significant in health districts populated predominantly by blacks. There were substantial decreases among older teens…

  10. Medicaid Home Care Services and Survival in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Steven M.; Simone, Bridget; Brassard, Andrea; Stern, Yaakov; Mayeux, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: New York City's Medicaid Home Care Services Program provides an integrated program of housekeeping and personal assistance care along with regular nursing assessments. We sought to determine if this program of supportive care offers a survival benefit to older adults. Design and Methods: Administrative data from New York City's Medicaid…

  11. Mina Shaughnessy and Open Admissions at New York's City College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, LaVona L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses basic writing pioneer Mina Shaughnessy, who advocated for a humanistic approach to writing instruction for disadvantaged students, within the context of the City University of New York's policy of open admissions. (EV)

  12. Increasing Antibiotic Resistance in Shigella spp. from Infected New York City Residents, New York, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kenya; Reddy, Vasudha; Kornblum, John S; Waechter, HaeNa; Chicaiza, Ludwin F; Rubinstein, Inessa; Balter, Sharon; Greene, Sharon K; Braunstein, Sarah L; Rakeman, Jennifer L; Dentinger, Catherine M

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 20% of Shigella isolates tested in New York City, New York, USA, during 2013-2015 displayed decreased azithromycin susceptibility. Case-patients were older and more frequently male and HIV infected than those with azithromycin-susceptible Shigella infection; 90% identified as men who have sex with men. Clinical interpretation guidelines for azithromycin resistance and outcome studies are needed.

  13. Low probability flood-risk modeling for New York City.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Lin, N.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Emanuel, K.; de Moel, H.

    2013-01-01

    The devastating impact by Hurricane Sandy (2012) again showed New York City (NYC) is one of the most vulnerable cities to coastal flooding around the globe. The low-lying areas in NYC can be flooded by nor'easter storms and North Atlantic hurricanes. The few studies that have estimated potential

  14. Deja Vu: Family Homelessness in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.

    This report describes family homelessness in New York City, which has risen sharply since 1980. Currently, the City's family shelter system is at capacity. Homeless children are typically raised by single mothers who receive no child support, are 27 years old, are unemployed and receiving welfare, and have had at least one public assistance…

  15. Preliminary environmental site assessments in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundy, P.; Gasson, D.R.; Longendyke, S.T.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary Environmental Site Assessments are often performed prior to real estate transactions or refinancing. These assessments are typically performed for real estate buyers, sellers and lending institutions. Undertaking a Preliminary Environmental Site Assessment in New York City can often be quite complex and time-consuming. This is due, in part, to the age and density of buildings in the city as well as the myriad of regulatory agencies with jurisdiction over environmental issues. This paper will discuss how environmental assessments are performed with a special emphasis on building in New York City. In includes hazardous wastes management for Radon, PCB's and asbestos

  16. 76 FR 40234 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Harlem River, New York City, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Harlem River, New York City, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... at mile 0.0, across the Harlem River at New York City, New York. This interim rule is necessary to... The 103rd Street (Wards Island) Pedestrian Bridge, across the Harlem River, mile 0.0, at New York City...

  17. Legionnaires' Disease Outbreaks and Cooling Towers, New York City, New York, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhenry, Robert; Weiss, Don; Cimini, Dan; Balter, Sharon; Boyd, Christopher; Alleyne, Lisa; Stewart, Renee; McIntosh, Natasha; Econome, Andrea; Lin, Ying; Rubinstein, Inessa; Passaretti, Teresa; Kidney, Anna; Lapierre, Pascal; Kass, Daniel; Varma, Jay K

    2017-11-01

    The incidence of Legionnaires' disease in the United States has been increasing since 2000. Outbreaks and clusters are associated with decorative, recreational, domestic, and industrial water systems, with the largest outbreaks being caused by cooling towers. Since 2006, 6 community-associated Legionnaires' disease outbreaks have occurred in New York City, resulting in 213 cases and 18 deaths. Three outbreaks occurred in 2015, including the largest on record (138 cases). Three outbreaks were linked to cooling towers by molecular comparison of human and environmental Legionella isolates, and the sources for the other 3 outbreaks were undetermined. The evolution of investigation methods and lessons learned from these outbreaks prompted enactment of a new comprehensive law governing the operation and maintenance of New York City cooling towers. Ongoing surveillance and program evaluation will determine if enforcement of the new cooling tower law reduces Legionnaires' disease incidence in New York City.

  18. New York City HIV superbug: fear or fear not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Stephen M

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On February 11, 2005, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene announced that a city resident had recently been infected with a multi-drug resistant form of HIV and rapidly progressed to AIDS. The Health Commissioner, Thomas R. Frieden, called for increased vigilance against this new strain. Is this situation an emerging crisis or simply an unusual case report of rapid HIV progression?

  19. Tracks: The New York City Rat Information Portal

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast, featuring Daniel Kass, Acting Deputy Commissioner of Environmental Health for the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, provides information about the NYC Rat Information Portal. It details the background and uses of the Rat Portal, as well as next steps for the NYC Environmental Public Health Tracking Program.

  20. Smart Cities: New York. Electronic Education for the New Millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Robert

    This pedagogical framework describes how the New York City Board of Education plans to improve education using information technologies. By providing advanced Internet services connecting students and their families, as well as teachers, schools staff, and the interested public, to a high-quality educational ISP/Portal, available to anyone at any…

  1. Media Leader Tapped to Head New York City Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2010-01-01

    When Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg sought a leader for the New York City schools in 2002, his outside-the-box choice was Joel I. Klein, a former assistant U.S. attorney general who had no experience as a school administrator. Eight years later, in seeking a replacement for Mr. Klein, Mr. Bloomberg has tapped yet another person from outside education:…

  2. Deepening Disparity: Income Equality in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Mark; Grote, Mae Watson; Levin-Waldman, Oren M.

    Analysis of the Current Population Survey data for New York City reveals that the economic growth of the 1990s increased the income of families across the earnings spectrum nationally; however, earnings among families in the top quintile outpaced other quintiles, leading to an increase in income inequality. This inequality was substantially…

  3. Random matrices and the New York City subway system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, Aukosh; Trogdon, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    We analyze subway arrival times in the New York City subway system. We find regimes where the gaps between trains are well modeled by (unitarily invariant) random matrix statistics and Poisson statistics. The departure from random matrix statistics is captured by the value of the Coulomb potential along the subway route. This departure becomes more pronounced as trains make more stops.

  4. Random matrices and the New York City subway system

    OpenAIRE

    Jagannath, Aukosh; Trogdon, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We analyze subway arrival times in the New York City subway system. We find regimes where the gaps between trains exhibit both (unitarily invariant) random matrix statistics and Poisson statistics. The departure from random matrix statistics is captured by the value of the Coulomb potential along the subway route. This departure becomes more pronounced as trains make more stops.

  5. Hurricane Irene: a Wake Up Call for New York City?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Botzen, W.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    The weakening of Irene from a Category 3 hurricane to a tropical storm resulted in less damage in New York City (NYC) than initially was anticipated. It is widely recognized that the storm surge and associated flooding could have been much more severe. In a recent study, we showed that a direct hit

  6. Examining School Leadership in New York City Community Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Stacey Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The community school model is rooted in John Dewey's (1902) conceptualization of the public school as a hub for the community. This work has evolved over a hundred years and recently experienced prominence in the public eye as a fundamental component of New York City's school turnaround policy. This dissertation describes findings and…

  7. The Fragility of Turf: The Neighborhoods of New York City. New York State History Themes #1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkleman, Michael

    People continue to define themselves, their lifestyles, and their beliefs through their neighborhoods--their turf. In studying the history of New York City neighborhoods, it is important to consider the developmental trends and constraints (geography, economic structure, transportation, and technological advances) that contributed to the growth of…

  8. Reducing sugary drink consumption: New York City's approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Susan M; Kennelly, Maura O; Nonas, Cathy A; Curtis, Christine J; Van Wye, Gretchen; Goodman, Andrew; Farley, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    Studies have linked the consumption of sugary drinks to weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Since 2006, New York City has taken several actions to reduce consumption. Nutrition standards limited sugary drinks served by city agencies. Mass media campaigns educated New Yorkers on the added sugars in sugary drinks and their health impact. Policy proposals included an excise tax, a restriction on use of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits, and a cap on sugary drink portion sizes in food service establishments. These initiatives were accompanied by a 35% decrease in the number of New York City adults consuming one or more sugary drinks a day and a 27% decrease in public high school students doing so from 2007 to 2013.

  9. Green Cabs vs. Uber in New York City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm Poulsen, Lasse; Dekkers, Daan; Wagenaar, Nicolaas

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the process and outcomes of big data analytics of ride records for Green cabs and Uber in the outer boroughs of New York City (NYC), USA. Uber is a new entrant to the taxi market in NYC and is rapidly eating away market share from the NYC Taxi & Limousine Commission's (NYCTLC...... from April-September 2014 in New York excluding Manhattan and NYC's two airports. Tableau was used as the visual analytics tool, and PostgreSQL in combination with PostGIS was used as the data processing engine. Our findings show that the performance of Green cabs in isolated zip codes differ...

  10. Tracks: The New York City Rat Information Portal

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-21

    This podcast, featuring Daniel Kass, Acting Deputy Commissioner of Environmental Health for the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, provides information about the NYC Rat Information Portal. It details the background and uses of the Rat Portal, as well as next steps for the NYC Environmental Public Health Tracking Program.  Created: 12/21/2009 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 12/21/2009.

  11. Neighbourhood food environment and gestational diabetes in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Janevic, Teresa; Borrell, Luisa N.; Savitz, David A.; Herring, Amy H.; Rundle, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The association between neighbourhood characteristics and gestational diabetes has not been examined previously. We investigated the relationship between the number of healthy food outlets (supermarkets; fruit/vegetable and natural food stores), and unhealthy food outlets (fast food; pizza; bodegas; bakeries; convenience, candy/nut and meat stores) in census tract of residence, and gestational diabetes in New York City. Gestational diabetes, census tract and individual-level covariates were a...

  12. 76 FR 3516 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Harlem River, New York City, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Operation Regulations; Harlem River, New York City, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary..., across the Harlem River, New York City, New York. The deviation is necessary to facilitate bridge... River at mile 0.0 has a vertical clearance in the closed position of 55 feet at mean high water and 60...

  13. The Aspira Consent Decree: A Thirtieth-Anniversary Retrospective of Bilingual Education in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Luis O.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, Luis O. Reyes provides a retrospective of the historic 1974 Aspira Consent Decree between the New York City Board of Education and Aspira of New York, which established bilingual instruction as a legally enforceable federal entitlement for New York City's non-English-speaking Puerto Rican and Latino students. Reyes analyzes the…

  14. ''She is Wild''. Una trentenne milanese a New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia K. C. Manzo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available I'm living for the holyday of my life! Graduating with flying colours in a very short time and having research interests in urban studies: is all this enough to build yourself a socially acceptable alibi to get away for one whole month to New York City? Trough the flighty gaze of a thirty-years-old female tourist from Milan, we will go through the semiotic analysis of the hyper-experiences she lived in New York global urbanism. Curious and eccentric, the protagonist of this travel will love getting lost in the boroughs, with the excuse of urban studies and of researching on a case of gentrification in Brooklyn. Almost an illusion of academic legitimation, together with the attempts to the cultural de-complexification of this new urban space, which will earn her the nickname of "wild"!

  15. Has New York City fallen into the local trap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, Kimberly

    2015-04-01

    Municipal policies aiming to improve equity in food access and health often rely on the assumption that neighborhoods with limited healthy food availability and high levels of diet-related illness should be the subject of targeted policy-driven change. This study explored this assumption in the context of recent food policy developments in New York City with the objective of empirically examining the geography of everyday food behavior in high- and low-income neighborhoods. This research used a multi method comparative design. Areas at the poles of income inequality in New York City were identified using census data and geographic information systems. Qualitative and geographic data were collected from individual eaters living and/or working in those areas. A review of food policies in New York City from 2005 to 2012. Qualitative and geographic data were collected using space-time food diaries and mental mapping interviews. People living in the low-income study area had more localized food geographies than residents of the high-income study area. Individual-level qualitative data revealed that eaters with the least financial resources, those with physical disabilities, and those who were unemployed reported all or nearly all of their food events taking place within their neighborhoods. Eaters from the low-income area suggested that the barriers to healthy food that policy incentives should address were the high price of food and the consumer environment within stores, not the number of supermarkets in their area. Residents of the high-income area also expressed dissatisfaction with food prices and the in-store environment of their local supermarkets. These eaters leveraged their financial, technological, and transportation resources to overcome those barriers to fresh food. The policy review found that New York City's recent nutrition and food policies are to a great extent geographically targeted to low-income areas. As such, they miss opportunities for citywide

  16. Deaths in New York City Jails, 2001–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Joan; Axelrod, George

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 90 000 inmates are admitted annually to the New York City jail system, many of whom require a high level of medical or mental health services. According to our analysis of deaths in custody from 2001 to 2009, crude death rates have dropped significantly despite the increasing age of the population. Falling HIV-related mortality appears to contribute to this change. Other observations include low rates of suicide across all 9 years and increasing age of the population in recent years. PMID:23409900

  17. Economic conditions and suicide rates in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Arijit; Prescott, Marta R; Cerdá, Magdalena; Vlahov, David; Tardiff, Kenneth J; Galea, Sandro

    2012-03-15

    Extant analyses of the relation between economic conditions and population health were often based on annualized data and were susceptible to confounding by nonlinear time trends. In the present study, the authors used generalized additive models with nonparametric smoothing splines to examine the association between economic conditions, including levels of economic activity in New York State and the degree of volatility in the New York Stock Exchange, and monthly rates of death by suicide in New York City. The rate of suicide declined linearly from 8.1 per 100,000 people in 1990 to 4.8 per 100,000 people in 1999 and then remained stable from 1999 to 2006. In a generalized additive model in which the authors accounted for long-term and seasonal time trends, there was a negative association between monthly levels of economic activity and rates of suicide; the predicted rate of suicide was 0.12 per 100,000 persons lower when economic activity was at its peak compared with when it was at its nadir. The relation between economic activity and suicide differed by race/ethnicity and sex. Stock market volatility was not associated with suicide rates. Further work is needed to elucidate pathways that link economic conditions and suicide.

  18. Assessing the tree health impacts of salt water flooding in coastal cities: A case study in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Hallett; Michelle L. Johnson; Nancy F. Sonti

    2018-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was the second costliest hurricane in United States (U.S.) history. The category 2 storm hit New York City (NYC) on the evening of October 29, 2012, causing major flooding, wind damage, and loss of life. The New York City Department of Parks & Recreation (NYC Parks) documented over 20,000 fallen street trees due to the physical impact of wind...

  19. Threat to the New York City water supply - plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, D.C.; Krey, P.W.; Volchok, H.L.; Feldstein, J.; Calderon, G.

    1988-01-01

    The mayor of the City of New York received an anonymous letter on April 1st 1985 threatening to contaminate the water supply with plutonium unless all criminal charges against Mr Bernhard Goetz, the suspect in a dramatic subway shooting incident, were dismissed by April 11th 1985. The Environmental Measurements Laboratory, EML, was requested to analyse a composite, large volume (∼ 175 litres) drinking water sample collected on April 16th 1985. The concentration measured was 21 fCi/l which was a factor of 100 greater than previously observed results in the EML data base, and the mass isotopic content of the plutonium was very unusual. Additional samples were collected one to three months later at various distribution points in the water supply system. The plutonium concentrations were much lower and comparable to EML's earlier data. Mass isotopic analysis of these samples provided more reasonable compositions but with high uncertainties due to very low plutonium concentration. Due to the inability to confirm the elevated plutonium concentration value for the composite sample, it is impossible to conclude whether the threat to contaminate the New York City water supply was actually carried out or whether the sample was contaminated prior to receipt at EML. 5 refs.; 1 figure; 5 tabs

  20. Cancer mortality disparities among New York City's Upper Manhattan neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Dana; Manczuk, Marta; Holcombe, Randall; Lucchini, Roberto; Boffetta, Paolo

    2017-11-01

    The East Harlem (EH), Central Harlem (CH), and Upper East Side (UES) neighborhoods of New York City are geographically contiguous to tertiary medical care, but are characterized by cancer mortality rate disparities. This ecological study aims to disentangle the effects of race and neighborhood on cancer deaths. Mortality-to-incidence ratios were determined using neighborhood-specific data from the New York State Cancer Registry and Vital Records Office (2007-2011). Ecological data on modifiable cancer risk factors from the New York City Community Health Survey (2002-2006) were stratified by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood and modeled against stratified mortality rates to disentangle race/ethnicity and neighborhood using logistic regression. Significant gaps in mortality rates were observed between the UES and both CH and EH across all cancers, favoring UES. Mortality-to-incidence ratios of both CH and EH were similarly elevated in the range of 0.41-0.44 compared with UES (0.26-0.30). After covariate and multivariable adjustment, black race (odds ratio=1.68; 95% confidence interval: 1.46-1.93) and EH residence (odds ratio=1.20; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.35) remained significant risk factors in all cancers' combined mortality. Mortality disparities remain among EH, CH, and UES neighborhoods. Both neighborhood and race are significantly associated with cancer mortality, independent of each other. Multivariable adjusted models that include Community Health Survey risk factors show that this mortality gap may be avoidable through community-based public health interventions.

  1. Assessing indoor air quality in New York City nail salons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavilonis, Brian; Roelofs, Cora; Blair, Carly

    2018-05-01

    Nail salons are an important business and employment sector for recent immigrants offering popular services to a diverse range of customers across the United States. However, due to the nature of nail products and services, salon air can be burdened with a mix of low levels of hazardous airborne contaminants. Surveys of nail technicians have commonly found increased work-related symptoms, such as headaches and respiratory irritation, that are consistent with indoor air quality problems. In an effort to improve indoor air quality in nail salons, the state of New York recently promulgated regulations to require increased outdoor air and "source capture" of contaminants. Existing indoor air quality in New York State salons is unknown. In advance of the full implementation of the rules by 2021, we sought to establish reliable and usable baseline indoor air quality metrics to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of the requirement. In this pilot study, we measured total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations in 10 nail salons located in New York City to assess temporal and spatial trends. Within salon contaminant variation was generally minimal, indicating a well-mixed room and similar general exposure despite the task being performed. TVOC and CO 2 concentrations were strongly positively correlated (ρ = 0.81; p air quality for the purposes of compliance with the standard. An almost tenfold increase in TVOC concentration was observed when the American National Standards Institute/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ANSI/ASHRAE) target CO 2 concentration of 850 ppm was exceeded compared to when this target was met.

  2. Extreme Urban Stargazing: Outreach in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    There is a fundamental need for the professional community to cultivate and nurture active relationships with amateur organizations. The rewards of such work are highly beneficial to general public education and town-gown relations, but are time-consuming and hard-won. New York City and the surrounding area is both ideally suited and unambiguously ill-suited for astronomy public outreach. I will detail the results of three major outreach efforts in coordination with the Amateur Astronomers Association of New York. I will highlight large public-space observing in the context of the Transit of Venus and star parties at other locations. I will also outline outreach efforts at William Paterson University, where two public nights and a Curiosity EDL event created a clear impact in Northern New Jersey. I will detail methods for encouraging and bringing out amateur observers to events, urban crowd management, publicity issues, and the benefits and pitfalls of social media in the promotion and execution of large-scale and moderate events.

  3. 78 FR 35756 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Harlem River, New York City, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Regulations; Harlem River, New York City, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation... from the regulation governing the operation of the Willis Avenue Bridge across the Harlem River, mile 1... found at 33 CFR 117.789(b)(2). The bridge owner, New York City Department of Transportation, requested a...

  4. Counting Calories: Resident Perspectives on Calorie Labeling in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Cynthia; Hayes, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates consumer responses to New York City's 2008 calorie labeling regulation in 2 lower-income neighborhoods of New York City. Methods: Focus groups were conducted, and 34 fast-food consumers participated. Group summaries and descriptive and analytic depictions of group responses and interactions were developed…

  5. Paradigms, Power, and PR in New York City: Assessing Two School Accountability Implementation Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This policy study critically compares two different efforts to implement an accountability system in the New York City public schools. In 1971, the New York City Board of Education contracted with the Educational Testing Service (ETS), which created a lengthy accountability plan for the district. Fitful maneuvers to execute the ETS plan fizzled…

  6. Integrating Emerging Technologies in Teaching Ugandan Traditional Dances in K-12 Schools in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabingo, Alfdaniels

    2015-01-01

    Schools in New York City have made attempts to embrace and support the strand of "making connections", which is laid out in the New York City Department of Dance blueprint for teaching and learning in dance for grades PreK-12. Accordingly, some schools have integrated Ugandan traditional dances into the dance curriculum, and dance…

  7. Antidepressants and Youth Suicide in New York City, 1999-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Andrew C.; Marzuk, Peter M.; Tardiff, Kenneth; Bucciarelli, Angela; Piper, Tinka Markham; Galea, Sandro

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the proportion of youth suicides in New York City from 1999 to 2002 in which antidepressants were detected at autopsy. Method: This is a medical examiner surveillance study of suicides in New York City among those younger than 18 years of age. The outcome measure is serum toxicology for antidepressants. Results: From 1999…

  8. A workshop on transitioning cities at the food-energy-water nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara J. Treemore-Spears; Morgan Grove; Craig K. Harris; Lawrence D. Lemke; Carol J. Miller; Kami Pothukuchi; Yifan Zhang; Yongli L. Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Metropolitan development in the USA has historically relied on systems of centralized infrastructure that assume a population density and level of economic activity that has not been consistently sustained in post-industrial urban landscapes. In many cities, this has resulted in dependence on systems that are environmentally, economically, and socially unsustainable....

  9. Viral Diversity of House Mice in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon H; Che, Xiaoyu; Garcia, Joel A; Klena, John D; Lee, Bohyun; Muller, Dorothy; Ulrich, Werner; Corrigan, Robert M; Nichol, Stuart; Jain, Komal; Lipkin, W Ian

    2018-04-17

    The microbiome of wild Mus musculus (house mouse), a globally distributed invasive pest that resides in close contact with humans in urban centers, is largely unexplored. Here, we report analysis of the fecal virome of house mice in residential buildings in New York City, NY. Mice were collected at seven sites in Manhattan, Queens, Brooklyn, and the Bronx over a period of 1 year. Unbiased high-throughput sequencing of feces revealed 36 viruses from 18 families and 21 genera, including at least 6 novel viruses and 3 novel genera. A representative screen of 15 viruses by PCR confirmed the presence of 13 of these viruses in liver. We identified an uneven distribution of diversity, with several viruses being associated with specific locations. Higher mouse weight was associated with an increase in the number of viruses detected per mouse, after adjusting for site, sex, and length. We found neither genetic footprints to known human viral pathogens nor antibodies to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. IMPORTANCE Mice carry a wide range of infectious agents with zoonotic potential. Their proximity to humans in the built environment is therefore a concern for public health. Laboratory mice are also the most common experimental model for investigating the pathobiology of infectious diseases. In this survey of mice trapped in multiple locations within New York City over a period of 1 year, we found a diverse collection of viruses that includes some previously not associated with house mice and others that appear to be novel. Although we found no known human pathogens, our findings provide insights into viral ecology and may yield models that have utility for clinical microbiology. Copyright © 2018 Williams et al.

  10. Ciguatera fish poisoning - New York City, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    During August 2010-July 2011, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) received reports of six outbreaks and one single case of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), involving a total of 28 persons. CFP results from consumption of certain large, predatory, tropical reef fish that have bioaccumulated ciguatoxins (CTX). CFP is characterized by various gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurologic symptoms. A prolonged period of acute illness can result, and the neurologic symptoms can last months, with variable asymptomatic and symptomatic periods. The first two outbreaks and the single case, involving 13 persons, were reported during August 6-September 13, 2010. DOHMH distributed a health alert in November 2010 requesting health-care providers be alert for CFP signs and symptoms. The health alert resulted in identification of 11 more cases that month and an additional two outbreaks involving four persons in July 2011. In comparison, only four CFP outbreaks, involving 21 persons total, had been reported in New York City (NYC) during the preceding 10 years (2000-2009). DOHMH's investigation revealed that 13 persons became ill after eating barracuda, and 15 became ill after eating grouper. Although specific and highly sensitive laboratory analyses can detect and confirm CTX in fish, no practical field tests are available for fish monitoring programs. CFP prevention depends on educating the public, seafood suppliers, and distributors about known CFP endemic areas and high-risk fish species. Traceback investigations of fish associated with outbreaks provide valuable information regarding fishing areas associated with CFP. Not all fish from CFP endemic areas are ciguatoxic, but persons who eat fish from endemic regions are at higher risk for CFP. If an illness is suspected to be CFP, public health authorities should be notified and informed of the case history for possible investigation and intervention measures.

  11. Mercury exposure in young children living in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Helen S; Jeffery, Nancy; Kieszak, Stephanie; Fritz, Pat; Spliethoff, Henry; Palmer, Christopher D; Parsons, Patrick J; Kass, Daniel E; Caldwell, Kathy; Eadon, George; Rubin, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Residential exposure to vapor from current or previous cultural use of mercury could harm children living in rental (apartment) homes. That concern prompted the following agencies to conduct a study to assess pediatric mercury exposure in New York City communities by measuring urine mercury levels: New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's (NYCDOHMH) Bureau of Environmental Surveillance and Policy, New York State Department of Health/Center for Environmental Health (NYSDOHCEH), Wadsworth Center's Biomonitoring Program/Trace Elements Laboratory (WC-TEL), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). A previous study indicated that people could obtain mercury for ritualistic use from botanicas located in Brooklyn, Manhattan, and the Bronx. Working closely with local community partners, we concentrated our recruiting efforts through health clinics located in potentially affected neighborhoods. We developed posters to advertise the study, conducted active outreach through local partners, and, as compensation for participation in the study, we offered a food gift certificate redeemable at a local grocer. We collected 460 urine specimens and analyzed them for total mercury. Overall, geometric mean urine total mercury was 0.31 microg mercury/l urine. One sample was 24 microg mercury/l urine, which exceeded the (20 microg mercury/l urine) NYSDOH Heavy Metal Registry reporting threshold for urine mercury exposure. Geometric mean urine mercury levels were uniformly low and did not differ by neighborhood or with any clinical significance by children's ethnicity. Few parents reported the presence of mercury at home, in a charm, or other item (e.g., skin-lightening creams and soaps), and we found no association between these potential sources of exposure and a child's urinary mercury levels. All pediatric mercury levels measured in this study were well below a level considered to be of medical concern. This study found neither self-reported nor measured

  12. Hydrogen Economy Model for Nearly Net-Zero Cities with Exergy Rationale and Energy-Water Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol Kılkış

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The energy base of urban settlements requires greater integration of renewable energy sources. This study presents a “hydrogen city” model with two cycles at the district and building levels. The main cycle comprises of hydrogen gas production, hydrogen storage, and a hydrogen distribution network. The electrolysis of water is based on surplus power from wind turbines and third-generation solar photovoltaic thermal panels. Hydrogen is then used in central fuel cells to meet the power demand of urban infrastructure. Hydrogen-enriched biogas that is generated from city wastes supplements this approach. The second cycle is the hydrogen flow in each low-exergy building that is connected to the hydrogen distribution network to supply domestic fuel cells. Make-up water for fuel cells includes treated wastewater to complete an energy-water nexus. The analyses are supported by exergy-based evaluation metrics. The Rational Exergy Management Efficiency of the hydrogen city model can reach 0.80, which is above the value of conventional district energy systems, and represents related advantages for CO2 emission reductions. The option of incorporating low-enthalpy geothermal energy resources at about 80 °C to support the model is evaluated. The hydrogen city model is applied to a new settlement area with an expected 200,000 inhabitants to find that the proposed model can enable a nearly net-zero exergy district status. The results have implications for settlements using hydrogen energy towards meeting net-zero targets.

  13. The Wheels That Drove New York A History of the New York City Transit System

    CERN Document Server

    Roess, Roger P

    2013-01-01

    The Wheels That Drove New York tells the fascinating story of how a public transportation system helped transform a small trading community on the southern tip of Manhattan island to a world financial capital that is home to more than 8,000,000 people.  From the earliest days of horse-drawn conveyances to the wonders of one of the world's largest and most efficient subways, the story links the developing history of the City itself to the growth and development of its public transit system.  Along the way, the key role played by the inventors, builders, financiers, and managers of the system are highlighted. The Wheels That Drove New York takes us through the present day, and discusses the many challenges that the transit system has had to face over the years.  It also traces the conversion of the system from fully private operations (through the elevated railways) to the fully public system that exists today, and the problems that this transformation has created along the way.

  14. Summary of selected health statistics for counties with nuclear facilities, New York State excluding New York City, 1960--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burometto, E.; Therriault, G.; Logrillo, V.

    1977-08-01

    A previous report of the Office of Biostatistics of the New York State Department of Health, issued in 1971, summarized selected health statistics for the period 1960 through 1969, comparing counties in Upstate New York (New York State exclusive of New York City) in which nuclear facilities are located with counties without such facilities. This report will present comparisons extending the analysis of the previous study through 1975. At various times during the period from 1960 to 1975 nuclear facilities were operating in 12 of the 57 Upstate counties. Westchester, Wayne and Oswego counties are the sites for the three commercial power plants operating in Upstate New York. A nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is located in Cattaraugus County. Facilities with testing, training or research reactors are located in eight other Upstate counties

  15. Evaluation of Urban Drainage Infrastructure: New York City Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, A.; Grossberg, M.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2017-12-01

    Flood response in an urban area is the product of interactions of spatially and temporally varying rainfall and infrastructures. In urban areas, however, the complex sub-surface networks of tunnels, waste and storm water drainage systems are often inaccessible, pose challenges for modeling and prediction of the drainage infrastructure performance. The increased availability of open data in cities is an emerging information asset for a better understanding of the dynamics of urban water drainage infrastructure. This includes crowd sourced data and community reporting. A well-known source of this type of data is the non-emergency hotline "311" which is available in many US cities, and may contain information pertaining to the performance of physical facilities, condition of the environment, or residents' experience, comfort and well-being. In this study, seven years of New York City 311 (NYC311) call during 2010-2016 is employed, as an alternative approach for identifying the areas of the city most prone to sewer back up flooding. These zones are compared with the hydrologic analysis of runoff flooding zones to provide a predictive model for the City. The proposed methodology is an example of urban system phenomenology using crowd sourced, open data. A novel algorithm for calculating the spatial distribution of flooding complaints across NYC's five boroughs is presented in this study. In this approach, the features that represent reporting bias are separated from those that relate to actual infrastructure system performance. The sewer backup results are assessed with the spatial distribution of runoff in NYC during 2010-2016. With advances in radar technologies, a high spatial-temporal resolution data set for precipitation is available for most of the United States that can be implemented in hydrologic analysis of dense urban environments. High resolution gridded Stage IV radar rainfall data along with the high resolution spatially distributed land cover data are

  16. Digging the New York City Skyline: soil fungal communities in green roofs and city parks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista L McGuire

    Full Text Available In urban environments, green roofs provide a number of benefits, including decreased urban heat island effects and reduced energy costs for buildings. However, little research has been done on the non-plant biota associated with green roofs, which likely affect their functionality. For the current study, we evaluated whether or not green roofs planted with two native plant communities in New York City functioned as habitats for soil fungal communities, and compared fungal communities in green roof growing media to soil microbial composition in five city parks, including Central Park and the High Line. Ten replicate roofs were sampled one year after planting; three of these roofs were more intensively sampled and compared to nearby city parks. Using Illumina sequencing of the fungal ITS region we found that green roofs supported a diverse fungal community, with numerous taxa belonging to fungal groups capable of surviving in disturbed and polluted habitats. Across roofs, there was significant biogeographical clustering of fungal communities, indicating that community assembly of roof microbes across the greater New York City area is locally variable. Green roof fungal communities were compositionally distinct from city parks and only 54% of the green roof taxa were also found in the park soils. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed that park soils had greater microbial biomass and higher bacterial to fungal ratios than green roof substrates. City park soils were also more enriched with heavy metals, had lower pH, and lower quantities of total bases (Ca, K, and Mg compared to green roof substrates. While fungal communities were compositionally distinct across green roofs, they did not differentiate by plant community. Together, these results suggest that fungi living in the growing medium of green roofs may be an underestimated component of these biotic systems functioning to support some of the valued ecological services of green roofs.

  17. Digging the New York City Skyline: soil fungal communities in green roofs and city parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Krista L; Payne, Sara G; Palmer, Matthew I; Gillikin, Caitlyn M; Keefe, Dominique; Kim, Su Jin; Gedallovich, Seren M; Discenza, Julia; Rangamannar, Ramya; Koshner, Jennifer A; Massmann, Audrey L; Orazi, Giulia; Essene, Adam; Leff, Jonathan W; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    In urban environments, green roofs provide a number of benefits, including decreased urban heat island effects and reduced energy costs for buildings. However, little research has been done on the non-plant biota associated with green roofs, which likely affect their functionality. For the current study, we evaluated whether or not green roofs planted with two native plant communities in New York City functioned as habitats for soil fungal communities, and compared fungal communities in green roof growing media to soil microbial composition in five city parks, including Central Park and the High Line. Ten replicate roofs were sampled one year after planting; three of these roofs were more intensively sampled and compared to nearby city parks. Using Illumina sequencing of the fungal ITS region we found that green roofs supported a diverse fungal community, with numerous taxa belonging to fungal groups capable of surviving in disturbed and polluted habitats. Across roofs, there was significant biogeographical clustering of fungal communities, indicating that community assembly of roof microbes across the greater New York City area is locally variable. Green roof fungal communities were compositionally distinct from city parks and only 54% of the green roof taxa were also found in the park soils. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed that park soils had greater microbial biomass and higher bacterial to fungal ratios than green roof substrates. City park soils were also more enriched with heavy metals, had lower pH, and lower quantities of total bases (Ca, K, and Mg) compared to green roof substrates. While fungal communities were compositionally distinct across green roofs, they did not differentiate by plant community. Together, these results suggest that fungi living in the growing medium of green roofs may be an underestimated component of these biotic systems functioning to support some of the valued ecological services of green roofs.

  18. Restaurant employment before and after the New York City Smoke-Free Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, A; Cummings, K M

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe trends in the number of restaurants and restaurant employees two years before and two years after the New York City Smoke-Free Air Act took effect in April, 1995. Between April 1993 and April 1997, New York City added 19,347 new restaurant jobs (18% increase) while the rest of the state outside the immediate metropolitan area added 7,423 new jobs (5% increase). The rate of growth in the number of restaurants was comparable among New York City, neighboring counties, and the rest of the state. The data suggest that the New York City Smoke-Free Air Act did not result in job losses for the city's restaurant industry.

  19. Youth Unemployment in New York City: The Cost of Doing Nothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interface, Inc., New York, NY.

    This paper reports on a study of the costs of youth unemployment in New York City. The dollar cost is measured in two ways: first, by calculating the cost of direct benefits paid by the city to unemployed 16 to 21 year olds; and second, by projecting the tax revenues and productivity that these young people would add to the city economy if they…

  20. Improving Transgender Healthcare in the New York City Correctional System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffer, Mohamed; Ayad, John; Tungol, Jose Gabriel; MacDonald, Ross; Dickey, Nathaniel; Venters, Homer

    2016-04-01

    Correctional settings create unique challenges for patients with special needs, including transgender patients, who have an increased rate of overall discrimination, sexual abuse, healthcare disparities, and improper housing. As part of our correctional health quality improvement process, we sought to review and evaluate the adequacy of care for transgender patients in the New York City jail system. Using correctional pharmacy records, transgender patients receiving hormonal treatment were identified. A brief in-person survey was conducted to evaluate their care in the community before incarceration, medical care in jail, and experience in the jail environment. Survey findings and analysis of transgender patient healthcare-related complaints revealed opportunities for improvements in the provision of care and staff understanding of this population. Utilizing these findings, we conducted lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) trainings in all 12 jail clinics for medical, nursing, and mental health staff. Three months after LGBT training, patient complaints dropped by over 50%. After the development and implementation of a newly revised transgender healthcare policy, complaints dropped to zero within 6 months. Our efforts to assess the quality of care provided to transgender patients revealed significant areas for improvement. Although we have made important gains in providing quality care through the implementation of policies and procedures rooted in community standards and the express wishes of our patients, we continue to engage this patient population to identify other issues that impact their health and well-being in the jail environment.

  1. Hyperloops, Nuclear Spacecraft, and the New York City Subway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granade, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Frustrated by the speed and high cost-per-mile of the California High-Speed Rail project linking Los Angeles with San Francisco, Elon Musk proposed the Hyperloop: a high-speed train running in a sealed, partially-evacuated tube. Musk released a white paper that described the technology and concluded that the Hyperloop could be built for less than a tenth of a cost of the California High-Speed Rail. Musk's white paper focused heavily on the scientific and technical questions that must be answered, but public transportation is a domain at the intersection of science and society. Public transportation infrastructure is shaped as much by the pressures of government and citizens as by the technology behind the transportation. Tube-based transport like the Hyperloop has been proposed before, but has never gone further than words on a page. Why? Historical examples like the development of the New York City subway and the proposed nuclear-powered Orion spacecraft shed light on the societal barriers that new transportation must overcome, and help illuminate why technology-based answers are not a full response to transportation questions.

  2. Mandatory Arrest Law in domestic violence cases and its implementation in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivojević Sanja K.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the analysis of the Mandatory Arrest Law in domestic violence cases in New York State. Introduction includes the subject and main goals of the paper. Second chapter starts with historical development of the police response in domestic violence cases in New York before and after the Mandatory Arrest Law is passed, than analysis of the Law, and ends with one of the programs which Safe Horizon, Victim Service organization, developed in New York City. Third chapter gives the analysis of pro et contra arguments for mandatory arrest provision and results of surveys and studies, which were conducted in United States. In fourth chapter we present the analysis of the research conducted in two police precincts in New York City this year. Paper also contains the list of main problems in implementation of this Law in New York City.

  3. Toward a healthier city: nutrition standards for New York City government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Ashley; Curtis, Christine J; Silver, Lynn D; Angell, Sonia Y

    2014-04-01

    Poor diet is a leading cause of disability, death, and rising health care costs. Government agencies can have a large impact on population nutrition by adopting healthy food purchasing policies. In 2007, New York City (NYC) began developing a nutrition policy for all foods purchased, served, or contracted for by City agencies. A Food Procurement Workgroup was created with representatives from all City agencies that engaged in food purchasing or service, and the NYC Health Department served as technical advisor. The NYC Standards for Meals/Snacks Purchased and Served (Standards) became a citywide policy in 2008. The first of its kind, the Standards apply to more than 3,000 programs run by 12 City agencies. This paper describes the development process and initial implementation of the Standards. With more than 260 million meals and snacks per year covered, the Standards increase demand for healthier products, model healthy eating, and may also affect clients' food choices beyond the institutional environment. Our experience suggests that implementation of nutrition standards across a wide range of diverse agencies is feasible, especially when high-level support is established and technical assistance is available. Healthy procurement policies can ensure that food purchased by a jurisdiction supports its public health efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Connected vehicle pilot deployment program phase 1, concept of operations (ConOps) - New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    This document describes the Concept of Operations (ConOps) for the New York City Department of Transportation (NYC) Connected Vehicle Pilot Deployment (CVPD) Project. This ConOps describes the current state of operations, establishes the reasons for ...

  5. Evaluating the Impacts of Real-Time Information on Subway Ridership in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-21

    It is now common for transit operators to provide real-time information (RTI) to passengers about the location or predicted arrival times of transit vehicles. The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) in New York City has recently made RTI avai...

  6. Connected Vehicle Pilot Deployment Program phase 1 : security management operating concept : New York City : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-18

    This document describes the Security Management Operating Concept (SMOC) for the New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) Connected Vehicle Pilot Deployment (CVPD) Project. This SMOC outlines the security mechanisms that will be used to pr...

  7. 78 FR 7393 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2014 New York City Housing and Vacancy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... planning purposes and by the private sector for business decisions. New York is required by city law to have such a survey conducted every three years. Information to be collected includes: age, gender, race...

  8. Public Television Channels in New York City: The First Six Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Richard

    The end results of the first six months of public access cable television (CATV) channels in New York City were in some ways disappointing. Franchise agreements for each of New York's two CATV systems called for two public-access channels to be in operation by July 1, 1971, one year after the date of the franchise awards. The channels were to be…

  9. Getting "boater" all the time: managing fishing by boat on New York city water supply reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer A. Cairo

    2007-01-01

    In 2003 the New York City Department of Environmental Protection Bureau of Water Supply undertook a five-year initiative to improve fishing by boat on its Water Supply reservoirs and controlled lakes in upstate New York. The project includes cleanup of administrative procedures and boat fishing areas on reservoir shores; improving two-way communication with anglers;...

  10. Fishing for improvements: managing fishing by boat on New York City water supply reservoirs and lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole L. Green; Jennifer A. Cairo

    2008-01-01

    In 2003, the New York City Department of Environmental Protection Bureau of Water Supply undertook a 5-year initiative to improve fishing by boat on its water supply reservoirs and controlled lakes in upstate New York. The project includes: revising administrative procedures; cleaning up boat fishing areas on reservoir shores; improving two-way communication with...

  11. The energy-water nexus: are there tradeoffs between residential energy and water consumption in arid cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, Darren M; Dixon, P Grady

    2014-09-01

    Water scarcity, energy consumption, and air temperature regulation are three critical resource and environmental challenges linked to urban population growth. While appliance efficiency continues to increase, today's homes are larger and residents are using more energy-consuming devices. Recent research has often described the energy-water nexus as a "tradeoff" between energy and water due to reduced temperatures resulting from irrigated vegetation. Accordingly, some arid cities have implemented landscape-conversion programs that encourage homeowners to convert their yards from grass (mesic) to drought-tolerant (xeric) landscapes to help conserve water resources. We investigated these relationships in Phoenix, Arizona by examining energy and water data for the summer months of June-September 2005 while temperature variability was analyzed from a local heat wave. Results show parallel consumption patterns with energy and water use strongly correlated and newer homes using more of both. The counterintuitive findings show that "drought-resistant" models may not be beneficial for community health, environment, or economics and that this issue is further complicated by socio-economic variables.

  12. Obesity Prevention in a City State: Lessons from New York City during the Bloomberg Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Paul M; Davies, Anna; Greig, Alexandra J M; Lee, Karen K

    2016-01-01

    To illuminate the key components of multi-sector reform to address the obesogenic environment in New York City during the administration of Mayor Michael Bloomberg from 2002 to 2013, we conducted a case study consisting of interviews with and a critical analysis of the experiences of leading decision makers and implementers. Key informant interviews (N = 41) conducted in 2014 were recorded, transcribed, coded, and thematically analyzed. Participants included officials from the Health Department and other New York City Government agencies, academics, civil society members, and private sector executives. Participants described Mayor Bloomberg as a data-driven politician who wanted to improve the lives of New Yorkers. He appointed talented Commissioners and encouraged them and their staff to be bold, innovative, and collaborative. Multiple programs spanning multiple sectors, with varied approaches and targets, were supported. This study found that much of the work relied on loose coalitions across City Government, with single agencies responsible for their own agendas, some with health co-benefits. Many policies were implemented through non-legislative mechanisms such as executive orders and the Health Code. Despite support from academic and some civil society groups, strong lobbying from industry and an unfavorable media led to some reforms being modified, legally challenged or blocked completely, particularly food environment modifiers. In contrast, reforms of the physical environment were described as highly consultative across and outside government and resulted in slower but more sustained reform. The Bloomberg administration was a "window of opportunity" with the imprimatur of the executive to progress a long-term, multi-faceted obesity prevention strategy, which has successfully reversed childhood trends. Through the involvement of external researchers and the extensive use of empirical data from a wide range of participants, this study offers a unique

  13. Evaluation of the New York City Green Carts program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M Farley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Access to fresh fruits and vegetables is a concern, particularly among low-income populations. Mobile vending is one strategy to expand produce availability and access to increase consumption. In 2008, New York City launched a mobile vending initiative, Green Carts. We report on the evaluation. Three waves of cross-sectional observational surveys of produce availability, variety, and quality were conducted during the summers of 2008, 2009, and 2011 in a stratified random sample of stores and carts comparing establishments in Green Cart neighborhoods (n = 13 with comparison neighborhoods (n = 3. Bivariate analyses for availability, variety, and quality comparing Green Cart and comparison neighborhoods were presented across years, and logistic and negative binomial regressions were used to test whether fruit and vegetable availability, variety, and quality increased in Green Cart compared with comparison neighborhoods, adjusting for clustering and neighborhood demographics. Establishments selling fruits and vegetables in Green Cart neighborhoods increased between 2008 and 2011 (50% to 69%, p <0.0001; there was no comparable increase in comparison neighborhoods. Establishments selling more than 10 fruits and vegetables types increased from 31% to 38% (p = 0.0414 in Green Cart neighborhoods; there was no change in comparison neighborhoods. Produce quality was high among comparison establishments, with 95% and 94% meeting the quality threshold in 2008 and 2011, while declining in Green Cart neighborhood establishments from 96% to 88% (p < 0.0001. Sustained produce availability was found in Green Cart neighborhoods between 2008–2011. Green Carts are one strategy contributing to improving produce access among New Yorkers.

  14. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR POTASSIUM IODIDE (KI) DISTRIBUTION IN NEW YORK CITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOSS, STEVEN

    2005-01-01

    The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH), Bureau of Environmental Science and Engineering, Office of Radiological Health (ORH) [as the primary local technical consultant in the event of a radiological or nuclear incident within the boundaries of New York City] requested the assistance of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with the development of a Feasibility Study for Potassium Iodide (KI) distribution in the unlikely event of a significant release of radioactive iodine in or near New York City. Brookhaven National Laboratory had previously provided support for New York City with the development of the radiological/nuclear portions of its All Hazards Emergency Response Plans. The work is funded by Medical and Health Research Association (MHRA) of New York City, Inc., under a work grant by the Federal Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for Public Health Preparedness and Response for Bioterrorism. This report is part of the result of that effort. The conclusions of this report are that: (1) There is no credible radiological scenario that would prompt the need for large segments of the general population of New York City to take KI as a result of a projected plume exposure to radioiodine reaching even the lowest threshold of 5 rem to the thyroid; and (2) KI should be stockpiled in amounts and locations sufficient for use by first responders/emergency responders in response to any localized release of radioiodine

  15. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR POTASSIUM IODIDE (KI) DISTRIBUTION IN NEW YORK CITY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MOSS, STEVEN

    2005-04-29

    The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH), Bureau of Environmental Science and Engineering, Office of Radiological Health (ORH) [as the primary local technical consultant in the event of a radiological or nuclear incident within the boundaries of New York City] requested the assistance of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with the development of a Feasibility Study for Potassium Iodide (KI) distribution in the unlikely event of a significant release of radioactive iodine in or near New York City. Brookhaven National Laboratory had previously provided support for New York City with the development of the radiological/nuclear portions of its All Hazards Emergency Response Plans. The work is funded by Medical and Health Research Association (MHRA) of New York City, Inc., under a work grant by the Federal Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for Public Health Preparedness and Response for Bioterrorism. This report is part of the result of that effort. The conclusions of this report are that: (1) There is no credible radiological scenario that would prompt the need for large segments of the general population of New York City to take KI as a result of a projected plume exposure to radioiodine reaching even the lowest threshold of 5 rem to the thyroid; and (2) KI should be stockpiled in amounts and locations sufficient for use by first responders/emergency responders in response to any localized release of radioiodine.

  16. Anthropogenic moisture production and its effect on boundary layer circulations over New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornstein, R.D.; Tam, Y.T.

    1975-01-01

    A heat and moisture excess over New York City is shown to exist by the analysis of helicopter soundings of temperature and wet bulb depression. The magnitude of the temporal and spatial distribution of anthropogenic moisture emissions in New York City were estimated from fuel usage data. The URBMET urban boundary layer model was used to evaluate the effects on the dynamics of the urban boundary layer resulting from the observed urban moisture excess. Work is currently in progress which seeks to determine the fraction of the observed moisture excess over New York that is due to anthropogenic sources. (auth)

  17. Learning Together: How Families Responded to Education Incentives in New York City's Conditional Cash Transfer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David; Dechausay, Nadine; Fraker, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, New York City's Center for Economic Opportunity launched Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards, an experimental, privately funded, conditional cash transfer (CCT) program to help families break the cycle of poverty. Family Rewards provided payments to low-income families in six of the city's poorest communities for achieving specific goals…

  18. "Hopelessly Insane, Some Almost Maniacs": New York City's War on "Unfit" Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Kristen

    2018-01-01

    This article explores how Dr. Emil Altman and the New York City Board of Education manipulated prevailing narratives of disability in a crusade to rid their city school system of "unfit" teachers during the late 1920s through to the early 1940s. Capitalising on fears of disability related to ideas about efficiency and eugenics, Altman…

  19. The Principals' Perspective of Sustainable Partnerships in New York City's New School Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Robert

    2010-01-01

    New York City's Mayor Michael Bloomberg and school's Chancellor Joel Klein made the creation of new schools an essential part of their Children First reform policy. In September 2002, 13 high schools opened replacing the lowest performing large high schools throughout the City. As of 2010, more than 400 new district and charter schools are in…

  20. The history and impact of the New York City menu labeling law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernell, Brent

    2010-01-01

    As a result of the recent federal health care legislation, all restaurants in the United States that are part of a chain with twenty or more locations serving substantially the same menu items will be required to post the calorie information of the food they serve directly on menus and menu boards. This development represents the culmination of a regulatory initiative to combat the growth of obesity that only began in 2006 with the decision by the New York City Board of Health to require calorie posting in New York City chain restaurants. That initiative, Regulation 81.50, was the first of its kind in the United States; and yet, less than four years later, the idea has become a national standard. This paper tracks the history of New York City's landmark regulation, detailing the drafting of the law, the initial legal victory for the restaurant association challenging it, and the ultimate triumph of the City in winning legal validation of its calorie posting mandate. In doing so, this paper will also use the New York City regulation as a launching point to discuss the rationale behind menu labeling, to examine the potential legal pitfalls of menu labeling laws, to track the development of the initiative from New York City to a national standard, and finally, to evaluate the preliminary data on whether or not menu labeling is actually effective in achieving its ultimate goal: changing consumer eating habits and reducing obesity.

  1. Mexican and Cuban Composers in New York City circa 1880-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Koegel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Cuban musicians active in New  York in the 1860s through the 1890s such as Ignacio Cervantes, Emilio Agramonte, and Rosalia Chalia assisted in the struggle for Cuban independence from Spain from the vantage point of New York's Cuban émigré community, and they also established  a strong  presence in the city's musical life.  Important Mexican musicians such as Miguel Lerdo  de Tejada and Carlos Curti intermittently visited New York or were long-term residents there. This was especially true during the late- nineteenth century, when the forced political stability during the Porfiriato made possible the extended visits of Mexican musicians and ensembles to North American cities such as New York. The Mexican Revolution also sent Mexican musicians to the United States in search of political freedom as well as economic and artistic opportunities that were temporarily closed to them in Mexico.

  2. Environmental Assessment: A Case Study of New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, David; Riel, Marquita

    A project undertaken to advance the systematic analysis of public responses, attitudes, opinions, preferences, and values relating to the environment is discussed in this report, the first in a series of eight. The reports fall into two general categories: five describe and compare responses to representative milieus in New York, Boston, Cambridge…

  3. Exploring the determinants of pedestrian-vehicle crash severity in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, H M Abdul; Ukkusuri, Satish V; Hasan, Samiul

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian-vehicle crashes remain a major concern in New York City due to high percentage of fatalities. This study develops random parameter logit models for explaining pedestrian injury severity levels of New York City accounting for unobserved heterogeneity in the population and across the boroughs. A log-likelihood ratio test for joint model suitability suggests that separate models for each of the boroughs should be estimated. Among many variables, road characteristics (e.g., number of lanes, grade, light condition, road surface, etc.), traffic attributes (e.g., presence of signal control, type of vehicle, etc.), and land use (e.g., parking facilities, commercial and industrial land use, etc.) are found to be statistically significant in the estimated model. The study also suggests that the set of counter measures should be different for different boroughs in the New York City and the priority ranks of countermeasures should be different as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dangerous dining: health and safety in the New York City restaurant industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Saru; Dropkin, Jonathan; Siby, Sekou; Alston, Laine Romero; Markowitz, Steven

    2011-12-01

    We characterized the health and safety conditions of New York City restaurant workers, a population comprising largely of immigrants and people of color. We conducted an anonymous questionnaire survey of 502 New York City restaurant workers, addressing working conditions, benefits, demographic factors, psychosocial exposures, and medical symptoms and conditions. Restaurant workers reported fast-paced, repetitive, and physically demanding jobs that sometimes involve chemical exposures. Despite their youth, they experience a high prevalence of musculoskeletal and traumatic injuries. Few receive job benefits despite significant symptoms. Job-related injuries are positively associated with practices that pose a danger to consumers. New York City restaurant workers have stressful jobs, experience significant injury, and illness but receive few job benefits. A healthier work organization and greater access to benefits for restaurant workers would improve their health and public health.

  5. General population exposure of stable lead and 210Pb to residents of New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, D.C.; Welford, G.A.; Morse, R.

    1975-12-01

    Stable lead and 210 Pb intake, ingestion, and inhalation by residents of New York City were determined. Measurement of excreta samples provided data to establish a mass balance of stable lead and 210 Pb. These results indicate that no more than 5 μg of stable lead and 0.1 pCi of 210 Pb are retained daily by residents of New York City. Analyses of bone samples have provided estimates of the skeletal burden of stable lead and 210 Pb. Using the ICRP model, intake data, and assuming 100 percent skeletal deposition, the calculated stable lead and 210 Pb values are in good agreement with the experimental results. The data indicate that inhalation is the principle source of stable lead to residents in New York City

  6. Grade pending: lessons for hospital quality reporting from the New York City restaurant sanitation inspection program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Andrew M; Detsky, Allan S

    2015-02-01

    Public quality reporting programs have been widely implemented in hospitals in an effort to improve quality and safety. One such program is Hospital Compare, Medicare's national quality reporting program for US hospitals. The New York City sanitary grade inspection program is a parallel effort for restaurants. The aims of Hospital Compare and the New York City sanitary inspection program are fundamentally similar: to address a common market failure resulting from consumers' lack of information on quality and safety. However, by displaying easily understandable information at the point of service, the New York City sanitary inspection program is better designed to encourage informed consumer decision making. We argue that this program holds important lessons for public quality reporting of US hospitals. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  7. New York Power Authority`s energy-efficient refigerator program for the New York City Housing Authority - savings evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R.G.; Miller, J.D.

    1997-09-01

    The New York Power Authority (NYPA) and the New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) are replacing refrigerators in New York City public housing with new, highly energy-efficient models over a five-year period. This report describes the analysis of the energy cost savings achieved through the replacement of 20,000 refrigerators in 1996, the first year of the NYPA/NYCHA program. The NYPA/NYCHA project serves as the lynchpin of a larger program designed to offer energy-efficient appliances to housing authorities across the country. The national program is a partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE). Starting with the 1997 refrigerator contract, this program invites other housing authorities to join NYPA in its volume purchase of energy-efficient refrigerators, at the same price and terms available to NYPA. Through these volume purchases, DOE`s ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} Partnerships program hopes to encourage appliance manufacturers to bring more efficient appliances to the market and to provide volume purchasers with the per-unit price savings of a bulk purchaser. DOE asked the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to establish a protocol for evaluating the savings achieved with the NYPA refrigerators. That protocol is summarized in this report.

  8. Institutional food as a lever for improving health in cities: the case of New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, E K; Wurwarg, J; Poppendieck, J; Deutsch, J; Freudenberg, N

    2015-04-01

    To describe and examine the factors that most facilitate and impede the provision of healthy foods in a complex institutional food system. Comparative case study of three institutional food settings in New York City. Document review and interviews with relevant city government staff. Factors that facilitate and impede the provision of healthy food vary across institutional food settings, and particularly between centralized and decentralized settings. Generally pro-health factors include centralized purchasing and the ability to work with vendors to formulate items to improve nutritional quality, though decentralized purchasing may offer more flexibility to work with vendors offering healthier food items and to respond to consumer preferences. Factors most often working against health in more centralized systems include financing constraints that are unique to particular settings. In less centralized systems, factors working against health may include both financing constraints and factors that are site-specific, relating to preparation and equipment. Making changes to institutional food systems that will meaningfully influence public health requires a detailed understanding of the diverse systems supporting and shaping public food provision. Ultimately, the cases in this study demonstrate that agency staff typically would like to provide healthier foods, but often feel limited by the competing objectives of affordability and consumer preference. Their ability to address these competing objectives is shaped by a combination of both forces external to the institution, like nutritional regulations, and internal forces, like an agency's structure, and motivation on the part of staff. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The History and Impact of the New York City Menu-Labeling Law

    OpenAIRE

    Bernell, Brent

    2010-01-01

    As a result of the recent federal health care legislation, all restaurants in the United States that are part of a chain with twenty or more locations will be required to post the calorie information of the food they serve directly on the menu or menu board. This development represents the culmination of a regulatory initiative to combat the growth of obesity that only began in 2006 with the decision by the New York City Board of Health to require calorie posting in New York City chain resta...

  10. The return of the city-state: urban governance and the New York City H1N1 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lily M

    2013-02-01

    This article examines New York City's response to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in the context of the post-9/11 US security regime. While the federal level 'all-hazards' approach made for greater depth of support, it also generated unrealistic assumptions at odds with an effective local response. The combination of structurally induced opportunity and actor specific strengths (size, expertise) made for effective local governance by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. By underlining the importance of locality as a first line of defence and linking defence function to policy initiative in regard to health governance, this study illustrates the continuing relevance of Weber's insight into the institutional structure of the city. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K; Coddington, M; Burman, K; Hayter, S; Kroposki, B; Watson, and A

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to networks in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders would like to streamline this process to facilitate faster, simpler, and

  12. Risk Factors for Serogroup C Meningococcal Disease during Outbreak among Men who Have Sex with Men, New York City, New York, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridpath, Alison; Greene, Sharon K; Robinson, Byron F; Weiss, Don

    2015-08-01

    Risk factors for illness during a serogroup C meningococcal disease outbreak among men who have sex with men in New York City, New York, USA, in 2012-2013 included methamphetamine and cocaine use and sexually transmitted infections. Outbreak investigations should consider routinely capturing information regarding drug use and sex-related risk factors.

  13. New York City’s First Responders: Enhancing Collaboration Between NYPD and FDNY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    details about chronic conditions that plague communities (e.g., guns, drugs, human trafficking ). Put simply, the lack of information sharing is...both departments combined with a human element (i.e., egos) can contribute to their autonomous mindset. Although the mission for both agencies is...and more utilitarian functions for the police and fire service that may be lacking in New York City. By such a comparison, the city of White Plains

  14. New York City School Survey 2008-2010: Assessing the Reliability and Validity of a Progress Report Measure. Technical Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Lori; Cole, Rachel; Kemple, James J.; Lent, Jessica; McCormick, Meghan; Segeritz, Micha

    2013-01-01

    The Research Alliance for New York City Schools examined Department of Education (DOE) School Survey data from 2008-2010 to better understand the richness and complexities of the information elicited by the Survey from parents, students, and teachers. This document provides the appendices to the technical report "New York City School Survey…

  15. Slowing Entropy: Instructional Policy Design in New York City, 2011-12. Policy Brief #14-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supovitz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    How do policymakers craft policies, particularly centered on the Common Core State Standards, to be more resilient and less likely to disintegrate during enactment? Researcher Jonathan Supovitz in "Slowing Entropy: Instructional Policy Design in New York City, 2011-12" examines the design of a New York City Department of Education policy…

  16. School Brand Management: The Policies, Practices, and Perceptions of Branding and Marketing in New York City's Public High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMartino, Catherine; Jessen, Sarah Butler

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, market-based choice initiatives have become a popular approach to education reform. Since 2002, the New York City Department of Education has opened over 250 high schools, creating a marketplace so widespread that many students no longer have a zoned or neighborhood school. This article uses two New York City--based case…

  17. Out to eat: the emergence and evolution of the restaurant in nineteenth-century New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, Cindy R

    2010-01-01

    Unheard of in the eighteenth century, restaurants became an integral part of New York City's public culture in the antebellum period. This article examines the emergence and development of New York's restaurant sector in the nineteenth century, focusing on three aspects in particular: the close ties between urbanization and the rise of New York's restaurants, the role restaurants played in enforcing the city's class structure and gender mores, and the role of restaurants in shaping the public culture of the growing metropolis.

  18. Drug Treatment in New York City and Washington, D.C.: Followup Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This report assesses the experiences of clients who had contact with or received drug abuse treatment from programs of the Addiction Services Agency in New York City and the Narcotics Treatment Administration in Washington, D.C. during the early 1970's. To answer the questions of what happens to former clients once they leave drug treatment…

  19. Consumer attitudes about opioid addiction treatment: a focus group study in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohler, Nancy L; Weiss, Linda; Egan, James E; López, Carolina M; Favaro, Jamie; Cordero, Robert; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2013-01-01

    To develop effective programs for people who are opioid dependent and to impact the opioid epidemic in New York City, it is crucial to monitor attitudes about opioid addiction treatments among opioid users who have experienced barriers to engagement and retention in addiction treatment. The authors conducted a qualitative study using focus groups. Six focus groups in three needle exchanges in New York City were audio recorded, transcribed, and systematically coded. The authors report on the main themes related to the study objectives. Participants of each needle exchange who were opioid dependent and had some knowledge of both methadone and buprenorphine were eligible. There were four main findings. Participants felt the following: 1) buprenorphine is an appropriate option for those heroin users who are motivated to stop using, 2) they have less control over their addiction treatment with methadone than they would have with buprenorphine, 3) buprenorphine treatment is not accessible to many New York City residents who would benefit from this treatment, and 4) lack of access to buprenorphine treatment is a cause of treatment-related diversion. Both methadone maintenance and buprenorphine treatment opportunities are necessary to address the diverse treatment needs of opioid-dependent people in New York City. However, the current medical model of buprenorphine treatment may be too restrictive for some opioid-dependent people and may be contributing to the use of illicit buprenorphine. New models to deliver buprenorphine treatment may address these problems.

  20. Growing up in New York City: A Generational Memoir (1941–1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard R. Wolf

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available If historians tend to proceed from external data to hidden motivation of key players, the personal essayist typically moves from the intimate level to the plane of sociology, politics, and history. He becomes, therefore, a generational memoirist. In this autobiographical essay, Howard R. Wolf seeks to become a generational memoirist of New York City.

  1. Pushouts, Shutouts, and Holdouts: Educational Experiences of Latino Immigrant Young Adults in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, Marguerite

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examines educational experiences of Latino immigrant young adult dropouts in New York City, along with pre- and postmigration factors that impact school participation. Due to age, interrupted schooling, and limited English proficiency, high schools view this population as hard to serve. Increasing numbers of these youth…

  2. 77 FR 21551 - New York City Department of Environmental Protection; Notice of Application Accepted for filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13287-004] New York City Department of Environmental Protection; Notice of Application Accepted for filing And Soliciting Motions To Intervene and Protests Take notice that the following hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available for public...

  3. 77 FR 16023 - New York City Department of Environmental Protection; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13287-004] New York City Department of Environmental Protection; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting Additional Study Requests Take notice that the following hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available...

  4. New York City's First Conditional Cash Transfer Program: What Worked, What Didn't

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, James; Miller, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a long-term evaluation of Opportunity NYC--Family Rewards, an experimental, privately funded, conditional cash transfer (CCT) program to help families break the cycle of poverty. Family Rewards was the first comprehensive CCT program in a developed country. Launched in 2007 by New York City's Center for…

  5. Constructing the authentic modern: Japanese migrant artists in New York City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sooudi, O.K.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the concept of authenticity, and its articulation with longstanding Japanese discourses of modernity, among contemporary Japanese lifestyle migrants in New York City. Considering the cases of artists in particular, it examines how migrants narrate the ideals and goals of life

  6. New arrivals to New York City: vulnerability to HIV among urban migrant young gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrak, Paul; Ponce, Rafael; Zielony, Robert

    2015-10-01

    This qualitative study explored the social experiences and HIV-related sexual practices of 30 young gay and bisexual men who moved to New York City in the past 3 years from other countries or elsewhere in the United States. For many migrants, a key basis of vulnerability to HIV was their engagement with New York City's unfamiliar sexual culture. Many recent arrivals migrated from places with small gay communities and low HIV prevalence, and some came with a practice of limited condom use. Participants described encountering an abundance of sexual opportunity in New York City, accessible to even the newest arrivals through internet sex sites. Some migrants expressed surprise that few men they met were interested in dating or establishing trust before having sex. Although frequent HIV testing was common, HIV status, testing history, and condom use were seldom discussed with sex partners for some men even with new partners or before sex without condoms. International and in-country migrants who are beginning to navigate New York City's gay sexual culture may be more vulnerable to HIV infection than established residents if they are inexperienced in encountering vast sexual opportunity, are less practiced in local norms of sexual communication, or if their lack of economic resources or social connections encourages them to have sex for money or shelter. This article suggests HIV prevention interventions for urban migrants and other men who have sex with men.

  7. Abating New York City transit noise: a matter of will, not way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzaft, Arline L

    2010-01-01

    From the latter part of the 19th century, when New York City trains began to operate, until the present time, New York City's Transit Authority has received train noise complaints from riders and residents living near its transit system. The growing body of literature demonstrating the adverse effects of noise on physical and mental health raises the question as to whether transit noise is hazardous to the health of New York City's transit riders and residents living near the transit system. Several studies have examined the impacts of the noise of New York's transit system on hearing, health and learning. Despite the Transit Authority's efforts to remedy transit noise in response to complaints, the noise problem has not yet been satisfactorily ameliorated. This paper will suggest how the Transit Authority could employ techniques that could lower the noise levels of its system and benefit the health and welfare of New Yorkers. The recommendations in this paper could also apply to other cities with major transit systems where noise abatement has not been treated seriously.

  8. Everyday Arts for Special Education Impact Evaluation. District 75, New York City Department of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Rob

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Everyday Arts for Special Education (EASE) program on elementary special education students' academic achievement (reading and math) and social-emotional learning. EASE was a 5-year program providing professional development and instruction in the arts in 10 New York City special education…

  9. School-Based Budgeting in New York City: Perceptions of School Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatarola, Patrice; Stiefel, Leanna

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes results of surveys and interviews of community members from 29 New York City schools involved in school-level budgeting during 1995-96. Analyzes respondents' knowledge about school budgets, ideas about resource decision making, perceptions of budgetary power, and suggestions. Fully 80% of respondents supported a participatory process.…

  10. Introducing a longitudinal study of community gardeners and gardens in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell; Nancy Falxa-Raymond; Jessica Northridge; Edie. Stone

    2012-01-01

    For almost a decade, the NYC Department of Parks and Recreation GreenThumb program has collected data about hundreds of New York City community gardens citywide to understand how these gardens function. Building on a data set that includes surveys and interviews conducted periodically with garden representatives since 2003, GreenThumb and USDA Forest Service...

  11. Changing Course on School Reform: Strategic Organizing around the New York City Mayoral Election

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Billy

    2014-01-01

    New York City's new mayor, Bill de Blasio, represents a dramatic shift from his predecessor Michael Bloomberg in the area of education. Bloomberg was a national trendsetter on market reforms focused on privatization, testing, and competition. De Blasio was elected on an agenda of classroom investments, student supports, parent and community…

  12. Adult tobacco use levels after intensive tobacco control measures: New York City, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieden, Thomas R; Mostashari, Farzad; Kerker, Bonnie D; Miller, Nancy; Hajat, Anjum; Frankel, Martin

    2005-06-01

    We sought to determine the impact of comprehensive tobacco control measures in New York City. In 2002, New York City implemented a tobacco control strategy of (1) increased cigarette excise taxes; (2) legal action that made virtually all work-places, including bars and restaurants, smoke free; (3) increased cessation services, including a large-scale free nicotine-patch program; (4) education; and (5) evaluation. The health department also began annual surveys on a broad array of health measures, including smoking. From 2002 to 2003, smoking prevalence among New York City adults decreased by 11% (from 21.6% to 19.2%, approximately 140000 fewer smokers). Smoking declined among all age groups, race/ethnicities, and education levels; in both genders; among both US-born and foreign-born persons; and in all 5 boroughs. Increased taxation appeared to account for the largest proportion of the decrease; however, between 2002 and 2003 the proportion of cigarettes purchased outside New York City doubled, reducing the effective price increase by a third. Concerted local action can sharply reduce smoking prevalence. However, further progress will require national action, particularly to increase cigarette taxes, reduce cigarette tax evasion, expand education and cessation services, and limit tobacco marketing.

  13. New Findings on New York City's Conditional Cash Transfer Program. Fast Focus. No. 18-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccio, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) are long-standing policies that link cash assistance to low-income families to work effort. A new policy being tested in New York City adopts this "conditional cash transfer" principle and extends it to a broader set of family efforts to build their…

  14. A Menu for Health: Changes to New York City School Food, 2001 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Sharon E.; Nonas, Cathy; Lindstrom, Lauren L.; Choe-Castillo, Julia; McKie, Herman; Alberti, Philip M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The high prevalence of obesity puts children at risk for chronic diseases, increases health care costs, and threatens to reduce life expectancy. As part of the response to this epidemic, the New York City (NYC) Department of Education (DOE)--the nation's largest school district--has worked to improve the appeal and nutritional quality…

  15. Bilingual Specialized Programs in New York City High Schools, 1988-89. OREA Evaluation Section Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berney, Tomi D.; Stern, Lucia

    The Bilingual Specialized Programs in New York City High Schools project was supported by tax-levy, Pupils with Compensatory Educational Needs, and state Categorical Aid to Bilingual Education funds. The program functioned in 15 high schools in Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Queens. The program's aim was to provide students of limited English…

  16. Review of "Everyone Wins: How Charter Schools Benefit All New York City Public School Students"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    The report examines whether increasing competition from charter schools has a causal effect on the achievement of public school students in New York City, using a three-year longitudinal database of student test scores. As a measure of competition, it considers the percentage of students who left a public school for a charter school in the prior…

  17. The Usefulness of Tactual Maps of the New York City Subway System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton, K.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Sixteen people with blindness or visual impairments used three different types of tactual maps of the New York City subway system presenting information at three levels of specificity. Results indicated that the tactual maps improved participants' attitudes toward the subway and benefited blind as well as low vision participants. (Author/DB)

  18. Stumbling Through: How Joel Klein Reinvented the New York City Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteritti, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, the author reviews "Education Reform in New York City: Ambitious Change in the Nation's Most Complex School System," by Jennifer A. O'Day, Catherine S. Bitter, and Louis Gomez. The book under review explores a larger set of issues, and some time has passed. But many of the issues studied remain relevant and the consistent…

  19. Empowered or Beleaguered? Principals' Accountability under New York City's Diverse Provider Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipps, Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    By 2008, New York City's school governing regime contained two market-creation policies. Each reshaped principal incentives. One closed large high schools, replacing them with four-to-eight small schools. Another replaced uniform district-provided services with eleven School Support Organizations (SSOs). Both aimed to empower principals with new…

  20. Secondary Mathematics Teacher Differences: Teacher Quality and Preparation in a New York City Alternative Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    Providing students in urban settings with quality teachers is important for student achievement. This study examined the differences in content knowledge, attitudes toward mathematics, and teacher efficacy among several different types of alternatively certified teachers in a sample from the New York City Teaching Fellows program in order to…

  1. School Wellness Programs: Magnitude and Distribution in New York City Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefel, Leanna; Elbel, Brian; Pflugh Prescott, Melissa; Aneja, Siddhartha; Schwartz, Amy E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Public schools provide students with opportunities to participate in many discretionary, unmandated wellness programs. Little is known about the number of these programs, their distribution across schools, and the kinds of students served. We provide evidence on these questions for New York City (NYC) public schools. Methods: Data on…

  2. Hurricane Sandy and Adaptation Pathways in New York: Lessons from a First-Responder City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Solecki, William

    2014-01-01

    Two central issues of climate change have become increasingly evident: Climate change will significantly affect cities; and rapid global urbanization will increase dramatically the number of individuals, amount of critical infrastructure, and means of economic production that are exposed and vulnerable to dynamic climate risks. Simultaneously, cities in many settings have begun to emerge as early adopters of climate change action strategies including greenhouse gas mitigation and adaptation. The objective of this paper is to examine and analyze how officials of one city - the City of New York - have integrated a flexible adaptation pathways approach into the municipality's climate action strategy. This approach has been connected with the City's ongoing response to Hurricane Sandy, which struck in the October 2012 and resulted in damages worth more than US$19 billion. A case study narrative methodology utilizing the Wise et al. conceptual framework (see this volume) is used to evaluate the effectiveness of the flexible adaptation pathways approach in New York City. The paper finds that Hurricane Sandy serves as a ''tipping point'' leading to transformative adaptation due to the explicit inclusion of increasing climate change risks in the rebuilding effort. The potential for transferability of the approach to cities varying in size and development stage is discussed, with elements useful across cities including the overall concept of flexible adaptation pathways, the inclusion of the full metropolitan region in the planning process, and the co-generation of climate-risk information by stakeholders and scientists.

  3. Brief communication "Hurricane Irene: a wake-up call for New York City?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. J. H. Aerts

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The weakening of Irene from a Category 3 hurricane to a tropical storm resulted in less damage in New York City (NYC than initially was anticipated. It is widely recognized that the storm surge and associated flooding could have been much more severe. In a recent study, we showed that a direct hit to the city from a hurricane may expose an enormous number of people to flooding. A major hurricane has the potential to cause large-scale damage in NYC. The city's resilience to flooding can be increased by improving and integrating flood insurance, flood zoning, and building code policies.

  4. Demographic Trends of Adults in New York City Opioid Treatment Programs--An Aging Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Benjamin; Polydorou, Soteri; Ferris, Rosie; Blaum, Caroline S; Ross, Stephen; McNeely, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The population of adults accessing opioid treatment is growing older, but exact estimates vary widely, and little is known about the characteristics of the aging treatment population. Further, there has been little research regarding the epidemiology, healt h status, and functional impairments in this population. To determine the utilization of opioid treatment services by older adults in New York City. This study used administrative data from New York State licensed drug treatment programs to examine overall age trends and characteristics of older adults in opioid treatment programs in New York City from 1996 to 2012. We found significant increases in utilization of opioid treatment programs by older adults in New York City. By 2012, those aged 50-59 made up the largest age group in opioid treatment programs. Among older adults there were notable shifts in demographic background including gender and ethnicity, and an increase in self-reported impairments. More research is needed to fully understand the specific characteristics and needs of older adults with opioid dependence.

  5. Methods for Analysis of Urban Energy Systems: A New York City Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Bianca

    This dissertation describes methods developed for analysis of the New York City energy system. The analysis specifically aims to consider the built environment and its' impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Several contributions to the urban energy systems literature were made. First, estimates of annual energy intensities of the New York building stock were derived using a statistical analysis that leveraged energy consumption and tax assessor data collected by the Office of the Mayor. These estimates provided the basis for an assessment of the spatial distribution of building energy consumption. The energy consumption estimates were then leveraged to estimate the potential for combined heat and power (CHP) systems in New York City at both the building and microgrid scales. In aggregate, given the 2009 non-baseload GHG emissions factors for electricity production, these systems could reduce citywide GHG emissions by 10%. The operational characteristics of CHP systems were explored further considering different prime movers, climates, and GHG emissions factors. A combination of mixed integer linear programing and controlled random search algorithms were the methods used to determine the optimal capacity and operating strategies for the CHP systems under the various scenarios. Lastly a multi-regional unit commitment model of electricity and GHG emissions production for New York State was developed using data collected from several publicly available sources. The model was used to estimate average and marginal GHG emissions factors for New York State and New York City. The analysis found that marginal GHG emissions factors could reduce by 30% to 370 g CO2e/kWh in the next 10 years.

  6. Long-term Energy and Emissions Savings Potential in New York City Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Vatsal [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lee, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Klein, Yehuda [City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States); Link, Hildegaard [City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States); Pillich, Jose [City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States)

    2012-09-30

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) partnered with the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the City University of New York (CUNY) to develop an integrated methodology that is capable of quantifying the impact of energy efficiency and load management options in buildings, including CUNY’s campus buildings, housing projects, hospitals, and hotels, while capturing the synergies and offsets in a complex and integrated energy-environmental system. The results of this work serve as a guideline in implementing urban energy efficiency and other forms of urban environmental improvement through cost-effective planning at the institutional and local level.

  7. Mapping resilience not risk: Turning the tide in New York City and Jamaica Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, A. S.; Sanderson, E. W.

    2015-12-01

    Resilience in urban coastal areas is affected by actions at multiple levels from individuals to community groups to city, state and federal governments. At any level, actions can be a response to immediate hazards (e.g. flooding of coastal homes) or long-term drivers of change (e.g. sea level rise). Jamaica Bay, a highly urbanized estuary within New York City, exemplifies the Nation's coastal zone challenges. Prior to Hurricane Sandy, city, state, and federal governments had made the estuary a major focal point for habitat restoration, improvements to public access and outdoor recreation, and sustainable development. Sandy caused the highest flood level in the recorded history of New York City, eventually claiming 44 lives and costing over $19 billion. Electrical system failure caused four of NYCs wastewater pollution control plants to shutdown, discharging untreated sewage into Jamaica Bay. The Sea Level Rise Tool for Sandy Recovery (the Tool), a flood mapping tool developed by several government agencies including FEMA, NYC, and the Executive Branch, integrated science from the National Flood Insurance Program and the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC). While compound flooding hazards (stormwater plus coastal flooding) remain an important uncertainty, the Tool and subsequent NPCC mapping efforts provide sufficient evidence for science-based discourse around coastal flood risks in Jamaica Bay. But toward what outcome? Coastal flood risk reduction measures and other management actions are managed within existing regulatory frameworks. Disaster relief funds appropriated by Congress in the immediate aftermath of Sandy have provided critical resources to the Jamaica Bay region. However, the challenge now is to transition from the short-term response to long-term resilience planning, a challenge which requires new institutional capacity. This transition to resilience planning and implementation is not only critical in New York City, but in other coastal

  8. Machine learning for the New York City power grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin, Cynthia; Waltz, David; Anderson, Roger N; Boulanger, Albert; Salleb-Aouissi, Ansaf; Chow, Maggie; Dutta, Haimonti; Gross, Philip N; Huang, Bert; Ierome, Steve; Isaac, Delfina F; Kressner, Arthur; Passonneau, Rebecca J; Radeva, Axinia; Wu, Leon

    2012-02-01

    Power companies can benefit from the use of knowledge discovery methods and statistical machine learning for preventive maintenance. We introduce a general process for transforming historical electrical grid data into models that aim to predict the risk of failures for components and systems. These models can be used directly by power companies to assist with prioritization of maintenance and repair work. Specialized versions of this process are used to produce 1) feeder failure rankings, 2) cable, joint, terminator, and transformer rankings, 3) feeder Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) estimates, and 4) manhole events vulnerability rankings. The process in its most general form can handle diverse, noisy, sources that are historical (static), semi-real-time, or realtime, incorporates state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms for prioritization (supervised ranking or MTBF), and includes an evaluation of results via cross-validation and blind test. Above and beyond the ranked lists and MTBF estimates are business management interfaces that allow the prediction capability to be integrated directly into corporate planning and decision support; such interfaces rely on several important properties of our general modeling approach: that machine learning features are meaningful to domain experts, that the processing of data is transparent, and that prediction results are accurate enough to support sound decision making. We discuss the challenges in working with historical electrical grid data that were not designed for predictive purposes. The “rawness” of these data contrasts with the accuracy of the statistical models that can be obtained from the process; these models are sufficiently accurate to assist in maintaining New York City’s electrical grid.

  9. "Gray murder": characteristics of elderly compared with nonelderly homicide victims in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Robert C; Leon, Andrew C; Tardiff, Kenneth; Marzuk, Peter M; Sutherland, Kari

    2007-09-01

    We compared characteristics of homicides among New York City residents aged 18 years and older from 1990 to 1998 to determine differences in demographics, cause and place of death, and presence of illicit drugs and alcohol in the deceased's system. All medical examiner-certified homicides among New York City residents aged 18 years and older from 1990 to 1998 were studied (n = 11,850). Nonelderly (aged 18 to 64 years) and elderly (aged 65 years and older) victims were compared by gender, race/ethnicity, cause of death, place of death, and presence of illicit drugs or alcohol. Population-based homicide rates stratified by age, gender, and race were also calculated. Nonelderly homicide victims were significantly more likely to be male, non-White, to have been shot in the city streets, and to have evidence of illicit drug or alcohol use. Elderly victims were more likely to be female, White, to have been killed by nonfirearm injuries, and to have been killed in their own homes. The gender and race differences between age groups remained but were attenuated when population-based rates were compared. The characteristics of homicide in nonelderly adults do not apply to elderly adults in New York City. Demographic factors and vulnerabilities of the elderly may underlie these differences, pointing to the need for oversight of isolated or homebound elderly persons and for protective interventions.

  10. “Gray Murder”: Characteristics of Elderly Compared With Nonelderly Homicide Victims in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Robert C.; Leon, Andrew C.; Tardiff, Kenneth; Marzuk, Peter M.; Sutherland, Kari

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We compared characteristics of homicides among New York City residents aged 18 years and older from 1990 to 1998 to determine differences in demographics, cause and place of death, and presence of illicit drugs and alcohol in the deceased’s system. Methods. All medical examiner–certified homicides among New York City residents aged 18 years and older from 1990 to 1998 were studied (n = 11 850). Nonelderly (aged 18 to 64 years) and elderly (aged 65 years and older) victims were compared by gender, race/ethnicity, cause of death, place of death, and presence of illicit drugs or alcohol. Population-based homicide rates stratified by age, gender, and race were also calculated. Results. Nonelderly homicide victims were significantly more likely to be male, non-White, to have been shot in the city streets, and to have evidence of illicit drug or alcohol use. Elderly victims were more likely to be female, White, to have been killed by nonfirearm injuries, and to have been killed in their own homes. The gender and race differences between age groups remained but were attenuated when population-based rates were compared. Conclusions. The characteristics of homicide in nonelderly adults do not apply to elderly adults in New York City. Demographic factors and vulnerabilities of the elderly may underlie these differences, pointing to the need for oversight of isolated or homebound elderly persons and for protective interventions. PMID:17666708

  11. Rock Clubs and Gentrification in New York City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    , the long-term implications for popular music and its evolution within new urban populations and cultural industries have received relatively little scholarly attention. Gentrification has often been dismissed as an outside threat to music scenes. This article, in contrast, argues that gentrification needs...... to be understood as a broader social, economic, and cultural process in which popular music cultures have changed. The argument is developed through a case study of the Bowery Presents, a now dominant concert promoter and venue operator with offices on the Lower East Side. Based on fieldwork conducted over a three...... dynamics of culture and commerce in contemporary cities. The narrative opens up new perspectives for theorizing live music and popular culture within processes of urban social change. The article begins by reviewing conventional approaches to rock music clubs in popular music studies and urban sociology...

  12. Coping with Higher Sea Levels and Increased Coastal Flooding in New York City. Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornitz, Vivien; Horton, Radley; Bader, Daniel A.; Orton, Philip; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    The 837 km New York City shoreline is lined by significant economic assets and dense population vulnerable to sea level rise and coastal flooding. After Hurricane Sandy in 2012, New York City developed a comprehensive plan to mitigate future climate risks, drawing upon the scientific expertise of the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC), a special advisory group comprised of university and private-sector experts. This paper highlights current NPCC findings regarding sea level rise and coastal flooding, with some of the City's ongoing and planned responses. Twentieth century sea level rise in New York City (2.8 cm/decade) exceeded the global average (1.7 cm/decade), underscoring the enhanced regional risk to coastal hazards. NPCC (2015) projects future sea level rise at the Battery of 28 - 53 cm by the 2050s and 46 - 99 cm by the 2080s, relative to 2000 - 2004 (mid-range, 25th - 75th percentile). High-end SLR estimates (90th percentile) reach 76 cm by the 2050s, and 1.9 m by 2100. Combining these projections with updated FEMA flood return period curves, assuming static flood dynamics and storm behavior, flood heights for the 100-year storm (excluding waves) attain 3.9-4.5 m (mid-range), relative to the NAVD88 tidal datum, and 4.9 m (high end) by the 2080s, up from 3.4 m in the 2000s. Flood heights with a 1% annual chance of occurrence in the 2000s increase to 2.0 - 5.4% (mid-range) and 12.7% per year (high-end), by the 2080s. Guided by NPCC (2013, 2015) findings, New York City has embarked on a suite of initiatives to strengthen coastal defenses, employing various approaches tailored to specific neighborhood needs. NPCC continues its collaboration with the city to investigate vulnerability to extreme climate events, including heat waves, inland floods and coastal storms. Current research entails higher-resolution neighborhood-level coastal flood mapping, changes in storm characteristics, surge height interactions with sea level rise, and stronger engagement

  13. New York Power Authority/New York City Housing Authority refrigerator replacement program, first program year evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, L.F.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States); Pratt, R.G.; Miller, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Acting as an energy services provider, the New York Power Authority (NYPA) has initiated a long-term project through which 20,000 refrigerators per year will be replaced with the most energy-efficient units possible in apartments managed by the New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA). Using bulk purchasing as an incentive to appliance manufacturers to produce energy-efficient refrigerators suitable for use in apartments, replaced in the first year of the program, which ended in December 1996. These units, kWh per year. Savings were determined by field testing and laboratory testing of 220 existing refrigerators and 56 newly-installed units. In the next program year, a 15.0-cubic-foot Maytag refrigerator, newly-designed in response to bulk purchasing incentives, is being installed. The new unit has a label rating of 437 kWh per year, 31 percent better than 1993 energy standards. Old refrigerators removed from apartments are {open_quotes}demanufactured{close_quotes} in an environmentally-appropriate way and both metals and refrigerants are recovered for reuse.

  14. Neighborhood Variation in Rate of Revascularization among Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdissa Negassa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify modifiable neighborhood factors and quantify their effect on the rate of revascularization among acute myocardial infarction (AMI patients. Method. Using the New York City hospital discharge records during 1998–2002, we employed a hierarchical regression model that integrates patient-level risk factors and neighborhood-level factors to retrospectively examine revascularization patterns among AMI patients. Results. Access to revascularization varied substantially (27%–88% among neighborhoods. Ready access to a hospital with on-site capacity of revascularization increased the likelihood of receiving the procedure after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic factors and comorbidity. More than 64% of the variation in rate of revascularization is explained by access to revascularization. Conclusion. Optimizing the AMI patients' delivery system to hospitals with on-site capacity of revascularization might enhance access to needed care thereby help to alleviate the prevailing variation in the rate of revascularization among New York City neighborhoods.

  15. Race Matters… Still. Rezension zu Tom Angotti und Sylvia Morse (Hg. (2016: Zoned Out! Race, Displacement, and City Planning in New York City. New York City: Terreform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuca Meubrink

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In ihrem Sammelband Zoned Out! identifizieren Tom Angotti und Sylvia Morse zoning als eines der Planungsinstrumente, welches die historischen Muster ethnischer Diskriminierung und Segregation in New York bis heute immer wieder reproduziert hat. [...

  16. Scanning elastic lidar observations of aerosol transport in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Adrian; Dominguez, Victor; Dobryansky, Selma; Wu, Yonghua; Arend, Mark; Vladutescu, Daniela Viviana; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2018-04-01

    In this study, spatial distribution of aerosols in New York City is observed using a scanning eyesafe 532 nm elastic-backscatter micro-pulse lidar system. Observations show dynamics of the boundary layer and inhomogeneous distribution and transport of aerosols. The data acquired are complemented with simultaneous measurements of particulate matter and wind speed and direction. Furthermore, the system observations are validated by comparing them with a colocated multi-wavelength lidar.

  17. Natural U concentrations in soft tissues and bone of New York City residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisenne, I.M.; Welford, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Specimens of lung, liver, kidney and vertebrae from New York City autopsy cases were measured for naturally occurring U. An age dependency in U concentration was found in lung and vertebrae. The bone concentration was found to be a factor of 10 lower than previously reported for this tissue, thus the skeletal burden of U is estimated to be factor of 10 lower than that suggested in ICRP Publication 23

  18. Effect of Principal and Student Gender on New York City High School Performance Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Rupert Green

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-methods study enabled the exploration of New York City high school data, analyzing performance/demographic scores based on principal and/or student gender, boroughs, and other factors found the following: Significant differences in boroughs’ college and career readiness scores, χ2(4, N = 369) = 26.830, p = .00, with (a) the highest mean rank of 251 for Staten Island, and the lowest mean rank of 156 for Brooklyn...

  19. Current attitudes on self-use and prescription of hormone therapy among New York City gynaecologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devi, Gayatri; Sugiguchi, Fumitaka; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes

    2013-01-01

    The results of the Women's Health Initiative studies dramatically altered hormone therapy use around the world. In countries outside the United States, self-use in physicians remained unaltered while prescription use declined, implying that physicians may not concur with the findings. We wished t...... to explore prevailing attitudes among American physicians by examining New York City obstetrician-gynaecologists' self-use and prescription use of hormone therapy....

  20. Violence in Advertisements in New York City Subway Stations: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H.; Fullwood, M. D.; LeBlanc, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Violence has become a public health concern in the United States. Violent visually stimulating content encompasses various techniques such as fear, humor, shock, or violence, to stimulate a response or appeal toward awareness of human emotion. Exposing impressionable youth to violent advertisements can be particularly problematic. This is especially true in places like New York City where violent crime is a prevalent problem. With annual ridership reaching over 1.7 billion in 2014, the New York City subway system is abundant with advertisements. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the frequency and type of violent advertising on the Lexington Avenue/East Side Line in New York City, running through the Bronx and Manhattan to represent the lower and higher median income earning boroughs. There were no statistically different findings in median household income at site of station by number of ads or source of violent. Destruction was the most common form of violence (n = 32, 42.7 %) followed by intent to strike (n = 18, 24 %), showing a weapon (n = 15, 20 %) and horror (n = 10, 13.3 %). Most ads (n = 46, 61.3 %) were found in stations heading uptown toward and through the Bronx, the borough where median household income is lowest, whereas 29 (38.7 %) were found in stations heading downtown. Future studies could focus on additional boroughs and subways lines, and could be collected at multiple points in time to determine of how prevalent violent advertising is throughout New York City and at different time frames. PMID:26518776

  1. Storm surge modeling of Superstorm Sandy in the New York City Metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benimoff, A. I.; Blanton, B. O.; Dzedzits, E.; Fritz, W. J.; Kress, M.; Muzio, P.; Sela, L.

    2013-12-01

    Even though the New York/New Jersey area does not lie within the typical 'hurricane belt', recent events and the historical record indicate that large infrequent tropical storms have had direct hits on the region, with impacts being amplified due to the nearly right angle bend in the coastline. The recent plan unveiled by New York City's Mayor Bloomberg lays out mitigation strategies to protect the region's communities, infrastructure, and assets from future storms, and numerical simulation of storm surge and wave hazards driven by potential hurricanes plays a central role in developing and evaluating these strategies. To assist in local planning, recovery, and decision-making, we have used the tide, storm surge, and wind wave model ADCIRC+SWAN to simulate storm surge in one of the most populated areas of the United States: the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area. We have generated a new high-resolution triangular finite-element model grid for the region from recent USGS data as well as recent city topographic maps at 2-foot (0.6m) contour intervals, nautical charts, and details of shipping channels. Our hindcast simulations are compared against Superstorm Sandy. We used the City University of New York High Performance Computing Center's Cray XE6tm at the College of Staten Island for these simulations. Hindcasting and analysis of the Superstorm Sandy storm surge and waves indicates that our simulations produce a reasonable representation of actual events. The grid will be used in an ADCIRC-based forecasting system implementation for the region.

  2. Violence in Advertisements in New York City Subway Stations: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Fullwood, M D; LeBlanc, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Violence has become a public health concern in the United States. Violent visually stimulating content encompasses various techniques such as fear, humor, shock, or violence, to stimulate a response or appeal toward awareness of human emotion. Exposing impressionable youth to violent advertisements can be particularly problematic. This is especially true in places like New York City where violent crime is a prevalent problem. With annual ridership reaching over 1.7 billion in 2014, the New York City subway system is abundant with advertisements. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the frequency and type of violent advertising on the Lexington Avenue/East Side Line in New York City, running through the Bronx and Manhattan to represent the lower and higher median income earning boroughs. There were no statistically different findings in median household income at site of station by number of ads or source of violent. Destruction was the most common form of violence (n = 32, 42.7 %) followed by intent to strike (n = 18, 24 %), showing a weapon (n = 15, 20 %) and horror (n = 10, 13.3 %). Most ads (n = 46, 61.3 %) were found in stations heading uptown toward and through the Bronx, the borough where median household income is lowest, whereas 29 (38.7 %) were found in stations heading downtown. Future studies could focus on additional boroughs and subways lines, and could be collected at multiple points in time to determine of how prevalent violent advertising is throughout New York City and at different time frames.

  3. News Media Framing of New York City's Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Portion-Size Cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Cohen, Joanna E; Truant, Patricia L; Rutkow, Lainie; Kanarek, Norma F; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-11-01

    We assessed news media framing of New York City's proposed regulation to prohibit the sale of sugar-sweetened beverages greater than 16 ounces. We conducted a quantitative content analysis of print and television news from within and outside New York City media markets. We examined support for and opposition to the portion-size cap in the news coverage from its May 31, 2012, proposal through the appellate court ruling on July 31, 2013. News coverage corresponded to key events in the policy's evolution. Although most stories mentioned obesity as a problem, a larger proportion used opposing frames (84%) than pro-policy frames (36%). Mention of pro-policy frames shifted toward the policy's effect on special populations. The debate's most prominent frame was the opposing frame that the policy was beyond the government's role (69%). News coverage within and outside the New York City media market was more likely to mention arguments in opposition to than in support of the portion-size cap. Understanding how the news media framed this issue provides important insights for advocates interested in advancing similar measures in other jurisdictions.

  4. Constructing New York City's urban forest. The politics and governance of the MillionTreesNYC campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay K. Campbell

    2014-01-01

    In 2005-2006, bureaucrats at the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation (DPR) began to marshal quantitative evidence to argue for investment in tree planting as part of Mayor Bloomberg's long-term sustainability plan, PlaNYC 2030, launched in 2007. Concurrently, Bette Midler—the celebrity founder of the non-profit New York Restoration Project (...

  5. What People Buy From Fast-food Restaurants: Caloric Content and Menu Item Selection, New York City 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Dumanovsky, Tamara; Nonas, Cathy A.; Huang, Christina Y.; Silver, Lynn D.; Bassett, Mary T.

    2009-01-01

    Fast-food restaurants provide a growing share of daily food intake, but little information is available in the public health literature about customer purchases. In order to establish baseline data on mean calorie intake, this study was completed in the Spring of 2007, before calorie labeling regulations went into effect in New York City. Receipts were collected from lunchtime customers, at randomly selected New York City fast-food chains. A supplementary survey was also administered to clari...

  6. Bumble Bee Abundance in New York City Community Gardens: Implications for Urban Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail A. Langellotto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of crops are grown in New York City community gardens. Although the production of many crops benefits from pollination by bees, little is known about bee abundance in urban community gardens or which crops are specifically dependent on bee pollination. In 2005, we compiled a list of crop plants grown within 19 community gardens in New York City and classified these plants according to their dependence on bee pollination. In addition, using mark-recapture methods, we estimated the abundance of a potentially important pollinator within New York City urban gardens, the common eastern bumble bee (Bombus impatiens. This species is currently recognized as a valuable commercial pollinator of greenhouse crops. However, wild populations of B. impatiens are abundant throughout its range, including in New York City community gardens, where it is the most abundant native bee species present and where it has been observed visiting a variety of crop flowers. We conservatively counted 25 species of crop plants in 19 surveyed gardens. The literature suggests that 92% of these crops are dependent, to some degree, on bee pollination in order to set fruit or seed. Bombus impatiens workers were observed visiting flowers of 78% of these pollination-dependent crops. Estimates of the number of B. impatiens workers visiting individual gardens during the study period ranged from 3 to 15 bees per 100 m2 of total garden area and 6 to 29 bees per 100 m2 of garden floral area. Of 229 B. impatiens workers marked, all recaptured individuals (45% were found in gardens where they were initially marked. These results indicate an abundance of B. impatiens workers within New York City community gardens and suggest that, at least for certain time periods, many individual workers forage within single gardens. Both findings suggest that B. impatiens may be an especially important pollinator of several common crops grown within community gardens and other urban green spaces

  7. Impact of heatwave on a megacity: an observational analysis of New York City during July 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, Prathap; González, Jorge; Ortiz, Luis; Arend, Mark; Moshary, Fred

    2017-05-01

    More than half of the world’s current population resides in urban areas, and cities account for roughly three-quarters of the total greenhouse gas emissions. Current and future trends in urbanization will have significant impacts on global climate. However, our collective understanding of the climate of urban areas remains deficient, which is mainly related to significant knowledge gaps in observations. The New York City Summer Heat Campaign was initiated to address some of these critical knowledge gaps. As part of the campaign the urban boundary layer over New York City was continuously monitored during July 2016, a period that witnessed three heatwave events. Surface weather stations and indoor sensors were also used to characterize the urban heat island intensity. Our results reveal that during the month, the urban heat island intensity was nearly twice compared to the decadal average. During the heatwave episodes, urban heat island intensities as high as 10 °C were observed. The thermal profiles indicate elevated temperatures in much of the boundary layer between 800-2500 m during the heatwave episodes. The profiles indicate a complex thermal structure and high intra-city variability. Thermal internal boundary layer was observed in neighborhoods populated by tall buildings. Overall the high-pressure system during the heatwave episodes acted as a thermal block and much of the heat generated in the urban surface layer remained within the boundary layer, thereby amplifying the near surface air temperature.

  8. The Storm Surge and Sub-Grid Inundation Modeling in New York City during Hurricane Sandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry V. Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hurricane Sandy inflicted heavy damage in New York City and the New Jersey coast as the second costliest storm in history. A large-scale, unstructured grid storm tide model, Semi-implicit Eulerian Lagrangian Finite Element (SELFE, was used to hindcast water level variation during Hurricane Sandy in the mid-Atlantic portion of the U.S. East Coast. The model was forced by eight tidal constituents at the model’s open boundary, 1500 km away from the coast, and the wind and pressure fields from atmospheric model Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS provided by Weatherflow Inc. The comparisons of the modeled storm tide with the NOAA gauge stations from Montauk, NY, Long Island Sound, encompassing New York Harbor, Atlantic City, NJ, to Duck, NC, were in good agreement, with an overall root mean square error and relative error in the order of 15–20 cm and 5%–7%, respectively. Furthermore, using large-scale model outputs as the boundary conditions, a separate sub-grid model that incorporates LIDAR data for the major portion of the New York City was also set up to investigate the detailed inundation process. The model results compared favorably with USGS’ Hurricane Sandy Mapper database in terms of its timing, local inundation area, and the depth of the flooding water. The street-level inundation with water bypassing the city building was created and the maximum extent of horizontal inundation was calculated, which was within 30 m of the data-derived estimate by USGS.

  9. Summer heat and mortality in New York City: how hot is too hot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Kristina B; Ito, Kazuhiko; Matte, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    To assess the public health risk of heat waves and to set criteria for alerts for -excessive heat, various meteorologic metrics and models are used in different jurisdictions, generally without systematic comparisons of alternatives. We report such an analysis for New York City that compared maximum heat index with alternative metrics in models to predict daily variation in warm-season natural-cause mortality from 1997 through 2006. We used Poisson time-series generalized linear models and generalized additive models to estimate weather-mortality relationships using various metrics, lag and averaging times, and functional forms and compared model fit. A model that included cubic functions of maximum heat index on the same and each of the previous 3 days provided the best fit, better than models using maximum, minimum, or average temperature, or spatial synoptic classification (SSC) of weather type. We found that goodness of fit and maximum heat index-mortality functions were similar using parametric and nonparametric models. Same-day maximum heat index was linearly related to mortality risk across its range. The slopes at lags of 1, 2, and 3 days were flat across moderate values but increased sharply between maximum heat index of 95 degrees F and 100 degrees F (35-38 degrees C). SSC or other meteorologic variables added to the maximum heat index model moderately improved goodness of fit, with slightly attenuated maximum heat index-mortality functions. In New York City, maximum heat index performed similarly to alternative and more complex metrics in estimating mortality risk during hot weather. The linear relationship supports issuing heat alerts in New York City when the heat index is forecast to exceed approximately 95-100 degrees F. Periodic city-specific analyses using recent data are recommended to evaluate public health risks from extreme heat.

  10. Spring Breaks and Cigarette Tax Noncompliance: Evidence From a New York City College Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consroe, Kimberly; Kurti, Marin; Merriman, David; von Lampe, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    Estimate cigarette tax noncompliance (tax avoidance and evasion) before and after mid-semester recesses in a New York City college campus, where the majority of students are residents of nearby lower-tax states, using data derived from garbology, an archaeological method that reconstructs patterns of human behavior from discarded materials. We systematically divided the college campus into four geographic areas and established a total of 12 transects (survey lines) and five quadrats (survey spheres) in those areas to encompass 74 outdoor trash cans. Weekly collections of discarded cigarette packs (n = 174) in the four areas during Spring 2012 and 2013 were conducted to quantify the percentage of cigarette packs that were tax noncompliant. Overall, we find that 72.4% of the cigarette packs collected in Spring 2012 and 2013 did not bear the required joint New York City and New York State tax stamp. Additionally, we find that cigarette tax avoidance significantly increased after recesses (mid-March and early April) in Spring 2012 and subsequently declined. We also find that packs with a Virginia tax stamp became more prevalent as time elapsed after each recess. College students practice tax avoidance, drawing on legal purchases from their own home states as the primary source of cheap cigarettes. As stocks decline, some students shift to tax evasion by illegally purchasing cigarettes in New York City that have been bootlegged from low tax states (eg, Virginia). Our study adds to the growing literature on cigarette tax noncompliance (ie, tax avoidance and evasion). First, we provide evidence that college students in our New York City sample avoid the payment of taxes in high tax states by purchasing low taxed cigarettes in their home state. Second, we find that once those sources are depleted, students find access to the black market nearby campus. This black market functions through cigarette tax evasion: the resale of cigarettes purchased in low tax states. Our study

  11. Cost estimates for flood resilience and protection strategies in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Botzen, W J Wouter; de Moel, Hans; Bowman, Malcolm

    2013-08-01

    In the aftermaths of Hurricanes Irene, in 2011, and Sandy, in 2012, New York City has come to recognize the critical need to better prepare for future storm surges and to anticipate future trends, such as climate change and socio-economic developments. The research presented in this report assesses the costs of six different flood management strategies to anticipate long-term challenges the City will face. The proposed strategies vary from increasing resilience by upgrading building codes and introducing small scale protection measures, to creating green infrastructure as buffer zones and large protective engineering works such as storm surge barriers. The initial investment costs of alternative strategies vary between $11.6 and $23.8 bn, maximally. We show that a hybrid solution, combining protection of critical infrastructure and resilience measures that can be upgraded over time, is less expensive. However, with increasing risk in the future, storm surge barriers may become cost-effective, as they can provide protection to the largest areas in both New York and New Jersey. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Abating New York city transit noise: A matter of will, not way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arline L Bronzaft

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From the latter part of the 19 th century, when New York City trains began to operate, until the present time, New York City′s Transit Authority has received train noise complaints from riders and residents living near its transit system. The growing body of literature demonstrating the adverse effects of noise on physical and mental health raises the question as to whether transit noise is hazardous to the health of New York City′s transit riders and residents living near the transit system. Several studies have examined the impacts of the noise of New York′s transit system on hearing, health and learning. Despite the Transit Authority′s efforts to remedy transit noise in response to complaints, the noise problem has not yet been satisfactorily ameliorated. This paper will suggest how the Transit Authority could employ techniques that could lower the noise levels of its system and benefit the health and welfare of New Yorkers. The recommendations in this paper could also apply to other cities with major transit systems where noise abatement has not been treated seriously.

  13. Programmatic Impact of 5 Years of Mortality Surveillance of New York City Homeless Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Dova; Begier, Elizabeth; Gutkovich, Alexander; Mos, Robert; Griffin, Angela; Zimmerman, Regina; Madsen, Ann

    2013-01-01

    A homeless mortality surveillance system identifies emerging trends in the health of the homeless population and provides this information to key stakeholders in a timely and ongoing manner to effect evidence-based, programmatic change. We describe the first 5 years of the New York City homeless mortality surveillance system and, for the first time in peer-reviewed literature, illustrate the impact of key elements of sustained surveillance (i.e., timely dissemination of aggregate mortality data and real-time sharing of information on individual homeless decedents) on the programs of New York City’s Department of Homeless Services. These key elements had a positive impact on the department’s programs that target sleep-related infant deaths and hypothermia, drug overdose, and alcohol-related deaths among homeless persons. PMID:24148068

  14. Food insecurity and obesity in New York City primary care clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnik, Arati; Foster, Byron Alexander; Mayer, Victoria; Pratomo, Vanessa; McKee, Diane; Maher, Stacia; Campos, Giselle; Anderson, Matthew

    2011-07-01

    Hunger continues to be a problem in New York City; paradoxically, the city also has disproportionally high rates of diabetes and obesity. Some research suggests that food insecurity leads to obesity. We undertook a cross-sectional "card study" in which doctors working at 8 New York City area primary care practices administered a brief, anonymous survey to patients they saw during clinic sessions. The survey included a 2-question food insecurity screen and questions about enrollment in nutrition assistance programs. Height and weight were also measured at the visit. Cards were completed for 558 patients (65.1% female; 74.7% adults; 78.5% conducted in English). Fifty-five percent of patients were receiving some form of food assistance. More than half of patients (51.7%) reported some degree of food insecurity. Of adult participants, 21.8% had normal weight, 29.1% were overweight, and 48.2% were obese. Food insecurity was significantly associated with increasing body mass index in women not receiving food assistance. There was no significant association between body mass index and food insecurity in children. In an urban population, overweight and obesity are very common as is food insecurity. We found an association between food insecurity and obesity only among women not receiving food assistance suggesting a possible protective role for food assistance. Providers should consider food insecurity in similar populations when trying to address obesity.

  15. Learning Together: How Families Responded to Education Incentives in New York City's Conditional Cash Transfer Program. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David; Dechausay, Nadine; Fraker, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, New York City's Center for Economic Opportunity launched Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards, an experimental, privately funded, conditional cash transfer (CCT) program to help families break the cycle of poverty. Family Rewards provided payments to low-income families in six of the city's poorest communities for achieving specific goals…

  16. Attitudes and Perceptions of Vocational Education in New York City: Implications for the Mayor's School Reform Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rupert

    2012-01-01

    Under-performing New York City (NYC) schools precipitated Mayor Michael Bloomberg's decision to advance a vocational education initiative. The initiative was to address the problem of the many city high school graduates lacking both the skills for gainful employment and the academic preparedness to pursue higher education. The mayor's initiative…

  17. Networked governance and the management of ecosystem services: The case of urban environmental stewardship in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J.T. Connolly; Erika S. Svendsen; Dana R. Fisher; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2014-01-01

    Urban environmental stewardship groups have become an essential component of the governance structure that regulates ecosystem services in cities. New York City is one example where these groups have grown rapidly in number, size, and visibility since the 1970s. In this article, we combine quantitative survey data with qualitative interview data to examine the...

  18. A Big Apple for Educators: New York City's Experiment with Schoolwide Performance Bonuses. Final Evaluation Report. Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Julie A.; Springer, Matthew G.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Yuan, Kun; Epstein, Scott; Koppich, Julia; Kalra, Nidhi; DiMartino, Catherine; Peng, Art

    2011-01-01

    In the 2007-2008 school year, the New York City Department of Education and the United Federation of Teachers jointly implemented the Schoolwide Performance Bonus Program in a random sample of the city's high-needs public schools. The program lasted for three school years, and its broad objective was to improve student performance through…

  19. Promoting the Geosciences for Minority Students in the Urban Coastal Environment of New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.

    2013-12-01

    The 'Creating and Sustaining Diversity in the Geo-Sciences among Students and Teachers in the Urban Coastal Environment of New York City' project was awarded to New York City College of Technology (City Tech) by the National Science Foundation to promote the geosciences for students in middle and high schools and for undergraduates, especially for those who are underrepresented minorities in STEM. For the undergraduate students at City Tech, this project: 1) created and introduced geoscience knowledge and opportunities to its diverse undergraduate student population where geoscience is not currently taught at City Tech; and 2) created geoscience articulation agreements. For the middle and high schools, this project: 1) provided inquiry-oriented geoscience experiences (pedagogical and research) for students; 2) provided standards-based professional development (pedagogical and research) in Earth Science for teachers; 3) developed teachers' inquiry-oriented instructional techniques through the GLOBE program; 4) increased teacher content knowledge and confidence in the geosciences; 5) engaged and intrigued students in the application of geoscience activities in a virtual environment; 6) provided students and teachers exposure in the geosciences through trip visitations and seminars; and 7) created community-based geoscience outreach activities. Results from this program have shown significant increases in the students (grades 6-16) understanding, participation, appreciation, and awareness of the geosciences. Geoscience modules have been created and new geosciences courses have been offered. Additionally, students and teachers were engaged in state-of-the-art geoscience research projects, and they were involved in many geoscience events and initiatives. In summary, the activities combined geoscience research experiences with a robust learning community that have produced holistic and engaging stimuli for the scientific and academic growth and development of grades 6

  20. Legal syringe purchases by injection drug users, Brooklyn and Queens, New York City, 2000-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C; McKnight, Courtney; Friedmann, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    To assess preliminary results of the Expanded Syringe Access Demonstration Program (ESAP) in New York City. Temporal trends of pharmacy use among injection drug users (IDUs) in Brooklyn and Queens were analyzed from December 2000 through December 2001. Brooklyn and Queens, New York City. PARTIPANTS: IDUs. Attempts to purchase syringes from pharmacies and success in doing so. Of the 1,072 IDUs interviewed from December 2000 through December 2001, the majority were daily heroin injectors, but there was also substantial speedball and cocaine injection. There was a clear increase over time in both the percentage of subjects who attempted to purchase syringes in pharmacies and in the percentage who successfully purchased syringes. Among IDUs interviewed 4 or more months after ESAP began, large majorities of those who attempted to purchase syringes were successful in doing so. No differences in use of ESAP by IDUs were identified in Brooklyn versus Queens: 27% of IDUs interviewed in Queens reported that they had attempted to purchase syringes in pharmacies versus 28% in Brooklyn. Persons who reported injecting on a daily or more frequent basis were more likely to have attempted pharmacy purchases than persons who reported injecting less frequently, 32% versus 21%. The ESAP program has led to an increase in the use of pharmacies as sources of sterile injection equipment among IDUs in New York City. The extent to which pharmacies become an important source of sterile injection equipment and the effect of legal pharmacy sales on risk behaviors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remain to be determined.

  1. Estimating the prevalence of illicit opioid use in New York City using multiple data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeely Jennifer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite concerns about its health and social consequences, little is known about the prevalence of illicit opioid use in New York City. Individuals who misuse heroin and prescription opioids are known to bear a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality. Service providers and public health authorities are challenged to provide appropriate interventions in the absence of basic knowledge about the size and characteristics of this population. While illicit drug users are underrepresented in population-based surveys, they may be identified in multiple administrative data sources. Methods We analyzed large datasets tracking hospital inpatient and emergency room admissions as well as drug treatment and detoxification services utilization. These were applied in combination with findings from a large general population survey and administrative records tracking prescriptions, drug overdose deaths, and correctional health services, to estimate the prevalence of heroin and non-medical prescription opioid use among New York City residents in 2006. These data were further applied to a descriptive analysis of opioid users entering drug treatment and hospital-based medical care. Results These data sources identified 126,681 cases of opioid use among New York City residents in 2006. After applying adjustment scenarios to account for potential overlap between data sources, we estimated over 92,000 individual opioid users. By contrast, just 21,600 opioid users initiated drug treatment in 2006. Opioid users represented 4 % of all individuals hospitalized, and over 44,000 hospitalizations during the calendar year. Conclusions Our findings suggest that innovative approaches are needed to provide adequate services to this sizeable population of opioid users. Given the observed high rates of hospital services utilization, greater integration of drug services into medical settings could be one component of an effective approach to

  2. The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, D; Mostashari, F; Fine, A; Miller, J; O'Leary, D; Murray, K; Huang, A; Rosenberg, A; Greenberg, A; Sherman, M; Wong, S; Layton, M

    2001-06-14

    In late August 1999, an unusual cluster of cases of meningoencephalitis associated with muscle weakness was reported to the New York City Department of Health. The initial epidemiologic and environmental investigations suggested an arboviral cause. Active surveillance was implemented to identify patients hospitalized with viral encephalitis and meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid, serum, and tissue specimens from patients with suspected cases underwent serologic and viral testing for evidence of arboviral infection. Outbreak surveillance identified 59 patients who were hospitalized with West Nile virus infection in the New York City area during August and September of 1999. The median age of these patients was 71 years (range, 5 to 95). The overall attack rate of clinical West Nile virus infection was at least 6.5 cases per million population, and it increased sharply with age. Most of the patients (63 percent) had clinical signs of encephalitis; seven patients died (12 percent). Muscle weakness was documented in 27 percent of the patients and flaccid paralysis in 10 percent; in all of the latter, nerve conduction studies indicated an axonal polyneuropathy in 14 percent. An age of 75 years or older was an independent risk factor for death (relative risk adjusted for the presence or absence of diabetes mellitus, 8.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 59.1), as was the presence of diabetes mellitus (age-adjusted relative risk, 5.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.5 to 17.3). This outbreak of West Nile meningoencephalitis in the New York City metropolitan area represents the first time this virus has been detected in the Western Hemisphere. Given the subsequent rapid spread of the virus, physicians along the eastern seaboard of the United States should consider West Nile virus infection in the differential diagnosis of encephalitis and viral meningitis during the summer months, especially in older patients and in those with muscle weakness.

  3. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 1: Investigation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations.

  4. Development of a green roof environmental monitoring and meteorological network in new york city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffin, Stuart R; Khanbilvardi, Reza; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Green roofs (with plant cover) are gaining attention in the United States as a versatile new environmental mitigation technology. Interest in data on the environmental performance of these systems is growing, particularly with respect to urban heat island mitigation and stormwater runoff control. We are deploying research stations on a diverse array of green roofs within the New York City area, affording a new opportunity to monitor urban environmental conditions at small scales. We show some green roof systems being monitored, describe the sensor selection employed to study energy balance, and show samples of selected data. These roofs should be superior to other urban rooftops as sites for meteorological stations.

  5. Development of a Green Roof Environmental Monitoring and Meteorological Network in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Rosenzweig

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs (with plant cover are gaining attention in the United States as a versatile new environmental mitigation technology. Interest in data on the environmental performance of these systems is growing, particularly with respect to urban heat island mitigation and stormwater runoff control. We are deploying research stations on a diverse array of green roofs within the New York City area, affording a new opportunity to monitor urban environmental conditions at small scales. We show some green roof systems being monitored, describe the sensor selection employed to study energy balance, and show samples of selected data. These roofs should be superior to other urban rooftops as sites for meteorological stations.

  6. Assessment of Urban Infrastructure Impact on New York City Neighborhoods Thermal Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, R.; Ghandehari, M.; Karimi, M.; Vant-hull, B.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2013-12-01

    New York City (NYC) is a highly urbanized city with most of the population living in tall buildings. Despite technological improvements and stricter regulations, cities still show increasing signs of environmental stress such as traffic congestion, noise and air quality degradation. Rethinking the current models of city planning could enable to limit these detrimental effects of urbanization. In addition, the built environment creates a new climatic regime which needs a better understanding. Building density, height and emission has a major impact on local temperature and other air quality indicators. Studies have shown that during extreme weather conditions and heat waves the mortality rate in urban areas increases. Cities are comprised of a wide variety of urban settings and various neighborhoods have different physical responses to meteorological events, so it is expected that the temperature and heat stress across a given city to fluctuate sharply. Therefore, this research has focused on neighborhood-scale field campaigns to downscale temperature and air quality predictions from city to neighborhood scale in NYC. In order to assess the temperature variability within the city at street level, during the hottest part of the day, this project used eight mobile units bearing temperature and relative humidity sensors, as well as ten weather stations mounted on light poles in various NYC neighborhoods. This study also looks at fine scale structures in the urban heat island of Manhattan at street level through an infrared camera with the spectral range of 7.5-13 μm in order to relate heat and emissions from building surfaces to land surface characteristics such as building density, vegetation coverage, proximity to water, and albedo. LandSat TM5 images were used (with 30 m resolution) for land surface classification. During the summer and early fall of 2011, 2012 and 2013 extensive field campaigns were performed, the results of which show some persistent patterns

  7. Urban ecosystem services for resilience planning and management in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhearson, Timon; Hamstead, Zoé A; Kremer, Peleg

    2014-05-01

    We review the current state of knowledge about urban ecosystem services in New York City (NYC) and how these services are regulated, planned for, and managed. Focusing on ecosystem services that have presented challenges in NYC-including stormwater quality enhancement and flood control, drinking water quality, food provisioning and recreation-we find that mismatches between the scale of production and scale of management occur where service provision is insufficient. Adequate production of locally produced services and services which are more accessible when produced locally is challenging in the context of dense urban development that is characteristic of NYC. Management approaches are needed to address scale mismatches in the production and consumption of ecosystem services. By coordinating along multiple scales of management and promoting best management practices, urban leaders have an opportunity to ensure that nature and ecosystem processes are protected in cities to support the delivery of fundamental urban ecosystem services.

  8. Public bike sharing in New York City: helmet use behavior patterns at 25 Citi Bike™ stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Zybert, Patricia; Afzaal, Sarah; Spillane, Michael; Basch, Charles E

    2015-06-01

    Urban public bicycle sharing programs are on the rise in the United States. Launched in 2013, NYC's public bicycle share program, Citi Bike™ is the fastest growing program of its kind in the nation, with nearly 100,000 members and more than 330 docking stations across Manhattan and Brooklyn. The purpose of this study was to assess helmet use behavior among Citi Bike™ riders at 25 of the busiest docking stations. The 25 Citi Bike™ Stations varied greatly in terms of usage: total number of cyclists (N = 96-342), commute versus recreation (22.9-79.5% commute time riders), weekday versus weekend (6.0-49.0% weekend riders). Helmet use ranged between 2.9 and 29.2% across sites (median = 7.5 %). A total of 4,919 cyclists were observed, of whom 545 (11.1%) were wearing helmets. Incoming cyclists were more likely to wear helmets than outgoing cyclists (11.0 vs 5.9%, p = .000). NYC's bike share program endorses helmet use, but relies on education to encourage it. Our data confirm that, to date, this strategy has not been successful.

  9. Loose Cigarette Purchasing and Nondaily Smoking Among Young Adult Bar Patrons in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Jamie; Johns, Michael; Farley, Shannon M; Ling, Pamela M

    2015-08-01

    We examined loose cigarette (loosie) purchasing behavior among young adult (aged 18-26 years) smokers at bars in New York City and factors associated with purchase and use. Between June and December 2013, we conducted cross-sectional surveys (n = 1916) in randomly selected bars and nightclubs. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we examined associations of loose cigarette purchasing and use with smoking frequency, price, social norms, cessation behaviors, and demographics. Forty-five percent (n = 621) of nondaily smokers and 57% (n = 133) of daily smokers had ever purchased a loosie; 15% of nondaily smokers and 4% of daily smokers reported that their last cigarette was a loosie. Nondaily smokers who never smoked daily were more likely than were daily smokers to have last smoked a loosie (odds ratio = 7.27; 95% confidence interval = 2.35, 22.48). Quitting behaviors and perceived approval of smoking were associated with ever purchasing and recently smoking loosies. Loosie purchase and use is common among young adults, especially nondaily smokers. Smoking patterns and attitudes should be considered to reduce loose cigarette purchasing among young adults in New York City.

  10. Microbial sewage contamination associated with Superstorm Sandy flooding in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullan, G.; Dueker, M.; Sahajpal, R.; Juhl, A. R.

    2013-05-01

    The lower Hudson River Estuary commonly experiences degraded water quality following precipitation events due to the influence of combined sewer overflows. During Super-storm Sandy large scale flooding occurred in many waterfront areas of New York City, including neighborhoods bordering the Gowanus Canal and Newtown Creek Superfund sites known to frequently contain high levels of sewage associated bacteria. Water, sediment, and surface swab samples were collected from Newtown Creek and Gowanus Canal flood impacted streets and basements in the days following the storm, along with samples from the local waterways. Samples were enumerated for the sewage indicating bacterium, Enterococcus, and DNA was extracted and amplified for 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequence analysis. Waterways were found to have relatively low levels of sewage contamination in the days following the storm. In contrast, much higher levels of Enterococci were detected in basement and storm debris samples and these bacteria were found to persist for many weeks in laboratory incubations. These data suggest that substantial sewage contamination occurred in some flood impacted New York City neighborhoods and that the environmental persistence of flood water associated microbes requires additional study and management attention.

  11. Molecular Tracers of Saturated and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Inputs into Central Park Lake, New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAN, BEIZHAN; ABRAJANO, TEOFILO A.; BOPP, RICHARD F.; CHAKY, DAMON A.; BENEDICT, LUCILLE A.; CHILLRUD, STEVEN N.

    2011-01-01

    Saturated hydrocarbons (SH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been quantified in a sediment core obtained from Central Park Lake, New York City. Radionuclides 210Pb and 137Cs were used to assign approximate dates to each individual section in the core. The dating profile based on 210Pb matches very well with the time constraints provided by 137Cs. Radionuclide-derived depositional dates are consistent with temporal information from the petroleum-indicator ratio U/R [the ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to saturated hydrocarbons in the aliphatic fraction] and the history of fuel use in the NYC area. Ratios of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrane (DMP) to 1,7-DMP plus 2,6-DMP [1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP], retene to retene plus chrysene [Ret/(Ret + Chy)], and fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene [Fl/(Fl + Py)] provide additional source discrimination throughout the core. Results show that the ratio U/R is sensitive to petroleum inputs and Ret/(Ret + Chy) is responsive to contributions from softwood combustion, whereas both Fl/(Fl + Py) and 1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP can be used to discriminate among wood, coal, and petroleum combustion sources. Combined use of these ratios suggests that in New York City, wood combustion dominated 100 years ago, with a shift to coal combustion occurring from the 1900s to the 1950s. Petroleum use began around the 1920s and has dominated since the 1940s. PMID:16201624

  12. Making the American Aristocracy: Women, Cultural Capital, and High Society in New York City, 1870-1900

    OpenAIRE

    Bibby, Emily Katherine

    2009-01-01

    For over three decades, during the height of Gilded Age economic extravagance, the women of New York High Society maintained an elite social identity by possessing, displaying, and cultivating cultural capital. Particularly, High Society women sought to exclude the Nouveaux Riches who, after amassing vast fortunes in industry or trade, came to New York City in search of social position. High Society women distinguished themselves from these social climbers by obeying restrictive codes of spee...

  13. Teaching Climate Change Through Data Analytics: Updates on the TRELLIS Project at the City University of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, B.; Cak, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Community colleges have been identified as a particularly important gateway for the United States' scientific workforce. However, students that begin their higher education at community colleges often face barriers in developing the skills needed for higher-level STEM careers, including basic training in mathematics, programming and communications, deep analytical and problem-solving skills, and experience with working across disciplines. As part of the Undergraduate STEM Interventions in Industry (USI2) Consortium, we have developed a summer bridge program for students in diverse STEM fields transferring from City University of New York (CUNY) community colleges to the City College of New York. Students participating in the program receive training and work on team data analysis projects on various themes related to climate change resilience and New York City. We will discuss our experiences during the first 2 years of implementation of the summer bridge program along with plans for a capstone program for students in their senior year.

  14. Black/white differences in very low birth weight neonatal mortality rates among New York City hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Elizabeth A; Hebert, Paul; Chatterjee, Samprit; Kleinman, Lawrence C; Chassin, Mark R

    2008-03-01

    We sought to determine whether differences in the hospitals at which black and white infants are born contribute to black/white disparities in very low birth weight neonatal mortality rates in New York City. We performed a population-based cohort study using New York City vital statistics records on all live births and deaths of infants weighing 500 to 1499 g who were born in 45 hospitals between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2001 (N = 11 781). We measured very low birth weight risk-adjusted neonatal mortality rates for each New York City hospital and assessed differences in the distributions of non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white very low birth weight births among these hospitals. Risk-adjusted neonatal mortality rates for very low birth weight infants in New York City hospitals ranged from 9.6 to 27.2 deaths per 1000 births. White very low birth weight infants were more likely to be born in the lowest mortality tertile of hospitals (49%), compared with black very low birth weight infants (29%). We estimated that, if black women delivered in the same hospitals as white women, then black very low birth weight mortality rates would be reduced by 6.7 deaths per 1000 very low birth weight births, removing 34.5% of the black/white disparity in very low birth weight neonatal mortality rates in New York City. Volume of very low birth weight deliveries was modestly associated with very low birth weight mortality rates but explained little of the racial disparity. Black very low birth weight infants more likely to be born in New York City hospitals with higher risk-adjusted neonatal mortality rates than were very low birth weight infants, contributing substantially to black-white disparities.

  15. Advancing the Use of Emergency Department Syndromic Surveillance Data, New York City, 2012-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Ramona; Abdelnabi, Jasmine; Ngai, Stephanie; Parton, Hilary B; Saunders, Kelly; Sell, Jessica; Wahnich, Amanda; Weiss, Don; Mathes, Robert W

    The use of syndromic surveillance has expanded from its initial purpose of bioterrorism detection. We present 6 use cases from New York City that demonstrate the value of syndromic surveillance for public health response and decision making across a broad range of health outcomes: synthetic cannabinoid drug use, heat-related illness, suspected meningococcal disease, medical needs after severe weather, asthma exacerbation after a building collapse, and Ebola-like illness in travelers returning from West Africa. The New York City syndromic surveillance system receives data on patient visits from all emergency departments (EDs) in the city. The data are used to assign syndrome categories based on the chief complaint and discharge diagnosis, and analytic methods are used to monitor geographic and temporal trends and detect clusters. For all 6 use cases, syndromic surveillance using ED data provided actionable information. Syndromic surveillance helped detect a rise in synthetic cannabinoid-related ED visits, prompting a public health investigation and action. Surveillance of heat-related illness indicated increasing health effects of severe weather and led to more urgent public health messaging. Surveillance of meningitis-related ED visits helped identify unreported cases of culture-negative meningococcal disease. Syndromic surveillance also proved useful for assessing a surge of methadone-related ED visits after Superstorm Sandy, provided reassurance of no localized increases in asthma after a building collapse, and augmented traditional disease reporting during the West African Ebola outbreak. Sharing syndromic surveillance use cases can foster new ideas and build capacity for public health preparedness and response.

  16. Use of pharmacy data to evaluate smoking regulations' impact on sales of nicotine replacement therapies in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Kristina B; Mostashari, Farzad; Kerker, Bonnie D

    2005-06-01

    Recently, New York City and New York State increased cigarette excise taxes and New York City implemented a smoke-free workplace law. To assess the impact of these policies on smoking cessation in New York City, we examined over-the-counter sales of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products. Pharmacy sales data were collected in real time as part of nontraditional surveillance activities. We used Poisson generalized estimating equations to analyze the effect of smoking-related policies on pharmacy-specific weekly sales of nicotine patches and gum. We assessed effect modification by pharmacy location. We observed increases in NRT product sales during the weeks of the cigarette tax increases and the smoke-free workplace law. Pharmacies in low-income areas generally had larger and more persistent increases in response to tax increases than those in higher-income areas. Real-time monitoring of existing nontraditional surveillance data, such as pharmacy sales of NRT products, can help assess the effects of public policies on cessation attempts. Cigarette tax increases and smoke-free workplace regulations were associated with increased smoking cessation attempts in New York City, particularly in low-income areas.

  17. Learning from New York City : a case study of public health policy practice in the Bloomberg administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isett, Kimberley Roussin; Laugesen, Miriam J; Cloud, David H

    2015-01-01

    To ascertain any lessons learned about how public health reforms undertaken in New York City during the Bloomberg Administration were shepherded through the public policy and administration gauntlet. The question is, how feasible is this approach and would it work outside of New York City? Using a theoretically grounded case study approach, 3 initiatives were examined that were proposed and/or implemented during a 10-year period of the Mayoralty of Michael Bloomberg (2002-2011): transfats restrictions, clean bus transportation policies, and a sugar-sweetened beverages tax (as a counterfactual). The investigation began by performing a comprehensive public documents search and was followed with interviews of 27 individuals involved in the selected policy initiatives. Interviews were coded in Nvivo using an iterative, grounded methodology. Using a theoretical lens, the case study illustrates that the multifaceted role of leadership was not confined to the executives in the City or the Agency. Instead, leadership extended to other administrative officials within the agency and the Board of Health. Second, New York City used reorganization and coordinative mechanisms strategically to ensure achievement of their goals. This included creation of new departments/bureaus and coordinating structures across the City. Evidence of the explicit use of incentives, as initially anticipated from the theoretical framework, was not found. While some aspects of this case study are unique to the context of New York City, 2 approaches used in New York City are feasible for other jurisdictions: harnessing the full scope and breadth of authority of the agency and its associated boards and commissions, and remobilizing existing workforce to explicitly focus on and coordinate targeted policies for issues of concern. Questions for further consideration are posed at the conclusion of the article.

  18. Flood-resilient waterfront development in New York City: bridging flood insurance, building codes, and flood zoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Botzen, W J Wouter

    2011-06-01

    Waterfronts are attractive areas for many-often competing-uses in New York City (NYC) and are seen as multifunctional locations for economic, environmental, and social activities on the interface between land and water. The NYC waterfront plays a crucial role as a first line of flood defense and in managing flood risk and protecting the city from future climate change and sea-level rise. The city of New York has embarked on a climate adaptation program (PlaNYC) outlining the policies needed to anticipate the impacts of climate change. As part of this policy, the Department of City Planning has recently prepared Vision 2020: New York City Comprehensive Waterfront Plan for the over 500 miles of NYC waterfront (NYC-DCP, 2011). An integral part of the vision is to improve resilience to climate change and sea-level rise. This study seeks to provide guidance for advancing the goals of NYC Vision 2020 by assessing how flood insurance, flood zoning, and building code policies can contribute to waterfront development that is more resilient to climate change. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Hospitalization Rates Among People With HIV/AIDS in New York City, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Rachael; Kersanske, Laura; Xia, Qiang; Daskalakis, Demetre; Braunstein, Sarah L

    2017-08-01

    Hospitalizations are an important indicator of healthcare quality and access for people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study assesses hospitalization rates among people with HIV/AIDS in New York City. We performed a deterministic match between people in the New York City HIV surveillance registry alive as of 1 January 2013 and diagnosed with HIV as of 31 December 2013 and patient-level inpatient hospitalization records during 2013. Event-level data were analyzed to determine characteristics of and reasons for hospitalizations. Primary diagnoses were classified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. We estimated hospitalization rates as the number of hospitalizations per 100 person-years for all causes, AIDS-defining illnesses, and non-AIDS-defining infections. Nearly one-fifth of hospitalizations were attributed to non-AIDS-defining infections, whereas AIDS-defining illness diagnoses were infrequent (3.6% of hospitalizations). Other common causes were cardiovascular (10.9%) and substance use (9.8%). The estimated all-cause hospitalization rate was 36.7 per 100 person-years. Higher all-cause hospitalization rates were observed among females (46.8 per 100 person-years), Black and Latino/Hispanic people (41.8 and 39.5 per 100 person-years, respectively), people living in high-poverty neighborhoods (47.4 per 100 person-years), and people with a history of injection drug use (74.9 per 100 person-years). The estimated AIDS-defining illness and non-AIDS-defining infection hospitalization rates were 1.3 and 7.2 per 100 person-years, respectively. People with HIV in New York City were frequently hospitalized. While AIDS-defining illnesses were relatively rare, non-AIDS-defining infection hospitalizations were more common. Disparities in hospitalization rates indicate a need for targeted improved primary care and comorbid disease management. © The Author 2017

  20. New York City International Polar Weekend at the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S.; Turrin, M.; Macphee, R.

    2008-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History, in partnership with Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the Earth Institute of Columbia University and Barnard College, is featuring the International Polar Year through a New York City International Polar Weekend (NYC-IPW) in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The event showcases current polar research, polar environmental changes, history and culture during two days of family programs and activities, performances, and lectures. The goal of the NYC-IPW is to engage diverse audiences and enhance the public understanding of polar science, in particular IPY research, through close interactions with polar experts. Activities for the public include many disciplines, ranging from the physical sciences and cultural anthropology to music and art, and are presented in many forms, from lectures, panels and films to posters and play. Highlights of the NYC-IPW include: 1) A polar fair for youth and adults, showcasing scientists, artists, and educators who have worked at one or both poles and including many interactive exhibits featuring such topics as life in New York at the end of the last Ice Age, how Arctic sea ice is changing, and life on and under the ice. 2) Performances and presentations oriented towards children and families, including Inuit Throat Singers, Central Park Zoo Theater Group, and a northern lights show. 3) Lectures showcasing current IPY research and addressing such issues as the possible effects of climate change on the poles and the rest of the world, as well as polar poetry, art and film. 4) A partnership with New York City Urban Advantage program for Middle School students in the city to meet with scientists, teachers and students who had participated in polar research and travel. 5) Norwegian Consulate sponsorship of science presenters and Sami performers. The March 2007 event involved 85 presenters and volunteers from 22 institutions, and attracted ca. 3,500 visitors. Approximately 5,000 visitors attended the February 2008

  1. Medically indigent women seeking abortion prior to legalization: New York City, 1969-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, J E

    1992-01-01

    If the efforts now underway to limit access to abortion services in the United States are successful, their greatest impact will be on women who lack the funds to obtain abortions elsewhere. There is little published information, however, about the experience of medically indigent women who sought abortions under the old, restrictive state laws. This article details the psychiatric evaluation of 199 women requesting a therapeutic abortion at a large municipal hospital in New York City under a restrictive abortion law. Thirty-nine percent had tried to abort the pregnancy. Fifty-seven percent had concrete evidence of serious psychiatric disorder. Forty-eight percent had been traumatized by severe family disruption, gross emotional deprivation or abuse during childhood. Seventy-nine percent lacked emotional support from the man responsible for the pregnancy, and the majority were experiencing overwhelming stress from the interplay of multiple problems exacerbated by their unwanted pregnancy.

  2. Lead (Pb) and other metals in New York City community garden soils: factors influencing contaminant distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca G; Spliethoff, Henry M; Ribaudo, Lisa N; Lopp, Donna M; Shayler, Hannah A; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Lambert, Veronique T; Ferenz, Gretchen S; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M; Stone, Edie B; McBride, Murray B

    2014-04-01

    Urban gardens provide affordable fresh produce to communities with limited access to healthy food but may also increase exposure to lead (Pb) and other soil contaminants. Metals analysis of 564 soil samples from 54 New York City (NYC) community gardens found at least one sample exceeding health-based guidance values in 70% of gardens. However, most samples (78%) did not exceed guidance values, and medians were generally below those reported in NYC soil and other urban gardening studies. Barium (Ba) and Pb most frequently exceeded guidance values and along with cadmium (Cd) were strongly correlated with zinc (Zn), a commonly measured nutrient. Principal component analysis suggested that contaminants varied independently from organic matter and geogenic metals. Contaminants were associated with visible debris and a lack of raised beds; management practices (e.g., importing uncontaminated soil) have likely reduced metals concentrations. Continued exposure reduction efforts would benefit communities already burdened by environmental exposures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Global contexts, social capital, and acculturative stress: experiences of Indian immigrant men in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Gauri

    2011-08-01

    Immigrants depend on within-group social networks for social support during the acculturation process. Within-group social networks are linked to higher mutual concern and reciprocity, lower acculturative stress, and lower depression among immigrants Studies are limited, however, about immigrants' social support in the contexts of global connectedness and transnational connectivity. Grounded in social capital approach and immigrant health framework, this qualitative, community-based study examined the social networks of immigrant men from India to New York City. Drawing upon the participants' narratives, the author illustrates the ways that social capital influences social networking and acculturative stress in post-immigration sociocultural contexts along with its implications for community-based interventions.

  4. Predictors of School Garden Integration: Factors Critical to Gardening Success in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Kate Gardner; Burgermaster, Marissa; Jacquez, Raquel

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of integration of school gardens and identify factors that predict integration. 211 New York City schools completed a survey that collected demographic information and utilized the School Garden Integration Scale. A mean garden integration score was calculated, and multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine independent predictors of integration and assess relationships between individual integration characteristics and budget. The average integration score was 34.1 (of 57 points) and ranged from 8 to 53. Operating budget had significant influence on integration score, controlling for all other factors ( p integrated, as budget is a modifiable factor. When adequate funding is secured, a well-integrated garden may be established with proper planning and sound implementation.

  5. Using the internet to trace contacts of a fatal meningococcemia case-New York City, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounder, Prabhu; Del Rosso, Paula; Adelson, Stephan; Rivera, Caroline; Middleton, Kathy; Weiss, Don

    2012-01-01

    In August 2010, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) conducted an investigation to identify and provide antibiotic prophylaxis to close contacts of a patient who had died of invasive meningococcal disease. Traditional contact tracing, which relies on interviews with the patient's close associates, identified 3 persons meeting prophylaxis criteria. In addition, DOHMH learned of an Internet site used by the patient to arrange anonymous sexual encounters. By working with the Internet site administrator through a liaison, DOHMH sent notification to 15 additional persons potentially at risk for meningococcal disease; of those, at least 1 met prophylaxis criteria. The Internet has been used previously for partner notification by sexually transmitted disease control programs. This case report illustrates how the Internet can aid contact investigations for other communicable diseases, especially when identifying potential contacts is urgent, patients have died, or contacts are unknown to the patient's associates.

  6. New York City's healthcare transportation during a disaster: a preparedness framework for a wicked problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Ernest; Lee, George C

    2009-01-01

    During a disaster, victims with varied morbidities are located at incident sites, while healthcare facilities with varied healthcare resources are distributed elsewhere. Transportation serves an essential equilibrating role: it helps balance the patients' need for care with the supply of care. Studying the special case of New York City, this article sets out the healthcare transportation components as: (1) incident morbidity; (2) transportation assets; and (3) healthcare capacity. The relationship between these three components raises an assignment problem: the management of healthcare transportation within a dynamic and partly unpredictable incident-transportation-healthcare nexus, under urban disruption. While the routine dispatch problem can be tackled through better geographic allocation software and technical algorithms, the disaster assignment problem must be confronted through real-time, mutual adjustment between institutions. This article outlines institutional alternatives for managing the assignment problem and calls for further research on the merits of alternative institutional models.

  7. Hospital graduate social work field work programs: a study in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showers, N

    1990-02-01

    Twenty-seven hospital field work programs in New York City were studied. Questionnaires were administered to program coordinators and 238 graduate social work students participating in study programs. High degrees of program structural complexity and variation were found, indicating a state of art well beyond that described in the general field work literature. High rates of student satisfaction with learning, field instructors, programs, and the overall field work experience found suggest that the complexity of study programs may be more effective than traditional field work models. Statistically nonsignificant study findings indicate areas in which hospital social work departments may develop field work programs consistent with shifting organizational needs, without undue risk to educational effectiveness. Statistically significant findings suggest areas in which inflexibility in program design may be more beneficial in the diagnostic related groups era.

  8. Hepatitis A Cases Among Food Handlers: A Local Health Department Response-New York City, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridpath, Alison; Reddy, Vasudha; Layton, Marcelle; Misener, Mark; Scaccia, Allison; Starr, David; Stavinsky, Faina; Varma, Jay K; Waechter, HaeNa; Zucker, Jane R; Balter, Sharon

    During 2013, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) received reports of 6 hepatitis A cases among food handlers. We describe our decision-making process for public notification, type of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) offered, and lessons learned. For 3 cases, public notification was issued and DOHMH offered only hepatitis A vaccine as PEP. Subsequent outbreaks resulted from 1 case for which no public notification was issued or PEP offered, and 1 for which public notification was issued and PEP was offered too late. DOHMH continues to use environmental assessments to guide public notification decisions and offer only hepatitis A vaccine as PEP after public notification but recognizes the need to evaluate each situation individually. The PEP strategy employed by DOHMH should be considered because hepatitis A vaccine is immunogenic in all age groups, can be obtained by local jurisdictions more quickly, and is logistically easier to administer in mass clinics than immunoglobulin.

  9. Using tracking infrastructure to support public health programs, policies, and emergency response in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Nancy Loder; McKelvey, Wendy; Matte, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To describe how the New York City (NYC) Tracking Program has used nationally mandated Secure Portal infrastructure and staff analytical expertise to support programs and inform policy. The NYC Health Department assesses, investigates, and acts on a wide range of environmental concerns to protect the health of New Yorkers. Specific examples of highly effective policies or initiatives that relied on the NYC Tracking Program are described, including restaurant sanitary grade posting, rat indexing, converting boilers to cleaner-burning fuels, reducing exposure to mercury from fish and contaminated products, and responding to Superstorm Sandy. The NYC Tracking Program supports the Health Department in using inspectional, administrative, and health data to guide operations. Tracking has also allowed internal and external partners to use these data to guide policy development.

  10. Lead (Pb) and other metals in New York City community garden soils: factors influencing contaminant distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca G.; Spliethoff, Henry M.; Ribaudo, Lisa N.; Lopp, Donna M.; Shayler, Hannah A.; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G.; Lambert, Veronique T.; Ferenz, Gretchen S.; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M.; Stone, Edie B.; McBride, Murray B.

    2014-01-01

    Urban gardens provide affordable fresh produce to communities with limited access to healthy food but may also increase exposure to lead (Pb) and other soil contaminants. Metals analysis of 564 soil samples from 54 New York City (NYC) community gardens found at least one sample exceeding health-based guidance values in 70% of gardens. However, most samples (78%) did not exceed guidance values, and medians were generally below those reported in NYC soil and other urban gardening studies. Barium (Ba) and Pb most frequently exceeded guidance values and along with cadmium (Cd) were strongly correlated with zinc (Zn), a commonly measured nutrient. Principal component analysis suggested that contaminants varied independently from organic matter and geogenic metals. Contaminants were associated with visible debris and a lack of raised beds; management practices (e.g., importing uncontaminated soil) have likely reduced metals concentrations. Continued exposure reduction efforts would benefit communities already burdened by environmental exposures. PMID:24502997

  11. Subway train-related fatalities in New York City: accident versus suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peter T; Gill, James R

    2009-11-01

    We examined the characteristics of subway train-related fatalities in New York City between Jan. 1, 2003 and May 31, 2007 in order to determine which factors are useful in differentiating accident from suicide. Subway train-related deaths with homicide and undetermined manners also are included. During this period, there were 211 subway train-related fatalities. The manners of death were: suicide (n = 111), accident (n = 76), undetermined (n = 20), and homicide (n = 4). The causes of death were blunt trauma (n = 206) and electrocution (n = 5). Torso transection and extremity amputation were more frequent in suicides. Antidepressant medications were more frequently detected in suicides, whereas cocaine and ethanol were more frequent in accidents. However, autopsy findings should be weighed in the context of the entire evaluation along with other circumstantial and investigative findings. In unwitnessed deaths where additional information is unavailable or discrepant, the most appropriate manner of death usually is undetermined.

  12. Community implementation dynamics: Nutrient management in the New York City and Chesapeake Bay Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Earl Sterner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The creation of natural resource management and conservation strategies can be affected by engagement with local citizens and competing interests between agencies and stakeholders at the varying levels of governance. This paper examines the role of local engagement and the interaction between governance levels on the outcomes of nutrient management policy, a specific area of natural resource conservation and management. Presented are two case studies of the New York City and Chesapeake Bay Watersheds in the US. These case studies touch upon the themes of local citizen engagement and governance stakeholder interaction in changing nutrient management to improve water quality. An analysis of these cases leads to several key considerations for the creation and implementation of nutrient management and natural resource management more broadly, including the importance of: local citizen engagement, government brokering and cost sharing; and the need of all stakeholders to respect each other in the policy creation and implementation process.

  13. A Case in Pointe: Romance and Regimentation at the New York City Ballet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laemmli, Whitney E

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the ballet dancer's pointe shoe as a technology of artistic production and bodily discipline. Drawing on oral histories, memoirs, dance journals, advertisements, and other archival materials, it demonstrates that the shoe utilized by dancers at George Balanchine's New York City Ballet was not the quintessentially Romantic entity it is so often presumed to be. Instead, it emerged from uniquely twentieth-century systems of labor and production, and it was used to alter dancers' bodies and professional lives in particularly modern ways. The article explores not only the substance of these changes but also the ways in which Balanchine's artistic oeuvre was inextricably intertwined with the material technologies he employed and, more broadly, how the history of technology and the history of dance can productively inform one another. Fundamentally, this article recasts Balanchine, seeing him not as a disconnected artist but as an eager participant in the twentieth-century national romance with American technology.

  14. Strontium-90 in human bone: 1981 results for New York City and San Francisco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klusek, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of determinations of Sr-90 content of 102 specimens of vertebrae obtained during 1981 in New York City and San Francisco. The average Sr-90 to Ca ratios for adult vertebrae are 0.95 pCi/g Ca (0.037 Bq/g Ca) in New York and 0.61 pCi/g Ca (0.023 Bq/g Ca) in San Francisco, little changed from the average values of the previous year. Average Sr-90 concentrations in children's bone are now little different from the adult values. A two compartment bone model, which accounts for both short and long term retention of Sr-90 in bone, is used to describe the variations of Sr-90 content of bone and provide correlation with dietary Sr-90 intake. Regression analysis of the 21 years of survey data provides values of the relative retention of dietary Sr-90 and the effective bone turnover rates. The bone model gives satisfactory description of observed Sr-90 levels and allows reliable assessment of the long-term behavior of Sr-90 in man

  15. Strontium-90 in human bone: 1980 results for New York City and San Francisco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klusek, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of determinations of 90 Sr content of 75 specimens of vertebrae obtained during 1980 in New York City and San Francisco. The average 90 Sr to Ca ratios for adult vertebrae are 0.95 pCi/g Ca (0.037 Bq/g Ca) in New York and 0.60 pCi/g Ca (0.022 Bq/g Ca) in San Francisco, little changed from the average values of the previous year. Average 90 Sr concentrations in children's bone are now little different from the adult values. A two compartment bone model, which accounts for both short and long term retention of 90 Sr in bone, is used to describe the variations of 90 Sr content of bone and provide correlation with dietary 90 Sr intake. Regression analysis of the 20 years of survey data provides values of the relative retention of dietary 90 Sr and the effective bone turnover rates. The bone model gives satisfactory description of observed 90 Sr levels and allows reliable assessment of the long-term behavior of 90 Sr in man

  16. Impact assessment of the 1977 New York City blackout. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, J. L.; Miles, W. T.

    1978-07-01

    This study was commissioned by the Division of Electric Energy Systems (EES), Department of Energy (DOE) shortly after the July 13, 1977 New York City Blackout. The objectives were two-fold: to assess the availability and collect, where practical, data pertaining to a wide variety of impacts occurring as a result of the blackout; and to broadly define a framework to assess the value of electric power reliability from consideration of the blackout and its effects on individuals, businesses, and institutions. The impacts were complex and included both economic and social costs. In order to systematically classify the most significant of these impacts and provide guidance for data collection, impact classification schemes were developed. Major economic impact categories examined are business; government; utilities (Consolidated Edison); insurance industry; public health services; and other public services. Impacts were classified as either direct or indirect depending upon whether the impact was due to a cessation of electricity or a response to that cessation. The principal economic costs of the blackout are shown. Social impacts, i.e., the changes in social activities and adaptations to these changes were particularly significant in New York due to its unique demographic and geographic characteristics. The looting and arson that accompanied the blackout set aside the NYC experience from other similar power failures. (MCW)

  17. WWC Review of the Report "A Big Apple for Educators: New York City's Experiment with Schoolwide Performance Bonuses. Final Evaluation Report." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The study examined in this paper focuses on whether monetary bonuses for teachers improved schoolwide academic achievement in New York City public schools. Study authors analyzed data from 389 high-need elementary, middle, and high schools in New York City in the first year of the bonus program (2007-08) and from 371 of those same schools in the…

  18. Going Tobacco-Free on 24 New York City University Campuses: A Public Health Agency's Partnership with a Large Urban Public University System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnahan, Marie P.; Sacks, Rachel; Farley, Shannon M.; Mandel-Ricci, Jenna; Patterson, Ty; Lamberson, Patti

    2016-01-01

    The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene partnered with the nation's largest university system, the City University of New York (CUNY), to provide technical assistance and resources to support the development and implementation of a system-wide tobacco-free policy. This effort formed one component of "Healthy CUNY"--a…

  19. Is the institutionalization of urban movements inevitable? : A comparison of the opportunities for sustained squatting in New York City and Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.D. Pruijt (Hans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In this article the opportunity structures of New York City and Amsterdam for organized squatting are compared. New York City knew two distinct squatting waves, with an intermission of several years. The literature on US urban movements predicts transformation through

  20. "Context-Specific" Teacher Preparation for New York City: An Exploration of the Content of Context in Bard College's Urban Teacher Residency Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerness, Karen; Craig, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine a residency program that was developed to prepare teachers specifically for New York City schools--the Bard College Master of Arts in Teaching Urban Teacher Residency program. This focused preparation on the particular urban context of New York City provides us with a unique opportunity to examine the nature of…

  1. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health Behaviors in a Population-Based Sample of Older, Foreign-Born, Chinese American Adults Living in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Laura C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Islam, Nadia S.; Kwon, Simona C.

    2014-01-01

    Although the New York City Chinese population aged =65 years increased by 50% between 2000 and 2010, the health needs of this population are poorly understood. Approximately 3,001 Chinese individuals from high-density Asian American New York City areas were included in the REACH U.S. Risk Factor Survey; 805 (26.8%) were aged =65 years and…

  2. Approaches of Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation-Funded Intermediary Organizations to Structuring and Supporting Small High Schools in New York City. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, a few years after the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation began implementing its small schools reform agenda, the Chancellor of the New York City Department of Education (DOE) announced a plan to replace large failing high schools in New York City with 200 small schools. In short order, the foundation and the Chancellor became partners with…

  3. Neighborhood walkability and active travel (walking and cycling) in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Lance; Neckerman, Kathryn; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Quinn, James; Richards, Catherine; Bader, Michael D M; Lovasi, Gina; Jack, Darby; Weiss, Christopher; Konty, Kevin; Arno, Peter; Viola, Deborah; Kerker, Bonnie; Rundle, Andrew G

    2013-08-01

    Urban planners have suggested that built environment characteristics can support active travel (walking and cycling) and reduce sedentary behavior. This study assessed whether engagement in active travel is associated with neighborhood walkability measured for zip codes in New York City. Data were analyzed on engagement in active travel and the frequency of walking or biking ten blocks or more in the past month, from 8,064 respondents to the New York City 2003 Community Health Survey (CHS). A neighborhood walkability scale that measures: residential, intersection, and subway stop density; land use mix; and the ratio of retail building floor area to retail land area was calculated for each zip code. Data were analyzed using zero-inflated negative binomial regression incorporating survey sample weights and adjusting for respondents' sociodemographic characteristics. Overall, 44 % of respondents reported no episodes of active travel and among those who reported any episode, the mean number was 43.2 episodes per month. Comparing the 75th to the 25th percentile of zip code walkability, the odds ratio for reporting zero episodes of active travel was 0.71 (95 % CI 0.61, 0.83) and the exponentiated beta coefficient for the count of episodes of active travel was 1.13 (95 % CI 1.06, 1.21). Associations between lower walkability and reporting zero episodes of active travel were significantly stronger for non-Hispanic Whites as compared to non-Hispanic Blacks and to Hispanics and for those living in higher income zip codes. The results suggest that neighborhood walkability is associated with higher engagement in active travel.

  4. Filthy lucre: A metagenomic pilot study of microbes found on circulating currency in New York City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M Maritz

    Full Text Available Paper currency by its very nature is frequently transferred from one person to another and represents an important medium for human contact with-and potential exchange of-microbes. In this pilot study, we swabbed circulating $1 bills obtained from a New York City bank in February (Winter and June (Summer 2013 and used shotgun metagenomic sequencing to profile the communities found on their surface. Using basic culture conditions, we also tested whether viable microbes could be recovered from bills.Shotgun metagenomics identified eukaryotes as the most abundant sequences on money, followed by bacteria, viruses and archaea. Eukaryotic assemblages were dominated by human, other metazoan and fungal taxa. The currency investigated harbored a diverse microbial population that was dominated by human skin and oral commensals, including Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus. Other taxa detected not associated with humans included Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus, microbes typically associated with dairy production and fermentation. Culturing results indicated that viable microbes can be isolated from paper currency.We conducted the first metagenomic characterization of the surface of paper money in the United States, establishing a baseline for microbes found on $1 bills circulating in New York City. Our results suggest that money amalgamates DNA from sources inhabiting the human microbiome, food, and other environmental inputs, some of which can be recovered as viable organisms. These monetary communities may be maintained through contact with human skin, and DNA obtained from money may provide a record of human behavior and health. Understanding these microbial profiles is especially relevant to public health as money could potentially mediate interpersonal transfer of microbes.

  5. Early Nineteenth-Century New Yorkers and the Invention of New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François WEIL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’intéresse à l’« invention » de New York, dans la période antérieure à la Guerre de Sécession, et aux formes ou aux procédés qui suscitèrent l’émergence d’une nouvelle conscience de soi dans la ville. Il évoque d’abord les facteurs contradictoires qui contribuèrent au développement d’une culture littéraire et artistique. Il tente ensuite de montrer comment les new-yorkais traduisirent leur fierté ancestrale et leurs sentiments identitaires sous forme de recherches historiques et généalogiques. Enfin, il montre la manière dont certains ouvrages élaborèrent une nouvelle grammaire, une nouvelle image, afin d’esquisser les contours géographiques et sociologiques de la métropole naissante.This essay explores the « invention » of New York City in the antebellum era, or the parallel forms of cultural processes and elaborations that led to the emergence of a new sense of self-awareness in the city. It first evokes the contradictory ways in which a literary and artistic culture developed. It then attempts to reveal how New Yorkers translated their ancestral pride and identity feelings into historical and genealogical pursuits. It finally explores the way in which some works contributed to the creation of a new grammar, a new image, in order to draw the contours of the geography and sociology of the new metropolis.

  6. Awareness and impact of New York City's graphic point-of-sale tobacco health warning signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Micaela H; Chan, Christina A; Auer, Kari; Farley, Shannon M; Kilgore, Elizabeth A; Kansagra, Susan M

    2013-05-01

    To increase knowledge of smoking-related health risks and provide smoking cessation information at the point of sale, in 2009, New York City required the posting of graphic point-of-sale tobacco health warnings in tobacco retailers. This study is the first to evaluate the impact of such a policy in the USA. Cross-sectional street-intercept surveys conducted among adult current smokers and recent quitters before and after signage implementation assessed the awareness and impact of the signs. Approximately 10 street-intercept surveys were conducted at each of 50 tobacco retailers in New York City before and after policy implementation. A total of 1007 adults who were either current smokers or recent quitters were surveyed about the awareness and impact of tobacco health warning signs. Multivariate risk ratios (RR) were calculated to estimate awareness and impact of the signs. Most participants (86%) were current smokers, and the sample was 28% African-American, 32% Hispanic/Latino and 27% non-Hispanic white. Awareness of tobacco health warning signs more than doubled after the policy implementation (adjusted RR =2.01, 95% CI 1.74 to 2.33). Signage posting was associated with an 11% increase in the extent to which signs made respondents think about quitting smoking (adjusted RR =1.11, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.22). A policy requiring tobacco retailers to display graphic health warning signs increased awareness of health risks of smoking and stimulated thoughts about quitting smoking. Additional research aimed at evaluating the effect of tobacco control measures in the retail environment is necessary to provide further rationale for implementing these changes.

  7. Lead (Pb) and other metals in New York City community garden soils: Factors influencing contaminant distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Rebecca G.; Spliethoff, Henry M.; Ribaudo, Lisa N.; Lopp, Donna M.; Shayler, Hannah A.; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G.; Lambert, Veronique T.; Ferenz, Gretchen S.; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M.; Stone, Edie B.; McBride, Murray B.

    2014-01-01

    Urban gardens provide affordable fresh produce to communities with limited access to healthy food but may also increase exposure to lead (Pb) and other soil contaminants. Metals analysis of 564 soil samples from 54 New York City (NYC) community gardens found at least one sample exceeding health-based guidance values in 70% of gardens. However, most samples (78%) did not exceed guidance values, and medians were generally below those reported in NYC soil and other urban gardening studies. Barium (Ba) and Pb most frequently exceeded guidance values and along with cadmium (Cd) were strongly correlated with zinc (Zn), a commonly measured nutrient. Principal component analysis suggested that contaminants varied independently from organic matter and geogenic metals. Contaminants were associated with visible debris and a lack of raised beds; management practices (e.g., importing uncontaminated soil) have likely reduced metals concentrations. Continued exposure reduction efforts would benefit communities already burdened by environmental exposures. - Highlights: • We measured metals concentrations in soil from 54 New York City community gardens. • Pb and Ba exceeded health-based guidance values in 9%–12% of garden beds. • Pb concentrations were similar to those in other studies of urban garden soils. • Pb and Ba were associated with Zn, with visible debris, and with non-raised beds. • Observable details can help gardeners focus testing and exposure reduction efforts. - Pb and Ba, which exceeded health-based guidance values in 10–14% of NYC community garden soil samples, are associated with non-raised beds, visible debris, higher pH and Zn

  8. Association between Residential Proximity to PERC Dry Cleaning Establishments and Kidney Cancer in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Perchloroethylene (PERC is commonly used as a dry cleaning solvent and is believed to be a human carcinogen, with occupational exposure resulting in elevated rates of kidney cancer. Living near a dry cleaning facility using PERC has been demonstrated to increase the risk of PERC exposure throughout the building where the dry cleaning is conducted, and in nearby buildings. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that living in an area where there are many PERC dry cleaners increases PERC exposure and the risk of kidney cancer. We matched the diagnosis of kidney cancer from hospitalization discharge data in New York City for the years 1994–2004 by zip code of patient residence to the zip code density of dry cleaners using PERC, as a surrogate for residential exposure. We controlled for age, race, gender, and median household income. We found a significant association between the density of PERC dry cleaning establishments and the rate of hospital discharges that include a diagnosis of kidney cancer among persons 45 years of age and older living in New York City. The rate ratio increased by 10 to 27% for the populations in zip codes with higher density of PERC dry cleaners. Because our exposure assessment is inexact, we are likely underestimating the real association between exposure to PERC and rates of kidney cancer. Our results support the hypothesis that living near a dry cleaning facility using PERC increases the risk of PERC exposure and of developing kidney cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate an association between residential PERC exposure and cancer risk.

  9. Predictability and Spatial Characteristics of New-York-City-Area Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, C.; Horton, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    The origins, characteristics, and predictability of extreme heat waves in the Northeast U.S. are simultaneously examined at multiple scales, using hourly observational data from 1948-2014 and focusing in particular on the region surrounding New York City. A novel definition of heat waves - incorporating both temperature and moisture at hourly resolution - is used to identify 3-to-5-day heat waves whose dynamics are then analyzed from 3 weeks prior to 3 weeks subsequent to the event. Inter-event differences in dynamics such as the strength and position of geopotential-height anomalies; the strength, persistence, and orientation of sea breezes; and the dominant 850-hPa wind azimuth, all of which are filtered via local terrain and land-use to create differences in conditions between events at specific locations. In particular, using composite maps and back trajectories, they are found to play an important role in creating mesoscale differences in low-level moisture content, from one side of the metropolitan area to the other. Evidence is presented supporting the influence of coastline orientation in explaining the differences in the relationships between wind azimuth and temperature & moisture advection between New York City proper and northern New Jersey. Self-organizing maps are employed to classify heat waves based on the small-scale differences in temperature and moisture between events, and the results of this classification are then used in correlations with synoptic- and hemispheric-scale geopotential-height anomalies. Considerable predictability of event type on the small-scale (as well as occurrence of a heat wave of any kind) is found, originating primarily from central Pacific and western Atlantic SSTs.

  10. Association between Residential Proximity to PERC Dry Cleaning Establishments and Kidney Cancer in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J.; Lessner, L.; Lessner, L.; Carpenter, D.O.; Schreiber, J.

    2010-01-01

    Perchloroethylene (PERC) is commonly used as a dry cleaning solvent and is believed to be a human carcinogen, with occupational exposure resulting in elevated rates of kidney cancer. Living near a dry cleaning facility using PERC has been demonstrated to increase the risk of PERC exposure throughout the building where the dry cleaning is conducted, and in nearby buildings. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that living in an area where there are many PERC dry cleaners increases PERC exposure and the risk of kidney cancer. We matched the diagnosis of kidney cancer from hospitalization discharge data in New York City for the years 1994-2004 by zip code of patient residence to the zip code density of dry cleaners using PERC, as a surrogate for residential exposure. We controlled for age, race, gender, and median household income. We found a significant association between the density of PERC dry cleaning establishments and the rate of hospital discharges that include a diagnosis of kidney cancer among persons 45 years of age and older living in New York City. The rate ratio increased by 10 to 27% for the populations in zip codes with higher density of PERC dry cleaners. Because our exposure assessment is inexact, we are likely underestimating the real association between exposure to PERC and rates of kidney cancer. Our results support the hypothesis that living near a dry cleaning facility using PERC increases the risk of PERC exposure and of developing kidney cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate an association between residential PERC exposure and cancer risk.

  11. Prenatal Phthalate Exposures and Childhood Fat Mass in a New York City Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jessie P; Engel, Stephanie M; Mendez, Michelle A; Richardson, David B; Daniels, Julie L; Calafat, Antonia M; Wolff, Mary S; Herring, Amy H

    2016-04-01

    Experimental animal studies and limited epidemiologic evidence suggest that prenatal exposure to phthalates may be obesogenic, with potential sex-specific effects of phthalates having anti-androgenic activity. We aimed to assess associations between prenatal phthalate exposures and childhood fat mass in a prospective cohort study. We measured phthalate metabolite concentrations in third-trimester maternal urine in a cohort of women enrolled in New York City between 1998 and 2002 (n = 404). Among 180 children (82 girls and 98 boys), we evaluated body composition using a Tanita scale at multiple follow-up visits between ages 4 and 9 years (363 total visits). We estimated associations of standard deviation differences or tertiles of natural log phthalate metabolite concentrations with percent fat mass using linear mixed-effects regression models with random intercepts for repeated outcome measurements. We assessed associations in multiple metabolite models and adjusted for covariates including prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and breastfeeding. We did not observe associations between maternal urinary phthalate concentrations and percent body fat in models examining continuous exposures. Fat mass was 3.06% (95% CI: -5.99, -0.09%) lower among children in the highest tertile of maternal urinary concentrations of summed di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ΣDEHP) metabolites than in children in the lowest tertile. Though estimates were imprecise, there was little evidence that associations between maternal urinary phthalate concentrations and percent fat mass were modified by child's sex. Prenatal phthalate exposures were not associated with increased body fat among children 4-9 years of age, though high prenatal DEHP exposure may be associated with lower fat mass in childhood. Buckley JP, Engel SM, Mendez MA, Richardson DB, Daniels JL, Calafat AM, Wolff MS, Herring AH. 2016. Prenatal phthalate exposures and childhood fat

  12. Risk factors associated with sexually transmitted infections among women under community supervision in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alissa; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Dasgupta, Anindita; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2018-01-01

    The number of women under community supervision in the United States has increased, and this population has a high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We examined STI prevalence and multiple risk factors among drug-involved women under community supervision in New York City. Data were from a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of a behavioral HIV/STI intervention (Women on the Road to Health [WORTH]) among drug-involved women in the community corrections system in New York City from 2009 to 2012. To be eligible for inclusion, women had to be under community supervision within the past 90 days, have used illicit drugs at least once in the past six months, and have unprotected sex at least once in the past 90 days. Participants completed a survey containing items on STI risk factors and were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Multivariable regression was used to examine associations between risk factors and STI diagnosis. Of 333 women tested, 89 (26.7%) tested positive for an STI. Ten (3.0%) were positive for C. trachomatis, 4 (1.2%) for N. gonorrhoeae, and 77 (23.1%) for T. vaginalis. Women with any STI were more likely to be black (AOR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.08-3.77), homeless in the past 90 days (AOR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.01-4.26), arrested in the past 90 days (AOR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.14-3.39), and have a greater number of sexual partners in the past 90 days (AOR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.08-1.42). Drug-using women under community supervision have a high burden of STIs driven by multiple risk factors. Implementing STI screening, prevention, and treatment programs in community supervision settings could facilitate a reduction in STIs among this population.

  13. Characterization of microbial and metal contamination in flooded New York City neighborhoods following Superstorm Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueker, M.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Sahajpal, R.

    2013-12-01

    Large scale flooding of waterfront neighborhoods occurred in New York City (NYC) during Superstorm Sandy. While NYC waterways commonly experience combined sewer overflow (CSO) and associated water quality degradation during rain storms, Superstorm Sandy was unique in that these potentially contaminated waters were transported over the banks and into city streets and buildings. Sampling of waterways, storm debris on city streets, and flood water trapped in building basements occurred in the days following Sandy, including in neighborhoods bordering the Gowanus Canal and Newtown Creek, which are both Superfund sites known to frequently contain high levels of sewage associated bacteria and metal contamination. Samples enumerated for the sewage indicating bacterium, Enterococcus, suggest that well-flushed waterways recovered quickly from sewage contamination in the days following the storm, with Enterococci concentrations similar to background levels measured before flooding occurred. In contrast, storm debris on city streets and waters from flooded basements had much higher levels of sewage-associated bacteria days after flooding occurred. Analysis of 180,000 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from flood water samples and flood debris confirmed the presence of bacterial genera often associated with sewage impacted samples (e.g. Escherichia, Streptococcus, Clostridium, Trichococcus, Aeromonas) and a community composition similar to CSO discharge. Elemental analysis suggests low levels of metal contamination in most flood water, but much higher levels of Cu, Pb, and Cr were found in leach from some storm debris samples found adjacent to the Newtown Creek and Gowanus Canal superfund sites. These data suggest a rapid recovery of water quality in local waterways after Superstorm Sandy, but that trapped flood water and debris samples in urban neighborhoods retained elevated levels of microbial sewage pollution, and in some cases metal pollution, days after that

  14. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Post-Top Lighting at Central Park in New York City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Michael; Goettel, Russell T.; Kinzey, Bruce R.

    2012-09-30

    A review of five post-top light-emitting diode (LED) pedestrian luminaires installed in New York City's Central Park for possible replacement to the existing metal halide post-top luminaire. This report reviews the energy savings potential and lighting delivered by the LED post-top luminaires.

  15. My Brother's Keeper: Nurturing In-School Relationships for Young Men of Color in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Paul; Klevan, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Black and Latino men pay a heavy price for the structural inequities they face, such as higher rates of poverty, incarceration, and unemployment. New York City's Young Men's Initiative, a combination of new programs and policy reforms, seeks to mitigate some of the effects of these inequitable conditions on young men of color. The educational…

  16. Presence of Counterfeit Marlboro Gold Packs in Licensed Retail Stores in New York City: Evidence From Test Purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurti, Marin; He, Yi; Silver, Diana; Giorgio, Margaret; von Lampe, Klaus; Macinko, James; Ye, Hua; Tan, Fidelis; Mei, Victoria

    2018-05-26

    There are no independent studies measuring the availability of premium brand counterfeit cigarettes in New York City from licensed retailers. We forensically analyzed the cigarette packaging of Marlboro Gold (n = 1021) purchased from licensed tobacco retailers in New York City, using ultraviolet irradiation and light microscopy to determine whether they were counterfeit. We find that while only 0.5% (n = 5) of our sample exhibits at least one characteristic synonymous with counterfeit packaging, none of our packs can be conclusively classified as counterfeit. We do not find any counterfeit Marlboro Gold packs purchased at full price from licensed cigarette retailers throughout New York City. Future research using test purchases should include other venues (eg, street and online) and specifically ask for discounts to ascertain the overall presence of counterfeit cigarettes. This is the first study to independently measure the availability of counterfeit cigarette packs purchased at full price from licensed retailers in New York City. We find that none of the Marlboro Gold packs purchased from licensed cigarette retailers are counterfeit.

  17. Income Inequality and Risk of Suicide in New York City Neighborhoods: A Multilevel Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeffrey R.; Piper, Tinka Markham; Ahern, Jennifer; Tracy, Melissa; Tardiff, Kenneth J.; Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro

    2005-01-01

    Evidence on the relationship between income inequality and suicide is inconsistent. Data from the New York City Office of the Chief Medical Examiner for all fatal injuries was collected to conduct a multilevel case-control study. In multilevel models, suicide decedents (n = 374) were more likely than accident controls (n = 453) to reside in…

  18. An Analysis of New Small High Schools' On-Time Graduation Rates in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Beginning in 2002, with the election of Mayor Michael Bloomberg, New York City's Department of Education undertook an unprecedented overhaul of the largest school district in the United States. Over the next 10 years the Department of Education closed more than 25 large, underperforming high schools, and created almost 200 new, small high schools,…

  19. Getting farming on the agenda: Planning, policymaking, and governance practices of urban agriculture in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay K. Campbell

    2016-01-01

    How and why is urban agriculture taken up into local food policies and sustainability plans? This paper uses a case study of urban agriculture policymaking in New York City from 2007 to 2011 to examine the power-laden operation of urban environmental governance. It explores several 'faces of power,' including overt authority, institutionalized 'rules of...

  20. Infusion of Emerging Technologies and New Teaching Methods into the Mechanical Engineering Curriculum at the City College of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delale, Feridun; Liaw, Benjamin M.; Jiji, Latif M.; Voiculescu, Ioana; Yu, Honghui

    2011-01-01

    From October 2003 to April 2008 a systemic reform of the Mechanical Engineering program at The City College of New York was undertaken with the goal of incorporating emerging technologies (such as nanotechnology, biotechnology, Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), intelligent systems) and new teaching methodologies (such as project based…

  1. An Acoustically Based Sociolinguistic Analysis of Variable Coda /s/ Production in the Spanish of New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erker, Daniel Gerard

    2012-01-01

    This study examines a major linguistic event underway in New York City. Of its 10 million inhabitants, nearly a third are speakers of Spanish. This community is socially and linguistically diverse: Some speakers are recent arrivals from Latin America while others are lifelong New Yorkers. Some have origins in the Caribbean, the historic source of…

  2. Reading the landscape: citywide social assessment of New York City parks and natural areas in 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.S. Novem Auyeung; Lindsay K. Campbell; Michelle Johnson; Nancy Falxa Sonti; Erika Svendsen

    2016-01-01

    In 2001, the New York City Department of Parks & Recreation (NYC Parks) Natural Resources Group created the Forever Wild Program to protect nearly 9,000 acres of forests, wetlands, and meadows citywide. Although these areas were set aside over a decade ago, we have little systematic evidence about how park visitors view, use, and value parks with these...

  3. Attack-Related Life Disruption and Child Psychopathology in New York City Public Schoolchildren 6-Months Post-9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Fan, Bin; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Wu, Ping; Musa, George J.; Mandell, Donald J.; Albano, Anne Marie; Hoven, Christina W.

    2010-01-01

    In the aftermath of disasters, understanding relationships between disaster-related life disruption and children's functioning is key to informing future postdisaster intervention efforts. The present study examined attack-related life disruptions and psychopathology in a representative sample (N = 8,236) of New York City public schoolchildren…

  4. Exposure to 911 among Youth and Their Mothers in New York City: Enduring Associations with Mental Health and Sociopolitical Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Aber, J. Lawrence; Ware, Angelica; Kotler, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    The enduring impact of exposure to the 911 terrorist attacks on mental health and sociopolitical attitudes was examined in a sample of 427 adolescents (M = 16.20 years) and their mothers residing in New York City. Direct exposure to the terrorist attack was associated with youth depression symptoms and with mothers' posttraumatic stress disorder…

  5. New York City School Survey 2008-2010: Assessing the Reliability and Validity of a Progress Report Measure. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Lori; Cole, Rachel; Kemple, James J.; Lent, Jessica; McCormick, Meghan; Segeritz, Micha

    2013-01-01

    The Research Alliance for New York City Schools examined Department of Education (DOE) School Survey data from 2008-2010 to better understand the richness and complexities of the information elicited by the Survey from parents, students, and teachers. This report provides background information on the development of the NYC School Surveys during…

  6. In Bed with the Library: A Critical Exploration of Embedded Librarianship at the City University of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Julia

    2017-01-01

    This project considers the efficacy and scalability of embedded librarianship initiatives within the City University of New York (CUNY) library system and presents findings of an original research study conducted in 2015. Through an analysis of recent LIS literature on embedment, response data from a survey of librarians, and a selection of…

  7. Spatial variation in the parasite communities and genomic structure of urban rats in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angley, L P; Combs, M; Firth, C; Frye, M J; Lipkin, I; Richardson, J L; Munshi-South, J

    2018-02-01

    Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) are a globally distributed pest. Urban habitats can support large infestations of rats, posing a potential risk to public health from the parasites and pathogens they carry. Despite the potential influence of rodent-borne zoonotic diseases on human health, it is unclear how urban habitats affect the structure and transmission dynamics of ectoparasite and microbial communities (all referred to as "parasites" hereafter) among rat colonies. In this study, we use ecological data on parasites and genomic sequencing of their rat hosts to examine associations between spatial proximity, genetic relatedness and the parasite communities associated with 133 rats at five sites in sections of New York City with persistent rat infestations. We build on previous work showing that rats in New York carry a wide variety of parasites and report that these communities differ significantly among sites, even across small geographical distances. Ectoparasite community similarity was positively associated with geographical proximity; however, there was no general association between distance and microbial communities of rats. Sites with greater overall parasite diversity also had rats with greater infection levels and parasite species richness. Parasite community similarity among sites was not linked to genetic relatedness of rats, suggesting that these communities are not associated with genetic similarity among host individuals or host dispersal among sites. Discriminant analysis identified site-specific associations of several parasite species, suggesting that the presence of some species within parasite communities may allow researchers to determine the sites of origin for newly sampled rats. The results of our study help clarify the roles that colony structure and geographical proximity play in determining the ecology of R. norvegicus as a significant urban reservoir of zoonotic diseases. Our study also highlights the spatial variation present in urban

  8. Liver Cancer Disparities in New York City: A Neighborhood View of Risk and Harm Reduction Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali R. Kamath

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionLiver cancer is the fastest increasing cancer in the United States and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in New York City (NYC, with wide disparities among neighborhoods. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to describe liver cancer incidence by neighborhood and examine its association with risk factors. This information can inform preventive and treatment interventions.Materials and methodsPublicly available data were collected on adult NYC residents (n = 6,407,022. Age-adjusted data on liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer came from the New York State Cancer Registry (1 (2007–2011 average annual incidence; and the NYC Vital Statistics Bureau (2015, mortality. Data on liver cancer risk factors (2012–2015 were sourced from the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene: (1 Community Health Survey, (2 A1C registry, and (3 NYC Health Department Hepatitis surveillance data. They included prevalence of obesity, diabetes, diabetic control, alcohol-related hospitalizations or emergency department visits, hepatitis B and C rates, hepatitis B vaccine coverage, and injecting drug use.ResultsLiver cancer incidence in NYC was strongly associated with neighborhood poverty after adjusting for race/ethnicity (β = 0.0217, p = 0.013; and with infection risk scores (β = 0.0389, 95% CI = 0.0088–0.069, p = 0.011, particularly in the poorest neighborhoods (β = 0.1207, 95% CI = 0.0147–0.2267, p = 0.026. Some neighborhoods with high hepatitis rates do not have a proportionate number of hepatitis prevention services.ConclusionHigh liver cancer incidence is strongly associated with infection risk factors in NYC. There are gaps in hepatitis prevention services like syringe exchange and vaccination that should be addressed. The role of alcohol and metabolic risk factors on liver cancer in NYC warrants further study.

  9. Visionmaker NYC: A bottom-up approach to finding shared socioeconomic pathways in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, E. W.; Fisher, K.; Giampieri, M.; Barr, J.; Meixler, M.; Allred, S. B.; Bunting-Howarth, K. E.; DuBois, B.; Parris, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Visionmaker NYC is a free, public participatory, bottom-up web application to develop and share climate mitigation and adaptation strategies for New York City neighborhoods. The goal is to develop shared socioeconomic pathways by allowing a broad swath of community members - from schoolchildren to architects and developers to the general public - to input their concepts for a desired future. Visions are comprised of climate scenarios, lifestyle choices, and ecosystem arrangements, where ecosystems are broadly defined to include built ecosystems (e.g. apartment buildings, single family homes, etc.), transportation infrastructure (e.g. highways, connector roads, sidewalks), and natural land cover types (e.g. wetlands, forests, estuary.) Metrics of water flows, carbon cycling, biodiversity patterns, and population are estimated for the user's vision, for the same neighborhood today, and for that neighborhood as it existed in the pre-development state, based on the Welikia Project (welikia.org.) Users can keep visions private, share them with self-defined groups of other users, or distribute them publicly. Users can also propose "challenges" - specific desired states of metrics for specific parts of the city - and others can post visions in response. Visionmaker contributes by combining scenario planning, scientific modelling, and social media to create new, wide-open possibilities for discussion, collaboration, and imagination regarding future, shared socioeconomic pathways.

  10. Public health in New York City, 2002-2007: confronting epidemics of the modern era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieden, Thomas R; Bassett, Mary T; Thorpe, Lorna E; Farley, Thomas A

    2008-10-01

    Long after the leading causes of death in the United States shifted from infectious diseases to chronic diseases, many public health agencies have not established effective policies and programmes to prevent current health problems. Starting in 2002, the New York City health department, an agency with a long history of innovation, undertook initiatives to address chronic disease prevention and control, as well as to modernize methods to address persistent health problems. All the initiatives relied on an expansive use of epidemiology; actions to prevent disease were based on policy change to create health-promoting environments as well as engagement with the health care system to improve its focus on prevention. Examples of policy-based initiatives are: a multi-component tobacco control programme that included a tax increase, a comprehensive smoke-free air law, hard-hitting anti-tobacco advertising and cessation services; elimination of trans fats from restaurants and a mandate that restaurants post-calorie information on menu boards. Examples of health care initiatives are public health 'detailing' to primary care providers, creation of a city-wide diabetes registry and development of a public health-oriented electronic health record. The infrastructure needed by local health departments to prevent chronic diseases and other modern health problems includes strong information technology systems, skillful epidemiology, expertise in communications using modern media, policy-making authority and, most importantly, political support.

  11. Burden and Risk Factors for Cold-Related Illness and Death in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Lane

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to cold weather can cause cold-related illness and death, which are preventable. To understand the current burden, risk factors, and circumstances of exposure for illness and death directly attributed to cold, we examined hospital discharge, death certificate, and medical examiner data during the cold season from 2005 to 2014 in New York City (NYC, the largest city in the United States. On average each year, there were 180 treat-and-release emergency department visits (average annual rate of 21.6 per million and 240 hospital admissions (29.6 per million for cold-related illness, and 15 cold-related deaths (1.8 per million. Seventy-five percent of decedents were exposed outdoors. About half of those exposed outdoors were homeless or suspected to be homeless. Of the 25% of decedents exposed indoors, none had home heat and nearly all were living in single-family or row homes. The majority of deaths and illnesses occurred outside of periods of extreme cold. Unsheltered homeless individuals, people who use substances and become incapacitated outdoors, and older adults with medical and psychiatric conditions without home heat are most at risk. This information can inform public health prevention strategies and interventions.

  12. The impact of cigarette excise tax increases on purchasing behaviors among New York city smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Micaela H; Chan, Christina A; Sacks, Rachel; Mbamalu, Ijeoma G; Kansagra, Susan M

    2013-06-01

    We examined the relationship between cigarette excise tax increases and tax-avoidant purchasing behaviors among New York City adult smokers. We analyzed data from the city's annual Community Health Survey to assess changes in rates of tax avoidance over time (2003-2010) and smokers' responses to the 2008 state cigarette tax increase. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified correlates of buying more cigarettes on the street in response to the increase. After the 2002 tax increase, the percentage of smokers engaged in tax-avoidant behavior decreased with time from 30% in 2003 to 13% in 2007. Following the 2008 tax increase, 21% of smokers reported buying more cigarettes from another person on the street. Low-income, younger, Black, and Hispanic smokers were more likely than respondents with other sociodemographic characteristics to purchase more cigarettes on the street. To maximize public health impact, cigarette tax increases should be paired with efforts to limit the flow of untaxed cigarettes entering jurisdictions with high cigarette pack prices.

  13. Surface temperatures in New York City: Geospatial data enables the accurate prediction of radiative heat transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandehari, Masoud; Emig, Thorsten; Aghamohamadnia, Milad

    2018-02-02

    Despite decades of research seeking to derive the urban energy budget, the dynamics of thermal exchange in the densely constructed environment is not yet well understood. Using New York City as a study site, we present a novel hybrid experimental-computational approach for a better understanding of the radiative heat transfer in complex urban environments. The aim of this work is to contribute to the calculation of the urban energy budget, particularly the stored energy. We will focus our attention on surface thermal radiation. Improved understanding of urban thermodynamics incorporating the interaction of various bodies, particularly in high rise cities, will have implications on energy conservation at the building scale, and for human health and comfort at the urban scale. The platform presented is based on longwave hyperspectral imaging of nearly 100 blocks of Manhattan, in addition to a geospatial radiosity model that describes the collective radiative heat exchange between multiple buildings. Despite assumptions in surface emissivity and thermal conductivity of buildings walls, the close comparison of temperatures derived from measurements and computations is promising. Results imply that the presented geospatial thermodynamic model of urban structures can enable accurate and high resolution analysis of instantaneous urban surface temperatures.

  14. Nutrition intake and physical activity in a middle school in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Marisol; Feinstein, Ronald; Iezzi, Carina; Fisher, Martin

    2015-08-01

    The threat of childhood obesity has never been greater. Behavior changes implemented during childhood and adolescence are believed to be the most successful means of thwarting the progression of this epidemic. The American Academy of Pediatrics has developed a public health campaign that promotes awareness of clinical guidelines for nutrition and physical activity. The campaign is based on a concept developed by the Maine Center for Public Health referred to as "5-2-1-0 Healthy". The simple clear message of this concept outlines steps families can take to help prevent and treat childhood obesity. The purpose of the present study is to determine the current level of compliance and health education needs of a middle school population related to the "5-2-1-0" concept. A modified version of the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) was distributed to students at a private, nonsectarian, middle school in New York City. The school is located in the borough of Manhattan, but includes youngsters from all five boroughs of the city. The questions were grouped and analyzed according to "5-2-1-0" categories. Surveys were scored, and the association between targeted questionnaire items and demographic variables (i.e., sex and grade) was examined. All 140 students completed the survey, and there was great variability in their responses to both the nutrition and physical activity questions. Of all students, 65% reported eating one cup or more of fruit daily, and 38% reported eating one cup or more of vegetables daily. There was no statistically significant difference reported in consumption of fruits or vegetables by gender or grade. Over 60% of students indicated physical activity reported by gender and grade (more physical activity by males and younger students). There was no difference in the reported consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages by gender or grade. In a cohort of middle school

  15. Verification of Ensemble Forecasts for the New York City Operations Support Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, G.; Schaake, J. C.; Thiemann, M.; Draijer, S.; Wang, L.

    2012-12-01

    The New York City water supply system operated by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) serves nine million people. It covers 2,000 square miles of portions of the Catskill, Delaware, and Croton watersheds, and it includes nineteen reservoirs and three controlled lakes. DEP is developing an Operations Support Tool (OST) to support its water supply operations and planning activities. OST includes historical and real-time data, a model of the water supply system complete with operating rules, and lake water quality models developed to evaluate alternatives for managing turbidity in the New York City Catskill reservoirs. OST will enable DEP to manage turbidity in its unfiltered system while satisfying its primary objective of meeting the City's water supply needs, in addition to considering secondary objectives of maintaining ecological flows, supporting fishery and recreation releases, and mitigating downstream flood peaks. The current version of OST relies on statistical forecasts of flows in the system based on recent observed flows. To improve short-term decision making, plans are being made to transition to National Weather Service (NWS) ensemble forecasts based on hydrologic models that account for short-term weather forecast skill, longer-term climate information, as well as the hydrologic state of the watersheds and recent observed flows. To ensure that the ensemble forecasts are unbiased and that the ensemble spread reflects the actual uncertainty of the forecasts, a statistical model has been developed to post-process the NWS ensemble forecasts to account for hydrologic model error as well as any inherent bias and uncertainty in initial model states, meteorological data and forecasts. The post-processor is designed to produce adjusted ensemble forecasts that are consistent with the DEP historical flow sequences that were used to develop the system operating rules. A set of historical hindcasts that is representative of the real-time ensemble

  16. Microbial Community Patterns Associated with Automated Teller Machine Keypads in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bik, Holly M; Maritz, Julia M; Luong, Albert; Shin, Hakdong; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria; Carlton, Jane M

    2016-01-01

    In densely populated urban environments, the distribution of microbes and the drivers of microbial community assemblages are not well understood. In sprawling metropolitan habitats, the "urban microbiome" may represent a mix of human-associated and environmental taxa. Here we carried out a baseline study of automated teller machine (ATM) keypads in New York City (NYC). Our goal was to describe the biodiversity and biogeography of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes in an urban setting while assessing the potential source of microbial assemblages on ATM keypads. Microbial swab samples were collected from three boroughs (Manhattan, Queens, and Brooklyn) during June and July 2014, followed by generation of Illumina MiSeq datasets for bacterial (16S rRNA) and eukaryotic (18S rRNA) marker genes. Downstream analysis was carried out in the QIIME pipeline, in conjunction with neighborhood metadata (ethnicity, population, age groups) from the NYC Open Data portal. Neither the 16S nor 18S rRNA datasets showed any clustering patterns related to geography or neighborhood demographics. Bacterial assemblages on ATM keypads were dominated by taxonomic groups known to be associated with human skin communities ( Actinobacteria , Bacteroides , Firmicutes , and Proteobacteria ), although SourceTracker analysis was unable to identify the source habitat for the majority of taxa. Eukaryotic assemblages were dominated by fungal taxa as well as by a low-diversity protist community containing both free-living and potentially pathogenic taxa ( Toxoplasma , Trichomonas ). Our results suggest that ATM keypads amalgamate microbial assemblages from different sources, including the human microbiome, eukaryotic food species, and potentially novel extremophilic taxa adapted to air or surfaces in the built environment. DNA obtained from ATM keypads may thus provide a record of both human behavior and environmental sources of microbes. IMPORTANCE Automated teller machine (ATM) keypads represent

  17. Analysis of taxable sales receipts: was New York City's Smoke-Free Air Act bad for restaurant business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, A; Cummings, K M; Nauenberg, E

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the results of a study to determine if the New York City Smoke-Free Air Act has had an adverse economic impact on the taxable sales receipts from the city's restaurant and hotel industries. The study found that real taxable sales from eating and drinking places and hotels in New York City increased by 2.1 percent and 36.9 percent, respectively, compared with levels two years before the smoke-free law took effect. During the same period, real taxable sales for eating and drinking establishments and hotels in the rest of the state experienced a 3.8 percent decrease and a modest 2.4 percent increase in sales, respectively.

  18. Use of Protective Gloves in Nail Salons in Manhattan, New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Basch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nail salon owners in New York City (NYC are required to provide their workers with gloves and it is their responsibility to maintain healthy, safe working spaces for their employees. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency with which nail salon workers wear protective gloves. Methods: A Freedom of Information Law request was submitted to New York Department of State’s Division of Licensing Services for a full list of nail salons in Manhattan, NYC. A sample population of 800 nail salons was identified and a simple random sample (without replacement of 30% (n=240 was selected using a random number generator. Researchers visited each nail salon from October to December of 2015, posing as a potential customer to determine if nail salon workers were wearing gloves. Results: Among the 169 salons in which one or more workers was observed providing services, a total of 562 workers were observed. For 149 salons, in which one or more worker was observed providing services, none of the workers were wearing gloves. In contrast, in six of the salons observed, in which one or more workers was providing services, all of the workers (1 in 2 sites, 2 in 1 site, 3 in 2 sites, and 4 in 1 site were wearing gloves. Almost three-quarters of the total number of workers observed (n=415, 73.8% were not wearing gloves. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that, despite recent media attention and legislation, the majority of nail salon workers we observed were not wearing protective gloves when providing services.

  19. Use of Protective Gloves in Nail Salons in Manhattan, New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey; Yarborough, Christina; Trusty, Stephanie; Basch, Charles

    2016-07-01

    Nail salon owners in New York City (NYC) are required to provide their workers with gloves and it is their responsibility to maintain healthy, safe working spaces for their employees. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency with which nail salon workers wear protective gloves. A Freedom of Information Law request was submitted to New York Department of State's Division of Licensing Services for a full list of nail salons in Manhattan, NYC. A sample population of 800 nail salons was identified and a simple random sample (without replacement) of 30% (n=240) was selected using a random number generator. Researchers visited each nail salon from October to December of 2015, posing as a potential customer to determine if nail salon workers were wearing gloves. Among the 169 salons in which one or more workers was observed providing services, a total of 562 workers were observed. For 149 salons, in which one or more worker was observed providing services, none of the workers were wearing gloves. In contrast, in six of the salons observed, in which one or more workers was providing services, all of the workers (1 in 2 sites, 2 in 1 site, 3 in 2 sites, and 4 in 1 site) were wearing gloves. Almost three-quarters of the total number of workers observed (n=415, 73.8%) were not wearing gloves. The findings of this study indicate that, despite recent media attention and legislation, the majority of nail salon workers we observed were not wearing protective gloves when providing services.

  20. Assessing coastal flood risk and sea level rise impacts at New York City area airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, K. A.; Kimball, N.; Osler, M.; Eberbach, S.

    2014-12-01

    Flood risk and sea level rise impacts were assessed for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) at four airports in the New York City area. These airports included John F. Kennedy International, LaGuardia, Newark International, and Teterboro Airports. Quantifying both present day and future flood risk due to climate change and developing flood mitigation alternatives is crucial for the continued operation of these airports. During Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 all four airports were forced to shut down, in part due to coastal flooding. Future climate change and sea level rise effects may result in more frequent shutdowns and disruptions in travel to and from these busy airports. The study examined the effects of the 1%-annual-chance coastal flooding event for present day existing conditions and six different sea level rise scenarios at each airport. Storm surge model outputs from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided the present day storm surge conditions. 50th and 90thpercentile sea level rise projections from the New York Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) 2013 report were incorporated into storm surge results using linear superposition methods. These projections were evaluated for future years 2025, 2035, and 2055. In addition to the linear superposition approach for storm surge at airports where waves are a potential hazard, one dimensional wave modeling was performed to get the total water level results. Flood hazard and flood depth maps were created based on these results. In addition to assessing overall flooding at each airport, major at-risk infrastructure critical to the continued operation of the airport was identified and a detailed flood vulnerability assessment was performed. This assessment quantified flood impacts in terms of potential critical infrastructure inundation and developed mitigation alternatives to adapt to coastal flooding and future sea level changes. Results from this project are advancing the PANYNJ

  1. Innovative Tools for Water Quality/Quantity Management: New York City's Operations Support Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Schaake, J. C.; Day, G. N.; Porter, J.; Sheer, D. P.; Pyke, G.

    2011-12-01

    The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) manages New York City's water supply, which is comprised of over 20 reservoirs and supplies more than 1 billion gallons of water per day to over 9 million customers. Recently, DEP has initiated design of an Operations Support Tool (OST), a state-of-the-art decision support system to provide computational and predictive support for water supply operations and planning. This presentation describes the technical structure of OST, including the underlying water supply and water quality models, data sources and database management, reservoir inflow forecasts, and the functionalities required to meet the needs of a diverse group of end users. OST is a major upgrade of DEP's current water supply - water quality model, developed to evaluate alternatives for controlling turbidity in NYC's Catskill reservoirs. While the current model relies on historical hydrologic and meteorological data, OST can be driven by forecasted future conditions. It will receive a variety of near-real-time data from a number of sources. OST will support two major types of simulations: long-term, for evaluating policy or infrastructure changes over an extended period of time; and short-term "position analysis" (PA) simulations, consisting of multiple short simulations, all starting from the same initial conditions. Typically, the starting conditions for a PA run will represent those for the current day and traces of forecasted hydrology will drive the model for the duration of the simulation period. The result of these simulations will be a distribution of future system states based on system operating rules and the range of input ensemble streamflow predictions. DEP managers will analyze the output distributions and make operation decisions using risk-based metrics such as probability of refill. Currently, in the developmental stages of OST, forecasts are based on antecedent hydrologic conditions and are statistical in nature. The

  2. The representation of health professionals on governing boards of health care organizations in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Diana J; Keepnews, David; Holmberg, Jessica; Murray, Ellen

    2013-10-01

    The Representation of Health Professionals on Governing Boards of Health Care Organizations in New York City. The heightened importance of processes and outcomes of care-including their impact on health care organizations' (HCOs) financial health-translate into greater accountability for clinical performance on the part of HCO leaders, including their boards, during an era of health care reform. Quality and safety of care are now fiduciary responsibilities of HCO board members. The participation of health professionals on HCO governing bodies may be an asset to HCO governing boards because of their deep knowledge of clinical problems, best practices, quality indicators, and other issues related to the safety and quality of care. And yet, the sparse data that exist indicate that physicians comprise more than 20 % of the governing board members of hospitals while less than 5 % are nurses and no data exist on other health professionals. The purpose of this two-phased study is to examine health professionals' representations on HCOs-specifically hospitals, home care agencies, nursing homes, and federally qualified health centers-in New York City. Through a survey of these organizations, phase 1 of the study found that 93 % of hospitals had physicians on their governing boards, compared with 26 % with nurses, 7 % with dentists, and 4 % with social workers or psychologists. The overrepresentation of physicians declined with the other HCOs. Only 38 % of home care agencies had physicians on their governing boards, 29 % had nurses, and 24 % had social workers. Phase 2 focused on the barriers to the appointment of health professionals to governing boards of HCOs and the strategies to address these barriers. Sixteen health care leaders in the region were interviewed in this qualitative study. Barriers included invisibility of health professionals other than physicians; concerns about "special interests"; lack of financial resources for donations to the organization

  3. A Large Community Outbreak of Legionnaires' Disease Associated With a Cooling Tower in New York City, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Don; Boyd, Christopher; Rakeman, Jennifer L; Greene, Sharon K; Fitzhenry, Robert; McProud, Trevor; Musser, Kimberlee; Huang, Li; Kornblum, John; Nazarian, Elizabeth J; Fine, Annie D; Braunstein, Sarah L; Kass, Daniel; Landman, Keren; Lapierre, Pascal; Hughes, Scott; Tran, Anthony; Taylor, Jill; Baker, Deborah; Jones, Lucretia; Kornstein, Laura; Liu, Boning; Perez, Rodolfo; Lucero, David E; Peterson, Eric; Benowitz, Isaac; Lee, Kristen F; Ngai, Stephanie; Stripling, Mitch; Varma, Jay K

    Infections caused by Legionella are the leading cause of waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States. We investigated a large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in New York City in summer 2015 to characterize patients, risk factors for mortality, and environmental exposures. We defined cases as patients with pneumonia and laboratory evidence of Legionella infection from July 2 through August 3, 2015, and with a history of residing in or visiting 1 of several South Bronx neighborhoods of New York City. We describe the epidemiologic, environmental, and laboratory investigation that identified the source of the outbreak. We identified 138 patients with outbreak-related Legionnaires' disease, 16 of whom died. The median age of patients was 55. A total of 107 patients had a chronic health condition, including 43 with diabetes, 40 with alcoholism, and 24 with HIV infection. We tested 55 cooling towers for Legionella, and 2 had a strain indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis from 26 patient isolates. Whole-genome sequencing and epidemiologic evidence implicated 1 cooling tower as the source of the outbreak. A large outbreak of Legionnaires' disease caused by a cooling tower occurred in a medically vulnerable community. The outbreak prompted enactment of a new city law on the operation and maintenance of cooling towers. Ongoing surveillance and evaluation of cooling tower process controls will determine if the new law reduces the incidence of Legionnaires' disease in New York City.

  4. A Large Community Outbreak of Legionnaires’ Disease Associated With a Cooling Tower in New York City, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Christopher; Rakeman, Jennifer L.; Greene, Sharon K.; Fitzhenry, Robert; McProud, Trevor; Musser, Kimberlee; Huang, Li; Kornblum, John; Nazarian, Elizabeth J.; Fine, Annie D.; Braunstein, Sarah L.; Kass, Daniel; Landman, Keren; Lapierre, Pascal; Hughes, Scott; Tran, Anthony; Taylor, Jill; Baker, Deborah; Jones, Lucretia; Kornstein, Laura; Liu, Boning; Perez, Rodolfo; Lucero, David E.; Peterson, Eric; Benowitz, Isaac; Lee, Kristen F.; Ngai, Stephanie; Stripling, Mitch; Varma, Jay K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Infections caused by Legionella are the leading cause of waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States. We investigated a large outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease in New York City in summer 2015 to characterize patients, risk factors for mortality, and environmental exposures. Methods: We defined cases as patients with pneumonia and laboratory evidence of Legionella infection from July 2 through August 3, 2015, and with a history of residing in or visiting 1 of several South Bronx neighborhoods of New York City. We describe the epidemiologic, environmental, and laboratory investigation that identified the source of the outbreak. Results: We identified 138 patients with outbreak-related Legionnaires’ disease, 16 of whom died. The median age of patients was 55. A total of 107 patients had a chronic health condition, including 43 with diabetes, 40 with alcoholism, and 24 with HIV infection. We tested 55 cooling towers for Legionella, and 2 had a strain indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis from 26 patient isolates. Whole-genome sequencing and epidemiologic evidence implicated 1 cooling tower as the source of the outbreak. Conclusions: A large outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease caused by a cooling tower occurred in a medically vulnerable community. The outbreak prompted enactment of a new city law on the operation and maintenance of cooling towers. Ongoing surveillance and evaluation of cooling tower process controls will determine if the new law reduces the incidence of Legionnaires’ disease in New York City. PMID:28141970

  5. Spatial and temporal variations in traffic-related particulate matter at New York City high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Molini M.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Correa, Juan C.; Feinberg, Marian; Hazi, Yair; Deepti, K. C.; Prakash, Swati; Ross, James M.; Levy, Diane; Kinney, Patrick L.

    Relatively little is known about exposures to traffic-related particulate matter at schools located in dense urban areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of diesel traffic proximity and intensity on ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) and black carbon (BC), an indicator of diesel exhaust particles, at New York City (NYC) high schools. Outdoor PM 2.5 and BC were monitored continuously for 4-6 weeks at each of 3 NYC schools and 1 suburban school located 40 km upwind of the city. Traffic count data were obtained using an automated traffic counter or video camera. BC concentrations were 2-3 fold higher at urban schools compared with the suburban school, and among the 3 urban schools, BC concentrations were higher at schools located adjacent to highways. PM 2.5 concentrations were significantly higher at urban schools than at the suburban school, but concentrations did not vary significantly among urban schools. Both hourly average counts of trucks and buses and meteorological factors such as wind direction, wind speed, and humidity were significantly associated with hourly average ambient BC and PM 2.5 concentrations in multivariate regression models. An increase of 443 trucks/buses per hour was associated with a 0.62 μg/m 3 increase in hourly average BC at an NYC school located adjacent to a major interstate highway. Car traffic counts were not associated with BC. The results suggest that local diesel vehicle traffic may be important sources of airborne fine particles in dense urban areas and consequently may contribute to local variations in PM 2.5 concentrations. In urban areas with higher levels of diesel traffic, local, neighborhood-scale monitoring of pollutants such as BC, which compared to PM 2.5, is a more specific indicator of diesel exhaust particles, may more accurately represent population exposures.

  6. Mapping the Green Infrastructure potential - and it's water-energy impacts on New York City roof Tops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Rebecka; Destouni, Georgia; Howells, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Green Roofs have the potential to provide multiple services in cities. Besides acting as carbon sinks, providing noise reduction and decreasing air pollution - without requiring any additional "land-use" in a city (only roof-use), green roofs have a quantifiable potential to reduce direct and indirect energy and water use. They enhance the insulating capacity of a conventional residential roof and thereby decrease both cooling demands in summer and heating demands in winter. The former is further mitigated by the cooling effect of evapotranspiration from the roofs In New York City green roofs are additionally a valuable component of reducing "combined sewer overflows", as these roofs can retain storm water. This can improve water quality in the city's rivers as well as decrease the total volume of water treated in the city's wastewater treatment plants, thereby indirectly reduce energy demands. The impacts of green roofs on NYC's water-energy nexus has been initially studied (Engström et. al, forthcoming). The present study expands that work to more comprehensively investigate the potential of this type of nature-based solution in a dense city. By employing Geographical Information Systems analysis, the roof top area of New York City is analysed and roof space suitable for green roofs of varying types (ranging from extensive to intensive) are mapped and quantified. The total green roof area is then connected with estimates of potential water-energy benefits (and costs) of each type of green roof. The results indicate where green roofs can be beneficially installed throughout the city, and quantifies the related impacts on both water and energy use. These outputs can provide policy makers with valuable support when facing investment decisions in green infrastructure, in a city where there is great interest for these types of nature-based solutions.

  7. Automated Price and Demand Response Demonstration for Large Customers in New York City using OpenADR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joyce Jihyun; Yin, Rongxin; Kiliccote, Sila

    2013-10-01

    Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR), an XML-based information exchange model, is used to facilitate continuous price-responsive operation and demand response participation for large commercial buildings in New York who are subject to the default day-ahead hourly pricing. We summarize the existing demand response programs in New York and discuss OpenADR communication, prioritization of demand response signals, and control methods. Building energy simulation models are developed and field tests are conducted to evaluate continuous energy management and demand response capabilities of two commercial buildings in New York City. Preliminary results reveal that providing machine-readable prices to commercial buildings can facilitate both demand response participation and continuous energy cost savings. Hence, efforts should be made to develop more sophisticated algorithms for building control systems to minimize customer's utility bill based on price and reliability information from the electricity grid.

  8. Barriers and Facilitators to Oral PrEP Use Among Transgender Women in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rael, Christine Tagliaferri; Martinez, Michelle; Giguere, Rebecca; Bockting, Walter; MacCrate, Caitlin; Mellman, Will; Valente, Pablo; Greene, George J; Sherman, Susan; Footer, Katherine H A; D'Aquila, Richard T; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2018-03-27

    Transgender women may face a disparate risk for HIV/AIDS compared to other groups. In 2012, Truvada was approved for daily use as HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). However, there is a dearth of research about barriers and facilitators to PrEP in transgender women. This paper will shed light on transgender women living in New York City's perceived and actual challenges to using PrEP and potential strategies to overcome them. After completing an initial screening process, four 90-min focus groups were completed with n = 18 transgender women. Participants were asked what they like and dislike about PrEP. Participants identified the following barriers: uncomfortable side effects, difficulty taking pills, stigma, exclusion of transgender women in advertising, and lack of research on transgender women and PrEP. Facilitators included: reducing pill size, increasing the types of available HIV prevention products, and conducting scientific studies to evaluate PrEP in transgender women.

  9. The economy of migrants from Puebla living in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Corona Jiménez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the number of poblanos migrants in New York City has grown rapidly. The following research presents the results obtained from a survey about the economy of these migrants. This means information about their income and expenses. Furthermore, data about the amount, frequency and destination of the remittances sent to their hometown communities are also provided. The main social, demographic and labor characteristics that affect their economic behavior are analyzed. The composition of their income and expenses is studied. It is proved that the majority of them live in poor and precarious conditions so that they can send more money to their families. One of the main findings is that they spend most of their income in remittances and the rent of their shared apartments. In general, these migrants want to return to Mexico once they have the money to build a house or open a business. Finally, this research confirms that the main cause of migration is economical situation and the wage differential between Mexico and United States

  10. Using Syndromic Surveillance to Investigate Tattoo-Related Skin Infections in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzen, Mollie; Sell, Jessica; Mathes, Robert W; Dentinger, Catherine; Lee, Lillian; Schiff, Corinne; Weiss, Don

    2015-01-01

    In response to two isolated cases of Mycobacterium chelonae infections in tattoo recipients where tap water was used to dilute ink, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted an investigation using Emergency Department (ED) syndromic surveillance to assess whether an outbreak was occuring. ED visits with chief complaints containing the key word "tattoo" from November 1, 2012 to March 18, 2013 were selected for study. NYC laboratories were also contacted and asked to report skin or soft tissue cultures in tattoo recipients that were positive for non-tuberculosis mycobacterial infection (NTM). Thirty-one TREDV were identified and 14 (45%) were interviewed to determine if a NTM was the cause for the visit. One ED visit met the case definition and was referred to a dermatologist. This individual was negative for NTM. No tattoo-associated NTM cases were reported by NYC laboratories. ED syndromic surveillance was utilized to investigate a non-reportable condition for which no other data source existed. The results were reassuring that an outbreak of NTM in tattoo recipients was not occurring. In response to concerns about potential NTM infections, the department sent a letter to all licensed tattoo artists advising them not to dilute tattoo ink with tap water.

  11. Self-reported adverse tattoo reactions: a New York City Central Park study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Bobbi G; Gold, Heidi; Leger, Elizabeth A; Leger, Marie C

    2015-08-01

    Although permanent tattoos are becoming increasingly commonplace, there is a paucity of epidemiological data on adverse tattoo reactions. Several European studies have indicated that tattoo reactions may be relatively common, although the extent of this phenomenon in the United States is largely unknown. To provide insights into the prevalence and nature of adverse tattoo reactions. We administered a survey about adverse tattoo reactions to 300 randomly selected tattooed people in Central Park, New York City. Of 300 participants, 31 (10.3%) reported experiencing an adverse tattoo reaction, 13 (4.3%) reported acute reactions, and 18 (6.0%) suffered from a chronic reaction involving a specific colour lasting for >4 months. Forty-four per cent of colour-specific reactions were to red ink, which was only slightly higher than the frequency of red ink in the sampled population (36%). Twenty-five per cent of chronic reactions were to black ink, which was less than expected based on the number of respondents with black tattoos (90.3%). Study participants with chronic, colour-specific reactions had more tattoo colours than those without reactions. This study shows that tattoo reactions are relatively common, and that further investigation into the underlying causes is merited. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Skin Care in the Tattoo Parlor: A Survey of Tattoo Artists in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Brooke E; Milam, Emily C; Seo, Lauren; Leger, Marie C

    2016-01-01

    To understand the role that tattooists play in providing skin care advice, we conducted an online, survey-based study of 90 licensed tattooists in New York City. The survey asked tattooists about their exposure to adverse tattoo events, advising on tattoo removal/correction, behaviors regarding preexisting skin conditions and aftercare, confidence in addressing client questions about adverse events and preexisting conditions, and prior training about skin conditions related to tattoos. Most tattooists (92.8%) reported being asked by clients to evaluate adverse tattoo reactions, 85% were asked about tattoo removal, and 90% were asked about the safety of getting a tattoo with a preexisting skin condition. About half (56.1%) had received training about skin conditions related to tattoos. Tattooists with prior training reported higher rates of optimal skin care behaviors and higher confidence with tattoo-related skin conditions; 91.4% reported interest in skin care education. Tattooists play a major role in the skin health of their clients. Providing education for tattooists may improve skin care in populations less likely to see a dermatologist. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Sodium intake in a cross-sectional, representative sample of New York City adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Sonia Y; Yi, Stella; Eisenhower, Donna; Kerker, Bonnie D; Curtis, Christine J; Bartley, Katherine; Silver, Lynn D; Farley, Thomas A

    2014-12-01

    We estimated sodium intake, which is associated with elevated blood pressure, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and assessed its association with related variables among New York City adults. In 2010 we conducted a cross-sectional, population-based survey of 1656 adults, the Heart Follow-Up Study, that collected self-reported health information, measured blood pressure, and obtained sodium, potassium, and creatinine values from 24-hour urine collections. Mean daily sodium intake was 3239 milligrams per day; 81% of participants exceeded their recommended limit. Sodium intake was higher in non-Hispanic Blacks (3477 mg/d) and Hispanics (3395 mg/d) than in non-Hispanic Whites (3066 mg/d; both P < .05). Higher sodium intake was associated with higher blood pressure in adjusted models, and this association varied by race/ethnicity. Higher sodium intake among non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics than among Whites was not previously documented in population surveys relying on self-report. These results demonstrate the feasibility of 24-hour urine collection for the purposes of research, surveillance, and program evaluation.

  14. Lead in New York City community garden chicken eggs: influential factors and health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Ribaudo, Lisa N; Taylor, Owen; Shayler, Hannah A; Greene, Virginia; Oglesby, Debra

    2014-08-01

    Raising chickens for eggs in urban areas is becoming increasingly common. Urban chickens may be exposed to lead, a common urban soil contaminant. We measured lead concentrations in chicken eggs from New York City (NYC) community gardens and collected information on factors that might affect those concentrations. Lead was detected between 10 and 167 μg/kg in 48 % of NYC eggs. Measures of lead in eggs from a henhouse were significantly associated (p 50 % of eggs from a henhouse would exceed store-bought egg concentrations (120 mg/kg and that the concentration in one of six eggs from a henhouse would exceed a 100 μg/kg guidance value at soil lead concentrations >410 mg/kg. Our models also suggested that the availability of dietary calcium supplements was another influential factor that reduced egg lead concentrations. Estimates of health risk from consuming eggs with the lead concentrations we measured generally were not significant. However, soil lead concentrations in this study were <600 mg/kg, and considerably higher concentrations are not uncommon. Efforts to reduce lead transfer to chicken eggs and associated exposure are recommended for urban chicken keepers.

  15. Illnesses and deaths among persons attending an electronic dance-music festival - New York City, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridpath, Alison; Driver, Cynthia R; Nolan, Michelle L; Karpati, Adam; Kass, Daniel; Paone, Denise; Jakubowski, Andrea; Hoffman, Robert S; Nelson, Lewis S; Kunins, Hillary V

    2014-12-19

    Outdoor electronic dance-music festivals (EDMFs) are typically summer events where attendees can dance for hours in hot temperatures. EDMFs have received increased media attention because of their growing popularity and reports of illness among attendees associated with recreational drug use. MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is one of the drugs often used at EDMFs. MDMA causes euphoria and mental stimulation but also can cause serious adverse effects, including hyperthermia, seizures, hyponatremia, rhabdomyolysis, and multiorgan failure. In this report, MDMA and other synthetic drugs commonly used at dance festivals are referred to as "synthetic club drugs." On September 1, 2013, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) received reports of two deaths of attendees at an EDMF (festival A) held August 31-September 1 in NYC. DOHMH conducted an investigation to identify and characterize adverse events resulting in emergency department (ED) visits among festival A attendees and to determine what drugs were associated with these adverse events. The investigation identified 22 cases of adverse events; nine cases were severe, including two deaths. Twenty-one (95%) of the 22 patients had used drugs or alcohol. Of 17 patients with toxicology testing, MDMA and other compounds were identified, most frequently methylone, in 11 patients. Public health messages and strategies regarding adverse health events might reduce illnesses and deaths at EDMFs.

  16. One of several 'toys' for smoking: young adult experiences with electronic cigarettes in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Emily Anne; Ling, Pamela M

    2015-11-01

    This qualitative research explores the use of electronic cigarettes and other similar 'vapor' delivery devices among young adults in New York City. We employed 17 focus groups followed by 12 semistructured interviews to understand the beliefs, opinions and practices related to the use of electronic cigarettes among young adult smokers (N=87). Participants were mainly daily (52%) and non-daily (41%) smokers. While experimentation with electronic cigarette devices was frequently reported, participants related an overall lack of information about the devices and what they did know often reflected messages in e-cigarette marketing campaigns. Participants also used their own bodily sensations as a way to gauge potential risks and benefits of the products. Finally, young adults, steeped in a culture of personal technologies, perceived e-cigarettes as one more 'toy' among other technologies integrated into their everyday lives. E-cigarettes were also frequently used with other tobacco products, including conventional cigarettes. Our research indicates that public health campaigns may be needed to counter current industry marketing and inform the public that electronic cigarettes are currently unregulated, understudied and contain toxicants and carcinogens. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. The work and recovery project: changing organizational culture and practice in New York City outpatient services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascaris, Alysia; Shields, Leslie Reed; Wolf, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Complex and multiple barriers confront out-patient programs in promoting recovery and addressing mental health recipients' work-related goals. This article describes a focused organizational change project utilizing intensive consultation and technical assistance within five New York City outpatient psychiatric services. The project aimed to increase staff exposure to, understanding and use of work-related and recovery-based concepts to promote consumers' recovery and attainment of employment goals. Tailored assessment, curriculum delivery, and identification and implementation of change objectives were useful strategies in promoting change. This change model can serve to assist programs in their efforts to integrate new approaches and to better understand changes among leadership, staff and consumers, and changes in organizational culture and practice required to support a work and recovery-oriented service paradigm. The project experience suggests that adopting and embracing new practices takes time. Varied and incremental steps toward programmatic and operational changes can be significant and can reap authentic sustainable change occurring in the process of learning, experiencing, internalizing and adjusting to new methods of practice.

  18. Using Syndromic Surveillance to Investigate Tattoo-Related Skin Infections in New York City.

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    Mollie Kotzen

    Full Text Available In response to two isolated cases of Mycobacterium chelonae infections in tattoo recipients where tap water was used to dilute ink, the New York City (NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted an investigation using Emergency Department (ED syndromic surveillance to assess whether an outbreak was occuring. ED visits with chief complaints containing the key word "tattoo" from November 1, 2012 to March 18, 2013 were selected for study. NYC laboratories were also contacted and asked to report skin or soft tissue cultures in tattoo recipients that were positive for non-tuberculosis mycobacterial infection (NTM. Thirty-one TREDV were identified and 14 (45% were interviewed to determine if a NTM was the cause for the visit. One ED visit met the case definition and was referred to a dermatologist. This individual was negative for NTM. No tattoo-associated NTM cases were reported by NYC laboratories. ED syndromic surveillance was utilized to investigate a non-reportable condition for which no other data source existed. The results were reassuring that an outbreak of NTM in tattoo recipients was not occurring. In response to concerns about potential NTM infections, the department sent a letter to all licensed tattoo artists advising them not to dilute tattoo ink with tap water.

  19. Calories from beverages purchased at 2 major coffee chains in New York City, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Christina; Dumanovsky, Tamara; Silver, Lynn D; Nonas, Cathy; Bassett, Mary T

    2009-10-01

    Calorie intake from beverages has increased in the past decades, which most likely contributes to higher obesity rates. Although coffee chains have grown in popularity in recent years, few data examine the calorie contribution of these drinks. We examined afternoon beverage purchases in New York City at 2 major coffee chains and estimated the mean calorie content of these beverages. We collected purchase receipts and brief surveys from adult customers at 42 Starbucks and 73 Dunkin' Donuts stores during the spring of 2007. For each purchase, we obtained the calorie content from the company's Web site; these values were adjusted to account for self-reported customization of the drink. We included 1,127 beverage purchases at Starbucks and 1,830 at Dunkin' Donuts in our analyses. Brewed coffee or tea averaged 63 kcal, and blended coffee beverages averaged 239 kcal. Approximately two-thirds of purchases at Starbucks and one-fourth of purchases at Dunkin' Donuts were blended coffee beverages. Calories in blended coffee beverages are high; on average, customers bought 12% of a 2,000-kcal diet. Policy changes to provide for calorie posting at the point of purchase could increase customer awareness of the calories in these beverages; modifying standard formulations of blended coffee beverages, such as using low-fat milk or smaller serving sizes, would also reduce calorie content.

  20. Effect of Principal and Student Gender on New York City High School Performance Outcomes

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    Rupert Green

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A mixed-methods study enabled the exploration of New York City high school data, analyzing performance/demographic scores based on principal and/or student gender, boroughs, and other factors found the following: Significant differences in boroughs’ college and career readiness scores, χ2(4, N = 369 = 26.830, p = .00, with (a the highest mean rank of 251 for Staten Island, and the lowest mean rank of 156 for Brooklyn; (b larger socioeconomically integrated schools more successful; (c failure in small Manhattan and Bronx segregated/poverty female-majority schools; and (d male students, F(4, 359 = 2.49, p = .043, partial η2 = .027, attained significantly lower scores. Enrollment was significant, F(1, 457 = 7.215, p < .05 partial η2 = .940, with male principals (M = 746.40, SD = 903.58 leading larger schools. Recommendations include the following: gifted vocational education school, gauging for feminization, more Black/Hispanic principals; and assurance of licensed vocational educators.

  1. Diabetes prevention in the New York City Sikh Asian Indian community: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nadia S; Zanowiak, Jennifer M; Wyatt, Laura C; Kavathe, Rucha; Singh, Hardayal; Kwon, Simona C; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2014-05-19

    India has one of the highest burdens of diabetes worldwide, and rates of diabetes are also high among Asian Indian immigrants that have migrated into the United States (U.S.). Sikhs represent a significant portion of Asian Indians in the U.S. Diabetes prevention programs have shown the benefits of using lifestyle intervention to reduce diabetes risk, yet there have been no culturally-tailored programs for diabetes prevention in the Sikh community. Using a quasi-experimental two-arm design, 126 Sikh Asian Indians living in New York City were enrolled in a six-workshop intervention led by community health workers. A total of 108 participants completed baseline and 6-month follow-up surveys between March 2012 and October 2013. Main outcome measures included clinical variables (weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, and cholesterol) and health behaviors (changes in physical activity, food behaviors, and diabetes knowledge). Changes were significant for the treatment group in weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, physical activity, food behaviors, and diabetes knowledge, and between group differences were significant for glucose, diabetes knowledge, portion control, and physical activity social interaction. Retention rates were high. Findings demonstrate that a diabetes prevention program in the Sikh community is acceptable, feasible, and efficacious.

  2. Predictors of summertime heat index levels in New York City apartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, A; Kinney, P; Shaman, J

    2017-07-01

    During heat waves, fatal overexposure to heat most often occurs at home. It is not known how factors such as building size, floor level, and different types of air conditioning (AC) contribute to excess indoor heat. We monitored indoor temperature and humidity in 36 apartments in New York City during summers 2014 and 2015 and used these values to calculate the indoor heat index (HI). We investigated the role of AC type and building-level factors on indoor HI using multilevel regression models. Thirty-four of 36 homes had AC. Central and ductless AC types were associated with the coolest indoor conditions; homes with window and portable AC were significantly warmer. Apartments on the top floor of a building were significantly hotter during heat advisory periods than other apartments regardless of the presence of AC. High indoor HI levels persisted in some homes for approximately 1 day following the end of the two heat advisory periods. We provide concrete evidence of higher heat levels in top floor apartments and in homes with certain types of AC. High heat levels that persist indoors after outdoor heat has subsided may present an underappreciated public health risk. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Residual Inequity: Assessing the Unintended Consequences of New York City's Clean Heat Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Daniel; Lee, W Victoria; Hernández, Diana

    2018-01-11

    Energy policies and public health are intimately intertwined. In New York City, a series of policies, known as the Clean Heat Program (CHP), were designed to reduce air pollution by banning residual diesel fuel oils, #6 in 2015 and #4 by 2030. This measure is expected to yield environmental and public health benefits over time. While there is near-universal compliance with the #6 ban, a substantial number of buildings still use #4. In this paper, geographic analysis and qualitative interviews with stakeholders were used to interrogate the CHP's policy implementation in Northern Manhattan and the Bronx. A total of 1724 (53%) of all residential residual fuel burning buildings are located in this region. Stakeholders reflected mostly on the need for the program, and overall reactions to its execution. Major findings include that government partnerships with non-governmental organizations were effectively employed. However, weaknesses with the policy were also identified, including missed opportunities for more rapid transitions away from residual fuels, unsuccessful outreach efforts, cost-prohibitive conversion opportunities, and (the perception of) a volatile energy market for clean fuels. Ultimately, this analysis serves as a case study of a unique and innovative urban policy initiative to improve air quality and, consequently, public health.

  4. Adolescent suicide in New York City: plenty of room for new research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Debora; Sher, Leo

    2012-01-01

    The act of adolescent suicide continues to threaten adolescent populations in New York City (NYC). Consistent positive correlations have been found between a plethora of risk factors present in NYC adolescent populations and suicidal ideations and behaviors. Psychiatric conditions that may contribute to the rate of adolescent suicide in NYC include depression, bipolar disorder, substance abuse and schizophrenia. Unique factors that have been found to contribute to increased rates of completed suicides in NYC include the phenomena of railway suicides and suicide tourism. Homelessness and income inequality in NYC have also been consistently correlated with increased suicidality; with one study finding suicide attempts reported by a significant percentage of new admissions to homeless shelters. Adolescent populations in NYC that have been identified as particularly vulnerable to suicidality include runaway youth, homosexual youth, victimized adolescents and adolescents with a recent history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Longitudinal studies in NYC have found that physical and sexual abuse is highly predictive of adolescent suicidality, with variations by ethnic group. Currently, there is a disturbing lack of sufficient research on adolescent suicide in NYC, specifically regarding causal factors, the effects of television on suicide, comorbid suicidality and drug abuse, and cultural factors contributing to suicide. This dearth of literature may be related to the ethical problems inherent in suicide research, self reports and/or post mortem analyses.

  5. Childhood lead poisoning from commercially manufactured French ceramic dinnerware--New York City, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-09

    Lead poisoning adversely affects children worldwide. During 1999-2000, an estimated 434,000 children aged 1-5 years in the United States had elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) >/=10 microg/dL. Glazes found on ceramics, earthenware, bone china, and porcelain often contain lead and are a potential source of lead exposure. Children are especially vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of lead. Exposures to lead in early childhood can have adverse effects on the developing nervous system, resulting in decreased intelligence and changes in behavior. In addition, certain behaviors (e.g., thumb sucking) place children at greater risk for exposure to lead. In 2003, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's Lead Poisoning Prevention Program (LPPP), and the Mount Sinai Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit (PEHSU) investigated a case of lead poisoning in a boy aged 20 months. This report summarizes that case investigation, which identified ceramic dinnerware imported from France as the source of lead exposure. This case underscores the susceptibility of children to a toxic exposure associated with 1) the high proportion of time spent in the home and 2) dietary habits that promote exposure to lead leached from ceramic ware.

  6. Effects of Geography on Mental Health Disparities on Sexual Minorities in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Jacob; Adamczyk, Amy

    2018-05-01

    Gay and lesbian individuals have higher rates of psychological distress than do heterosexual individuals. The minority stress hypothesis attributes this disparity to adversity-related stress experienced by sexual minorities. In support of this idea, research in the U.S. has generally found that mental health disparities between sexual minorities and others are narrower in places where tolerance is relatively high. However, few studies have examined disparities between sexual minorities and others in neighborhoods where sexual minorities are most highly concentrated. Likewise, little research attention has been given to disparities for people who move to more tolerant places from less tolerant states and countries. Using data from the New York City Community Health Survey, we found some evidence that disparities between sexual minorities and others were lower in areas with higher concentrations of sexual minorities. However, disparities did not vary by the tolerance level of the state of birth among those born in the U.S. and were actually lower among those born in the least tolerant nations. These results complicate the idea that there is a dose-response relationship between tolerance and psychological distress among sexual minorities.

  7. Drug use in business bathrooms: An exploratory study of manager encounters in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson-Stofko, Brett; Bennett, Alex S.; Elliott, Luther; Curtis, Ric

    2017-01-01

    Background Though public bathroom drug injection has been documented from the perspective of people who inject drugs, no research has explored the experiences of the business managers who oversee their business bathrooms and respond to drug use. These managers, by default, are first-responders in the event of a drug overdose and thus of intrinsic interest during the current epidemic of opioid-related overdoses in the United States. This exploratory study assists in elucidating the experiences that New York City business managers have with people who inject drugs, their paraphernalia, and their overdoses. Methods A survey instrument was designed to collect data on manager encounters with drug use occurring in their business bathrooms. Recruitment was guided by convenience and purposive approaches. Results More than half of managers interviewed (58%, n = 50/86) encountered drug use in their business bathrooms, more than a third (34%) of these managers also found syringes, and the vast majority (90%) of managers had received no overdose recognition or naloxone training. Seven managers encountered unresponsive individuals who required emergency assistance. Conclusion The results from this study underscore the need for additional research on the experiences that community stakeholders have with public injection as well as educational outreach efforts among business managers. This research also suggests that there is need for a national dialogue about potential interventions, including expanded overdose recognition and naloxone training and supervised injection facilities (SIF)/drug consumption rooms (DCR), that could reduce public injection and its associated health risks. PMID:27768996

  8. School Wellness Programs: Magnitude and Distribution in New York City Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefel, Leanna; Elbel, Brian; Prescott, Melissa Pflugh; Aneja, Siddhartha; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Public schools provide students with opportunities to participate in many discretionary, unmandated wellness programs. Little is known about the number of these programs, their distribution across schools, and the kinds of students served. We provide evidence on these questions for New York City (NYC) public schools. METHODS Data on wellness programs were collected from program websites, NYC’s Office of School Food and Wellness, and direct contact with program sponsors for 2013. Programs were grouped into categories, nutrition, fitness, and comprehensive, and were combined with data on school characteristics available from NYC’s Department of Education. Numbers of programs and provision of programs were analyzed for relationships with demographic and school structural characteristics, using descriptive statistics and multiple regression. RESULTS Discretionary wellness programs are numerous, at 18 programs. Little evidence supports inequity according to student race/ethnicity, income, or nativity, but high schools, new schools, co-located schools, small schools, and schools with larger proportions of inexperienced teachers are less likely to provide wellness programs. CONCLUSIONS Opportunities exist to further the reach of wellness programs in public schools by modifying them for high school adoption and building capacity in schools less likely to have the administrative support to house them. PMID:27917485

  9. Disparities in Access to Over-the-Counter Nicotine Replacement Products in New York City Pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Lisa; Maantay, Juliana; Peprah, Dorothy; Lounsbury, David; Maroko, Andrew; Murphy, Mary; Shelley, Donna

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We surveyed the availability of tobacco products and nonprescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in pharmacies in New York City, stratified by the race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES) of the surrounding neighborhoods to determine whether disparities in availability existed. Methods. Surveyors visited a random sample of retail pharmacies to record the availability of tobacco products and nonprescription NRT. We used census data and geographic information systems analysis to determine the SES of each neighborhood. We used logistic modeling to explore relations between SES and the availability of NRT and tobacco products. Results. Of 646 pharmacies sampled, 90.8% sold NRT and 46.9% sold cigarettes. NRT and cigarettes were slightly more available in pharmacies in neighborhoods with a higher SES. NRT was more expensive in poorer neighborhoods. Conclusions. Small disparities existed in access to nonprescription NRT and cigarettes. The model did not adequately account for cigarette access, because of availability from other retail outlets. These results may explain some of the excess prevalence of cigarette use in low-SES areas. PMID:19638596

  10. The Impact of Cigarette Excise Tax Increases on Purchasing Behaviors Among New York City Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Micaela H.; Chan, Christina A.; Mbamalu, Ijeoma G.; Kansagra, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between cigarette excise tax increases and tax-avoidant purchasing behaviors among New York City adult smokers. Methods. We analyzed data from the city’s annual Community Health Survey to assess changes in rates of tax avoidance over time (2003–2010) and smokers’ responses to the 2008 state cigarette tax increase. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified correlates of buying more cigarettes on the street in response to the increase. Results. After the 2002 tax increase, the percentage of smokers engaged in tax-avoidant behavior decreased with time from 30% in 2003 to 13% in 2007. Following the 2008 tax increase, 21% of smokers reported buying more cigarettes from another person on the street. Low-income, younger, Black, and Hispanic smokers were more likely than respondents with other sociodemographic characteristics to purchase more cigarettes on the street. Conclusions. To maximize public health impact, cigarette tax increases should be paired with efforts to limit the flow of untaxed cigarettes entering jurisdictions with high cigarette pack prices. PMID:23597382

  11. Nitrogen removal process optimization in New York City WPCPS: a case study of Wards Island WPCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, K; Fillos, J; Musabyimana, M; Deur, A; Beckmann, K

    2009-01-01

    The New York City Department of Environmental Protection has been engaged in a continuous process to develop a nitrogen removal program to reduce the nitrogen mass discharge from its water pollution control plants, (WPCPs), from 49,158 kg/d to 20,105 kg/d by the year 2017 as recommended by the Long Island Sound Study. As part of the process, a comprehensive research effort was undertaken involving bench, pilot and full scale studies to identify the most effective way to upgrade and optimize the existing WPCPs. Aeration tank 13 (AT-13) at the Wards Island WPCP was particularly attractive as a full-scale research facility because its aeration tank with its dedicated final settling tanks and RAS pumps could be isolated from the remaining treatment facilities. The nitrogen removal performance of AT-13, which, at the time, was operated as a "basic step feed BNR Facility", was evaluated and concurrently nitrification kinetic parameters were measured using in-situ bench scale experiments. Additional bench scale experiments provided denitrification rates using different sources of carbon and measurement of the maximum specific growth rate of nitrifying bacteria. The combined findings were then used to upgrade AT-13 to a "full" BNR facility with carbon and alkalinity addition. This paper will focus on the combined bench and full scale results that were the basis for the consequent upgrade.

  12. Cancer Mortality among Asians and Pacific Islanders in New York City, 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asians and Pacific Islanders’ (APIs leading cause of death is cancer. We compared APIs’ age-adjusted cancer mortality rates to other racial/ethnic groups and by API subgroup (i.e., Chinese, Koreans, Asian Indians, and Filipinos using New York City (NYC Mortality data and Census Bureau population estimates for 2001–2010. While other racial/ethnic groups’ overall cancer mortality rates declined in NYC during the last decade, APIs remained stable. APIs overall had the lowest mortality rates for more common cancer types (i.e., lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate, but the highest mortality rates for certain less common cancers (i.e., nasopharyngeal, stomach, and liver. Chinese New Yorkers’ lung cancer death rates were very high compared to other APIs and comparable to non-Hispanic whites (47.1/100,000 versus 49.5/100,000, resp.. Chinese men had much higher nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates (4.5/100,000 versus 0.3/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites. Korean men had the highest liver and stomach cancer mortality rates (25.3/100,000 and 27.7/100,000, resp., versus 7.9/100,000 and 6.0/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites. Analysis of cancer rates by API subgroup provides the detailed information needed to plan cancer prevention efforts. These findings warrant consideration of targeted cancer mortality prevention efforts for affected subgroups, including hepatitis vaccination, screening, and treatment; smoking cessation; and cancer screening.

  13. Civic/Sanctuary orientation and HIV involvement among Chinese immigrant religious institutions in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, John J.; Li, Min Ying; Kang, Ezer; Behar, Elana; Chen, Po Chun

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a study of Chinese immigrant religious institutions in New York City (primarily Christian and Buddhist), this paper explores why some religious institutions are more inclined than others to be involved in HIV-related work. Although numerous factors are likely to play a role, we focus on organisations’ differing views on social engagement as an explanatory factor. We hypothesise that religious institutions that value social engagement (‘civic’) will be more inclined towards HIV/AIDS involvement than those that are more inward focused (‘sanctuary’). Given that many religious institutions are fundamentally defined by their stance on the appropriateness of social engagement, better understanding of this key characteristic may help to inform community and government organisations aiming to increase religious institutions’ involvement in HIV/AIDS-related work. Our analysis suggests that some organisations may be less interested in taking on the challenges of working in HIV/AIDS because of their general view that churches or temples should not be socially engaged. On the other hand, religious institutions that have concerns about social acceptability, fear of infection or lack of capacity – but generally embrace social engagement – may be more open to partnering on HIV/AIDS-related work because of their overriding community service orientation. PMID:21838652

  14. Identifying Perceived Neighborhood Stressors Across Diverse Communities in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmool, Jessie L C; Yonas, Michael A; Newman, Ogonnaya Dotson; Kubzansky, Laura D; Joseph, Evelyn; Parks, Ana; Callaway, Charles; Chubb, Lauren G; Shepard, Peggy; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-09-01

    There is growing interest in the role of psychosocial stress in health disparities. Identifying which social stressors are most important to community residents is critical for accurately incorporating stressor exposures into health research. Using a community-academic partnered approach, we designed a multi-community study across the five boroughs of New York City to characterize resident perceptions of key neighborhood stressors. We conducted 14 community focus groups; two to three in each borough, with one adolescent group and one Spanish-speaking group per borough. We then used systematic content analysis and participant ranking data to describe prominent neighborhood stressors and identify dominant themes. Three inter-related themes regarding the social and structural sources of stressful experiences were most commonly identified across neighborhoods: (1) physical disorder and perceived neglect, (2) harassment by police and perceived safety and (3) gentrification and racial discrimination. Our findings suggest that multiple sources of distress, including social, political, physical and economic factors, should be considered when investigating health effects of community stressor exposures and psychological distress. Community expertise is essential for comprehensively characterizing the range of neighborhood stressors that may be implicated in psychosocial exposure pathways.

  15. Correlates of illicit methadone use in New York City: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frye Victoria

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite growing concern about illicit methadone use in the US and other countries, there is little data about the prevalence and correlates of methadone use in large urban areas. We assessed the prevalence and examined correlates of lifetime and recent illicit methadone use in New York City (NYC. Methods 1,415 heroin, crack, and cocaine users aged 15–40 years were recruited in NYC between 2000 and 2004 to complete interviewer-administered questionnaires. Results In multivariable logistic regression, non-injection drug users who used illicit methadone were more likely to be heroin dependent, less than daily methamphetamine users and to have a heroin using sex partner in the last two months. Injection drug users who used illicit methadone were more likely to use heroin daily, share injection paraphernalia and less likely to have been in a detoxification program and to have not used marijuana in the last six months. Conclusion The results overall suggest that illicit (or street methadone use is likely not a primary drug of choice, but is instead more common in concert with other illicit drug use.

  16. The operation, products and promotion of waterpipe businesses in New York City, Abu Dhabi and Dubai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joudrey, P J; Jasie, K A; Pykalo, L; Singer, S T; Woodin, M B; Sherman, S

    2016-07-10

    We evaluated the customers, operations, products and advertising of these businesses to explore the unique policy challenges created by the suppliers of waterpipes. We completed a cross-sectional survey consisting of structured site observations and in-person interviews of businesses in New York City, Abu Dhabi and Dubai identified using Google, Yelp, Timeout Dubai and Timeout Abu Dhabi and neighbourhood visits in 2014. Regular customers made up 59% of customers. Franchises or chains were 28% of businesses. Waterpipes made up 39% of sales with 87% of businesses offering food within their menu. Flavoured tobacco made up 94% of sales. Discounts were offered by 47% of businesses and 94% of businesses used advertising, often through social media. The market consists of largely independent businesses, with a large regular customer base, frequently offering diversified services beyond waterpipes. These businesses advertise using both traditional and social media. The economics of waterpipe businesses is very different from the economics of cigarettes, and unique regulatory strategies are needed to control this epidemic.

  17. Ebola virus disease in a humanitarian aid worker - New York City, October 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacisin, Kari; Balter, Sharon; Fine, Annie; Weiss, Don; Ackelsberg, Joel; Prezant, David; Wilson, Ross; Starr, David; Rakeman, Jennifer; Raphael, Marisa; Quinn, Celia; Toprani, Amita; Clark, Nancy; Link, Nathan; Daskalakis, Demetre; Maybank, Aletha; Layton, Marcelle; Varma, Jay K

    2015-04-03

    In late October 2014, Ebola virus disease (Ebola) was diagnosed in a humanitarian aid worker who recently returned from West Africa to New York City (NYC). The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) actively monitored three close contacts of the patient and 114 health care personnel. No secondary cases of Ebola were detected. In collaboration with local and state partners, DOHMH had developed protocols to respond to such an event beginning in July 2014. These protocols included safely transporting a person at the first report of symptoms to a local hospital prepared to treat a patient with Ebola, laboratory testing for Ebola, and monitoring of contacts. In response to this single case of Ebola, initial health care worker active monitoring protocols needed modification to improve clarity about what types of exposure should be monitored. The response costs were high in both human resources and money: DOHMH alone spent $4.3 million. However, preparedness activities that include planning and practice in effectively monitoring the health of workers involved in Ebola patient care can help prevent transmission of Ebola.

  18. Epidemiology of subway-related fatalities in New York City, 1990-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Pearson, Julie M; Nandi, Vijay; Vlahov, David; Bucciarelli-Prann, Angela; Tracy, Melissa; Tardiff, Kenneth; Galea, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    Subway transit is a relatively safe mode of transportation, yet compared to all other forms of mass transit in the United States (U.S.), subways have the highest fatality rate. The aim of this paper is to characterize subway-related fatalities in order to identify opportunities for risk reduction. Medical examiner records for all New York City (NYC) subway-related deaths (1990-2003) were reviewed. Data were abstracted on decedents' demographics and autopsy findings, including laboratory findings. There were 668 subway-related fatalities, of these, 10 (1.5%) were homicides, 343 (51.3%) were determined to be suicides, and 315 (47.2%) were accidental. Although decedent characteristics varied between fatality categories, they were not particularly informative with regard to prevention. Prevention strategies that focus on structural controls are likely to be most efficacious in improving the overall safety of the NYC subway systems. These findings suggest that structural rather than individual-level interventions would be most successful in preventing subway fatalities.

  19. Black carbon and particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in New York City's subway stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcassim, M J Ruzmyn; Thurston, George D; Peltier, Richard E; Gordon, Terry

    2014-12-16

    The New York City (NYC) subway is the main mode of transport for over 5 million passengers on an average weekday. Therefore, airborne pollutants in the subway stations could have a significant impact on commuters and subway workers. This study looked at black carbon (BC) and particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in selected subway stations in Manhattan. BC and PM2.5 levels were measured in real time using a Micro-Aethalometer and a PDR-1500 DataRAM, respectively. Simultaneous samples were also collected on quartz filters for organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) analysis and on Teflon filters for gravimetric and trace element analysis. In the underground subway stations, mean real time BC concentrations ranged from 5 to 23 μg/m(3), with 1 min average peaks >100 μg/m(3), while real time PM2.5 levels ranged from 35 to 200 μg/m(3). Mean EC levels ranged from 9 to 12.5 μg/m(3). At street level on the same days, the mean BC and PM2.5 concentrations were below 3 and 10 μg/m(3), respectively. This study shows that both BC soot and PM levels in NYC's subways are considerably higher than ambient urban street levels and that further monitoring and investigation of BC and PM subway exposures are warranted.

  20. The role of subway travel in an influenza epidemic: a New York City simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Philip; Brown, Shawn; Cajka, James; Chasteen, Bernadette; Ganapathi, Laxminarayana; Grefenstette, John; Hollingsworth, Craig R; Lee, Bruce Y; Levine, Burton; Wheaton, William D; Wagener, Diane K

    2011-10-01

    The interactions of people using public transportation in large metropolitan areas may help spread an influenza epidemic. An agent-based model computer simulation of New York City's (NYC's) five boroughs was developed that incorporated subway ridership into a Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered disease model framework. The model contains a total of 7,847,465 virtual people. Each person resides in one of the five boroughs of NYC and has a set of socio-demographic characteristics and daily behaviors that include age, sex, employment status, income, occupation, and household location and membership. The model simulates the interactions of subway riders with their workplaces, schools, households, and community activities. It was calibrated using historical data from the 1957-1958 influenza pandemics and from NYC travel surveys. The surveys were necessary to enable inclusion of subway riders into the model. The model results estimate that if influenza did occur in NYC with the characteristics of the 1957-1958 pandemic, 4% of transmissions would occur on the subway. This suggests that interventions targeted at subway riders would be relatively ineffective in containing the epidemic. A number of hypothetical examples demonstrate this feature. This information could prove useful to public health officials planning responses to epidemics.

  1. Climate Change and Fetal Health: The Impacts of Exposure to Extreme Temperatures in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Nicole S.; Horton, Radley M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Climate change is projected to increase the frequency, intensity, and duration of heat waves while reducing cold extremes, yet few studies have examined the relationship between temperature and fetal health. Objectives: We estimate the impacts of extreme temperatures on birth weight and gestational age in Manhattan, a borough in New York City, and explore differences by socioeconomic status (SES). Methods: We combine average daily temperature from 1985 to 2010 with birth certificate data in Manhattan for the same time period. We then generate 33 downscaled climate model time series to project impacts on fetal health. Results: We find exposure to an extra day where average temperature 25 F and 85 F during pregnancy is associated with a 1.8 and 1.7 g (respectively) reduction in birth weight, but the impact varies by SES, particularly for extreme heat, where teen mothers seem most vulnerable. We find no meaningful, significant effect on gestational age. Using projections of temperature from these climate models, we project average net reductions in birth weight in the 2070- 2099 period of 4.6 g in the business-as-usual scenario. Conclusions: Results suggest that increasing heat events from climate change could adversely impact birth weight and vary by SES.

  2. Perceptions, Attitudes, and Experience Regarding mHealth Among Homeless Persons in New York City Shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin; Sckell, Blanca; Alcabes, Analena; Naderi, Ramesh; Adongo, Philip; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2015-01-01

    Mobile health may be an effective means of providing access and education to the millions of homeless Americans. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 50 homeless people from different shelters in New York City to evaluate their perceptions, attitudes, and experiences regarding mobile health. Participants' average age was 51.66 (SD = 11.34) years; duration of homelessness was 2.0 (SD = 3.10) years. The majority had a mobile phone with the ability to receive and send text messages. Most participants attempted to maintain the same phone number over time. The homeless were welcoming and supportive of text messaging regarding health care issues, including appointment reminders, health education, or management of diseases considering their barriers and mobility, and believed it would help them access necessary health care. Overwhelmingly they preferred text reminders that were short, positively framed, and directive in nature compared to lengthy or motivational texts. The majority believed that free cell phone plans would improve their engagement with, help them navigate, and ultimately improve their access to care. These positive attitudes and experience could be effectively used to improve health care for the homeless. Policies to improve access to mobile health and adapted text messaging strategies regarding the health care needs of this mobile population should be considered.

  3. Lead in New York City Community Garden Chicken Eggs: Influential Factors and Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spliethoff, Henry M.; Mitchell, Rebecca G.; Ribaudo, Lisa N.; Taylor, Owen; Shayler, Hannah A.; Greene, Virginia; Oglesby, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Raising chickens for eggs in urban areas is becoming increasingly common. Urban chickens may be exposed to lead, a common urban soil contaminant. We measured lead concentrations in chicken eggs from New York City (NYC) community gardens and collected information on factors that might affect those concentrations. Lead was detected between 10 and 167 μg/kg in 48% of NYC eggs. Measures of lead in eggs from a henhouse were significantly associated (plead concentrations in soil. The association between soil and egg lead has been evaluated only once before, by a study of a rural region in Belgium. In our study, the apparent lead soil-to-egg transfer efficiency was considerably lower than that found in Belgium, suggesting that there may be important geographic differences in this transfer. We developed models that suggested that, for sites like ours, lead concentrations in >50% of eggs from a henhouse would exceed store-bought egg concentrations (lead concentrations >120 mg/kg, and that the concentration in one of six eggs from a henhouse would exceed a 100 μg/kg guidance value at soil lead concentrations >410 mg/kg. Our models also suggested that the availability of dietary calcium supplements was another influential factor that reduced egg lead concentrations. Estimates of health risk from consuming eggs with the lead concentrations we measured generally were not significant. However, soil lead concentrations in this study were lead transfer to chicken eggs and associated exposure are recommended for urban chicken keepers. PMID:24287691

  4. An Evaluation of New York City's 2015 Birth Certificate Gender Marker Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica J; Gurr, Danielle; Van Wye, Gretchen

    2017-10-01

    In 1971, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene amended Section 207.05 of the NYC Health Code to allow individuals who had undergone "convertive surgery" (interpreted by the code to mean genital surgery) to amend the gender on their birth certificates. This surgery requirement was removed in 2015. In a survey evaluating the regulation change, we sought to characterize the transgender population newly eligible to obtain a gender-congruent NYC birth certificate by comparing respondents with and without genital surgery. We mailed a 42-question survey with each newly issued birth certificate. We compared respondents across current gender identity, race, Hispanic ethnicity, age, insurance status, income, current general health status, other transition-related care obtained, and healthcare access, stigma, and discrimination. Of 642 applicants, 219 responded and were thus enrolled in our 5-year study (34.1%). Most (n = 158 out of 203 who answered, 77.8%) had not received genital surgery. Compared to respondents with genital surgery, respondents without surgery were significantly more likely to be transgender men (50.0% vs. 20.0%); younger (median age 32 vs. 56.5); on Medicaid (31.6% vs. 11.1%); identify as Hispanic (28.5% vs. 8.9%); and live in households making gender-congruent birth certificate. Jurisdictions with such requirements should consider similar regulation changes to address the inequities that this requirement likely imposes in accessing birth certificates.

  5. Diabetes Prevention in the New York City Sikh Asian Indian Community: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia S. Islam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available India has one of the highest burdens of diabetes worldwide, and rates of diabetes are also high among Asian Indian immigrants that have migrated into the United States (U.S.. Sikhs represent a significant portion of Asian Indians in the U.S. Diabetes prevention programs have shown the benefits of using lifestyle intervention to reduce diabetes risk, yet there have been no culturally-tailored programs for diabetes prevention in the Sikh community. Using a quasi-experimental two-arm design, 126 Sikh Asian Indians living in New York City were enrolled in a six-workshop intervention led by community health workers. A total of 108 participants completed baseline and 6-month follow-up surveys between March 2012 and October 2013. Main outcome measures included clinical variables (weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, and cholesterol and health behaviors (changes in physical activity, food behaviors, and diabetes knowledge. Changes were significant for the treatment group in weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, physical activity, food behaviors, and diabetes knowledge, and between group differences were significant for glucose, diabetes knowledge, portion control, and physical activity social interaction. Retention rates were high. Findings demonstrate that a diabetes prevention program in the Sikh community is acceptable, feasible, and efficacious.

  6. Research Article Cancer Mortality among Asians and Pacific Islanders in New York City, 2001–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, V.; Li, W.; Tsai, J.; Begier, E.

    2013-01-01

    Asians and Pacific Islanders’ (APIs) leading cause of death is cancer. We compared APIs’ age-adjusted cancer mortality rates to other racial/ethnic groups and by API subgroup (i.e., Chinese, Koreans, Asian Indians, and Filipinos) using New York City (NYC) Mortality data and Census Bureau population estimates for 2001-2010. While other racial/ethnic groups’ overall cancer mortality rates declined in NYC during the last decade, APIs remained stable. APIs overall had the lowest mortality rates for more common cancer types (i.e., lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate), but the highest mortality rates for certain less common cancers (i.e., nasopharyngeal, stomach, and liver). Chinese New Yorkers’ lung cancer death rates were very high compared to other APIs and comparable to non-Hispanic whites (47.1/100,000 versus 49.5/100,000, resp.). Chinese men had much higher nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates (4.5/100,000 versus 0.3/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites). Korean men had the highest liver and stomach cancer mortality rates (25.3/100,000 and 27.7/100,000, resp., versus 7.9/100,000 and 6.0/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites). Analysis of cancer rates by API subgroup provides the detailed information needed to plan cancer prevention efforts. These findings warrant consideration of targeted cancer mortality prevention efforts for affected subgroups, including hepatitis vaccination, screening, and treatment; smoking cessation; and cancer screening.

  7. Condom use and hip hop culture: the case of urban young men in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A; Castellanos, Daniel H; Haliburton, Chanel S; del Aguila, Ernesto Vasquez; Weinstein, Hannah J; Parker, Richard G

    2008-06-01

    We explored how young men's perceptions of and participation in hip hop culture--urban social and artistic expressions, such as clothing style, breakdancing, graffiti, and rap music--and how contextual factors of the hip hop scene may be associated with their condom use, condom-use self-efficacy, and sense of community. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 95 African American and Latino men aged 15 to 25 years as part of a 4-year ethnographic study in New York City. Differences in young men's perceptions of and levels of affiliation with hip hop culture were not statistically associated with differences in their sense of community or condom-use self-efficacy. Frequency of participation in the hip hop nightclub scene was the strongest factor negatively associated with condom use. Popular discourses on young men's health risks often blame youths' cultures such as the hip hop culture for increased risk practices but do not critically examine how risk emerges in urban young men's lives and what aspects of youths' culture can be protective. Further research needs to focus on contextual factors of risk such as the role of hip hop nightlife on increased HIV risk.

  8. Predictors of senior center use among older adults in New York City public housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Amanda E; Ralph, Nancy; Olson, Carolyn; Flatley, Anne-Marie; Thorpe, Lorna

    2014-12-01

    Despite agreement among stakeholders that senior centers can promote physical and mental health, research on senior center use in urban populations is limited. Our objective was to describe demographic and health factors associated with senior center use among urban, low-income older adults in order to inform programming and outreach efforts. We used data from a 2009 telephone survey of 1036 adults randomly selected from rosters of New York City public housing residents aged 65 and older. We analyzed senior center use by race/ethnicity, age, gender, health, housing type, and income, and used a forward selection approach to build best-fit models predicting senior center use. Older adults of all ages and of both genders reported substantial use of senior centers, with nearly one third (31.3%) reporting use. Older adults living alone, at risk of depression, or living in specialized senior housing had the greatest use of centers. Senior center use varied by race/ethnicity, and English-speaking Hispanics had a higher prevalence of use than Spanish-speaking Hispanics (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR]=1.69, 95% CI: 1.11-2.59). Spanish-speaking communities and older adults living in non-senior congregate housing are appropriate targets for increased senior center outreach efforts.

  9. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs) INTO CENTRAL PARK LAKE, NEW YORK CITY, OVER A CENTURY OF DEPOSITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Beizhan; Bopp, Richard F.; Abrajano, Teofilo A.; Chaky, Damon; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Relative contributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion sources of wood, petroleum, and coal were computed in sediments from Central Park Lake in New York City (NY, USA) by chemical mass balance based on several reliable source indicators. These indicators are the ratio of retene to the sum of retene and chrysene, the ratio of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrene (DMP) to 1,7-DMP and 2,6-DMP, and the ratio of fluroanthene to fluroanthene and pyrene. The authors found that petroleum combustion–derived PAH fluxes generally followed the historical consumption data of New York State. Coal combustion-derived PAH flux peaked approximately in the late 1910s, remained at a relatively high level over the next 3 decades, then rapidly declined from the 1950s to the 1960s; according to historical New York State coal consumption data, however, there was a 2-peak trend, with peaks around the early 1920s and the mid-1940s. The 1940s peak was not observed in Central Park Lake, most likely because of the well-documented shift from coal to oil as the major residential heating fuel in New York City during the late 1930s. It was widely believed that the decreased PAH concentrations and fluxes in global sediments during the last century resulted from a major energy shift from coal to petroleum. The data, however, show that this shift occurred from 1945 through the 1960s and did not result in an obvious decline. The sharpest decrease, which occurred in the 1970s was not predominantly related to coal usage but rather was the result of multiple factors, including a decline in petroleum usage largely, the introduction of low sulfur–content fuel in New York City, and the introduction of emission-control technologies. PMID:24375577

  10. Evaluation design of New York City's regulations on nutrition, physical activity, and screen time in early child care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breck, Andrew; Goodman, Ken; Dunn, Lillian; Stephens, Robert L; Dawkins, Nicola; Dixon, Beth; Jernigan, Jan; Kakietek, Jakub; Lesesne, Catherine; Lessard, Laura; Nonas, Cathy; O'Dell, Sarah Abood; Osuji, Thearis A; Bronson, Bernice; Xu, Ye; Kettel Khan, Laura

    2014-10-16

    This article describes the multi-method cross-sectional design used to evaluate New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's regulations of nutrition, physical activity, and screen time for children aged 3 years or older in licensed group child care centers. The Center Evaluation Component collected data from a stratified random sample of 176 licensed group child care centers in New York City. Compliance with the regulations was measured through a review of center records, a facility inventory, and interviews of center directors, lead teachers, and food service staff. The Classroom Evaluation Component included an observational and biometric study of a sample of approximately 1,400 children aged 3 or 4 years attending 110 child care centers and was designed to complement the center component at the classroom and child level. The study methodology detailed in this paper may aid researchers in designing policy evaluation studies that can inform other jurisdictions considering similar policies.

  11. Industry in motion: using smart phones to explore the spatial network of the garment industry in New York City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Williams

    Full Text Available Industrial agglomerations have long been thought to offer economic and social benefits to firms and people that are only captured by location within their specified geographies. Using the case study of New York City's garment industry along with data acquired from cell phones and social media, this study set out to understand the discrete activities underpinning the economic dynamics of an industrial agglomeration. Over a two week period, data was collected by employing the geolocative capabilities of Foursquare, a social media application, to record every movement of fashion workers employed at fashion design firms located both inside and outside the geographical boundaries of New York City's Garment District. This unique method of studying worker activity exposed the day-to-day dynamics of an industrial district with a precision thus far undocumented in literature. Our work suggests that having access to the cluster provides almost the same agglomeration economies as residing within its borders.

  12. A Model for Undergraduate and High School Student Research in Earth and Space Sciences: The New York City Research Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzo, F.; Johnson, L.; Marchese, P.

    2006-05-01

    The New York City Research Initiative (NYCRI) is a research and academic program that involves high school students, undergraduate and graduate students, and high school teachers in research teams that are led by college/university principal investigators of NASA funded projects and/or NASA scientists. The principal investigators are at 12 colleges/universities within a 50-mile radius of New York City (NYC and surrounding counties, Southern Connecticut and Northern New Jersey), as well as the NASA Goddard Institute of Space Studies (GISS). This program has a summer research institute component in Earth Science and Space Science, and an academic year component that includes the formulation and implementation NASA research based learning units in existing STEM courses by high school and college faculty. NYCRI is a revision and expansion of the Institute on Climate and Planets at GISS and is funded by NASA MURED and the Goddard Space Flight Center's Education Office.

  13. Industry in motion: using smart phones to explore the spatial network of the garment industry in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sarah; Currid-Halkett, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Industrial agglomerations have long been thought to offer economic and social benefits to firms and people that are only captured by location within their specified geographies. Using the case study of New York City's garment industry along with data acquired from cell phones and social media, this study set out to understand the discrete activities underpinning the economic dynamics of an industrial agglomeration. Over a two week period, data was collected by employing the geolocative capabilities of Foursquare, a social media application, to record every movement of fashion workers employed at fashion design firms located both inside and outside the geographical boundaries of New York City's Garment District. This unique method of studying worker activity exposed the day-to-day dynamics of an industrial district with a precision thus far undocumented in literature. Our work suggests that having access to the cluster provides almost the same agglomeration economies as residing within its borders.

  14. Surveillance and Liberty in Céline's New York, the City That Doesn't Sleep (Around)

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Willging

    2005-01-01

    This essay focuses on Ferdinand Bardamu's account of his stay in New York City in Louis-Ferdinand Céline's bleak bildungsroman, Journey to the End of the Night (1932). In it I explore the rather surprising absence of reference to the Statue of Liberty in a text narrated by a French immigrant of sorts who spends weeks on Ellis Island and who immediately personifies the city as an androgynous, steely, and indeed statue-like woman. Applying to the text Foucault's theories on the disciplinary nat...

  15. Impact of climate change on New York City's coastal flood hazard: Increasing flood heights from the preindustrial to 2300 CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Andra J; Mann, Michael E; Emanuel, Kerry A; Kopp, Robert E; Lin, Ning; Alley, Richard B; Horton, Benjamin P; DeConto, Robert M; Donnelly, Jeffrey P; Pollard, David

    2017-11-07

    The flood hazard in New York City depends on both storm surges and rising sea levels. We combine modeled storm surges with probabilistic sea-level rise projections to assess future coastal inundation in New York City from the preindustrial era through 2300 CE. The storm surges are derived from large sets of synthetic tropical cyclones, downscaled from RCP8.5 simulations from three CMIP5 models. The sea-level rise projections account for potential partial collapse of the Antarctic ice sheet in assessing future coastal inundation. CMIP5 models indicate that there will be minimal change in storm-surge heights from 2010 to 2100 or 2300, because the predicted strengthening of the strongest storms will be compensated by storm tracks moving offshore at the latitude of New York City. However, projected sea-level rise causes overall flood heights associated with tropical cyclones in New York City in coming centuries to increase greatly compared with preindustrial or modern flood heights. For the various sea-level rise scenarios we consider, the 1-in-500-y flood event increases from 3.4 m above mean tidal level during 1970-2005 to 4.0-5.1 m above mean tidal level by 2080-2100 and ranges from 5.0-15.4 m above mean tidal level by 2280-2300. Further, we find that the return period of a 2.25-m flood has decreased from ∼500 y before 1800 to ∼25 y during 1970-2005 and further decreases to ∼5 y by 2030-2045 in 95% of our simulations. The 2.25-m flood height is permanently exceeded by 2280-2300 for scenarios that include Antarctica's potential partial collapse. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  16. Generation X School Leaders as Agents of Care: Leader and Teacher Perspectives from Toronto, New York City and London

    OpenAIRE

    Edge, K. E.; Descours, K.; Frayman, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on evidence from our three-year Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded research study of the lives, careers, experiences and aspirations of Generation X (under 40 years of age) principals and vice-principals in London, New York City, and Toronto. More specifically, the paper examines interview evidence from nine school-based studies in which nine leaders and 54 teachers discuss their perspectives on leaders’ care of their staff members. The evidence demonstrates t...

  17. Urbanization shapes the demographic history of a native rodent (the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus) in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Stephen E.; Xue, Alexander T.; Alvarado-Serrano, Diego; Boehm, Joel T.; Joseph, Tyler; Hickerson, Michael J.; Munshi-South, Jason

    2016-01-01

    How urbanization shapes population genomic diversity and evolution of urban wildlife is largely unexplored. We investigated the impact of urbanization on white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, in the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area using coalescent-based simulations to infer demographic history from the site-frequency spectrum. We assigned individuals to evolutionary clusters and then inferred recent divergence times, population size changes and migration using genome-wide single nucle...

  18. A true politician Rebecca Browning Rankin, municipal reference librarian of the City of New York, 1920-1952

    CERN Document Server

    Seaver, Barry W

    2014-01-01

    "Truly fascinating...highly recommended"--Library Journal; "meticulously documented"--Libraries & Culture; "recommended"--The Australian Library Journal. "Iluminates the history of New York City at a time of dramatic political change."--William E. Leuchtenburg, William Rand Kenan Professor Emeritus, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. "must reading"--Roger W. Lotchin, Professor of History, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

  19. Homogenizing an urban habitat mosaic: arthropod diversity declines in New York City parks after Super Storm Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Amy M; Youngsteadt, Elsa; Ernst, Andrew F; Powers, Shelby A; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D

    2018-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of hurricanes are increasing globally, and anthropogenic modifications in cities have created systems that may be particularly vulnerable to their negative effects. Organisms living in cities are exposed to variable levels of chronic environmental stress. However, whether chronic stress ameliorates or exacerbates the negative effects of hurricanes remains an open question. Here, we consider two hypotheses about the simultaneous consequences of acute disturbances from hurricanes and chronic stress from urbanization for the structure of urban arthropod communities. The tipping point hypothesis posits that organisms living in high stress habitats are less resilient than those in low stress habitats because they are living near the limits of their environmental tolerances; while the disturbance tolerance hypothesis posits that high stress habitats host organisms pre-adapted for coping with disturbance, making them more resilient to the effects of storms. We used a before-after-control-impact design in the street medians and city parks of Manhattan (New York City, New York, USA) to compare arthropod communities before and after Super Storm Sandy in sites that were flooded and unflooded during the storm. Our evidence supported the disturbance tolerance hypothesis. Significant compositional differences between street medians and city parks before the storm disappeared after the storm; similarly, unflooded city parks had significantly different arthropod composition while flooded sites were indistinguishable. These differences were driven by reduced occurrences and abundances of arthropods in city parks. Finally, those arthropod groups that were most tolerant to urban stress were also the most tolerant to flooding. Our results suggest that the species that survive in high stress environments are likely to be the ones that thrive in response to acute disturbance. As storms become increasingly common and extreme, this juxtaposition in responses to

  20. Impact of residential displacement on healthcare access and mental health among original residents of gentrifying neighborhoods in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungwoo; Chan, Pui Ying; Walters, Sarah; Culp, Gretchen; Huynh, Mary; Gould, L Hannah

    2017-01-01

    As gentrification continues in New York City as well as other urban areas, residents of lower socioeconomic status maybe at higher risk for residential displacement. Yet, there have been few quantitative assessments of the health impacts of displacement. The objective of this paper is to assess the association between displacement and healthcare access and mental health among the original residents of gentrifying neighborhoods in New York City. We used 2 data sources: 1) 2005-2014 American Community Surveys to identify gentrifying neighborhoods in New York City, and 2) 2006-2014 Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System. Our cohort included 12,882 residents of gentrifying neighborhoods in 2006 who had records of emergency department visits or hospitalization at least once every 2 years in 2006-2014. Rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations post-baseline were compared between residents who were displaced and those who remained. During 2006-2014, 23% were displaced. Compared with those who remained, displaced residents were more likely to make emergency department visits and experience hospitalizations, mainly due to mental health (Rate Ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.5, 2.2), after controlling for baseline demographics, health status, healthcare utilization, residential movement, and the neighborhood of residence in 2006. These findings suggest negative impacts of displacement on healthcare access and mental health, particularly among adults living in urban areas and with a history of frequent emergency department visits or hospitalizations.

  1. Impact of residential displacement on healthcare access and mental health among original residents of gentrifying neighborhoods in New York City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Lim

    Full Text Available As gentrification continues in New York City as well as other urban areas, residents of lower socioeconomic status maybe at higher risk for residential displacement. Yet, there have been few quantitative assessments of the health impacts of displacement. The objective of this paper is to assess the association between displacement and healthcare access and mental health among the original residents of gentrifying neighborhoods in New York City.We used 2 data sources: 1 2005-2014 American Community Surveys to identify gentrifying neighborhoods in New York City, and 2 2006-2014 Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System. Our cohort included 12,882 residents of gentrifying neighborhoods in 2006 who had records of emergency department visits or hospitalization at least once every 2 years in 2006-2014. Rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations post-baseline were compared between residents who were displaced and those who remained.During 2006-2014, 23% were displaced. Compared with those who remained, displaced residents were more likely to make emergency department visits and experience hospitalizations, mainly due to mental health (Rate Ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.5, 2.2, after controlling for baseline demographics, health status, healthcare utilization, residential movement, and the neighborhood of residence in 2006.These findings suggest negative impacts of displacement on healthcare access and mental health, particularly among adults living in urban areas and with a history of frequent emergency department visits or hospitalizations.

  2. Developing Coastal Adaptation to Climate Change in the New York City Infrastructure-Shed: Process, Approach, Tools, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Solecki, William D.; Blake, Reginald; Bowman, Malcolm; Faris, Craig; Gornitz, Vivien; Horton, Radley; Jacob, Klaus; LeBlanc, Alice; Leichenko, Robin; hide

    2010-01-01

    While current rates of sea level rise and associated coastal flooding in the New York City region appear to be manageable by stakeholders responsible for communications, energy, transportation, and water infrastructure, projections for sea level rise and associated flooding in the future, especially those associated with rapid icemelt of the Greenland and West Antarctic Icesheets, may be beyond the range of current capacity because an extreme event might cause flooding and inundation beyond the planning and preparedness regimes. This paper describes the comprehensive process, approach, and tools developed by the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) in conjunction with the region s stakeholders who manage its critical infrastructure, much of which lies near the coast. It presents the adaptation approach and the sea-level rise and storm projections related to coastal risks developed through the stakeholder process. Climate change adaptation planning in New York City is characterized by a multi-jurisdictional stakeholder-scientist process, state-of-the-art scientific projections and mapping, and development of adaptation strategies based on a risk-management approach.

  3. Connected Vehicle Pilot Deployment Program phase 1 : comprehensive deployment plan : New York City : volume 1 : technical application : part I : technical and management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This document describes the Deployment Plan for the New York City Department of Transportation (NYC) Connected Vehicle Pilot Deployment (CVPD) Project. This plan describes the approach to complete Phase 2 Design/Build/Test, and Phase 3 Operate and Ma...

  4. Working Together to Achieve Greater Impact: The Donors' Education Collaborative of New York City. Principles for Effective Education Grantmaking. Case in Brief Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantmakers for Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, constituency building and advocacy for better public education have grown steadily in New York City. "Working Together to Achieve Greater Impact" explores how that growth was fueled by the Donors' Education Collaborative of New York, which pools its members' financial resources and expertise to advance shared…

  5. Reconceiving Citizenship: Noncitizen Voting in New York City Municipal Elections as a Case Study in Immigrant Integration and Local Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Gilbert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses New York City’s consideration of an amendment to its charter that would extend voting rights to noncitizens in municipal elections as a case study in immigrant integration and local governance.  It argues that New York City’s biggest challenge in moving this issue forward is dealing successfully with two related questions: 1 why the New York City Council should be able to decide who "the People" are without approval from the state government in Albany and 2 whether it should attempt to enact the measure without a referendum.The analysis first examines the role of local government in regulating the lives of immigrants, contrasting enforcement-oriented strategies with those that are more integration-oriented. It then spotlights federal law obstacles to noncitizen suffrage, concluding that while neither federal criminal nor immigration law prevents state or local governments from extending the franchise to noncitizens in state or local matters, federal law imposes impediments that may deter some noncitizens from registering or that could carry serious immigration consequences for those who vote in violation of federal law.  The article then focuses on state law obstacles, including New York’s constitution, its state election law and its home rule provisions. It contrasts other recent experiences with noncitizen suffrage around the country, looking at both municipal and school board elections. Finally, it provides some thoughts on best practices in moving forward the issue of noncitizen suffrage in New York City and other locales. New York law is ambiguous enough that good arguments can be made for why neither Albany’s approval nor a city-wide referendum is required. However, given New York City’s historic relationship with Albany and the state legislature’s power to preempt local law on election matters, if the city council attempts to expand the franchise to noncitizen voters without a referendum or comparable measure

  6. Costs and benefits of pneumatic collection in three specific New York City cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Benjamin; Spertus, Juliette; Kamga, Camille

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pneumatic and truck collection were compared in three New York City locations. • Relative costs, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions varied significantly. • Variations were due to location-specific factors (e.g., route density, truck type). • Under appropriate conditions, pneumatic collection reduces TMT, BTU, and GHG. • Pneumatic capex may be offset by operating savings and externality benefits. - Abstract: Truck-based collection of municipal solid waste imposes significant negative externalities on cities and constrains the efficiency of separate collection of recyclables and organics and of unit-price-based waste-reduction systems. In recent decades, hundreds of municipal-scale pneumatic collection systems have been installed in Europe and Asia. Relatively few prior studies have compared the economic or environmental impacts of these systems to those of truck collection. A critical factor to consider when making this comparison is the extent to which the findings reflect the specific geographic, demographic, and operational characteristics of the systems considered. This paper is based on three case studies that consider the specific characteristics of three locations, comparing pneumatic systems with conventional collection on the basis of actual waste tonnages, composition, sources, collection routes, truck trips, and facility locations. In one case, alternative upgrades to an existing pneumatic system are compared to a potential truck-collection operation. In the other cases, existing truck operations are compared to proposed pneumatic systems which, to reduce capital costs, would be installed without new trenching or tunneling through the use of existing linear infrastructure. For the two proposed retrofit pneumatic systems, up to 48,000 truck kilometers travelled would be avoided and energy use would be reduced by up to 60% at an incremental cost of up to $400,000 USD per year over the total operating-plus-capital cost of

  7. Costs and benefits of pneumatic collection in three specific New York City cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Benjamin, E-mail: BenjaminMiller@nyc.rr.com [University Transportation Research Center, Region 2, 910 Marshak Hall, The City College of New York, New York, NY 10031 (United States); Spertus, Juliette, E-mail: Juliette.Spertus@gmail.com [19 Clifton Place, Brooklyn, NY 11238 (United States); Kamga, Camille, E-mail: CKamga@UTRC2.org [University Transportation Research Center, Region 2, 910 Marshak Hall, The City College of New York, New York, NY 10031 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Pneumatic and truck collection were compared in three New York City locations. • Relative costs, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions varied significantly. • Variations were due to location-specific factors (e.g., route density, truck type). • Under appropriate conditions, pneumatic collection reduces TMT, BTU, and GHG. • Pneumatic capex may be offset by operating savings and externality benefits. - Abstract: Truck-based collection of municipal solid waste imposes significant negative externalities on cities and constrains the efficiency of separate collection of recyclables and organics and of unit-price-based waste-reduction systems. In recent decades, hundreds of municipal-scale pneumatic collection systems have been installed in Europe and Asia. Relatively few prior studies have compared the economic or environmental impacts of these systems to those of truck collection. A critical factor to consider when making this comparison is the extent to which the findings reflect the specific geographic, demographic, and operational characteristics of the systems considered. This paper is based on three case studies that consider the specific characteristics of three locations, comparing pneumatic systems with conventional collection on the basis of actual waste tonnages, composition, sources, collection routes, truck trips, and facility locations. In one case, alternative upgrades to an existing pneumatic system are compared to a potential truck-collection operation. In the other cases, existing truck operations are compared to proposed pneumatic systems which, to reduce capital costs, would be installed without new trenching or tunneling through the use of existing linear infrastructure. For the two proposed retrofit pneumatic systems, up to 48,000 truck kilometers travelled would be avoided and energy use would be reduced by up to 60% at an incremental cost of up to $400,000 USD per year over the total operating-plus-capital cost of

  8. Evaluating watershed protection programs in New York City's Cannonsville Reservoir source watershed using SWAT-HS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, L.; Mukundan, R.; Moore, K. E.; Owens, E. M.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    New York City (NYC)'s reservoirs supply over one billion gallons of drinking water each day to over nine million consumers in NYC and upstate communities. The City has invested more than $1.5 billion in watershed protection programs to maintain a waiver from filtration for the Catskill and Delaware Systems. In the last 25 years, the NYC Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP) has implemented programs in cooperation with upstate communities that include nutrient management, crop rotations, improvement of barnyards and manure storage, implementing tertiary treatment for Phosphorus (P) in wastewater treatment plants, and replacing failed septic systems in an effort to reduce P loads to water supply reservoirs. There have been several modeling studies evaluating the effect of agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs) on P control in the Cannonsville watershed in the Delaware System. Although these studies showed that BMPs would reduce dissolved P losses, they were limited to farm-scale or watershed-scale estimates of reduction factors without consideration of the dynamic nature of overland flow and P losses from variable source areas. Recently, we developed the process-based SWAT-Hillslope (SWAT-HS) model, a modified version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) that can realistically predict variable source runoff processes. The objective of this study is to use the SWAT-HS model to evaluate watershed protection programs addressing both point and non-point sources of P. SWAT-HS predicts streamflow very well for the Cannonsville watershed with a daily Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of 0.85 at the watershed outlet and NSE values ranging from 0.56 - 0.82 at five other locations within the watershed. Based on good hydrological prediction, we applied the model to predict P loads using detailed P inputs that change over time due to the implementation of watershed protection programs. Results from P model predictions provide improved projections of P

  9. Consumer purchasing patterns in response to calorie labeling legislation in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbel Brian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major public health threat and policies aimed at curbing this epidemic are emerging. National calorie labeling legislation is forthcoming and requires rigorous evaluation to examine its impact on consumers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether point-of-purchase calorie labels in New York City (NYC chain restaurants affected food purchasing patterns in a sample of lower income adults in NYC and Newark, NJ. Methods This study utilized a difference-in-difference design to survey 1,170 adult patrons of four popular chain restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ (which did not introduce labeling before and after calorie labeling was implemented in NYC. Receipt data were collected and analyzed to examine food and beverage purchases and frequency of fast food consumption. Descriptive statistics were generated, and linear and logistic regression, difference-in-difference analysis, and predicted probabilities were used to analyze the data. Results A difference-in-difference analysis revealed no significant favorable differences and some unfavorable differences in food purchasing patterns and frequency of fast food consumption between adult patrons of fast food restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ. Adults in NYC who reported noticing and using the calorie labels consumed fast food less frequently compared to adults who did not notice the labels (4.9 vs. 6.6 meals per week, p Conclusion While no favorable differences in purchasing as a result of labeling were noted, self-reported use of calorie labels was associated with some favorable behavioral patterns in a subset of adults in NYC. However, overall impact of the legislation may be limited. More research is needed to understand the most effective way to deliver calorie information to consumers.

  10. Long-term TLD measurements of environmental background radiation in the New York City Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiello, M.

    1994-11-01

    The results of month-long TLD measurements at seven locations within 150 km of New York City are reported for 12 years at a few locations and for up to 18 years at others. At some locations, multiple dosimeters were deployed to acquire concurrent indoor and outdoor measurements. The sites were varied and include an urban high-rise residence, three suburban backyards, a rural hillside, and the wooded outskirts of a nuclear power plant (nonoperational). Long-term mean dose rates in air ranged from 50.8 to 123.1 nGy h -1 (5.8 to 14.1 μR h -1 ) across the area. The typical seasonal dose rate in air variations are presented for two of the sites and are briefly discussed in terms of soil conditions. The data indicate that it is possible to achieve monthly variations from the long-term mean as high as 20 to 40%. One of these locations was monitored for indoor (2 floors) and outdoor air dose rates. This allowed for a time series comparison to be performed illustrating the changing contribution of terrestrial radiation to the total dose rate relative to the steady building material-derived radioactivity. This site also permitted the calculation of indoor/outdoor ratios for two floors. Another suburban location yielded an indoor/outdoor ratio using ground floor dose-rate-in-air measurements. Also presented are mean annual dose rates in air showing a long-term decrease at some locations. A statistical Kendall test was performed to quantify the magnitude of the decrease. A definitive explanation of this trend requires further study

  11. Residential demand response reduces air pollutant emissions on peak electricity demand days in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbraith, Nathaniel; Powers, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Many urban areas in the United States have experienced difficulty meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), partially due to pollution from electricity generating units. We evaluated the potential for residential demand response to reduce pollutant emissions on days with above average pollutant emissions and a high potential for poor air quality. The study focused on New York City (NYC) due to non-attainment with NAAQS standards, large exposed populations, and the existing goal of reducing pollutant emissions. The baseline demand response scenario simulated a 1.8% average reduction in NYC peak demand on 49 days throughout the summer. Nitrogen oxide and particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter emission reductions were predicted to occur (−70, −1.1 metric tons (MT) annually), although, these were not likely to be sufficient for NYC to meet the NAAQS. Air pollution mediated damages were predicted to decrease by $100,000–$300,000 annually. A sensitivity analysis predicted that substantially larger pollutant emission reductions would occur if electricity demand was shifted from daytime hours to nighttime hours, or the total consumption decreased. Policies which incentivize shifting electricity consumption away from periods of high human and environmental impacts should be implemented, including policies directed toward residential consumers. - Highlights: • The impact of residential demand response on air emissions was modeled. • Residential demand response will decrease pollutant emissions in NYC. • Emissions reductions occur during periods with high potential for poor air quality. • Shifting demand to nighttime hours was more beneficial than to off-peak daytime hours

  12. A survey of spatially distributed exterior dust lead loadings in New York City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravanos, Jack [Hunter College-CUNY, School of Health Sciences (United States); Weiss, Arlene L [Environmental Medicine Inc., 263 Center Avenue, Westwood, NJ 07675 (United States); School of Medicine, New York University, NY 10016 (United States); Blaise, Marc J [Hunter College-CUNY, School of Health Sciences (United States); Jaeger, Rudolph J [Environmental Medicine Inc., 263 Center Avenue, Westwood, NJ 07675 (United States) and School of Medicine, New York University, NY 10016 (United States)

    2006-02-15

    This work documents ambient lead dust deposition values (lead loading) for the boroughs of New York City in 2003-2004. Currently, no regulatory standards exist for exterior concentrations of lead in settled dust. This is in contrast to the clearance and risk assessment standards that exist for interior residential dust. The reported potential for neurobehavioral toxicity and adverse cognitive development in children due to lead exposure prompts public health concerns about undocumented lead sources. Such sources may include settled dust of outdoor origin. Dust sampling throughout the five boroughs of NYC was done from the top horizontal portion of pedestrian traffic control signals (PTCS) at selected street intersections along main thoroughfares. The data (n=214 samples) show that lead in dust varies within each borough with Brooklyn having the highest median concentration (730{mu}g/ft{sup 2}), followed in descending order by Staten Island (452{mu}g/ft{sup 2}), the Bronx (382{mu}g/ft{sup 2}), Queens (198{mu}g/ft{sup 2}) and finally, Manhattan (175{mu}g/ft{sup 2}). When compared to the HUD/EPA indoor lead in dust standard of 40{mu}g/ft{sup 2}, our data show that this value is exceeded in 86% of the samples taken. An effort was made to determine the source of the lead in the dust atop of the PTCS. The lead in the dust and the yellow signage paint (which contains lead) were compared using isotopic ratio analysis. Results showed that the lead-based paint chip samples from intact signage did not isotopically match the dust wipe samples taken from the same surface. We know that exterior dust containing lead contributes to interior dust lead loading. Therefore, settled leaded dust in the outdoor environment poses a risk for lead exposure to children living in urban areas, namely, areas with elevated childhood blood lead levels and background lead dust levels from a variety of unidentified sources.

  13. A survey of spatially distributed exterior dust lead loadings in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caravanos, Jack; Weiss, Arlene L.; Blaise, Marc J.; Jaeger, Rudolph J.

    2006-01-01

    This work documents ambient lead dust deposition values (lead loading) for the boroughs of New York City in 2003-2004. Currently, no regulatory standards exist for exterior concentrations of lead in settled dust. This is in contrast to the clearance and risk assessment standards that exist for interior residential dust. The reported potential for neurobehavioral toxicity and adverse cognitive development in children due to lead exposure prompts public health concerns about undocumented lead sources. Such sources may include settled dust of outdoor origin. Dust sampling throughout the five boroughs of NYC was done from the top horizontal portion of pedestrian traffic control signals (PTCS) at selected street intersections along main thoroughfares. The data (n=214 samples) show that lead in dust varies within each borough with Brooklyn having the highest median concentration (730μg/ft 2 ), followed in descending order by Staten Island (452μg/ft 2 ), the Bronx (382μg/ft 2 ), Queens (198μg/ft 2 ) and finally, Manhattan (175μg/ft 2 ). When compared to the HUD/EPA indoor lead in dust standard of 40μg/ft 2 , our data show that this value is exceeded in 86% of the samples taken. An effort was made to determine the source of the lead in the dust atop of the PTCS. The lead in the dust and the yellow signage paint (which contains lead) were compared using isotopic ratio analysis. Results showed that the lead-based paint chip samples from intact signage did not isotopically match the dust wipe samples taken from the same surface. We know that exterior dust containing lead contributes to interior dust lead loading. Therefore, settled leaded dust in the outdoor environment poses a risk for lead exposure to children living in urban areas, namely, areas with elevated childhood blood lead levels and background lead dust levels from a variety of unidentified sources

  14. Detection of Biomass in New York City Aerosols: Light Scattering and Optical Fluorescence Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebauer, M.; Alimova, A.; Katz, A.; Xu, M.; Rudolph, E.; Steiner, J.; Alfano, R. R.

    2005-12-01

    Optical spectroscopy is an ideal method for detecting bacteria and spores in real time. Optical fluorescence spectroscopy examination of New York City aerosols is used to quantify the mass of bacteria spores present in air masses collected at 14 liters/minute onto silica fiber filters, and on silica fiber ribbons using an Environmental Beta Attenuation Monitor manufactured by MetOne Instruments configured for the PM2.5 fraction. Dipicolinic acid (DPA), a molecule found primarily in bacterial spores, is the most characteristic component of spores in trial experiments on over 200 collected aerosol samples. DPA is extracted from the spores using a heat bath and chelated with Terbium. The DPA:Tb is detected by measuring its characteristic fluorescence with emission bands at 490, 545 and 585 nm for 270 nm excitation. Light scattering also measures the size distribution for a number of a variety of bacteria - Bacillus subtilis (rod shaped), Staphylococcus aureus (spherical) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (short rods) establishing that optical techniques satisfactorily distinguish populations based on their variable morphology. Size and morphology are obtained by applying a variation of the Gaussian Ray Approximation theory of anomalous diffraction theory to an analysis of the transmission spectra in the range of 0.4 to 1.0 microns. In test experiments, the refractive index of the inner spore core of Bacillus subtilis decreases from 1.51 to 1.39 while the spore radius enlarges from 0.38 to 0.6 micrometers. Optical determinations are verified by oil-immersion techniques and by scanning electron microscope measurements. Characterization of spores, germinating spore materials, and bacteria is considered vital to tracing bacteria in the environment, for the development of life-detection systems for planetary exploration, monitoring pathogens in environmental systems, and for the preparation of anti-terrorism strategies.

  15. Consumer purchasing patterns in response to calorie labeling legislation in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiveloo, Maya K; Dixon, L Beth; Elbel, Brian

    2011-05-27

    Obesity is a major public health threat and policies aimed at curbing this epidemic are emerging. National calorie labeling legislation is forthcoming and requires rigorous evaluation to examine its impact on consumers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether point-of-purchase calorie labels in New York City (NYC) chain restaurants affected food purchasing patterns in a sample of lower income adults in NYC and Newark, NJ. This study utilized a difference-in-difference design to survey 1,170 adult patrons of four popular chain restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ (which did not introduce labeling) before and after calorie labeling was implemented in NYC. Receipt data were collected and analyzed to examine food and beverage purchases and frequency of fast food consumption. Descriptive statistics were generated, and linear and logistic regression, difference-in-difference analysis, and predicted probabilities were used to analyze the data. A difference-in-difference analysis revealed no significant favorable differences and some unfavorable differences in food purchasing patterns and frequency of fast food consumption between adult patrons of fast food restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ. Adults in NYC who reported noticing and using the calorie labels consumed fast food less frequently compared to adults who did not notice the labels (4.9 vs. 6.6 meals per week, p behavioral patterns in a subset of adults in NYC. However, overall impact of the legislation may be limited. More research is needed to understand the most effective way to deliver calorie information to consumers.

  16. A menu for health: changes to New York City school food, 2001 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Sharon E; Nonas, Cathy; Lindstrom, Lauren L; Choe-Castillo, Julia; McKie, Herman; Alberti, Philip M

    2012-10-01

    The high prevalence of obesity puts children at risk for chronic diseases, increases health care costs, and threatens to reduce life expectancy. As part of the response to this epidemic, the New York City (NYC) Department of Education (DOE)--the nation's largest school district--has worked to improve the appeal and nutritional quality of school food. This article highlights some of the structural and policy changes that have improved the school food environment over the past decade, with the aim to share lessons learned and provide recommendations and resources for other districts interested in making similar modifications. This article details changes DOE has implemented over 10 years, including revised nutrition standards for school meals and competitive foods; new school food department staffing; food reformulations, substitutions, and additions; and transitions to healthier beverages. NYC's revised nutrition standards and hiring of expert staff increased availability of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy and decreased sugary beverages, and foods high in saturated fats and added sugars--the major contributors to discretionary calorie intake. DOE also introduced healthier beverages: switching from high-calorie, high-fat whole milk to low-fat milk and increasing access to water. NYC has successfully improved the quality of its school food environment and shown that healthier food service is possible, even under budgetary constraints. Several broad factors facilitated these efforts: fostering community partnerships and inter-agency collaboration, implementing policies and initiatives that target multiple sectors for greater impact, and working to make incremental improvements each year. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  17. Description of Sexual Orientation and Sexual Behaviors among High School Girls in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Chanelle A; Silver, Ellen J; Chhabra, Rosy

    2017-08-01

    Examination of the association of sexual orientation to the sexual practices and health behaviors of high school girls in New York City (NYC). Data were drawn from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey of public high school students in grades 9-12 in NYC. None. Independent variables included sexual orientation and gender of sexual partners. Dependent variables include sexual/health risk behaviors. We used t tests to compare mean ages and χ 2 tests to compare distributions according to sexual orientation, gender of sexual partners, and differences in risk behaviors. The survey was completed by 4643 girls; mean age, 15.5 years; (1103 + 1842)/4254 (69%) black or Latina; 1101/4000 (27.5%) sexually active; 3574/4412 (81%) heterosexual; and (92 + 526)/4412 (14%) sexual minorities; 24.1% were heterosexual, 52.1% lesbian, and 49.4% were bisexual girls and were sexually active; 247 were classified as women who have sex with women (WSW) or WSW and men (WSWM). Of the sexually active girls, (65 + 182)/1081 (23%) were WSW/WSWM. The WSW/WSWM reported earlier sexual debut, more sexual partners, higher pregnancy rate, use of alcohol at last sex, history of intimate partner violence, and less likelihood of having an HIV test. Almost one in four of sexually active high school girls in NYC can be classified as WSW, who are vulnerable to increased sexual and health risk-taking behaviors leading to adverse health outcomes. The discordance between sexual behavior and sexual orientation emphasizes the importance of the provider sharing protective strategies in the sexual health counseling session for their patients who engage in sex with female partners regardless of sexual orientation. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Secular changes in mortality disparities in New York City: a reexamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Keri N; Karpati, Adam; Hero, Joachim; Matte, Thomas D

    2009-09-01

    Previously published analyses showed that inequalities in mortality rates between residents of poor and wealthy neighborhoods in New York City (NYC) narrowed between 1990 and 2000, but these trends may have been influenced by population in-migration and gentrification. The NYC public housing population has been less subject to these population shifts than those in other NYC neighborhoods. We compared changes in mortality rates (MRs) from 1989-1991 to 1999-2001 among residents of NYC census blocks consisting entirely of public housing residences with residents of nonpublic housing low-income and higher-income blocks. Public housing and nonpublic housing low-income blocks were those in census block groups with > or =50% of residents living at <1.5 times the federal poverty level (FPL); nonpublic housing higher-income blocks were those in census block groups with <50% of residents living at <1.5 times the FPL. Information on deaths was obtained from NYC's vital registry, and US Census data were used for denominators. Age-standardized all-cause MRs in public housing, low-income, and higher-income residents decreased between the decades by 16%, 28%, and 22%, respectively. While mortality rate ratios between low-income and higher-income residents narrowed by 8%, the relative disparity between public housing and low-income residents widened by 21%. Diseases amenable to prevention including malignancies, diabetes, and chronic lung disease contributed to the increased overall mortality disparity between public housing and lower-income residents. These findings temper previous findings that inequalities in the health of poor and wealthier NYC neighborhood residents have narrowed. NYC public housing residents should be a high-priority population for efforts to reduce health disparities.

  19. Gentrification and preterm birth in New York City, 2008–2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, M; Maroko, A R

    2014-02-01

    Adverse birth outcomes have been linked to neighborhood level socioeconomic status. However, little work has examined the influence of social and economic change over time (i.e., gentrification) on health. This study aims to assess the association between gentrification and preterm birth (PTB) while examining the modifying effect of maternal race/ethnicity and educational attainment. New York City births, 2008–2010, (n=126,165) were linked to a measure of gentrification at the community district level (n=59). The gentrification measure was calculated using percent change in education level, poverty level, and median household income (MHI) between the 2005–2009 American Community Survey and the 1990 Census. PTB was defined as clinical gestational age less than 37 weeks. Generalized estimating equations were utilized to examine the association. Gentrification (i.e., increase in residents with a college education, increase in MHI, and decrease in residents living below the poverty line) was not associated with PTB. However, among Non-Hispanic Blacks, very high gentrification was adversely associated with PTB (AOR, 1.16; 95 % CI, 1.01–1.33) as compared to those who lived in a very low gentrified neighborhood. Among non- Hispanic Whites, living in a very high gentrified neighborhood was protective as compared to living in a very low gentrified neighborhood (AOR, 0.78; 95 % CI, 0.64– 0.94). Although there is a need to develop a more nuanced measure of gentrification, these results indicate that changes in the economic character of a neighborhood may have a significant influence on birth outcomes.

  20. Nonmedical opioid use among electronic dance music party attendees in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Le, Austin; Cleland, Charles M

    2018-05-01

    Nonmedical opioid use remains an epidemic in the United States. Electronic dance music (EDM) party attendees have been found to be at high risk for the use of drugs such as ecstasy, but little is known about nonmedical opioid use in this population. Using time-space sampling, we surveyed 954 individuals (ages 18-40) attending randomly selected EDM parties in New York City in 2017. Participants were asked about the use of 18 different opioids and about willingness to use if offered by a friend in the next 30 days. We estimated the prevalence of use in this population and examined correlates of past-year and past-month use. Almost a quarter (23.9%) of EDM party attendees are estimated to have used opioids non-medically in their lifetime, and one out of ten (9.8%) in the past year. 5% are estimated to be current users (reporting past-month use), and 16.4% are willing to use opioids non-medically if offered by a friend in the next 30 days. Past-year nonmedical benzodiazepine users were at high odds for reporting current nonmedical opioid use (aOR = 10.11, p < 0.001) and, on average, report using more different opioid drugs in the past year than non-past-year-users (p = 0.012). Nearly three-quarters (73.6%) of those who have used in the past year indicated that they would use again if offered by a friend in the next 30 days. Nonmedical opioid use is prevalent in the EDM scene and many attendees are willing to use if offered. Prevention efforts are needed in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of Ambient Fine Particles With Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Robert A.; Ito, Kazuhiko; Freese, John; Kaufman, Brad J.; De Claro, Danilynn; Braun, James; Prezant, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity has been associated with particulate matter (PM) air pollution, although the relation between pollutants and sudden death from cardiac arrest has not been established. This study examined associations between out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and fine PM (of aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm, or PM2.5), ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide in New York City. The authors analyzed 8,216 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of primary cardiac etiology during the years 2002–2006. Time-series and case-crossover analyses were conducted, controlling for season, day-of-week, same-day, and delayed/apparent temperature. An increased risk of cardiac arrest in time-series (relative risk (RR) = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.10) and case-crossover (RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.08) analysis for a PM2.5 increase of 10 μg/m3 in the average of 0- and 1-day lags was found. The association was significant in the warm season (RR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.15) but not the cold season (RR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.07). Associations of cardiac arrest with other pollutants were weaker. These findings, consistent with studies implicating acute cardiovascular effects of PM, support a link between PM2.5 and out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. Since few individuals survive an arrest, air pollution control may help prevent future cardiovascular mortality. PMID:20729350

  2. Excess Mortality Attributable to Extreme Heat in New York City, 1997-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Thomas D; Lane, Kathryn; Ito, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Extreme heat event excess mortality has been estimated statistically to assess impacts, evaluate heat emergency response, and project climate change risks. We estimated annual excess non-external-cause deaths associated with extreme heat events in New York City (NYC). Extreme heat events were defined as days meeting current National Weather Service forecast criteria for issuing heat advisories in NYC based on observed maximum daily heat index values from LaGuardia Airport. Outcomes were daily non-external-cause death counts for NYC residents from May through September from 1997 to 2013 (n = 337,162). The cumulative relative risk (CRR) of death associated with extreme heat events was estimated in a Poisson time-series model for each year using an unconstrained distributed lag for days 0-3 accommodating over dispersion, and adjusting for within-season trends and day of week. Attributable death counts were computed by year based on individual year CRRs. The pooled CRR per extreme heat event day was 1.11 (95%CI 1.08-1.14). The estimated annual excess non-external-cause deaths attributable to heat waves ranged from -14 to 358, with a median of 121. Point estimates of heat wave-attributable deaths were greater than 0 in all years but one and were correlated with the number of heat wave days (r = 0.81). Average excess non-external-cause deaths associated with extreme heat events were nearly 11-fold greater than hyperthermia deaths. Estimated extreme heat event-associated excess deaths may be a useful indicator of the impact of extreme heat events, but single-year estimates are currently too imprecise to identify short-term changes in risk.

  3. Pregnancy risk among black, white, and Hispanic teen girls in New York City public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Elizabeth Needham; Orr, Mark G; Sackoff, Judith; Santelli, John S

    2010-05-01

    Disparities in teen pregnancy rates are explained by different rates of sexual activity and contraceptive use. Identifying other components of risk such as race/ethnicity and neighborhood can inform strategies for teen pregnancy prevention. Data from the 2005 and 2007 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were used to model demographic differences in odds of recent sexual activity and birth control use among black, white, and Hispanic public high school girls. Overall pregnancy risk was calculated using pregnancy risk index (PRI) methodology, which estimates probability of pregnancy based on current sexual activity and birth control method at last intercourse. Factors of race/ethnicity, grade level, age, borough, and school neighborhood were assessed. Whites reported lower rates of current sexual activity (23.4%) than blacks (35.4%) or Hispanics (32.7%), and had lower predicted pregnancy risk (PRI = 5.4% vs. 9.0% and 10.5%, respectively). Among sexually active females, hormonal contraception use rates were low in all groups (11.6% among whites, 7.8% among blacks, and 7.5% among Hispanics). Compared to white teens, much of the difference in PRI was attributable to poorer contraceptive use (19% among blacks and 50% among Hispanics). Significant differences in contraceptive use were also observed by school neighborhood after adjusting for age group and race/ethnicity. Interventions to reduce teen pregnancy among diverse populations should include messages promoting delayed sexual activity, condom use and use of highly effective birth control methods. Access to long-acting contraceptive methods must be expanded for all sexually active high school students.

  4. Dietary and physical activity behaviors of New York City children from different ethnic minority subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeepuram, Nita; Mervish, Nancy; Galvez, Maida P; Brenner, Barbara; Wolff, Mary S

    2012-01-01

    To examine racial/ethnic differences in diet and physical activity behaviors in ethnic minority New York City children. Cross-sectional data from a community-based study of 486 6- to 8-year-old children were used. Race/ethnicity was derived using a caregiver's report of child's race and Hispanic ancestry. Dietary intake was obtained by 24-hour diet recalls using the Nutrition Data System for Research. Physical activity was assessed with pedometers and caregiver interviews. We compared diet and activity measures across racial/ethnic subgroups using chi-square and analysis of variance tests. Multivariate analyses adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and caregiver education (with breastfeeding history and total energy intake included in diet models). Participants (N = 486) were categorized as Mexican (29.4%), Dominican (8.4%), Puerto Rican (20.6%), other/mixed Hispanic (14.0%), or non-Hispanic black (27.6%). Obesity rates were lower in non-Hispanic blacks (18%) than in Hispanics (31%). Mexicans had the lowest obesity rates among Hispanic subgroups (25%), and Dominicans had the highest (39%). There were differences in mean daily servings of food groups, with Mexicans having healthier diets and Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic Blacks having less healthy diets. Sedentary time was lower in Mexicans than in other groups in adjusted models. Examination of additional models, including home language, did not show significant differences in the estimates. Diet and activity behaviors varied across racial/ethnic subgroups. Specifically, Mexican children had healthier diets, the least amount of sedentary time, and the lowest rates of obesity among the Hispanic subgroups examined. Targeted interventions in ethnic subgroups may be warranted to address specific behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Science-based decision-making on complex issues: Marcellus shale gas hydrofracking and New York City water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Complex scientific and non-scientific considerations are central to the pending decisions about “hydrofracking” or high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) to exploit unconventional natural gas resources worldwide. While incipient plans are being made internationally for major shale reservoirs, production and technology are most advanced in the United States, particularly in Texas and Pennsylvania, with a pending decision in New York State whether to proceed. In contrast to the narrow scientific and technical debate to date, focused on either greenhouse gas emissions or water resources, toxicology and land use in the watersheds that supply drinking water to New York City (NYC), I review the scientific and technical aspects in combination with global climate change and other critical issues in energy tradeoffs, economics and political regulation to evaluate the major liabilities and benefits. Although potential benefits of Marcellus natural gas exploitation are large for transition to a clean energy economy, at present the regulatory framework in New York State is inadequate to prevent potentially irreversible threats to the local environment and New York City water supply. Major investments in state and federal regulatory enforcement will be required to avoid these environmental consequences, and a ban on drilling within the NYC water supply watersheds is appropriate, even if more highly regulated Marcellus gas production is eventually permitted elsewhere in New York State. - Highlights: • Analyses of hydrofracking for natural gas production worldwide are too focused. • Energy benefits are great but so are environmental/public health liabilities. • Current dependence on even more damaging coal-fired power can be reduced. • Protecting watersheds for NYC and other municipality water supply is paramount. • Strengthening of regulation is needed for reducing potential adverse impacts

  6. Science-based decision-making on complex issues: Marcellus shale gas hydrofracking and New York City water supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, Timothy T., E-mail: Timothy.Eaton@qc.cuny.edu

    2013-09-01

    Complex scientific and non-scientific considerations are central to the pending decisions about “hydrofracking” or high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) to exploit unconventional natural gas resources worldwide. While incipient plans are being made internationally for major shale reservoirs, production and technology are most advanced in the United States, particularly in Texas and Pennsylvania, with a pending decision in New York State whether to proceed. In contrast to the narrow scientific and technical debate to date, focused on either greenhouse gas emissions or water resources, toxicology and land use in the watersheds that supply drinking water to New York City (NYC), I review the scientific and technical aspects in combination with global climate change and other critical issues in energy tradeoffs, economics and political regulation to evaluate the major liabilities and benefits. Although potential benefits of Marcellus natural gas exploitation are large for transition to a clean energy economy, at present the regulatory framework in New York State is inadequate to prevent potentially irreversible threats to the local environment and New York City water supply. Major investments in state and federal regulatory enforcement will be required to avoid these environmental consequences, and a ban on drilling within the NYC water supply watersheds is appropriate, even if more highly regulated Marcellus gas production is eventually permitted elsewhere in New York State. - Highlights: • Analyses of hydrofracking for natural gas production worldwide are too focused. • Energy benefits are great but so are environmental/public health liabilities. • Current dependence on even more damaging coal-fired power can be reduced. • Protecting watersheds for NYC and other municipality water supply is paramount. • Strengthening of regulation is needed for reducing potential adverse impacts.

  7. Large Dog Relinquishment to Two Municipal Facilities in New York City and Washington, D.C.: Identifying Targets for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Emily; Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Drain, Natasha; Dolan, Emily; Scarlett, Janet M.; Zawistowski, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary While the overall trend in euthanasia has been decreasing nationally, large dogs are at a higher risk of euthanasia than other-sized dogs in most animal shelters in the United States. We hypothesized that one way to increase the lives saved with regard to large dogs in shelters is to keep them home in the first place when possible. Our research is the first to collect data in New York City and Washington, D.C., identifying the process leading to the owner relinquishment of large dogs. We found that targets for interventions to decrease large dog relinquishment are likely different in each community. Abstract While the overall trend in euthanasia has been decreasing nationally, large dogs are at a higher risk of euthanasia than other sized dogs in most animal shelters in the United States. We hypothesized one way to increase the lives saved with respect to these large dogs is to keep them home when possible. In order to develop solutions to decrease relinquishment, a survey was developed to learn more about the reasons owners relinquish large dogs. The survey was administered to owners relinquishing their dogs at two large municipal facilities, one in New York City and one in Washington, D.C. There were 157 responses between the two facilities. We found both significant similarities and differences between respondents and their dogs from the two cities. We identified opportunities to potentially support future relinquishers and found that targets for interventions are likely different in each community. PMID:26480315

  8. Generation X Leaders from London, New York and Toronto: Conceptions of Social Identity and the Influence of City-Based Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Karen; Descours, Katherine; Oxley, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by scholarly calls to focus more intently on the influence of context on leaders' construction and negotiation of identity, this paper draws on evidence from our Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) project in London, New York City and Toronto. Throughout the paper, we strive to illuminate how the city-based context influences how…

  9. From job training to green jobs: a case study for a young adult employment program centered on environmental restoration in New York City, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Falxa-Raymond; Erika Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2013-01-01

    The demand for a well-trained green-collar labor force will increase as many cities implement sustainability and green infrastructure plans. Additionally, many green jobs training programs are intended to provide pathways out of poverty for low-skilled workers. In this case study, we analyze the experiences of graduates from a New York City, USA green jobs training...

  10. Trace element concentration and speciation in selected urban soils in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, R; Hernandez, L; Shaw, R; Tunstead, R; Ferguson, R; Peaslee, S

    2014-01-01

    A long history of urbanization and industrialization has affected trace elements in New York City (NYC) soils. Selected NYC pedons were analyzed by aqua regia microwave digestion and sequential chemical extraction as follows: water soluble (WS); exchangeable (EX); specifically sorbed/carbonate bound (SS/CAR); oxide-bound (OX); organic/sulfide bound (OM/S). Soils showed a range in properties (e.g., pH 3.9 to 7.4). Sum of total extractable (SUMTE) trace elements was higher in NYC parks compared to Bronx River watershed sites. NYC surface horizons showed higher total extractable (TE) levels compared to US non-anthropogenic soils. TE levels increased over 10 year in some of the relatively undisturbed and mostly wooded park sites. Surface horizons of park sites with long-term anthropogenic inputs showed elevated TE levels vs. subsurface horizons. Conversely, some Bronx River watershed soils showed increased concentrations with depth, reflective of their formation in a thick mantle of construction debris increasing with depth and intermingled with anthrotransported soil materials. Short-range variability was evident in primary pedons and satellite samples (e.g., Pb 253 ± 143 mg/kg). Long-range variability was indicated by PbTE (348 versus 156 mg/kg) and HgTE (1 versus 0.3 mg/kg) concentrations varying several-fold in the same soil but in different geographic locations. Relative predominance of fractions: RES (37 %) > SS/CAR (22 %) > OX (20 %) > OM/S (10 %) > EX (7 %) > WS (4 %). WS and EX fractions were greatest for Hg (7 %) and Cd (14 %), respectively. RES was predominant fraction for Co, Cr, Ni, and Zn (41 to 51 %); SS/CAR for Cd and Pb (40 and 63 %); OM/S for Cu and Hg (36 and 37 %); and OX for As (59 %).

  11. Spatial variation in environmental noise and air pollution in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirbek, Iyad; Ito, Kazuhiko; Neitzel, Richard; Kim, Jung; Johnson, Sarah; Ross, Zev; Eisl, Holger; Matte, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Exposure to environmental noise from traffic is common in urban areas and has been linked to increased risks of adverse health effects including cardiovascular disease. Because traffic sources also produce air pollutants that increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity, associations between traffic exposures and health outcomes may involve confounding and/or synergisms between air pollution and noise. While prior studies have characterized intraurban spatial variation in air pollution in New York City (NYC), limited data exists on the levels and spatial variation in noise levels. We measured 1-week equivalent continuous sound pressure levels (Leq) at 56 sites during the fall of 2012 across NYC locations with varying traffic intensity and building density that are routinely monitored for combustion-related air pollutants. We evaluated correlations among several noise metrics used to characterize noise exposures, including Leq during different time periods (night, day, weekday, weekend), Ldn (day-night noise), and measures of intermittent noise defined as the ratio of peak levels to median and background levels. We also examined correlations between sound pressure levels and co-located simultaneous measures of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC) as well as estimates of traffic and building density around the monitoring sites. Noise levels varied widely across the 56 monitoring sites; 1-week Leq varied by 21.6 dBA (range 59.1-80.7 dBA) with the highest levels observed during the weekday, daytime hours. Indices of average noise were well correlated with each other (r > 0.83), while indices of intermittent noise were not well correlated with average noise levels (r noise levels and traffic intensity within 100 m of the monitoring sites (r = 0.58). The high levels of noise observed in NYC often exceed recommended guidelines for outdoor and personal exposures, suggesting unhealthy levels in many locations

  12. Increasing Diversity in the Geosciences at the City University of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damas, C.; Johnson, L.; McHugh, C.; Marchese, P. J.

    2007-12-01

    The City University of New York (CUNY) is the nation's largest urban university, with 23 institutions serving a large number of underrepresented minority (URM) and women students at all levels of the pipeline - community college to graduate school. CUNY has a strong record of recruiting, enrolling, retaining and graduating URMs in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. Current efforts are underway to increase the number of URMs in the geosciences. These efforts include: 1) involving students in research at all levels of the pipeline; 2) incorporating innovative and proven pedagogical methods into the classroom; and 3) mentoring of students by research scientists from CUNY and other participating institutions. At all levels of the pipeline, students are actively engaged in Space and Earth Science research. At the community college level, students are introduced to the scientific research process through familiar software such as MS Excel to analyze simple time series. At the senior colleges, students progress to multi-variate data analysis, and they also have the opportunity to go into the field to collect data. As graduate students, they are involved as mentors and supervise undergraduate student research. Program initiatives such as the CUNY pipeline provide stipends and academic enrichment activities (i.e., GRE training, applying to graduate school, etc.) throughout the summer and academic year. During the summer, students also have the opportunity to work with and be mentored by research scientists at a CUNY campus, at a NASA center or a national laboratory. Mentors advise students about graduate school and careers, serve as role models, and perhaps more importantly, provide encouragement to students who lack confidence in their ability to do scientific research. Students also are expected to present their research findings at meetings and conferences, both locally and nationally. In addition to their research experiences, students also

  13. Examining the Intersection of Bullying and Physical Relationship Violence Among New York City High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Zachary J; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Davidson, Leslie L

    2017-01-01

    Research is just beginning to explore the intersection of bullying and relationship violence. The relationship between these forms of youth aggression has yet to be examined in diverse urban centers, including New York City (NYC). This study seeks to identify intersections of joint victimization from bullying and electronic bullying (e-bullying) with physical relationship violence (pRV). This study examines data from the NYC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a representative sample of NYC public high school students, to assess the concurrent victimization from bullying at school and e-bullying with pRV, operationalized as physical violence by a dating partner in the past 12 months. Students who reported being bullied at school and e-bullied had increased odds (bullied: OR = 2.5, 95% CI [2.1, 2.9]; e-bullied: OR = 3.0, 95% CI [2.6, 3.5]) of also being victimized by pRV compared with those who did not report being bullied or e-bullied. In logistic regression models, being bullied at school and being e-bullied remained significant predictors of students' odds of reporting pRV (bullied: AOR = 2.6, 95% CI [2.2, 3.1]; e-bullied: AOR = 3.0, 95% CI [2.5, 3.6]) while controlling for race, gender, sexual orientation, and age. This research is the first to assess the intersection of victimization from bullying and e-bullying with pRV in a large, diverse, random sample of urban high school students. In this sample, students who report being bullied or e-bullied are more likely also to report pRV than students who have not been bullied or e-bullied. This research has potential implications for educators, adolescent health and social service providers, and policy makers to tailor programs and enact policies that jointly address bullying and pRV. Future studies are needed to longitudinally assess both victimization from and perpetration of bullying and pRV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Links between the built environment, climate and population health: interdisciplinary environmental change research in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Joyce Klein; Sclar, Elliott D; Kinney, Patrick L; Knowlton, Kim; Crauderueff, Robert; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W

    2007-10-01

    Global climate change is expected to pose increasing challenges for cities in the following decades, placing greater stress and impacts on multiple social and biophysical systems, including population health, coastal development, urban infrastructure, energy demand, and water supplies. Simultaneously, a strong global trend towards urbanisation of poverty exists, with increased challenges for urban populations and local governance to protect and sustain the wellbeing of growing cities. In the context of these 2 overarching trends, interdisciplinary research at the city scale is prioritised for understanding the social impacts of climate change and variability and for the evaluation of strategies in the built environment that might serve as adaptive responses to climate change. This article discusses 2 recent initiatives of The Earth Institute at Columbia University (EI) as examples of research that integrates the methods and objectives of several disciplines, including environmental health science and urban planning, to understand the potential public health impacts of global climate change and mitigative measures for the more localised effects of the urban heat island in the New York City metropolitan region. These efforts embody 2 distinct research approaches. The New York Climate & Health Project created a new integrated modeling system to assess the public health impacts of climate and land use change in the metropolitan region. The Cool City Project aims for more applied policy-oriented research that incorporates the local knowledge of community residents to understand the costs and benefits of interventions in the built environment that might serve to mitigate the harmful impacts of climate change and variability, and protect urban populations from health stressors associated with summertime heat. Both types of research are potentially useful for understanding the impacts of environmental change at the urban scale, the policies needed to address these

  15. Local environmental and meteorological conditions influencing the invasive mosquito Ae. albopictus and arbovirus transmission risk in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Eliza; Bajwa, Waheed; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2017-08-01

    Ae. albopictus, an invasive mosquito vector now endemic to much of the northeastern US, is a significant public health threat both as a nuisance biter and vector of disease (e.g. chikungunya virus). Here, we aim to quantify the relationships between local environmental and meteorological conditions and the abundance of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes in New York City. Using statistical modeling, we create a fine-scale spatially explicit risk map of Ae. albopictus abundance and validate the accuracy of spatiotemporal model predictions using observational data from 2016. We find that the spatial variability of annual Ae. albopictus abundance is greater than its temporal variability in New York City but that both local environmental and meteorological conditions are associated with Ae. albopictus numbers. Specifically, key land use characteristics, including open spaces, residential areas, and vacant lots, and spring and early summer meteorological conditions are associated with annual Ae. albopictus abundance. In addition, we investigate the distribution of imported chikungunya cases during 2014 and use these data to delineate areas with the highest rates of arboviral importation. We show that the spatial distribution of imported arboviral cases has been mostly discordant with mosquito production and thus, to date, has provided a check on local arboviral transmission in New York City. We do, however, find concordant areas where high Ae. albopictus abundance and chikungunya importation co-occur. Public health and vector control officials should prioritize control efforts to these areas and thus more cost effectively reduce the risk of local arboviral transmission. The methods applied here can be used to monitor and identify areas of risk for other imported vector-borne diseases.

  16. Carl Jung's interpretation of Wolfgang Pauli's dreams: The Bailey Island, Maine, and New York City seminars of 1936 and 1937

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard Paul

    This dissertation reviewed the development of Jung's dream theory and addresses the question as to whether or not Jung was influenced by the dreams of the Nobel Prize winning physicist, Wolfgang Pauli. Jung provided an extensive analysis of Pauli's dreams, which are contained in the lightly edited, unpublished transcripts of lectures delivered in 1936 and 1937. An archival and hermeneutic analysis of the texts reveals a staged process of individuation that Jung related to in many ways because of the parallels to his own personal journey toward individuation. A chronological history of the development of Jung's dream theory is presented, followed by a picture of the relationship between Jung and Pauli. Thereafter, a detailed summary of the seminar transcripts, one given on Bailey Island, Maine, and the other in New York City the following year, is offered with hermeneutic commentary. An analysis of the seminars found that Pauli's dreams did, in part, support Jung's theory. Specifically, while Jung was unable to meet the scientific demands for clear empirical evidence of his dream theory, he did offer his professional and non-professional audiences with a slightly less rigorous example of his dream theory in action, demonstrating that the process shared similarities across peoples, time, and cultures. Additionally, in Pauli he found a superior mind that had gone through the process of individuation in accordance with his theory and his own experience. During the course of research, reference to a document was found in the correspondence in the Jungian Archives in Zurich. This document entitled, "FAREWELL SPEECH, Given by Dr. C. G. Jung on the Occasion of a Dinner Given in His Honor by the Analytical Psychology Club of New York City October 26, 1937" and other related documents were subsequently uncovered in the sub-basement of the Kristine Mann Library in New York City. A synopsis of the discovery and description of the papers contained in the file are discussed in

  17. Estimating the Hospital Delivery Costs Associated With Severe Maternal Morbidity in New York City, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Renata E; Angley, Meghan; Won, Sang Hee; Wilcox, Wendy; Searing, Hannah; Tsao, Tsu-Yu

    2018-02-01

    To quantify the average and total hospital delivery costs associated with severe maternal morbidity in excess of nonsevere maternal morbidity deliveries over a 5-year period in New York City adjusting for other sociodemographic and clinical factors. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study using linked birth certificates and hospital discharge data for New York City deliveries from 2008 to 2012. Severe maternal morbidity was defined using a published algorithm of International Classification of Diseases, 9 Revision, Clinical Modification disease and procedure codes. Hospital costs were estimated by converting hospital charges using factors specific to each year and hospital and to each diagnosis. These estimates approximate what it costs the hospital to provide services (excluding professional fees) and were used in all subsequent analyses. To estimate adjusted mean costs associated with severe maternal morbidity, we used multivariable regression models with a log link, gamma distribution, robust standard errors, and hospital fixed effects, controlling for age, race and ethnicity, neighborhood poverty, primary payer, number of deliveries, method of delivery, comorbidities, and year. We used the adjusted mean cost to determine the average and total hospital delivery costs associated with severe maternal morbidity in excess of nonsevere maternal morbidity deliveries from 2008 to 2012. Approximately 2.3% (n=13,502) of all New York City delivery hospitalizations were complicated by severe maternal morbidity. Compared with nonsevere maternal morbidity deliveries, these hospitalizations were clinically complicated, required more and intensive clinical services, and had a longer stay in the hospital. The average cost of delivery with severe maternal morbidity was $14,442 (95% CI $14,128-14,756), compared with $7,289 (95% CI $7,276-7,302) among deliveries without severe maternal morbidity. After adjusting for other factors, the difference between deliveries

  18. Y2K medical disaster preparedness in New York City: confidence of emergency department directors in their ability to respond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, S H; Oster, N; Simmons, B; Garrett, C

    2001-01-01

    To study the preparedness New York City for large scale medical disasters using the Year 2000 (Y2K) New Years Eve weekend as a model. Surveys were sent to the directors of 51 of the 9-1-1-receiving hospitals in New York City before and after the Y2K weekend. Inquiries were made regarding hospital activities, contingencies, protocols, and confidence levels in the ability to manage critical incidents, including weapons of mass destruction (WMD) events. Additional information was collected from New York City governmental agencies regarding their coordination and preparedness. The pre-Y2K survey identified that 97.8% had contingencies for loss of essential services, 87.0% instituted their disaster plan in advance, 90.0% utilized an Incident Command System, and 73.9% had a live, mock Y2K drill. Potential terrorism influenced Y2K preparedness in 84.8%. The post-Y2K survey indicated that the threat of terrorism influenced future preparedness in 73.3%; 73.3% had specific protocols for chemical; 62.2% for biological events; 51.1% were not or only slightly confident in their ability to manage any potential WMD incidents; and 62.2% felt very or moderately confident in their ability to manage victims of a chemical event, but only 35.6% felt similarly about victims of a biological incident. Moreover, 80% felt there should be government standards for hospital preparedness for events involving WMD, and 84% felt there should be government standards for personal protective and DECON equipment. In addition, 82.2% would require a moderate to significant amount of funding to effect the standards. Citywide disaster management was coordinated through the Mayor's Office of Emergency Management. Although hospitals were on a heightened state of alert, emergency department directors were not confident in their ability to evaluate and manage victims of WMD incidents, especially biological exposures. The New York City experience is an example for the rest of the nation to underscore the need

  19. "Chronicity," "nervios" and community care: a case study of Puerto Rican psychiatric patients in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, M

    1992-06-01

    The role of ethnicity, community structure, and folk concepts of mental illness in facilitating the adaptation of long term psychiatric patients to community living has received little attention. This article examines the cultural concepts of mental illness and the community involvement of 30 Puerto Rican psychiatric patients participating in a New York City treatment program. It is shown that many of the attributes usually associated with chronic mental illness do not apply to this population. It is argued that the folk concept of nervios helps to foster the integration of these patients in a wide range of community networks. The impact of gentrification on these patients' community integration is also discussed.

  20. Large Dog Relinquishment to Two Municipal Facilities in New York City and Washington, D.C.: Identifying Targets for Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Weiss

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While the overall trend in euthanasia has been decreasing nationally, large dogs are at a higher risk of euthanasia than other sized dogs in most animal shelters in the United States. We hypothesized one way to increase the lives saved with respect to these large dogs is to keep them home when possible. In order to develop solutions to decrease relinquishment, a survey was developed to learn more about the reasons owners relinquish large dogs. The survey was administered to owners relinquishing their dogs at two large municipal facilities, one in New York City and one in Washington, D.C. There were 157 responses between the two facilities. We found both significant similarities and differences between respondents and their dogs from the two cities. We identified opportunities to potentially support future relinquishers and found that targets for interventions are likely different in each community.

  1. An Analysis of Technology-Related Distracted Biking Behaviors and Helmet Use Among Cyclists in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey H; Johnson, Glen D; Hammond, Rodney; Chow, Ching Man; Varsos, Victoria

    2016-02-01

    Bicycling is becoming an increasingly utilized mode of transportation in New York City. Technology-related distracted bicycling and helmet use are behaviors that can impact bike safety. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine rates and types of technology-related distracted behaviors among bicyclists in the borough of Manhattan in New York City; and (2) to assess the rate of bicycle helmet use among these cyclists. Bicyclists in five popular riding areas in Manhattan were observed for a total of 50 h using a digital video camera during summer months in 2014. Videos were coded and enumerated for the total number and gender of cyclists, type of bicycle, number wearing headphones/earbuds and/or using a mobile phone, and whether the cyclist was wearing a helmet. Almost 25,000 cyclists were observed across the five selected locations (n = 24,861). Riders were almost four times more likely not to wear a helmet on rental bikes as compared with non-rentals (Citi Bike(®) OR 3.8; 95% CI 2.5, 5.9: other rental OR 3.8; 95% CI 3.0, 4.9). Significantly increased odds of not wearing a helmet were observed for females relative to males (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1, 1.8) across varied times and locations. Overall, rates of technology-related distraction were low, with headphone use being most prevalent. Males were more likely to wear headphones/earbuds (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4, 2.9), as were cyclists on Citi Bikes relative to other rental bikes (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.3, 3.6). Findings from this study contribute to the growing literature on distracted biking and helmet use among bike share program riders and other cyclists and can inform policymakers and program planners aiming to improve bicycle safety in urban settings.

  2. Going Domestic: Importing the Study Abroad Experience. The Development of a Multicultural New York City Study Away Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Susan Hayes; Huffman, Carolyn; Brackney, Dana E; Cuddy, Alyssa

    2017-07-01

    Significant off-campus domestic study away experiences have been shown to be a transformative active learning environment for students and achieve similar learning outcomes as study abroad programs. This manuscript describes the conception, development, and pedagogical approach of a faculty-led domestic study away experience in New York City for pre-licensure and post-licensure nursing students as an active learning strategy for developing cultural competence. Students participated in service-learning activities that illuminated the realities and challenges persons from other cultures face as they interact with health care in a culture that is not their own. In partnership with New York Cares©, students were immersed in well-established ongoing sustainable community-based projects. These experiences fostered reflective conversations between community members, student participants, and faculty regarding social factors, cultural issues and needs, and global issues and trends. Through the New York study away program, students were able to broaden their perspectives about social factors and culture beyond geographic or ethnic boundaries and apply these service experiences to their nursing practice. Study away programs are an excellent strategy for nursing educators to prepare students for care of multicultural populations and for proficiency in cultural competency within the globalization of the United States. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Soil Communities of Central Park, New York City: A Biodiversity Melting Pot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, K. S.; Leff, J. W.; Wall, D. H.; Fierer, N.

    2013-12-01

    The majority of earth's biodiversity lives in and makes up the soil, but the majority of soil biodiversity has yet to be characterized or even quantified. This may be especially true of urban soil systems. The last decade of advances in molecular, technical and bioinformatic techniques have contributed greatly to our understanding of belowground biodiversity, from global distribution to species counts. Yet, much of this work has been done in ';natural' systems and it is not known if established patterns of distribution, especially in relation to soil factors hold up in urban soils. Urban soils are intensively managed and disturbed, often by effects unique to urban settings. It remains unclear how urban pressures influence soil biodiversity, or if there is a defined or typical ';urban soil community'. Here we describe a study to examine the total soil biodiversity - Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya- of Central Park, New York City and test for patterns of distribution and relationships to soil characteristics. We then compare the biodiversity of Central Park to 57 global soils, spanning a number of biomes from Alaska to Antarctica. In this way we can identify similarities and differences in soil communities of Central Park to soils from ';natural' systems. To generate a broad-scale survey of total soil biodiversity, 596 soil samples were collected from across Central Park (3.41 km2). Soils varied greatly in vegetation cover and soil characteristics (pH, moisture, soil C and soil N). Using high-throughput Illumina sequencing technology we characterized the complete soil community from 16S rRNA (Bacteria and Archaea) and 18S rRNA gene sequences (Eukarya). Samples were rarified to 40,000 sequences per sample. To compare Central Park to the 57 global soils the complete soil community of the global soils was also characterized using Illumina sequencing technology. All samples were rarified to 40,000 sequences per sample. The total measured biodiversity in Central Park was

  4. An Assessment Framework for Cities Coping with Climate Change: The Case of New York City and its PlaNYC 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Jabareen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and its resulting uncertainties challenge the concepts, procedures, and scope of conventional approaches to planning, creating a need to rethink and revise current planning methods. This paper proposes a new conceptual framework for assessing city plans based on the idea of sustainability and planning countering climate change. It applies this framework to assess the recent master plan for the city of New York City: PlaNYC 2030. The framework consists of eight concepts that were identified through conceptual analyses of the planning and interdisciplinary literature on sustainability and climate change. Using the proposed conceptual framework to evaluate PlaNYC 2030 reveals some of the merits of the Plan. PlaNYC promotes greater compactness and density, enhanced mixed land use, sustainable transportation, greening, and renewal and utilization of underused land. With regard to the concept of uncertainty, it addresses future uncertainties related to climate change with institutional measures only. From the perspective of ecological economics, the Plan creates a number of mechanisms to promote its climate change goals and to create a cleaner environment for economic investment. It offers an ambitious vision of reducing emissions by 30% and creating a “greener, greater New York,” and links this vision with the international agenda for climate change. On the other hand, the assessment reveals that PlaNYC did not make a radical shift toward planning for climate change and adaptation. It inadequately addresses social planning issues that are crucial to New York City. NYC is “socially differentiated” in terms of the capacity of communities to meet climate change uncertainties, and the Plan fails to address the issues facing vulnerable communities due to climate change. The Plan calls for an integrative approach to climate change on the institutional level, but it fails to effectively integrate civil society, communities, and

  5. Implementation of a School Nurse-led Intervention for Children With Severe Obesity in New York City Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Krista; Jia, Haomiao; Wang, Y Claire; Smaldone, Arlene

    The Healthy Options and Physical Activity Program (HOP) is a school nurse-led intervention for children with severe obesity. HOP was developed by experts at the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and implemented in New York City schools beginning in 2012. The purpose of this study was to evaluate HOP implementation with the goal of informing HOP refinement and potential future HOP dissemination. This study entailed a retrospective analysis of secondary data. Analytic methods included descriptive statistics, Wilcoxon rank sum and Chi square tests, and multivariate logistic regression. During the 2012-2013 school year, 20,518 children were eligible for HOP. Of these, 1054 (5.1%) were enrolled in the program. On average, enrolled children attended one HOP session during the school year. Parent participation was low (3.2% of HOP sessions). Low nurse workload, low school poverty, higher grade level, higher BMI percentile, and chronic illness diagnosis were associated with student enrollment in HOP. As currently delivered, HOP is not likely to be efficacious. Lessons learned from this evaluation are applicable to future nurse-led obesity interventions. Prior to implementing a school nurse-led obesity intervention, nursing workload and available support must be carefully considered. Interventions should be designed to facilitate (and possibly require) parent involvement. Nurses who deliver obesity interventions may require additional training in obesity treatment. With attention to these lessons learned, evidence-based school nurse-led obesity interventions can be developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. What people buy from fast-food restaurants: caloric content and menu item selection, New York City 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanovsky, Tamara; Nonas, Cathy A; Huang, Christina Y; Silver, Lynn D; Bassett, Mary T

    2009-07-01

    Fast-food restaurants provide a growing share of daily food intake, but little information is available in the public health literature about customer purchases. In order to establish baseline data on mean calorie intake, this study was completed in the Spring of 2007, before calorie labeling regulations went into effect in New York City. Receipts were collected from lunchtime customers, at randomly selected New York City fast-food chains. A supplementary survey was also administered to clarify receipt items. Calorie information was obtained through company websites and ascribed to purchases. Lunchtime purchases for 7,750 customers averaged 827 calories and were lowest for sandwich chains (734 calories); and highest for chicken chains (931 calories). Overall, one-third of purchases were over 1,000 calories, predominantly from hamburger chains (39%) and chicken chains (48%); sandwich chains were the lowest, with only 20% of purchases over 1,000 calories. "Combination meals" at hamburger chains accounted for 31% of all purchases and averaged over 1,200 calories; side orders accounted for almost one-third of these calories. Lunch meals at these fast-food chains are high in calorie content. Although calorie posting may help to raise awareness of the high calories in fast-food offerings, reducing portion sizes and changing popular combination meals to include lower calorie options could significantly reduce the average calorie content of purchases.

  7. Impact of a letter-grade program on restaurant sanitary conditions and diner behavior in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Melissa R; McKelvey, Wendy; Ito, Kazuhiko; Schiff, Corinne; Jacobson, J Bryan; Kass, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the impact of the New York City restaurant letter-grading program on restaurant hygiene, food safety practices, and public awareness. We analyzed data from 43,448 restaurants inspected between 2007 and 2013 to measure changes in inspection score and violation citations since program launch in July 2010. We used binomial regression to assess probability of scoring 0 to 13 points (A-range score). Two population-based random-digit-dial telephone surveys assessed public perceptions of the program. After we controlled for repeated restaurant observations, season of inspection, and chain restaurant status, the probability of scoring 0 to 13 points on an unannounced inspection increased 35% (95% confidence interval [CI]=31%, 40%) 3 years after compared with 3 years before grading. There were notable improvements in compliance with some specific requirements, including having a certified kitchen manager on site and being pest-free. More than 91% (95% CI=88%, 94%) of New Yorkers approved of the program and 88% (95% CI=85%, 92%) considered grades in dining decisions in 2012. Restaurant letter grading in New York City has resulted in improved sanitary conditions on unannounced inspection, suggesting that the program is an effective regulatory tool.

  8. A water availability intervention in New York City public schools: influence on youths' water and milk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian; Mijanovich, Tod; Abrams, Courtney; Cantor, Jonathan; Dunn, Lillian; Nonas, Cathy; Cappola, Kristin; Onufrak, Stephen; Park, Sohyun

    2015-02-01

    We determined the influence of "water jets" on observed water and milk taking and self-reported fluid consumption in New York City public schools. From 2010 to 2011, before and 3 months after water jet installation in 9 schools, we observed water and milk taking in cafeterias (mean 1000 students per school) and surveyed students in grades 5, 8, and 11 (n=2899) in the 9 schools that received water jets and 10 schools that did not. We performed an observation 1 year after implementation (2011-2012) with a subset of schools. We also interviewed cafeteria workers regarding the intervention. Three months after implementation we observed a 3-fold increase in water taking (increase of 21.63 events per 100 students; Pschools. At 1 year, relative to baseline, there was a similar increase in water taking and no decrease in milk taking. Cafeteria workers reported that the water jets were simple to clean and operate. An environmental intervention in New York City public schools increased water taking and was simple to implement.

  9. A Water Availability Intervention in New York City Public Schools: Influence on Youths’ Water and Milk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijanovich, Tod; Abrams, Courtney; Cantor, Jonathan; Dunn, Lillian; Nonas, Cathy; Cappola, Kristin; Onufrak, Stephen; Park, Sohyun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the influence of “water jets” on observed water and milk taking and self-reported fluid consumption in New York City public schools. Methods. From 2010 to 2011, before and 3 months after water jet installation in 9 schools, we observed water and milk taking in cafeterias (mean 1000 students per school) and surveyed students in grades 5, 8, and 11 (n = 2899) in the 9 schools that received water jets and 10 schools that did not. We performed an observation 1 year after implementation (2011–2012) with a subset of schools. We also interviewed cafeteria workers regarding the intervention. Results. Three months after implementation we observed a 3-fold increase in water taking (increase of 21.63 events per 100 students; P schools. At 1 year, relative to baseline, there was a similar increase in water taking and no decrease in milk taking. Cafeteria workers reported that the water jets were simple to clean and operate. Conclusions. An environmental intervention in New York City public schools increased water taking and was simple to implement. PMID:25521867

  10. Will "Combined Prevention" Eliminate Racial/Ethnic Disparities in HIV Infection among Persons Who Inject Drugs in New York City?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Des Jarlais

    Full Text Available It has not been determined whether implementation of combined prevention programming for persons who inject drugs reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection. We examine racial/ethnic disparities in New York City among persons who inject drugs after implementation of the New York City Condom Social Marketing Program in 2007. Quantitative interviews and HIV testing were conducted among persons who inject drugs entering Mount Sinai Beth Israel drug treatment (2007-2014. 703 persons who inject drugs who began injecting after implementation of large-scale syringe exchange were included in the analyses. Factors independently associated with being HIV seropositive were identified and a published model was used to estimate HIV infections due to sexual transmission. Overall HIV prevalence was 4%; Whites 1%, African-Americans 17%, and Hispanics 4%. Adjusted odds ratios were 21.0 (95% CI 5.7, 77.5 for African-Americans to Whites and 4.5 (95% CI 1.3, 16.3 for Hispanics to Whites. There was an overall significant trend towards reduced HIV prevalence over time (adjusted odd ratio = 0.7 per year, 95% confidence interval (0.6-0.8. An estimated 75% or more of the HIV infections were due to sexual transmission. Racial/ethnic disparities among persons who inject drugs were not significantly different from previous disparities. Reducing these persistent disparities may require new interventions (treatment as prevention, pre-exposure prophylaxis for all racial/ethnic groups.

  11. Estimating Potential Reductions in Premature Mortality in New York City From Raising the Minimum Wage to $15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Tsu-Yu; Konty, Kevin J; Van Wye, Gretchen; Barbot, Oxiris; Hadler, James L; Linos, Natalia; Bassett, Mary T

    2016-06-01

    To assess potential reductions in premature mortality that could have been achieved in 2008 to 2012 if the minimum wage had been $15 per hour in New York City. Using the 2008 to 2012 American Community Survey, we performed simulations to assess how the proportion of low-income residents in each neighborhood might change with a hypothetical $15 minimum wage under alternative assumptions of labor market dynamics. We developed an ecological model of premature death to determine the differences between the levels of premature mortality as predicted by the actual proportions of low-income residents in 2008 to 2012 and the levels predicted by the proportions of low-income residents under a hypothetical $15 minimum wage. A $15 minimum wage could have averted 2800 to 5500 premature deaths between 2008 and 2012 in New York City, representing 4% to 8% of total premature deaths in that period. Most of these avertable deaths would be realized in lower-income communities, in which residents are predominantly people of color. A higher minimum wage may have substantial positive effects on health and should be considered as an instrument to address health disparities.

  12. Health symptoms in relation to temperature, humidity, and self-reported perceptions of climate in New York City residential environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Ashlinn; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2017-07-01

    Little monitoring has been conducted of temperature and humidity inside homes despite the fact that these conditions may be relevant to health outcomes. Previous studies have observed associations between self-reported perceptions of the indoor environment and health. Here, we investigate associations between measured temperature and humidity, perceptions of indoor environmental conditions, and health symptoms in a sample of New York City apartments. We measured temperature and humidity in 40 New York City apartments during summer and winter seasons and collected survey data from the households' residents. Health outcomes of interest were (1) sleep quality, (2) symptoms of heat illness (summer season), and (3) symptoms of respiratory viral infection (winter season). Using mixed-effects logistic regression models, we investigated associations between the perceptions, symptoms, and measured conditions in each season. Perceptions of indoor temperature were significantly associated with measured temperature in both the summer and the winter, with a stronger association in the summer season. Sleep quality was inversely related to measured and perceived indoor temperature in the summer season only. Heat illness symptoms were associated with perceived, but not measured, temperature in the summer season. We did not find an association between any measured or perceived condition and cases of respiratory infection in the winter season. Although limited in size, the results of this study reveal that indoor temperature may impact sleep quality, and that thermal perceptions of the indoor environment may indicate vulnerability to heat illness. These are both important avenues for further investigation.

  13. Gas Phase Emission Ratios From In-Use Diesel and CNG Curbside Passenger Buses in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, S. C.; Shorter, J.; Canagaratna, M.; Jayne, J.; Nelson, D. D.; Wormhoudt, J. C.; Williams, P.; Silva, P. J.; Shi, Q.; Ghertner, A.; Zahniser, M.; Worsnop, D.; Kolb, C.; Lanni, T.; Drewnick, F.; Demerjian, K. L.

    2002-12-01

    The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory simultaneously measured gas phase and particulate emissions from in use vehicles during two campaigns in New York City. The campaigns took place during two weeks in October, 2000 and four weeks in July-August, 2001. Passenger curbside buses were the primary focus of the study, but school buses and several other heavy duty diesel vehicles were also characterized. This paper describes the methodologies used to measure individual in use vehicles and presents the results of the gas phase measurements. Emission ratios for NO, NO2, SO2, N2O, CO, CH4 and H2CO relative to CO2 have been determined across several classes of buses. The gas phase concentrations were measured each second, using Tunable Infrared Laser Direct Absorption Spectroscopy (TILDAS). Some of the categories of buses into which the data has been sorted are; diesel (both 6V92 and Series 50) with and without the Continuous Regenerative Technology (CRT) retrofit, compressed natural gas powered(CNG) and hybrid diesel-electric buses. The New York Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) cooperated with this work, providing details about each of their buses followed. In addition to MTA buses, other New York City passenger bus operators were also measured. In September 2000, MTA began to switch to 30 ppm sulfur diesel fuel while it is believed the non MTA operators did not. The measured emission ratios show that low sulfur fuel greatly reduces the amount of SO2 per CO2. Roughly one third of the MTA fleet of diesel buses have been equipped with the CRT retrofit. The gas phase results of interest in this category show increased direct emission of NO2 and companion work (also submitted to the 12th CRC) show the impact the CRT refit has on particulate emissions. CNG buses show increased H2CO and CH4 emission ratios relative to diesel powered motors.

  14. From Mistress to Servant: Downward Mobility among Brazilian Immigrants in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Maxine L.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the lives of New York's new Brazilian immigrants, typically undocumented, White middle class refugees from hyperinflation, who find temporary work as maids, gogo dancers, busboys, and waiters. Finds that most are disheartened by their change in status; predicts that many will decide that their future lies in this country. (DM)

  15. The New York City Subways: The First Ten Years. A Library Research Exercise Using a Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalow, Robert

    This document presents a library research exercise developed at York College which uses the Apple IIe microcomputer and word processing software--the Applewriter--to teach library research skills. Unlike some other library research exercises on disk, this program allows the student to decide on alternative approaches to solving the given problem:…

  16. History as a guide to the future for cities: coastal storms and Jamaica Bay in New York City as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, E. W.; Orton, P. M.; Giampieri, M.; Spagnoli, C.

    2015-12-01

    History can provide a guide to the future by revealing the physical climatic and geomorphological dynamics with which cities must contend. We used historical maps from the U.S. Coast Survey and the Stevens Estuarine and Coastal Ocean Model (sECOM) to simulate how and where coastal flooding from storm surge affected the Jamaica Bay region of southeastern New York City at different points in time. This area, which houses approximately 1.2 million people today and the John F. Kennedy International Airport, was heavily impacted by coastal flooding during Hurricane Sandy. Historical analysis showed that the Rockaway Peninsula was an active barrier island system up until the early twentieth century, growing approximately 70 meters per year to the west between 1844 - 1891. Older historical maps made by American and European cartographers from 1524 - 1844 suggest that Jamaica Bay may have been a much more open system, with few or no interior marsh islands, at the time of European discovery. From these studies, we constructed digital terrain models and land cover maps for two historical periods: ca. 1870s and ca. 1609, and today. Storm simulations of hurricanes over the historical and present-day landscapes showed how a smaller inlet, shallower channel depths, and larger floodplains all can reduce the height of flooding inside the bay, and suggested a series of leverage experiments that test the efficacy of present-day green infrastructure interventions to lessen peak flood heights while maintaining tidal flushing. By combining history, modelling, and policy-relevant scenarios, we believe we have developed a reshreshing and accessible toolkit for policymakers thinking about resilience measures in coastal cities like New York.

  17. Newton in the Big Apple: Issues of equity in physics access and enrollment in New York City public high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angela Marian

    High school physics is a gateway course for post-secondary study in science, medicine, and engineering, as well as an essential component in the formation of students' scientific literacy. However, physics is widely considered appropriate only for an academic elite. The existence of policies that restrict science opportunities for secondary students results in diminished outcomes in terms of scientific proficiency. Although the national trend in physics enrollment has shown an increase in recent years, the rate of participation is much lower for students in urban schools. This study examines the availability of physics in New York City, and whether access is related to organizational and school-level variables. The statistical distribution of physics students throughout the city is compiled and analyzed. High schools that successfully offer physics are compared with those that do not. Other factors are explored to determine their relationship to physics access, such as the presence of science magnet schools, the availability of Advanced Placement Physics and Non-Regents Physics, the science curricular sequence, and teacher certification. The results show that physics is not widely available to students in New York City, with 55% of high schools simply not offering the subject. Only 27% of schools with fewer than 600 students offer physics. The science magnet schools enroll a significant proportion of physics students when compared with larger, economically depressed neighborhood schools. The causes of these disparities are complex, and the implications serious for those students who do not have equal access to physics. The implications of these findings are important. By highlighting descriptive variables, as well as statistical evidence of systemic discrimination and inequities, urban districts may formulate effective models for the promotion of physics study. School policies and structures need to target better rates of physics participation among all students

  18. The end of the line: The relationship between New York City's subway system and residential class structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhindress, Mindy

    Public money is necessary to build and maintain this country's vast network of mass transit systems and highways. Thus you would expect class equity in choices of infrastructure location, types of projects and pricing. However, the influence of commercial interests appears to create a contradictory effect, and may negatively influence the settlement patterns where transit serves. New York City and its subway system offered the perfect case study by which to examine the before and after effects of mass transit introduction given the enormous size of the transit system and the grand development of New York City that appeared to occur simultaneous to subway inauguration. The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the growth of the New York City subway system and the establishment of class structure in residential patterns. Regional census data covering the first 16-year period of the subway's development was examined along with geographic statistics on subway line expansion and station openings. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) maps were used to illustrate the development of living spaces as a function of subway introduction into communities, and several Indices were computed to demonstrate the population growth and class disparity. The results revealed that the early years of transit development were entrepreneurial efforts coordinated by business interests. This led to transit first providing significant benefits mostly to the middle and upper classes, giving them a reasonable means by which to escape horrible tenement living conditions while turning a profit at the same time. Thus new settlements were stratified by class almost immediately after introduction. The cycle continued until years later when the automobile was introduced and the once expensive and luxurious, but now more reasonably priced and just functional, public transit system finally befit the population much lower on the socioeconomic scale. Class divisions still

  19. 78 FR 26416 - Environmental Impact Statement: City of Buffalo, Erie County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... from the US Border Port of Entry/Peace Bridge Plaza (Plaza), in the City of Buffalo, Erie County, New... Drive, and to provide alternate access from Porter Avenue to the Plaza. Letters describing the proposed...

  20. 75 FR 3199 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2011 New York City Housing and Vacancy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... used by city and state agencies for planning purposes as well as the private sector for business... collected includes: Age, gender, race, Hispanic origin, and relationship of all household members...

  1. Biodiversity on Broadway--enigmatic diversity of the societies of ants (Formicidae on the streets of New York City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Pećarević

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Each year, a larger proportion of the Earth's surface is urbanized, and a larger proportion of the people on Earth lives in those urban areas. The everyday nature, however, that humans encounter in cities remains poorly understood. Here, we consider perhaps the most urban green habitat, street medians. We sampled ants from forty-four medians along three boulevards in New York City and examined how median properties affect the abundance and species richness of native and introduced ants found on them. Ant species richness varied among streets and increased with area but was independent of the other median attributes measured. Ant assemblages were highly nested, with three numerically dominant species present at all medians and additional species present at a subset of medians. The most common ant species were the introduced Pavement ant (Tetramorium caespitum and the native Thief ant (Solenopsis molesta and Cornfield ant (Lasius neoniger. The common introduced species on the medians responded differently to natural and disturbed elements of medians. Tetramorium caespitum was most abundant in small medians, with the greatest edge/area ratio, particularly if those medians had few trees, whereas Nylanderia flavipes was most abundant in the largest medians, particularly if they had more trees. Many of the species encountered in Manhattan were similar to those found in other large North American cities, such that a relatively small subset of ant species probably represent most of the encounters humans have with ants in North America.

  2. Surveillance and Liberty in Céline's New York, the City That Doesn't Sleep (Around

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Willging

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on Ferdinand Bardamu's account of his stay in New York City in Louis-Ferdinand Céline's bleak bildungsroman, Journey to the End of the Night (1932. In it I explore the rather surprising absence of reference to the Statue of Liberty in a text narrated by a French immigrant of sorts who spends weeks on Ellis Island and who immediately personifies the city as an androgynous, steely, and indeed statue-like woman. Applying to the text Foucault's theories on the disciplinary nature of modern western society, I suggest that it is Bardamu's suspicion that he is under unobtrusive yet constant surveillance while in the Big Apple that explains his deliberate erasure of Liberty/liberty from the skyline he paints in his narrative. I further argue that Bardamu tends to see the implacable surveillance he undergoes throughout his American adventure as feminine. That is, he identifies it as emanating principally from those cold, impenetrable, but impossibly beautiful creatures—les Américaines—that this vertical and imposing mother-city has birthed.

  3. Rat sightings in New York City are associated with neighborhood sociodemographics, housing characteristics, and proximity to open public space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Walsh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rats are ubiquitous in urban environments and, as established reservoirs for infectious pathogens, present a control priority for public health agencies. New York City (NYC harbors one of the largest rat populations in the United States, but surprising little study has been undertaken to define rat ecology across varied features of this urban landscape. More importantly, factors that may contribute to increased encounters between rats and humans have rarely been explored. Using city-wide records of rat sightings reported to the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, this investigation sought to identify sociodemographic, housing, and physical landscape characteristics that are associated with increased rat sightings across NYC census tracts. A hierarchical Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson model was used to assess these associations while accounting for spatial heterogeneity in the variance. Closer proximity to both subway lines and recreational public spaces was associated with a higher concentration of rat sightings, as was a greater presence of older housing, vacant housing units, and low education among the population. Moreover, these aspects of the physical and social landscape accurately predicted rat sightings across the city. These findings have identified specific features of the NYC urban environment that may help to provide direct control targets for reducing human–rat encounters.

  4. Rat sightings in New York City are associated with neighborhood sociodemographics, housing characteristics, and proximity to open public space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Rats are ubiquitous in urban environments and, as established reservoirs for infectious pathogens, present a control priority for public health agencies. New York City (NYC) harbors one of the largest rat populations in the United States, but surprising little study has been undertaken to define rat ecology across varied features of this urban landscape. More importantly, factors that may contribute to increased encounters between rats and humans have rarely been explored. Using city-wide records of rat sightings reported to the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, this investigation sought to identify sociodemographic, housing, and physical landscape characteristics that are associated with increased rat sightings across NYC census tracts. A hierarchical Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson model was used to assess these associations while accounting for spatial heterogeneity in the variance. Closer proximity to both subway lines and recreational public spaces was associated with a higher concentration of rat sightings, as was a greater presence of older housing, vacant housing units, and low education among the population. Moreover, these aspects of the physical and social landscape accurately predicted rat sightings across the city. These findings have identified specific features of the NYC urban environment that may help to provide direct control targets for reducing human-rat encounters.

  5. Demonstration of automated price response in large customers in New York City using Auto-DR and OpenADR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joyce Jihyun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schetrit, Oren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yin, Rongxin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Demand response (DR) – allowing customers to respond to reliability requests and market prices by changing electricity use from their normal consumption pattern – continues to be seen as an attractive means of demand-side management and a fundamental smart-grid improvement that links supply and demand. From October 2011 to December 2013, the Demand Response Research Center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, and partners Honeywell and Akuacom, have conducted a demonstration project enabling Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) in large commercial buildings located in New York City using Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) communication protocols. In particular, this project focuses on demonstrating how the OpenADR platform, enabled by Akuacom, can automate and simplify interactions between buildings and various stakeholders in New York State and enable the automation of customers’ price response to yield bill savings under dynamic pricing. In this paper, the cost control opportunities under day-ahead hourly pricing and Auto-DR control strategies are presented for four demonstration buildings; present the breakdown of Auto-DR enablement costs; summarize the field test results and their load impact; and show potential bill savings by enabling automated price response under Consolidated Edison’s Mandatory Hourly Pricing (MHP) tariff. For one of the sites, the potential bill savings at the site’s current retail rate are shown. Facility managers were given granular equipment-level opt-out capability to ensure full control of the sites during the Auto-DR implementation. The expected bill savings ranged from 1.1% to 8.0% of the total MHP bill. The automation and enablement costs ranged from $70 to $725 per kW shed. The results show that OpenADR can facilitate the automation of price response, deliver savings to the customers and opt-out capability of the implementation retains control of the

  6. Race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and pregnancy complications in New York City women with pre-existing diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Todd, Tamarra; Janevic, Teresa; Brown, Florence M; Savitz, David A

    2014-03-01

    More women are entering pregnancy with pre-existing diabetes. Disease severity, glycaemic control, and predictors of pregnancy complications may differ by race/ethnicity or educational attainment, leading to differences in adverse pregnancy outcomes. We used linked New York City hospital record and birth certificate data for 6291 singleton births among women with pre-existing diabetes between 1995 and 2003. We defined maternal race/ethnicity as non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, South Asian, and East Asian, and education level as 12 years. Our outcomes were pre-eclampsia, preterm birth (PTB) (pregnancy complications. Non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and South Asian women with pre-existing diabetes may benefit from targeted interventions to improve pregnancy outcomes. © 2013 The Authors. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A study of western pharmaceuticals contained within samples of Chinese herbal/patent medicines collected from New York City's Chinatown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gretchen M; Stripp, Richard

    2007-09-01

    In America, recent growth in the popularity of Chinese herbal/patent medicines (CHM/CPM) has generated concerns as to the safety of these and other herbal remedies. Lack of strict federal regulations has lead to the possibility of improper labeling and even adulteration of these products with western drugs or other chemical contaminants. Our laboratory has conducted an analytical study to determine the presence of undeclared pharmaceuticals and therapeutic substances within CHM/CPM sold in New York City's Chinatown. Ninety representative samples randomly purchased in the form of pills, tablets, creams and teas were screened by appropriate analytical techniques including TLC, GC/MS and HPLC. Five samples contained nine different western pharmaceuticals. Two of these samples contained undeclared or mislabeled substances. One sample contained two pharmaceuticals contraindicated in people for whom the product was intended. Drugs identified include promethazine, chlormethiazole, chlorpheniramine, diclofenac, chlordiazepoxide, hydrochlorothiazide, triamterene, diphenhydramine and sildenafil citrate (Viagra).

  8. Impact of local traffic exclusion on near-road air quality: findings from the New York City "Summer Streets" campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Thomas H; Hall, Andrew; Zhang, K Max; Anguita, Juan

    2011-01-01

    We monitored curbside airborne particulate matter (PM) concentrations and its proinflammatory capacity during 3 weekends when vehicle traffic was excluded from Park. Ave., New York City. Fine PM concentration peaked in the morning regardless of traffic while ultrafine PM was 58% lower during mornings without traffic. Ultrafine PM concentration varied linearly with traffic flow, while fine PM spiked sharply in response to random traffic events that were weakly correlated with the traffic signal cycle. Ultrafine PM concentrations decayed exponentially with distance from a cross street with unrestricted traffic flow, reaching background levels within 100 m of the source. IL-6 induction was typically highest on Friday afternoons but showed no clear relationship to the presence of traffic. The coarse fraction (>2.5 μm) had the greatest intrinsic inflammatory capacity, suggesting that coarse PM still warrants attention even as the research focus is shifting to nano-particles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Supplemental site inspection for Air Force Plant 59, Johnson City, New York, Volume 3: Appendices F-Q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashold, B.; Rosenblatt, D.; Hau, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This summary describes a Supplemental Site Inspection (SSI) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at Air Force Plant 59 (AFP 59) in Johnson City, New York. All required data pertaining to this project were entered by ANL into the Air Force-wide Installation Restoration Program Information System (IRPIMS) computer format and submitted to an appropriate authority. The work was sponsored by the United States Air Force as part of its Installation Restoration Program (IRP). Previous studies had revealed the presence of contaminants at the site and identified several potential contaminant sources. Argonne`s study was conducted to answer questions raised by earlier investigations. This volume consists of appendices F-Q, which contain the analytical data from the site characterization.

  10. The Role of Institutional Placement, Family Conflict, and Homosexuality in Homelessness Pathways Among Latino LGBT Youth in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, H Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the overrepresentation of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) youth among the homeless, the processes leading to their homelessness are understudied. This ethnographic study sought to elucidate the role of sexual orientation in the pathway to housing instability among young gay men. Fieldwork included 18 months of participant observations in public spaces and at a homeless LGBT youth organization in New York City, as well as formal semistructured interviews with 14 Latino young men and five staff. Three distinct pathways emerged. Some youth became homeless after placement in state systems of care disrupted their social support systems, while others became homeless after extreme family conflict over sexual orientation. Nonetheless, most youths became homeless as a result of long-term processes of family disintegration in which normative adolescent development and disclosure of homosexuality exacerbated preexisting conflict. These findings suggest the need to examine the accumulation of risks before disclosure exacerbates family conflict and increases their risk of homelessness.

  11. Behaviors and Knowledge of HealthCorps New York City High School Students: Nutrition, Mental Health, and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Moonseong; Irvin, Erica; Ostrovsky, Natania; Isasi, Carmen; Blank, Arthur E; Lounsbury, David W; Fredericks, Lynn; Yom, Tiana; Ginsberg, Mindy; Hayes, Shawn; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2016-02-01

    HealthCorps provides school wellness programming using curricula to promote changes in nutrition, mental health, and physical activity behaviors. The research objective was to evaluate effects of implementing its curricula on nutrition, mental health, and physical activity knowledge and behavior. Pre- and postsurvey data were collected (N = 2255) during the 2012-2013 academic year from 14 New York City public high schools. An 18-item knowledge questionnaire addressed 3 domains; 26 behavioral items were analyzed by factor analysis to identify 6 behavior domains, breakfast being a seventh 1-item domain. We examined the effects stratified by sex, applying mixed-effects models to take into account clustering effects of schools and participants adjusted for age. The HealthCorps program significantly increased all 3 knowledge domains (p mental health, and physical activity. It also improved several key behavioral domains, which are targets of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines to address obesity in youth. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  12. Urbanization shapes the demographic history of a native rodent (the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus) in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Stephen E; Xue, Alexander T; Alvarado-Serrano, Diego; Boehm, Joel T; Joseph, Tyler; Hickerson, Michael J; Munshi-South, Jason

    2016-04-01

    How urbanization shapes population genomic diversity and evolution of urban wildlife is largely unexplored. We investigated the impact of urbanization on white-footed mice,Peromyscus leucopus,in the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area using coalescent-based simulations to infer demographic history from the site-frequency spectrum. We assigned individuals to evolutionary clusters and then inferred recent divergence times, population size changes and migration using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped in 23 populations sampled along an urban-to-rural gradient. Both prehistoric climatic events and recent urbanization impacted these populations. Our modelling indicates that post-glacial sea-level rise led to isolation of mainland and Long Island populations. These models also indicate that several urban parks represent recently isolated P. leucopus populations, and the estimated divergence times for these populations are consistent with the history of urbanization in NYC. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection in a cohort of homosexual men in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, C.E.; Taylor, P.E.; Zang, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Using blood samples collected since 1978, the authors investigated the epidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, in a group of 378 homosexually active men who have resided in New York City since the acquire immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic began. The anti-HTLV-III prevalence was 6.6% in sera from 1978 or 1979, and the subsequent annual incidence of seroconversion among susceptible men ranged between 5.5% and 10.6%. The highest incidences were in recent years, even though these men reported a decrease in their sexual activity during this time. These data demonstrate the continuing risk of HTLV-III infections in the homosexual population studied and emphasize the need for more effective prevention of transmission. The year during which antibody was first present was the only factor identified that was associated with altered cell-mediated immunity in antibody-positive men

  14. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection in a cohort of homosexual men in New York City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, C.E.; Taylor, P.E.; Zang, E.A.; Morrison, J.M.; Harley, E.J.; de Cordoba, S.R.; Bacino, C.; Ting, R.C.; Bodner, A.J.; Sarngadharan, M.G.; Gallo, R.C.

    1986-04-25

    Using blood samples collected since 1978, the authors investigated the epidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, in a group of 378 homosexually active men who have resided in New York City since the acquire immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic began. The anti-HTLV-III prevalence was 6.6% in sera from 1978 or 1979, and the subsequent annual incidence of seroconversion among susceptible men ranged between 5.5% and 10.6%. The highest incidences were in recent years, even though these men reported a decrease in their sexual activity during this time. These data demonstrate the continuing risk of HTLV-III infections in the homosexual population studied and emphasize the need for more effective prevention of transmission. The year during which antibody was first present was the only factor identified that was associated with altered cell-mediated immunity in antibody-positive men.

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Smoking among Low-Income Adults Residing in New York City Public Housing Developments-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, A; Lopez, P M; Wyka, K; Islam, N; Seidl, L; Drackett, E; Mata, A; Pinzon, J; Baker, M R; Lopez, J; Trinh-Shevrin, C; Shelley, D; Bailey, Z; Maybank, K A; Thorpe, L E

    2017-08-01

    To guide targeted cessation and prevention programming, this study assessed smoking prevalence and described sociodemographic, health, and healthcare use characteristics of adult smokers in public housing. Self-reported data were analyzed from a random sample of 1664 residents aged 35 and older in ten New York City public housing developments in East/Central Harlem. Smoking prevalence was 20.8%. Weighted log-binomial models identified to be having Medicaid, not having a personal doctor, and using health clinics for routine care were positively associated with smoking. Smokers without a personal doctor were less likely to receive provider quit advice. While most smokers in these public housing developments had health insurance, a personal doctor, and received provider cessation advice in the last year (72.4%), persistently high smoking rates suggest that such cessation advice may be insufficient. Efforts to eliminate differences in tobacco use should consider place-based smoking cessation interventions that extend cessation support beyond clinical settings.

  16. Life in a Crime Scene: Stop, Question, and Frisk Activity in New York City Neighborhoods in the Aftermath of Homicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Lacoe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An incident of extreme violence, such as a homicide, disrupts daily life not only through the incident itself but also through the chaos and disruption that emerge in the aftermath of violence. This article presents descriptive evidence about how communities are affected by increased police activity—specifically, stop, question, and frisk (SQF activity—following an incident of extreme violence. Our results show that SQF activity in a block group increases in the week following a homicide in New York City, with the largest increases in neighborhoods with high crime rates. Furthermore, neighborhoods with different racial and ethnic compositions have differential levels of average SQF activity and also experience differential responses from the police in the aftermath of a homicide. African American residents have a higher probability of being stopped following a homicide than do nonblack residents across neighborhoods of all types.

  17. Modeling ozone plumes observed downwind of New York City over the North Atlantic Ocean during the ICARTT field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-H. Lee

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Transport and chemical transformation of well-defined New York City (NYC urban plumes over the North Atlantic Ocean were studied using aircraft measurements collected on 20–21 July 2004 during the ICARTT (International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation field campaign and WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry model simulations. The strong NYC urban plumes were characterized by carbon monoxide (CO mixing ratios of 350–400 parts per billion by volume (ppbv and ozone (O3 levels of about 100 ppbv near New York City on 20 July in the WP-3D in-situ and DC-3 lidar aircraft measurements. On 21 July, the two aircraft captured strong urban plumes with about 350 ppbv CO and over 150 ppbv O3 (~160 ppbv maximum about 600 km downwind of NYC over the North Atlantic Ocean. The measured urban plumes extended vertically up to about 2 km near New York City, but shrank to 1–1.5 km over the stable marine boundary layer (MBL over the North Atlantic Ocean. The WRF-Chem model reproduced ozone formation processes, chemical characteristics, and meteorology of the measured urban plumes near New York City (20 July and in the far downwind region over the North Atlantic Ocean (21 July. The quasi-Lagrangian analysis of transport and chemical transformation of the simulated NYC urban plumes using WRF-Chem results showed that the pollutants can be efficiently transported in (isentropic layers in the lower atmosphere (<2–3 km over the North Atlantic Ocean while maintaining a dynamic vertical decoupling by cessation of turbulence in the stable MBL. The O3 mixing ratio in the NYC urban plumes remained at 80–90 ppbv during nocturnal transport over the stable MBL, then grew to over 100 ppbv by daytime oxidation of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2 with mixing ratios on the order of 1 ppbv. Efficient transport of reactive nitrogen species (NOy, specifically nitric

  18. IGRA-Based Screening for Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Persons Newly Incarcerated in New York City Jails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Monica; Leibowitz, Ruth; Venters, Homer

    2018-04-01

    In the United States, latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) detection in correctional settings is a public health priority. Interferon gamma release assay (IGRA)-based LTBI screening was introduced in New York City jails in 2011 to 2012, replacing historically used tuberculin skin testing (TST), which was associated with substantial incomplete screening rates. This retrospective, cross-sectional study evaluated LTBI screening outcomes and correlates of positivity in 40,986 persons newly incarcerated in 2011 to 2013. Of 35,090 eligible patients tested (96.4%), final results were 6.3% positive, 93.4% negative, and 0.2% indeterminate. In multivariable regression modeling, sex, age, race/ethnicity, nativity, marital status, prior jail incarceration, and HIV status were correlated with positivity. IGRA-based screening yielded high screening and low indeterminate test rates and may be recommended in correctional and other settings where TST is currently used.

  19. An Analysis of Alternatives to New York City's Current Marijuana Arrest and Detention Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Bruce D.; Golub, Andrew; Dunlap, Eloise; Sifaneck, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, the New York Police Department (NYPD) instituted a policy of arresting and detaining people for minor offenses that occur in public as part of their quality-of-life (hereafter QOL) policing initiative. The number of NYPD arrests for smoking marijuana in public view (MPV) increased from 3,000 in 1994 to over 50,000 in 2000, and have been about 30,000 in the mid 2000s. Most of these arrestees (84%) have been minority; blacks have been 2.7 more likely and Hispanics 1.8 times mo...

  20. New York City social workers after 9/11: their attachment, resiliency, and compassion fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosone, Carol; Bettmann, Joanna E; Minami, Takuya; Jasperson, Rachael A

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between attachment classification, resiliency, and compassion fatigue in New York social workers following 9/11. We used single occasion, quasi-random sampling, surveying 481 social workers living in Manhattan. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that secure attachment is predictive of the ability to cope with secondary traumatic stress as well as capacity for resilience, explaining approximately 7% of the variance in both compassion fatigue and resiliency. These findings suggest that secure attachment may serve as a source of resilience for social workers, immunizing them from significant compassion fatigue. Such findings have significant implications for clinicians working with traumatized populations.

  1. Comparison of outpatient medically attended and community-level influenza-like illness-New York City, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kate E; Fowlkes, Ashley; Stockwell, Melissa S; Vargas, Celibell Y; Saiman, Lisa; Larson, Elaine L; LaRussa, Philip; Di Lonardo, Steve; Popowich, Michael; St George, Kirsten; Steffens, Andrea; Reed, Carrie

    2018-05-01

    Surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) in the United States is primarily conducted through medical settings despite a significant burden of non-medically attended ILI. To assess consistency between surveillance for respiratory viruses in outpatient and community settings using ILI surveillance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project (IISP) and the Mobile Surveillance for Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) and Influenza-Like Illness in the Community (MoSAIC) Study. The Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project conducts ILI surveillance in 3 primary care clinics in New York City, and MoSAIC conducts community-based ILI/ARI surveillance through text messaging among a cohort of New York City residents. Both systems obtain respiratory specimens from participants with ILI/ARI and test for multiple pathogens. We conducted a retrospective review of ILI cases in IISP and MoSAIC from January 2013 to May 2015 with descriptive analyses of clinical and laboratory data. Five-hundred twelve MoSAIC and 669 IISP participants met an ILI criteria (fever with cough or sore throat) and were included. Forty percent of MoSAIC participants sought care; the majority primary care. Pathogens were detected in 63% of MoSAIC and 70% of IISP cases. The relative distribution of influenza and other respiratory viruses detected was similar; however, there were statistically significant differences in the frequency that were not explained by care seeking. Outpatient and community-based surveillance in the one found similar timing and relative distribution of respiratory viruses, but community surveillance in a single neighborhood may not fully capture the variations in ILI etiology that occur more broadly. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Young people who use drugs engaged in harm reduction programs in New York City: Overdose and other risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Michele; MacFarlane, Jessica; Zaccaro, Heather; Curtis, Matthew; Cabán, María; Favaro, Jamie; Passannante, Marian R; Frost, Taeko

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the engagement of young people who use drugs (PWUD) in harm reduction programs (HRPs), and few studies have included non-opioid users and non-injectors. While HRPs have effectively engaged PWUD, young people are under-represented in their services. The Injection Drug Users Health Alliance Citywide Study (IDUCS) is the largest community-based study of PWUD in HRPs in the US. From 2014-2015, 2421 HRP participants across New York City (NYC) completed a cross-sectional survey. We investigated differences in socio-demographics, service utilization, and risk behaviors between young (aged 18-30) and older participants and examined factors associated with overdose among young participants. The study included 257 young participants. They were significantly more likely than older participants to be white, educated, uninsured, unstably housed or homeless, and have a history of incarceration and residential drug treatment. They were more likely to report recent overdose but less likely to report knowledge of naloxone. Young participants also had higher rates of alcohol, marijuana, benzodiazepine, and injection drug use, and related risk behaviors such as public injection. Factors associated with past year overdose among young participants included experiencing symptoms of psychological distress (AOR=9.71), being unstably housed or homeless (AOR=4.39), and utilizing detox (AOR=4.20). Young PWUD who access services at HRPs in NYC differ significantly from their older counterparts. New York City and other urban centers that attract young PWUD should consider implementing harm reduction oriented services tailored to the unique needs of young people. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The Association Between Neighborhood Poverty and HIV Diagnoses Among Males and Females in New York City, 2010–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocour, Angelica; Kersanske, Laura S.; Bodach, Sara D.; Xia, Qiang; Braunstein, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We assessed the association of neighborhood poverty with HIV diagnosis rates for males and females in New York City. Methods We calculated annual HIV diagnosis rates by ZIP Code, sex, and neighborhood poverty level using 2010–2011 New York City (NYC) HIV surveillance data and data from the U.S. Census 2010 and American Community Survey 2007–2011. Neighborhood poverty levels were percentage of residents in a ZIP Code with incomes below the federal poverty threshold, categorized as 0%–poverty), 10%–poverty), 20%–poverty), and 30%–100% (very high poverty). We used sex-stratified negative binomial regression models to measure the association between neighborhood-level poverty and HIV diagnosis rates, controlling for neighborhood-level education, race/ethnicity, age, and percentage of men who have sex with men. Results In 2010–2011, 6,184 people were newly diagnosed with HIV. Median diagnosis rates per 100,000 population increased by neighborhood poverty level overall (13.7, 34.3, 50.6, and 75.6 for low-, medium-, high-, and very high-poverty ZIP Codes, respectively), for males, and for females. In regression models, higher neighborhood poverty remained associated with higher diagnosis rates among males (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34, 1.97) and females (ARR=2.14, 95% CI 1.46, 3.14) for very high- vs. low-poverty ZIP Codes. Conclusion Living in very high- vs. low-poverty urban neighborhoods was associated with increased HIV diagnosis rates. After controlling for other factors, the association between poverty and diagnosis rates was stronger among females than among males. Alleviating poverty may help decrease HIV-related disparities. PMID:26957664

  4. Fear of Terrorism and Preparedness in New York City 2 Years After the Attacks: Implications for Disaster Planning and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Adams, Richard E.; Figley, Charles R.; Galea, Sandro; Foa, Edna B.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To help improve disaster planning and research, we studied psychosocial predictors of terrorism fear and preparedness among New York City residents after the World Trade Center disaster (WTCD). Method We conducted a random cross-sectional survey of 1,681 adults interviewed 2 years after the WTCD. Participants were living in New York City at the time of the attack and exposed to ongoing terrorist threats. Results We found 44.9 percent (95% confidence interval [CI] = 41.9−47.9) of residents were concerned about future attacks and 16.9 percent (95% CI = 14.7−19.3) reported a fear level of “10” on a 10-point analog scale. Furthermore, 14.8 percent (95% CI = 12.8−17.0) reported they had made some plans for a future attack, a significant increase from the previous year. In addition, although 42.6 percent (95% CI = 39.6−45.7) indicated that they would likely wait for evacuation instructions following a chemical, biological, or nuclear attack, 34.4 percent (95% CI = 31.5−37.3) reported they would evacuate immediately against official advice. Predictors of high terrorism fear in a multivariate model included Hispanic ethnicity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, P = .006), lower education (OR = 4.4, P terrorism threats, terrorism fear and preparedness were related to socioeconomic factors, mental health status, terrorism exposure levels, and exposure to stressful life events. PMID:17041297

  5. Retail Marijuana Purchases in Designer and Commercial Markets in New York City: Sales Units, Weights, and Prices per Gram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifaneck, Stephen J.; Ream, Geoffrey L.; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the bifurcation of the market for commercial marijuana from the market for designer marijuana in New York City. Commercial marijuana is usually grown outdoors, imported to NYC, and of average quality. By contrast, several strains of designer marijuana are usually grown indoors from specially-bred strains and carefully handled for maximum quality. The mechanisms for selling include street/park sellers, delivery services, private sales, and storefronts. Retail sales units vary from $5 to $50 and more, but the actual weights and price per gram of retail marijuana purchases lacks scientific precision. Ethnographic staff recruited marijuana purchasers who used digital scales to weigh a purposive sample of 99 marijuana purchases. Results indicate clear differences in price per gram between the purchases of commercial (avg. $8.20/gram) and designer (avg. $18.02/gram) marijuana. Designer purchases are more likely to be made by whites, downtown (Lower East Side/Union Square area), via delivery services, and in units of $10 bags, $50 cubes, and eighth and quarter ounces. Commercial marijuana purchases are more likely to be made by blacks, uptown (Harlem), via street dealers, and in units of $5 and $20 bags. Imported commercial types Arizona and Chocolate were only found uptown, while designer brand names describing actual strains like Sour Diesel and White Widow were only found downtown. Findings indicate clear divisions between commercial and designer marijuana markets in New York City. The extent that these differences may be based upon different THC potencies is a matter for future research. PMID:17055670

  6. Engaging youth in food activism in New York City: lessons learned from a youth organization, health department, and university partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Emma; Bylander, Kim; Cho, Milyoung; Maybank, Aletha; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2012-10-01

    Research indicates that insufficient emphasis on community collaboration and partnership can thwart innovative community-driven work on the social determinants of health by local health departments. Appreciating the importance of enhancing community participation, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) helped lead the development of the Health Equity Project (HEP), an intervention aimed at increasing the capacity of urban youth to identify and take action to reduce food-related health disparities. DOHMH partnered with the City University of New York School of Public Health and several local youth organizations to design and implement the intervention. HEP was conducted with 373 young people in 17 cohorts at 14 unique sites: six in Brooklyn, six in the Bronx, and two in Harlem. Partnered youth organizations hosted three stages of work: interactive workshops on neighborhood health disparities, food environments, and health outcomes; food-focused research projects conducted by youth; and small-scale action projects designed to change local food environments. Through these activities, HEP appears to have been successful in introducing youth to the social, economic, and political factors that shape food environments and to the influence of food on health outcomes. The intervention was also somewhat successful in providing youth with community-based participatory research skills and engaging them in documenting and then acting to change their neighborhood food environments. In the short term, we are unable to assess how successful HEP has been in building young leaders who will continue to engage in this kind of activism, but we suspect that more extended interactions would be needed to achieve this more ambitious goal. Experiences at these sites suggest that youth organizations with a demonstrated capacity to engage youth in community service or activism and a commitment to improving food or other health-promoting community resources make the

  7. Haitian immigrants and the Greater Caribbean community of New York City: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Pierre-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La comunidad de haitianos es una de los más numerosos grupos de los 1965 grupos de inmigrantes en la ciudad de Nueva York. En 2009, había unos 118769 inmigrantes haitianos en la ciudad, y esta cifra no incluye a los indocumentados y los muchos miles de niños nacidos en Estados Unidos de padres haitianos nacidos en el extranjero. A diferencia de los inmigrantes caribeños anglofonos reconocidos como una minoría en Estados Unidos. Los inmigrantes haitianos tenían un tratamiento diferente. No eran vistos como un modelo minoritario a pesar del hecho de que también vinieron del Caribe y compartieron narrativa similar. Este documento aborda los dos períodos más importantes de la migración haitiana a la ciudad de Nueva York y de los mecanismos y estructuras que se desarrollaron en las últimas décadas para lograr la aceptación en los EE.UU. y forjar alianzas políticas con los inmigrantes del Caribe de habla inglesa para empoderar a la comunidad.

  8. Educational Field Trips for Disadvantaged Pupils in Nonpublic Schools. Evaluation of ESEA Title I Projects in New York City, 1967-68.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Harvey M.

    This Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title I project was developed in order to provide educationally enriching experiences to New York City elementary school students in disadvantaged non-public schools by means of field trips to places of civic and cultural interest. The 182 schools chosen were in designated poverty areas. Evaluation of…

  9. Reengaging New York City's Disconnected Youth through Work: Implementation and Early Impacts of the Young Adult Internship Program. OPRE Report 2017-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemer, Melanie; Sherman, Arielle; Williams, Sonya; Cummings, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    This report presents implementation and early impact results from a random assignment evaluation of the Young Adult Internship Program (YAIP), a subsidized employment program for young people in New York City who have become disconnected from school and work. Operated by various provider agencies, YAIP offers disconnected youth between the ages of…

  10. Advanced Placement Environmental Science and the Curriculum and Community Enterprise for Restoration Science (CCERS) Project in the New York City High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birney, Lauren; McNamara, Denise

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the issue of social justice through the lens of equitable access to Advanced Placement courses in the City of New York High Schools, with focus on Advanced Placement Environmental Science. A critical component of the Advanced Placement Environmental Science course is the incorporation of environmental fieldwork. The National…

  11. Evaluating the cascading impacts of sea level rise and coastal flooding on emergency response spatial accessibility in Lower Manhattan, New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Yu, Dapeng; Lin, Ning; Wilby, Robert L.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes a scenario-based approach for evaluating the cascading impacts of sea level rise (SLR) and coastal flooding on emergency responses. The analysis is applied to Lower Manhattan, New York City, considering FEMA's 100- and 500-year flood scenarios and New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC2)'s high-end SLR projections for the 2050s and 2080s, using the current situation as the baseline scenario. Service areas for different response timeframes (3-, 5- and 8-min) and various traffic conditions are simulated for three major emergency responders (i.e. New York Police Department (NYPD), Fire Department, New York (FDNY) and Emergency Medical Service (EMS)) under normal and flood scenarios. The modelling suggests that coastal flooding together with SLR could result in proportionate but non-linear impacts on emergency services at the city scale, and the performance of operational responses is largely determined by the positioning of emergency facilities and the functioning of traffic networks. Overall, emergency service accessibility to the city is primarily determined by traffic flow speed. However, the situation is expected to be further aggravated during coastal flooding, with is set to increase in frequency and magnitude due to SLR.

  12. Is Demography Still Destiny? Neighborhood Demographics and Public High School Students' Readiness for College in New York City. A Research and Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchter, Norm; Hester, Megan; Mokhtar, Christina; Shahn, Zach

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, Mayor Michael Bloomberg has reorganized the New York City school system using principles and strategies extrapolated from his corporate sector experience. The mayor and his administration have restructured the public school system into a portfolio district centered on choice, autonomy, and accountability. These strategies…

  13. The Impact of a Holistic Conditional Cash Transfer Program in New York City on Parental Financial Investment, Student Time Use, and Educational Processes and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, J. Lawrence; Morris, Pamela; Wolf, Sharon; Berg, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of Opportunity New York City-Family Rewards, the first holistic conditional cash transfer (CCT) program evaluated in the United States, on parental financial investments in children, and high school students' academic time use, motivations and self-beliefs, and achievement outcomes. Family Rewards, launched by the…

  14. An ecology of prestige in New York City: Examining the relationships among population density, socio-economic status, group identity, and residential canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Morgan Grove; Dexter H. Locke; Jarlath P.M. O' Neil-Dunne

    2014-01-01

    Several social theories have been proposed to explain the uneven distribution of vegetation in urban residential areas: population density, social stratification, luxury effect, and ecology of prestige. We evaluate these theories using a combination of demographic and socio-economic predictors of vegetative cover on all residential lands in New York City. We use...

  15. Does Mentoring Reduce Turnover and Improve Skills of New Employees? Evidence from Teachers in New York City. NBER Working Paper No. 13868

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockoff, Jonah E.

    2008-01-01

    Mentoring has become an extremely popular policy for improving the retention and performance of new teachers, but we know little about its effects on teacher and student outcomes. I study the impact of mentoring in New York City, which adopted a nationally recognized mentoring program in 2004. I use detailed program data to examine the…

  16. Peeling Lead Paint Turns into Poisonous Dust. Guess Where It Ends Up? A Media Campaign to Prevent Childhood Lead Poisoning in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Danielle; Tehranifar, Parisa; DeMartini, Diana P.; Faciano, Andrew; Nagin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Successful public health media campaigns promote messages, increase awareness, engage the public, and encourage behavior change. Between 2004 and 2006, the Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted a media campaign grounded in social learning theory and the social marketing model to…

  17. Growing toward the Sun: How the Good-Food Movement Catapulted a Small New York City Third-Sector Organization into Rapid Growth, Success, and Many Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Carole L.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an ethnographic study of a New York City-based third-sector organization focused on what it calls "food justice." This study concentrates on how this organization, that I call Food Rights, has built a broad multi-sector network made up of a varied set of constituents and collaborators aiming to develop and promote an…

  18. One Step Forward--Half a Step Back: A Status Report on Bias-Based Bullying of Asian American Students in New York City Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In September 2008, Mayor Michael Bloomberg and former Schools Chancellor, Joel Klein announced Chancellor's Regulation A-832, which established policies and procedures on how New York City schools should respond to bias-based harassment, intimidation, and bullying in schools. The Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund (AALDEF), the Sikh…

  19. PENSIONS FOR TEACHERS, A PRACTICAL HANDBOOK ON PENSIONS AND RELATED SUBJECTS FOR TEACHERS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND MUNICIPAL COLLEGES OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOLDMAN, LOUIS A.; AND OTHERS

    THIS COMPREHENSIVE HANDBOOK EXPLAINS THE MAJOR BENEFITS PROVIDED BY THE NEW YORK CITY TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM. PROCEDURES ARE GIVEN FOR CALCULATING RETIREMENT ALLOWANCES UNDER THE VARIOUS PLANS AVAILABLE AND DEATH BENEFITS EITHER BEFORE OR AFTER RETIREMENT. SOCIAL SECURITY PROVISIONS, TAXES ON RETIREMENT INCOME, LOAN PRIVILEGES, WORK AFTER…

  20. Small High Schools at Work: A Case Study of Six Gates-Funded Schools in New York City. A Report to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancsali, Cheri; Jaffe-Walter, Reva; Mitchell-McKnight, Vernay; Nevarez, Nancy; Orellana, Eliana, Williams Rose, Lea

    2010-01-01

    The Academy for Educational Development (AED) conducted a case study of six public high schools in New York City as part of a multifaceted evaluation of a small schools initiative funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Through surveys, interviews, and focus groups, the authors gathered information and opinions from the schools'…

  1. Estimating the Effects of September 11th and Other Forms of Violence on the Mental Health and Social Development of New York City's Youth: A Matter of Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, J. Lawrence; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Ware, Angelica; Kotler, Jennifer A.

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the effects of exposure to the terrorist attack of September 11th as well as exposure to other forms of community violence on change in the mental health and social attitudes of youths in New York City. Three quarters of the youths reported some form of direct exposure to the events of September 11th, and 80%…

  2. Why count trees? Volunteer motivations and experiences with tree monitoring in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle L. Johnson; Lindsay K. Campbell; Erika S. Svendsen; Philip. Silva

    2018-01-01

    Volunteer programs can benefit from a deeper understanding of the motivations and experiences of people engaged in citizen science. Research to date has studied motivations of citizen scientists and tree-planting volunteers. Less work has focused on tree-monitoring volunteers, a role that is rapidly increasing as more cities involve the public in monitoring the urban...

  3. Energy-Water Nexus Knowledge Discovery Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, B. L.; Foster, I.; Chandola, V.; Chen, B.; Sanyal, J.; Allen, M.; McManamay, R.

    2017-12-01

    As demand for energy grows, the energy sector is experiencing increasing competition for water. With increasing population and changing environmental, socioeconomic scenarios, new technology and investment decisions must be made for optimized and sustainable energy-water resource management. This requires novel scientific insights into the complex interdependencies of energy-water infrastructures across multiple space and time scales. An integrated data driven modeling, analysis, and visualization capability is needed to understand, design, and develop efficient local and regional practices for the energy-water infrastructure components that can be guided with strategic (federal) policy decisions to ensure national energy resilience. To meet this need of the energy-water nexus (EWN) community, an Energy-Water Knowledge Discovery Framework (EWN-KDF) is being proposed to accomplish two objectives: Development of a robust data management and geovisual analytics platform that provides access to disparate and distributed physiographic, critical infrastructure, and socioeconomic data, along with emergent ad-hoc sensor data to provide a powerful toolkit of analysis algorithms and compute resources to empower user-guided data analysis and inquiries; and Demonstration of knowledge generation with selected illustrative use cases for the implications of climate variability for coupled land-water-energy systems through the application of state-of-the art data integration, analysis, and synthesis. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), in partnership with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and researchers affiliated with the Center for International Earth Science Information Partnership (CIESIN) at Columbia University and State University of New York-Buffalo (SUNY), propose to develop this Energy-Water Knowledge Discovery Framework to generate new, critical insights regarding the complex dynamics of the EWN and its interactions with climate variability and change. An overarching

  4. Comparison of planned menus and centre characteristics with foods and beverages served in New York City child-care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breck, Andrew; Dixon, L Beth; Kettel Khan, Laura

    2016-10-01

    The present study evaluated the extent to which child-care centre menus prepared in advance correspond with food and beverage items served to children. The authors identified centre and staff characteristics that were associated with matches between menus and what was served. Menus were collected from ninety-five centres in New York City (NYC). Direct observation of foods and beverages served to children were conducted during 524 meal and snack times at these centres between April and June 2010, as part of a larger study designed to determine compliance of child-care centres with city health department regulations for nutrition. Child-care centres were located in low-income neighbourhoods in NYC. Overall, 87 % of the foods and beverages listed on the menus or allowed as substitutions were served. Menu items matched with foods and beverages served for all major food groups by >60 %. Sweets and water had lower match percentages (40 and 32 %, respectively), but water was served 68 % of the time when it was not listed on the menu. The staff person making the food and purchasing decisions predicted the match between the planned or substituted items on the menus and the foods and beverages served. In the present study, child-care centre menus included most foods and beverages served to children. Menus planned in advance have potential to be used to inform parents about which child-care centre to send their child or what foods and beverages their enrolled children will be offered throughout the day.

  5. Conservation genetics of extremely isolated urban populations of the northern dusky salamander (Desmognathus fuscus in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Munshi-South

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a major cause of amphibian decline. Stream-dwelling plethodontid salamanders are particularly susceptible to urbanization due to declining water quality and hydrological changes, but few studies have examined these taxa in cities. The northern dusky salamander (Desmognathus fuscus was once common in the New York City metropolitan area, but has substantially declined throughout the region in recent decades. We used five tetranucleotide microsatellite loci to examine population differentiation, genetic variation, and bottlenecks among five remnant urban populations of dusky salamanders in NYC. These genetic measures provide information on isolation, prevalence of inbreeding, long-term prospects for population persistence, and potential for evolutionary responses to future environmental change. All populations were genetically differentiated from each other, and the most isolated populations in Manhattan have maintained very little genetic variation (i.e. <20% heterozygosity. A majority of the populations also exhibited evidence of genetic bottlenecks. These findings contrast with published estimates of high genetic variation within and lack of structure between populations of other desmognathine salamanders sampled over similar or larger spatial scales. Declines in genetic variation likely resulted from population extirpations and the degradation of stream and terrestrial paths for dispersal in NYC. Loss of genetic variability in populations isolated by human development may be an underappreciated cause and/or consequence of the decline of this species in urbanized areas of the northeast USA.

  6. Investigating “Locality” of Intra-Urban Spatial Interactions in New York City Using Foursquare Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeran Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the increasing popularity of location-based social networks, a large amount of user-generated geo-referenced check-in data is now available, and such check-in data is becoming a new data source in the study of mobility and travel. Conventionally, spatial interactions between places were measured based on the trips made between them. This paper empirically investigates the use of social media data (i.e., Foursquare data to study the “locality” of such intra-urban spatial interactions in New York City, and specifically: (i the level of “locality” of spatial interactions; (ii the impacts of personal characteristics on “locality” of spatial interaction and finally; (iii the heterogeneity in spatial distribution of “local” interactions. The results of this study indicate that: (1 spatial interactions show a high degree of locality; (2 gender does not have a considerable impact on the locality of spatial interactions and finally; (3 “local” interactions likely cluster in some places within the research city.

  7. Utilizing a Pediatric Disaster Coalition Model to Increase Pediatric Critical Care Surge Capacity in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frogel, Michael; Flamm, Avram; Sagy, Mayer; Uraneck, Katharine; Conway, Edward; Ushay, Michael; Greenwald, Bruce M; Pierre, Louisdon; Shah, Vikas; Gaffoor, Mohamed; Cooper, Arthur; Foltin, George

    2017-08-01

    A mass casualty event can result in an overwhelming number of critically injured pediatric victims that exceeds the available capacity of pediatric critical care (PCC) units, both locally and regionally. To address these gaps, the New York City (NYC) Pediatric Disaster Coalition (PDC) was established. The PDC includes experts in emergency preparedness, critical care, surgery, and emergency medicine from 18 of 25 major NYC PCC-capable hospitals. A PCC surge committee created recommendations for making additional PCC beds available with an emphasis on space, staff, stuff (equipment), and systems. The PDC assisted 15 hospitals in creating PCC surge plans by utilizing template plans and site visits. These plans created an additional 153 potential PCC surge beds. Seven hospitals tested their plans through drills. The purpose of this article was to demonstrate the need for planning for disasters involving children and to provide a stepwise, replicable model for establishing a PDC, with one of its primary goals focused on facilitating PCC surge planning. The process we describe for developing a PDC can be replicated to communities of any size, setting, or location. We offer our model as an example for other cities. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:473-478).

  8. Generation X School Leaders as Agents of Care: Leader and Teacher Perspectives from Toronto, New York City and London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Edge

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on evidence from our three-year Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC-funded research study of the lives, careers, experiences and aspirations of Generation X (under 40 years of age principals and vice-principals in London, New York City, and Toronto. More specifically, the paper examines interview evidence from nine school-based studies in which nine leaders and 54 teachers discuss their perspectives on leaders’ care of their staff members. The evidence demonstrates that leaders and teachers both place a high level of importance on leaders’ ability and willingness to be supportive, understanding, and approachable. Teachers also expect leaders to serve as advocates for and role models of good work/life balance. While the school-level studies take place in radically different city-based contexts, the expectation of leaders’ care for teachers transcends different accountability and policy structures. Both groups focus their discussion on work/life balance and, more specifically, the need for leaders to understand that teachers are people with lives beyond school. The paper highlights implications for policy, practice, and future research.

  9. A Description of Advertisements for Alcohol on LinkNYC Kiosks in Manhattan, New York City: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; LeBlanc, Michael; Basch, Charles E

    2018-02-26

    Excessive alcohol consumption compromises health and increases risk of mortality. Advertisements for alcohol in city environments have been shown to influence consumption. The aim of this pilot study was to estimate the prevalence of alcohol advertisements displayed on LinkNYC kiosks, a new communication channel that provides outdoor Wi-Fi access and advertising on streets within urban environments. Direct observations were conducted to document advertisements on a 20% random sample of the 500 LinkNYC kiosks in Manhattan, NYC. From May to September of 2017, each of the 100 selected kiosks was observed for a 10-min period to document advertisements for alcohol. In addition, differences in prevalence of alcohol advertisements were examined by the location of the kiosk based on NYC zip codes' median annual income. Of the 2025 advertisements observed, 5.09% (N = 103) were for an alcohol product (including duplicates). Such advertisements were observed on 17% of the kiosks. No health warnings or age warnings were presented in any of the alcohol advertisements. Compared with kiosks located in zip codes with lower median annual income, significantly more alcohol advertisements were displayed in zip codes with higher median annual income. This is the first study to estimate the prevalence of alcohol advertising on the LinkNYC Wi-Fi and telecommunication system, now ubiquitous on Manhattan's sidewalks. This study adds to the current literature that suggests New York City residents could benefit from health-promoting versus health-compromising advertising. The findings also highlight the potential of LinkNYC kiosk marketing to undermine health-related social marketing efforts by City government and other organizations.

  10. A Case-Only Study of Vulnerability to Heat Wave-Related Mortality in New York City (2000-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigano, Jaime; Ito, Kazuhiko; Johnson, Sarah; Kinney, Patrick L; Matte, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    As a result of climate change, the frequency of extreme temperature events is expected to increase, and such events are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Vulnerability patterns, and corresponding adaptation strategies, are most usefully conceptualized at a local level. We used a case-only analysis to examine subject and neighborhood characteristics that modified the association between heat waves and mortality. All deaths of New York City residents from 2000 through 2011 were included in this analysis. Meteorological data were obtained from the National Climatic Data Center. Modifying characteristics were obtained from the death record and geographic data sets. A total of 234,042 adult deaths occurred during the warm season of our study period. Compared with other warm-season days, deaths during heat waves were more likely to occur in black (non-Hispanic) individuals than other race/ethnicities [odds ratio (OR) = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.12], more likely to occur at home than in institutions and hospital settings (OR = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.16), and more likely among those living in census tracts that received greater public assistance (OR = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.09). Finally, deaths during heat waves were more likely among residents in areas of the city with higher relative daytime summer surface temperature and less likely among residents living in areas with more green space. Mortality during heat waves varies widely within a city. Understanding which individuals and neighborhoods are most vulnerable can help guide local preparedness efforts.

  11. Combined heat and power's potential to meet New York City's sustainability goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Bianca; Saba, Alexis; Gerrard, Michael; Modi, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) has been proven as a mature technology that can benefit both building owners and utility operators. As the economic and environmental benefits of CHP in urban centers gain recognition, regulations and policies have evolved to encourage their deployment. However, the question remains whether these policies are sufficient in helping to achieve the larger sustainability goals, such as the New York City-specific goal of incorporating 800 MW of distributed generation. In this paper, the current regulatory and policy environment for CHP is discussed. Then, an engineering analysis estimating the potential for CHP in NYC at the individual building and microgrid scale, considered a city block, is performed. This analysis indicates that over 800 MW of individual building CHP systems would qualify for the current incentives but many systems would need to undergo more cumbersome air permitting processes reducing the viable capacity to 360 MW. In addition microgrid CHP systems with multiple owners could contribute to meeting the goal even after considering air permits; however, these systems may incorporate many residential customers. The regulatory framework for microgrids with multiple owners and especially residential customers is particularly uncertain therefore additional policies would be needed to facilitate their development. - Highlights: • Estimates 1580 MW and 3042 MW CHP capacity at the building and microgrid scales. • Citywide emissions could reduce 4% at the building and 9% at the microgrid scale. • CHP microgrid systems operate at similar efficiencies while providing energy to buildings not viable for CHP. • Current regulatory and policy mechanisms would affect at least 800 MW of CHP systems. • Microgrid CHP systems may be necessary to the City's meet distributed generation goals

  12. Epidemiological Characteristics and Laboratory Findings of Zika Virus Cases in New York City, January 1, 2016-June 30, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGibbon, Emily; Moy, Morgan; Vora, Neil M; Dupuis, Alan; Fine, Annie; Kulas, Karen; Limberger, Ronald; Liu, Dakai; Rakeman, Jennifer; St George, Kirsten; Slavinski, Sally

    2018-05-09

    An outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) began in May 2015 in Brazil and rapidly spread throughout the Americas; New York City (NYC) has a diverse population with ∼1.8 million residents who were born in ZIKV-affected areas. Before July 24, 2017, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ZIKV testing recommendations included nucleic acid amplification-based tests for serum and urine specimens collected ≤14 days of illness onset or last potential exposure, and ZIKV immunoglobulin M (IgM) assay when ZIKV RNA is not detected or for specimens collected within 2-12 weeks of illness onset or last potential exposure, followed by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). However, the New York public health laboratories and commercial laboratories tested specimens collected beyond these time frames. We analyzed 1080 noncongenital ZIKV cases in NYC residents who met the Council for State and Territorial Epidemiologist's ZIKV case definitions. Among cases, 98% were travel associated, 1% were sexually transmitted, and 1% had unknown exposures; 412 (38%) cases were pregnant women. Of 672 patients with ZIKV RNA detected in serum or urine specimens, 48 (7%) tested positive >14 days after either symptom onset or last potential exposure date (range 15-99 days). Of 390 patients diagnosed based on serology alone (i.e., not tested or not detectable for ZIKV RNA), 60 (15%) had a positive ZIKV IgM and PRNT >12 weeks after symptom onset or last potential exposure date (range 85-273 days). Our findings correspond with CDC's updated guidance to test symptomatic pregnant women up to 12 weeks past onset of symptoms. ZIKV IgM antibody testing may also be warranted for pregnant women regardless of symptoms if their exposure occurred during their pregnancy or periconception period. Providers should understand the scope of diagnostic testing and its limitations to appropriately counsel patients, especially pregnant women.

  13. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in New York City community garden soils: Potential sources and influential factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Briggs, Dean; Shayler, Hannah; McBride, Murray; Lopp, Donna; Stone, Edie; Ferenz, Gretchen; Bogdan, Kenneth G; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Spliethoff, Henry M

    2016-02-01

    A total of 69 soil samples from 20 community gardens in New York City (New York, USA) were collected and analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and black carbon. For each garden, samples were collected from nongrowing areas (non-bed) and from vegetable-growing beds, including beds with and without visible sources of PAHs. The sum of the US Environmental Protection Agency's 16 priority PAHs ranged up to 150 mg/kg, and the median (5.4 mg/kg) and mean (14.2 mg/kg) were similar to those previously reported for urban areas in the northeast United States. Isomer ratios indicated that the main sources of PAHs were petroleum, coal, and wood combustion. The PAH concentrations were significantly and positively associated with black carbon and with modeled air PAH concentrations, suggesting a consistent relationship between historical deposition of atmospheric carbon-adsorbed PAHs and current PAH soil concentrations. Median PAH soil concentration from non-bed areas was higher (7.4 mg/kg) than median concentration from beds in the same garden (4.0 mg/kg), and significantly higher than the median from beds without visible sources of PAHs (3.5 mg/kg). Median PAH concentration in beds from gardens with records of soil amendments was 58% lower compared with beds from gardens without those records. These results suggest that gardening practices in garden beds without visible sources of PAHs contribute to reduce PAH soil concentrations. © 2015 SETAC.

  14. Effectiveness of an Integrated Pest Management Intervention in Controlling Cockroaches, Mice, and Allergens in New York City Public Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Daniel; McKelvey, Wendy; Carlton, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Marta; Chew, Ginger; Nagle, Sean; Garfinkel, Robin; Clarke, Brian; Tiven, Julius; Espino, Christian; Evans, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Cockroaches and mice, which are common in urban homes, are sources of allergens capable of triggering asthma symptoms. Traditional pest control involves the use of scheduled applications of pesticides by professionals as well as pesticide use by residents. In contrast, integrated pest management (IPM) involves sanitation, building maintenance, and limited use of least toxic pesticides. Objectives We implemented and evaluated IPM compared with traditional practice for its impact on pests, allergens, pesticide use, and resident satisfaction in a large urban public housing authority. Methods We assigned IPM or control status to 13 buildings in five housing developments, and evaluated conditions at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months in 280 apartments in Brooklyn and Manhattan, in New York City (New York). We measured cockroach and mouse populations, collected cockroach and mouse urinary protein allergens in dust, and interviewed residents. All statistical models controlled for baseline levels of pests or allergens. Results Compared with controls, apartments receiving IPM had significantly lower counts of cockroaches at 3 months and greater success in reducing or sustaining low counts of cockroaches at both 3 and 6 months. IPM was associated with lower cockroach allergen levels in kitchens at 3 months and in beds and kitchens at 6 months. Pesticide use was reduced in IPM relative to control apartments. Residents of IPM apartments also rated building services more positively. Conclusions In contrast to previous IPM studies, which involved extensive cleaning, repeat visits, and often extensive resident education, we found that an easily replicable single IPM visit was more effective than the regular application of pesticides alone in managing pests and their consequences. PMID:19672400

  15. Effectiveness of an integrated pest management intervention in controlling cockroaches, mice, and allergens in New York City public housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Daniel; McKelvey, Wendy; Carlton, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Marta; Chew, Ginger; Nagle, Sean; Garfinkel, Robin; Clarke, Brian; Tiven, Julius; Espino, Christian; Evans, David

    2009-08-01

    Cockroaches and mice, which are common in urban homes, are sources of allergens capable of triggering asthma symptoms. Traditional pest control involves the use of scheduled applications of pesticides by professionals as well as pesticide use by residents. In contrast, integrated pest management (IPM) involves sanitation, building maintenance, and limited use of least toxic pesticides. We implemented and evaluated IPM compared with traditional practice for its impact on pests, allergens, pesticide use, and resident satisfaction in a large urban public housing authority. We assigned IPM or control status to 13 buildings in five housing developments, and evaluated conditions at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months in 280 apartments in Brooklyn and Manhattan, in New York City (New York). We measured cockroach and mouse populations, collected cockroach and mouse urinary protein allergens in dust, and interviewed residents. All statistical models controlled for baseline levels of pests or allergens. Compared with controls, apartments receiving IPM had significantly lower counts of cockroaches at 3 months and greater success in reducing or sustaining low counts of cockroaches at both 3 and 6 months. IPM was associated with lower cockroach allergen levels in kitchens at 3 months and in beds and kitchens at 6 months. Pesticide use was reduced in IPM relative to control apartments. Residents of IPM apartments also rated building services more positively. In contrast to previous IPM studies, which involved extensive cleaning, repeat visits, and often extensive resident education, we found that an easily replicable single IPM visit was more effective than the regular application of pesticides alone in managing pests and their consequences.

  16. Implementing tobacco use treatment guidelines in public health dental clinics in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Donna; Anno, Jaime; Tseng, Tuo-Yen; Calip, Greg; Wedeles, John; Lloyd, Madeleine; Wolff, Mark S

    2011-04-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of a multicomponent intervention to implement the Public Health Service (PHS) guideline Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence in six randomly selected dental clinics in New York University's College of Dentistry. The main outcome measure-provider adherence to tobacco use treatment guidelines-was assessed by auditing a random selection of patient charts pre (698) and post (641) intervention. The intervention components included a chart reminder and referral system, free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), and provider training and feedback. The results showed that rates of screening for tobacco use did not change between pre and post test chart audits. However, providers were significantly more likely to offer advice (28.4 percent pre, 49 percent post), assess readiness to quit (17.8 percent pre, 29.9 percent post), and offer assistance (6.5 percent pre and 15.6 percent post) in the post test period. Increases in NRT distribution were associated with booster training sessions but declined in the time periods between those trainings. Research is needed to further define sustainable strategies for implementing tobacco use treatment in dental clinics. The results of this study suggest the feasibility and effectiveness of using a tailored multicomponent approach to implement tobacco use treatment guidelines in dental clinics.

  17. An Analysis of Alternatives to New York City's Current Marijuana Arrest and Detention Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce D; Golub, Andrew; Dunlap, Eloise; Sifaneck, Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, the New York Police Department (NYPD) instituted a policy of arresting and detaining people for minor offenses that occur in public as part of their quality-of-life (hereafter QOL) policing initiative. The number of NYPD arrests for smoking marijuana in public view (MPV) increased from 3,000 in 1994 to over 50,000 in 2000, and have been about 30,000 in the mid 2000s. Most of these arrestees (84%) have been minority; blacks have been 2.7 more likely and Hispanics 1.8 times more likely to be detained than whites for an MPV arrest. Minorities have been most likely to receive more severe dispositions, even controlling for demographics and prior arrest histories.This paper examines the pros and cons of the current policy; this is compared with possible alternatives including the following: arrest and issue a desk appearance ticket (DAT); issue a non-criminal citation (violation); street warnings; and tolerate public marijuana smoking. The authors recommend that the NYPD change to issuing DATs on a routine basis. Drug policy reformers might wish to further pursue changing statutes regarding smoking marijuana in public view into a violation (noncriminal) or encourage the wider use of street warnings. Any of these policy changes would help reduce the disproportionate burden on minorities associated with the current arrest and detention policy. These policies could help maintain civic norms against smoking marijuana in public.

  18. Risk factors for hepatitis C seropositivity among young people who inject drugs in New York City: Implications for prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Eckhardt

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection remains a significant problem in the United States, with people who inject drugs (PWID disproportionately afflicted. Over the last decade rates of heroin use have more than doubled, with young persons (18-25 years demonstrating the largest increase.We conducted a cross-sectional study in New York City from 2005 to 2012 among young people who injected illicit drugs, and were age 18 to 35 or had injected drugs for ≤5 years, to examine potentially modifiable factors associated with HCV among young adults who began injecting during the era of syringe services.Among 714 participants, the median age was 24 years; the median duration of drug injection was 5 years; 31% were women; 75% identified as white; 69% reported being homeless; and 48% [95% CI 44-52] had HCV antibodies. Factors associated with HCV included older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.99 [1.52-2.63]; p<0.001, longer duration of injection drug use (AOR, 1.68 [1.39-2.02]; p<0.001,more frequent injection (AOR, 1.26 [1.09-1.45]; p = 0.001, using a used syringe with more individuals (AOR, 1.26 [1.10-1.46]; p = 0.001, less confidence in remaining uninfected (AOR, 1.32 [1.07-1.63]; p<0.001, injecting primarily in public or outdoors spaces (AOR, 1.90 [1.33-2.72]; p<0.001, and arrest for carrying syringes (AOR, 3.17 [1.95-5.17]; p<0.001.Despite the availability of harm reduction services, the seroprevalence of HCV in young PWID in New York City remained high and constant during 2005-2012. Age and several injection behaviors conferred independent risk. Individuals were somewhat aware of their own risk. Public and outdoor injection and arrest for possession of a syringe are risk factors for HCV that can be modified through structural interventions.

  19. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients for Obesity Indicators and Energy Balance-Related Behaviors Among New York City Public Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Heewon Lee; Burgermaster, Marissa; Tipton, Elizabeth; Contento, Isobel R; Koch, Pamela A; Di Noia, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Sample size and statistical power calculation should consider clustering effects when schools are the unit of randomization in intervention studies. The objective of the current study was to investigate how student outcomes are clustered within schools in an obesity prevention trial. Baseline data from the Food, Health & Choices project were used. Participants were 9- to 13-year-old students enrolled in 20 New York City public schools (n= 1,387). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on measures of height and weight, and body fat percentage was measured with a Tanita® body composition analyzer (Model SC-331s). Energy balance-related behaviors were self-reported with a frequency questionnaire. To examine the cluster effects, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated as school variance over total variance for outcome variables. School-level covariates, percentage students eligible for free and reduced-price lunch, percentage Black or Hispanic, and English language learners were added in the model to examine ICC changes. The ICCs for obesity indicators are: .026 for BMI-percentile, .031 for BMIz-score, .035 for percentage of overweight students, .037 for body fat percentage, and .041 for absolute BMI. The ICC range for the six energy balance-related behaviors are .008 to .044 for fruit and vegetables, .013 to .055 for physical activity, .031 to .052 for recreational screen time, .013 to .091 for sweetened beverages, .033 to .121 for processed packaged snacks, and .020 to .083 for fast food. When school-level covariates were included in the model, ICC changes varied from -95% to 85%. This is the first study reporting ICCs for obesity-related anthropometric and behavioral outcomes among New York City public schools. The results of the study may aid sample size estimation for future school-based cluster randomized controlled trials in similar urban setting and population. Additionally, identifying school-level covariates that can reduce cluster

  20. Incidence of and risks associated with Giardia infections in herds on dairy farms in the New York City Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaaf Stephanie

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aims of this study were to determine the incidence of Giardia infections in dairy herds on farms in the New York City Watershed region and to evaluate risk factors associated with infections. Because co-infections of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. are common in this population, we also evaluated the effect of herd infection status on Giardia infections. Methods Farms were grouped into three cohorts based on their prior infection status with Giardia and/or Cryptosporidium spp. The sampling plan included collecting fecal samples from all calves below 30 days of age and proportional sampling of calves, young stock, and adults. A total of 10,672 fecal samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of Giardia cysts using zinc sulfate flotation. Herds enrolled in the study were sampled seasonally for a study period of two years. The probability of shedding cysts past a certain age and the factors that influenced the likelihood of shedding were evaluated using survival analysis. Linear regression was used to evaluate factors that were associated with the intensity of shedding. Results The majority of Giardia infections occurred in calves within their first 180 days of age, with the most number of calves shedding Giardia cysts between 11 and 20 days of age. The incidence of shedding of Giardia cysts ranged from 0.0004 per animal day for cattle in the low risk cohort to 0.0011 per animal day for cattle in the high risk cohort. The likelihood of shedding was influenced by the prior infection status of the herd and the season of collection. Infected animals shed on average 9,658 cysts/gram and the intensity of shedding Giardia cysts varied significantly with the age (p Conclusion Giardia infections are common in dairy herds in the New York City watershed, particularly in calves less than 6 months of age. Seasonality may be an important factor in the perpetuation of infections based on changes in management practices

  1. Clinical Information Systems Integration in New York City's First Mobile Stroke Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Benjamin R; Lerario, Michael P; Navi, Babak B; Ganzman, Adam C; Ribaudo, Daniel; Mir, Saad A; Pishanidar, Sammy; Lekic, Tim; Williams, Olajide; Kamel, Hooman; Marshall, Randolph S; Hripcsak, George; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Fink, Matthew E

    2018-01-01

    Mobile stroke units (MSUs) reduce time to thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke. These units are widely used, but the clinical information systems underlying MSU operations are understudied. The first MSU on the East Coast of the United States was established at New York Presbyterian Hospital (NYP) in October 2016. We describe our program's 7-month pilot, focusing on the integration of our hospital's clinical information systems into our MSU to support patient care and research efforts. NYP's MSU was staffed by two paramedics, one radiology technologist, and a vascular neurologist. The unit was equipped with four laptop computers and networking infrastructure enabling all staff to access the hospital intranet and clinical applications during operating hours. A telephone-based registration procedure registered patients from the field into our admit/discharge/transfer system, which interfaced with the institutional electronic health record (EHR). We developed and implemented a computerized physician order entry set in our EHR with prefilled values to permit quick ordering of medications, imaging, and laboratory testing. We also developed and implemented a structured clinician note to facilitate care documentation and clinical data extraction. Our MSU began operating on October 3, 2016. As of April 27, 2017, the MSU transported 49 patients, of whom 16 received tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). Zero technical problems impacting patient care were reported around registration, order entry, or intranet access. Two onboard network failures occurred, resulting in computed tomography scanner malfunctions, although no patients became ineligible for time-sensitive treatment as a result. Thirteen (26.5%) clinical notes contained at least one incomplete time field. The main technical challenges encountered during the integration of our hospital's clinical information systems into our MSU were onboard network failures and incomplete clinical documentation. Future

  2. Preventable Hospitalization Rates and Neighborhood Poverty among New York City Residents, 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocour, Angelica; Tria, Maryellen

    2016-12-01

    Knowing which demographic groups have higher rates of preventable hospitalizations can help identify geographic areas where improvements in primary care access and quality can be made. This study assessed whether preventable hospitalization rates by neighborhood poverty decreased from 2008 to 2013 and whether the gap between very high and low poverty neighborhoods changed. We examined trends in age-adjusted preventable hospitalization rates and rate ratios by neighborhood poverty overall and by sex using JoinPoint regression. Prevention Quality Indicators (PQIs) developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality were applied to inpatient hospitalization data from the New York State Department of Health's Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System. PQIs were classified into composites. From 2008 to 2013, preventable hospitalization rates per 100,000 adults across each poverty group decreased. For very high poverty neighborhoods (ZIP codes with ≥30 % of persons living below the federal poverty level (FPL)), there were significant decreases overall (3430.56 to 2543.10, annual percent change [APC] = -5.91 %), for diabetes (676.15 to 500.83, APC = -5.75 %), respiratory (830.78 to 660.29, APC = -4.85 %), circulatory (995.69 to 701.81, APC = -7.24 %), and acute composites (928.18 to 680.17, APC = -5.62 %). The rate ratios also decreased over time; however, in 2013, the rates for very high poverty neighborhoods were two to four times higher than low poverty neighborhoods (ZIP codes with still exist. These findings underscore the need to ensure adequate access to quality and timely primary care among individuals living in high poverty neighborhoods.

  3. Research or "Cheerleading"? Scholarship on Community School District 2, New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois Weiner

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines data on student achievement and school demographics not explored by the researchers who have promoted Community School District 2 (CSD 2 as a model of urban school reform that should be replicated elsewhere. Data on achievement indicate a remarkable degree of social and racial stratification among CSD 2's schools and levels of achievement that closely correlate with race, ethnicity, and poverty. In addition, when CSD 2's scores on state and city tests of mathematics are compared with results from CSD 25 in Queens, a school district that serves a population demographically similar, the superiority of its functioning becomes questionable. The article explains why the design of research on CSD 2 illustrates the perils to both research and policy when university-based researchers assume the role of “cheerleader” (Cuban, 1988, promoting reforms they have aided in implementing and assessing.

  4. Assessing the health benefits of urban air pollution reductions associated with climate change mitigation (2000-2020): Santiago, São Paulo, México City, and New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, L; Borja-Aburto, V H; Gouveia, N; Thurston, G; Davis, D L

    2001-06-01

    To investigate the potential local health benefits of adopting greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies, we develop scenarios of GHG mitigation for México City, México; Santiago, Chile; São Paulo, Brazil; and New York, New York, USA using air pollution health impact factors appropriate to each city. We estimate that the adoption of readily available technologies to lessen fossil fuel emissions over the next two decades in these four cities alone will reduce particulate matter and ozone and avoid approximately 64,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 18,000-116,000) premature deaths (including infant deaths), 65,000 (95% CI 22,000-108,000) chronic bronchitis cases, and 46 million (95% CI 35-58 million) person-days of work loss or other restricted activity. These findings illustrate that GHG mitigation can provide considerable local air pollution-related public health benefits to countries that choose to abate GHG emissions by reducing fossil fuel combustion.

  5. Comparison of planned menus and centre characteristics with foods and beverages served in New York City child-care centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breck, Andrew; Dixon, L Beth; Khan, Laura Kettel

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study evaluated the extent to which child-care centre menus prepared in advance correspond with food and beverage items served to children. The authors identified centre and staff characteristics that were associated with matches between menus and what was served. Design Menus were collected from ninety-five centres in New York City (NYC). Direct observation of foods and beverages served to children were conducted during 524 meal and snack times at these centres between April and June 2010, as part of a larger study designed to determine compliance of child-care centres with city health department regulations for nutrition. Setting Child-care centres were located in low-income neighbourhoods in NYC. Results Overall, 87% of the foods and beverages listed on the menus or allowed as substitutions were served. Menu items matched with foods and beverages served for all major food groups by > 60%. Sweets and water had lower match percentages (40 and 32%, respectively), but water was served 68% of the time when it was not listed on the menu. The staff person making the food and purchasing decisions predicted the match between the planned or substituted items on the menus and the foods and beverages served. Conclusions In the present study, child-care centre menus included most foods and beverages served to children. Menus planned in advance have potential to be used to inform parents about which child-care centre to send their child or what foods and beverages their enrolled children will be offered throughout the day. PMID:27280341

  6. Urban landscape genetics: canopy cover predicts gene flow between white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) populations in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi-South, Jason

    2012-03-01

    In this study, I examine the influence of urban canopy cover on gene flow between 15 white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) populations in New York City parklands. Parks in the urban core are often highly fragmented, leading to rapid genetic differentiation of relatively nonvagile species. However, a diverse array of 'green' spaces may provide dispersal corridors through 'grey' urban infrastructure. I identify urban landscape features that promote genetic connectivity in an urban environment and compare the success of two different landscape connectivity approaches at explaining gene flow. Gene flow was associated with 'effective distances' between populations that were calculated based on per cent tree canopy cover using two different approaches: (i) isolation by effective distance (IED) that calculates the single best pathway to minimize passage through high-resistance (i.e. low canopy cover) areas, and (ii) isolation by resistance (IBR), an implementation of circuit theory that identifies all low-resistance paths through the landscape. IBR, but not IED, models were significantly associated with three measures of gene flow (Nm from F(ST) , BayesAss+ and Migrate-n) after factoring out the influence of isolation by distance using partial Mantel tests. Predicted corridors for gene flow between city parks were largely narrow, linear parklands or vegetated spaces that are not managed for wildlife, such as cemeteries and roadway medians. These results have implications for understanding the impacts of urbanization trends on native wildlife, as well as for urban reforestation efforts that aim to improve urban ecosystem processes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Overdose prevention for injection drug users: lessons learned from naloxone training and distribution programs in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Tinka Markham; Rudenstine, Sasha; Stancliff, Sharon; Sherman, Susan; Nandi, Vijay; Clear, Allan; Galea, Sandro

    2007-01-25

    Fatal heroin overdose is a significant cause of mortality for injection drug users (IDUs). Many of these deaths are preventable because opiate overdoses can be quickly and safely reversed through the injection of Naloxone [brand name Narcan], a prescription drug used to revive persons who have overdosed on heroin or other opioids. Currently, in several cities in the United States, drug users are being trained in naloxone administration and given naloxone for immediate and successful reversals of opiate overdoses. There has been very little formal description of the challenges faced in the development and implementation of large-scale IDU naloxone administration training and distribution programs and the lessons learned during this process. During a one year period, over 1,000 participants were trained in SKOOP (Skills and Knowledge on Opiate Prevention) and received a prescription for naloxone by a medical doctor on site at a syringe exchange program (SEP) in New York City. Participants in SKOOP were over the age of 18, current participants of SEPs, and current or former drug users. We present details about program design and lessons learned during the development and implementation of SKOOP. Lessons learned described in the manuscript are collectively articulated by the evaluators and implementers of the project. There were six primary challenges and lessons learned in developing, implementing, and evaluating SKOOP. These include a) political climate surrounding naloxone distribution; b) extant prescription drug laws; c) initial low levels of recruitment into the program; d) development of participant appropriate training methodology; e) challenges in the design of a suitable formal evaluation; and f) evolution of program response to naloxone. Other naloxone distribution programs may anticipate similar challenges to SKOOP and we identify mechanisms to address them. Strategies include being flexible in program planning and implementation, developing evaluation

  8. Relationship between child care centers' compliance with physical activity regulations and children's physical activity, New York City, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Robert L; Xu, Ye; Lesesne, Catherine A; Dunn, Lillian; Kakietek, Jakub; Jernigan, Jan; Khan, Laura Kettel

    2014-10-16

    Physical activity may protect against overweight and obesity among preschoolers, and the policies and characteristics of group child care centers influence the physical activity levels of children who attend them. We examined whether children in New York City group child care centers that are compliant with the city's regulations on child physical activity engage in more activity than children in centers who do not comply. A sample of 1,352 children (mean age, 3.39 years) served by 110 group child care centers in low-income neighborhoods participated. Children's anthropometric data were collected and accelerometers were used to measure duration and intensity of physical activity. Multilevel generalized linear regression modeling techniques were used to assess the effect of center- and child-level factors on child-level physical activity. Centers' compliance with the regulation of obtaining at least 60 minutes of total physical activity per day was positively associated with children's levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); compliance with the regulation of obtaining at least 30 minutes of structured activity was not associated with increased levels of MVPA. Children in centers with a dedicated outdoor play space available also spent more time in MVPA. Boys spent more time in MVPA than girls, and non-Hispanic black children spent more time in MVPA than Hispanic children. To increase children's level of MVPA in child care, both time and type of activity should be considered. Further examination of the role of play space availability and its effect on opportunities for engaging in physical activity is needed.

  9. Overdose prevention for injection drug users: Lessons learned from naloxone training and distribution programs in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandi Vijay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatal heroin overdose is a significant cause of mortality for injection drug users (IDUs. Many of these deaths are preventable because opiate overdoses can be quickly and safely reversed through the injection of Naloxone [brand name Narcan], a prescription drug used to revive persons who have overdosed on heroin or other opioids. Currently, in several cities in the United States, drug users are being trained in naloxone administration and given naloxone for immediate and successful reversals of opiate overdoses. There has been very little formal description of the challenges faced in the development and implementation of large-scale IDU naloxone administration training and distribution programs and the lessons learned during this process. Methods During a one year period, over 1,000 participants were trained in SKOOP (Skills and Knowledge on Opiate Prevention and received a prescription for naloxone by a medical doctor on site at a syringe exchange program (SEP in New York City. Participants in SKOOP were over the age of 18, current participants of SEPs, and current or former drug users. We present details about program design and lessons learned during the development and implementation of SKOOP. Lessons learned described in the manuscript are collectively articulated by the evaluators and implementers of the project. Results There were six primary challenges and lessons learned in developing, implementing, and evaluating SKOOP. These include a political climate surrounding naloxone distribution; b extant prescription drug laws; c initial low levels of recruitment into the program; d development of participant appropriate training methodology; e challenges in the design of a suitable formal evaluation; and f evolution of program response to naloxone. Conclusion Other naloxone distribution programs may anticipate similar challenges to SKOOP and we identify mechanisms to address them. Strategies include being flexible in

  10. Comparison of children’s food and beverage intakes with national recommendations in New York City child-care centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, L Beth; Breck, Andrew; Khan, Laura Kettel

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study compared foods and beverages provided to and consumed by children at child-care centres in New York City (NYC) with national nutrition recommendations. Design The study used survey, observational and centre record data collected from child-care centres. Food and beverage intakes from two days of observation and amounts of energy and nutrients were estimated using the US National Cancer Institute’s Automated Self-Administered 24 h Recall system. Setting Meal and snack time at 108 child-care centres in low-income communities in NYC. Subjects Children aged 3–4 years old in classrooms selected by the directors of the participating child-care centres. Results Foods and beverages provided to and consumed by children (n 630) met >50% of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) for most nutrients. Intakes of fibre and vitamins D and E were Foods and beverages provided >50% of the recommended average daily intake amounts for total grains, fruits and fruit juices, and dairy, but foods and vegetables. Intake of oils was below the allowance for energy levels, but foods and beverages with solid fats and added sugars exceeded the limits by 68%. Conclusions Providing more whole grains, vegetables and low-fat dairy and fewer foods with solid fats and added sugars may improve children’s diet quality when at child-care centres. Centre staff may need training, resources and strategies in order to meet the nutrition recommendations. PMID:27280552

  11. Retrospective evaluation of Project Envision: A community mobilization pilot program to prevent sexual violence in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Lily; Fidler, Laura; O'Connor, Meghan; Haviland, Mary; Fry, Deborah; Pollak, Tamara; Frye, Victoria

    2018-02-01

    Sexual violence is a public health problem associated with short- and long-term physical and mental health consequences. Most interventions that aim to prevent sexual violence before it occurs target individual-level change or promote bystander training. Community-level interventions, while increasingly recommended in the sexual violence prevention field, are rarely documented in peer-reviewed literature. This paper is a targeted process evaluation of Project Envision, a 6-year pilot initiative to address social norms at the root of sexual violence through coalition building and community mobilization in three New York City neighborhoods, and reflects the perspectives of those charged with designing and implementing the program. Evaluation methods included a systematic literature review, archival source document review, and key informant interviews. Three themes emerged from the results: community identity and implications for engagement; capacity and readiness for community mobilization and consequences for implementation; and impacts on participants. Lessons learned include the limitations of using geographic boundaries to structure community interventions in urban settings; carefully considering whether communities should be mobilized around an externally-identified issue; translating theoretical frameworks into concrete tasks; assessing all coalition partners and organizations for readiness; critically evaluating available resources; and recognizing that community organizing is a skill that requires investment from funders. We conclude that Project Envision showed promise for shifting institutional norms towards addressing root causes of sexual violence in addition to providing victim services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Competing Constructivisms: The Negotiation of PTSD and Related Stigma Among Post-9/11 Veterans in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Luther; Bennett, Alexander S; Szott, Kelly; Golub, Andrew

    2018-05-23

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) stands as a form of psychopathology that straddles moral and psychiatric domains. Grounded in discrete instances of trauma, PTSD represents an etiological outlier in an era of increased attention to the genetics of mental illness and a prime location for social constructivist analyses of mental illness. This examination of PTSD narratives-as voiced in qualitative interviews and focus groups with 50 veterans of the recent Iraq and Afghanistan wars living in New York City-attends to the processes through which veterans conceive and navigate PTSD symptoms and diagnoses. In so doing we highlight the social constructivist positions undertaken by veterans themselves as they varyingly challenge and internalize symptomology in dialogue with psychiatric definitions and the stigma associated with PTSD. Findings demonstrate the rejection of classic psychopathological etiology-in brain disease, for example-by many veterans as well as the complex balancing of benefit and stigma that veterans undertake when making decisions about presenting to psychiatric clinicians. Drawing on veterans' accounts, we argue for greater cultural specificity in characterizing the diagnosis-seeking behavior of trauma survivors and a greater appreciation for the contradictions and compromise related to both acceptance and rejection of a mental health diagnosis.

  13. Determination of Pu-239, 240 tissue concentrations in non-occupationally exposed residents of New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.; Cohen, N.

    1977-01-01

    The study reports on the Pu-239, 240 concentrations in various tissues obtained from individuals residing in New York City. Twenty-six tissue samples have been analyzed for their Pu-239, 240 content, which include sections from the right lung, the liver, bone (4th and 5th vertebrae) and the kidney. The tissues were obtained at autopsy from a selected population not occupationally exposed to plutonium and whose deaths were the result of causes other than metabolic disorders. A detailed description is presented of the radiochemical procedures employed to separate Pu and electrochemically deposit plutonium isotopes prior to alpha spectrometry with Si surface-barrier detectors. Results of these measurements are given as activity per gram wet weight and activity per gram of calcium in the individual tissue. All results have been compared to similar measurements made at other laboratories and with estimates of concentration based on metabolic models. To date, the magnitudes and the distribution of the measured values are consistent with the values inferred from the ICRP lung model and measured concentrations of air

  14. Five Years Later: Awareness Of New York City's Calorie Labels Declined, With No Changes In Calories Purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Jonathan; Torres, Alejandro; Abrams, Courtney; Elbel, Brian

    2015-11-01

    To follow up on a previous study that examined how the mandated displaying of calorie information on menu boards in fast-food restaurants in New York City influenced consumers' behavior, we analyzed itemized cash register receipts and survey responses from 7,699 consumers at four fast-food chains. Using a difference-in-differences study design, we found that consumers exposed to menu labeling immediately after the mandate took effect in 2008 and at three points in 2013-14 reported seeing and using the information more often than their counterparts at fast-food restaurants without menu labeling. In each successive period of data collection, the percentage of respondents noticing and using the information declined, while remaining above the prelabeling baseline. There were no statistically significant changes over time in levels of calories or other nutrients purchased or in the frequency of visits to fast-food restaurants. Menu labeling at fast-food chain restaurants, which the Affordable Care Act requires to be implemented nationwide in 2016, remains an unproven strategy for improving the nutritional quality of consumer food choices at the population level. Additional policy efforts that go beyond labeling and possibly alter labeling to increase its impact must be considered. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Effects of Racism on Mental Health Among Residents of Black Neighborhoods in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Melody S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the impact of reported racism on the mental health of African Americans at cross-sectional time points and longitudinally, over the course of 1 year. Methods. The Black Linking Inequality, Feelings, and the Environment (LIFE) Study recruited Black residents (n = 144) from a probability sample of 2 predominantly Black New York City neighborhoods during December 2011 to June 2013. Respondents completed self-report surveys, including multiple measures of racism. We conducted assessments at baseline, 2-month follow-up, and 1-year follow-up. Weighted multivariate linear regression models assessed changes in racism and health over time. Results. Cross-sectional results varied by time point and by outcome, with only some measures associated with distress, and effects were stronger for poor mental health days than for depression. Individuals who denied thinking about their race fared worst. Longitudinally, increasing frequencies of racism predicted worse mental health across all 3 outcomes. Conclusions. These results support theories of racism as a health-defeating stressor and are among the few that show temporal associations with health. PMID:25521873

  16. One of several ‘toys’ for smoking: young adult experiences with electronic cigarettes in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Emily Anne; Ling, Pamela M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This qualitative research explores the use of electronic cigarettes and other similar ‘vapor’ delivery devices among young adults in New York City. Methods We employed 17 focus groups followed by 12 semistructured interviews to understand the beliefs, opinions and practices related to the use of electronic cigarettes among young adult smokers (N=87). Results Participants were mainly daily (52%) and non-daily (41%) smokers. While experimentation with electronic cigarette devices was frequently reported, participants related an overall lack of information about the devices and what they did know often reflected messages in e-cigarette marketing campaigns. Participants also used their own bodily sensations as a way to gauge potential risks and benefits of the products. Finally, young adults, steeped in a culture of personal technologies, perceived e-cigarettes as one more ‘toy’ among other technologies integrated into their everyday lives. Discussion E-cigarettes were also frequently used with other tobacco products, including conventional cigarettes. Our research indicates that public health campaigns may be needed to counter current industry marketing and inform the public that electronic cigarettes are currently unregulated, understudied and contain toxicants and carcinogens. PMID:25564287

  17. Family and Work Influences on Stress, Anxiety and Depression Among Bisexual Latino Men in the New York City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Ripkin, Alexandra; Garcia, Jonathan; Severson, Nicolette

    2015-12-01

    The empirical exploration of mental health problems among bisexual Latino men is scarce. Bisexual men experience stress because of their non-conforming sexuality from multiple-sources. In this study we focus on the family and work environments. We conducted a mixed-methods study to examine the impacts of these social environments among behavioral bisexual Latino men in New York City (N = 142). Using the Brief Symptom Inventory we measured stress, depression, and anxiety, and used specific scales to measure familial and work social environmental stress factors. We also measured four cultural factors to assess their potential influence on our hypothesized stressors. To test our hypothesis we used linear regression with stress, depression and anxiety as the primary outcome variables. Our results indicated that bisexual Latino men experienced negative mental health outcomes due to pressures in their familial and work environments. Stress was the strongest predictor of anxiety and depression among the men in the study. After taking stress into account, familial factors were stronger predictors of negative mental health outcomes than work factors. Cultural factors such as acculturation and length of living in the United States were not associated with negative mental health outcomes in our sample. Our findings suggest the importance of addressing stress, anxiety and depression among behaviorally bisexual men, and suggest that addressing family-based stressors is critical for this population. This research should inform future studies addressing this underserved population and provide mental health providers with a foundation for working with bisexual Latino men.

  18. Stress, Socializing, and Other Motivations for Smoking Among the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Community in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannat-Khah, Deanna P; Dill, LeConté J; Reynolds, Simone A; Joseph, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes to the emerging literature on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and queer (LGBTQ) health disparities and tobacco use by examining the motivations for smoking among the New York City (NYC) LGBTQ population. We used grounded theory and blended methods from 3 grounded theorists-Strauss, Corbin, and Charmaz-for data collection, coding, and analysis. NYC has extensive legislation to prevent smoking; however, the current smoking prevalence of homosexuals is double that of heterosexuals. Study participants were leaders from 23 NYC LGBTQ organizations. Leaders were chosen to establish a relationship with community and to ensure cultural sensitivity. Eligibility criteria required holding a leadership position in an organization serving the NYC LGBTQ community. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and uploaded into Dedoose for analysis. An initial code list was developed from the interview guide. Key themes were identified as the themes with the most number of quotes. Three key themes emerged from our interviews: image, socializing, and stress. Smoking was reported to be a socialization aid and a maladaptive coping technique for stress arising from interactions of conflicting identities. Future smoking cessation interventions among the LGBTQ community should equip smokers with healthy coping mechanisms that address the stressors that arise from the intersections of smokers' many identities.

  19. Bias due to sample selection in propensity score matching for a supportive housing program evaluation in New York City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Lim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Little is known about influences of sample selection on estimation in propensity score matching. The purpose of the study was to assess potential selection bias using one-to-one greedy matching versus optimal full matching as part of an evaluation of supportive housing in New York City (NYC. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTINGS: Data came from administrative data for 2 groups of applicants who were eligible for an NYC supportive housing program in 2007-09, including chronically homeless adults with a substance use disorder and young adults aging out of foster care. We evaluated the 2 matching methods in their ability to balance covariates and represent the original population, and in how those methods affected outcomes related to Medicaid expenditures. RESULTS: In the population with a substance use disorder, only optimal full matching performed well in balancing covariates, whereas both methods created representative populations. In the young adult population, both methods balanced covariates effectively, but only optimal full matching created representative populations. In the young adult population, the impact of the program on Medicaid expenditures was attenuated when one-to-one greedy matching was used, compared with optimal full matching. CONCLUSION: Given covariate balancing with both methods, attenuated program impacts in the young adult population indicated that one-to-one greedy matching introduced selection bias.

  20. BRCA genetic counseling among at-risk Latinas in New York City: new beliefs shape new generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussner, Katarina M; Edwards, Tiffany; Villagra, Cristina; Rodriguez, M Carina; Thompson, Hayley S; Jandorf, Lina; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B

    2015-02-01

    Despite the life-saving information that genetic counseling can provide for women at hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (HBOC) risk, Latinas disproportionately underuse such services. Understanding Latinas' beliefs and attitudes about BRCA genetic counseling may be the key to better health promotion within this underserved, at-risk group. We conducted 12 focus groups (N = 54) with at-risk Latina women in New York City, followed by 30 in-depth interviews among a subset of the focus group women. Both were professionally transcribed, translated where applicable and data analysis was completed by two coders trained in qualitative methods. Results revealed personal and community knowledge about BRCA genetic counseling was relatively low, although women felt largely positive about counseling. The main motivator to undergo genetic counseling was concerns about learning family members' cancer status, while the main barrier was competing demands. Generational differences were apparent, with younger women (approximately machismo, fatalismo, destino) to undergoing genetic counseling. Participants were largely enthusiastic about educational efforts to increase awareness of genetic counseling among Latinos. Revealing the beliefs and attitudes of underserved Latinas may help shape culturally appropriate educational materials and promotion programs to increase BRCA genetic counseling uptake within this underrepresented community.

  1. Summer indoor heat exposure and respiratory and cardiovascular distress calls in New York City, NY, U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uejio, C K; Tamerius, J D; Vredenburg, J; Asaeda, G; Isaacs, D A; Braun, J; Quinn, A; Freese, J P

    2016-08-01

    Most extreme heat studies relate outdoor weather conditions to human morbidity and mortality. In developed nations, individuals spend ~90% of their time indoors. This pilot study investigated the indoor environments of people receiving emergency medical care in New York City, NY, U.S., from July to August 2013. The first objective was to determine the relative influence of outdoor conditions as well as patient characteristics and neighborhood sociodemographics on indoor temperature and specific humidity (N = 764). The second objective was to determine whether cardiovascular or respiratory cases experience hotter and more humid indoor conditions as compared to controls. Paramedics carried portable sensors into buildings where patients received care to passively monitor indoor temperature and humidity. The case-control study compared 338 respiratory cases, 291 cardiovascular cases, and 471 controls. Intuitively, warmer and sunnier outdoor conditions increased indoor temperatures. Older patients who received emergency care tended to occupy warmer buildings. Indoor-specific humidity levels quickly adjusted to outdoor conditions. Indoor heat and humidity exposure above a 26 °C threshold increased (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 0.98-2.68, P = 0.056), but not significantly, the proportion of respiratory cases. Indoor heat exposures were similar between cardiovascular cases and controls. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Women's preferences for testing and management of sexually transmitted infections among low-income New York City family planning clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H E; Holloway, I W; Pressman, E; Meier, J; Westhoff, C L

    2013-06-01

    High prevalence of chlamydia in the USA persists despite efforts to annually screen women under the age of 26. Tailoring sexually transmitted infection (STI) services to client preferences may strengthen existing programmes. We report women's preferences for STI services from a family planning clinic in New York City serving low-income women. Seventy-eight percent (995/1275) of eligible women participated, with a mean age of 26 (SD±7). Ninety-one percent self-identified as Latina. Nineteen percent reported a past STI. Women preferred self-collection (65%) for testing to a speculum exam (20%); 15% had no preference. Women with a previous STI were more likely to prefer a pelvic exam to women with no previous STI (50% versus 32%, P preferred informing a sex partner about a positive STI test themselves, but 88% were willing to bring expedited partner therapy to a partner. Women were more likely to prefer third party partner notification if their last partner was casual rather than a main partner (14% versus 3%, respectively, P partner notification. Self-collecting specimens for screening was widely acceptable. Partner notification strategies should be based on understanding partnership status, including fears of violence.

  3. Substance use in the MSM population of New York City during the era of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkitis, Perry N; Pollock, James A; Pappas, Molly K; Dayton, Alex; Moeller, Robert W; Siconolfi, Daniel; Solomon, Todd

    2011-01-01

    This literature review considers the historical significance, emergence of, and interplay between the HIV and illicit drug use epidemics among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) in New York City (NYC). The continual rise in HIV infections in recent years among MSM, particularly among young MSM (YMSM), commands a need for the examination of the effectiveness of current HIV prevention strategies and a more comprehensive understanding of the complex biopsychosocial influences that place YMSM at risk. A chronological perspective of both the HIV and illicit drug use epidemics affecting NYC MSM is presented, followed by a review of the existing research on the synergistic relation between the two. Special consideration is given to the patterns and interconnectivity between HIV, substance use, and housing instability specific to YMSM, as they represent the demographic currently at greatest risk for HIV transmission in NYC. Thereafter, an overview of treatment research is provided. We conclude by offering recommendations for future research and best practices as we move forward in an attempt to reduce the incidence of HIV transmission.

  4. Optimal Electricity Distribution Framework for Public Space: Assessing Renewable Energy Proposals for Freshkills Park, New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Ozgun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrating renewable energy into public space is becoming more common as a climate change solution. However, this approach is often guided by the environmental pillar of sustainability, with less focus on the economic and social pillars. The purpose of this paper is to examine this issue in the speculative renewable energy propositions for Freshkills Park in New York City submitted for the 2012 Land Art Generator Initiative (LAGI competition. This paper first proposes an optimal electricity distribution (OED framework in and around public spaces based on relevant ecology and energy theory (Odum’s fourth and fifth law of thermodynamics. This framework addresses social engagement related to public interaction, and economic engagement related to the estimated quantity of electricity produced, in conjunction with environmental engagement related to the embodied energy required to construct the renewable energy infrastructure. Next, the study uses the OED framework to analyse the top twenty-five projects submitted for the LAGI 2012 competition. The findings reveal an electricity distribution imbalance and suggest a lack of in-depth understanding about sustainable electricity distribution within public space design. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research.

  5. Using Qualitative Methods to Understand Physical Activity and Weight Management Among Bangladeshis in New York City, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Lindsey; Mili, Saima; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Islam, Nadia

    2016-07-07

    South Asians experience high rates of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, coupled with low rates of reported physical activity. We report findings from a qualitative sub-study that was conducted in 2013 among Bangladeshi immigrants in New York City to understand factors that affect physical activity practices and weight management in this community. Qualitative study participants were recruited from community-based settings. Sex-specific focus groups were conducted by trained community health workers. Proceedings were audio-recorded for translation and transcription and coded using a constant comparative approach. Data were coded using Atlas.ti software. Six focus groups were completed with a final sample of 67 participants (63% male, 37% female). Mean participant age was 42 years; mean years of residence in the United States was 12. Key themes that emerged were beliefs about modesty and sex-separated facilities that may prevent women from engaging in physical activity. Distinctions were made between men and women about what constitutes exercise versus physical activity; religious prayer was considered to be health-promoting because of the movement involved. Other important themes that emerged were cultural dietary practices and evolving conceptions of healthy weight. Tailored interventions that take into account the cultural context of this growing community are needed. Findings may also provide insight into barriers to health promotion experienced by other US Muslim communities, which are growing rapidly.

  6. Evaluation of the placement of mobile fruit and vegetable vendors to alleviate food deserts in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kathleen Y; Cromley, Ellen K; Fox, Ashley M; Horowitz, Carol R

    2014-09-11

    In 2008, the New York City (NYC) health department licensed special mobile produce vendors (Green Carts) to increase access to fruits and vegetables in neighborhoods with the lowest reported fruit and vegetable consumption and the highest obesity rates. Because economic incentives may push vendors to locate in more trafficked, less produce-deprived areas, we examined characteristics of areas with and without Green Carts to explore whether Carts are positioned to reach the intended populations. Using ArcGIS software, we mapped known NYC Green Cart locations noted through 2013 and generated a list of potential (candidate) sites where Carts could have located. We compared the food environment (via categorizing "healthy" or "unhealthy" food stores using federal classification codes corroborated by online storefront images) and other factors that might explain Cart location (eg, demographic, business, neighborhood characteristics) near actual and candidate sites descriptively and inferentially. Seven percent of Green Carts (n = 265) were in food deserts (no healthy stores within one-quarter mile) compared with 36% of candidate sites (n = 644, P locating near subway stops (P locate in still-deprived places may increase program impact.

  7. High-resolution tree canopy mapping for New York City using LIDAR and object-based image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFaden, Sean W.; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P. M.; Royar, Anna R.; Lu, Jacqueline W. T.; Rundle, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Urban tree canopy is widely believed to have myriad environmental, social, and human-health benefits, but a lack of precise canopy estimates has hindered quantification of these benefits in many municipalities. This problem was addressed for New York City using object-based image analysis (OBIA) to develop a comprehensive land-cover map, including tree canopy to the scale of individual trees. Mapping was performed using a rule-based expert system that relied primarily on high-resolution LIDAR, specifically its capacity for evaluating the height and texture of aboveground features. Multispectral imagery was also used, but shadowing and varying temporal conditions limited its utility. Contextual analysis was a key part of classification, distinguishing trees according to their physical and spectral properties as well as their relationships to adjacent, nonvegetated features. The automated product was extensively reviewed and edited via manual interpretation, and overall per-pixel accuracy of the final map was 96%. Although manual editing had only a marginal effect on accuracy despite requiring a majority of project effort, it maximized aesthetic quality and ensured the capture of small, isolated trees. Converting high-resolution LIDAR and imagery into usable information is a nontrivial exercise, requiring significant processing time and labor, but an expert system-based combination of OBIA and manual review was an effective method for fine-scale canopy mapping in a complex urban environment.

  8. Correlates of HIV and STI testing among Latino men who have sex with men in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadafino, Joseph T; Martinez, Omar; Levine, Ethan C; Dodge, Brian; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Fernandez, M Isabel

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the extent to which sociodemographic, personal, and behavioral factors are associated with human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) testing among a diverse group of Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in New York City. The triangulation approach was used to synthesize data from 176 MSM who completed an in-person or phone questionnaire about substance use, alcohol consumption, sexual behaviors, and HIV/STI testing history and 40 participants who participated in focus groups. Correlates of testing significant in univariable analyses (p Spanish-speaking only subjects were less likely to get tested for HIV and STI; however, this association was not significant. Our study demonstrates the need for further study of predictors of STI testing as well as the potential role of language barriers and education in routine testing for HIV. Social and behavioral factors may intensify these obstacles. Future research and interventions should address the role of language barriers and perceived issues of immigration status in the decision to get tested.

  9. Using syndemic theory to understand vulnerability to HIV infection among Black and Latino men in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick A; Nanin, Jose; Amesty, Silvia; Wallace, Scyatta; Cherenack, Emily M; Fullilove, Robert

    2014-10-01

    HIV is a public health crisis that disproportionately affects Black and Latino men. To understand this crisis, syndemic theory, which takes into account multiple interrelated epidemics, should be used. A syndemic is "two or more afflictions, interacting synergistically, contributing to excess burden of disease in a population." Vulnerability to HIV among Black and Latino men is increased as structural, social, and biological factors interact in the context of social marginalization. In New York City, Black and Latino men experience a syndemic of HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, trauma, incarceration, and poverty; however, current research has yet to fully identify the mechanisms of resilience that may reduce the negative impact of a syndemic or explore the potential adaptive functions of individual-level risk behaviors. To understand HIV risk as part of a syndemic and address HIV prevention in Black and Latino men, we propose the following: (1) the use of complex systems analysis, ethnography, and other mixed-methods approaches to observe changes in relations among social conditions and disease; (2) multidisciplinary and inter-institution collaboration; and (3) involvement of public health practitioners and researchers from diverse and underrepresented backgrounds.

  10. The Association of Health-Related Fitness and Chronic Absenteeism Status in New York City Middle School Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Emily M; Day, Sophia E; Konty, Kevin J; Larkin, Michael; Saha, Subir; Wyka, Katarzyna

    2018-03-23

    Extensive research demonstrates the benefits of fitness on children's health and academic performance. Although decreases in health-related fitness may increase school absenteeism, multiple years of prospective, child-level data are needed to examine whether fitness changes predict subsequent chronic absenteeism status. Six cohorts of New York City public school students were followed from grades 5-8 (2006/2007-2012/2013; N = 349,381). A longitudinal 3-level logistic generalized linear mixed model with random intercepts was used to test the association of individual children's changes in fitness and 1-year lagged chronic absenteeism. The odds of chronic absenteeism increased 27% [odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.30], 15% (OR 95% CI, 1.13-1.18), 9% (OR 95% CI, 1.07-1.11), and 1% (OR 95% CI, 0.98-1.04), for students who had a >20% decrease, 10%-20% decrease, 20% fitness increase. These findings contribute important longitudinal evidence to a cross-sectional literature, demonstrating reductions in youth fitness may increase absenteeism. Given only 25% of youth aged 12-15 years achieve the recommended daily 60 minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical activity, future work should examine the potential for youth fitness interventions to reduce absenteeism and foster positive attitudes toward lifelong physical activity.

  11. Cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of racism on mental health among residents of Black neighborhoods in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Goodman, Melody S

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the impact of reported racism on the mental health of African Americans at cross-sectional time points and longitudinally, over the course of 1 year. The Black Linking Inequality, Feelings, and the Environment (LIFE) Study recruited Black residents (n = 144) from a probability sample of 2 predominantly Black New York City neighborhoods during December 2011 to June 2013. Respondents completed self-report surveys, including multiple measures of racism. We conducted assessments at baseline, 2-month follow-up, and 1-year follow-up. Weighted multivariate linear regression models assessed changes in racism and health over time. Cross-sectional results varied by time point and by outcome, with only some measures associated with distress, and effects were stronger for poor mental health days than for depression. Individuals who denied thinking about their race fared worst. Longitudinally, increasing frequencies of racism predicted worse mental health across all 3 outcomes. These results support theories of racism as a health-defeating stressor and are among the few that show temporal associations with health.

  12. Developing public health clinical decision support systems (CDSS for the outpatient community in New York City: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singer Jesse

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing a clinically relevant set of quality measures that can be effectively used by an electronic health record (EHR is difficult. Whether it is achieving internal consensus on relevant priority quality measures, communicating to EHR vendors' whose programmers generally lack clinical contextual knowledge, or encouraging implementation of EHR that meaningfully impacts health outcomes, the path is challenging. However, greater transparency of population health, better accountability, and ultimately improved health outcomes is the goal and EHRs afford us a realistic chance of reaching it in a scalable way. Method In this article, we summarize our experience as a public health government agency with developing measures for a public health oriented EHR in New York City in partnership with a commercial EHR vendor. Results From our experience, there are six key lessons that we share in this article that we believe will dramatically increase the chance of success. First, define the scope and build consensus. Second, get support from executive leadership. Third, find an enthusiastic and competent software partner. Fourth, implement a transparent operational strategy. Fifth, create and test the EHR system with real life scenarios. Last, seek help when you need it. Conclusions Despite the challenges, we encourage public health agencies looking to build a similarly focused public health EHR to create one both for improved individual patient as well as the larger population health.

  13. Application of Lidar and other profiling techniques to study the impact that Severe weather hazards have on the New York City built environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arend Mark

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of urban boundary layer dynamics poses challenges to those responsible for the design and regulation of buildings and structures in the urban environment. Lidar systems in the New York City Metropolitan region have been used extensively to study urban boundary layer dynamics. These systems, in conjunction with other sensing platforms can provide an observatory to perform research and analysis of turbulent and inclement weather patterns of interest to developers and agencies.

  14. The Impact of Climate Change on New York City's Coastal Flood Hazard: Increasing Flood Heights from the Pre-Industrial to 2300 CE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, A. J.; Mann, M. E.; Emanuel, K.; Kopp, R. E.; Lin, N.; Alley, R. B.; Horton, B.; Deconto, R. M.; Donnelly, J. P.; Pollard, D.

    2017-12-01

    The flood hazard in New York City depends on both storm surges and rising sea levels. We combine modeled storm surges with probabilistic sea-level rise projections to assess future coastal inundation in New York City from the pre-industrial through 2300 CE. The storm surges are derived from large sets of synthetic tropical cyclones, downscaled from RCP 8.5 runs of three CMIP5 models. The sea-level rise projections include the collapse of the Antarctic ice sheet to assess future coastal inundation. CMIP5 models indicate that there will be minimal change in storm-surge heights from 2010 to 2100 or 2300, because the predicted strengthening of the strongest storms will be compensated by storm tracks moving offshore at the latitude of New York City. However, projected sea-level rise causes overall flood heights associated with tropical cyclones in New York City in coming centuries to increase greatly compared to pre-industrial or modern flood heights. We find that the 1-in-500-year flood event increases from 3.4 m above mean tidal level during 1970-2005 to 3.9 - 4.8 m above mean tidal level by 2080-2100, and ranges from 2.8 - 13.0 m above mean tidal level by 2280-2300. Further, we find that the return period of a 2.25 m flood has decreased from 500 years prior to 1800 to 25 years during 1970-2005, and further decreases to 5 years by 2030 - 2045 in 95% of our simulations.

  15. New York City group leads the way toward a more optimistic future for ASOs. ASO went from near bankruptcy to $26 million.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    A do-it-yourself AIDS social organization: AIDS service organizations are struggling because of tighter reins on government funding, but an alternative organization in New York City is showing how it can be done. It has developed a successful social entrepreneur program that employs HIV-infected clients, pays them living wages, and makes money from retail, food services, and medical care business entities, contributing three-quarters of the organization's revenues.

  16. Sex Workers, Fem Queens, and Cross-Dressers: Differential Marginalizations and HIV Vulnerabilities Among Three Ethnocultural Male-to-Female Transgender Communities in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Hwahng, Sel Julian; Nuttbrock, Larry

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 3 distinct ethnocultural male-to-female transgender communities in New York City: the low-income African American/Black1 and Latina(o) House Ball community; low-income, often undocumented immigrant Asian sex workers; and middle-class White cross-dressers. These communities are highly socially isolated from each other and are more connected to their ethnocultural contexts than to an abstract and shared transgender identity. Whereas previous research either has viewed mal...

  17. Application of Lidar and other profiling techniques to study the impact that Severe weather hazards have on the New York City built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Mark; Campmier, Mark; Fernandez, Aris; Moshary, Fred

    2018-04-01

    The complexity of urban boundary layer dynamics poses challenges to those responsible for the design and regulation of buildings and structures in the urban environment. Lidar systems in the New York City Metropolitan region have been used extensively to study urban boundary layer dynamics. These systems, in conjunction with other sensing platforms can provide an observatory to perform research and analysis of turbulent and inclement weather patterns of interest to developers and agencies.

  18. Designing New York's Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, David

    2012-01-01

    The genius of Mayor Bloomberg's plan to develop a new applied sciences campus in New York City is that it acknowledges the increasingly pivotal role of academic institutions as drivers of local economic growth. At a time when large corporations may not be the reliable job producers they were in the past and cities like New York badly need to…

  19. Racial/Ethnic Disparities at the End of an HIV Epidemic: Persons Who Inject Drugs in New York City, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C; Arasteh, Kamyar; McKnight, Courtney; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Tross, Susan; Perlman, David; Friedman, Samuel; Campbell, Aimee

    2017-07-01

    To examine whether racial/ethnic disparities persist at the "end of the HIV epidemic" (prevalence of untreated HIV infection New York City. We recruited 2404 PWID entering New York City substance use treatment in 2001 to 2005 and 2011 to 2015. We conducted a structured interview, and testing for HIV and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2; a biomarker for high sexual risk). We estimated incidence by using newly diagnosed cases of HIV. Disparity analyses compared HIV, untreated HIV, HIV-HSV-2 coinfection, HIV monoinfection, and estimated HIV incidence among Whites, African Americans, and Latinos. By 2011 to 2015, Whites, African Americans, and Latino/as met both criteria of our operational "end-of-the-epidemic" definition. All comparisons that included HIV-HSV-2-coinfected persons had statistically significant higher rates of HIV among racial/ethnic minorities. No comparisons limited to HIV monoinfected persons were significant. "End-of-the-epidemic" criteria were met among White, African American, and Latino/a PWID in New York City, but elimination of disparities may require a greater focus on PWID with high sexual risk.

  20. Comparing MODIS-Terra and GOES surface albedo for New York City NY, Baltimore MD and Washington DC for 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubenga, K.; Hoff, R.; McCann, K.; Chu, A.; Prados, A.

    2006-05-01

    The NOAA GOES Aerosol and Smoke Product (GASP) is a product displaying the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over the United States. The GASP retrieval involves discriminating the upwelling radiance from the atmosphere from that of the variable underlying surface. Unlike other sensors with more visible and near- infrared spectral channels such as MODIS, the sensors on GOES 8 through 12 only have one visible and a several far infrared channels. The GASP algorithm uses the detection of the second-darkest pixel from the visible channel over a 28-day period as the reference from which a radiance look-up table gives the corresponding AOD. GASP is reliable in capturing the AOD during large events. As an example, GASP was able to precisely show the Alaska and British Columbia smoke plume advecting from Alaska to the northeastern U.S. during the summer of 2004. Knapp et al. (2005) has shown that the AOD retrieval for GOES- 8 is within +/-0.13 of AERONET ground data with a coefficient of correlation of 0.72. Prados (this meeting) will update that study. However, GASP may not be as reliable when it comes to observing smaller AOD events in the northeast where the surface brightness is relatively high. The presence of large cities, such as New York, increases the surface albedo and produces a bright background against which it may be difficult to deduce the AOD. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on the Earth Observing System Terra and Aqua platforms provides an independent measurement of the surface albedo at a resolution greater than available on GOES. In this research, the MODIS and GOES surface albedo product for New York, Washington and Baltimore are compared in order to see how we can improve the AOD retrieval in urban areas for air quality applications. Ref: K. Knapp et al. 2005. Toward aerosol optical depth retrievals over land from GOES visible radiances: determining surface reflectance. Int.Journal of Remote Sensing 26, 4097-4116

  1. Implementing GLOBE in the New York City Metropolitan Area: Trials, Errors, and Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludman, A.; Schmidt, P.; Borman, G.

    2003-12-01

    systems. To stimulate data entry, one half-day during the 3-day workshop is devoted to exploring the GLOBE website, and another to generating student research problems using the site's advanced capabilities. Three "carrots" have also improved data submission: (1)a vendor gives a probe and software to the first school in each workshop that submits 250 data items, (2)individual competitiveness (the record is 22 hours from end of training to first submission of data), and (3)congratulatory emails to teachers when they submit their first data. The "stick": a threat to repossess the instruments if no data are submitted within 6 months. We also offer training in GLOBE-related skills, such as acquiring free satellite images and digital elevation data, and workshops on the geological and environmental settings of the NYC area. Suggestions from our teachers for the future include: urbanize protocols to better welcome inner city schools to GLOBE; add protocols involving flora and fauna to fit GLOBE better into Biology classes; develop more links with researchers so GLOBE participants feel they are making a real contribution; create a NYC area listserve so teachers can discuss common issues and concerns; and develop correlations between GLOBE protocols and NYS Curricula in Earth Science, Living Environment, Chemistry, and Physics. The last would vastly improve integration of GLOBE into these Regents-level courses. Our teacher trainees are vehement in their appreciation of GLOBE for its high standards and scientific rigor.

  2. Undocumented Youth Living Between the Lines: Urban Governance, Social Policy, and the Boundaries of Legality in New York City and Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszczyk, Stephen P.

    This dissertation compares the transition to adulthood of undocumented youth in New York and Paris, along with analysis of the construction of illegality in each city. In both the United States and France, national restrictions against undocumented immigrants increasingly take the form of deportations and limiting access to social rights. New York City and Paris, however, mitigate the national restrictions in important but different ways. They construct "illegality" differently, leading to different young adult outcomes and lived experiences of "illegality." This project uses seven years of multi-site ethnographic data to trace the effects of these mitigated "illegalities" on two dozen (male) youth. We can begin to understand the variation in these undocumented young men's social lives within and between cities by centering on (1) governance structure, the labyrinth of obtaining rights associated with citizenship, (2) citizenship, the possibility of gaining a legal status, steered in particular by civil society actors, and (3) identity, here centered on youths' negotiation of social mobility with the fear of enforcement. Biographical narratives show the shifts in social memberships as youth transition to new countries, new restrictions at adulthood, and new, limiting work. In New York, most social prospects are flattened as future possibilities are whittled down to ones focusing on family and wages. Undocumented status propels New York informants into an accelerated transition to adulthood, as they take on adult responsibilities of work, paying bills, and developing families. In Paris, youth experience more divergent processes of transitioning to adulthood. Those who are more socially integrated use a civil society actor to garner a (temporary) legal status, which does not lead to work opportunities. Those who are less socially integrated face isolation as they wait to gain status and access to better jobs. Paris undocumented youth are thus characterized by a

  3. Relationship between body mass index and adiposity in prepubertal children: ethnic and geographic comparisons between New York City and Jinan City (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navder, Khursheed P.; He, Qing; Zhang, Xiaojing; He, Suyuan; Gong, Luxia; Sun, Yungao; Deckelbaum, Richard J.; Thornton, John; Gallagher, Dympna

    2009-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is often used as a surrogate estimate of percent body fat in epidemiological studies. This study tested the hypothesis that BMI is representative of body fatness independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and geographic location in prepubertal children. The study sample included a total of 605 prepubertal children (275 girls and 330 boys) of which 247 were Chinese from Jinan, Shandong, Mainland China, and 358 children were from various ethnic backgrounds in New York City (NYC): 121 Caucasians, 94 African Americans, and 143 Asians (Chinese and Korean). In this cross-sectional study, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to quantify total body fat (TBF) and percent body fat (PBF). Prepubertal status was assessed by the criteria of Tanner. Multiple regression models were developed with TBF and PBF as the dependent variables and BMI, age, sex, and ethnicity as independent variables. Multiple regression analysis showed that BMI alone explained 85% and 69% of between-subject variance for TBF and PBF, respectively. Sex was a significant contributor to the models (P < 0.001) with girls having higher TBF and PBF than boys. Ethnicity and geographic location were significant contributors to the model (P < 0.0001) with Asians (Jinan and NYC Asians) having higher PBF than all non-Asian groups (P < 0.0001), and Jinan Asians having higher TBF and PBF than NYC-Asians. Among prepubertal children, for the same BMI, Asians have significantly higher PBF compared with African Americans and Caucasians. Caution is warranted when applying BMI across sex and ethnic prepubertal groups. PMID:19541740

  4. Trends in hospitalization for community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in New York City, 1997-2006: data from New York State's Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Amanda M; Aden, Brandon; Weiss, Don; Nash, Denis; Marx, Melissa A

    2012-07-01

    To describe trends in hospitalizations with community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection in New York City over 10 years and to explore the demographics and comorbidities of patients hospitalized with CA-MRSA infections. Retrospective analysis of hospital discharges from New York State's Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database from 1997 to 2006. All patients greater than 1 year of age admitted to New York hospitals with diagnosis codes indicating MRSA who met the criteria for CA-MRSA on the basis of admission information and comorbidities. We determined hospitalization rates and compared demographics and comorbidities of patients hospitalized with CA-MRSA versus those hospitalized with all other non-MRSA diagnoses by multivariable logistic regression. Of 18,226 hospitalizations with an MRSA diagnosis over 10 years, 3,579 (20%) were classified as community-associated. The CA-MRSA hospitalization rate increased from 1.47 to 10.65 per 100,000 people overall from 1997 to 2006. Relative to non-MRSA hospitalizations, men, children, Bronx and Manhattan residents, the homeless, patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and persons with diabetes had higher adjusted odds of CA-MRSA hospitalization. The CA-MRSA hospitalization rate appeared to increase between 1997 and 2006 in New York City, with residents of the Bronx and Manhattan, men, and persons with HIV infection or diabetes at increased odds of hospitalization with CA-MRSA. Further studies are needed to explore how changes in MRSA incidence, access to care, and other factors may have impacted these rates.

  5. Aquifer geochemistry at potential aquifer storage and recovery sites in coastal plain aquifers in the New York city area, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.J.; Misut, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of injecting oxic water from the New York city (NYC) drinking-water supply and distribution system into a nearby anoxic coastal plain aquifer for later recovery during periods of water shortage (aquifer storage and recovery, or ASR) were simulated by a 3-dimensional, reactive-solute transport model. The Cretaceous aquifer system in the NYC area of New York and New Jersey, USA contains pyrite, goethite, locally occurring siderite, lignite, and locally varying amounts of dissolved Fe and salinity. Sediment from cores drilled on Staten Island and western Long Island had high extractable concentrations of Fe, Mn, and acid volatile sulfides (AVS) plus chromium-reducible sulfides (CRS) and low concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U. Similarly, water samples from the Lloyd aquifer (Cretaceous) in western Long Island generally contained high concentrations of Fe and Mn and low concentrations of other trace elements such as As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U, all of which were below US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and NY maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In such aquifer settings, ASR operations can be complicated by the oxidative dissolution of pyrite, low pH, and high concentrations of dissolved Fe in extracted water.The simulated injection of buffered, oxic city water into a hypothetical ASR well increased the hydraulic head at the well, displaced the ambient groundwater, and formed a spheroid of injected water with lower concentrations of Fe, Mn and major ions in water surrounding the ASR well, than in ambient water. Both the dissolved O2 concentrations and the pH of water near the well generally increased in magnitude during the simulated 5-a injection phase. The resultant oxidation of Fe2+ and attendant precipitation of goethite during injection provided a substrate for sorption of dissolved Fe during the 8-a extraction phase. The baseline scenario with a low (0.001M) concentration of pyrite in aquifer sediments, indicated that nearly 190% more water

  6. Urban park characteristics, genetic variation, and historical demography of white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus populations in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Munshi-South

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe fragmentation is a typical fate of native remnant habitats in cities, and urban wildlife with limited dispersal ability are predicted to lose genetic variation in isolated urban patches. However, little information exists on the characteristics of urban green spaces required to conserve genetic variation. In this study, we examine whether isolation in New York City (NYC parks results in genetic bottlenecks in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus, and test the hypotheses that park size and time since isolation are associated with genetic variability using nonlinear regression and information-theoretic model selection. White-footed mice have previously been documented to exhibit male-biased dispersal, which may create disparities in genetic variation between males and females in urban parks. We use genotypes of 18 neutral microsatellite data and four different statistical tests to assess this prediction. Given that sex-biased dispersal may create disparities between population genetic patterns inferred from bi- vs. uni-parentally inherited markers, we also sequenced a 324 bp segment of the mitochondrial D-loop for independent inferences of historical demography in urban P. leucopus. We report that isolation in urban parks does not necessarily result in genetic bottlenecks; only three out of 14 populations in NYC parks exhibited a signature of a recent bottleneck at 18 neutral microsatellite loci. Mouse populations in larger urban parks, or parks that have been isolated for shorter periods of time, also do not generally contain greater genetic variation than populations in smaller parks. These results suggest that even small networks of green spaces may be sufficient to maintain the evolutionary potential of native species with certain characteristics. We also found that isolation in urban parks results in weak to nonexistent sex-biased dispersal in a species known to exhibit male-biased dispersal in less fragmented environments. In

  7. Patients' Willingness to Participate in Rapid HIV Testing: A pilot study in three New York City dental hygiene clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davide, Susan H; Santella, Anthony J; Furnari, Winnie; Leuwaisee, Petal; Cortell, Marilyn; Krishnamachari, Bhuma

    2017-12-01

    Purpose: One in eight people living with an HIV infection in the United States is unaware of their status. Rapid HIV testing (RHT) is an easily used and accepted screening tool that has been introduced in a limited number of clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate patient acceptability, certainty of their decision, and willingness to pay for screening if RHT was offered in university-based dental hygiene clinics. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 426 patients at three dental hygiene clinics in New York City over a period of four months. The survey questionnaire was based on the decisional conflict scale measuring personal perceptions; with zero indicating extremely high conflict to four indicating no conflict. Patients were assessed for their acceptance of RHT, provider preference for administration of the test and their willingness to pay for RHT. Results: Over half (72.2%) indicated acceptance of HIV testing in a dental hygiene clinic setting; with 85.3% choosing oral RHT, 4.9% fingerstick RHT, and 8.8% venipuncture. Respondents were amenable to testing when offered by dental hygienists (71.7%) and dentists (72.4%). Over 30% indicated their willingness to receive HIV testing in the dental setting when offered at no additional cost. The mean decisional conflict score was 3.42/4.0 indicating no decisional conflict. Conclusions: Patients are willing to undergo oral RHT when offered as a service and provided by dental hygienists in the dental setting. Patients appear to be aware of the benefits and risks associated with RHT. Further research is needed to evaluate the public health benefits and logistical challenges facing the delivery of RHT within in the dental setting. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  8. Left-turn phase: permissive, protected, or both? A quasi-experimental design in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Chen, Cynthia; Ewing, Reid

    2015-03-01

    The practice of left-turn phasing selection (permissive, protected-only, or both) varies from one locality to another. The literature evidence on this issue is equally mixed and insufficient. In this study, we evaluate the safety impacts of changing left-turn signal phasing from permissive to protected/permissive or protected-only at 68 intersections in New York City using a rigorous quasi-experimental design accompanied with regression modeling. Changes in police reported crashes including total crashes, multiple-vehicle crashes, left-turn crashes, pedestrian crashes and bicyclist crashes were compared between before period and after period for the treatment group and comparison group by means of negative binomial regression using a Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) technique. Confounding factors such as the built environment characteristics that were not controlled in comparison group selection are accounted for by this approach. The results show that the change of permissive left-turn signal phasing to protected/permissive or protected-only signal phasing does not result in a significant reduction in intersection crashes. Though the protected-only signal phasing does reduce the left-turn crashes and pedestrian crashes, this reduction was offset by a possible increase in over-taking crashes. These results suggest that left-turn phasing should not be treated as a universal solution that is always better than the permissive control for left-turn vehicles. The selection and implementation of left-turn signal phasing needs to be done carefully, considering potential trade-offs between safety and delay, and many other factors such as geometry, traffic flows and operations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using online reviews by restaurant patrons to identify unreported cases of foodborne illness - New York City, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Cassandra; Jorder, Mohip; Stern, Henri; Stavinsky, Faina; Reddy, Vasudha; Hanson, Heather; Waechter, HaeNa; Lowe, Luther; Gravano, Luis; Balter, Sharon

    2014-05-23

    While investigating an outbreak of gastrointestinal disease associated with a restaurant, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) noted that patrons had reported illnesses on the business review website Yelp (http://www.yelp.com) that had not been reported to DOHMH. To explore the potential of using Yelp to identify unreported outbreaks, DOHMH worked with Columbia University and Yelp on a pilot project to prospectively identify restaurant reviews on Yelp that referred to foodborne illness. During July 1, 2012-March 31, 2013, approximately 294,000 Yelp restaurant reviews were analyzed by a software program developed for the project. The program identified 893 reviews that required further evaluation by a foodborne disease epidemiologist. Of the 893 reviews, 499 (56%) described an event consistent with foodborne illness (e.g., patrons reported diarrhea or vomiting after their meal), and 468 of those described an illness within 4 weeks of the review or did not provide a period. Only 3% of the illnesses referred to in the 468 reviews had also been reported directly to DOHMH via telephone and online systems during the same period. Closer examination determined that 129 of the 468 reviews required further investigation, resulting in telephone interviews with 27 reviewers. From those 27 interviews, three previously unreported restaurant-related outbreaks linked to 16 illnesses met DOHMH outbreak investigation criteria; environmental investigation of the three restaurants identified multiple food-handling violations. The results suggest that online restaurant reviews might help to identify unreported outbreaks of foodborne illness and restaurants with deficiencies in food handling. However, investigating reports of illness in this manner might require considerable time and resources.

  10. Factors Influencing Health Service Utilization Among Asian Immigrant Nail Salon Workers in the Greater New York City Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin Young; Chao, Ying-Yu; Yeung, Ka Man; Strauss, Shiela M

    2018-06-23

    Most nail salon workers in the greater New York City area are Asian immigrant women. They are exposed daily to potentially toxic chemicals and hazards in their workplace, making them more vulnerable for possible health problems. The study's primary purpose was to identify factors influencing past year healthcare utilization among Asian immigrant women working in nail salons. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on a modification of Andersen's behavioral model of healthcare utilization in which 148 Korean and Chinese immigrant women currently working in nail salons were surveyed. The questionnaire included: (1) individual health determinants, (2) health service utilization in the past year, and (3) work environment, work-related health concerns, and work-related health problems. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models assessed factors related to past year healthcare utilization. Women who had health insurance (p < .01), a usual source of care (p < .01), low educational attainment (p < .05), and more work-related health symptoms (p < .05) were more likely to visit a primary care provider. Women who had health insurance (p < .01), a usual source of care (p < .05), and low educational attainment (p < .05), were also more likely to visit a woman's health provider. Korean (rather than Chinese) women (p < .05) and women who perceived themselves to be in fair/poor health (p < .05) were more likely to see a traditional provider of Eastern medicine. Asian immigrant women who work in nail salons have workplace health and safety concerns. They generally use Western rather than traditional medicine, with different factors related to these two types of medicine.

  11. Drinking water turbidity and emergency department visits for gastrointestinal illness in New York City, 2002-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Jennifer L; Nguyen, Trang Quyen; Matte, Thomas; Ito, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Studies have examined whether there is a relationship between drinking water turbidity and gastrointestinal (GI) illness indicators, and results have varied possibly due to differences in methods and study settings. As part of a water security improvement project we conducted a retrospective analysis of the relationship between drinking water turbidity and GI illness in New York City (NYC) based on emergency department chief complaint syndromic data that are available in near-real-time. We used a Poisson time-series model to estimate the relationship of turbidity measured at distribution system and source water sites to diarrhea emergency department (ED) visits in NYC during 2002-2009. The analysis assessed age groups and was stratified by season and adjusted for sub-seasonal temporal trends, year-to-year variation, ambient temperature, day-of-week, and holidays. Seasonal variation unrelated to turbidity dominated (~90% deviance) the variation of daily diarrhea ED visits, with an additional 0.4% deviance explained with turbidity. Small yet significant multi-day lagged associations were found between NYC turbidity and diarrhea ED visits in the spring only, with approximately 5% excess risk per inter-quartile-range of NYC turbidity peaking at a 6 day lag. This association was strongest among those aged 0-4 years and was explained by the variation in source water turbidity. Integrated analysis of turbidity and syndromic surveillance data, as part of overall drinking water surveillance, may be useful for enhanced situational awareness of possible risk factors that can contribute to GI illness. Elucidating the causes of turbidity-GI illness associations including seasonal and regional variations would be necessary to further inform surveillance needs.

  12. Routine HIV screening in two health-care settings--New York City and New Orleans, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xia; Dietz, Patricia M; Rodriguez, Vanessa; Lester, Deborah; Hernandez, Paloma; Moreno-Walton, Lisa; Johnson, Grant; Van Handel, Michelle M; Skarbinski, Jacek; Mattson, Christine L; Stratford, Dale; Belcher, Lisa; Branson, Bernard M

    2014-06-27

    Approximately 16% of the estimated 1.1 million persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States are unaware of their infection and thus unable to benefit from effective treatment that improves health and reduces transmission risk. Since 2006, CDC has recommended that health-care providers screen for HIV all patients aged 13-64 years unless prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection in their patients has been documented to be New York City and the Interim Louisiana Hospital (ILH) in New Orleans. Data were provided by the two programs. UHP screened a monthly average of 986 patients for HIV during January 2011-September 2013. Of the 32,534 patients screened, 148 (0.45%) tested HIV-positive, of whom 147 (99%) received their test result and 43 (29%) were newly diagnosed. None of the 148 patients with HIV infection were previously receiving medical care, and 120 (81%) were linked to HIV medical care. The ILH emergency department (ED) and the urgent-care center (UCC) screened a monthly average of 1,323 patients from mid-March to December 2013. Of the 12,568 patients screened, 102 (0.81%) tested HIV-positive, of whom 100 (98%) received their test result, 77 (75%) were newly diagnosed, and five (5%) had acute HIV infection. Linkage to HIV medical care was successful for 67 (74%) of 91 patients not already in care. Routine HIV screening identified patients with new and previously diagnosed HIV infection and facilitated their linkage to medical care. The two HIV screening programs highlighted in this report can serve as models that could be adapted by other health-care settings.

  13. Mumps vaccine effectiveness and risk factors for disease in households during an outbreak in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Kara A; Rosen, Jennifer B; Zucker, Jane R; Zimmerman, Christopher M

    2014-01-09

    Mumps outbreaks have been reported among vaccinated populations, and declining mumps vaccine effectiveness (VE) has been suggested as one possible cause. During a large mumps outbreak in New York City, we assessed: (1) VE of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) against mumps and (2) risk factors for acquiring mumps in households. Cases of mumps were investigated using standard methods. Additional information on disease and vaccination status of household contacts was collected. Case households completed follow-up phone interviews 78-198 days after initial investigation to ascertain additional cases. Mumps cases meeting the study case definition were included in the analysis. Risk factors for mumps were assessed, and VE was calculated using secondary household attack rates. Three hundred and eleven households with 2176 residents were included in the analysis. The median age of residents was 13 years (range <1-85), and 462 (21.2%) residents met the study mumps case definition. Among 7-17 year olds, 89.7% received one or more doses of MMR vaccine, with 76.7% receiving two doses. Young adults aged 10-14 years (OR=2.4, CI=1.3-4.7) and 15-19 years (OR=2.5, CI=1.3-5.0) were at highest risk of mumps. The overall 2-dose VE for secondary contacts aged five and older was 86.3% (CI 63.3-94.9). The two-dose effectiveness of MMR vaccine against mumps was 86.3%, consistent with other published mumps VE estimates. Many factors likely contributed to this outbreak. Suboptimal MMR coverage in the affected population combined with VE may not have conferred adequate immunity to prevent transmission and may have contributed to this outbreak. Achieving high MMR coverage remains the best available strategy for prevention of mumps outbreaks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Drinking water turbidity and emergency department visits for gastrointestinal illness in New York City, 2002-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Hsieh

    Full Text Available Studies have examined whether there is a relationship between drinking water turbidity and gastrointestinal (GI illness indicators, and results have varied possibly due to differences in methods and study settings.As part of a water security improvement project we conducted a retrospective analysis of the relationship between drinking water turbidity and GI illness in New York City (NYC based on emergency department chief complaint syndromic data that are available in near-real-time.We used a Poisson time-series model to estimate the relationship of turbidity measured at distribution system and source water sites to diarrhea emergency department (ED visits in NYC during 2002-2009. The analysis assessed age groups and was stratified by season and adjusted for sub-seasonal temporal trends, year-to-year variation, ambient temperature, day-of-week, and holidays.Seasonal variation unrelated to turbidity dominated (~90% deviance the variation of daily diarrhea ED visits, with an additional 0.4% deviance explained with turbidity. Small yet significant multi-day lagged associations were found between NYC turbidity and diarrhea ED visits in the spring only, with approximately 5% excess risk per inter-quartile-range of NYC turbidity peaking at a 6 day lag. This association was strongest among those aged 0-4 years and was explained by the variation in source water turbidity.Integrated analysis of turbidity and syndromic surveillance data, as part of overall drinking water surveillance, may be useful for enhanced situational awareness of possible risk factors that can contribute to GI illness. Elucidating the causes of turbidity-GI illness associations including seasonal and regional variations would be necessary to further inform surveillance needs.

  15. From Punishment to Treatment: The “Clinical Alternative to Punitive Segregation” (CAPS Program in New York City Jails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Glowa-Kollisch

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of jails and prisons as places of institutionalization for persons with serious mental illness (SMI has resulted in many of these patients receiving jail-based punishments, including solitary confinement. Starting in 2013, the New York City (NYC jail system developed a new treatment unit for persons with SMI who were judged to have violated jail rules (and previously would have been punished with solitary confinement called the Clinical Alternative to Punitive Segregation (CAPS unit. CAPS is designed to offer a full range of therapeutic activities and interventions for these patients, including individual and group therapy, art therapy, medication counseling and community meetings. Each CAPS unit requires approximately $1.5 million more investment per year, largely in additional staff as compared to existing mental health units, and can house approximately 30 patients. Patients with less serious mental illness who received infractions were housed on units that combined solitary confinement with some clinical programming, called Restrictive Housing Units (RHU. Between 1 December 2013 and 31 March 2015, a total of 195 and 1433 patients passed through the CAPS and RHU units, respectively. A small cohort of patients experienced both CAPS and RHU (n = 90. For these patients, their rates of self-harm and injury were significantly lower while on the CAPS unit than when on the RHU units. Improvements in clinical outcomes are possible for incarcerated patients with mental illness with investment in new alternatives to solitary confinement. We have started to adapt the CAPS approach to existing mental health units as a means to promote better clinical outcomes and also help prevent jail-based infractions. The cost of these programs and the dramatic differences in length of stay for patients who earn these jail-based infractions highlight the need for alternatives to incarceration, some of which have recently been announced in NYC.

  16. Implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions by New York City public schools to prevent 2009 influenza A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon G Agolory

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Children are important transmitters of influenza in the community and a number of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs, including hand washing and use of hand sanitizer, have been recommended to mitigate the transmission of influenza, but limited information is available regarding schools' ability to implement these NPIs during an influenza outbreak. We evaluated implementation of NPIs during fall 2009 in response to H1N1 pandemic influenza (pH1N1 by New York City (NYC public schools. METHODS: From January 25 through February 9, 2010, an online survey was sent to all the 1,632 NYC public schools and principals were asked to participate in the survey or to designate a school nurse or other school official with knowledge of school policies and characteristics to do so. RESULTS: Of 1,633 schools, 376(23% accessed and completed the survey. Nearly all respondents (99% implemented at least two NPIs. Schools that had a Flu Response Team (FRT as a part of school emergency preparedness plan were more likely to implement the NPI guidelines recommended by NYC public health officials than schools that did not have a FRT. Designation of a room for isolating ill students, for example, was more common in schools with a FRT (72% than those without (53% (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing an NPI program in a large school system to mitigate the effects of an influenza outbreak is feasible, but there is potential need for additional resources in some schools to increase capacity and adherence to all recommendations. Public health influenza-preparedness plans should include school preparedness planning and FRTs.

  17. Implementation of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions by New York City Public Schools to Prevent 2009 Influenza A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agolory, Simon G.; Barbot, Oxiris; Averhoff, Francisco; Weiss, Don; Wilson, Elisha; Egger, Joseph; Miller, Jeffery; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu; Walton, Sabrina; Kahn, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Children are important transmitters of influenza in the community and a number of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), including hand washing and use of hand sanitizer, have been recommended to mitigate the transmission of influenza, but limited information is available regarding schools' ability to implement these NPIs during an influenza outbreak. We evaluated implementation of NPIs during fall 2009 in response to H1N1 pandemic influenza (pH1N1) by New York City (NYC) public schools. Methods From January 25 through February 9, 2010, an online survey was sent to all the 1,632 NYC public schools and principals were asked to participate in the survey or to designate a school nurse or other school official with knowledge of school policies and characteristics to do so. Results Of 1,633 schools, 376(23%) accessed and completed the survey. Nearly all respondents (99%) implemented at least two NPIs. Schools that had a Flu Response Team (FRT) as a part of school emergency preparedness plan were more likely to implement the NPI guidelines recommended by NYC public health officials than schools that did not have a FRT. Designation of a room for isolating ill students, for example, was more common in schools with a FRT (72%) than those without (53%) (peffects of an influenza outbreak is feasible, but there is potential need for additional resources in some schools to increase capacity and adherence to all recommendations. Public health influenza-preparedness plans should include school preparedness planning and FRTs. PMID:23341877

  18. Active Monitoring of Travelers Arriving from Ebola-Affected Countries - New York City, October 2014-April 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Alexander J; Chamany, Shadi; Guthartz, Seth; Thihalolipavan, Sayone; Porter, Michael; Schroeder, Andrew; Vora, Neil M; Varma, Jay K; Starr, David

    2016-01-29

    The Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak in West Africa has claimed approximately 11,300 lives (1), and the magnitude and course of the epidemic prompted many nonaffected countries to prepare for Ebola cases imported from affected countries. In October 2014, CDC and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) implemented enhanced entry risk assessment and management at five U.S. airports: John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in New York City (NYC), O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, Newark Liberty International Airport in New Jersey, Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport in Atlanta, and Dulles International Airport in Virginia (2). Enhanced entry risk assessment began at JFK on October 11, 2014, and at the remaining airports on October 16 (3). On October 21, DHS exercised its authority to direct all travelers flying into the United States from an Ebola-affected country to arrive at one of the five participating airports. At the time, the Ebola-affected countries included Guinea, Liberia, Mali, and Sierra Leone. On October 27, CDC issued updated guidance for monitoring persons with potential Ebola virus exposure (4), including recommending daily monitoring of such persons to ascertain the presence of fever or symptoms for a period of 21 days (the maximum incubation period of Ebola virus) after the last potential exposure; this was termed "active monitoring." CDC also recommended "direct active monitoring" of persons with a higher risk for Ebola virus exposure, including health care workers who had provided direct patient care in Ebola-affected countries. Direct active monitoring required direct observation of the person being monitored by the local health authority at least once daily (5). This report describes the operational structure of the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's (DOHMH) active monitoring program during its first 6 months (October 2014-April 2015) of operation. Data collected on persons who required direct active monitoring

  19. Airborne particulate metals in the New York City subway: a pilot study to assess the potential for health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, David S; Ross, James M; Family, Farnosh; Barbour, Jonathan; James Simpson, H; Coulibaly, Drissa; Hernandez, Jennifer; Chen, Yingdi; Slavkovich, Vesna; Li, Yongliang; Graziano, Joseph; Santella, Regina M; Brandt-Rauf, Paul; Chillrud, Steven N

    2010-01-01

    A prior study in New York City observed that airborne concentrations of three metals found in steel - iron, manganese, and chromium - are more than 100 times higher in the subway system than in aboveground air. To investigate the potential for health effects of exposure at these levels, we conducted a pilot study of subway workers comparing personal exposures to steel dust with biomarkers of metal exposure, oxidative stress, and DNA damage in blood and urine samples. Workers wore a personal air sampler operating at 4L/m for one to three work shifts with blood and urine samples collected at the end of the final shift. We found that PM(2.5) exposures varied among subway workers on the basis of job title and job activity. The subway workers' mean time-weighted PM(2.5) exposure was 52 microg/m3, with a median of 27 microg/m3, and a range of 6-469 microg/m3. The observed concentrations of PM(2.5), iron, manganese, and chromium fell well below occupational standards. Biomarker concentrations among the 39 subway workers were compared with a group of 11 bus drivers, and a group of 25 suburban office workers. Concentrations of DNA-protein crosslinks and chromium in plasma were significantly higher in subway workers than in bus drivers, but no significant difference was observed for these biomarkers between subway workers and office workers. Urinary isoprostane concentrations were significantly correlated with the number of years working in the subway system, and were detected at higher, though not significantly higher, concentrations in subway workers than in bus drivers or office workers. At the group level, there was no consistent pattern of biomarker concentrations among subway workers significantly exceeding those of the bus drivers and office workers. At the individual level, steel dust exposure was not correlated with any of the biomarkers measured.

  20. Implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions by New York City public schools to prevent 2009 influenza A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agolory, Simon G; Barbot, Oxiris; Averhoff, Francisco; Weiss, Don; Wilson, Elisha; Egger, Joseph; Miller, Jeffery; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu; Walton, Sabrina; Kahn, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Children are important transmitters of influenza in the community and a number of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), including hand washing and use of hand sanitizer, have been recommended to mitigate the transmission of influenza, but limited information is available regarding schools' ability to implement these NPIs during an influenza outbreak. We evaluated implementation of NPIs during fall 2009 in response to H1N1 pandemic influenza (pH1N1) by New York City (NYC) public schools. From January 25 through February 9, 2010, an online survey was sent to all the 1,632 NYC public schools and principals were asked to participate in the survey or to designate a school nurse or other school official with knowledge of school policies and characteristics to do so. Of 1,633 schools, 376(23%) accessed and completed the survey. Nearly all respondents (99%) implemented at least two NPIs. Schools that had a Flu Response Team (FRT) as a part of school emergency preparedness plan were more likely to implement the NPI guidelines recommended by NYC public health officials than schools that did not have a FRT. Designation of a room for isolating ill students, for example, was more common in schools with a FRT (72%) than those without (53%) (pschool system to mitigate the effects of an influenza outbreak is feasible, but there is potential need for additional resources in some schools to increase capacity and adherence to all recommendations. Public health influenza-preparedness plans should include school preparedness planning and FRTs.

  1. Impact of Hurricane Sandy on community pharmacies in severely affected areas of New York City: A qualitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Vibhuti; Medina, Eric; Scaccia, Allison; Mathew, Cathleen; Starr, David

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was one of the most severe natural disasters to hit the Mid-Atlantic States in recent history. Community pharmacies were among the businesses affected, with flooding and power outages significantly reducing services offered by many pharmacies. The objectives of our study were to assess the impact of Hurricane Sandy on community pharmacies, both independently owned and chain, in the severely affected areas of New York City (NYC), including Coney Island, Staten Island, and the Rockaways, using qualitative methods, and propose strategies to mitigate the impact of future storms and disasters. Of the total 52 solicited pharmacies, 35 (67 percent) responded and were included in our analysis. Only 10 (29 percent) of the pharmacies surveyed reported having a generator during Hurricane Sandy; 37 percent reported being equipped with a generator at the time of the survey approximately 1 year later. Our findings suggest that issues other than power outages contributed more toward a pharmacy remaining operational after the storm. Of those surveyed, 26 (74 percent) suffered from structural damage (most commonly in Coney Island). Most pharmacies (71 percent) were able to reopen within 1 month. Despite staffing challenges, most pharmacies (88 percent) had enough pharmacists/staff to resume normal operations. Overall, 91 percent were aware of law changes for emergency medication access, and 81 percent found the information easy to obtain. This survey helped inform our work toward improved community resiliency. Our findings have helped us recognize community pharmacists as important stakeholders and refocus our energy toward developing sustained partnerships with them in NYC as part of our ongoing preparedness strategy.

  2. Evaluating the impact of prioritization of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Jason; Myers, Julie E.; Nucifora, Kimberly A.; Mensah, Nana; Toohey, Christopher; Khademi, Amin; Cutler, Blayne; Braithwaite, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the value and effectiveness of different prioritization strategies of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in New York City (NYC). Design Mathematical modeling utilized as clinical trial is not feasible. Methods Using a model accounting for both sexual and parenteral transmission of HIV we compare different prioritization strategies (PPS) for PrEP to two scenarios—no PrEP and PrEP for all susceptible at-risk individuals. The PPS included PrEP for all MSM, only high-risk MSM, high-risk heterosexuals, and injection drug users, and all combinations of these four strategies. Outcomes included HIV infections averted, and incremental cost effectiveness (per-infection averted) ratios. Initial assumptions regarding PrEP included a 44% reduction in HIV transmission, 50% uptake in the prioritized population and an annual cost per person of $9,762. Sensitivity analyses on key parameters were conducted. Results Prioritization to all MSM results in a 19% reduction in new HIV infections. Compared to PrEP for all persons at-risk this PPS retains 79% of the preventative effect at 15% of the total cost. PrEP prioritized to only high-risk MSM results in a reduction in new HIV infections of 15%. This PPS retains 60% of the preventative effect at 6% of the total cost. There are diminishing returns when PrEP utilization is expanded beyond this group. Conclusions PrEP implementation is relatively cost-inefficient under our initial assumptions. Our results suggest that PrEP should first be promoted among MSM who are at particularly high-risk of HIV acquisition. Further expansion beyond this group may be cost-effective, but is unlikely to be cost-saving. PMID:25493594

  3. Spatial Analysis of High-Resolution Radar Rainfall and Citizen-Reported Flash Flood Data in Ultra-Urban New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne Smith

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available New York City (NYC is an ultra-urban region, with over 50% impervious cover and buried stream channels. Traditional flood studies rely on the presence of stream gages to detect flood stage and discharge, but these methods cannot be used in ultra-urban areas. Here we create a high-resolution radar rainfall dataset for NYC and utilize citizen and expert reports of flooding throughout the city to study flash flooding in NYC. Results indicate that interactions between the urban area and land–sea boundary have an important impact on the spatial variability of both heavy rainfall and flooding, sometimes in contrast to results obtained for other cities. Top days of daily and hourly rainfall exhibit a rainfall maximum over the city center and an extended region of higher rainfall downwind of the city. The mechanism for flooding appears to vary across the city, with high groundwater tables influencing more coastal areas and high rain rates or large rain volumes influencing more inland areas. There is also a strong relationship between sewer type and flood frequency, with fewer floods observed in combined sewer areas. Flooding is driven by maximum one-hour to one-day rainfall, which is often substantially less rain than observed for the city-wide daily maximum.

  4. Neighborhood disparities in prevalence of childhood obesity among low-income children before and after implementation of New York City child care regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhobo, Jackson P; Edmunds, Lynn S; Dalenius, Karen; Jernigan, Jan; Davis, Christopher F; Giddings, Mark; Lesesne, Catherine; Kettel Khan, Laura

    2014-10-16

    New York City Article 47 regulations, implemented in 2007, require licensed child care centers to improve the nutrition, physical activity, and television-viewing behaviors of enrolled children. To supplement an evaluation of the Article 47 regulations, we conducted an exploratory ecologic study to examine changes in childhood obesity prevalence among low-income preschool children enrolled in the Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) in New York City neighborhoods with or without a district public health office. We conducted the study 3 years before (from 2004 through 2006) and after (from 2008 through 2010) the implementation of the regulations in 2007. We used an ecologic, time-trend analysis to compare 3-year cumulative obesity prevalence among WIC-enrolled preschool children during 2004 to 2006 and 2008 to 2010. Outcome data were obtained from the New York State component of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System. Early childhood obesity prevalence declined in all study neighborhoods from 2004-2006 to 2008-2010. The greatest decline occurred in Manhattan high-risk neighborhoods where obesity prevalence decreased from 18.6% in 2004-2006 to 15.3% in 2008-2010. The results showed a narrowing of the gap in obesity prevalence between high-risk and low-risk neighborhoods in Manhattan and the Bronx, but not in Brooklyn. The reductions in early childhood obesity prevalence in some high-risk and low-risk neighborhoods in New York City suggest that progress was made in reducing health disparities during the years just before and after implementation of the 2007 regulations. Future research should consider the built environment and markers of differential exposure to known interventions and policies related to childhood obesity prevention.

  5. Towards More Comprehensive Projections of Urban Heat-Related Mortality: Estimates for New York City Under Multiple Population, Adaptation, and Climate Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Elisaveta P.; Vink, Jan K.; Horton, Radley M.; Gasparrini, Antonio; Bader, Daniel A.; Francis, Joe D.; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2016-01-01

    High temperatures have substantial impacts on mortality and, with growing concerns about climate change, numerous studies have developed projections of future heat-related deaths around the world. Projections of temperature-related mortality are often limited by insufficient information necessary to formulate hypotheses about population sensitivity to high temperatures and future demographics. This study has derived projections of temperature-related mortality in New York City by taking into account future patterns of adaptation or demographic change, both of which can have profound influences on future health burdens. We adopt a novel approach to modeling heat adaptation by incorporating an analysis of the observed population response to heat in New York City over the course of eight decades. This approach projects heat-related mortality until the end of the 21st century based on observed trends in adaptation over a substantial portion of the 20th century. In addition, we incorporate a range of new scenarios for population change until the end of the 21st century. We then estimate future heat-related deaths in New York City by combining the changing temperature-mortality relationship and population scenarios with downscaled temperature projections from the 33 global climate models (GCMs) and two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs).The median number of projected annual heat-related deaths across the 33 GCMs varied greatly by RCP and adaptation and population change scenario, ranging from 167 to 3331 in the 2080s compared to 638 heat-related deaths annually between 2000 and 2006.These findings provide a more complete picture of the range of potential future heat-related mortality risks across the 21st century in New York, and highlight the importance of both demographic change and adaptation responses in modifying future risks.

  6. Helmet "tang" from the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City, United States. Features of Construction, Design and Operational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid A. Bobrov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses iron helmet (No. 36.25.115, which is stored in the Metropolitan Museum of art (New York City, United States. For the first time this helmet was published and analyzed by American scientists G. C. Stone and D.G. Alexander. The analysis showed that the Bowl was made by Turkish masters of the XVII century and backplate and the hoop is added to the helmet in 1781–1782 D.G. Alexander speculated that the helmet belonged to the Warrior of the Crimean Khanate. Dating the helmet does not raise objections. However, the attribution of a helmet requires some clarification. Analysis of the design of the helmet and decoration revealed that backplate, hoop and Aventail from iron rings added to Bowl in 1781–1782, were manufactured by Circassian craftsmen living in the Northern Caucasus or in Crimea. For the decoration of the helmet has been used typical Circassian ornaments: "sieve", cherkessian floral pattern, geometric shapes, triangular in shape, "gear", etc. During Assembly of the helmet were applied characteristic of Circassian gunsmiths technological solutions: using as a basis the bowl old-style helmet, tapered Finial with a ring for a decorative plume, hoop with four plates, ringed with aventail lip to protect the forehead, etc. In Circassia similar headgear worn were known as tang (from the Arabic. "Taj", i.e., the "Crown". In the XVII–XVIII centuries. they willingly purchased representatives of Crimean Tatar nobility. Similar in design and system design helmets Circassian production belonged to the highest aristocracy of the Crimean Khanate, are stored in Museum and private collections in Poland, Turkey and the United States. The inscription "Bekmurun" on the hoop from the Metropolitan helmet suggests that it was manufactured on request of Kabardian Bekmur princely heir (Bekmurziny, which moved from Circassia in Crimea, 1737. The popularity of tang type helmets among the aristocracy of North Caucasus and Crimea were due not

  7. The contribution of school-level factors to contraceptive use among adolescents in New York city public high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Deborah L.

    Every year approximately 17,000 adolescents ages 15-19 become pregnant in New York City. Most of these pregnancies are unintended and only a small percent of adolescents use effective contraception, with wide disparities by race/ethnicity and poverty level. While many studies have identified factors associated with contraceptive use, most research has focused on individual level factors, with little attention to the contribution of the school environment to sexual risk behavior and contraceptive use. This study investigates the effect of school-level factors on contraceptive use among adolescents in NYC public high schools before and after controlling for individual-level factors, and whether this effect varies with race/ethnicity. Using a cross-sectional design, the NYC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) individual-level datasets for 2007, 2009 and 2011 were linked to a school-level dataset. Variables were selected based on empirical findings on factors associated with sexual behaviors, including contraceptive use, by adolescents. The analytic sample included all YRBS respondents aged 14 or older who reported having sexual intercourse in the past three months and had complete responses to the YRBS questions on contraceptive use at last sex (N=8,054). The chi square test of significance was used to evaluate significant associations between independent variables and contraceptive use in bivariate analyses; variables with a p value < 0.1 were included in the multivariable analyses. Binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the strength of the associations of school-level factors with contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents. Findings included that use of any contraception and/or hormonal contraception at last sexual intercourse was associated with attending schools with a higher six-year graduation rate, higher percent of students strongly agreeing they were safe in their classrooms, higher percent of teachers at the

  8. An uncertainty-based framework to quantifying climate change impacts on coastal flood vulnerability: case study of New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahmatkesh, Zahra; Karamouz, Mohammad

    2017-10-17

    The continued development efforts around the world, growing population, and the increased probability of occurrence of extreme hydrologic events have adversely affected natural and built environments. Flood damages and loss of lives from the devastating storms, such as Irene and Sandy on the East Coast of the USA, are examples of the vulnerability to flooding that even developed countries have to face. The odds of coastal flooding disasters have been increased due to accelerated sea level rise, climate change impacts, and communities' interest to live near the coastlines. Climate change, for instance, is becoming a major threat to sustainable development because of its adverse impacts on the hydrologic cycle. Effective management strategies are thus required for flood vulnerability reduction and disaster preparedness. This paper is an extension to the flood resilience studies in the New York City coastal watershed. Here, a framework is proposed to quantify coastal flood vulnerability while accounting for climate change impacts. To do so, a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approach that combines watershed characteristics (factors) and their weights is proposed to quantify flood vulnerability. Among the watershed characteristics, potential variation in the hydrologic factors under climate change impacts is modeled utilizing the general circulation models' (GCMs) outputs. The considered factors include rainfall, extreme water level, and sea level rise that exacerbate flood vulnerability through increasing exposure and susceptibility to flooding. Uncertainty in the weights as well as values of factors is incorporated in the analysis using the Monte Carlo (MC) sampling method by selecting the best-fitted distributions to the parameters with random nature. A number of low impact development (LID) measures are then proposed to improve watershed adaptive capacity to deal with coastal flooding. Potential range of current and future vulnerability to flooding is

  9. Gaps along the HIV care continuum: findings among a population seeking sexual health care services in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathela, Preeti; Jamison, Kelly; Braunstein, Sarah L; Schillinger, Julia A; Tymejczyk, Olga; Nash, Denis

    2018-03-02

    Linkage/re-linkage to HIV care for virally unsuppressed persons with new sexually transmitted infections is critical for ending the HIV epidemic. We quantified HIV care continuum gaps, and viral suppression, among HIV-positive patients attending New York City (NYC) sexual health clinics (SHC). 1,649 HIV-positive patients and a 10% sample of 11,954 patients with unknown HIV status on clinic visit date (DOV) were matched against the NYC HIV registry. Using registry diagnosis dates, we categorized matched HIV-positive patients as "new-positives" (newly diagnosed on DOV), "recent-positives (diagnosed ≤90 days before DOV), "prevalent-positives" (diagnosed >90 days before DOV), and "unknown-positives" (previously diagnosed, but status unknown to clinic on DOV). We assessed HIV care continuum outcomes before and after DOV for new-positives, prevalent-positives, and unknown-positives using registry laboratory data. In addition to 1,626 known HIV-positive patients, 5% of the unknown sample (63/1,196) matched to the registry, signifying that about 630 additional HIV-positive patients attended SHCs. Of new-positives, 65% were linked to care after DOV. Of prevalent-positives, 66% were in care on DOV; 43% of the out-of-care were re-linked after DOV. Of unknown-positives, 40% were in care on DOV; 21% of the out-of-care re-linked after DOV. Viral suppression was achieved by: 88% of in-care unknown-positives, 76% in-care prevalent-positives, 50% new-positives, 42% out-of-care prevalent-positives, and 16% out-of-care unknown-positives. Many HIV-positive persons, including those with uncontrolled HIV infection, attend SHCs and potentially contribute to HIV spread. However, HIV status often is not known to staff, resulting in missed linkage/re-linkage to care opportunities. Better outcomes could be facilitated by real-time ascertainment of HIV status and HIV care status.

  10. Noise, air pollutants and traffic: continuous measurement and correlation at a high-traffic location in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Zev; Kheirbek, Iyad; Clougherty, Jane E; Ito, Kazuhiko; Matte, Thomas; Markowitz, Steven; Eisl, Holger

    2011-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked both noise and air pollution to common adverse health outcomes such as increased blood pressure and myocardial infarction. In urban settings, noise and air pollution share important sources, notably traffic, and several recent studies have shown spatial correlations between noise and air pollution. The temporal association between these exposures, however, has yet to be thoroughly investigated despite the importance of time series studies in air pollution epidemiology and the potential that correlations between these exposures could at least partly confound statistical associations identified in these studies. An aethelometer, for continuous elemental carbon measurement, was co-located with a continuous noise monitor near a major urban highway in New York City for six days in August 2009. Hourly elemental carbon measurements and hourly data on overall noise levels and low, medium and high frequency noise levels were collected. Hourly average concentrations of fine particles and nitrogen oxides, wind speed and direction and car, truck and bus traffic were obtained from nearby regulatory monitors. Overall temporal patterns, as well as day-night and weekday-weekend patterns, were characterized and compared for all variables. Noise levels were correlated with car, truck, and bus traffic and with air pollutants. We observed strong day-night and weekday-weekend variation in noise and air pollutants and correlations between pollutants varied by noise frequency. Medium and high frequency noise were generally more strongly correlated with traffic and traffic-related pollutants than low frequency noise and the correlation with medium and high frequency noise was generally stronger at night. Correlations with nighttime high frequency noise were particularly high for car traffic (Spearman rho=0.84), nitric oxide (0.73) and nitrogen dioxide (0.83). Wind speed and direction mediated relationships between pollutants and noise. Noise levels are

  11. High enhancer, downer, withdrawal helper: Multifunctional nonmedical benzodiazepine use among young adult opioid users in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Jessell, Lauren; Goodbody, Elizabeth; Kim, Dongah; Gile, Krista; Teubl, Jennifer; Syckes, Cassandra; Ruggles, Kelly; Lazar, Jeffrey; Friedman, Sam; Guarino, Honoria

    2017-08-01

    Benzodiazepines are a widely prescribed psychoactive drug; in the U.S., both medical and nonmedical use of benzodiazepines has increased markedly in the past 15 years. Long-term use can lead to tolerance and dependence, and abrupt withdrawal can cause seizures or other life-threatening symptoms. Benzodiazepines are often used nonmedically in conjunction with other drugs, and with opioids in particular-a combination that can increase the risk for fatal and non-fatal overdose. This mixed-methods study examines nonmedical use of benzodiazepines among young adults in New York City and its relationship with opioid use. For qualitative analysis, 46 90-minute semi-structured interviews were conducted with young adult opioid users (ages 18-32). Interviews were transcribed and coded for key themes. For quantitative analysis, 464 young adult opioid users (ages 18-29) were recruited using Respondent-Driven Sampling and completed structured interviews. Benzodiazepine use was assessed via a self-report questionnaire that included measures related to nonmedical benzodiazepine and opioid use. Participants reported using benzodiazepines nonmedically for a wide variety of reasons, including: to increase the high of other drugs; to lessen withdrawal symptoms; and to come down from other drugs. Benzodiazepines were described as readily available and cheap. There was a high prevalence (93%) of nonmedical benzodiazepine use among nonmedical opioid users, with 57% reporting regular nonmedical use. In bivariate analyses, drug-related risk behaviours such as polysubstance use, drug binging, heroin injection and overdose were strongly associated with regular nonmedical benzodiazepine use. In multivariate analysis, growing up in a middle-income household (earning between $51,000 and $100,000 annually), lifetime overdose experience, having ever used cocaine regularly, having ever been prescribed benzodiazepines, recent drug binging, and encouraging fellow drug users to use benzodiazepines to

  12. 2013-2014 U.S. Geological Survey CMGP LiDAR: Post Sandy (New York City)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: USGS New York CMGP Sandy Lidar 0.7 Meter NPS LIDAR lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No....

  13. A critical review of hydrological data collection for assessing preservation risk for urban waterlogged archaeology: A case study from the City of York, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Joseph; Howard, Andy J; West, L Jared; Maxfield, Eleanor; Panter, Ian; Oxley, John

    2009-08-01

    Environmental change caused by urban development, possibly augmented by climate change, may result in accelerated decay of in situ archaeological resources. Damage may be related to changes in hydrological processes. Such archaeological resources have to be considered in environmental planning. In this paper we highlight the need for improved hydrological data from urban archaeological sites using the case study of the City of York, UK, arguably one of the most well studied and well preserved urban archaeological environments globally. We suggest that the quality of hydrological data collected during routine surveys and experimental work must be improved and standardised in order for us to produce reliable archaeological risk models for urban sites.

  14. Identification and Characterization of Linezolid-Resistant cfr-Positive Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Isolates from a New York City Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuill, Douglas E.; Scharn, Caitlyn R.; Deane, Jennifer; Sahm, Daniel F.; Goering, Richard V.; Jenkins, Stephen G.; Shaw, Karen J.

    2014-01-01

    The cfr gene was identified in three linezolid-resistant USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates collected over a 3-day period at a New York City medical center in 2011 as part of a routine surveillance program. Each isolate possessed a plasmid containing a pSCFS3-like cfr gene environment. Transformation of the cfr-bearing plasmids into the S. aureus ATCC 29213 background recapitulated the expected Cfr antibiogram, including resistance to linezolid, tiamulin, clindamycin, and florfenicol and susceptibility to tedizolid. PMID:25136008

  15. White slavery, whorehouse riots, venereal disease, and saving women: historical context of prostitution interventions and harm reduction in New York City during the Progressive Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolak, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Harm reduction and structural approaches to reduce HIV risk among sex workers face several barriers. One such barrier is based on moral arguments, and it has a rich historical context. This article examines the historical context of interventions with sex workers in New York City during the Progressive Era (1890-1920). Present at the time, though under a different name, the harm reduction approach was largely dismissed. These same moral underpinnings may be active today in driving interventions and policy toward those that are morally focused and away from those that focus on harm reduction and structural change.

  16. Association of neighborhood-level factors with hospitalization for community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, New York City, 2006: a multilevel observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Amanda M; Marx, Melissa A; Weiss, Don; Nash, Denis

    2013-02-13

    Hospitalizations with community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection have increased in New York City, with substantial geographic variation across neighborhoods. While individual-level risk factors, such as age, sex, HIV infection, and diabetes have been described, the role of neighborhood-level factors (e.g., neighborhood HIV prevalence or income) has not been examined. To explore plausible neighborhood-level factors associated with CA-MRSA-related hospitalizations, a retrospective analysis was conducted using New York City hospital discharges from 2006 and New York City-specific survey and health department surveillance data. CA-MRSA-related hospitalizations were identified using diagnosis codes and admission information. Associations were determined by using sex-specific multilevel logistic regression. The CA-MRSA hospitalization rate varied by more than six-fold across New York City neighborhoods. Females hospitalized with CA-MRSA had more than twice the odds of residing in neighborhoods in the highest quintile of HIV prevalence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR](Q5 vs. Q1) 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7). Both males and females hospitalized with CA-MRSA had nearly twice the odds of residing in neighborhoods with moderately high proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM) residing in the neighborhood (males: AOR(Q4 vs. Q1) 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7; females: AOR(Q4 vs. Q1) 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1, 3.6); but this association did not hold for neighborhoods in the highest quintile (males: AOR(Q5 vs. Q1) 1.2, 95% CI: 0.76, 1.8; females: AOR(Q5 vs. Q1) 1.5, 95% CI: 0.82, 2.7). Neighborhood-level characteristics were associated with CA-MRSA hospitalization odds, independent of individual-level risk factors, and may contribute to the population-level burden of CA-MRSA infection.

  17. Use of Nutrition Standards to Improve Nutritional Quality of Hospital Patient Meals: Findings from New York City's Healthy Hospital Food Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Alyssa; Lederer, Ashley; Johnson Curtis, Christine

    2015-11-01

    Most hospital patient meals are considered regular-diet meals; these meals are not required to meet comprehensive nutrition standards for a healthy diet. Although programs exist to improve nutrition in hospital food, the focus is on retail settings such as vending machines and cafeterias vs patient meals. New York City's Healthy Hospital Food Initiative (HHFI) provides nutrition standards for regular-diet meals that hospitals can adopt, in addition to retail standards. This study was undertaken to describe regular-diet patient menus before and after implementation of the HHFI nutrition standards. The study involved pre- and post- menu change analyses of hospitals participating in the HHFI between 2010 and 2014. Eight New York City hospitals, selected based on voluntary participation in the HHFI, were included in the analyses. Nutritional content of regular-diet menus were compared with the HHFI nutrition standards. Nutrient analysis and exact Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for the analysis of the data. At baseline, no regular-diet menu met all HHFI standards, and most exceeded the daily limits for percentage of calories from fat (n=5), percentage of calories from saturated fat (n=5), and milligrams of sodium (n=6), and they did not meet the minimum grams of fiber (n=7). Hospitals met all key nutrient standards after implementation, increasing fiber (25%, Pfood service operations, indicating feasibility of this framework in a range of hospital settings. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. HIV Diagnoses and Care Among Transgender Persons and Comparison With Men Who Have Sex With Men: New York City, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewel, Ellen Weiss; Torian, Lucia V; Merchant, Pooja; Braunstein, Sarah L; Shepard, Colin W

    2016-03-01

    We measured HIV care outcomes of transgender persons, who have high HIV infection rates but are rarely distinguished from men who have sex with men (MSM) in HIV surveillance systems. New York City's surveillance registry includes HIV diagnoses since 2000 and HIV laboratory test results for transgender persons since 2005. We determined immunological status at diagnosis, delayed linkage to care, and nonachievement of viral suppression 1 year after diagnosis for transgender persons diagnosed with HIV in 2006 to 2011 and compared transgender women with MSM. In 2006 to 2011, 264 of 23 805 persons diagnosed with HIV were transgender (1%): 98% transgender women and 2% transgender men. Compared with MSM, transgender women had similar CD4 counts at diagnosis and rates of concurrent HIV/AIDS and delayed linkage to care but increased odds of not achieving suppression (adjusted odds ratio = 1.56; 95% confidence interval = 1.13, 2.16). Compared with MSM, transgender women in New York City had similar immunological status at diagnosis but lagged in achieving viral suppression. To provide appropriate assistance along the HIV care continuum, HIV care providers should accurately identify transgender persons.

  19. Critical modeling parameters identified for 3D CFD modeling of rectangular final settling tanks for New York City wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, K; Xanthos, S; Gong, M; Fillos, J; Beckmann, K; Deur, A; McCorquodale, J A

    2012-01-01

    New York City Environmental Protection is in the process of incorporating biological nitrogen removal (BNR) in its wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) which entails operating the aeration tanks with higher levels of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) than a conventional activated sludge process. The objective of this paper is to discuss two of the important parameters introduced in the 3D CFD model that has been developed by the City College of New York (CCNY) group: (a) the development of the 'discrete particle' measurement technique to carry out the fractionation of the solids in the final settling tank (FST) which has critical implications in the prediction of the effluent quality; and (b) the modification of the floc aggregation (K(A)) and floc break-up (K(B)) coefficients that are found in Parker's flocculation equation (Parker et al. 1970, 1971) used in the CFD model. The dependence of these parameters on the predictions of the CFD model will be illustrated with simulation results on one of the FSTs at the 26th Ward WWTP in Brooklyn, NY.

  20. The effect of school dismissal on rates of influenza-like illness in New York City schools during the spring 2009 novel H1N1 outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Joseph R; Konty, Kevin J; Wilson, Elisha; Karpati, Adam; Matte, Thomas; Weiss, Don; Barbot, Oxiris

    2012-03-01

    The effects of individual school dismissal on influenza transmission have not been well studied. During the spring 2009 novel H1N1 outbreak, New York City implemented an individual school dismissal policy intended to limit influenza transmission at schools with high rates of influenza-like illness (ILI). Active disease surveillance data collected by the New York City Health Department on rates of ILI in schools were used to evaluate the impact. Sixty-four schools that met the Health Department's criteria for considering dismissal were included in the analysis. Twenty-four schools that met criteria subsequently dismissed all classes for approximately 1 school week. A regression model was fit to these data, estimating the effect of school dismissal on rates of in-school ILI following reconvening, adjusting for potential confounders. The model estimated that, on average, school dismissal reduced the rate of ILI by 7.1% over the entire average outbreak period. However, a large proportion of in-school ILI occurred before dismissal criteria were met. A separate model estimated that school absenteeism rates were not significantly affected by dismissal. Results suggest that individual school dismissal could be considered in situations where schools have a disproportionate number of high-risk students or may be unable to implement recommended preventive or infection control measures. Future work should focus on developing more sensitive indicators of early outbreak detection in schools and evaluating the impact of school dismissal on community transmission. © 2012, American School Health Association.