Sample records for yolk membrane zfym

  1. Laminin, a noncollagenous component of epithelial basement membranes synthesized by a rat yolk sac tumor

    Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R; Ruoslahti, E


    Laminin, a glycoprotein antigenically similar or identical to a component of epithelial basement membranes, was identified as a major component of the abundant extracellular matrix synthesized by an experimentally induced rat yolk sac tumor. Immunocytochemical staining revealed laminin in cultured...... polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 200,000 and 400,000. These comigrated with the polypeptides of mouse laminin isolated previously. The yolk sac tumor tissue grown in vivo contained laminin in the tumor cells and in the extracellular material as evidenced by immunofluorescence...... and in their basement membranes suggesting, but not proving, that both types of cells have ability to synthesize laminin. Production of laminin and the presence of laminin-containing basement membrane material may be important for the biological behavior of the yolk sac tumor. This tumor will also be a useful source...

  2. Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma

    Fenger, M; Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R


    Heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma has been purified and partially characterized. The proteoglycan has an apparent Mr of 750 000, 35% of which represents the core protein. The core protein seems to be homogeneous, whereas the heparan sulfate chains are heterogeneous w...... with an Mr of about 50 000-70 000, with 30% of the glucosamine being N-sulfated. Antibodies raised against the core protein of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan reacted with basement membranes of various rat and human tissue....

  3. Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma

    Fenger, M; Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R


    Heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma has been purified and partially characterized. The proteoglycan has an apparent Mr of 750 000, 35% of which represents the core protein. The core protein seems to be homogeneous, whereas the heparan sulfate chains are heterogeneous...... with an Mr of about 50 000-70 000, with 30% of the glucosamine being N-sulfated. Antibodies raised against the core protein of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan reacted with basement membranes of various rat and human tissue....

  4. In vitro penetration of Salmonella Enteritidis through yolk membranes of eggs from 6 genetically distinct commercial lines of laying hens.

    Gast, R K; Jones, D R; Anderson, K E; Guraya, R; Guard, J; Holt, P S


    Although deposition of Salmonella Enteritidis inside yolks is less common than deposition in albumen or on the vitelline (yolk) membrane in naturally contaminated eggs laid by infected hens, bacterial migration into the yolk to reach its nutrient-rich contents could lead to extensive multiplication. The present study used an in vitro egg contamination model to assess the ability of small initial numbers of Salmonella Enteritidis to penetrate the vitelline membrane and multiply inside yolks of eggs laid by 6 genetically distinct commercial lines of hens during 24 h of storage at 30 degrees C. Eggs from each line were tested at 4 different hen ages by inoculation of approximately 100 cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis onto the outside of the vitelline membranes of intact yolks in plastic centrifuge tubes and then adding back the albumen into each tube before incubation. Overall, the frequency of penetration of Salmonella Enteritidis into the yolk contents of eggs from individual lines of hens ranged from 30 to 58% and the mean concentration of Salmonella Enteritidis in yolk contents after incubation ranged from 0.8 to 2.0 log(10) cfu/mL. For both of these parameters, values for one hen line were significantly higher than for 2 other lines, but no other differences were observed. Hen age did not have a significant effect on egg yolk penetration by Salmonella Enteritidis. These results indicate that opportunities for the migration and growth of small initial numbers of Salmonella Enteritidis to attain more dangerous levels inside contaminated eggs during storage at warm temperatures can sometimes vary between different lines of laying hens.

  5. Interactions of egg yolk lipoprotein fraction with boar spermatozoa assessed with a fluorescent membrane probe.

    Łukasz Zasiadczyk


    Full Text Available The interactions of a fluorescent membrane probe, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (1,8-ANS, with boar spermatozoa were followed through the use of lipoprotein fraction of ostrich egg yolk (LPFo. Semen samples, extended in Kortowo 3 (K3 extender, were supplemented with 2% or 5% LPFo and stored for 3h at 16 degrees C. Additionally, cold shock-treated spermatozoa (1h at 4 degrees C were stored in K3 extender supplemented with LPFo for 3h at 16 degrees C. In each boar, the fluorescent enhancement of ANS was observed in K3-extended semen supplemented with LPFo, prior to storage. Following storage, there was a significant increase in LPFo-ANS fluorescence, particularly in the sperm membrane overlying the head and midpiece regions. There were significant differences among the boars with respect to the sperm populations defined by the LPFo-ANS fluorescence. Sperm viability was not significantly affected during the storage period. Furthermore, the proportions of spermatozoa defined by the different patterns of LPFo-ANS fluorescence were low and remained unchanged after storage of cold shock-treated spermatozoa with 2% or 5% LPFo, suggesting irreversible damage to the sperm membrane architecture. These findings indicate that the ANS fluorescent probe could be used to shed more light on the nature of the interactions between LPFo and sperm membrane following semen preservation. Such valuable information could contribute to the development of an optimal protocol for cryopreservation of boar semen.

  6. Effect of egg weight on composition, embryonic growth, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    Chen, M X; Li, X G; Yan, H C; Wang, X Q; Gao, C Q


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of egg weight on the composition of the egg, the growth of the embryo, and the expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia). A total of 240 fertilized eggs were collected and divided into two groups based on the weight of the eggs, light (LE) and heavy (HE). The composition of 20 eggs from each group was measured, and the remaining eggs were weighed and placed in an incubator. On embryonic days (E) 9, 11, 13, and 15 and day of hatch (DOH), 15 embryos/hatchlings from each group were measured for embryonic growth, and samples were collected. The HE had heavier yolk and albumen weights than the LE (P < 0.01). Compared with the LE, the HE had heavier yolk-free embryonic body and yolk sac weights from E13 to DOH (P < 0.05). Additionally, the HE had larger yolk sac membrane weights from E13 to E15 (P < 0.05) and had more residual yolk sac content on DOH than those of the LE (P < 0.01). The yolk absorption was greater for the HE than for the LE from E11 to E13 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the abundance of CAT2 and PepT1 mRNA in the yolk sac membranes was greater in the HE than in the LE on E13 (P < 0.05). Compared with the LE, the gene expression of EAAT2 in the intestine on E13 was greater in the HE, whereas the expression of EAAT3 was lower in the HE (P < 0.05). Taken together, our results suggest that egg weight influenced the composition of the eggs, embryonic development, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of pigeon embryos.

  7. Structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) to inhibit chicken yolk sac membrane kynurenine formamidase related to OPI teratogenesis.

    Seifert, Josef


    This paper provides new information related to the mechanism of OPI (organophosphorus insecticides) teratogenesis. The COMFA (comparative molecular field analysis) and COMSIA (comparative molecular similarity indices analysis) suggest that the electrostatic and steric fields are the best predictors of OPI structural requirements to inhibit in ovo chicken embryo yolk sac membrane kynurenine formamidase, the proposed target for OPI teratogens. The dominant electrostatic interactions are localized at nitrogen-1, nitrogen-3, nitrogen of 2-amino substituent of the pyrimidinyl of pyrimidinyl phosphorothioates, and the oxygen of crotonamide carbonyl in crotonamide phosphates. Bulkiness of the substituents at carbon-2 and carbon-6 of the pyrimidinyls and/or N-substituents and carbon-3 substituents of crotonamides are the steric structural components that contribute to superiority of those OPI as in ovo inhibitors of kynurenine formamidase.

  8. Changes in mouse liver and chicken embryo yolk sac membrane soluble proteins due to an organophosphorous insecticide (OPI) diazinon linked to several noncholinergic OPI effects in mice and chicken embryos.

    Seifert, Josef


    The objective of this study was to identify proteins in mouse livers and chicken embryo yolk sac membranes whose quantities were altered by an organophosphorous insecticide (OPI) treatment and which might be linked, based on their functionality, to the recognized noncholinergic effects of OPI. Mice and fertile chicken eggs were treated with an OPI representative diazinon. The quantitative changes in mouse liver and chicken embryo yolk sac membrane soluble proteins caused by diazinon were determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Proteins whose quantity was affected by diazinon were identified by the mass spectrometry. In mouse livers, the altered levels of several enzymes of glucose metabolism were considered with regards to amelioration of hyperglycemia due to diazinon; the reduced levels of 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase to the changes in the l-tryptophan to NAD metabolism caused by pyrimidinyl and crotonamide OPI; the reduced levels of catalase, peroxiredoxin and superoxide dismutase to OPI-increased lipid and/or kynurenine oxidation, the latter effect resulting also in increased urinary excretion of xanthurenic and kynurenic acids; and an increase in glutathione S-methyltransferase to OPI detoxification. In chicken embryo yolk sac membranes, the reduced availability of procollagen-proline dioxygenase may be the factor in micromelia caused by OPI in chicken embryos.

  9. The Atg1-Tor pathway regulates yolk catabolism in Drosophila embryos.

    Kuhn, Hallie; Sopko, Richelle; Coughlin, Margaret; Perrimon, Norbert; Mitchison, Tim


    Yolk provides an important source of nutrients during the early development of oviparous organisms. It is composed mainly of vitellogenin proteins packed into membrane-bound compartments called yolk platelets. Catabolism of yolk is initiated by acidification of the yolk platelet, leading to the activation of Cathepsin-like proteinases, but it is unknown how this process is triggered. Yolk catabolism initiates at cellularization in Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Using maternal shRNA technology we found that yolk catabolism depends on the Tor pathway and on the autophagy-initiating kinase Atg1. Whereas Atg1 was required for a burst of spatially regulated autophagy during late cellularization, autophagy was not required for initiating yolk catabolism. We propose that the conserved Tor metabolic sensing pathway regulates yolk catabolism, similar to Tor-dependent metabolic regulation on the lysosome.

  10. Effect of Egg Yolk and Cooling on Storage of Ram Coated Spermatozoa

    A. Mohammadi-Nohdehy


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of egg yolk and cooling on ram coated spermatozoa. Semen was collected from three ram by artificial vagina contacted with a tube containing Tris- fructose-egg yolk 15%. Samples were pooled, centrifuged by 700 g for 10 min and removed supernatant. Then, samples were diluted by Tris-glucose and centrifuged again to remove seminal plasma and egg yolk. Aliquots split into two fractions and each one was split into 5 parts and added egg yolk 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%. The half of the treatments were gradually cold and other ones were encountered with cold shock then samples were incubated at 5C for 72 h. Progressive sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability (by Hoechst 33258 fluorescent staining and acrosome reaction (by PNA-Alexa flur-488 were investigated at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The results showed that there was no difference between 15% and 20% egg yolk in the progressive sperm motility but they were higher than 0% and 5% egg yolk. There was highest difference between 0% and 20 % egg yolk in the progressive sperm motility. There was no difference among the treatments containing egg yolk in plasma membrane integrity and acrosome reaction. In both cooling rate, there was no difference among the treatments containing egg yolk in the sperm viability. It was suggested that 20% egg yolk was superior to keep the function of ram coated spermatozoa for storage at 5C.

  11. Avidin traps biotin diffusing out of chicken egg yolk.

    Bush, L; White, H B


    1. The unequal distribution of biotin and biotin-binding proteins between the yolk and albumen of freshly laid chicken eggs provides the potential for time-dependent redistribution of biotin that could affect egg quality, biotin availability, and hatchability. 2. Avidin-bound biotin was measured in albumen next to the shell and next to the yolk in eggs stored up to 23 days. 3. Biotin bound to biotin-binding proteins (BBP-I and BBP-II) was measured at the center and periphery of yolk from the same eggs. 4. After 11 days of storage, significant amounts of biotin from the yolk began to accumulate in the albumen adjacent to the yolk. 5. This transfer is attributed to a change in the vitelline membrane that permits diffusion of biotin, not BBP-I or BBP-II, out of the yolk. 6. The dynamics of this phenomenon suggest that in addition to its antimicrobial role, avidin may be involved in the utilization of biotin by the chick embryo.

  12. Egg Yolk Protective Effect in Boar Spermatozoa Cooled at 5ºC

    Alexandru-Vasile Rusu


    Full Text Available Nowadays, many boar reproduction researches are directed to improve extenders and to increase cold shock protection of semen. Little research is focused on the influence of egg yolk combined with alternative cold shock protective media. Egg yolk could interfere with other compounds present in the extender composition. The influence of egg yolk addition was assessed in boar sperm cells, cooled at 5ºC, to elucidate its effect on motility and membrane integrity. Flow Cytometry and Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA were used to determine the rate of sperm with intact plasma and acrosomal membrane, respectively the sperm cells motility. Statistical analyses (T-Test were performed using GraphPad Prism version 5.00. Androhep Plus supplemented with 20% egg yolk (AhPlus+20%EY indicated a higher cold shock protection in progressive motility (93.9±2.64% and membrane integrity (79.78±4.14%, rather than the extender without egg yolk (p<0.01, respectively p<0.05. The results of the this study showed that egg yolk addition to AhPlus do not interfere with its compounds, the data being in a close range with those obtained by using the standard Lactose Egg Yolk extender (p>0.05. The combination egg yolk-AhPlus seems to be an alternative to standard extenders, conferring stability in boar sperm cells against cold shock.

  13. Yolk Formation In Some Charadriiform Birds

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the present study we have applied the yolk ring method of estimating the number of days during which the bulk of the yolk is deposited around the central white...


    竺俊全; 王伟; 丁理法


    采用电镜技术观察研究了可口革囊星虫卵黄合成期卵母细胞发育及卵黄发生与卵膜形成的超微结构特征。结果表明,可口革囊星虫卵黄合成期卵母细胞发育经历了卵黄合成初期、卵黄旺盛合成期及生长成熟期三个阶段。卵母细胞卵黄发生途径主要由线粒体、内质网、高尔基体等细胞器演变成卵黄粒,以及吞饮作用形成卵黄粒。卵母细胞质膜外被有卵黄膜,由卵母细胞自体形成,且随生长而加厚;卵黄膜具通透性,外源营养物质能透过卵黄膜进入卵内。生长成熟的卵母细胞卵黄膜厚7—9um,从内向外由纤维层、致密层、粒状突层及外膜构成,保护卵母细胞维持特定的形状。%Electron microscopy technology was employed to investigate the ultrastructural changes during oogenensis, vitellogenesis and vitelline membrane formation in the sipunculan Phascolosoma esculenta. The results show that oogene- sis in this species could be divided into three stages: the primary yolk synthesis stage, rapid yolk synthesis stage and maturation stage. Organelles including mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus can evolve into yolk granules via pinocytosis. The plasma membrane of oocyte is covered by vitelline membrane which is formed by the oocyte itself and thickens as the oocyte grows. The vitelline membrane is permeable, so external nutrients can penetrate through it and be utilized during oocyte development and vitellogenesis. The vitelline membrane of the growth mature oocyte is 7--9ktm thick, consisting of the fiber layer, the dense layer, granular protuberance layer and jelly coat. This tough and flexible structure could help the oocyte to maintain the specific shape.

  15. Induction of rat yolk sac carcinomas with consistent pattern of laminin, entactin, and type IV collagen biosynthesis

    Wewer, U


    Twenty-four yolk sac carcinomas in Lewis rats were experimentally induced by puncturing the pregnant uterine wall with a hypodermic needle at day 9-13 of gestation. Morphologically, the tumours were composed of parietal- and visceral yolk sac carcinoma and to a less degree of trophoblastic giant ...... to their biosynthesis of the basement membrane components laminin, entactin, and type IV collagen. This model system offers a simple approach to inducing rat yolk sac carcinomas for further morphological and biochemical characterization of the basement membrane....

  16. Morphological specializations of the yolk sac for yolk processing in embryonic corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus: Colubridae).

    Powers, Kathryn G; Blackburn, Daniel G


    Non-avian reptiles commonly are assumed to be like birds in their overall patterns of development. However, colubrid corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) have mechanisms of yolk cellularization and processing that are entirely different from the avian pattern. In birds, a vascular "yolk sac" surrounds and digests the liquid yolk. In contrast, in corn snakes, the yolk material is converted into vascularized cords of yolk-filled cells. In this study, we used stereomicroscopy, histology, and scanning electron microscopy to analyze this unusual developmental pattern in corn snakes. Our observations reveal that the yolk sac cavity is invaded by endodermal cells that proliferate, absorb yolk spheres, and form aggregates of interconnected cells within the liquid yolk mass. As development proceeds, small blood vessels arise from the yolk sac omphalopleure, penetrate into the yolk mass, and become tightly encased in the endodermal cells. The entire vitellus ultimately becomes converted into a mass of vascularized, "spaghetti-like" strands of yolk-laden cells. The resulting arrangement allows yolk to be digested intracellularly and yolk products to be transported to the developing embryo. Indirect evidence for this pattern in other species raises the possibility that it is ancestral for squamates and quite possibly Reptilia in general.

  17. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  18. Effect of trans, trans CLA egg enrichment from CLA-rich soy oil on yolk fatty acid composition, viscosity and physical properties.

    Shinn, Sara E; Gilley, Alex D; Proctor, Andrew; Anthony, Nicolas B


    CLA egg accumulation studies using cis, trans (c,t) isomers have been effective, but they reported adverse egg quality. trans, trans (t,t) CLA isomers have shown superior nutritional effects in rodent studies, but reports of t,t CLA-rich yolks are limited. The objectives were to determine the effect of t,t CLA-rich soy oil in feed on egg yolk viscosity, and yolk quality during refrigerated storage. Yolk fatty acids, viscosity, weight, index, moisture, pH, and vitelline membrane strength (VMS) were determined at 0, 20, and 30 storage days. CLA had minimal effect on fatty acid profiles, relative to c,t reports. CLA-rich yolk viscosity was greater than controls, and CLA yolks maintained higher viscosities during storage. Yolk weight and index were not affected by t,t CLA-rich soy oil. Yolks with the greatest CLA concentrations had the greatest VMS after 20 days of storage, and yolks containing lower CLA levels maintained greater VMS throughout 30 days of storage, relative to controls.

  19. Successful ram semen cryopreservation with lyophilized egg yolk-based extender.

    Alcay, Selim; Berk Toker, M; Gokce, Elif; Ustuner, Burcu; Tekin Onder, N; Sagirkaya, Hakan; Nur, Zekariya; Kemal Soylu, M


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of lyophilized egg yolk extender on ram semen cryopreservation. Ejaculates with a thick consistency, rapid wave motion (3-5 on a 0-5 scale) and >75% initial motility were pooled. Sperm were diluted to final concentration of 1/5 (semen/extender) in lyophilized egg yolk or fresh egg yolk extenders using two-step dilution method. The equilibrated semen was frozen in 0.25 mL straws. Semen samples were assessed for sperm motility, plasma membrane functional integrity using hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST), damaged acrosome using FITC-Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA-FITC) and DNA integrity using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) at three time points: after dilution with extender A, equilibration and post-thaw. The results showed that freezing and thawing procedures (dilution, equilibration and thawing) had negative effects on motility (Pram semen.

  20. Testing an egg yolk supplemented diet on boars to aid in sperm adaptation at 5°C.

    Casas, Isabel; Miller-Lux, Yvonne; Osborne, Betty; Bonet, Sergi; Althouse, Gary C


    In many species, extended semen can be stored at low temperatures to slow bacterial growth. However, boar semen performs poorly at temperatures below 15 °C and this poses unique challenges, as it is not easy to maintain a constant 15-19 °C during shipment. Some extenders have been formulated with egg yolk for storage at 5 °C but the addition of egg yolk is not applicable in the majority of commercial operations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if boar dietary supplementation with powdered egg yolk imparts any protective effects on sperm quality when stored at 15 °C and 5 °C for up to 11 days in a conventional extender. Ten boars were fed a commercial diet with the addition of 0.11 Kg of powdered egg yolk for 10 weeks. Ejaculates collected on weeks 4, 6, 8, and 10 were processed for storage at both 15 °C and 5 °C and compared with ejaculates from boars fed a standard diet. Throughout an 11-day storage period, sperm quality was assessed including several motility and morphologic parameters and select plasma membrane properties (fluidity, integrity, and triacylglycerol content). Linear regression models were used to describe effects of treatment, storage day, week and temperature on all sperm parameters. Overall, there were minimal beneficial effects of egg yolk treatment on sperm quality parameters. Sperm from egg yolk supplemented boars did have a slower decline in viability and plasma membrane fluidity than that observed in the control sperm when stored at 5 °C (p sperm from egg yolk fed boars compared to controls at week 10 (p sperm quality or resistance to cold storage when feeding a 10-week dietary supplementation of 0.11 Kg powdered egg yolk to crossbred boars.

  1. Effects of Different Dosage of Yolk Antibodies against Adipocyte Plasma Membranes on Fat Deposition in Rats and Its Possible Mechanisms%不同剂量脂肪膜抗体对大鼠脂肪沉积的影响及其机制

    周杰; 赵茹茜; 陈杰; 陈永秦


    过多的脂肪沉积影响肉的品质.(110±10)g雌性(♀)SD大鼠(Rattus rtorvegicua)150只,随机分成5组,分别在基础日粮中添加0、75、500、1000和6000 mg/kg含脂肪细胞膜卵黄抗体的阳性卵黄粉.75 d屠宰,采集血样、肠系膜脂、子宫周脂、肾脂肪囊和下丘脑.放射免疫法测定血清Insulin和Leptin浓度.用RT-PCR方法.以18S rRNA作内标分析不同部位脂肪组织中Leptin、Bcl-2和Bax mRNA和下丘脑O6基因b型受体(Ob-Rb)mRNA表达,并测定各部位脂肪组织DNA和RNA含量.结果显示,卵黄抗体处理可降低大鼠腹腔内总脂重和腹腔内总脂指数,其中75和6000mg/kg阳性卵黄粉组效果明显,但对体重、摄食量和腓肠肌重无显著影响.6000 mg/kg阳性卵黄粉组可降低血清甘油三酯,升高血清游离脂肪酸;降低子宫周脂和肾脂肪囊DNA含量和总量.75 mg/kg阳性卵黄粉组可降低子宫周脂和肾脂肪囊DNA总量;两剂量组均可降低血清胰岛素、子宫周脂和肾脂肪囊Leptin mRNA表达,上调下丘脑O6-R6 mRNA表达;降低子宫周脂Bcl-2 mRNA和Bax mRNA表达,但对Bcl-2/Bax无显著影响.不同部位比较发现,Leptin mRNA表达量为肾脂肪囊>子宫周脂>肠系膜脂(P<0.01);Bcl-2和Bax mRNA表达量为子宫周脂和肾脂肪囊显著高于肠系膜脂(P<0.05).结果提示:口服脂肪细胞膜卵黄抗体降低体脂沉积的作用途径可能是:1)直接溶解脂肪细胞,抑制脂肪细胞增殖;2)通过脂肪代谢的改变,间接减少脂肪沉积.%Excess fat deposition in livestock is of major concern to the meat industry. Various approaches have been attempted to solve this excessive fat deposition problem. In this paper, 150 female ( ♀ ) SD rats (Rattus norvegicus) weighting (110±10) g were allotted randomly into five groups (basic diet adding 0, 75, 500, 1 000 and 6 000 mg/kg of yolk powder containing antibody against adipocyte plasma membranes (APM), respectively. The trial lasted for 75 days after rats were

  2. [Yolk sac tumor. Report of a case].

    Debbagh, A; Bennani, S; Jouhadi, H; Joual, A; el Mrini, M; Kahlain, A; Benjelloun, S


    Yolk sac tumor is rare in adult. We report a case in a young man aged of 23 years treated by orchiectomy, chemotherapy and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy. Diagnosis is based on pathology who shows other cellular contingents. Treatment is based on orchiectomy and chemotherapy is indicated for residula masses. The prognosis is bad because metastasis is frequent.

  3. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.


    ... the adding of safe and suitable substances (other than chemical preservatives) that are essential to... render the egg yolks free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as defined in section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; or, if they are food additives,...

  4. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.


    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  5. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.


    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  6. The "lecithotrophic" sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma lacks typical yolk platelets and yolk glycoproteins.

    Scott, L B; Lennarz, W J; Raff, R A; Wray, G A


    The sea urchin Heliocidaris tuberculata undergoes typical development, forming an echinoid pluteus larva, whereas H. erythrogramma undergoes direct development via a highly modified, nonfeeding larva. Using a polyclonal antibody prepared against yolk glycoproteins from the typical developer Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus, we found that H. tuberculata contains cross-reactive proteins in abundance, but H. erythrogramma does not. In addition, we used immunoelectron microscopy to demonstrate that unfertilized eggs of H. tuberculata contain yolk platelets, but those of H. erythrogramma do not.

  7. The corn snake yolk sac becomes a solid tissue filled with blood vessels and yolk-rich endodermal cells

    Elinson, Richard P.; Stewart, James R.


    The amniote egg was a key innovation in vertebrate evolution because it supports an independent existence in terrestrial environments. The egg is provisioned with yolk, and development depends on the yolk sac for the mobilization of nutrients. We have examined the yolk sac of the corn snake Pantherophis guttatus by the dissection of living eggs. In contrast to the familiar fluid-filled sac of birds, the corn snake yolk sac invades the yolk mass to become a solid tissue. There is extensive proliferation of yolk-filled endodermal cells, which associate with a meshwork of blood vessels. These novel attributes of the yolk sac of corn snakes compared with birds suggest new pathways for the evolution of the amniote egg. PMID:24402715

  8. 数字图像分析技术在鸡胚卵黄囊膜血管形成模型中的应用%Application of digital imaging technique in quantitative analysis of blood vessels in chick embryo yolk sac membranes

    郑敏; 王丽京; 毛建文; 王伟章; 李明; 王会萍; 张敏


    目的 应用数字图像处理技术客观、准确和快速地对鸡胚卵黄囊膜(chick embryo yolk sac membrane,YSM)血管图像进行定量分析,为促血管和抗血管生成药物的评价和筛选提供有效可靠的技术支持.方法 应用OPTPRO 2007图像采集系统和Image-pro plus 6.0图像分析软件对鸡胚卵黄囊膜血管图像背景处理和血管面积及血管密度等参数进行客观、准确地测量.结果 建立了有效的鸡胚卵黄囊膜数字图像血管自动分析方法和步骤并通过药物实验对鸡胚卵黄囊膜血管图像进行了参数检测和统计分析.结论 应用OFIPRO 2007图像采集系统和Image-pro plus 6.0图像处理分析软件对鸡胚卵黄囊膜图像血管进行自动分析的方法不仅操作简便而且可较准确、快速、客观地反映鸡胚血管新生情况,优于鸡胚尿囊膜血管发生模型的常规人工目测血管计数方法.

  9. Membraner

    Bach, Finn


    Notatet giver en kort introduktion til den statiske virkemåde af membraner og membrankonstruktioner......Notatet giver en kort introduktion til den statiske virkemåde af membraner og membrankonstruktioner...

  10. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis with small teratomatous foci: A case report and review of the literature

    Prabir Hazarika


    Full Text Available I have reported a case of endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis in a 20-year-old boy. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is a rare tumor. A few cases have been reported in ovary. In case of male, a case of pure glandular endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is reported in a 43 years male in right undescended testis and another case of abdominal metastasis showing endometrioid pattern from mixed testicular germ cell tumor comprising of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma. My patient was a 20-year-old male presented with painless enlargement of right testis. Grossly the tumor was glistening creamish white with a multicystic appearance. Histopathological examination showed the tumor to be composed of glandular elements resembling early secretory endometrium, foci of keratinized thin squamous epithelium and a single focus of benign cartilage. The glandular elements show immunohistochemical positivity for AFP, cytokeratin 7 (CK7 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA.

  11. In vitro assessment of soybean lecithin and egg yolk based diluents for cryopreservation of goat semen.

    Salmani, Hossein; Towhidi, Armin; Zhandi, Mahdi; Bahreini, Majid; Sharafi, Mohsen


    Soybean lecithin is a suitable plant-based cryoprotectant for freezing ruminant sperm. Optimum level of lecithin was not clear for goat semen cryopreservation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of soybean lecithin in semen extender on post-thaw sperm quality including CASA-motion parameters, viability, plasma membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation. Semen samples were collected from 4 Mahabadi bucks using an artificial vagina. Different concentrations of soy lecithin (SL, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5% w/v) were compared to 15% (v/v) egg yolk-based extender (TR-EY). No significant difference was observed for sperm progressive motility, viability or plasma membrane integrity in 1.5% SL media (33.8%, 66%, and 62.7%, respectively) and TR-EY medium (35.4%, 67.2%, and 64.9%, respectively). Sperm motion characteristics (VAP, VSL, VCL, ALH and LIN) and rapid spermatozoa were improved with extender containing 1% and 1.5% SL, compared to TR-EY extender. Furthermore, egg yolk produced significantly higher malondialdehyde (4.02±0.21) than other groups. Results suggest that the optimal lecithin concentration in the semen extender was 1.5% and also soy lecithin can substitute for egg yolk during cryopreservation for caprine sperm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in comparison with whole egg yolk for sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys.

    Dong, Qiao-Xiang; Rodenburg, Sarah E; Hill, Dana; Vandevoort, Catherine A


    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) extracted from hen egg yolk has recently been considered to be superior to whole egg yolk in sperm cryopreservation of various animal species. Meanwhile, there was a notion that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in egg yolk may have a negative effect on post-thaw survival. The role of LDL and HDL in sperm cryopreservation of rhesus monkeys has not been explored. The present study evaluates their effect in comparison with egg yolk with or without the addition of permeable cryoprotectant (glycerol) on sperm cryopreservation of rhesus macaques. In addition, various additives intended to change the lipid composition of LDL-sperm membrane complex have also been tested for their effectiveness in preserving post-thaw viability. Our findings indicated that LDL is the main component in egg yolk that is responsible for its protective role for sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys. Regardless of the presence or absence of glycerol, the protective role of LDL is similar to that of egg yolk and we did not observe any superiority in post-thaw survival with LDL when compared to egg yolk. Modifying the lipid composition of LDL-sperm membrane complex with the addition of cholesterol, cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin and phosphatidylcholine also did not yield any improvements in post-thaw survival; while addition of methyl-β-cyclodextrin reduced post-thaw motility. HDL plays a neutral role in sperm cryopreservation of rhesus monkeys. The present study suggests that egg yolk may still hold advantages when compared with LDL as effective components in extenders for sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys.

  13. The role of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in comparison with whole egg yolk for sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys

    Qiao-Xiang Dong; Sarah E Rodenburg; Dana Hill; Catherine A VandeVoort


    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) extracted from hen egg yolk has recently been considered to be superior to whole egg yolk in sperm cryopreservation of various animal species. Meanwhile, there was a notion that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in egg yolk may have a negative effect on post-thaw survival. The role of LDL and HDL in sperm cryopreservation of rhesus monkeys has not been explored. The present study evaluates their effect in comparison with egg yolk with or without the addition of permeable cryoprotectant (glycerol) on sperm cryopreservation of rhesus macaques. In addition, various additives intended to change the lipid composition of LDL-sperm membrane complex have also been tested for their effectiveness in preserving post-thaw viability. Our findings indicated that LDL is the main component in egg yolk that is responsible for its protective role for sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys. Regardless of the presence or absence of glycerol, the protective role of LDL is similar to that of egg yolk and we did not observe any superiority in post-thaw survival with LDL when compared to egg yolk. Modifying the lipid composition of LDL-sperm membrane complex with the addition of cholesterol, cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin and phosphatidylcholine also did not yield any improvements in post-thaw survival; while addition of methyl-β-cyclodextrin reduced post-thaw motility. HDL plays a neutral role in sperm cryopreservation of rhesus monkeys. The present study suggests that egg yolk may still hold advantages when compared with LDL as effective components in extenders for sperm cryopreservation in rhesus monkeys.

  14. Cryopreservation of Dog Semen in a Tris Extender with 1% or 2% Soya Bean Lecithin as a Replacement of Egg Yolk.

    Axnér, E; Lagerson, E


    Egg yolk is usually included in extenders used for preservation of dog semen. Lecithin is an interesting animal-protein free alternative to egg yolk for semen preservation. The aim of our study was to evaluate soya bean lecithin for cryopreservation of dog semen. Five ejaculate replicates were divided in three equal parts, centrifuged and each pellet diluted with one of the three Tris-based extenders containing 20% egg yolk, 1% soya bean lecithin or 2% soya bean lecithin. Extended semen was loaded in 0.5-ml straws, cooled and diluted a second time and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapours. Sperm motility parameters (CASA), acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA/PI) and sperm membrane integrity (C-FDA) were evaluated 5 min post-thaw and after 2 and 4 h of incubation. Total motility was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in any of the lecithin-based extender and was better in the 1% lecithin extender than in the 2% lecithin extender. Sperm membrane integrity was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in any of the lecithin-based extenders but did not differ significantly between the 1% and 2% lecithin extenders. Acrosome integrity was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in the 2% lecithin extender but did not differ between the egg yolk extender and the 1% lecithin extender or between the two lecithin extenders. In conclusion, egg yolk was superior to lecithin in our study. The extender with 1% lecithin preserved sperm motility better than the extender with 2% lecithin. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Extracellular calcium is involved in egg yolk-induced head-to-head agglutination of bull sperm.

    Yang, D H; McMillan, A G; Standley, N T; Shannon, P; Xu, Z Z


    Head-to-head agglutination of bull sperm occurs when semen is highly diluted in an egg yolk-citrate diluent without streptomycin. The objectives were to investigate causes of sperm agglutination and the underlying mechanism. Aliquots of bull semen were diluted in a base diluent (BD) supplemented with various test components and the percentage of agglutinated sperm (% AggSp) was quantified at 1, 5, 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation. When sperm were incubated at 22 °C, no agglutination was observed in BD for up to 72 h, whereas the % AggSp was 5.0, 41.7, 72.2, 91.1, and 92.8% in BD + 5% egg yolk (BD + EY) at 1, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. However, no sperm agglutination was observed in BD + EY if incubation temperature was 37 °C. Addition of 5 or 10 mM ethylenebis (oxyethyleneni-trilo) tetra-acetic acid to BD + EY reduced the % AggSp from 95% to sperm agglutination in the absence of egg yolk, implicating calcium and other factors in egg yolk. Addition of the citrate-soluble fraction (CSF) of egg yolk to BD induced sperm agglutination similar to whole egg yolk, whereas water- and saline-soluble fractions of egg yolk were ineffective. The sperm-agglutinating efficacy of CSF (the % AggSp = 95% at 72 h) was reduced by dialysis (20%; P sperm agglutination, whereas addition of 2 mM of a cAMP analogue, dbcAMP, to a nonagglutinating diluent failed to induce sperm agglutination. Agglutination status had no effect on sperm plasma membrane/acrosome status and mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, calcium and other component(s) in the CSF of egg yolk induced head-to-head agglutination of bull sperm in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. Although the mechanism of agglutination was not determined, the cAMP- protein kinase A signaling pathway was not involved.

  16. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.


    ... preservative. (2) Yeast procedure. The pH of the liquid egg yolks is adjusted to the range of 6.0 to 7.0, if...) Enzyme procedure. A glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation and hydrogen peroxide solution are added to the... glucose content of the liquid egg yolks. The glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation used is one that...


    Igor F. Canisso


    Full Text Available The world horse industry exerts an important role as a job and income generation source. Reproductive technologies arises as an important tool in the service of world equine growth. Artificial insemination (AI is perhaps the biotechnology with greater impact on equine breeding; a stallion can leave hundreds of offsprings over his reproductive life if AI is efficiently used. In some countries, egg yolk is frequently used as part of equine seminal extenders. The egg yolk provides the spermatozoa “resistance factors’’ when it is added. The protective fraction of the egg yolk probably is the low density lipoproteins (LDL. Several studies have reported successful results with the addition and replacement of egg yolk by LDL. There are many citations about the use of egg yolk in seminal extenders for stallion’s cooled and frozen semen, and in the equine reproduction practice. The egg yolk dilutors are used with good fertility results. New research is needed for the better understanding of the protective effects of egg yolk and the LDL for stallion semen. The LDL would be a great solution for dilutors to artificial insemination in horse. This review discusses the use and the advantages of egg yolk and LDL as constituents of equine semen extenders.

  18. Enteral Formula Containing Egg Yolk Lecithin Improves Diarrhea.

    Akashi, Tetsuro; Muto, Ayano; Takahashi, Yayoi; Nishiyama, Hiroshi


    Diarrhea often occurs during enteral nutrition. Recently, several reports showed that diarrhea improves by adding egg yolk lecithin, an emulsifier, in an enteral formula. Therefore, we evaluated if this combination could improve diarrhea outcomes. We retrospectively investigated the inhibitory effects on watery stools by replacing a polymeric fomula with that containing egg yolk lecithin. Then, we investigated the emulsion stability in vitro. Next, we examined the lipid absorption using different emulsifiers among bile duct-ligated rats and assessed whether egg yolk lecithin, medium-chain triglyceride, and dietary fiber can improve diarrhea outcomes in a rat model of short bowel syndrome. Stool consistency or frequency improved on the day after using the aforementioned combination in 13/14 patients. Average particle size of the egg yolk lecithin emulsifier did not change by adding artificial gastric juice, whereas that of soy lecithin and synthetic emulsifiers increased. Serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in the egg yolk lecithin group compared with the soybean lecithin and synthetic emulsifier groups in bile duct-ligated rats. In rats with short bowels, the fecal consistency was a significant looser the dietary fiber (+) group than the egg yolk lecithin (+) groups from day 6 of test meal feedings. The fecal consistency was also a significant looser the egg yolk lecithin (-) group than the egg yolk lecithin (+) groups from day 4 of test meal feeding. The fecal consistency was no significant difference between the medium-chain triglycerides (-) and egg yolk lecithin (+) groups. Enteral formula emulsified with egg yolk lecithin promotes lipid absorption by preventing the destruction of emulsified substances by gastric acid. This enteral formula improved diarrhea and should reduce the burden on patients and healthcare workers.

  19. Yolk sac nutrient composition and fat uptake in late-term embryos in eggs from young and old broiler breeder hens.

    Yadgary, L; Cahaner, A; Kedar, O; Uni, Z


    In the present study, we examined the composition, amount, and uptake of yolk nutrients [fat, protein, water, and carbohydrates (COH)] during incubation of eggs from 30- and 50-wk-old broiler breeder hens. Eggs were sampled at embryonic d 0 (fresh eggs), 13, 15, 17, 19, and 21 (hatch). Egg, embryo, yolk content, and yolk sac membrane were weighed, and the yolk sac (YS; i.e., yolk content + yolk sac membrane) composition was analyzed. From 30 to 50 wk of age, the albumen weight increased by 13.3%, whereas the yolk increased by more than 40%. The proportion of fat in the fresh yolk of the 30-wk-old group was 23.8% compared with 27.4% in the 50-wk-old group, whereas the proportion of protein was 17.9% compared with 15.6%, respectively. During incubation, results indicated that water and protein infiltrated from other egg compartments to the YS. Accordingly, the calculated change in the content of water and protein between fresh yolk and sampled YS does not represent the true uptake of these components from the YS to the embryo, and only fat uptake from the YS can be accurately estimated. By embryonic d 15, fat uptake relative to embryo weight was lower in the 30-wk-old group than in the 50-wk-old group. However, by embryonic d 21, embryos of both groups reached similar relative fat uptake, suggesting that to hatch, embryos must attain a certain amount of fat as a source of energy for the hatching process. The amount of COH in the YS increased similarly during incubation in eggs from hens of both ages, reaching a peak at embryonic d 19, suggesting COH synthesis in the YS. At hatch, the amount of protein, water, and COH in the residual YS, relative to the weight of the yolk-free chick, was similar in eggs from young and old hens. However, chicks from the younger hens had less fat in the YS for their immediate posthatch nutrition compared with those from the older hens.

  20. Egg yolk paste for determining some food poisoning bacteria.

    Imai, C; Nakamaru, E; Mita, M; Uesugi, I; Saito, J


    Egg yolk, aseptically prepared from fresh eggs, was partially dehydrated with a 40% high fructose corn syrup solution, and 10% salt was added. This salted yolk paste was added to mannitol salt agar for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus, to NaCl-glycine Kim and Goepfert medium for detection of Bacillus cereus, to Clostridium welchii agar for detection of C. perfringens, and to Gifu anaerobic medium for detection of C. botulinum. These food poisoning bacteria showed the same lecithovitellin (LV) reaction on these media as on the same media prepared with fresh egg yolk. The yolk paste could be stored at -20 C without freezing and did not show any bacterial growth after holding at 25 C for 30 days. The increased salt content resulted from the addition of salted yolk paste to the media did not inhibit the growth of the food poisoning bacteria used in these experiments. For the identification of the food poisoning bacteria used in this work, and which give a LV reaction, salted yolk paste is more convenient to use than yolk separated from fresh shell eggs.

  1. Cryopreservation of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) semen using a powdered coconut water (ACP-116c) based extender plus various concentrations of egg yolk and glycerol.

    Silva, M A; Peixoto, G C X; Lima, G L; Bezerra, J A B; Campos, L B; Paiva, A L C; Paula, V V; Silva, A R


    The objective was to determine the effectiveness of a powdered coconut water-based extender (ACP-116c), plus various concentrations of egg-yolk and glycerol, as an alternative for cryopreservation of collared peccary semen. Twelve ejaculates were obtained from captive adult males by electroejaculation, and evaluated for sperm motility, kinetic rating, viability, morphology, and functional membrane integrity. The ejaculates were apportioned into aliquots that were diluted in Tris plus 10% egg yolk and 3% glycerol, or in ACP-116c plus 10 or 20% egg yolk and 1.5 or 3% glycerol. Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and, after 1 mo, thawed at 37 °C for 1 min. After thawing, samples were evaluated as reported for fresh semen, and also for sperm membrane integrity (fluorescent probes) and kinematic parameters (computerized analysis). Results were presented as means ± SEM. Freezing and thawing decreased sperm characteristics relative to fresh semen. Overall, ACP-116c plus 20% egg yolk and 3% glycerol provided better (P 0.05) among treatments with regard to the other sperm characteristics. Based on computerized motion analysis, total (26.5 ± 5.9%) and progressive (8.1 ± 2.2%) motility were best preserved (P < 0.05) with the above-mentioned treatment. In conclusion, a coconut water-based extender, ACP-116c, plus 20% egg yolk and 3% glycerol, was effective for cryopreservation of semen from collared peccaries.

  2. Kinetics of solubilization with Triton X-100 of egg-yolk lecithin bilayers containing cholesterol

    Hobai, S


    The titration solubilization of multilamellar egg-yolk lecithin liposomes (MLV-EYL) with Triton X-100 was studied by rectangular optical diffusimetric measurements as a function of cholesterol (Chol) concentration. It was determinated the variation of optic percentage diffu-sion (per mmol surfactant), DDif%/mmol TX-100, in the course of solubilization of MLV-EYL-Chol system with TX-100 10mM. The statistical analysis of the titration curves can reveal the contribution of cholesterol to the stability of phospholipid bilayer membranes. The solubilization of the lecithin-cholesterol mixtures, with a high cholesterol content, much more bile salt requires.

  3. A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks

    Kozlowski, C.P.; Bauman, J.E.; Hahn, D.C.


    Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl.

  4. Using Lipase to Improve the Functional Properties of Yolk-Contaminated Egg Whites


    Egg yolk contamination of egg whites continues to be a serious problem in the egg industry. The ability of egg whites to form stable and voluminous foams is greatly inhibited by accidental yolk contamination, even at extremely small levels. Experiments were conducted to determine if lipase can regenerate the functional properties of yolk-contaminated egg whites. Treatments included control, 0.2% yolk-contamination, and 0.2% yolk-contamination that was treated with lipase and colipase and h...

  5. Cryoprotective and contraceptive properties of egg yolk as an additive in rooster sperm diluents.

    Santiago-Moreno, Julián; Castaño, Cristina; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Coloma, Miguel A; López-Sebastián, Antonio; Prieto, María T; Campo, Jose L


    The addition of chicken egg yolk to semen extenders is thought to reduce the fertilizing potential of rooster spermatozoa--but not (or at least not as much) that of other avian species. The aim of the present study was to determine whether quail egg yolk, a novel extender additive, provides advantages over chicken egg yolk in the cryopreservation of rooster spermatozoa. Experiments were also performed to determine whether the harmful effect of egg yolk occurs during cryopreservation or during fertilization after artificial insemination. Heterospermic rooster semen samples were divided into aliquots and cooled in a polyvinylpyrrolidone-based medium containing 15% chicken egg yolk, 15% quail egg yolk or no egg yolk at all. The viability of spermatozoa of cooled samples (5 °C) without egg yolk were less viable (Pegg yolk. The same aliquots were then cryopreserved for 15 days. Thawed spermatozoa preserved without egg yolk showed lower motility (Pegg yolk extender. No eggs were fertilized when hens were inseminated with semen that had been diluted with chicken egg yolk. The fertilization rate was only slightly higher when sperm diluted with quail egg yolk was used (1.5%). The best results were obtained when no egg yolk was used (13.8%). These results show that the addition of egg yolk of either type protects rooster sperm cells against cold shock and during freezing and thawing, but exerts a contraceptive effect in the genital tract of the hen.

  6. Influence of Dietary Isoflavonoids on Stability of Egg Yolk Lipids

    YIN Jing-dong; QI Guang-hai; ZHENG Jun-jie; HUO Qi-guang


    An experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary tea polyphenol (TP) and daidzein (DA) on lipid stability of egg yolk. Two-hundred and seventy 27-week-old Hisex Brown laying hens were divided into nine groups, fed a diet supplemented with 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 mg kg-1 TP and 5, 10, 20, 40 mg kg- 1 DA respectively for a period of 8 weeks ad libitum. The dietary addition of TP and DA both could reduce egg yolk LPO content significantly at the end of 4-week experiment (P < 0.05) and keep egg yolk lipid stable at the supplemental dose of 10 mg kg- 1 diet respectively. A significant liner reduction in egg yolk LPO content was found with the increasing of dietary TP and DA. The egg yolk LPO content was decreased by 23.1 and 27.0% (P< 0.05) with the supplementation of TP and DA respectively at 40 mg kg-1 diet. The LPO contents in liver, plasma and egg yolk were decreased significantly with the dietary addition of TP or DA respectively ( P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the effects of TP and DA on improvement of layers' antioxidative capacity. The dietary TP and DA both could improve the bird's antioxidative level directly irrelevant to SOD and GSH-Px actiVities.

  7. Distribution of sulfamonomethoxine and trimethoprim in egg yolk and white.

    Bilandžić, Nina; Božić, Đurđica; Kolanović, Božica Solomun; Varenina, Ivana; Cvetnić, Luka; Cvetnić, Željko


    The distribution of sulfamonomethoxine (SMM) and trimethoprim (TMP) in egg yolk and white was measured during and after administration of a SMM/TMP combination in laying hens in doses of 8 g l(-)(1) and 12 g l(-)(1) in drinking water for 7 days. The SMM concentration reached maximal levels on day 2 of the post-treatment period for both doses (μg kg(-)(1)): 5920 and 9453 in yolk; 4831 and 6050 in white, in doses 1 and 2, respectively. Significant differences in the SMM and TMP concentrations between yolk and white in post treatment period were found. SMM dropped below the LOD (1.9 μg kg(-1)) in yolk after day 16 and 19 for doses 1 and 2. TMP reached maximal levels on day 3 after drug administration for doses 1 and 2 (μg kg(-)(1)): 6521 and 7329 in yolk, 1370 and 1539 in white. TMP residues were measured above LOD (0.3 μg kg(-)(1)) in yolk for both doses on day 37 post-treatment.

  8. [Ovarian yolk sac tumour: general review].

    Even, Caroline; Lhommé, Catherine; Duvillard, Pierre; Morice, Philippe; Balleyguier, Corinne; Pautier, Patricia; Troalen, Frédéric; de La Motte Rouge, Thibault


    Ovarian yolk sac tumour (OYST) is a very rare malignancy arising most often in young women. Preoperative clinical, biological (alpha-foetoprotein) and radiological findings should help to establish the diagnosis of OYST, in order to propose adequate surgical treatment. The aim of surgery is to remove the primary tumour, to obtain an accurate histological diagnosis and to assess the disease extent. In young women, fertility-sparing surgery should be performed, in order to preserve the possibility of pregnancy later on. Chemotherapy has substantially modified the prognosis of these tumours, and practically all patients will be cured. The overall 5-year survival rate is 94% when patients are treated with BEP chemotherapy. Depending on the clinical situation, two to four cycles of the BEP regimen should be administered after surgery. Identification of prognostic factors may help to propose risk-adapted treatment in order to increase the cure rate in patients with a poor prognosis and to decrease toxicity in patients with a low risk of relapse. Fertility preservation represents a major objective in women treated for OYSTs.

  9. Sperm characteristics following freezing in extenders supplemented with whole egg yolk and different concentrations of low-density lipoproteins in the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu).

    Souza, Ana Liza Paz; Lima, Gabriela Liberalino; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; de Souza Castelo, Thibério; Oliveira, Maria Glaucia Carlos; de Paula, Valéria Veras; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues


    The aim of the current study was to compare sperm quality characteristics of the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) following freezing in extenders supplemented with whole egg yolk and different concentrations of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Semen from 11 adult males was obtained by electroejaculation and evaluated for sperm motility, vigor, morphology as well as membrane integrity analyzed by the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test and a fluorescent staining. Moreover, the semen was diluted in a Tris-based extender containing 20% egg yolk (control group) or 5, 10 or 20% LDL (treatment groups). The semen samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed in a water bath for 60s at 37°C. The treatments did not affect (p>0.05) sperm vigor, morphology or membrane integrity analyzed by the HOS test. However, post-thaw sperm motility was significantly higher (pegg yolk extender and extender supplemented with 10% LDL. Furthermore, the percentage of membrane-intact frozen-thawed spermatozoa analyzed by the fluorescent staining was significantly higher (pegg yolk as a cryoprotective additive for freezing semen of the collared peccary.

  10. Thermodynamics of the interaction between bovine binder of sperm BSP1 and low-density lipoprotein from hen's egg yolk

    Lusignan, Marie-France; Manjunath, Puttaswamy [Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital Research Center and Department of Medicine, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3J7 (Canada); Lafleur, Michel, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Self-Assembled Chemical Structures (CSACS), Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3J7 (Canada)


    Research highlights: {yields} Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed Binder-of-SPerm BSP1 protein has high affinity for egg yolk low density lipoproteins. {yields} It is estimated that 104 BSP1 molecules could bind one LDL particle. {yields} BSP1 has 2 phosphocholine binding sites and the BSP1/LDL ratio corresponds to 1.6 phosphatidylcholine per bound BSP1. {yields} The strong interaction between LDL particles and BSP1 is proposed to be important for sperm protection by egg yolk extender. - Abstract: Egg yolk is used in extender to protect sperm from cold shock and freezing during preservation. It is the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction of egg yolk that protects sperm. Even though essential for sperm capacitation, the major proteins from bull seminal plasma, the Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins, are detrimental for sperm preservation because they induce a continual phospholipids and cholesterol efflux from sperm membranes. The BSP proteins were proposed to bind to egg yolk LDL, preventing the sperm membrane damage. We characterized the binding between the BSP proteins and the LDL by isothermal titration calorimetry, providing the thermodynamics and quantitative description of this putative association. The association between BSP1 (major BSP proteins) and LDL is characterized by an affinity constant (K{sub a}) of 3.4 {+-} 0.4 {mu}M{sup -1}. A protein/LDL ratio of 104 {+-} 5 was determined indicating that 104 molecules of BSP1 would bind to one LDL particle. This stoichiometry leads to proposing that the association involves 1.6 {+-} 0.1 phosphatidylcholines (PC) per BSP protein. This finding is satisfactorily consistent with the fact that each BSP1 protein has 2 binding sites for choline group. In conclusion, the formation of a high affinity complex between BSP1 and LDL is proposed to be important for the protection of sperm by egg yolk extender.

  11. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks.

    Bertin, Aline; Arnould, Cécile; Moussu, Chantal; Meurisse, Maryse; Constantin, Paul; Leterrier, Christine; Calandreau, Ludovic


    In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H) and from sham embryos (C) that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment.

  12. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    Aline Bertin


    Full Text Available In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H and from sham embryos (C that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment.

  13. Vascular development and hemodynamic force in the mouse yolk sac

    Monica D Garcia


    Full Text Available Vascular remodeling of the mouse embryonic yolk sac is a highly dynamic process dependent on multiple genetic signaling pathways as well as biomechanical factors regulating proliferation, differentiation, migration, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. During this early developmental window, the initial primitive vascular network of the yolk sac undergoes a dynamic remodeling process concurrent with the onset of blood flow, in which endothelial cells establish a branched, hierarchical structure of large vessels and smaller capillary beds. In this review, we will describe the molecular and biomechanical regulators which guide vascular remodeling in the mouse embryonic yolk sac, as well as live imaging methods for characterizing endothelial cell and hemodynamic function in cultured embryos.

  14. Loss of PiT-1 results in abnormal endocytosis in the yolk sac visceral endoderm.

    Wallingford, Mary C; Giachelli, Cecilia M


    PiT-1 protein is a transmembrane sodium-dependent phosphate (Pi) transporter. PiT-1 knock out (KO) embryos die from largely unknown causes by embryonic day (E) 12.5. We tested the hypothesis that PiT-1 is required for endocytosis in the embryonic yolk sac (YS) visceral endoderm (VE). Here we present data supporting that PiT-1 KO results in a YS remodeling defect and decreased endocytosis in the YS VE. The remodeling defect is not due to an upstream cardiomyocyte requirement for PiT-1, as SM22αCre-specific KO of PiT-1 in the developing heart and the YS mesodermal layer (ME) does not recapitulate the PiT-1 global KO phenotype. Furthermore, we find that high levels of PiT-1 protein localize to the YS VE apical membrane. Together these data support that PiT-1 is likely required in YS VE. During normal development maternal immunoglobulin (IgG) is endocytosed into YS VE and accumulates in the apical side of the VE in a specialized lysosome termed the apical vacuole (AV). We have identified a reduction in PiT-1 KO VE cell height and a striking loss of IgG accumulation in the PiT-1 KO VE. The endocytosis genes Tfeb, Lamtor2 and Snx2 are increased at the RNA level. Lysotracker Red staining reveals a loss of distinct AVs, and yolk sacs incubated ex vivo with phRODO Green Dextran for Endocytosis demonstrate a functional loss of endocytosis. As yolk sac endocytosis is controlled in part by microautophagy, but expression of LC3 had not been examined, we investigated LC3 expression during yolk sac development and found stage-specific LC3 RNA expression that is predominantly from the YS VE layer at E9.5. Normalized LC3-II protein levels are decreased in the PiT-1 KO YS, supporting a requirement for PiT-1 in autophagy in the YS. Therefore, we propose the novel idea that PiT-1 is central to the regulation of endocytosis and autophagy in the YS VE.

  15. Use of Mucor miehei lipase to improve functional properties of yolk-contaminated egg whites.

    Macherey, Laura N; Conforti, Frank D; Eigel, William; O'Keefe, Sean F


    Egg yolk contamination of egg whites continues to be a serious problem in the egg industry. The ability of egg whites to form stable and voluminous foams is greatly inhibited by yolk contamination, even at very low levels, between 0.01% and 0.2% w/w yolk in white. Experiments were conducted to determine if Mucor miehei lipase could regenerate the functional properties of yolk-contaminated egg whites. Lipase from M. miehei and colipase from porcine pancreas were added to yolk-contaminated (0.2%, w/w) egg white samples to hydrolyze triglycerides originating from egg yolk. Enzymatic hydrolysis of triacylglycerols was confirmed using thin-layer chromatography. Treatment of yolk-contaminated samples with lipase and colipase yielded significant (P Enzyme-treated yolk-contaminated egg whites were also tested in angel food cakes. Enzyme-treated, yolk-contaminated egg whites performed similarly to non-yolk-contaminated control, and much better than yolk-contaminated sample in angel food cakes. The results show that most negative effects of yolk contamination can be reversed by treatment with Mucor miehei lipase and colipase.

  16. Effects of low-density lipoproteins extracted from different avian yolks on boar spermatozoa quality following freezing-thawing.

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Chun-Wei; Bu, Shu-Hai; Hu, Jian-Hong; Li, Qing-Wang; Pang, Wei-Jun; Yang, Gong-She


    Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is known to protect boar sperm during freezing-thawing, but little information is known about the effects of LDL extracted from different avian egg yolks on post-thaw boar semen quality. The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze the effects of LDL at various concentrations and different species on boar sperm quality after freezing-thawing. LDL extracted from the yolk of hen egg, duck egg, quail egg, pigeon egg or ostrich egg was added to the extender at the concentrations of 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, 0.09 and 0.1 g/ml, respectively, and their effects on frozen-thawed boar sperm quality were assessed. According to all measured parameters, the results showed that sperm motility, acrosome integrity and plasma membrane integrity were 43.20%, 52.57% and 48.13%, respectively, after being frozen-thawed with 0.09 g/ml LDL extracted from pigeon egg yolk. All these quality parameters were higher than that of other groups (P boar sperm among all of the groups supplemented with LDL from five kinds of avian egg in extender. The optimum concentration of LDL extracted from pigeon egg in boar semen freezing extender was 0.09 g/ml.


    Kashif Aziz Khan. Shakeel Akhtar Khan, Shahnaz Hamid2. Asim Aslam and Masood


    Full Text Available The present project was designed to identify the factors responsible for yolk retention in broiler chicks. Four different experiments were conducted to find out the effect of four factors (experimental yolk sac infection with Echerichia coli, off-feed period between hatching and housing. first feeding time in the poultry house and type of initial feed on yolk absorption. Results of these experiments showed that yolk sac infection with E. coli led to decrease in rate of yolk absorption. Moisture and protein percentage was increased in infected yolk but fat percentage was not affected by yolk sac infection. On the other hand, post hatch starvation due to delay in housing and delay in first feeding did not affect rate of yolk absorption. Moisture percentage was not affected while fat absorption increased and protein absorption decreased due to fasting. It was also observed that feeding ground corn in early life of chick led to slow absorption of yolk contents as compared to feeding commercial starter ration and 2% sugar solution. Yolk composition was not affected by feeding commercial starter ration, ground corn and 2% sugar solution in early life of chick. It is concluded that experimental infection with E. coli and ground corn as initial feed leads to slow absorption of yolk sac in young broiler chicks.

  18. Epididymal and ejaculated cat spermatozoa are resistant to cold shock but egg yolk promotes sperm longevity during cold storage at 4 degrees C.

    Hermansson, U; Axnér, E


    The aims were to evaluate the susceptibility of feline ejaculated and epididymal spermatozoa to cold shock and to evaluate the effect of egg yolk in the preservation extender. Ejaculated and epididymal spermatozoa from eight males were subjected to a slow (0.5 degrees C/min) or a fast (3 degrees C/min) cooling rate with controls kept in room temperature. Ejaculated and epididymal spermatozoa from another eight males were cooled in a plain Tris buffer (Tris) or in Tris with 20% egg yolk (EYT) and evaluated for 96 h. Subjective motility (MOT), plasma membrane integrity (PMI), and acrosome integrity (ACRI) were evaluated. Cooling did not induce sperm damage regarding PMI (P=0.6) or ACRI (P=0.19) and chilled spermatozoa had better overall MOT (P=0.046) than controls. EYT was better for MOT (P>0.05) from 48 h of cold storage than Tris. EYT was also better for overall ACRI (P0.05) for PMI or ACRI. Ejaculated spermatozoa had better overall MOT (Pegg yolk as there were no interactions (P>0.05) between source of spermatozoa and treatment (cooling or control) or between time, source and extender (P>0.05). In conclusion cat spermatozoa were tolerant to cold shock and egg yolk was beneficial for preservation of MOT and ACRI but not PMI.

  19. The advantages of using a combination of LDL and glutamine in comparison with TRIS egg yolk and Equex® STAMP extenders in the cryopreservation of canine semen.

    Bencharif, Djemil; Amirat-Briand, Lamia; Garand, Annabelle; Anton, Marc; Schmitt, Eric; Desherces, Serge; Delhomme, Guy; Langlois, Marie-Laure; Barrière, Paul; Destrumelle, Sandrine; Vera-Munoz, Oscar; Tainturier, Daniel


    Twenty semen samples taken from 5 dogs were frozen in liquid nitrogen at -196 °C in four different extenders: one control extender based on 20% egg yolk, 6% LDL alone (low density lipoproteins: the active cryoprotective principle in chicken egg yolk), 6% LDL combined with 20 mmol glutamine, and Equex® (a reference extender that we wish to compare with the LDL-glutamine combination). After thawing, spermatozoal motility was evaluated using a HAMILTON THORNE CERROS 12 image analyzer; the percentage of motile spermatozoa was 27.7% in the egg yolk extender (p0.05), 54.7% in the 6% LDL+20 mmol glutamine extender, and 47.9% with Equex® (p>0.05). The motility parameters (VAP, VCL, VSL and ALH) were also superior in the 6% LDL+20 mmol glutamine extender in comparison with the other extenders. Finally, the spermatozoa were generally better protected during freezing with the 6% LDL+20 mmol glutamine association than with the egg yolk, 6% LDL, or Equex extenders in terms of the flagellar plasma membrane (HOS test), DNA (Acridine orange test), and acrosome integrity (Spermac® test: no significant difference). The Equex® extender obtained the best results for the acrosome, followed by 6% LDL+20 mmol glutamine (FITC-PSA test: p<0.05 between each extender). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Primary Yolk Sac Tumor of the Omentum: Case Report

    Baek, Chang Kyu; Oh, Young Taik; Jung, Dae Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institue of Radiological Science, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yoon Sung [Dept. of Pathology, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    A 32-year-old woman had been referred to our hospital for lower abdominal pain. Pelvic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a huge solid mass with an internal cystic portion. The patient underwent a staging laparotomy and subsequent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph nodes sampling, and total omentectomy. At staging laparotomy, a large omental mass was found. The tumor displayed the typical histological patterns observed in the yolk sac tumor. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum value on the 10th day after surgery was 11,576.67 IU/mL and decreased to 6.46 IU/mL after chemotherapy. At the end of the treatment, all the findings, including the AFP level, were normal. We report a case of primary yolk sac tumor of the omentum in a 32-year-old woman.

  1. A clinicopathologic analysis of primary orbital yolk sac tumor

    PENG Ji-ying


    Full Text Available Objective On rare occasions, yolk sac tumor may arise from extragonadal sites. Orbit is an unusual location for the primary development of this tumor. The presence of intracranial yolk sac tumor on biopsy always makes the diagnosis challenge for pathologists. Herein we report a case of intracranial primary yolk sac tumor in left orbital apex. The clinicopathology of this tumor and its differential diagnosis are discussed. Methods The clinical manifestation of a patient with primary yolk sac tumor occurring in left orbital apex was presented retrospectively. Resected orbital mass was routinely paraffin-embedded and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Dako Envision immunohistochemical staining system was used to detect the tumor antigen expressions, including alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, cytokeratin, placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP, CD30, CD34, CD45, CD99, CD117, synaptophysin (Syn and chromogranin A (CgA. Results A 2-year-old boy presented with 3-month history of ptosis of eyelid and exophthalmos on left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan revealed a lesion occupied the left orbital apex with infiltration of surrounding normal structure, including left posterior ethmoid sinus, the wall of left maxillary sinus and sphenoid. However, there was no evidence of tumor infiltrating in brain parenchyma. Craniotomy was performed and the tumor was removed by en bloc resection. Grossly, the biopsy specimen received in small pieces was 1.20 cm × 1.00 cm × 1.00 cm when aggregated. No fibrous capsule, necrosis, haemorrhage and gross calcification were found in the tissue fragments. Histological examination revealed that the tumor was arranged in a reticular pattern. The cells were relatively large with a clear cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei. Scattered mitotic figures were noted. Schiller-Duval bodies and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS positive (eosinophilic bodies were evident in the tumor tissue. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the tumor cells

  2. Yolk sac tumor in a patient with transverse testicular ectopia

    Zhu Yi-Ping


    Full Text Available Abstract Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE is a rare anomaly in which both testes descend through a single inguinal canal. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the ectopic testis of a patient with TTE. A 24-year-old man presented to our hospital with a left inguinal-mass, right cryptorchidism and elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP. A left herniotomy 3 years earlier demonstrated both testes in the left scrotum, one above another positionally. Four months ago, a left scrotal mass appeared and radical orchiectomy of both testes revealed testicular yolk sac tumor of the ectopic testis. An enlarging left inguinal-mass appeared 2 months ago and he was referred to our hospital. Laboratory data showed an elevation of AFP (245.5 ng/ml and a 46 XY karyotype. He underwent bilateral retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and simultaneous left inguinal mass dissection. Histopathologic examination revealed a diagnosis of recurrent yolk sac tumor in the left inguinal mass. The retroperitoneal lymph node was not enlarged and, on histopathology, was not involved. The patient has now been followed up for 8 months without evidence of biochemical or radiological recurrence.

  3. Control of convergent yolk syncytial layer nuclear movement in zebrafish.

    Carvalho, Lara; Stühmer, Jan; Bois, Justin S; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Lecaudey, Virginie; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp


    Nuclear movements play an essential role in metazoan development. Although the intracellular transport mechanisms underlying nuclear movements have been studied in detail, relatively little is known about signals from surrounding cells and tissues controlling these movements. Here, we show that, in gastrulating zebrafish embryos, convergence movements of nuclei within the yolk syncytial layer (YSL) are guided by mesoderm and endoderm progenitors migrating along the surface of the yolk towards the dorsal side of the developing gastrula. Progenitor cells direct the convergence movements of internal yolk syncytial nuclei (iYSN) by modulating cortical flow within the YSL in which the iYSN are entrained. The effect of mesoderm and endoderm progenitors on the convergence movement of iYSN depends on the expression of E-cadherin, indicating that adhesive contact between the cells and the YSL is required for the mesendoderm-modulated YSL cortical flow mediating nuclear convergence. In summary, our data reveal a crucial function for cortical flow in the coordination of syncytial nuclear movements with surrounding cells and tissues during zebrafish gastrulation.

  4. Improvement of frozen semen quality of Garut Sheep through the addition of α-tocopherol into yolk egg-skim milk diluent



    Full Text Available The sperm is very fragile to lipid peroxide reaction, that it can easily broken during the process of freezing. To eliminate this consequences an antioxidant agent added into the extender. A research was done to observe the effect of antioxidant agent α-tocoferrol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT presence in the extender on the quality of frozen semen. Once week, semen from six male Garut sheep ages about 2.5 years old was collected using artificial vagina and egg yolk skim-milk diluent used as the extender. The semen were treated in egg yolk skim-milk diluent without antioxidant as control, in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with α- tocoferrol 0,2 g/100 ml diluent and in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with butylated hydroxytoluene 0,2 g/100 ml diluent. The after thawing observation shown that in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with α- tocoferrol had life percentage (75.0 ± 3.5% vs 64.8 ± 7.8% and membrane intact percentage (65.8 ± 6.8 % vs 55.2 ± 8.3% significantly higher than control (P<0,05 but insignificantly different from with BHT addition. The presence of α-tocoferrol in the diluent, the motility percentage consideraly higher (P<0.05 than (45.8 ± 3.8% using BHT addition (40.0 ± 4.5% but not different from control (41.7 ± 4.1%; while acrosomal intake percentage after α-tocoferrol (54.8% ± 3.3% expressively higher (p,0.05 than BHT addition (49.7 ± 3.6% or control (49.8 ± 3.5%. In conclusion the presence of α-tocoferrol in the diluent could improve the quality of Garut sheep frozen semen.

  5. Substitution of egg yolk by a cyclodextrin-cholesterol complex allows a reduction of the glycerol concentration into the freezing medium of equine sperm.

    Blommaert, Didier; Franck, Thierry; Donnay, Isabelle; Lejeune, Jean-Philippe; Detilleux, Johann; Serteyn, Didier


    The aim of this work was to completely replace the egg yolk a classical diluent for freezing equine semen by a cyclodextrin-cholesterol complex. At the same time, the reduction in the glycerol content used for cryopreservation and the incubation time between sperm and the freezing media were evaluated. Horse ejaculates were frozen with four different freezing extenders: a frozen reference medium (IF) containing egg yolk and 2.5% glycerol and media without egg yolk but supplemented with 1.5 mg 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin cholesterol (HPβCD-C) complex and containing either 1% (G1), 2% (G2) or 3% glycerol (G3). Three incubation times (90, 120 and 180 min) at 4 °C between the fresh semen and the different media were tested before freezing. Viability and motility analyses were performed with computer assisted semen analysis (CASA). Results showed that the freezing media containing the HPβCD-C complex with 1%, 2% and 3% glycerol significantly improve the 3 in vitro parameters of post thawing semen quality (viability, progressive and total mobilities) compared to IF. The best improvement of the parameters was obtained with G1 medium and the longest contact time. The substitution of egg yolk by HPβCD-C complex allows the decrease of protein charge of the medium while favouring the cholesterol supply to membrane spermatozoa offering it a better resistance to osmotic imbalance and a better tolerance to the glycerol toxicity. Our results highlight that the egg yolk of an extender for the freezing of horse semen can be completely substituted by HPβCD-C complex.


    W. M. M. Nalley


    Full Text Available The aims of study was to compare the glycerol concentration in Tris glucose egg yolk (TGEY diluents on the quality of deer frozen semen. Semen was collected from 5 Timor deer using electroejaculator. Immediately after collection the semen was evaluated macroscopic and microscopically. After initial evaluation, the semen was divided into three tubes and extended with Tris egg yolk with three different glycerol concentrations, which were 10% (TGEY10; 12% (TGEY12 and 14% (TGEY14. The sperm motility, viability, acrosome intact and membrane intact were evaluated in raw semen, after equilibration and after thawing. The results showed that there were no differences (p>0.05 on the sperm motility, viability as well as sperm acrosome intact. Sperm membrane intact in TGEY10 (52.50±5.89% and TGEY14 (51.50±4.12 % were higher (p<0.05 than in TGEY12 (49.00±6.58. It was concluded that 10, 12 or 14% glycerol concentration can be used for Timor deer semen cryopreservation.

  7. Localized rbp4 expression in the yolk syncytial layer plays a role in yolk cell extension and early liver development

    Korzh Vladimir


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of genes characterized in liver development is steadily increasing, but the origin of liver precursor cells and the molecular control of liver formation remain poorly understood. Existing theories about formation of zebrafish visceral organs emphasize either their budding from the endodermal rod or formation of independent anlage followed by their later fusion, but none of these is completely satisfactory in explaining liver organogenesis in zebrafish. Results Expression of a gene encoding the retinol binding protein 4 (Rbp4 was analyzed in zebrafish. rbp4, which is expressed mainly in the liver in adults, was shown to be expressed in the yolk syncytial layer (YSL during early embryogenesis. At 12–16 hpf rbp4 expression was restricted to the ventro-lateral YSL and later expanded to cover the posterior YSL. We demonstrated that rbp4 expression was negatively regulated by Nodal and Hedgehog (Hh signalling and positively controlled by retinoic acid (RA. Knockdown of Rbp4 in the YSL resulted in shortened yolk extension as well as the formation of two liver buds, which could be due to impaired migration of liver progenitor cells. rbp4 appears also to regulate the extracellular matrix protein Fibronectin1 (Fn1 specifically in the ventro-lateral yolk, indicating a role of Fn1 in liver progenitor migration. Since exocrine pancreas, endocrine pancreas, intestine and heart developed normally in Rbp4 morphants, we suggest that rbp4 expression in the YSL is required only for liver development. Conclusion The characteristic expression pattern of rbp4 suggests that the YSL is patterned despite its syncytial nature. YSL-expressed Rbp4 plays a role in formation of both yolk extension and liver bud, the latter may also require migration of liver progenitor cells.

  8. The quality of Garut ram liquid semen in Tris egg yolk extender to the sucrose supplementation



    Full Text Available The successful program of artificial insemination in sheep is determined by the quality of sperm that are used. Therefore, it is important to maintain the quality of sperm during and after storage in low temperature. The research was conducted to study the influence of sucrose in the Tris-yolk extender in maintaining the quality of Garut ram sperm during preservation in reaction tube for four days at 5°C. Ejaculated sperm was collected once a week for five weeks using artificial vagina from same ram. Semen was divided into four groups of extenders, i.e. Tris egg yolk 20% (TKT, TKT + 0,1% sucrose, TKT + 0,3% sucrose and TKT + 0,5% w/v sucrose. The results showed that the percentage of motility on day four (D-4 of storage in TKT (41.00 ± 2.0% was lower (P0.05 from TKT + 0.1% (45.00 ± 3.16%. Whereas the percentage of live cells (%H on D-4 in TKT, TKT + 0.1%, TKT + 0.3% and TKT + 0.5% were 55.00 ± 2.19%; 57.20 ± 2.79%; 59.20 ± 3.25% and 61.20 ± 3.60%, respectively. Meanwhile, the percentage of membrane integrity (MPU in TKT (51.80 ± 1.94% was significantly different (P0.05 from TKT + 0.1% (54.80 ± 2.86%. In conclusion, the addition of sucrose 0.3% w/v into TKT extender could maintain the quality of Garut ram sperm more efficiently and better than TKT extender.

  9. Oil exudation and histological structures of duck egg yolks during brining.

    Lai, K M; Chung, W H; Jao, C L; Hsu, K C


    Changes in oil exudation and histological structures of salted duck egg yolks during brining up to 5 wk were investigated. During brining, the salt contents of albumen, exterior yolk (hardened portion), and interior yolk (soft or liquid portion) gradually increased accompanied by slight decreases in moisture content. The hardening ratio of salted egg yolks increased rapidly to about 60% during the first week of brining and then reached 100% at the end of brining. After brining, part of the lipids in salted egg yolk became free due to the structural changes of low-density lipoprotein induced by dehydration and increase of salt content, and more free lipids in salted egg yolk were released after the cooking process. With the brining time increased up to 5 wk, the outer region of the cooked salted yolk gradually changed into dark brown, brown, orange, and then dark brown, whereas the center region changed into light yellow, yellow, dark yellow, and then yellow again. The microstructures of cooked salted egg yolks showed that the yolk spheres in the outer and middle regions retained their original shape, with some shrinking and being packed more loosely when brining time increased, and the exuded oil filled the space between the spheres. Furthermore, the yolk spheres in the center region transformed to a round shape but still showed granulation after 4 wk of brining, whereas they were mostly disrupted after 2 to 5 wk of brining. One of the most important characteristics of cooked salted egg yolks, gritty texture, contributed to oil exudation and granulated yolk spheres were observed at the brining time of 4 wk.

  10. [Ultrasound echographic imaging and measurement of the amniotic cavity and yolk sac in early pregnancy: comparative study of intact and disordered pregnancies].

    Funk, A; Fendel, H


    The chorionic cavity, vertex-breech length, yolk sac, and amnion were systematically demonstrated and measured in 50 early pregnancies, i.e., between the end of the sixth and the tenth week of gestation post menstruationem (p.m.). This was done in 23 cases with clinically and sonographically intact pregnancies without symptoms of abortion, in 12 cases with living embryos with symptoms of abortion, and in 15 cases of retained miscarriage. The thin amniotic membrane is sonographically demonstrated as a narrow, sharply defined reflected band in the chorionic cavity. In addition to direct demonstration of the amniotic membrane, the amniotic cavity can be demonstrated by a density difference in the echogenicity of the chorionic and amniotic fluids. While there are delicate, homogenously distributed inner echoes in the chorionic cavity, the amniotic cavity is empty save for the embryo structure. Sonographically, therefore, the amniotic cavity stands out as a spherical structure within the chorionic cavity. In all pregnancies with a living embryo it was possible to demonstrate the yolk sac sonographically as a sharply defined ring structure in the chorionic cavity. In 10 of the 15 cases of retained miscarriage only a rudimentary remnant of the yolk sac could be detected. The development of the amniotic and chorionic cavities and vertex-breech length was constant in the pregnancies with living embryos, the amnion developing synchronously with the vertex-breech length.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. The Effect of Egg Yolk Oil on The Chemical, Physical and Sensory Properties of Mayonnaise

    Kovalcuks Aleksandrs; Straumite Evita; Duma Māra


    Egg yolk oil (EYO) is an essence of egg bioactive compounds. Extracted from egg yolk it can be used in various food products increasing their nutritional and biological value. Mayonnaise is a kind of a semi-solid oil-inwater emulsion containing 60-80% fat. Mayonnaise typically contains oil, egg yolk, vinegar, salt, sugar and thickening agents. Mayonnaise is the product where application of EYO can be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of egg yolk oil on the chemical, ...

  12. Evaluation of passive immunotherapeutic efficacy of hyperimmunized egg yolk powder against intestinal colonization of Campylobacter jejuni in chickens.

    Paul, Narayan C; Al-Adwani, Salma; Crespo, Rocio; Shah, Devendra H


    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in human. Chickens are the reservoir host of C. jejuni, and contaminated chicken meat is an important source of human infection. Therefore, control of C. jejuni in chickens can have direct effect on human health. In this study we tested the passive immunotherapeutic efficacy of the chicken egg-yolk-derived antibodies, in the form of hyperimmunized egg yolk powder (HEYP), against 7 colonization-associated proteins of C. jejuni, namely, CadF (Campylobacter adhesion to fibronectin), FlaA (flagellar proteins), MOMP (major outer membrane protein), FlpA (fibronectin binding protein A), CmeC (Campylobacter multidrug efflux C), Peb1A (Campylobacter putative adhesion), and JlpA (Jejuni lipoprotein A). Three chicken experiments were performed. In each experiment, chickens were treated orally via feed supplemented with 10% (wt/wt) egg yolk powder. In experiment 1, chicken groups were experimentally infected with C. jejuni (10(8) cfu) followed by treatment with 5 HEYP (CadF, FlaA, MOMP, FlpA, CmeC) for 4 d either individually or as a cocktail containing equal parts of each HEYP. In experiment 2, chickens were treated for 21 d with cocktail containing equal parts of 7 HEYP before and after experimental infection with C. jejuni (10(8) cfu). In experiment 3, chickens were treated with feed containing a cocktail of 7 HEYP before and after (prophylaxis), and after (treatment) experimental infection with C. jejuni (10(5) cfu). Intestinal colonization of C. jejuni was monitored by culturing cecal samples from chickens euthanized at the end of each experiment. The results showed that there were no differences in the cecal colonization of C. jejuni between HEYP treated and nontreated control chickens, suggesting that use of HEYP at the dose and the regimens used in the current study is not efficacious in reducing C. jejuni colonization in chickens. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Isolation of Egg Yolk Granules as Low-Cholesterol Emulsifying Agent in Mayonnaise.

    Motta-Romero, Hollman; Zhang, Zhong; Tien Nguyen, An; Schlegel, Vicki; Zhang, Yue


    Egg yolk is an essential ingredient for many food products due to its excellent functional properties such as emulsification. However, the consumers' concern of its cholesterol level has led food industry to seek solutions for its replacement. Utilization of low-fat egg yolk granules as emulsifier can be an alternative strategy. In this study, granules with low cholesterol content were separated from egg yolk by a simple method under easily scalable centrifugal conditions. The egg yolk granules isolated within 0.17 M NaCl solution achieved a 22.5% yield that was similar to that using higher centrifugation speeds and longer time. The yield of egg yolk granules increased from 25% to 32% when the yolk:water ratio was changed from 1:1 to 1:2. Mayonnaise was prepared to evaluate the emulsifying capacity of the egg yolk granules. It was found that egg yolk granules exhibited similar emulsifying activity as that of whole egg yolk, but a better emulsion stabilizing property that is evidenced by the higher viscosity of mayonnaise prepared with the granules. In addition, the viscosities of mayonnaise prepared by spray dried yolk and granules were slightly higher than the liquid counterpart, showing a further improvement by spray drying on the emulsion stabilizing properties. The mechanical spectra of mayonnaise samples by frequency sweep also suggested that granules favored the formation of stronger 3-dimensional arrangements of oil droplets and therefore a more stable emulsion. Results suggest that granules isolated within 0.17 M NaCl solution present best emulsifying properties and can be applied as whole yolk replacer in food emulsions. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Egg quality and yolk lipid composition of laying hens fed diets containing cashew nut meal

    Tatiana Fontoura Vidal


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the addition of cashew nuts meal (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% to laying hen diets on egg quality and yolk composition. The variables studied were: egg weight, specific gravity, Haugh Units, percentages of shell, albumen, and yolk, moisture, total solids, total lipids, fatty acids profile, and yolk cholesterol. The addition of up to 25% of cashew nuts meal to hen diets did not affect egg quality and freshness, moisture and total solids content. However, an increase in total lipid content and a decrease in yolk pigmentation was observed. Oleic acid level increased in the yolk, whereas palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid levels decreased. The addition of cashew nuts meal increased the monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio in the yolk and reduced the cholesterol content. Therefore, the use of cashew nuts meal in laying hen diets favorably modifies the fatty acid composition of egg yolk and contributes to a better acceptance of this food by consumers since it also reduces yolk cholesterol levels.

  15. Comparison of yolk fatty acid content, blood and egg cholesterol of ...

    The KFO diets reduced the blood cholesterol, yolk linoleic acid and yolk ω-6 FA ... a decrease and an increase in the ratio of ω-6/ ω-3 FAs (P<0.05), respectively. ... olein oil (POO), Kilka fish oil (KFO), hens, egg omega-9 and omega-3 fatty acid.

  16. Waktu Produksi Yolk Immunoglobulin (IGY Kuning Telur Ayam yang Diimunisasi Streptococcus mutans

    Mufidana Azis


    Production Time of Yolk Immunoglobulin (Igy Yellow Chicken Egg Immunized with Streptococcus mutans. Dental caries prevalence in Indonesia appears in high rate. Caries is known as a multifactorial disease in oral cavity caused by Streptococcus mutans bacteria. The latest method to prevent dental caries is through passive immunization using chicken yolk antibody (Yolk Immunoglobulin /IgY. Some researches showed the variation of IgY production time using different testing technique. The purpose of this research is to determine the time required to produce IgY chicken yolk immunized by S. mutans. For the method, this research uses 4 chickens of Hysex Brown as the treatment group and a chicken as the control. S. mutans suspension is injected to the chicken from 1st, 2nd, and 3rdday in the first week; Freund Adjuvant was added in the 2ndtill 4thweeks. Collection of chicken yolk was started at 2ndweek after immunization. The chicken yolk then was tested using Agar Gel Precipitation Test (AGPT to know the effectiveness of vaccination and the existence of S.mutans. The result of the test can be positive if it forms precipitation between antigen and antibody wells. The result has shown a positive response in chicken yolk in the 5thweek. From the test, it can be concluded that the time required for the production of IgY specific against S. mutans in chicken yolk is in the beginning of 5thweek after immunization.

  17. Sex-specific effects of yolk testosterone on survival, begging and growth of zebra finches

    von Engelhardt, N; Carere, C; Dijkstra, C; Groothuis, TGG


    Yolk androgens affect offspring hatching, begging, growth and survival in many bird species. If these effects are sex-specific, yolk androgen deposition may constitute a mechanism for differential investment in male and female offspring. We tested this hypothesis in zebra finches. In this species,

  18. Yolk/shell nanoparticles: classifications, synthesis, properties, and applications.

    Purbia, Rahul; Paria, Santanu


    Core/shell nanoparticles were first reported in the early 1990s with a simple spherical core and shell structure, but the area is gradually diversifying in multiple directions such as different shapes, multishells, yolk/shell etc., because of the development of different new properties of the materials, which are useful for several advanced applications. Among different sub-areas of core/shell nanoparticles, yolk/shell nanoparticles (YS NPs) have drawn significant attention in recent years because of their unique properties such as low density, large surface area, ease of interior core functionalization, a good molecular loading capacity in the void space, tunable interstitial void space, and a hollow outer shell. The YS NPs have better properties over simple core/shell or hollow NPs in various fields including biomedical, catalysis, sensors, lithium batteries, adsorbents, DSSCs, microwave absorbers etc., mainly because of the presence of free void space, porous hollow shell, and free core surface. This review presents an extensive classification of YS NPs based on their structures and types of materials, along with synthesis strategies, properties, and applications with which one would be able to draw a complete picture of this area.

  19. Composition and functional properties of cholesterol reduced egg yolk.

    Awad, A C; Bennink, M R; Smith, D M


    The composition and functional properties of cholesterol reduced egg yolk (CREY) were compared to those of control egg yolk (EY). The CREY was prepared by absorbing cholesterol with beta-cyclodextrin after dilution and dissociation of granules at pH 10.5. The CREY contained less lipid and protein and more carbohydrate and ash than EY. Egg lipids were fractionated into triglycerides, cholesterol esters, free cholesterol, phosphatidyl choline, and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Free and esterified cholesterol in CREY were reduced by 91.6 and 94.4%, respectively. Triglycerides were the major lipid class in CREY. The CREY contained more oleic acid and less linoleic acid than the control. Protein solubility in 0.1 and 0.6 M NaCl and sponge cake volume did not differ. The composition of proteins soluble in 0.6 M NaCl in both egg preparations were similar as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The electrophoretic profiles of proteins soluble in 0.1 M NaCl were similar, except that lipovitellin form EY was insoluble under these conditions. The CREY was less yellow than EY, as indicated by beta-carotene concentrations and Hunter b values. These results suggest that beta-cyclodextrin can be used to produce a low cholesterol egg product with compositional and functional properties similar to EY.

  20. Glucocorticoid and progesterone receptors in yolk sac placenta.

    Carbone, J P; Baldridge, R C; Magen, A B; Andrew, C L; Koszalka, T R; Brent, R L


    The parietal yolk sac (PYS) of the rat fetus at the 14th day of gestation contains glucocorticoid as well as progesterone receptors; both are present in the trophoblast cell layer. Following heat activation the receptors are capable of binding to deoxyribonucleic acid- (DNA-)cellulose. Glucocorticoid receptors, but not progesterone receptors, are also present in the visceral yolk sac (VYS) at the 14th day of gestation. Greater amounts (some 250 femtomoles/mg cytosol protein) of a glucocorticoid receptor are present in the VYS on the 17th day of gestation. The Kd is approximately 4 X 10(-9) M; following activation it also binds to DNA-cellulose. The elution pattern of the activated VYS receptor from diethylaminoethyl-(DEAE-)Sephadex, however, is similar to that found with kidney and colon rather than that of liver (i.e., it resembles corticosteroid binder IB rather than binder II) indicating a possible role in transport. Although the receptors are separate entities, progesterone competes as effectively as corticosterone for binding to the glucocorticoid receptors in both the PYS and and VYS, thus raising the question of the possible effect of changes in progesterone concentrations on the functioning of glucocorticoids during development.

  1. Co-adjustment of yolk antioxidants and androgens in birds.

    Giraudeau, Mathieu; Ducatez, Simon


    Mothers can shape the developmental trajectory of their offspring through the transmission of resources such as hormones, antioxidants or immunoglobulins. Over the last two decades, an abundant literature on maternal effects in birds has shown that several of these compounds (i.e. androgens, glucocorticoids and antioxidants) often influence the same offspring phenotypic traits (i.e. growth, immunity or oxidative stress levels), making interaction effects between egg components a likely scenario. However, the potential interactive effects of maternally transmitted compounds on offspring development and potential co-adjustment of these compounds within an egg are still poorly understood. Here, we report the results of an interspecific comparative analysis on birds' egg yolk composition (i.e. androgens and antioxidants) where we found that yolk carotenoid and vitamin E concentrations are positively associated, supporting the hypothesis that these two antioxidants act in synergy. The concentrations of vitamin E also increased with increasing concentrations of testosterone. This last result confirms the emerging idea that androgens and antioxidants are co-adjusted within eggs and that maternally transmitted antioxidants might limit the potential direct and indirect effects of prenatal exposure to high testosterone levels on oxidative stress. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Production and Purification Immunoglobulin against E. coli in Egg Yolk

    Mohammadreza Nassiri


    Full Text Available Introduction Chicken is the only avian species in which polyclonal antibodies, like IgG is transported from the hen to the egg yolk in a similar manner as the transport of mammalian IgG from the mother to the fetus. Immunoglobulin Y in the chicken is transported to the egg and accumulates in the egg yolk in large quantities. IgY is an egg yolk antibody that has been used widely for treatment and prevention of infections in humans and animal. IgY is used for passive protection of the pathogen infections such as Escherichia coli, bovine and human rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, salmonella, staphylococcus and Pseudomonas. IgY is a promising candidate as an alternative to antibiotics. Eschericha coli strains of serotype O157: H7 belongs to a family of pathogenic E. coli called enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC strains responsible for hemorrhagic colitis, bloody or non-bloody diarrhea, and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. This strain of E. coli pathogenises by adhering to host intestinal epithelium and forming bacterial colonies. The purpose of this study was to produce and purify immunoglobulin Y against E. coli O157:H7 and develop specific polyclonal anti E. coli antibody in the egg yolk. Materials and Methods Sixteen-week-old laying hens (Mashhad, Iran were kept in individual cages with food and water ad libitum. Immunization of hens was performed by intramuscularly injecting killed E. coli O157: H7 with an equal volume of Freund’s complete adjuvant into two sides of chest area (Sigma, USA for the first immunization. Two booster immunizations followed up using complete and incomplete Freund’s adjuvants in two weeks interval. Freund’s adjuvant without antigen was injected to the control group. Two weeks after the last injection, the eggs were collected daily for eight weeks, marked and stored at 4 ºC. In order to IgY purification, eggs were collected. Purification of IgY from egg yolk was based on Polson and using PEG6000. Finally, the

  3. Effect of seminal plasma and egg yolk concentration on freezability of goat semen

    Valéria da Silva Ferreira


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg yolk and seminal plasma on the viability of cryopreserved goat semen. To this end, four fertile Saanen bucks, aged between 10 months and 1 year, and weighing 18 to 25 kg, were used. Semen was collected from each buck by the artificial vagina method at the end of breeding season (June-July. The extender used was the yolk citrate, which was split into two equal aliquots: 5% egg yolk (2.5 mL egg yolk: 47.5 mL citrate solution were added to one of the samples and 10% egg yolk (5.0 mL egg yolk: 45.0 mL citrate solution were added to another. The sperm motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT were evaluated and the data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the F test at 5.0% probability. The observed values for motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT, fast and slow, according to the presence of seminal plasma and egg yolk percentage were: 5% egg yolk with plasma (25.0% and 3.3; 1.60% and 0.7; 12.36% and 1.6, respectively; 5% egg yolk without plasma (23.61% and 3.1; 1.25% and 0.2; 9.93% and 1.3, respectively; 10% egg yolk with plasma (30.8% and 3.3; 4.4% and 1.9; 19.5% and 2.7, respectively; and 10% egg yolk without plasma (13.4% and 2.5; 4.1% and 0.5; 17.0% and 1.0, respectively. There were significant differences between the analyzed data in relation to semen with or without plasma at different percentages of egg yolk, and the group that presented the best results was 10% egg yolk citrate in extender with plasma. The presence of seminal plasma and higher concentration of egg yolk in extender provide a higher viability of cryopreserved goat semen.

  4. An Emerging Complimentary Medicine-Yolk Oil Made from Heating Method

    Tsung-Ming Hu


    Full Text Available Yolk oil is common in Asia. According to the Flora Sinensis, yolk oil is a multipurpose medicine, with specific dermatological and fever indications. Nowadays, it is generally used as a complimentary medicine for heart diseases. Yolk oil can be made from heating or chemical extraction method. It is generally believed that yolk oil made from heating (YOheat method is more effective as a medicine than that from extraction (YOext. The technical details of the heating method remain an issue of argument, including the degree of char and the threat of carcinogens formed during the heating process. Most yolk oil related studies used YOext as research material. Nevertheless, animal studies have showed that YOheat reduced triglycerides and total cholesterol in rodent liver. It is expected an easy-to-make complimentary medicine like YOheat may become even more common and thus evidence based studies should be conducted to verify its pharmacological effects and safety.

  5. Effect of Ostrich Egg Yolk on Boar Spermatozoa Quality after Freezing-thawing%鸵鸟卵黄对猪精子冷冻后质量的影响

    马玲琴; 贾永宏; 马国际; 袁建民


    为了提高猪冷冻精液品质和精子抵抗低温打击的能力,本研究以5%、10%、15%、20%和25%等不同浓度的鸵鸟卵黄作为冷冻保护剂,以20%的鸡蛋卵黄和20%的鸽蛋卵黄为对照,将冷冻-解冻后的精子活率、质膜完整率和顶体完整率作为评价指标,分析鸵鸟卵黄对猪精子的抗冷冻保护作用。结果表明:稀释液中添加20%鸽蛋卵黄时,精子活率、顶体完整率和质膜完整性分别为52.11%、55.62%和54.94%,显著高于其他组(P〈0.05)。虽然稀释液中添加15%鸵鸟卵黄时,冷冻-解冻后精子活率、顶体完整率和质膜完整率显著高于5%、10%、20%和25%鸵鸟卵黄组,但仍然显著低于稀释液中添加20%鸽蛋卵黄处理组。本研究表明,鸵鸟卵黄在冷冻过程中对猪精子具有一定的保护作用,但相对于鸽子蛋和鸡蛋卵黄效果并不理想。%In order to improve the frozen semen quality and sperm resistance to cold shock,the different concentrations of 5%,10%,15%,20% and 25% ostrich egg yolk were added in extender as cryoprotectants,and 20% egg yolk and 20% pigeon egg yolk were control.The cryoprotective effects of ostrich egg yolk on the boar spermatozoa were analyzed and spermatozoa motility,acrosome integrity and membrane integrity after freezing-thawing were evaluated.The results indicated that the sperm motility,acrosome integrity,membrane integrity were 52.11%,55.62% and 54.94% respectively while the extender was supplied with 20% pigeon egg yolk,which was higher than that of other groups(P0.05).Although sperm motility,acrosome integrity and membrane integrity in the extender supplemented with 15% ostrich egg yolk were significantly higher than that of 5%,10%,20% and 25% ostrich egg yolk groups,they were significantly lower than that of 20% pigeon egg yolk group.According to our study,the ostrich egg yolk could protect the boar spermatozoa during the frozen-thawed,but is not as effective as pigeon egg yolk and egg

  6. Multifractal dimension and lacunarity of yolk sac vasculature after exposure to magnetic field.

    Costa, Edbhergue Ventura Lola; Nogueira, Romildo de Albuquerque


    Several studies have reported about the effects of magnetic fields (MFs) on vascular tissue. Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) can promote either inhibition or stimulation of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, depending upon the intensity and time of exposure to the MF. To investigate the possible effects of ELF-MF on vascular processes, it is necessary to employ methods that allow parameterization of the vascular network. Vascular network is a structure with fractal geometry; therefore, fractal methods have been used to evaluate its morphometric complexity. Here, we used the lacunarity parameter (complementary method of fractal analysis) and multifractal analyses to investigate angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in the embryonic yolk sac membrane (YSM) of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) with and without exposure to an external MF of 1 mT and 60 Hz. Lacunarity results showed that the vascular density was lower for the group exposed to the magnetic field for 9 h/day. In addition, multifractal analysis showed reduced vascularization in the experimental groups (6 h/day and 9 h/day of exposure to MF). Furthermore, multifractal analysis showed difference between the groups exposed for 12 and 24 h/day. Using multifractal methods (generalized dimensions and singularity spectrum), it was possible to characterize the vascular network of the quail embryo YSM as a multifractal object, therefore proving this method to be a more appropriate application than the traditional monofractal methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Kessel, R. G.; Beams, H. W.


    Annulated membranes in the form of single and short lamellae are present adjacent to and parallel to the nuclear envelope in oogonia and early oocyte (synaptene) stages of the dragonfly, Libellula pulchella. These solitary and short annulate lamellae are usually continuous with long, part rough- and part smooth-surfaced cisternae which extend into more distal areas of the oogonial ooplasm. These particular annulate lamellae then either disappear or decrease in number to be replaced by a much more extensive system of annulate lamellae in the cortical ooplasm of previtellogenic oocytes. The differentiation of extensive stacks of annulate lamellae is consistently observed to be restricted to large cytoplasmic areas of considerable electron density. These cytoplasmic regions consist of material which stains basophilic and contains RNA but differs structurally from the large number of ribosomes which surround the dense masses. The cytoplasmic dense masses, in terms of their formation and staining reactions, are comparable to the "yolk nuclei" or "Balbiani bodies" described in insect oocytes in earlier studies. The results of the present study thus provide evidence that the appearance of cortical ooplasmic stacks of annulate lamellae in the dragonfly oocyte is specifically limited to cytoplasmic areas of high electron density which contain RNA but which do not have a ribosomal morphology. PMID:5786982

  8. Efficacy of concentration of egg yolk in Tris extender with and without seminal plasma on frozen semen quality of Saanen bucks

    Surya Natal Tambing


    Full Text Available Bucks semen is easily damaged compared to bull semen during cryopreservation process. Consequently, frozen semen quality decrease especially motility, live sperm, intact plasma membrane, and intact acrosomal cap after thawing. Objectives of this research was to evaluate the effect of egg yolk concentration in Tris extender with and without seminal plasma in maintaing frozen semen quality of Saanen buck. Four heads of Saanen buck of 2-4 years old were used in this experiment. Semen was collected once a week using artificial vagina. Experimental design applied was factorial complete random desing 2x2, viz. A factor was seminal plasma (A1 = with seminal plasma and A2 = without seminal plasma, and B factor was concentration of egg yolk (B1 = 10% and B2 = 20%. Duncan test were applied to identity differences between treatment. Result of these study indicated that the mean percentage of motility (M, live sperm (LS, sperm with intact plasma membrane (IPM and intact acrosomal cap (IAC after dilution and equilibration were not significantly different (P>0.05 in all treatment. After thawing, the mean percentage of M, LS sperm with IPM and IAC in A1 treatment (41.43, 51.52, 56.63 and 50.35% respectively were significantly higher (P<0.05 than A2 treatment (37.14; 48.67; 52.31 and 45.09% respectively. Likewise, the mean percentage of M, LS, sperm with IPM and IAC in B2 treatment (41.79; 51.32; 55.78 and 49.50% respectively were significantly higher (P<0.05 than B1 treatment (36.79, 48.86; 53.16 and 45.94% respectively. There were a significant interaction between factors of seminal plasma and concentration egg yolk in Tris extender, where the increase of egg yolk concentration from 10% to 20% in unwashed seminal plasma treatment caused increase in percentages of M, LS, sperm with IPM and IAC. On the other hand in washed seminal plasma treatment there were a trend of decreasing frozen semen quality. It is concluded that the combination of 20% egg yolk in Tris

  9. The yolk syncytial layer in early zebrafish development.

    Carvalho, Lara; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp


    The yolk syncytial layer (YSL) plays crucial roles in early zebrafish development. The YSL is a transient extra-embryonic syncytial tissue that forms during early cleavage stages and persists until larval stages. During gastrulation, the YSL undergoes highly dynamic movements, which are tightly coordinated with the movements of the overlying germ layer progenitor cells, and has critical functions in cell fate specification and morphogenesis of the early germ layers. Movement coordination between the YSL and blastoderm cells is dependent on contact between these tissues, and is probably required for the patterning and morphogenetic function of the YSL. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in elucidating the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the YSL morphogenesis and movement coordination between the YSL and blastoderm during early development.

  10. Patterns of maternal yolk hormones in eastern screech owl eggs (Megascops asio)

    Hahn, D. Caldwell


    Owl clutches typically hatch asynchronously, and brood size hierarchies develop. In this study, we describe intra-clutch variation of testosterone, androstenedione, estradiol, and corticosterone in Eastern screech owl egg yolks. In order to assess whether these hormones may have originated in the follicle, we also characterize variation of testosterone, androstenedione, and corticosterone within the exterior, intermediate, and interior regions of the yolk. Concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione were distributed relatively evenly across egg lay order with the exception of first-laid eggs that had significantly lower concentrations of both androgens than eggs later in the laying sequence. Corticosterone and estradiol did not vary with laying order. Our results suggest that when food is abundant, yolk hormones are deposited in patterns that minimize sibling differences except to reduce dominance by the first-hatching chick. Testosterone and androstenedione concentrations varied throughout the yolk, while corticosterone was evenly distributed throughout the yolk. This supports a follicular origin for both yolk androgens, and an adrenal origin for yolk corticosterone.

  11. Biotin-binding protein from chicken egg yolk. Assay and relationship to egg-white avidin.

    White, H B; Dennison, B A; Della Fera, M A; Whitney, C J; McGuire, J C; Meslar, H W; Sammelwitz, P H


    1. Biotin in chicken egg yolk is non-covalently bound to a specific protein that comprises 0.03% of the total yolk protein (0.8 mg/yolk). This biotin-binding protein is not detectable by the normal avidin assay owing to the biotin being tightly bound. Exchange of [14C]biotin for bound biotin at 65 degrees C is the basis of an assay for this protein. 2. Biotin-binding protein from egg yolk is distinguishable from egg-white avidin on Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, although the sizes of the two proteins appear quite similar. 3. Biotin-binding protein is denatured at a lower temperature and freely exchanges biotin at lower temperatures than does avidin. 4. The biotin-binding protein in egg yolk is postulated to be responsible for the deposition of biotin in egg yolk. D-[carboxyl-14C]Biotin injected into laying hens rapidly appears in the egg bound to yolk biotin-binding protein and avidin. Over 60% of the radioactivity is eventually deposited in eggs. The kinetics of biotin deposition in the egg suggests a 25 day half-life for an intracellular biotinyl-coenzyme pool in the laying hen.

  12. Replacing egg yolk with soybean lecithin in the cryopreservation of stallion semen.

    Papa, Frederico Ozanam; Felício, Gabriel Barcelos; Melo-Oña, Cely Marini; Alvarenga, Marco Antonio; De Vita, Bruna; Trinque, Cássio; Puoli-Filho, José Nicolau P; Dell'Aqua, José Antonio


    The objective of this study was to determine whether replacing the egg yolk with soybean lecithin in the Botu-Crio® cryodiluent would maintain the fertility of cryopreserved stallion sperm. Two experiments were performed to evaluate cell freezability. In experiment 1, sperm from 15 stallions were frozen in Botu-Crio® (BC) or Botu-Crio® which contained 45g/L soybean lecithin (BCLS45) in place of the egg yolk. In experiment 2, we compared different concentrations of soybean lecithin: 0, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 17.5 and 20.0g/L (BC, BCLS10, BCLS12.5, BCLS17.5 and BCLS20, respectively). In experiment 1, sperm frozen in BC and BCLS45 exhibited similar (P>0.05) percentages of total motile sperm (61% and 61%, respectively); progressively motile sperm (27% and 27%, respectively) and sperm with intact plasma membranes (IMP; 53% and 57%, respectively). Similarly, sperm frozen in BC or BC containing any concentration of soybean lecithin maintained similar (P>0.05) percentages of total motile sperm (61-68%) and progressively motile sperm (27-31%). In the first fertility trial, we used cryopreserved semen from a single stallion was inseminated into mares. The semen from the sperm that were frozen in BC diluent resulted in a higher fertility rate (66%, 16/24) compared to the sperm that were frozen in BCLS45 diluent (17%, 5/29; Plecithin provided similar laboratory results for stallion sperm, after cryopreservation, the sperm that was frozen with soybean lecithin in the diluent correlated with lower fertility rates. Based on these results, we concluded that the use of BCLS can be used as an alternative diluent for cryopreserving stallion sperm. However, the resulting reduced fertility rate is a matter of concern. Further studies are necessary to clarify the reasons for this decrease in fertility and to determine the optimal lecithin concentration for diluents to freeze stallion sperm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rheological behaviour of egg white and egg yolk from different poultry specimen

    Kumbár, V.; Nedomová, Š.; Votava, J.; Buchar, J.


    The main goal of this study is differences in rheological behaviour of hen (ISA BROWN), goose (Anser anser f. domestica) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) egg white and egg yolk. The rheological behaviour of egg white and egg yolk was studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Rheological behaviour was pseudoplastic and flow curves were fitted by the Herschel-Bulkley model and Ostwald-de Waele model with high values of coeficients of determination R2. The meaning of rheological parameters on friction factors during flow of egg white and egg yolk in real tube has been shown. Preliminary information on time-dependent behaviour of tested liquids has been also obtained.

  14. Primary yolk sac tumor of seminal vesicle: a case report and literature review

    Yao Xu-Dong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus tumor is a rare malignant germ cell tumor arising in the testis or ovary. Extragonadal yolk sac tumor is even rarer and has only been described in case reports. Due to the rarity of the tumors, the appropriately optimal treatment remains unclear. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the seminal vesicle. Case A 38-year-old Asian male presented with gross hematuria and hemospermia. Transrectal ultrasound scan showed a solid mass in the left seminal vesicle and the scrotal sonography showed no abnormalities. Bilateral seminal vesicles were resected, and histopathological examination showed a typical pattern of yolk sac tumor (YST. The patient responded poorly to comprehensive treatment of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgeries, developed systemic multiple metastases, and died of cachexia one and half years after diagnosis.

  15. Physiological constraints and the influence of diet on fatty acids in the yolk of gentoo penguins, Pygoscelis papua.

    Polito, Michael J; Koopman, Heather N; Able, Stephanie; Walsh, Jennifer; Goebel, Michael E


    Avian yolk fatty acids (FA) composition is influenced by two main factors: maternal diet and genetic factors that regulate FA metabolism. However, due to embryonic developmental requirements, yolk FA are thought to be physiologically constrained and less useful for dietary and trophic studies. We assessed the relative contributions of diet and physiological constraints in determining the yolk FA composition of a marine bird, the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) by comparing FA signatures of yolks and prey between a captive, controlled- feeding experiment and a wild population. Captive and wild yolk FA signatures differed even though both groups' yolk lipids were composed primarily of three FA (16:0, 18:0 and 18:1n-9). Differences were due to FA occurring in relatively low abundance, but which mirrored differences in the FA composition of diets. However, yolk FA signatures were correlated across three penguin species suggesting that common developmental constraints can be relatively more important than species-specific differences in diet or egg-laying physiology. While yolk FA are constrained, several minor components of yolk FA are reflective of diets and the calibration coefficients resulting from this study have the potential to be incorporated into predictive models and allow for quantitative dietary and trophic studies using FA analysis of penguin egg yolks.

  16. Effect of Enterococcus faecium M74 strain on egg yolk fat and cholesterol

    Mária Angelovičová


    Full Text Available Abstract The aim was to evaluate the functional efficiency of a probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium M74 in the feed on egg yolk weight, egg yolk fat and cholesterol contents of Shaver Starcross 288 hens.  Feed in the experimental group was enriched with a probiotic additive containing of 5*109 viable Enterococcus faecium per g. Egg samples a total 30 pcs per group were collected during the first egg-laying period at week 28 and 38 of hens´ age. Non-significantly lower of egg yolk weight was observed in the experimental group at all sampling times compared with their respective controls. Non-significantly lower of egg yolk weight was observed in the experimental group at all sampling times compared with their respective controls. Significantly lower concentrations of egg yolk cholesterol were found in the experimental group at week 28, and week 38 in compare with controls. In conclusion, the addition of probiotic strains Enterococcus faecium M74 to the feed of Shaver Starcross 288 hens reduced cholesterol in egg yolk at all sampling times. Even though the hypocholesterolemic mechanism of probiotics has not yet been fully understood, it is an established fact that cholesterol and bile salt metabolism are closely linked. However, the hypocholesterolemic mechanism of probiotics based on the bile salt hydrolase activity hypothesis has not yet been sufficiently elucidated.

  17. Yolk and albumen corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid by white versus brown caged laying hens.

    Navara, K J; Pinson, S E


    Maternal stress in birds can have permanent transgenerational effects through the transmission of stress hormones to offspring via the egg yolk. Previous studies have shown that White Leghorn hens show a heightened response to stress compared with Hy-Line Brown hens, producing significantly more corticosterone and displaying longer bouts of tonic immobility after handling, whereas baseline levels of corticosterone are similar between the strains. We tested the hypothesis that higher stress responsiveness would correspond to chronic accumulation and thus higher concentrations of corticosterone in egg yolks after exposure to stressors associated with routine maintenance. Eggs were collected from white and brown hens that were undisturbed except for daily feeding and routine egg collections. Corticosterone was quantified in plasma, egg yolks, and albumen and compared between strains. We predicted that corticosterone concentrations in yolk would be higher in eggs from white versus brown hens but that albumen corticosterone would not differ between strains due to the short term of albumen deposition. As predicted, yolk corticosterone concentrations were significantly higher in eggs produced by white hens, approximately twice those found in eggs laid by brown hens. Plasma and albumen concentrations of corticosterone were similar between groups. These results suggest that offspring hatching from eggs laid by White Leghorn hens are exposed to significantly more corticosterone through concentration in the egg yolk, which could permanently imprint offspring physiology and behavior.

  18. Interfacial behavior of pulmonary surfactant preparations containing egg yolk lecithin.

    Nakahara, Hiromichi; Shibata, Osamu


    Mammalian lungs are covered with lipid-protein complexes or pulmonary surfactants. In this work, which aimed towards the less expensive production of artificial pulmonary surfactants, we produced surfactants composed of egg yolk lecithin (eggPC), palmitic acid, and hexadecanol (= 0.30/0.35/0.35, mol/mol/mol ) containing different amounts of Hel 13-5 (NH2-KLLKLLLKLWLKLLKLLL-COOH) as a substitute for the proteins in native pulmonary surfactants. Surface pressure (π)-molecular area (A) and surface potential (DV)-A isotherms of the mixtures were measured via the Wilhelmy and ionizing (241)Am electrode methods, respectively. The interactions between the lipid components and Hel 13-5 led to variations in the surface pressure caused by the expulsion of fluid components from the surface. Furthermore, the π-A and DV-A isotherms featured large hysteresis loops for the surfactant that contained a small amount of Hel 13-5 during compression and successive expansion cycling. To elucidate the morphology, the phase behavior was visualized in situ at the air-water interface by means of fluorescence microscopy; the images suggested less effective interactions between Hel 13-5 and the unsaturated PC in eggPC despite the similarity of their monolayer properties.

  19. Thermal gelation of mixed egg yolk/kappa-carrageenan dispersions.

    Aguilar, J M; Cordobés, F; Raymundo, A; Guerrero, A


    This study aims to evaluate the effect of gum content and pH on the thermal gelation of mixed egg yolk/κ-carrageenan (EY/κC) dispersions, monitored by linear viscoelastic measurements. Heat processing induces dramatic changes in the microstructure and viscoelastic properties of EY/κC systems, which may be attributed to a multistage mechanism that yields an interparticle gel network. An increase in κC content generally induces an enhancement in viscoelasticity. A reduction in pH hinders this enhancement and causes an anticipation of the multistage process, which confirms the importance of the electrostatic interactions of EY/κC dispersions. The viscoelastic properties of EY/κC gels generally fit a master mechanical spectrum, which suggests that the protein matrix generally dominates the microstructure of EY/κC gels. However, SEM images reveal formation of a κC network at low pH, at which some κC autohydrolysis may also play a role. Electrostatic attractions seem to favour interactions among EY aggregates and κC into the carrageenan network.

  20. Keutuhan Membran Spermatozoa Disekuensing Sentrifugasi Gradien Densitas Percoll Berpengencer Andromed dan CEP-2 yang Ditambahkan Kuning Telur (MEMBRANE INTACT OF SPERMATOZOA FOLLOWING SEXING USING PERCOLL DENSITY GRADIENT CENTRIFUGATION IN ANDROMED AND C

    Yudha Fika Diliyana


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the best extender in protecting the membrane of bovine spermatozoafollowing sexing by percoll density gradient centrifugation. Freshly collected semen were obtained fromBalai Besar Inseminasi Buatan Singosari-Malang. The semen were diluted in andromed and CaudalEpididymal Plasma-2 (CEP-2 added with 10% egg yolk extenders.The sperm membrane integrity wasobserved using Hypo-osmotic Swelling Test (HOST. Sperm capacitation and acrososome reaction wereassessed using Chlortetracycline Fluorescence Assay.The results showed that andromed and CEP-2 addedwith 10% egg yolk were able to retain the sperm membrane integrity, whereas sperm capacitation andacrosome reaction were kept low. Caudal Epididymal Plasma-2 (CEP-2 added with 10% egg yolk seemedto give better protection towards the sperm membrane intact in comparison to andromed extender.

  1. Offspring sex in a TSD gecko correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones

    Ding, Guo-Hua; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jin; Ji, Xiang


    We incubated eggs of the Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus at three temperatures, and measured yolk testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels at three time points in embryonic development (oviposition, 1/3 of incubation, and 2/3 of incubation), to examine whether maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant in the species. Eggs incubated at 24 °C and 32 °C produced mostly females, and eggs incubated at 28 °C almost a 50:50 sex ratio of hatchlings. Female-producing eggs were larger than male-producing eggs. Clutches in which eggs were incubated at the same temperature produced mostly same-sex siblings. Yolk T level at laying was negatively related to eggs mass, and yolk E2/T ratio was positively related to egg mass. Results of two-way ANOVA with incubation temperature and stage as the factors show that: yolk E2 level was higher at 32 °C than at 24 °C; yolk T level was higher, whereas yolk E2/T ratio was smaller, at 28 °C than at 24 °C; yolk E2 and T levels were higher at 2/3 than at 1/3 of incubation. Our data in G. japonucus show that: (1) maternal influence on offspring sex via yolk steroid hormone deposition is significant; (2) incubation temperature affects the dynamics of developmental changes in yolk steroid hormones; (3) influences of yolk steroid hormones on offspring sex are secondary relative to incubation temperature effects; and (4) offspring sex correlates with an interaction between incubation temperature and yolk steroid hormones.

  2. Determination of yolk contamination in liquid egg white using Raman spectroscopy.

    Cluff, K; Konda Naganathan, G; Jonnalagada, D; Mortensen, I; Wehling, R; Subbiah, J


    Purified egg white is an important ingredient in a number of baked and confectionary foods because of its foaming properties. However, yolk contamination in amounts as low as 0.01% can impede the foaming ability of egg white. In this study, we used Raman spectroscopy to evaluate the hypothesis that yolk contamination in egg white could be detected based on its molecular optical properties. Yolk contaminated egg white samples (n = 115) with contamination levels ranging from 0% to 0.25% (on weight basis) were prepared. The samples were excited with a 785 nm laser and Raman spectra from 250 to 3,200 cm(-1) were recorded. The Raman spectra were baseline corrected using an optimized piecewise cubic interpolation on each spectrum and then normalized with a standard normal variate transformation. Samples were randomly divided into calibration (n = 77) and validation (n = 38) data sets. A partial least squares regression (PLSR) model was developed to predict yolk contamination levels, based on the Raman spectral fingerprint. Raman spectral peaks, in the spectral region of 1,080 and 1,666 cm(-1), had the largest influence on detecting yolk contamination in egg white. The PLSR model was able to correctly predict yolk contamination levels with an R(2) = 0.90 in the validation data set. These results demonstrate the capability of Raman spectroscopy for detection of yolk contamination at very low levels in egg white and present a strong case for development of an on-line system to be deployed in egg processing plants.

  3. Effects on egg yolk colour of paprika or paprika combined with marigold flower extract

    Keiko Saito


    Full Text Available COLOR-UP® and COLOR-UP YELLOW-S® were fed to a total of 144 twenty-five-week-old Charoen Pokphand brown laying hens to investigate whether yellow xanthophylls present in marigold flowers in combination with red xanthophylls from paprika fruit can further enhance egg yolk colour. The birds were randomly assigned to three groups: yellow corn basal diet control group (17.50 CP, 2750 kcal/kg ME; the 0.1% dietary paprika group; and the 0.1% dietary paprika plus 0.1% marigold group. Each group contained four replicates with 12 birds. Egg quality was recorded weekly from 25 to 28 weeks of age. Parameters did not show any difference except for egg yolk colour. Egg yolk colour scores were greater in the paprika group than in the control group (11.47 vs. 8.64; P<0.05. Egg yolk colour scores of the paprika plus marigold group (12.17 were higher than those of the paprika group (P<0.05. Compared with the control, mean lightness value decreased in the paprika plus marigold group (P<0.05, suggesting a deep egg yolk colour in this group. Redness, yellowness, and chroma were improved in both experimental groups (P<0.05. The spectral reflectance wavelength of egg yolk from the experimental groups increased between 600 and 700 nm, suggesting improved chroma. These results indicate that yellow xanthophylls from marigold flower extract (COLOR-UP YELLOW-S® in combination with red xanthophylls present in paprika (COLOR-UP® can further enhance egg yolk colour and chroma.

  4. Microencapsulation of bull spermatozoa: Its viability in alginate-egg yolk media

    Kusumaningrum DA


    Full Text Available Microencapsulation of spermatozoa is a process to entrap a number of spermatozoa in microcapsule. Alginate, as a natural polymer polysaccharide is commonly used in cell microencapsulation. Tris Yolk Citrate buffer is a good buffer for spermatozoa dilution, therefore this experiment aimed to determine optimal concentration of alginate and egg yolk to sperm quality in bull spermatozoa microencapsulation. Concentration of egg yolk and alginate in media of encapsulation were determined in applications of sperm microencapsulation. Four bulls were used as semen source and only semen with good quality were used in this study. Poolled semen was diluted using the medium to get final concentration 100 x 106 cell/ ml. The first study was conducted to determine the effect of concentration of alginate (0, 1, and 1.5% on viability of spermatozoa. The second study to determine the effect of alginate concentration, egg yolk and its interaction was done by comparing two levels of alginate (1 and 1.5% with four levels of egg yolk (5, 10, 15 and 20%. Viability of spermatozoa, motility (M, live spermatozoa (L and Intact Apical Ridge (IAR were observed at 0, 1, 2 and 3 h incubation at room temperature. Results indicated that alginate concentration increased the osmolality and viscosity but did not affect pH of the medium. The osmolality and viscosity of medium were 275, 325, 425 and 1.12, 26.62, 47.98 for concentration of alginate 0, 1 and 1.5% respectively. Percentage of motility is significantly lower (P<0.05 in alginate medium than those of control, and 1.5% alginate could produce more uniform beads. Concentration of alginate, egg yolk and its interaction did not significantly affect viability of sperm. It is concluded that the combination of 1.5% alginate with 5, 10, 15 or 20% egg yolk can be used as media for sperm encapsulation.

  5. Morphogenesis of extraembryonic membranes and placentation in Mabuya mabouya (Squamata, Scincidae).

    Jerez, Adriana; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia


    Topological and histological analyses of Mabuya mabouya embryos at different developmental stages showed an extraembryonic membrane sequence as follows: a bilaminar omphalopleure and progressive mesodermal expansion around the whole yolk sac at gastrula stages; mesodermal split and formation of an exocoelom in the entire embryonic chamber at neurula stages; beginning of the expansion of the allantois into the exocoelom to form a chorioallantoic membrane at pharyngula stages; complete extension of the allantois into the exocoelom between limb-bud to preparturition stages. Thus, a placental sequence could be enumerated: bilaminar yolk sac placenta; chorioplacenta; allantoplacenta. All placentas are highly specialized for nutrient absorption from early developmental stages. The bistratified extraembryonic ectoderm possesses an external layer with cuboidal cells and a microvillar surface around the whole yolk sac, which absorbs uterine secretions during development of the bilaminar yolk sac placenta and chorioplacenta. During gastrulation, with mesodermal expansion a dorsal absorptive plaque forms above the embryo and several smaller absorptive plaques develop antimesometrially. Both structures are similar histologically and are active in histotrophic transfer from gastrula stages until the end of development. The dorsal absorptive plaque will constitute the placentome and paraplacentome during allantoplacental development. At late gastrula-early neurula stages some absorptive plaques form chorionic concavities or chorionic bags that are penetrated by a long uterine fold and seem to have a specialized histotrophic and/or metabolic role. The extraembryonic mesoderm does not ingress into the yolk sac and neither an isolated yolk mass nor a yolk cleft are formed. This derived pattern of development may be related to the drastic reduction of the egg size and obligatory placentotrophy from early developmental stages. Our results show new specialized placentotrophic

  6. Yolk syncytial layer formation is a failure of cytokinesis mediated by Rock1 function in the early zebrafish embryo

    Lee-Thean Chu


    The yolk syncytial layer (YSL performs multiple critical roles during zebrafish development. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the formation of this important extraembryonic structure. Here, we demonstrate by timelapse confocal microscopy of a transgenic line expressing membrane-targeted GFP that the YSL forms as a result of the absence of cytokinesis between daughter nuclei at the tenth mitotic division and the regression of pre-existing marginal cell membranes, thus converting the former margin of the blastoderm into a syncytium. We show that disruption of components of the cytoskeleton induces the formation of an expanded YSL, and identify Rock1 as the regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics that lead to YSL formation. Our results suggest that the YSL forms as a result of controlled cytokinesis failure in the marginal blastomeres, and Rock1 function is necessary for this process to occur. Uncovering the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying zebrafish YSL formation offers significant insight into syncytial development in other tissues as well as in pathological conditions.

  7. Relationship between early exposure to egg yolk and atopic dermatitis in 18 months old children

    Lilijana Besednjak-Kocijančič


    Full Text Available Background: Atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome (AEDS is the most frequent inflammatory disease of the skin in the childhood. A cause-effect link between food allergy and atopic dermatitis (AD has been established and sensitization to hen’s egg is considered a strong predictor for AD. Egg yolk is usually introduced into the child’s diet in the first year. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of early introduction of egg yolk into the diet on AD prevalence in 18 month old children.Methods: 269 infants with birth weight at least 3000 g and with a positive history of parental allergy confirmed by allergy testing were included. They were divided in three groups according their age at the introduction of boiled egg into the child’s diet: group A – children eating egg yolk from 6 month; group B – children eating egg yolk from 9 month; group C – children eating egg yolk from 12 month. Children from all groups were exclusively breast fed for at least 6 month while their mothers were on a diet without eggs. The diagnosis of AD was made according to the criteria of Hanifin and Rajka. At 18 months of age sensitization to egg yolk was evaluated with specific IgE testing and skin-prick test (SPT. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 10.0 using the MantelHaenszel chi-square test.Results: In group A 57.1%, group B 31.7% and in group C 21.3% of children developed AEDS (p < 0.0001. Elevated serum total IgE had 58.9% of children from group A, 34.1% from group B and 18.7% from group C (p < 0.0001. Elevated specific IgE antibodies to egg yolk had 25.0% of children from group A, 12.2% from B and 6.7% from C (p = 0.001. Positive SPT with egg yolk had in group A 37.5%, B 23.1% and C 18.7% of children with AD (p = 0.099.Conclusions: We demonstrated a negative influence of early introduction of egg yolk into the diet on AD and AEDS prevalence in a group of newborns at risk for atopic diseases.

  8. Basement membrane components secreted by mouse yolk sac carcinoma cell lines

    Damjanov, A; Wewer, U M; Tuma, B


    carcinoma respectively. Cell lines NE and ME were composed of a monomorphous cell population; however, the morphology of ME was growth-medium-dependent. LRD was composed of a heterogeneous cell population and formed embryoid bodies. NE secreted soluble laminin, osteonectin, entactin and fibronectin but did...

  9. Effect of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) seminal plasma on the post-thaw quality of ram semen cryopreserved in a soybean lecithin-based or egg yolk-based extender.

    Ustuner, Burcu; Alcay, Selim; Toker, M Berk; Nur, Zekariya; Gokce, Elif; Sonat, Fusun Ak; Gul, Zulfiye; Duman, Muhammed; Ceniz, Cafer; Uslu, Aydın; Sagirkaya, Hakan; Soylu, M Kemal


    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of rainbow trout seminal plasma (RTSP) (0.1%, 1% and 10%) in extenders containing either egg yolk or lecithin for use in Awassi ram semen cryopreservation. Pooled sperm were diluted in a two-step dilution method to a final concentration of 1/5 (semen/extender) in egg yolk or lecithin extender containing no RTSP, 0.1%, 1% or 10% RTSP (v/v). Semen samples were assessed for sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity [hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) and Hoechst 33258] and defective acrosomes [FITC-conjugated Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA-FITC)] at the following five time points: after dilution with extender A; after equilibration; and post-thaw at 0h, 3h and 5h. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was examined only after thawing. Freezing and thawing procedures (dilution, equilibration and post-thaw incubation at 0h, 3h and 5h) negatively affected the motility (P<0.001) and acrosome integrity (P<0.001). Additionally, freezing and thawing negatively affected the plasma membrane integrity, as determined by the HOST and Hoechst 33258 (P<0.001). The extender group affected the motility (P<0.001) and the HOST results (P<0.001). Levels of MDA in the egg yolk extender with 1% RTSP group were significantly lower than in the lecithin control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the egg yolk extender groups that were supplemented with 10% and 1% RTSP provided greater cryoprotective effects for semen survivability during 5h incubation than the other extender groups.

  10. The Effect of Oregano Essential Oil and Pollen on Egg Production and Egg Yolk Qualitative Parameters

    Henrieta Arpášová


    Full Text Available Phytobiotics are defined as products derived from plants, which may have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal microflora of animals, performance and quality of animal products. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with oregano essential oil and pollen extract addition on egg production and physical egg yolk parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=30 were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks with diets with oregano essential oil and pollen supplemented. In the control group hens received feed mixture with no additions. The diets in the first experimental groups was supplemented with 0.25 g/kg oregano essential oil. The feed for second experimental groups of birds consisted of basal diet supplemented with pollen extract of the same dose at 0.4 g/kg. Number of eggs per hen during the reporting period in order of the groups: 135.6, 136.7 and 138.5 units, at an average intensity of laying 90.4, 91.13 and 92.33%. The results suggest that the egg production, egg mass, egg weight and all of qualitative parameters of egg yolk (egg yolk weight (g, egg yolk index, egg yolk colour (°HLR were not significantly influenced with oregano oil or pollen addition (P>0.05.

  11. Egg yolk as a source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant feeding.

    Simopoulos, A P; Salem, N


    In this paper we compare the fatty acid content of egg yolks from hens fed four different feeds as a source of docosahexaenoic acid to supplement infant formula. Greek eggs contain more docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 omega 3) and less linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 omega 6) and alpha-linolenic acid (LNA, 18:3 omega 3) than do fish-meal or flax eggs. Two to three grams of Greek egg yolk may provide an adequate amount of DHA and arachidonic acid for a preterm neonate. Mean intake of breast milk at age 1 mo provides 250 mg long-chain omega 3 fatty acids. This amount can be obtained from less than 1 yolk of a Greek egg (0.94), greater than 1 yolk of flax eggs (1.6) and fish-meal eggs (1.4), or 8.3 yolks of supermarket eggs. With proper manipulation of the hens' diets, eggs could be produced with fatty acid composition similar to that of Greek eggs.

  12. Failure of zinc to prevent dysmorphogenesis of cultured rat conceptuses by anti-yolk sac antiserum

    Marlow, R.; Freeman, S.J.


    Day 10 rat conceptuses were cultured for 48h in the presence of either cadmium or anti-vesceral yolk sac antiserum (AVYS). Cadmium was embryotoxic at concentrations exceeding 0.25 ug/ml while AVYS caused embryonic dysmorphogenesis, particularly affecting the optic vesicles, at concentrations of 2 ul/ml and above. The effect of pretreatment with zinc on embryotoxicity caused by cadmium or AVYS was studied. Zinc ameliorated the effects of cadmium but had no effect on AVYS-induced embryonic abnormalities. In a second set of experiments inhibition of /sup 125/I-labelled PVP uptake by the yolk sac of cultured whole conceptuses was studied. Cadmium and AVYS both inhibited uptake compared to control cultures. Zinc again ameliorated the effect of cadmium but had no action against AVYS-induced inhibition. These results are in contrast to their previous findings using isolated cultured yolk sacs in which zinc ameliorated the inhibitory effects on /sup 125/I-labelled PVP uptake of both cadmium and AVYS. These data show that in experiments using the isolated cultured yolk sac and the intact cultured conceptus, a qualitatively different response in yolk sac behavior is observed under similar experimental conditions.

  13. Effects of incubator humidity and hen age on yolk composition in broiler hatching eggs from young breeders.

    Burnham, M R; Peebles, E D; Gardner, C W; Brake, J; Bruzual, J J; Gerard, P D


    The effects of broiler breeder age (26, 28, and 30 wk) and incubator relative humidity (43, 53, and 63% RH) on yolk sac weight and composition in broiler hatching eggs between 16 and 19 d of incubation were evaluated. Percentage yolk sac weight was reduced in eggs from the youngest (26 wk) breeder hens and in eggs incubated at 53% RH. Percentage yolk moisture, in eggs from the youngest hens, was lowest at 16 d and was highest at 19 d, and percentage yolk lipid was highest at 16 and 17 d of incubation in eggs from 30-wk-old hens. Percentage yolk lipid content was higher at 63% RH compared with 53% RH in eggs from 26-wk-old breeders but was lower in eggs incubated at a 43% RH compared with 53 and 63% RH from 30-wk-old breeders. Yolk stearic and arachidonic acid concentrations were higher and myristic acid concentration was lower in eggs from the 26-wk-old hens. Conversely, the highest yolk concentrations of linolenic and palmitoleic acids occurred in eggs from 30- and 28-wk-old breeders, respectively. At 16, 17, 18, and 19 d of incubation, yolk oleic acid concentrations were significantly, but variably, affected by breeder age, whereas linoleic acid concentration was highest in 26-wk-old breeders only at 19 d. Palmitic acid concentration at 17 d was lower in eggs incubated at 53% RH compared with 43 and 63% RH. Rate of yolk uptake from the yolk sac by embryos may be increased by incubating eggs at 53% RH, and the effects of changes in RH between 43 and 63% on yolk lipid content are influenced by breeder age.

  14. Transition of maternal dietary n-3 fatty acids from the yolk to the liver of broiler breeder progeny via the residual yolk sac.

    Koppenol, Astrid; Buyse, Johan; Everaert, Nadia; Willems, Els; Wang, Yufeng; Franssens, Lies; Delezie, Evelyne


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the transfer of maternal dietary fatty acids (FA) from the yolk to the developing offspring, with special emphasis on n-3 FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Six hundred forty Ross 308 breeders were housed from 6 to 58 wk of age in 16 pens resulting in 4 replicates per dietary treatment. They were fed 1 of 4 diets: a basal diet, rich in n-6 FA (CON), or an n-3 FA enriched diet formulated to obtain an EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA=DHA), 1/2 (DHA), or 2/1 (EPA). At 28, 43, and 58 wk of age, 20 eggs per treatment were collected and analyzed for FA composition. At these same breeder ages, 600 fertilized eggs per treatment were incubated. At hatch the residual yolks of 25 chicks per treatment were collected and analyzed for FA composition. At every hatch, 180 chicks per treatment were raised under standard conditions and livers were sampled at d 1, 14, 28, and 38 d for FA analysis. Concentrations of EPA in the yolk and residual yolk of eggs laid by EPA-fed breeders were highest, next-to-highest for EPA=DHA-fed breeders, next-to-lowest for DHA-fed breeders, and lowest in those laid by control hens, reflecting the inclusion levels in the maternal diets. Yolk and residual yolk DHA concentrations, however, were not only elevated due to DHA supplementation, compared with the control diet, but also due to EPA supplementation. Offspring hepatic EPA concentrations were elevated until d 28 in all n-3 enriched groups, whereas hepatic DHA concentrations were only affected by EPA=DHA and DHA supplementation at d 1. No differences were found in hepatic DHA concentrations at later offspring ages. Considering the role of EPA and DHA in early development and growth, the maternal supply of these n-3 FA might improve offspring health and performance.

  15. Yolk shell nanocomposite particles as bioactive bone fillers and growth factor carriers.

    Shi, Pujiang; Abbah, Sunny A; Chuah, Yon Jin; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yong; He, Pengfei; Wong, Hee Kit; Goh, James C H


    The efficient delivery of bioactive molecules via rationally designed nanoparticles is an important focus in regenerative medicine. The yolk shell nanocomposite particles described herein are composed of silk fibroin movable cores formed within voided calcium carbonate shells to load and control the release of labile cytokines. These particles are excellent carrier vehicles of potent molecules as they sustained the release of bioactive Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP-2) for more than 28 days in vitro. Implantation into bone defects in rabbits corroborates the in vitro results and also reveals that upon contact with phosphate containing body fluids, implanted yolk shell particles agglomerate and transform into a filler that adapts to defect contour to further act as an absorbable hemostatic agent. Taken together, the fabrication of these yolk shell particle-based "bone fillers" could expand the horizon for the development of newer generations of advanced bioactive materials in tissue regeneration applications.

  16. Dialkylphosphatidylcholine and egg yolk lecithin for emulsification of various triglycerides.

    Nii, Tomoko; Ishii, Fumiyoshi


    Synthesized saturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) and egg yolk lecithin (EYL) were investigated to explore their influence on particle sizes in emulsions when dispersing various triglycerides (TG). One of four different kinds of synthesized saturated PC (DLPC, DMPC, DPPC and DSPC) or three different kinds of EYL (purified EYL (PEL) and hydrogenated purified EYL with two different iodine values (IV), R-20 and R-5), 2.5% (w/w) glycerol solution and one of four kinds of TG (tricaprylin, tricaprin, trilaurin and trimyristin) were sonicated five times for 1 min with intervals of 0.5 min. When using four kinds of synthesized saturated PCs as emulsifiers, the carbon numbers of each PC had a strong correlation with the mean diameters of the emulsion when analyzed with each of the four kinds of TG used in the study (regression function ranged from 0.811 to 0.915). The carbon numbers of the TG had less correlation with the mean diameters than the PC in simple regression analysis (regression function ranged from 0.236 to 0.875). Multiple regression analysis using the carbon numbers both of the PC and TG as independent variables was remarkably significant in the regression function (2.0 x 10(-14)) and all regression coefficients (2.7 x 10(-13), 5.8 x 10(-7) and 1.9 x 10(-9) for PC, TG and intercept, respectively). Among the regression coefficients, the contribution of the carbon number of the PC was the most significant. These results indicated that a multiple regression function should be useful to estimate the mean diameters of emulsion droplets in any combinations of PC and TG used in this study. In the experiments using three kinds of EYL, the mean diameters also tended to increase according to the order of PEL, R-20 and R-5, which corresponds to the order of degrees of saturation (IV = 75, 20 and 2, respectively). The experimental values for EYL were compared with the estimated values calculated by the multiple regression function derived from synthesized PC data using the

  17. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins

    Marwa Yousr


    Full Text Available Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF. Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y and tryptophan (W, in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23 and KLSDW (EYGF-33, contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56 was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69% and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL. The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL. In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33 (10 mg/mL had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk.

  18. Purifikasi Imunoglobulin Yolk Pada Ayam yang Divaksin terhadap Ekskretori/Sekretori Stadium L3 Ascaridia galli

    Darmawi Darmawi


    Full Text Available Purification yolk immunoglobulin of hens vaccinated against excretory/secretory Ascaridia galli L3 larvae stage ABSTRACT. The main immunoglobulin fraction of poultry is called IgY, in order to distinguish it from the mammalian IgG. This article focus on purification yolk immunoglobulin of hens vaccinated against excretory/secretory Ascaridia galli larvae to obtained purity IgY. Active vaccinations with excretory/secretory antigen were applied intra muscularly of chickens with an initial dose of 80 μg. The vaccinations were repeated three times with dose of each 60 μg with an interval of one week. The first vaccinations were excretory/secretory antigen mixed with Fruend Adjuvant Complete and subsequently mixed with Freund Adjuvant Incomplete. Antibody response in yolk was detected at weekly intervals by agar gel precipitation test (AGPT. The chicken’s eggs were collected from 49 day after vaccinations. IgY was extracted from egg yolks by means of ammonium sulphate and purified using fast performance liquid chromatography (FPLC. The purity of anti-ekscretory/secretory IgY protein was determined by Bradford method (λ = 280 nm. The result showed that antibody in yolk was begun detect with AGPT at four weeks after vaccination. IgY concentration after purification was 0,875 ± 0.251 mg/ml. This study has shown that the product released in vitro by L3 stage A. galli is capable of stimulating humoral immunity by mean of producing antibody through yolk as biologic manufacturer could be a good choice.

  19. Environmental effects shape the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the yolk

    Müller Wendt


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Maternal effects occur when the phenotype of the offspring is influenced by the phenotype of the mother, which in turn depends on her heritable state as well as on influences from the current and past environmental conditions. All of these pathways may, therefore, form significant sources of variation in maternal effects. Here, we focused on the maternal transfer of carotenoids and vitamin E to the egg yolk, using canaries as a model species. Maternal yolk carotenoids and vitamin E are known to generate significant phenotypic variation in offspring, representing examples of maternal effects. We studied the intra-individual consistency in deposition patterns across two years and the mother-daughter resemblance across two generations in order to estimate the level of heritable variation. The effects of the current environmental conditions were studied via a food supplementation experiment, while the consequences of past environmental conditions were estimated on the basis of the early growth trajectories. Results There was a significant effect of the current environmental conditions on the yolk carotenoid and vitamin E deposition, but this effect varied between antioxidant components. The deposition of yolk carotenoids and vitamin E were linked to the process of yolk formation. Past environmental conditions did not contribute to the variation in yolk carotenoid and vitamin E levels nor did we find significant heritable variation. Conclusions The transfer of carotenoids or vitamin E may be an example where current environmental variation is largely passed from the mother to the offspring, despite the numerous intermediate physiological steps that are involved. Differences in the effect of the environmental conditions as experienced by the mother during laying may be due to differences in availability as well as physiological processes such as competitive exclusion or selective absorption.

  20. Yolk proteins in the male reproductive system of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster: spatial and temporal patterns of expression.

    Majewska, Magdalena M; Suszczynska, Agnieszka; Kotwica-Rolinska, Joanna; Czerwik, Tomasz; Paterczyk, Bohdan; Polanska, Marta A; Bernatowicz, Piotr; Bebas, Piotr


    In insects, spermatozoa develop in the testes as clones of single spermatogonia covered by specialized somatic cyst cells (cc). Upon completion of spermatogenesis, spermatozoa are released to the vas deferens, while the cc remain in the testes and die. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the released spermatozoa first reach the seminal vesicles (SV), the organ where post-testicular maturation begins. Here, we demonstrate the temporal (restricted to the evening and early night hours) accumulation of membranous vesicles containing proteins in the SV lumen of D. melanogaster. When SV vesicles were isolated from the semen and co-incubated with testis-derived spermatozoa in vitro, their contents bound to the spermatozoa along their tails. The proteins of the SV vesicles were then characterized using 2-D electrophoresis. We identified a prominent protein spot of around 45-47 kDa, which disappears from the SV vesicles in the night, i.e. shortly after they appear in the SV lumen. Sequencing of peptides derived from this spot by mass spectrometry revealed identity with three yolk proteins (YP1-3). This unexpected result was confirmed by western blotting, which demonstrated that SV vesicles contain proteins that are immunoreactive with an antibody against D. melanogaster YP1-3. The expression of all yp genes was shown to be a unique feature of testis tissues. Using RNA probes we found that their transcripts localize exclusively to the cc that cover fully developed spermatozoa in the distal part of each testis. Temporally, the expression of yp genes was found to be restricted to a short period during the day and is followed by the evening accumulation of YP proteins in the cc. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed that cc are the source of SV vesicles containing YPs that are released into the SV lumen. These vesicles interact with spermatozoa and as a result, YPs become extrinsic proteins of the sperm membrane. Thus, we describe for the first time the expression of

  1. The Effects of Biopolymer Encapsulation on Total Lipids and Cholesterol in Egg Yolk during in Vitro Human Digestion

    Si-Kyung Lee


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Ultrastructure and fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm after storage in CEP-2 extender with and without egg yolk.

    Ducha, Nur; Susilawati, T; Aulanni'am; Wahyuningsih, Sri; Pangestu, Mulyoto


    Sperm can change physiology and structure during storage in refrigerator temperature or frozen temperature that caused by cold shock or free radical. The aim of this study to evaluate ultrastructure and fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm after storage in cauda epididymal plasma-based (CEP-2) extender with or without 20% egg yolk concentration at refrigerator temperature. Semen sample collected from three Limousin bull were diluted with CEP-2 with 20% egg yolk and CEP-2 without egg yolk, cooled and stored at 4-5 degrees C during eight days. Sperm ultrastructure were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm were assessed on cleavage rate of embryo using in vitro fertilization method. The percentage data were transformed into arcsine before being analysis with ANOVA and Duncan's multiple comparison test. The result of study showed morphologically normal sperm after storage in CEP-2 with 20% egg yolk, whereas in CEP-2 without egg yolk morphologically abnormal sperm especially neck was fractured and head was destroyed. Fertilizing ability of Limousin bull sperm were significantly higher in CEP-2 extender with egg yolk 20% (74.29 +/- 4.95%; p egg yolk (30.00 +/- 12.02%; p Egg yolk 20% in CEP-2 extender protected ultrastructure and fertilizing ability after storage during eight days.

  3. One-Pot Method for Multifunctional Yolk Structured Nanocomposites with N-doped Carbon Shell Using Polydopamine as Precursor

    Zhang, Yanwei; Zhang, Min; Ding, Lei; Wang, Yongtao; Xu, Jingli


    Herein, we reported a facile method to prepared uniform yolk like nanocomposites with well-defined N-doped carbon shell (C), in which the cores@SiO2@polydopamine (Pdop) were used as the sacrificed template. Typically, inherited from the functional Au core, the yolk particles presented excellent catalytic activities.

  4. Yolk/Shell Colloidal Crystals Incorporating Movable Cores with Their Motion Controlled by an External Electric Field

    K., Watanabe,; H., Ishii,; Konno, M.; Imhof, A.; van Blaaderen, A.; Nagao, D.


    Yolk/shell particles composed of a submicrometer-sized movable core and a silica shell are promising building blocks for novel optical colloidal crystals, because the locations of cores in the shell compartment can be reversibly changed by using external stimuli. Two dimensional arrays of yolk/shell

  5. Offspring sex is not related to maternal allocation of yolk steroids in the lizard Bassiana duperreyi (Scincidae).

    Radder, Rajkumar; Ali, Sinan; Shine, Richard


    The eggs of birds and reptiles contain detectable levels of several steroid hormones, and experimental application of such steroids can reverse genetically determined sex of the offspring. However, any causal influence of maternally derived yolk steroids on sex determination in birds and reptiles remains controversial. We measured yolk hormones (dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, and 17 beta-estradiol) in newly laid eggs of the montane scincid lizard Bassiana duperreyi. This species is well suited to such an analysis because (1) offspring sex is influenced by incubation temperatures and egg size as well as by sex chromosomes, suggesting that yolk hormones might somehow be involved in the complex pathways of sex determination, and (2) experimental application of either estradiol or fadrozole to such eggs strongly influences offspring sex. We obtained yolk by biopsy, before incubating the eggs at a temperature that produces a 50:50 sex ratio. Yolk steroid levels varied over a threefold range between eggs from different clutches, but there were no significant differences in yolk steroids, or in relative composition of steroids, between eggs destined to become male versus female. Further, yolk steroid concentrations were not significantly related to egg size. Thus, yolk steroid hormones do not appear to play a critical role in sex determination for B. duperreyi.

  6. Yolk coelomitis in a white-throated monitor lizard (Varanus albigularis : short communication

    B.R. Gardner


    Full Text Available Yolk coelomitis as a result of pre-ovulatory follicular stasis is a common disorder in captive reptiles, especially in captive lizards of various genera. The clinical signs are generally fairly non-specific and diagnosis is based on clinical signs together with most of the common diagnostic modalities. The condition is most likely a husbandry and environment-related reproductive disorder. It has not been reported in wild free-living specimens. This report describes the clinical presentation and post mortem lesions in a white-throated monitor lizard that died during treatment for non-specific clinical signs related to a severe yolk coelomitis.

  7. A rapid and convenient dot-immunobinding assay for chicken egg-yolk antibodies



    The dot-immunobinding assay was applied to investigate the characteristics of chicken egg yolk antibodies. This method of assay was proved to be a rapid and simple method to demonstrate and characterize the egg-yolk antibody IgY in comparison with the traditional ELISA assay. By using the BandScan software, the gray scale value of dots and the background could be determined. According to the intensity of dots (gray scale value) compared to the standard sample of 10 μg, how much IgY remained can be determined in a shorter time.

  8. Reflection of serum immunoglobulin isotypes in the egg yolk of laying hens immunized with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    Nagendra Nath Barman


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the seroconversion and development of egg yolk immunoglobulins in adult laying White Leghorn hens immunized against an isolate of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC bearing K91 and K88ac antigens, obtained from diarrheic piglet. Materials and Methods: Adult laying White Leghorn hens were immunized with inactivated enterotoxic E. coli strain isolated originally from a case of piglet diarrhea following recommended schedule. The development of whole antibodies and isotype-specific antibodies in serum and egg yolk were measured using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Piglets suffering from diarrhea with fecal samples positive for ETEC were fed with egg yolk and compared with diarrheic control group. Results: The serum and egg yolk ELISA antibody titer against E. coli strain used in the present study was as high as 2666.66±307.92 and 933.33±203.67 respectively on 50 day-post-vaccination (DPV. The immunoglobulin Y (IgY was the predominant isotype in serum and egg yolk, which reached the peak titer of 2200±519.61 in serum on 40 DPV and 800±244.94 in egg yolk on 50 DPV. IgM titer in serum and egg yolk was found to be meager, and no IgA could be detected. Diarrheic piglets fed with the egg yolk suspension from immunized hens showed a promising result in controlling diarrhea. Conclusion: Egg yolk antibodies are considered a suitable immunotherapeutic alternative to conventional antibiotic therapy. High titer of egg yolk antibodies raised in the immunized hen against an isolate of ETEC holds the potential to be used for passive protection of diarrheic piglets during their most susceptible period of infection.

  9. Differential shrinkage induced formation of yolk-shell carbon microspheres toward enhanced microwave absorption

    Tian, Chunhua; Du, Yunchen; Xu, Haiyan; Xue, Jianlei; Chu, Wenlei; Qiang, Rong; Han, Xijiang; Xu, Ping


    Rational design of the microstructure paves new ways for microwave absorbing materials because it can create more facilities for the attenuation of incident electromagnetic waves. In this study, a simple method is proposed to prepare yolk-shell carbon microspheres through differential shrinkage in the internal cores and external shells of polypyrrole microspheres with the assistance of outermost SiO2 coating. This method simplifies the preparation procedures and avoids strictly controlled conditions. The electromagnetic parameters, such as relative complex permittivity and permeability, of the as-prepared yolk-shell carbon microspheres, are investigated in the frequency range of 2.0-18.0 GHz. Compared with solid carbon microspheres, yolk-shell carbon microspheres exhibit significantly enhanced microwave absorption properties in terms of both the reflection loss intensity and absorption bandwidth. The minimum reflection loss value can reach up to -27.5 dB at 8.32 GHz with an absorber thickness of 2.96 mm. The absorption bandwidth over -10.0 dB is in the range of 11.3-16.2 GHz at the typical thickness of 2.0 mm. The enhanced microwave absorption properties may be attributed to the good attenuation ability and well matched characteristic impedance. This work not only provides a promising candidate for microwave absorption, but also provides an attractive strategy to prepare various yolk-shell composites.

  10. Controlled Formation of Metal@Al₂O₃ Yolk-Shell Nanostructures with Improved Thermal Stability.

    Zhang, Wei; Lin, Xi-Jie; Sun, Yong-Gang; Bin, De-Shan; Cao, An-Min; Wan, Li-Jun


    Yolk-shell structured nanomaterials have shown interesting potential in different areas due to their unique structural configurations. A successful construction of such a hybrid structure relies not only on the preparation of the core materials, but also on the capability to manipulate the outside wall. Typically, for Al2O3, it has been a tough issue in preparing it into a uniform nanoshell, making the use of Al2O3-based yolk-shell structures a challenging but long-awaited task. Here, in benefit of our success in the controlled formation of Al2O3 nanoshell, we demonstrated that yolk-shell structures with metal confined inside a hollow Al2O3 nanosphere could be successfully achieved. Different metals including Au, Pt, Pd have been demonstrated, forming a typical core@void@shell structure. We showed that the key parameters of the yolk-shell structure such as the shell thickness and the cavity size could be readily tuned. Due to the protection of a surrounding Al2O3 shell, the thermal stability of the interior metal nanoparticles could be substantially improved, resulting in promising performance for the catalytic CO oxidation as revealed by our preliminary test on Au@Al2O3.

  11. Measurement of Iron in Egg Yolk: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment Using Biochemical Principles

    Maloney, Kevin M.; Quiazon, Emmanuel M.; Indralingam, Ramee


    The generally accepted method to determine iron content in food is by acid digestion or dry ashing and subsequent flame atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. We have developed an experiment that chemically extracts the iron from an egg yolk and quantifies it using UV-vis absorption…

  12. Maternal yolk androgens in European starlings : affected by social environment or individual traits of the mother?

    Eising, Corine M.; Pavlova, Denitza; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Eens, Marcel; Pinxten, Rianne

    Social competition among female birds has been shown to positively affect yolk androgen levels, perhaps providing a mechanism to communicate environmental conditions to offspring. Whether this relationship is due to social density or to differences among mothers that breed in different social

  13. The use of yolk protein as biomarkers for endocrine disruption in molluscs

    Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund; Bjerregaard, Poul

    of the proteins in molluscs of different sex and life-stage. The main yolk protein was purified from gonads containing eggs of the freshwater bivalves U. pictorum and U. tumidus and from eggs dissected from egg clutches of the pulmonate gastropod L. stagnalis. The ELISAs were used to quantify the concentration...

  14. Determination of the Gelation Mechanism of Freeze-Thawed Hen Egg Yolk.

    Au, Carmen; Acevedo, Nuria C; Horner, Harry T; Wang, Tong


    A study of yolks stored up to 168 d at -20 °C was conducted to determine the gelation behavior and mechanism of freeze-thawed yolk. Methods used were rheology, native and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native- and SDS-PAGE), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size analysis, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy for matrix mobility. Results indicate that both constituents of plasma and granules contributed to gelation of yolk under freezing. PAGE analyses suggest that granular proteins participated in aggregation during freeze-thaw. Increasing gel strength and particle size and decreasing water and lipid-water mobility indicate that lipoproteins or apolipoproteins aggregated. At storage times ≥84 d, increased protein and lipid mobility, the detection of smaller particles, and secondarily increased gel strength suggest the liberation of protein or lipoprotein components from previously formed aggregates and further aggregation of these constituents. Disruption of the gelled yolk matrix observed with TEM supported that ice crystal formation was required for gelation to occur. A two-stage dynamic gelation model is thus proposed.

  15. Rapid assimilation of yolk enhances growth and development of lizard embryos from a cold environment.

    Storm, Melissa A; Angilletta, Michael J


    Selection for rapid growth and development in cold environments results in a geographic pattern known as countergradient variation. The eastern fence lizard, Sceloporus undulatus, exhibits countergradient variation in embryonic growth and development along latitudinal clines. To identify the proximate causes of countergradient variation, we compared the energy budgets of embryos from a cold environment (Virginia) and a warm environment (South Carolina) during development at a realistic thermal cycle. The difference in mean egg size between populations was controlled by removing yolk from large eggs and performing a sham manipulation on other eggs. Respiration was measured every 4 days throughout 48 days of incubation. After this period, eggs were dissected and the energy contents of embryos and yolk were determined by calorimetry. As expected from previous experiments, embryos from Virginia reached a more advanced stage of development and deposited more energy within tissues than embryos from South Carolina. The greater absorption of yolk by embryos from Virginia was associated with a higher rate of respiration. Assimilation of yolk by rapidly growing embryos could reduce growth or survival after hatching. Such costs might explain the maintenance of countergradient variation in S. undulatus.

  16. Yolk androgens and begging behaviour in black-headed gull chicks : an experimental field study

    Eising, CM; Groothuis, TGG; Groothuis, Ton G.G.


    Black-headed gulls, Larus ridibundus, produce clutches of three eggs, which contain high levels of maternal androgens in the yolk. These levels increase with laying order and the eggs hatch asynchronously. Experiments have supported the hypothesis that this within-clutch variation in maternal

  17. Ruptured-yolk peritonitis and organochlorine residues in a royal tern

    Blus, L.J.; Locke, L.N.; Stafford, C.J.


    Ruptured-yolk peritonitis was responsible for the death of a royal tern. Lodgment of eggs in the oviduct was probably due to reverse peristalsis brought about by breakage of the thin-shelled eggs and secondary bacterial infection. The thin shells were apparently not related to the low levels of DDE and other organochlorine pollutants found in tissues and egg contents.

  18. Maternal yolk androgens in European starlings : affected by social environment or individual traits of the mother?

    Eising, Corine M.; Pavlova, Denitza; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Eens, Marcel; Pinxten, Rianne


    Social competition among female birds has been shown to positively affect yolk androgen levels, perhaps providing a mechanism to communicate environmental conditions to offspring. Whether this relationship is due to social density or to differences among mothers that breed in different social situat

  19. The Study on the Thermal Stability of CLA in Egg Yolk

    Yang Lin; Cao Ying Chen; Zhen-Yu


    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been a subject of extensive investigation for their anticarcinogenic, hypolipidemic, antiatherosclerotic and immune-enhancing activities. Stability of CLA in foods has not received much attention by both academics and industry. Although CLA has shown many beneficial effects, its decomposition must be prevented when CLA in foods is processed, stored and transported. However, no study to date has addressed the stability of CLA in foods. The present study was carried out further to examine the stability of CLA in egg yolk during the storage and frying, using gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography (Agt-HPLC). The eggs, containing 4.0% CLA per gramme of egg yolk, were 40s. Either storage for 6 months or frying for 40 s did not significantly change the composition of CLA in egg yolk. However, the degradation of CLA was statistically significant when the CLA components of egg yolk protected CLA from degradation. It is concluded that CLA is well preserved in egg before it is consumed.

  20. Lipid composition of liver in rats fed diets supplemented with egg yolks of modified composition

    Hodžić Aida


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of diets supplemented with egg yolks of modified composition on the fatty-acid composition and lipid content in rat’s liver. During four weeks of the experiment 64 Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 16 individuals each (eight individuals of both sexes and fed a commercial feed mixture for rats (group C or diet containing 70% commercial mixture for rats and 30% freshly cooked egg yolks from laying hens fed diets with 3% fish oil (group F, 3% palm olein (group P or 3% lard (group L. Dietary supplementation with egg yolks significantly increased the hepatic cholesterol pool in rats, regardless of the type of fat in the diet of laying hens from which the eggs originated. The content of α-linolenic acid in the liver of male rats in group P was 4-6 times higher compared to males in the other groups. Liver lipids and their fatty-acid composition differ by both, sex and dietary modified egg yolk composition in rats.

  1. Detection of egg yolk antibodies reflecting Salmonella enteritidis infections using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor

    Thomas, M.E.; Bouma, A.; Eerden, van E.; Landman, W.J.M.; Knapen, van F.; Stegeman, J.A.; Bergwerff, A.A.


    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor assay was developed on the basis of a lipopolysaccharide antigen of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis (S. enterica serovar enteritidis) to detect egg yolk antibodies against S. enterica serovar enteritidis. This biosensor assay was compared to two co

  2. Thermal transitions in the low-density lipoprotein and lipids of the egg yolk of hens.

    Smith, M B; Back, J F


    1. Differential sanning calorimetry and light-scattering have been used to investigate temperature-dependent transitions in low-density lipoprotein and in lipids from hens' egg yolk. Yolks of different fatty acid composition were obtained by varying the dietary lipid and by adding methyl sterculate to the hen's diet. 2. Lipoprotein solutions in 50 percent glycerol/water gave characteristic melting curves between -25 degrees C and 50 degrees C, and on cooling showed increases in light-scattering between 10 degrees C and -20 degrees C. The temperatures at which major changes occurred depended on the proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. 3. The thermal transitions in the intact lipoprotein in glycerol solution were reversible, but with marked hysteresis. Lipid extracted from the lipoprotein did not show temperature hystersis but the transition heats and melting curves similar to those of the intact lipoprotein. The results support the hypothesis of a "lipid-core" structure for low-density lipoproteins. 4. Scanning calorimetry of egg-yolk lecithins indicated a strong dependence of transition temperature on water content in the rane 3 percent-20 percent water. A rise in the mid-temperature of the liquid-crystalline to gel transition as the water content is lowered on freezing may be the primary event in the irreversible gelation of egg yolk and aggregation of lipoprotein.

  3. Maternal androgens in egg yolks : Relation with sex, incubation time and embryonic growth

    Eising, C.M; Müller, W; Dijkstra, C.; Groothuis, A.G.G.


    Hormones of maternal origin are known to be transferred to the egg yolks of oviparous species. Several studies have shown that within and between clutch variation of maternal androgens may be adaptively tuned. Moreover, it has recently been hypothesized that sex steroids of maternal origin may play

  4. The Effect of Egg Yolk Oil on The Chemical, Physical and Sensory Properties of Mayonnaise

    Kovalcuks Aleksandrs


    Full Text Available Egg yolk oil (EYO is an essence of egg bioactive compounds. Extracted from egg yolk it can be used in various food products increasing their nutritional and biological value. Mayonnaise is a kind of a semi-solid oil-inwater emulsion containing 60-80% fat. Mayonnaise typically contains oil, egg yolk, vinegar, salt, sugar and thickening agents. Mayonnaise is the product where application of EYO can be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of egg yolk oil on the chemical, physical and sensory properties of mayonnaise. EYO was added to mayonnaise in the concentrations of 1, 3, 5 and 7%. The main parameters of mayonnaise were determined using standard methods: lipid, protein, fatty acids, vitamin D, pH, viscosity, colour and acceptance of sensory properties (viscosity, egg aroma, egg taste, yellow colour, sour taste and creaminess. At analyzed concentrations EYO has no influence (p > 0.05 on mayonnaise pH, lipid and protein content, but an increase in EYO content decreases the viscosity of mayonnaise. Increasing amount of EYO additive resulted in more intensive yellow colour of mayonnaise. Additions of EYO enrich mayonnaise with vitamin D and docosahexaenoic acid. Sensory evaluation of mayonnaise samples showed panellists’ preference for mayonnaise with 3% and 5% EYO additive.

  5. Yolk sac tumor of the seminal vesicles: A rare malignant cause of hematospermia

    Jonathan D Gill


    Full Text Available Extra-gonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs are rare and generally associated with poor outcomes. Involvement of the seminal vesicles is extremely rare with only one previously described case. We report a case of a primary YST of the seminal vesicles and discuss the management strategy.

  6. Yolk sac tumor of the seminal vesicles: A rare malignant cause of hematospermia.

    Gill, Jonathan D; Bhattarai, Selina; Patel, Chirag N; Paul, Alan B


    Extra-gonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare and generally associated with poor outcomes. Involvement of the seminal vesicles is extremely rare with only one previously described case. We report a case of a primary YST of the seminal vesicles and discuss the management strategy.

  7. Increased exposure to yolk testosterone has feminizing effects in chickens, Gallus gallus domesticus

    Riedstra, B.; Pfannkuche, K. A.; Groothuis, T. G. G.


    Competing for food by altricial and semiprecocial bird nestlings is a behaviour well known for its sensitivity to maternal androgens during prenatal development. Whether a similar effect is present in precocial species that do not beg is less well known. We therefore increased yolk testosterone leve

  8. Penguin chicks benefit from elevated yolk androgen levels under sibling competition.

    Maud Poisbleau

    Full Text Available Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive superiority of the B-chick in southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome, given their important role in mediating sibling competition in other species. We therefore increased the yolk androgen levels in freshly-laid eggs and examined the consequences for sibling competition--via effects on embryonic developmental times, chick growth and early survival. We placed one androgen-treated egg and one control egg into each foster nest, matching them for mass, laying date and laying order. The androgen treatment did not significantly affect embryonic developmental times or chick measurements at hatching. However, elevated yolk androgen levels benefitted chick growth in interaction with the number of siblings in a brood. Chicks from androgen-treated eggs had faster growth in the presence of a sibling than chicks from control eggs. Under these circumstances they also had a higher survival probability. Thus maternal androgens appear to reinforce the observed hatching pattern, facilitating brood reduction. This contrasts to most previous studies in other species where yolk androgens have been shown to compensate for the negative consequences of delayed hatching within the brood hierarchy.

  9. Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition

    Poisbleau, Maud; Mueller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Martina S.; Roelofs, Yvonne; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Deschner, Tobias; Müller, Wendt; Reina, Richard


    Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive super

  10. Bleomycin-Induced Flagellate Erythema in a Patient Diagnosed with Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor

    Stergios Boussios


    Full Text Available Flagellate linear hyperpigmentation can rarely be caused by the chemotherapy agent, bleomycin. Herein, we describe the case of a 20-year-old woman treated with bleomycin for an ovarian yolk sac tumor and review the prominent features of this form of dermatitis.

  11. Manipulative signals in family conflict? On the function of maternal yolk hormones in birds

    Muller, Wendt; Lessells, C(Kate). M.; Korsten, Peter; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus


    Maternal hormones in the yolk of birds' eggs have been a focus of attention in behavioral and evolutionary ecology stimulated by the pioneering work of Hubert Schwabl. Since then, knowledge of both the factors that influence maternal deposition patterns and their consequences for offspring developme

  12. Measurement of Iron in Egg Yolk: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment Using Biochemical Principles

    Maloney, Kevin M.; Quiazon, Emmanuel M.; Indralingam, Ramee


    The generally accepted method to determine iron content in food is by acid digestion or dry ashing and subsequent flame atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. We have developed an experiment that chemically extracts the iron from an egg yolk and quantifies it using UV-vis absorption…

  13. Laminin from rat yolk sac tumor: isolation, partial characterization, and comparison with mouse laminin

    Engvall, E; Krusius, T; Wewer, U


    Laminin was isolated from a rat yolk sac tumor by salt extraction, gel filtration, and affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose. The purified laminin gave two polypeptide chains with approximate Mr of 200,000 and 400,000 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Its amino...

  14. Preparation and Determination of Immunological Activities of Anti-HBV Egg Yolk Extraction

    Yanping Xu; Weimin Zou; Xuejun Zhan; Shuhua Yang; Daze Xie; Sailiang Peng


    To prepare an effective immune preparation to treat hepatitis B, hens were immunized with hepatitis B vaccines,and then anti-HBV egg yolk extraction (anti-HBV EYE) was refined from egg yolk by a dialyzable method. Its chemical characteristics were identified by ultraviolet spectrum, HPLC, Lowry analysis and pharmacopocia-raleted methods. The specific immunological activity was examined by leukocyte adherence inhibition (LAI) in vitro and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) in vivo. Anti-HBV EYE was a small dialyzable substance with molecular weight less than 12 kD containing 18 kinds of amino acids. The preparation could obviously inhibit LAI and DTH which was similar to hepatitis B virus-specific transfer factor of pig spleen. However, there were no similar effects observed in the nonspecific transfer factor (NTF) group, control egg yolk extraction (CEYE) group and hepatitis A virus (HAV) group. The results suggested that anti-HBV EYE contained hepatitis B virus-specific transfer factor(STF) and had the antigen-specific cell immune activity similar to PSHBV-TF. The STF obtained from egg yolk of the hens immunized with specific antigen, might be a potential candidate for immunoregulation in hepatitis B prevention and treatment.

  15. Effect of egg yolk powder on freezability of Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis semen

    N. Kumar


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of commercial egg yolk powder as an alternative to fresh egg yolk on freezability of Murrah buffalo semen. Materials and Methods: Semen samples (12 from 3 Murrah buffaloes (4 from each bull with mass motility (≥3+ and total motility (70% and above were utilized in this study. Immediately after collection, each sample was divided into four groups. Groups I was diluted up to 60×106 sperm/ml with tris extender containing 10% fresh egg yolk and Groups II, III, and IV were diluted up to 60×106 sperm/ml with tris extender containing 2%, 4%, and 6% egg yolk powder, respectively. Semen samples were processed and cryopreserved followed by examination of frozen semen samples after 24 h. Semen samples from each group were evaluated for total motility, viability, acrosomal integrity, abnormality, and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST response after dilution, pre-freeze, and post-thaw stage. Results: Pre-freeze total motility was significantly (p<0.05 higher in Groups III and IV as compared to Groups I and II, and post-thaw total motility was significantly (p<0.01 higher in Group III as compared to other three groups. Viability was significantly (p<0.05 higher in Groups II, III, and IV than Group I at the pre-freeze stage. Significantly (p<0.01 higher viability and acrosomal integrity were recorded in Group III as compared to other three groups at the post-thaw stage. Abnormality was significantly (p<0.05 higher in Group IV than other three groups. HOST response was significantly (p<0.05 higher in Groups II and III than Groups I and IV at the pre-freeze and post-thaw stages. Conclusion: Addition of egg yolk powder at 4% level yielded significantly better results in terms of post-thaw semen quality as compared to the fresh egg yolk and other concentrations of egg yolk powder (2% and 6%.

  16. Yolk-Shell Sn@C Eggette-like Nanostructure: Application in Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Li, Site; Wang, Ziming; Liu, Jun; Yang, LinYu; Guo, Yue; Cheng, Lizi; Lei, Ming; Wang, Wenjun


    Yolk-shell carbon encapsulated tin (Sn@C) eggette-like compounds (SCE) have been synthesized by a facile method. The SCE structures consist of tin cores covered by carbon membrane networks with extra voids between the carbon shell and tin cores. The novel nanoarchitectures exhibit high electrochemical performance in both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). As anodes for LIBs, the SCE electrodes exhibit a specific capacity of ∼850 mA h g(-1) at 0.1 C (100 mA g(-1)) and high rate capability (∼450 mA h g(-1) remains) at high current densities up to 5 C (5000 mA g(-1)). For SIBs, the SCE electrodes show a specific capacity of ∼400 mA h g(-1) at 0.1 C and high rate capacity (∼150 mA h g(-1) remains) at high current densities up to 5 C (5000 mA g(-1)).

  17. Yolk-shelled cathode materials with extremely high electrochemical performances prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Choi, Seung Ho; Hong, Young Jun; Kang, Yun Chan


    A facile, continuous preparation process of yolk-shell-structured lithium-metal oxide powders without a template for use as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries is introduced for the first time. Single and double-shelled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 yolk-shell powders as the first target materials are prepared directly by spray pyrolysis from a spray solution with sucrose, at a short residence time of 4 s. Fast combustion and contraction of a carbon-mixed oxide composite intermediate, formed from a micro-sized droplet inside a hot wall reactor maintained at 700 °C, produces the yolk-shell powders. The yolk-shell structure of the precursor powders directly prepared by spray pyrolysis is well maintained even at a high post-treatment temperature of 750 °C. The yolk-shell LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders delivered a 1000th high discharge capacity of 108 mA h g-1 at 10 C. The discharge capacities are as high as 103, 95, and 91 mA h g-1 at extremely high discharge rates of 100, 200, and 300 C and the corresponding specific energy densities are 420, 370, and 328 W h kg-1. The capacity retention at a constant discharge rate of 200 C is 90% after 500 cycles.A facile, continuous preparation process of yolk-shell-structured lithium-metal oxide powders without a template for use as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries is introduced for the first time. Single and double-shelled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 yolk-shell powders as the first target materials are prepared directly by spray pyrolysis from a spray solution with sucrose, at a short residence time of 4 s. Fast combustion and contraction of a carbon-mixed oxide composite intermediate, formed from a micro-sized droplet inside a hot wall reactor maintained at 700 °C, produces the yolk-shell powders. The yolk-shell structure of the precursor powders directly prepared by spray pyrolysis is well maintained even at a high post-treatment temperature of 750 °C. The yolk-shell LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders delivered a 1000th high discharge capacity of 108 m

  18. Preparation of Wolfberry-yolk Milk%枸杞蛋黄乳的研制



    [Objective] The aim was to prepare a kind of wolfberry-yolk milk. [ Method] Taking yolk, wolfberry and skim milk powder as main materials, a kind of wolfberry-yolk milk was prepared through lactic acid bacteria fermentation, furthermore its process parameters were optimized by using orthogonal test. [ Result] The optimal process parameters of wolfberry-yolk milk were as follows; fermentation temperature 42 ℃, the mixture of yolk fluid and wolfberry juice (1:1, V: V) 15 ml, skim milk powder 6.00% , white granulated sugar 7.00% and carrag-eenan 0.03%. Under the conditions of above process parameters, the product showed a good quality. [ Conclusion] The research provides reference for human healthy diet.%[目的]研制一种构杞蛋黄乳饮料.[方法]以蛋黄、枸杞和脱脂奶粉为主要原料,通过乳酸菌发酵对枸杞蛋黄乳饮料进行了制备,并利用正交试验对其制备工艺与配方进行了优化.[结果]枸杞蛋黄乳的最佳工艺参数为:发酵温度42℃,蛋黄液与枸杞汁(1∶1,V∶V)的混合液15 ml,脱脂奶粉6.00%,白砂糖7.00%,卡拉胶0.03%.在该发酵工艺条件下,产品质量较好.[结论]为人类的健康饮食提供了参考.

  19. Ultrafast synthesis of yolk-shell and cubic NiO Nanopowders and application in lithium ion batteries.

    Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan


    A continuous one-pot method was employed to synthesize yolk-shell and single-crystalline cubic NiO powders in a few seconds. Submicrometer-sized NiO yolk-shell particles were prepared by spray pyrolysis at 900 °C. Single-crystalline cubic NiO nanopowders were prepared by one-pot flame spray pyrolysis from NiO vapors. Particle surface areas of the yolk-shell and single-crystalline cubic NiO powders as obtained using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method were 8 and 5 m(2) g(-1), respectively. The mean crystallite sizes of the yolk-shell-structured and cubic NiO powders were 50 and 80 nm, respectively. The yolk-shell and single-crystalline cubic NiO powders delivered discharge capacities of 951 and 416 mA h g(-1), respectively, after 150 cycles, and the corresponding capacity retentions measured after the first cycle were 106 and 66%, respectively. The yolk-shell-structured NiO powders showed rate performance better than that of the single-crystalline cubic NiO nanopowders. Even at a high current density of 1 A g(-1), the discharge capacity of the yolk-shell-structured NiO powders was as high as 824 mA h g(-1) after 50 cycles, in which the current densities were increased stepwise.

  20. Differences in Fatty Acid Profiles, ADEK Vitamins and Sterols of the Yolk between Native Chickens and Geese

    Serpil Kalaycı


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the differences in the yolk lipid composition of geese and chickens which are free to select their diets from the environments. The proportion of oleic acid (18:1n-9 and linolenic acid (18:3n-3 was far greater in both of species of yolk lipids. In particular, the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid in the total lipid of the yolk was greater for the chicken compared to the geese. By contrast, the proportion of arachidonic acid in total yolk lipid was approximately two times greater for the goose than the chicken. Thus the chicken was more efficient at incorporating long-chain (C22 fatty acid of the n-3 series into yolk lipid whereas the geese incorporated C20 fatty acid of the n-6 series. The ADEK vitamins of the goose egg in mg/g yolk were very similar to that of the chicken egg. The cholesterol content of the geese egg in mg/g yolk was far greater to that of the chicken egg.

  1. Novel regulation of yolk utilization by thyroid hormone in embryos of the direct developing frog Eleutherodactylus coqui.

    Singamsetty, Srikanth; Elinson, Richard P


    Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for metamorphosis of the long, coiled tadpole gut into the short frog gut. Eleutherodactylus coqui, a direct developing frog, lacks a tadpole. Its embryonic gut is a miniature adult form with a mass of yolky cells, called nutritional endoderm, attached to the small intestine. We tested the TH requirement for gut development in E. coqui. Inhibition of TH synthesis with methimazole arrested gut development in its embryonic form. Embryos treated with methimazole failed to utilize the yolk in their nutritional endoderm, and survived for weeks without further development. Conversely, methimazole and 3,3',5-tri-iodo-l-thyronine, the active form of TH, stimulated gut development and utilization and disappearance of the nutritional endoderm. In Xenopus laevis, the receptor for TH, TRβ, is upregulated in response to TH. Similarly, EcTRβ, the E. coqui ortholog, was upregulated by TH in the gut. EcTRβ expression was high in the nutritional endoderm, suggesting a direct role for TH in yolk utilization by these cells. An initial step in the breakdown of yolk in X. laevis is acidification of the yolk platelet. E. coqui embryos in methimazole failed to acidify their yolk platelets, but acidification was stimulated by TH indicating its role in an early step of yolk utilization. In addition to a conserved TH role in gut development, a novel regulatory role for TH in yolk utilization has evolved in these direct developers.

  2. Extended longevity lines of Drosophila melanogaster: abundance of yolk protein gene mRNA in fat body and ovary.

    Carlson, K A; Harshman, L G


    Lines of Drosophila melanogaster selected for late-life female reproduction typically exhibit correlated responses of reduced early fecundity and increased longevity. This relationship suggests a tradeoff between reproductive effort and somatic maintenance, which in turn, underlies some evolutionary theories of senescence. The mechanistic basis of the apparent tradeoff between increased longevity and reduced early-age fecundity has remained obscure. The present manuscript addresses the issues of whether the reduced early-age fecundity in selected lines corresponds to reduced yolk-protein mRNA production, and whether long-lived flies exhibit somatic maintenance in terms of relatively reduced yolk-protein mRNA production in the fat body. Yolk protein is one of the most abundant proteins used for female reproduction. By comparing a set of lines selected for late life reproduction with the corresponding control lines, we show that that yolk-protein gene mRNA relative abundance during the first four days posteclosion did not correspond to reduced early-life fecundity in the selected lines. In D. melanogaster, yolk protein is produced in the fat body and ovarian follicle cells. On the fourth day posteclosion, relatively more yolk-protein gene mRNA was present in the fat body. On day 1 posteclosion, supplemental yeast did not alter relative yolk-protein gene mRNA abundance. However, on day 4 posteclosion, supplemental yeast stimulated yolk-protein gene mRNA production in the fat body, which suggests an underlying mechanism for the nutrition-based phenotypic plasticity of fecundity previously documented in these lines. On medium without supplemental yeast, the relatively low abundance of fat body yolk-protein gene mRNA in the selected lines on day 4 posteclosion corresponds to a prediction derived from the disposable soma theory.

  3. Effects of lipid extraction on stable isotope ratios in avian egg yolk: Is arithmetic correction a reliable alternative?

    Oppel, S.; Federer, R.N.; O'Brien, D. M.; Powell, A.N.; Hollmén, Tuula E.


    Many studies of nutrient allocation to egg production in birds use stable isotope ratios of egg yolk to identify the origin of nutrients. Dry egg yolk contains >50% lipids, which are known to be depleted in 13C. Currently, researchers remove lipids from egg yolk using a chemical lipid-extraction procedure before analyzing the isotopic composition of protein in egg yolk. We examined the effects of chemical lipid extraction on ??13C, ??15N, and ??34S of avian egg yolk and explored the utility of an arithmetic lipid correction model to adjust whole yolk ??13C for lipid content. We analyzed the dried yolk of 15 captive Spectacled Eider (Somateriafischeri) and 20 wild King Eider (S. spectabilis) eggs, both as whole yolk and after lipid extraction with a 2:1 chloroform:methanol solution. We found that chemical lipid extraction leads to an increase of (mean ?? SD) 3.3 ?? 1.1% in ??13C, 1.1 ?? 0.5% in ??15N, and 2.3 ?? 1.1% in ??34S. Arithmetic lipid correction provided accurate values for lipid-extracted S13C in captive Spectacled Eiders fed on a homogeneous high-quality diet. However, arithmetic lipid correction was unreliable for wild King Eiders, likely because of their differential incorporation of macronutrients from isotopically distinct environments during migration. For that reason, we caution against applying arithmetic lipid correction to the whole yolk ??13C of migratory birds, because these methods assume that all egg macronutrients are derived from the same dietary sources. ?? 2010 The American Ornithologists' Union.

  4. Distinct antigenic characteristics of murine parietal yolk sac laminin

    Wewer, U M; Tichy, D; Damjanov, A


    with purified PYS laminin in ELISA. LAM-A reacted with mouse and rat PYS laminin, whereas LAM-B reacted only with mouse PYS laminin. Formaldehyde- and methanol-fixed adult and fetal somatic tissues were immunohistochemically unreactive with either of the two antibodies. In acetone-fixed tissue sections, both...... antibodies reacted weakly with some medullary tubules of the kidney, the follicular basement membrane of the ovaries, and the seminiferous tubules. The antibodies appear to react with the polypeptide determinants residing on the terminal portion of the long arm of laminin. It is concluded that laminin...

  5. The impact of model peptides on structural and dynamic properties of egg yolk lecithin liposomes - experimental and DFT studies.

    Wałęsa, Roksana; Man, Dariusz; Engel, Grzegorz; Siodłak, Dawid; Kupka, Teobald; Ptak, Tomasz; Broda, Małgorzata A


    Electron spin resonance (ESR), (1) H-NMR, voltage and resistance experiments were performed to explore structural and dynamic changes of Egg Yolk Lecithin (EYL) bilayer upon addition of model peptides. Two of them are phenylalanine (Phe) derivatives, Ac-Phe-NHMe (1) and Ac-Phe-NMe2 (2), and the third one, Ac-(Z)-ΔPhe-NMe2 (3), is a derivative of (Z)-α,β-dehydrophenylalanine. The ESR results revealed that all compounds reduced the fluidity of liposome's membrane, and the highest activity was observed for compound 2 with N-methylated C-terminal amide bond (Ac-Phe-NMe2 ). This compound, being the most hydrophobic, penetrates easily through biological membranes. This was also observed in voltage and resistance studies. (1) H-NMR studies provided a sound evidence on H-bond interactions between the studied diamides and lecithin polar head. The most significant changes in H-atom chemical shifts and spin-lattice relaxation times T1 were observed for compound 1. Our experimental studies were supported by theoretical calculations. Complexes EYLAc-Phe-NMe2 and EYLAc-(Z)-ΔPhe-NMe2 , stabilized by NH⋅⋅⋅O or/and CH⋅⋅⋅O H-bonds were created and optimized at M06-2X/6-31G(d) level of theory in vacuo and in H2 O environment. According to our molecular-modeling studies, the most probable lecithin site of H-bond interaction with studied diamides is the negatively charged O-atom in phosphate group which acts as H-atom acceptor. Moreover, the highest binding energy to hydrocarbon chains were observed in the case of Ac-Phe-NMe2 (2). Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  6. 鸵鸟卵黄低密度脂蛋白对猪精子冻后品质的影响%Effects of Ostrich Egg Yolk LDL on Boar Spermatozoa Quality Following Freezing-Thawing

    侯丽鹏; 石芳萍; 卜书海; 李青旺; 胡建宏


    在家畜精液冷冻中,卵黄被广泛应用,且其中的低密度脂蛋白(LDL)对精子起主要保护作用.本研究利用含6%、7%、8%和9%鸵鸟卵黄LDL配制的稀释液制作猪细管冷冻精液,分析鸵鸟卵黄LDL对冷冻-解冻后猪精子质量参数的影响.结果表明:在含不同浓度鸵鸟卵黄LDL的稀释液中,8%LDL的稀释液冷冻效果最好,冻后精子活率平均可达52.13%,显著高于其他组(P<0.05);精子顶体完整率平均为58.33%,质膜完整率为72.38%,与其他处理组相比差异显著(P<0.05).但与鸡蛋卵黄LDL和鸽子蛋卵黄LDL处理组相比,鸵鸟卵黄LDL处理组冷冻-解冻后猪精子质量参数相对较低.本研究表明,虽然鸵鸟卵黄LDL在冷冻过程中对猪精子具有一定的保护作用,但相对于鸽子蛋和鸡蛋卵黄LDL效果并不理想.%Egg yolk has been widely used in boar frozen semen dilution and the protective action of yolk is largely attributed to the low-density lipoprotein (LDL). In this study, LDL of ostrich egg yolk was added at concentrations of 6-9% to the extenders used to freeze boar semen and its effects on the quality of frozen-thawed sperm were assessed. The results indicated that supplementation of LDL at 8% LDL resulted in significantly higher spermatozoa motility (52.13%) than that of other groups(P< 0.05), and there was higher acrosome integrity (58.33%) and membrane integrity(72.38%) (P < 0.05) compared with other treatment groups. But the quality parameters of boar sperm after freezing-thawing following the LDL of ostrich egg yolk is lower compared with the extender containing LDL of egg yolk and pigeon yo!k. According to all measured parameters, the extender containing 8% LDL of ostrich egg yolk showed beneficial cryoprotective effects on frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. But its effect is not best compared with 9% egg yolk LDL and 8% pigeon egg yolk LDL.

  7. Effect of different dietary concentrations of brown marine algae (Sargassum dentifebium prepared by different methods on plasma and yolk lipid profiles, yolk total carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin of laying hens

    Ahmed A. El-Deek


    Full Text Available The effect of different concentrations (0%, 3% and 6% of brown marine algae (BMA, Sargassum dentifebium prepared according to different methods (sun-dried, SBMA; boiled, BBMA; autoclaved, ABMA on plasma and yolk lipid profiles, carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin in egg yolks was studied in hens aged from 23 to 42 weeks (30 hens per treatment. We determined the fatty acid profiles in BMA and in the egg yolk of hens fed different levels of BMA prepared according to different methods. In addition, plasma and yolk lipid profiles, yolk total carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin were determined at week 42 of age. Plasma and yolk cholesterol were significantly lower in groups fed diets containing either 3% or 6% BMA than in the control group, but high-density lipoprotein (HDL significantly decreased as BMA concentration increased. There was a significant similar decline in yolk triglycerides with inclusion of either 3% or 6% BMA in the laying hen diet. Palmitic acid was the main saturated fatty acid (SFA found in BMA and oleic acid (omega-9 and linoleic acid (omega-6 were the main unsaturated fatty acids (UFA, while there was a significant increase in palmitic acid in egg yolk when BMA was included at 6%. There was a significant increase in oleic acid (omega-9 when feed containing 3% BMA was given compared to the control group, but this decreased with a further increase in BMA. Linoleic acid (omega-6 also significantly decreased with inclusion of either 3% or 6% BMA. There was a significant increase in total carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin in the laying hen eggs as a result of feeding diets containing 3% and 6% BMA.

  8. Elisa evaluation of the levels of antibodies against Infectious Bronchitis Virus in laying hens using egg yolk as substrate

    RH Rauber


    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to compare Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV antibody titers in serum and egg yolk samples from laying hens. Sixty paired blood and egg samples were collected from laying hens of two farms. Serum samples were frozen, while egg yolk samples were diluted (1:500 before freezing. Serum and yolk samples were tested for the presence of IBV antibodies by indirect ELISA (commercial kit and titers were compared by a correlation test (alpha=0.05. There was a high correlation (r=0.62 between the two kinds of samples, which means that titers of IBV antibodies in the egg yolk and in serum samples are quite the same. Considering that blood collection causes deep stress that leads to economic losses, and since eggs are collected daily on the farm, results reported here are of importance to poultry production.

  9. Prediction of pregnancy outcomes with combined ultrasound scanning of yolk sacs and serum CA125 determinations in early threatened abortion.

    Xie, Y J; Chen, M; Chen, S J


    To assess the predictive value of the combination of ultrasound scanning, yolk sacs and CA125 levels for pregnancy outcomes in early threatened abortion. A total 196 pregnant women at less than 12 weeks gestation were enrolled. They were assigned into: (A) normal pregnancy (n = 61); (B) early threatened abortion but with favorable outcomes after active treatment (n = 56); (C) pregnancy with spontaneous miscarriage and threatened abortions (n = 79). The yolk sacs were examined and serum CA125 levels were measured. The visualization rate in groups A and B were significantly higher than that in group C. For the mean yolk sac diameter, there was a statistically significant difference between groups A and C (p 0.05). The mean serum CA125 levels were significantly different (p ultrasound scanning of yolk sacs and measurement of serum CA125 levels is of great value for predicting pregnancy outcomes.

  10. Yolk proteins from nematodes, chickens, and frogs bind strongly and preferentially to left-handed Z-DNA

    P Krishna; B P Kennedy; J H van de Sande; J D McGhee


    Yolk proteins purified from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, from the frog Xenopus laevis, and from chicken eggs all have the unexpected property of binding strongly and preferentially to a left...

  11. An unusual mixed germ cell tumor of the testis consisting of rhabdomyosarcoma, mature teratoma and yolk sac tumor

    Eva Lovri(c); Dubravka Bobonj Hi(z)ak; Melita Peri(c) Balja; Tanja Leni(c)ek; Bo(z)o Kru(s)lin


    @@ Dear Editor, We recently encountered a rare case of testicular mixed germ cell tumor (MGCT) in a 32-year-old man. The tumor was composed of a combination of a yolk sac tumor, teratoma and rhabdomyosarcomatous somatic type malignancy.

  12. Characterization of PHB1 and its role in mitochondrial maturation and yolk platelet degradation during development of Artemia embryos.

    Xiang Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To cope with harsh environments, crustaceans such as Artemia produce diapause gastrula embryos (cysts with suppressed metabolism. Metabolism and development resume during post-diapause development, but the mechanism behind these cellular events remains largely unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Our study investigated the role of prohibitin 1 (PHB1 in metabolic reinitiation during post-diapause development. We found that PHB1 was developmentally regulated via changes in phosphorylation status and localization. Results from RNA interference experiments demonstrated PHB1 to be critical for mitochondrial maturation and yolk degradation during development. In addition, PHB1 was present in yolk platelets, and it underwent ubiquitin-mediated degradation during the proteolysis of yolk protein. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PHB1 has an indispensable role in coordinating mitochondrial maturation and yolk platelet degradation during development in Artemia. This novel function of PHB1 provides new clues to comprehend the roles of PHB1 in metabolism and development.

  13. Immunohistochemical expression of SALL4 in hepatocellular carcinoma, a potential pitfall in the differential diagnosis of yolk sac tumors.

    Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Katz, Betina; Chaux, Alcides; Sharma, Rajni; Munari, Enrico; Faraj, Sheila F; Illei, Peter B; Torbenson, Michael; Netto, George J


    SALL4 is a transcription factor that serves as a marker of yolk sac tumor. Yolk sac tumor and hepatocellular carcinoma share histologic, serologic, and immunohistochemical features. Previous studies have shown lack of SALL4 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting utility in this differential diagnosis. Sixty-nine samples of hepatocellular carcinoma were retrieved from surgical pathology archives and used to construct 9 tissue microarrays. A germ cell tumor tissue microarray containing 10 yolk sac tumors was used for comparison. Extent, intensity, and pattern of nuclear SALL4 expression were assessed in each spot. Mean percentage of expression was calculated for each tumor and used during analysis. Optimal discriminatory extent of expression cutoff was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Other potential discriminatory markers including Hep Par1 were also evaluated. Forty-six percent (32/69) of hepatocellular carcinoma and all yolk sac tumors revealed at least focal expression of SALL4. A unique punctuate/clumped pattern of nuclear staining was present in 94% (30/32) of hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas all yolk sac tumors displayed a diffuse finely granular nuclear staining pattern. A 25% extent of SALL4 expression cutoff was found to be optimal for the distinction of yolk sac tumor from hepatocellular carcinoma yielding a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 92.8%, and a positive predictive value of 66.6% for yolk sac tumor diagnosis. The addition of Hep Par1 increased the specificity (99%) and positive predictive value (90%). This is the first report of SALL4 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Our finding should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and yolk sac tumor. The unique punctuate/clumped pattern seen in hepatocellular carcinoma cases could be of further discriminatory value.

  14. Template-Engaged Solid-State Synthesis of Barium Magnesium Silicate Yolk@Shell Particles and Their High Photoluminescence Efficiency.

    Chen, Xuncai; Kim, Woo-Sik


    This study presents a new synthetic method for fabricating yolk@shell-structured barium magnesium silicate (BMS) particles through a template-engaged solid-state reaction. First, as the core template, (BaMg)CO3 spherical particles were prepared based on the coprecipitation of Ba(2+) and Mg(2+) . These core particles were then uniformly shelled with silica (SiO2 ) by using CTAB as the structure-directing template to form (BaMg)CO3 @SiO2 particles with a core@shell structure. The (BaMg)CO3 @SiO2 particles were then converted to yolk@shell barium magnesium silicate (BMS) particles by an interfacial solid-state reaction between the (BaMg)CO3 (core) and the SiO2 (shell) at 750 °C. During this interfacial solid-state reaction, Kirkendall diffusion contributed to the formation of yolk@shell BMS particles. Thus, the synthetic temperature for the (BaMg)SiO4 :Eu(3+) phosphor is significantly reduced from 1200 °C with the conventional method to 750 °C with the proposed method. In addition, the photoluminescence intensity of the yolk@shell (BaMg)SiO4 :Eu(3+) phosphor was found to be 9.8 times higher than that of the conventional (BaMg)SiO4 :Eu(3+) phosphor. The higher absorption of excitation light by the structure of the yolk@shell phosphor is induced by multiple light-reflection and -scattering events in the interstitial void between the yolk and the shell. When preparing the yolk@shell (BaMg)SiO4 :Eu(3+) phosphor, a hydrogen environment for the solid-state reaction results in higher photoluminescence efficiency than nitrogen and air environments. The proposed synthetic method can be easily extended to the synthesis of other yolk@shell multicomponent metal silicates.

  15. Relationships between yolk androgens and nest density, laying date, and laying order in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea)

    Welty, J.L.; Belthoff, J.R.; Egbert, J.; Schwabl, H.


    Increases in yolk androgens within and among avian clutches have been correlated with decreased incubation time, increased aggression within a nest, increased begging behaviour, decreased immune response, and decreased life span. Although the mechanisms that lead to variability in yolk androgens within and between clutches are not completely known, yolk androgens can be a function of both social and environmental conditions. We were interested in if and how nesting density, laying date, and laying order influenced yolk androgens in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea (Bonaparte, 1825)) in which nest density varies considerably. In 2006 and 2007, we used radioimmunoassay to quantify the concentrations of testosterone, 5a-dihydrotestosterone, and androstenedione in the egg yolks from one early and one latelaid egg in 47 nests of Burrowing Owls located in the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southern Idaho. Nesting density had no detectable effect on yolk androgens. Yolk androgens varied temporally and peaked in the middle of the laying season while being low before and after this time period. Within nests, late-laid eggs had higher testosterone and dihydrotestosterone than early-laid eggs; adrostendione exhibited a similar pattern in one but not both years of our study. It is possible that the seasonal pattern in yolk androgens that we observed is related to aspects of mate quality for females or declining chances of fledging success for later nesting females, whereas rises in egg androgens between early and late eggs within clutches could reflect a mechanism to assist nestlings from late-laid eggs that hatch one to several days after their siblings to better compete for resources within the nest or promote survival in the presence of larger siblings.

  16. Effect of fructooligosaccharides and antibiotics on laying performance of chickens and cholesterol content of egg yolk.

    Li, X; Liu, L; Li, K; Hao, K; Xu, C


    1. Nine hundred and sixty 25-week-old Lohmann Brown layers were randomly divided into 5 groups with 216 layers in each group. Layers in group one were fed a control diet, group 2 received the control diet plus 20 mg/kg zinc bacitracin and 4 mg/kg colistinsulfate, and the remaining three groups received control diet plus 2000, or 4000, or 6000 mg/kg fructooligosaccharide (FOS). 2. The results showed improvements in egg production, feed consumption and feed conversion of layers when 2000 mg/kg FOS was added to the diets. 3. The results also showed some additional improvements in the group supplemented with 2000 mg/kg FOS, including increases in egg shell thickness, yolk colour and Haugh unit, and decreases in yolk cholesterol concentration. 4. However, larger (excessive) doses of FOS did not improve the performance of layers.

  17. Comparison of three spectrophotometric methods for analysis of egg yolk carotenoids.

    Islam, K M S; Schweigert, F J


    Carotenoids accumulated in the egg yolk are of importance for two reasons. Firstly they are important pigments influencing customer acceptance and secondly they are essential components with positive health effects either as antioxidants or as precursor of vitamin A. Different analytical methods are available to quantitatively identify carotenoids from egg yolk such as spectrophotometric methods described by AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) and HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). Both methods have in common that they are time consuming, need a laboratory environment and well trained technical operators. Recently, a rapid lab-independent spectrophotometric method (iCheck, BioAnalyt GmbH, Germany) has been introduced that claims to be less time consuming and easy to operate. The aim of the current study was therefore to compare the novel method with the two standard methods. Yolks of 80 eggs were analysed as aliquots by the three methods in parallel. While both spectrometric methods are only able measure total carotenoids as total ß-carotene, HPLC enables the determination of individual carotenoids such lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, ß-carotene and β-apocarotenoic ester. In general, total carotenoids levels as obtained by AOAC were in average 27% higher than those obtained by HPLC. Carotenoid values obtained by the reference methods AOAC and HPLC are highly correlated with the iCheck method with r(2) of 0.99 and 0.94 for iCheck vs. AOAC and iCheck vs. HPLC, respectively (both p<0.001). Bland Altman analysis showed that the novel iCheck method is comparable to the reference methods. In conclusion, the novel rapid and portable iCheck method is a valid and effective tool to determine total carotenoid of egg yolk under laboratory-independent conditions with little trained personal.

  18. Yolk protein is expressed in the insect testis and interacts with sperm

    Joachimiak Ewa; Kotwica Joanna; Bebas Piotr; Giebultowicz Jadwiga M


    Abstract Background Male and female gametes follow diverse developmental pathways dictated by their distinct roles in fertilization. While oocytes of oviparous animals accumulate yolk in the cytoplasm, spermatozoa slough off most of their cytoplasm in the process of individualization. Mammalian spermatozoa released from the testis undergo extensive modifications in the seminal ducts involving a variety of glycoproteins. Ultrastructural studies suggest that glycoproteins are involved in sperm ...

  19. Nickel interactions with glutathione and related enzyme in 11-day embryo and yolk sac in rat

    Serafini, M.T.; Romeu, A. (Univ. of Barcelona, Tarragona (Spain))


    The embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of nickel compounds has been observed in rats. Little is known about the biochemical mechanism(s) of Ni-teratogenesis. Furthermore, nickel induced a rapid, but transient rise in the serum glucose and changes in hormone balance in pregnant rats as well as metabolic changes in females. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of NiCl{sub 2} on glutathione and related enzymes in 11-day embryo and visceral yolk sac in rat.

  20. Differential Effects of Maternal Yolk Androgens on Male and Female Offspring: A Role for Sex-Specific Selection?

    Barbara Tschirren

    Full Text Available Maternal hormones are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects in animals. Although their effects on offspring phenotype are often sex-specific, the reason why sometimes sons are more sensitive to prenatal hormone exposure and sometimes daughters is not well understood. Here I combine an experimental manipulation of yolk testosterone concentration in the egg and quantification of selection acting on yolk androgen-sensitive traits in a natural population of great tits (Parus major with a literature review to test the hypothesis that sex-specific selection on traits affected by yolk androgens determines which sex is more sensitive to prenatal hormone exposure. An experimental increase of the testosterone content in the egg boosted the post-hatching growth of male, but not female great tit nestlings. However, I found no evidence that survival selection on body mass or size is acting differently in the two sexes. A literature review revealed that yolk androgen manipulations affect the growth of males and females differently across species. Interestingly, in studies performed in the wild a significant association between the strength and direction of sexual size dimorphism and sex-specific sensitivities to yolk androgens was observed. In studies performed in captivity, no such relationship was found. Thus, across species there is some evidence that sex-specific selection on body size influences how strongly growth trajectories of males and females are affected by maternally-derived yolk androgens.

  1. Stable isotopes link diet to avian yolk carotenoid allocation: a comparative study of five auk species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae).

    Hipfner, J Mark; Hobson, Keith A; Dale, James; McGraw, Kevin J


    The allocation of important but environmentally limited nutrients, such as carotenoids, often represents a trade-off between homeostasis and reproduction. However, key questions remain about how diet and species traits influence carotenoid allocation. We studied yolk carotenoid profiles and yolk color in relation to trophic level (based on delta(15)N values) in five species of seabirds belonging to the family Alcidae: common murre (Uria aalge), pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba), Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus), rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), and tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata). In three species, which ranged from low (tufted puffin) to high (pigeon guillemot) trophic level, yolks had pink to red hues and contained exclusively astaxanthin, while yolks of species from a high trophic level (common murre) and from a generalist forager (rhinoceros auklet) had yellow to orange hues and contained astaxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin. The absence of a systematic relationship between trophic level and carotenoid types suggests that these species possess adaptations for the uptake and use of specific carotenoids. In contrast, total yolk carotenoid concentrations were best explained by the combination of species and trophic level: lower-trophic-level feeding was linked to production of carotenoid-rich yolks, both across species and within the one generalist species. We conclude that both behavioral and physiological traits can play strong roles in the acquisition and allocation of critical nutrients from mothers to their offspring.

  2. Novel smart yolk/shell polymer microspheres as a multiply responsive cargo delivery system.

    Du, Pengcheng; Liu, Peng


    An effective strategy was developed to fabricate the novel dually thermo- and pH-responsive yolk/shell polymer microspheres as a drug delivery system (DDS) for the controlled release of anticancer drugs via two-stage distillation precipitation polymerization and seed precipitation polymerization. Their pH-induced thermally responsive polymer shells act as a smart "valve" to adjust the diffusion of the loaded drugs in/out of the polymer containers according to the body environments, while the movable P(MAA-co-EGDMA) cores enhance the drug loading capacity for the anticancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX). The yolk/shell polymer microspheres show a low leakage at high pH values but significantly enhanced release at lower pH values equivalent to the tumor body fluid environments at human body temperature, exhibiting the apparent tumor-environment-responsive controlled "on-off" drug release characteristics. Meanwhile, the yolk/shell microspheres expressed very low in vitro cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells. Consequently, their precise tumor-environment-responsive drug delivery performance and high drug loading capacity offer promise for tumor therapy.

  3. Motility and fertility of rabbit sperm cryopreserved using soybean lecithin as an alternative to egg yolk.

    Nishijima, Kazutoshi; Kitajima, Shuji; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Morimoto, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Teruo; Fan, Jianglin; Matsuda, Yukihisa


    This study was conducted to investigate whether soy lecithin can be used as an alternative cryoprotectant to establish a procedure that does not require the use of egg yolk to cryopreserve rabbit strains. Semen from Japanese White rabbits was frozen with HEPES extender containing 20% egg yolk (EYH), 0.5% (Lec-0.5), 1.5% (Lec-1.5), 2.5% (Lec-2.5), or 3.5% (Lec-3.5; wt/vol) lecithin (type IV-S, ≥30%), and the motility of thawed sperm was analyzed. The sperm motility in the Lec-1.5 group was significantly higher than that in the Lec-2.5 and 3.5 groups and equivalent to the EYH group. From 17 rounds of artificial insemination with frozen-thawed sperm in the EYH and Lec-1.5 groups, 12 rabbits in both groups were pregnant (70.6%) and delivered offspring. The litter size was 3.3 in the EYH group and 5.1 in the Lec-1.5 group. These results indicate that soy lecithin can be used as a substitute for egg yolk as a cryoprotectant on the basis of motility and fertility of the frozen-thawed rabbit sperm and that 1.5% lecithin (type IV-S, ≥30%) in the semen extender was the optimum concentration for rabbit sperm cryopreservation.

  4. Yolk hormones influence in ovo chemosensory learning, growth, and feeding behavior in domestic chicks.

    Bertin, Aline; Meurisse, Maryse; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Constantin, Paul; Cornilleau, Fabien; Vaudin, Pascal; Burlot, Thierry; Delaveau, Joel; Rat, Christophe; Calandreau, Ludovic


    In this study, we assessed whether prenatal exposure to elevated yolk steroid hormones can influence in ovo chemosensory learning and the behavior of domestic chicks. We simulated a maternal environmental challenge by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The embryos from these hormones-treated eggs (HO) as well as sham embryos (O) that had received the vehicle-only were exposed to the odor of fish oil (menhaden) between embryonic Days 11 and 20. An additional group of control embryos (C) was not exposed to the odor. All chicks were tested following hatching for their feeding preferences between foods that were or were not odorized with the menhaden odor. In the 3-min choice tests, the behavior of O chicks differed significantly according to the type of food whereas C and HO chicks showed no preference between odorized and non-odorized food. Our result suggests weaker response in HO chicks. In addition, HO chicks showed impaired growth and reduced intake of an unfamiliar food on the 24-h time scale compared to controls. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to increased yolk hormone levels can alter growth, chemosensory learning, and the development of feeding behaviors.

  5. Tissue growth pressure drives early blood flow in the chicken yolk sac.

    Clément, Raphaël; Mauroy, Benjamin; Cornelissen, Annemiek J M


    Understanding how molecular and physical cues orchestrate vascular morphogenesis is a challenge for developmental biology. Only little attention has been paid to the impact of mechanical stress caused by tissue growth on early blood distribution. Here we study the peripheral accumulation of blood in the chicken embryonic yolk sac, which precedes sinus vein formation. We report that blood accumulation starts before heart-induced blood circulation. We hypothesized that the driving force for the primitive blood flow is a growth-induced gradient of tissue pressure in the yolk sac mesoderm. Therefore, we studied embryos in which heart development was arrested after 2 days of incubation, and found that yolk sac growth and blood peripheral accumulation still occurred. This suggests that tissue growth is sufficient to initiate the flow and the formation of the sinus vein, whereas heart contractions are not required. We designed a simple mathematical model which makes explicit the growth-induced pressure gradient and the subsequent blood accumulation, and show that growth can indeed account for the observed blood accumulation. This study shows that tissue growth pressure can drive early blood flow, and suggests that the mechanical environment, beyond hemodynamics, can contribute to vascular morphogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 246:573-584, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Residual yolk energetics and postnatal shell growth in Smooth Softshell Turtles, Apalone mutica.

    Van Dyke, James U; Plummer, Michael V; Beaupre, Steven J


    We examined functions of residual yolk (RY) in hatchling Smooth Softshell Turtles (Apalone mutica). Removal of RY did not affect survival, shell growth, or resting metabolic rates of turtles for 40 d after hatching. Our estimates of metabolic rate suggest that RY can fuel maintenance and activity metabolism for approximately 25 days. A. mutica absorb more than 1g of water in the first 2 weeks of life, which appears to be the basis of post-hatch shell expansion rather than yolk-provisioned growth. Post-hatch growth may be limited by the magnitude of RY remaining at hatching, but RY protein and lipid proportions do not differ from those of freshly-laid eggs. In addition, A. mutica did not use RY to fuel nest emergence. Our results suggest that RY does not fulfill several hypothetical functions in A. mutica, including postnatal growth, catabolic fuel for nest emergence, and long-term nutritional sustenance for maintenance, activity, or hibernation. Instead, A. mutica appear to absorb most yolk prior to hatching, and are left with a minimum of RY. Variation in RY mass with incubation regime in other species suggests that mothers may overprovision their eggs to ensure successful development across a diversity of possible incubation conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification and Extraction of Chicken Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin from Egg by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG Precipitation

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal


    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus strains exhibiting multiple antibiotic resistances are isolated from most communities and hospital infections. Treatment of patients with these infections has been difficult. The aim of this study was to detect and extract, the egg yolk immunoglobulin Y as a potential source of anti- S. aureus antibody.Methods: Specific IgY was produced by immunizing hens with formalin-killed S. aureus. The specificity of serum`s antibody was confirmed by ELISA method. The antibodies were extracted from egg yolk by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation. Proteins were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE.Results: Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY were raised against S. aureus in the serum after injections. Up to 104 dilution specific antibodies were determined in serum. Conclusion: The results of the ELISA indicates the specificity of the immunoglobulin Y to the target antigen. In order to find a viable alternative to antibiotic treatments, more research must be done on the ability of these antibodies to inhibit the growth of S. aureus.

  8. Identification and Extraction of Chicken Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin from Egg by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG Precipitation

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal


    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus strains exhibiting multiple antibiotic resistances are isolatedfrom most communities and hospital infections. Treatment of patients with these infections hasbeen difficult. The aim of this study was to detect and extract, the egg yolk immunoglobulin Y asa potential source of anti- S. aureus antibody.Methods: Specific IgY was produced by immunizing hens with formalin-killed S. aureus. Thespecificity of serum`s antibody was confirmed by ELISA method. The antibodies were extractedfrom egg yolk by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation. Proteins were analysed by sodiumdodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE.Results: Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY were raised against S. aureus in the serum afterinjections. Up to 104 dilution specific antibodies were determined in serum.Conclusion: The results of the ELISA indicates the specificity of the immunoglobulin Y to thetarget antigen. In order to find a viable alternative to antibiotic treatments, more research must bedone on the ability of these antibodies to inhibit the growth of S. aureus.

  9. Preservability of bull spermatozoa in Tris-egg yolk extender enriched with different concentrations of butylated hydroxytoluene

    El-Sheshtawy RI


    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of BHT on cattle spermatozoa during cooling and cryopreservation. Methods: Pooled bull semen were diluted by Tris-Citrate-Fructose egg yolk (TCFY diluent considered as control (0 BHT and different concentrations of BHT (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 mM were prepared in ethanol in prewarmed (37 ℃ test tubes. The ethanol was allowed to evaporate so that, a thin crystallized layer of BHT was deposited on the inner surface of the tubes. Then extended semen was added into the tubes and incubated at 37 ℃ for 5 min to allow uptake of BHT by spermatozoa. The tubes were cooled slowly (approximately for 2 h up to 5 ℃ and equilibrated for 4 h. After equilibration, semen freezing process was carried out. Extended semen was subjected to evaluation (motility, alive sperm, intact sperm membrane (HOST % and acrosome integrity in both cooled and cryopreserved semen. Results: The result revealed that sperm motility of post-cooled spermatozoa improved (P<0.05 by the use of BHT concentrations (1, 2 and 3 mM in Tris semen extender if compared to the control (85.00±1.09, (83.33± 0.63, (81.67± 0.63 and (78.33± 0.63, respectively. Alive sperm percent was significantly higher in all concentrations of BHT. Sperm abnormalities percent were significantly lower in concentrations of BHT 1 and 2 (11.2±0.2, (11.8±0.2and (13.4±0.4, respectively. Sperm membrane integrity were significantly higher in BHT concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mM. It is exhibited that improved sperm motility in post-thawed frozen semen in the concentrations of BHT (1, 2, 3 and 4 mM if compared to the control. The sperm membrane integrity were significantly improved at all concentrations of BHT. Acrosome integrity was significantly higher at BHT concentration 1 mM (81.80±0.57 and (76.00±2.05, respectively. Conclusions: It could be concluded that some concentrations of BHT improved bull semen quality post-cooling and post-freezing.

  10. Effects of vitrification on ram spermatozoa using free-egg yolk extenders.

    Jiménez-Rabadán, Pilar; García-Álvarez, Olga; Vidal, Ana; Maroto-Morales, Alejandro; Iniesta-Cuerda, María; Ramón, Manuel; del Olmo, Enrique; Fernández-Santos, Rocío; Garde, J Julián; Soler, Ana Josefa


    The present study aimed to examine the behavior of ram spermatozoa subjected to a vitrification process in free-egg yolk diluents in relation with conventional diluents and cryopreservation protocol used in this species. Previously it was investigated the toxicity of cryoprotectants, sucrose and glycerol, based on different concentrations (sucrose at 0.03 M, 0.05 M, 0.15 M and 0.25 M; and glycerol at 3%, 7%, 14% and 18%) compared to a commercial extender (Biladyl® with 20% egg yolk and 7% glyerol). Cryoprotectants which reported less toxicity were chosen to perform the vitrification and results were compared with the conventional cryopreservation. Semen from three rams was collected by electroejaculation. The sperm evaluation was carried out at 0, 2 and 4h through the incubation time at 37°C for the experiment of toxicity and, at thawing when cryopreservation was performed. The sperm quality throughout the incubation time always resulted lower (P⩽0.05) for the free-egg yolk diluents in relation to Biladyl® (control), obtaining the lowest values of sperm quality with the highest concentrations of sucrose and glycerol. The vitrification was carried out with combinations of sucrose and glycerol (sucrose at 0.03 and 0.05 M with 3% and 7% of glycerol, respectively) and with Biladyl® (at different sperm concentrations). The vitrification decreased drastically (P⩽0.05) the sperm quality when combinations of sucrose and glycerol were used. Nevertheless, the sperm samples vitrified with Biladyl® at the lowest sperm concentration showed acceptable values of viability, acrosome integrity and DFI, although the sperm motility was strongly decreased. In conclusion, the use of vitrification with diluents based on combinations of sucrose and glycerol did not work for semen cryopreservation of ram. Promising results were obtained when diluents with egg yolk were used in the vitrification procedure, although more studies are necessary to improve this technique and the use

  11. Effect of incorporation of additives in tris-based egg yolk extender on buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm tyrosine phosphorylation during cryopreservation.

    Kumar, R; Atreja, S K


    Phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on sperm protein is a known indicator of capacitation and a major intracellular signalling event. There is evidence that sperm cryopreservation promotes tyrosine phosphorylation and is associated with reduced fertility of spermatozoa. Under this study, cryoprotective role of different additives namely taurine, trehalose, catalase and 4-bromophenacyl bromide on buffalo sperm quality was evaluated. Buffalo semen was cryopreserved in tris-based egg yolk extender supplemented with additives like taurine (50 mm) or trehalose (100 mm) or 4-bromophenacyl bromide (200 μm) or catalase (100 U/ml) and used for assessment of levels of tyrosine phosphorylation in frozen-thawed spermatozoa. The results obtained were compared with the level of protein tyrosine phosphorylation of semen cryopreserved in tris-based egg yolk extender without additives. Proteins were extracted from a total number of nine ejaculates from three individual buffalo bulls chosen at random and analysed for tyrosine phospho-proteins using SDS-PAGE followed by immunoblotting. Monoclonal anti-phosphotyrosine antibody (Clone pT-154) was used as primary antibody followed by treatment with HRP-conjugated secondary antibody. Signals were detected on X-ray film using chemiluminescence. Nine proteins (p20, p30, p32, p38, p49, p56, p59, p72 and p86) were found to be tyrosine phosphorylated in cryopreserved spermatozoa. Supplementation of additives significantly (p<0.05) reduced the level of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in spermatozoa. Moreover, this study showed improved (p<0.05) post-thaw motility, viability and membrane integrity of spermatozoa on addition of these additives. The results obtained clearly indicate reduced level of capacitation like changes on supplementation of additives in terms of protein tyrosine phosphorylation.

  12. Membrane dynamics

    Bendix, Pól Martin


    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...... for the lateral organization of membranes as wells as for physical properties like bending, permeability and elasticity...

  13. Effects of Temperature and Duration of Storage on the Stability of Antioxidant Compounds in Egg Yolk and Plasma.

    Hargitai, Rita; Nyiri, Zoltán; Eke, Zsuzsanna; Török, János


    Antioxidants help protect tissues from oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species. In view of the widespread interest in egg yolk and plasma antioxidants in relation to environmental and life-history variables, there is a need for knowledge on the necessary conditions for sample storage, which is currently lacking. In this study, our purpose was to examine the kinetics of the degradation of lutein, retinol, and tocopherol in egg yolk samples and the total antioxidant capacity in plasma samples stored at three different temperatures (-20°, -50°, and -80°C) for 24 mo. We found that yolk lutein was stable during the study period. Yolk retinol and tocopherol showed a steep early decline and then remained relatively stable, but retinol showed significant losses at the end of the study period too. In contrast to our expectations, there was no difference in the stability of antioxidant compounds of egg yolk samples stored at different temperatures. Plasma OXY level was stable during the first 6 mo, showed a slight decline between 6 and 12 mo, and declined more intensely after 12 mo of storage. We suggest that studies focusing on the analysis of egg yolk retinol or tocopherol concentrations and total plasma antioxidant capacity should analyze the samples in the first 6-7 mo after collection. For the analysis of yolk lutein, samples can be stored for 24 mo without significant degradation. The storage temperature of -20°C seemed to be sufficient, as a lower temperature did not significantly affect the slope of degradation of the samples.

  14. Promising Loci and Genes for Yolk and Ovary Weight in Chickens Revealed by a Genome-Wide Association Study.

    Congjiao Sun

    Full Text Available Because it serves as the cytoplasm of the oocyte and provides a large amount of reserves, the egg yolk has biological significance for developing embryos. The ovary and its hierarchy of follicles are the main reproductive organs responsible for yolk deposition in chickens. However, the genetic architecture underlying the yolk and ovarian follicle weights remains elusive. Here, we measured the yolk weight (YW at 11 age points from onset of egg laying to 72 weeks of age and measured the follicle weight (FW and ovary weight (OW at 73 weeks as part of a comprehensive genome-wide association study (GWAS in 1,534 F2 hens derived from reciprocal crosses between White Leghorn (WL and Dongxiang chickens (DX. For all ages, YWs exhibited moderate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-based heritability estimates (0.25-0.38, while the estimates for FW (0.16 and OW (0.20 were relatively low. Independent univariate genome-wide screens for each trait identified 12, 3, and 31 novel significant associations with YW, FW, and OW, respectively. A list of candidate genes such as ZAR1, STARD13, ACER1b, ACSBG2, and DHRS12 were identified for having a plausible function in yolk and follicle development. These genes are important to the initiation of embryogenesis, lipid transport, lipoprotein synthesis, lipid droplet promotion, and steroid hormone metabolism, respectively. Our study provides for the first time a genome-wide association (GWA analysis for follicle and ovary weight. Identification of the promising loci as well as potential candidate genes will greatly advance our understanding of the genetic basis underlying dynamic yolk weight and ovarian follicle development and has practical significance in breeding programs for the alteration of yolk weight at different age points.

  15. The nature of exocytosis in the yolk trophoblastic layer of silver arowana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum) juvenile, the representative of ancient teleost fishes.

    Jaroszewska, Marta; Dabrowski, Konrad


    We have chosen the silver arowana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum), a representative of the most ancient teleost family Osteoglossidae, to address the question of yolk nutrients utilization. Silver arowana have particularly large eggs (1-1.5 cm of diameter) and a unique morphology of the yolk. We present evidence that the yolk cytoplasmic zone (ycz) in the "yolksac juveniles" is a very complex structure involved in sequential processes of yolk hydrolysis, lipoprotein particles synthesis, their transport, and exocytosis. Vacuoles filled with yolk granules in different stages of digestion move from the vitellolysis zone through the ycz to be emptied into the microvillar interspace in the process of exocytosis. The area of the ycz with the abundance of the mitochondria must play an important role in providing energy for both the transport of vacuoles and the release of their contents. Therefore, we postulate that the function of yolk syncytial layer (ysl) as the "early embryonic patterning center" transforms in fish larvae or yolksac juveniles into a predominantly specialized role as the yolk trophoblastic layer (ytl) involved in yolk nutrients utilization. In addition to discovering the mechanism of transformation of the ysl function into ytl function, we suggest that the machinery involved in nutrient mobilization and exocytosis in yolk of arowana yolksac juveniles can be very attractive system for studies of regulatory processes in almost all secretory pathways in animal cells.

  16. The effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the homeostasis of yolk lipoprotein in C. elegans examined by CARS and two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPE-F) microscopy

    Chen, Wei-Wen; Yi, Yung-Hsiang; Chien, Cheng-Hao; Hsiung, Kuei-Ching; Lin, Yi-Chun; Ma, Tian-Hsiang; Lo, Szecheng J.; Chang, Ta-Chau


    Yolk lipoprotein constitutes the major source of energy and the materials for synthesizing signaling factors for the development of oocytes and embryos in C. elegans. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) packed in yolk lipoprotein have been recently recognized as critical molecules for fertilization and reproduction.1 However, the relation between PUFAs and the homeostasis of yolk lipoprotein is not clear. Here we use coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy and two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPE-F) microscopy to examine the transportation of yolk lipoprotein. We demonstrate that CARS microscopy is a more sensitive method than the traditional Nile Red staining method in probing the abnormal accumulation of yolk lipoprotein in the body cavity of C. elegans. It is found that the accumulation of yolk lipoprotein is a time-dependent process. In addition, a negative correlation (r = -0.955) between reproductive aging and abnormal accumulation of yolk lipoprotein is established. We further examine wild-type, fat-1, and fat-2 worms with or without the expression of GFP-tagged yolk lipoprotein (VIT-2-GFP). Our data reveal that PUFAs have a positive effect on the synthesis and endocytosis of yolk lipoprotein, confirming the model proposed by Edmonds et al.2

  17. Low-density Lipoprotein Improves Motility and Plasma Membrane Integrity of Cryopreserved Canine Epididymal Spermatozoa

    N. Prapaiwan


    Full Text Available Cryopreservation of caudal epididymal spermatozoa is an effective technique to conserve genetic potentials of superior dogs when it is not possible to collect ejaculated spermatozoa. Although hen egg yolk is commonly supplemented into the semen extender, active substances within the egg yolk which protect sperm against cryoinjury remain to be discovered. Among its compositions, low-density lipoprotein (LDL has been reported to have a cryoprotective property for sperm cryopreservation. However, the effects of LDL on dog epididymal spermatozoa during cryopreservation have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of LDL on epididymal spermatozoa quality following cryopreservation and thawing. After routine castration of 12 dogs, caudal epididymides from individuals were separated from the testes and cut into a few pieces in a Tris-buffer. Spermatozoa recovered from each sample were examined at once for sperm quality and divided into six groups of extender: no LDL, 20% egg yolk, 4%, 8%, 16%, and 24% LDL, before cryopreservation. The sperm aliquots were then equilibrated and conventionally frozen. After thawing, sperm motility, morphology, plasma membrane integrity, and acrosome integrity were evaluated. The results revealed that 4% LDL and 20% egg yolk yielded significantly higher sperm motility (57.69% and 52.69%, respectively, p<0.05 than other LDLs. In addition, 4% LDL yielded the significantly highest plasma membrane integrity (70.54%, p<0.05. In conclusion, the supplementation of 4% LDL in Tris-glucose extender could be applied for cryopreservation of canine epididymal spermatozoa.

  18. Effects of Fab' fragments of specific egg yolk antibody (IgY-Fab') against Shewanella putrefaciens on the preservation of refrigerated turbot.

    Zhang, Qian; Lin, Hong; Sui, Jianxin; Wang, Jingxue; Cao, Limin


    In our previous studies the specific egg yolk antibody (IgY) against Shewanella putrefaciens (one of the specific spoilage organisms for marine products during aerobic chilling storage) demonstrated significant activity to prolong the shelf life of refrigerated fish. The exploitation of the antigen-binding fragment plus the hinge region (IgY-Fab') is now considered a promising method for improving the efficiency of such natural antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial activity of IgY-Fab' against S. putrefaciens was investigated using refrigerated turbot as samples. By microbial, chemical and sensory tests, it was shown to be able to effectively inhibit bacterial growth and prolong the shelf life of samples, with an efficiency evaluated significantly higher than that of whole IgY with the same molarity. The interaction between IgY agents and S. putrefaciens cells was also investigated, and the IgY-Fab' showed a much greater ability to damage cell membranes than the whole IgY. Compared to whole IgY with the same molarity, IgY-Fab' demonstrated higher and more durable antimicrobial efficiency. Such a result was assumed to be closely related to its structural properties (such as the much lower molecular weight), which may enhance its ability to influence physiological activities of antigen bacteria, especially the property or/and structure of cell membranes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Immunocytochemical analysis of cubilin-mediated endocytosis of high density lipoproteins (HDL) in epithelial cells of the rat visceral yolk sac.

    Ishida, Tetsuya; Hatae, Tanenori; Nishi, Nozomu; Araki, Nobukazu; Hamasaki, Masao


    Cubilin was recently shown to function as an endocytic receptor for high density lipoprotein (HDL) holoparticles and apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the main protein constituent of HDL. In the present study, we analyzed the distribution and intracellular trafficking of cubilin and HDL in rat visceral yolk sac epithelial cells. After epithelial cells were loaded with apolipoprotein E-free HDL for 30 min in vitro, double immunofluorescence showed that the apical cytoplasm of the cells was strongly stained with anti-cubilin antibodies and anti-apo A-I/HDL. Furthermore, double immunogold electron-microscopic observations revealed the distinct localization of cubilin and HDL in endocytic vacuoles. In early endosomes, both were colocalized on the membrane. Although, in late endosomes, cubilin was also localized on the membrane, HDL was mainly located in the matrix. Both were found in the matrix in lysosomes. In addition, cubilin was markedly localized in apical tubules (ATs), which are generally accepted as being receptor recycling compartments. Thus, HDL is internalized through cubilin-mediated endocytosis and is finally transported to lysosomes. By contrast, cubilin is mainly translocated to ATs for recycling, although some of the cubilin is degraded in lysosomes. Quantitative analysis further revealed that cubilin was not concentrated on the membranes of ATs, although it accumulated in the AT area. Some HDL were also observed in the AT area. These findings suggest that the translocation of cubilin and HDL to ATs from early endosomes occurs through a simple sorting mechanism based on the geometry of these compartments and the bulk membrane and volume flow.

  20. Synthesis and microwave absorption properties of yolk-shell microspheres with magnetic iron oxide cores and hierarchical copper silicate shells.

    Liu, Jiwei; Cheng, Jin; Che, Renchao; Xu, Junjie; Liu, Mengmei; Liu, Zhengwang


    Yolk-shell microspheres with magnetic Fe3O4 cores and hierarchical copper silicate shells have been successfully synthesized by combining the versatile sol-gel process and hydrothermal reaction. Various yolk-shell microspheres with different core size and shell thickness can be readily synthesized by varying the experimental conditions. Compared to pure Fe3O4, the as-synthesized yolk-shell microspheres exhibit significantly enhanced microwave absorption properties in terms of both the maximum reflection loss value and the absorption bandwidth. The maximum reflection loss value of these yolk-shell microspheres can reach -23.5 dB at 7 GHz with a thickness of 2 mm, and the absorption bandwidths with reflection loss lower than -10 dB are up to 10.4 GHz. Owing to the large specific surface area, high porosity, and synergistic effect of both the magnetic Fe3O4 cores and hierarchical copper silicate shells, these unique yolk-shell microspheres may have the potential as high-efficient absorbers for microwave absorption applications.

  1. Diverse dose-response effects of yolk androgens on embryo development and nestling growth in a wild passerine.

    Muriel, Jaime; Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Puerta, Marisa; Gil, Diego


    Avian egg yolks contain various amounts of maternally derived androgens that can modify offspring phenotype and adjust their development to the post-hatching environment. Seemingly adaptive variation in yolk androgen levels with respect to breeding density conditions or male attractiveness has been found in numerous studies. One important consideration that has been overlooked in previous research is the likely non-linear nature of hormone effects. To examine possible complex dose-response effects of maternal androgens on chick development, we experimentally administered three different androgen doses of the naturally occurring mixture of yolk testosterone and androstenedione to spotless starling eggs (Sturnus unicolor). We found that yolk androgens induce a non-linear dose-response pattern in several traits. Androgens had a stimulatory effect on hatchling body mass and nestling skeletal growth, but maximum values were found at intermediate doses, whereas our highest dose resulted in a decrease. However, the opposite U-shaped effect was found on nestling body mass. We also detected linear negative and positive effects on embryonic development period and nestling gape width, respectively. Our results suggest differential tissue responsiveness to yolk androgens, which may result in compromises in maternal allocation to produce adapted phenotypes. Because of the non-linear dose-response pattern, future investigations should carefully consider a wide range of concentrations, as the balance of costs and benefits may strongly differ depending on concentration.

  2. Chemical Compositions of Egg Yolks and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Prebiotic, Probiotic, and Synbiotic Diets.

    Tang, Shirley Gee Hoon; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Yong, Su Ting; Wong, Hee Kum; Ho, Yin Wan


    A 16-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO), a probiotic, PrimaLac®, and their combination as a synbiotic on the chemical compositions of egg yolks and the egg quality of laying hens. One hundred and sixty 16-wk-old Hisex Brown pullets were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet + 1% IMO (PRE), (iii) basal diet + 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO), and (iv) basal diet + 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN). PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation not only significantly (P old) and total saturated fatty acids (SFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), but also significantly (P old), total omega 6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid levels in the eggs (28-wk-old). However, the total lipids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the egg yolks were similar among all dietary treatments in the 24-, 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old hens. Egg quality (Haugh unit, relative weights of the albumen and yolk, specific gravity, shell thickness, and yolk color) was not affected by PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation. The results indicate that supplementations with IMO and PrimaLac® alone or in combination as a synbiotic might be useful for improving the cholesterol content and modifying the fatty acid compositions of egg yolk without affecting the quality of eggs from laying hens between 24 and 36 wk of age.

  3. Liposome encapsulated soy lecithin and cholesterol can efficiently replace chicken egg yolk in human semen cryopreservation medium.

    Mutalik, Srinivas; Salian, Sujith Raj; Avadhani, Kiran; Menon, Jyothsna; Joshi, Haritima; Hegde, Aswathi Raju; Kumar, Pratap; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar


    Cryopreservation of spermatozoa plays a significant role in reproductive medicine and fertility preservation. Chicken egg yolk is used as an extender in cryopreservation of human spermatozoa using glycerol egg yolk citrate (GEYC) buffered medium. Even though 50% survival of spermatozoa is generally achieved with this method, the risk of high levels of endotoxins and transmission pathogens from chicken egg yolk is a matter of concern. In the present study we attempted to establish a chemically defined cryopreservation medium which can replace the chicken egg yolk without affecting sperm survival. Ejaculates from 28 men were cryopreserved with GEYC based freezing medium or liposome encapsulated soy lecithin-cholesterol based freezing medium (LFM). The semen samples were subjected to rapid thawing after 14 days of storage in liquid nitrogen. Post-thaw analysis indicated significantly higher post-thaw motility and sperm survival in spermatozoa cryopreserved with LFM compared to conventional GEYC freezing medium. The soy lecithin and cholesterol at the ratio of 80:20 with sucrose showed the highest percentage of post-thaw motility and survival compared to the other compositions. In conclusion, chemically defined cryopreservation medium with liposome encapsulated soy lecithin and cholesterol can effectively replace the chicken egg yolk from human semen cryopreservation medium without compromising post-thaw outcome.

  4. Termination of pregnancy at very early gestation without visible yolk sac on ultrasound.

    Heller, Rebecca; Cameron, Sharon


    Requests for termination of pregnancy (TOP) at very early gestation (≤6 weeks) can prove challenging for abortion services as the ultrasound feature usually accepted as definitive evidence of an intrauterine pregnancy (IUP), the presence of a yolk sac within a gestational sac, may not yet be evident. In 2011 the Edinburgh TOP service introduced a protocol permitting women to proceed to treatment without further investigations provided that ultrasound showed the features of an eccentrically placed gestational sac (≥3 mm) with a decidual reaction, and there were no signs, symptoms or risk factors for ectopic pregnancy. A retrospective audit was conducted of outcomes of women presenting for TOP at ≤6 weeks' gestation over a 2-year period using the hospital computerised database. A total of 1155 women presented for TOP with an ultrasound gestational age of ≤6 weeks. Of these, 1030 (89%) had ultrasound evidence of a yolk sac. Eighty-seven women (7.5%) had an eccentrically placed gestational sac with a decidual reaction. All 87 women fulfilled our criteria to proceed to medical TOP, and 66 did so. In the remaining 21 cases, further investigations were performed before they proceeded to medical TOP. Two (0.17%) medical TOPs failed, both in women whose initial ultrasound had shown a yolk sac. Women with ultrasound features consistent with a very early IUP (≥3 mm eccentrically placed gestational sac with a decidual reaction) and without signs, symptoms or risk factors for ectopic pregnancy can proceed directly to medical TOP without the need for delay for further ultrasonography. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  5. Protection Efficacy of Multivalent Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin against Eimeria Tenella Infection in Chickens

    JJ Xu


    Full Text Available Background: To control avian coccidiosis with drug-independent strategy effec­tively and safely, multivalent hyperimmune egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY was prepared and its ability to protect against Eimeria tenella infection was evaluated.Methods: Hens were orally immunized with live oocysts of 5 species of Eimeria for six times, antibody titers in serum and yolk were monitored by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The specific IgY was isolated, purified and lyophi­lized. IgY powder was orally administrated as dietary supplement in newly hatched chicks at various dosages. Birds were orally challenged with 10000 sporulated oo­cysts of E. tenella at 10 days of age, weighed and killed at 8 days post challenge, and the protective effect was assessed.Results: The averge yeid of IgY was 9.2 mg/ml yolk, the antibody titer of IgY reached to 1:163840 per mg with the purity up to 98%. Chickens fed IgY resulted in reduced mortality, increased body weight gain (BWG, reduced oocyst shedding, reduced caecal lesion score and increased anti-coccidial index. In terms of BWG and caecal lesion, IgY significantly enhanced the resistance of bird at ≥ 0.05% of IgY in the diet when compared with the challenged control group (P0.05.Conclusion: Supplementing newly hatched chicks with Eimeria-specific IgY represents a promising strategy to prevent avian coccidiosis.

  6. Yolk protein is expressed in the insect testis and interacts with sperm

    Joachimiak Ewa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male and female gametes follow diverse developmental pathways dictated by their distinct roles in fertilization. While oocytes of oviparous animals accumulate yolk in the cytoplasm, spermatozoa slough off most of their cytoplasm in the process of individualization. Mammalian spermatozoa released from the testis undergo extensive modifications in the seminal ducts involving a variety of glycoproteins. Ultrastructural studies suggest that glycoproteins are involved in sperm maturation in insects; however, their characterization at the molecular level is lacking. We reported previously that the circadian clock controls sperm release and maturation in several insect species. In the moth, Spodoptera littoralis, the secretion of glycoproteins into the seminal fluid occurs in a daily rhythmic pattern. The purpose of this study was to characterize seminal fluid glycoproteins in this species and elucidate their role in the process of sperm maturation. Results We collected seminal fluid proteins from males before and after daily sperm release. These samples were separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis, and gels were treated with a glycoprotein-detecting probe. We observed a group of abundant glycoproteins in the sample collected after sperm release, which was absent in the sample collected before sperm release. Sequencing of these glycoproteins by mass spectroscopy revealed peptides bearing homology with components of yolk, which is known to accumulate in developing oocytes. This unexpected result was confirmed by Western blotting demonstrating that seminal fluid contains protein immunoreactive to antibody against yolk protein YP2 produced in the follicle cells surrounding developing oocytes. We cloned the fragment of yp2 cDNA from S. littoralis and determined that it is expressed in both ovaries and testes. yp2 mRNA and YP2 protein were detected in the somatic cyst cells enveloping sperm inside the testis. During the period of sperm

  7. Egg yolk emulsion agar, a new medium for the cultivation of Helicobacter pylori.

    Westblom, T U; Madan, E; Midkiff, B R


    We developed a new agar, egg yolk emulsion (EYE) agar, for cultivation of Helicobacter pylori. EYE agar contains Columbia agar base (Oxoid), 10% EYE (Oxoid), 1% IsoVitaleX (BBL), and 40 mg of Triphenyleteraxolium chloride (Sigma) per liter. We compared EYE agar with the following agars: (i) brain heart infusion agar-7% horse blood-1% IsoVitaleX (GDW agar; C. S. Goodwin, E. D. Blincow, J. R. Warren, T. E. Waters, C. R. Sanderson, and L. Easton, J. Clin. Pathol. 38:1127-1131, 1985), (ii) brain ...

  8. Constructing the recombinant plasmid-pLXSN-SjYF-of Yolk Ferritin gene of Schistosoma japonicum

    ZhouJunmei; YuXinbing; WuZhongdao; ZhengYinan; LiYan


    TO construct the recotabinant plasmid —— pLXSN-SjYF to prepare for expression and DNA vaccine of Schistosoma japonicum gene. Methods :Mnpliffing DNA fragment coding yolk fereltin from a female adult Sehistosoma japonicum DNAs by PCR. The fragment was inseted into pLXSN retrovirus vector by digesting with restrictive enzymes and linking reactions. The positive clone was screened on LB plates contmaining amplcillin asld identified by restrictive enzymes digestion and PCR amplification, Resttlts The specific DNA fragmem SjYF was amplified from the female adult SjDNAs. IaLXSN-SjYF was constructed successfully and the further research will be carried out.

  9. [The problems of yolk sac tumor morphogenesis in a light of the tumor stem cell theory].

    Karseladze, A I


    The analysis of possible morphogenesis of the different structures in human yolk sac tumor has been considered. The author has supposed that features of blood vessel microarchitecture formation and perpetual differentiation of tumor cells or theirs functional modification play a crucial role in the morphogenesis of YST. The immunohistochemical investigation of some stem cells markers has showed the necessity of accounting of their distribution pattern in various cellular structures for the differential diagnosis of morphogenetical steps of YST. The growth of tumor cells differentiation rate correlates with increasing of stem cells markers expression as well c-kit > OCT4 > CD30 > PLAP.

  10. Preparation of Magnetic Hybrid Microspheres with Well-Defined Yolk-Shell Structure

    Yuan Zhao


    Full Text Available A facile and efficient route was reported to prepare a kind of yolk-shell magnetic hybrid microspheres by suspension polymerization and calcinations method. The morphology, structure, and composition of the magnetic microspheres were characterized by FTIR, XRD, TEM, SEM, and TGA analysis. The vibrating-sample magnetometry (VSM results clearly showed that the magnetic particles were superparamagnetic with saturation magnetization of 32.82 emu/g which makes the microcomposites easily controlled by an external magnetic field. The results revealed that the magnetic hybrid microspheres might have important applications in magnetic bioseparation and drug delivery.

  11. Design of highly sensitive and selective Au@NiO yolk-shell nanoreactors for gas sensor applications.

    Rai, Prabhakar; Yoon, Ji-Wook; Jeong, Hyun-Mook; Hwang, Su-Jin; Kwak, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Heun


    Au@NiO yolk-shell nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by simple solution route and applied for efficient gas sensor towards H₂S gas. Carbon encapsulated Au (Au@C core-shell) NPs were synthesized by glucose-assisted hydrothermal method, whereas Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs were synthesized by precipitation method using Au@C core-shell NPs as a template. Sub-micrometer Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs were formed having 50-70 nm Au NPs at the periphery of NiO shell (10-20 nm), which was composed of 6-12 nm primary NiO particles. Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs showed higher response for H2S compared to other interfering gases (ethanol, p-xylene, NH₃, CO and H₂). The maximum response was 108.92 for 5 ppm of H₂S gas at 300 °C, which was approximately 19 times higher than that for the interfering gases. The response of Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs to H₂S was approximately 4 times higher than that of bare NiO hollow nanospheres. Improved performance of Au@NiO yolk-shell NPs was attributed to hollow spaces that allowed the accessibility of Au NPs to gas molecules. It was suggested that adsorption of H₂S on Au NPs resulted in the formation of sulfide layer, which possibly lowered its work function, and therefore tuned the electron transfer from Au to NiO rather NiO to Au, which leaded to increase in resistance and therefore response.

  12. TBC-2 is required for embryonic yolk protein storage and larval survival during L1 diapause in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Laëtitia Chotard

    Full Text Available C. elegans first stage (L1 larvae hatched in the absence of food, arrest development and enter an L1 diapause, whereby they can survive starvation for several weeks. The physiological and metabolic requirements for survival during L1 diapause are poorly understood. However, yolk, a cholesterol binding/transport protein, has been suggested to serve as an energy source. Here, we demonstrate that C. elegans TBC-2, a RAB-5 GTPase Activating Protein (GAP involved in early-to-late endosome transition, is important for yolk protein storage during embryogenesis and for L1 survival during starvation. We found during embryogenesis, that a yolk::green fluorescent protein fusion (YP170::GFP, disappeared much more quickly in tbc-2 mutant embryos as compared with wild-type control embryos. The premature disappearance of YP170::GFP in tbc-2 mutants is likely due to premature degradation in the lysosomes as we found that YP170::GFP showed increased colocalization with Lysotracker Red, a marker for acidic compartments. Furthermore, YP170::GFP disappearance in tbc-2 mutants required RAB-7, a regulator of endosome to lysosome trafficking. Although tbc-2 is not essential in fed animals, we discovered that tbc-2 mutant L1 larvae have strongly reduced survival when hatched in the absence of food. We show that tbc-2 mutant larvae are not defective in maintaining L1 diapause and that mutants defective in yolk uptake, rme-1 and rme-6, also had strongly reduced L1 survival when hatched in the absence of food. Our findings demonstrate that TBC-2 is required for yolk protein storage during embryonic development and provide strong correlative data indicating that yolk constitutes an important energy source for larval survival during L1 diapause.

  13. Review of researches on yolk percentage in chicken egg%鸡蛋蛋黄比例研究综述

    刘璐; 郑江霞; 徐桂云


    蛋黄是鸡蛋的精华部分,蛋黄比例是衡量鸡蛋营养价值的一项重要指标,市场中不同消费群对鸡蛋中蛋黄的含量需求有所不同。掌握蛋黄比例的变化规律及其影响因素对产品质量和市场销售有重要的作用。本文从蛋黄比例的相关概念、研究意义及其影响因素等方面,对蛋黄比例近几年相关研究结果进行了综述,并提出对蛋黄比例研究和育种的思考,为今后相关的研究工作提供参考。%Yolk is the essence of an egg, and yolk percentage is a key index to determine nutritional value of an egg. Different consumption groups demand for various amounts of yolk in an egg. Understanding the variation of yolk percentage and its influence factors can be important to the products quality and market sales. In this review, we summarize the definition, research significance and influence factors of yolk percentage, and present some research results and current research progress on yolk percentage. Moreover, some thinking on the research and breeding of yolk percentage is put forward, which will provide reference for future research works.

  14. An evaluation of soybean lecithin as an alternative to avian egg yolk in the cryopreservation of fish sperm.

    Yildiz, Cengiz; Bozkurt, Yusuf; Yavas, Ilker


    Plant-derived lecithin has been used as a more sanitary alternative to avian egg yolk in livestock sperm cryopreservation protocols but its efficacy for cryopreserving fish sperm has not previously been tested comparatively. Here various concentrations of soybean lecithin were evaluated for the cryopreservation of carp (Cyprinus carpio) sperm. Sexually mature fish were induced to spermiation and ovulation with ovopel. The extenders were prepared by using 300 mM glucose, 10% DMSO, supplemented with different ratios of lecithin (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) and 10% egg yolk (control I). Negative control was made without egg yolk and soybean lecithin (control II). The pooled semen was diluted separately at ratio of 1:3 (v/v) by using egg yolk and soybean-based extenders. Diluted semen placed into 0.25 ml straws were equilibrated at 4 °C for 15 min and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor. Fertilization was conducted using a ratio of 1 × 10(5)spermatozoa/egg. Supplementation of 10% lecithin to extender showed the best cryoprotective effect for sperm motility and duration of motility against freezing damage compared to 15%, 20% and control II groups (plecithin provided a greater result in terms of fertilization success when compared to extenders containing 20% lecithin or control II (plecithin has a similar cryoprotective actions with conventional egg yolk-based extender against freezing damages and fertilization. Therefore, soybean lecithin is a suitable alternative to avian egg yolk for the cryopreservation of fish sperm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Histological analyses demonstrate the temporary contribution of yolk sac, liver, and bone marrow to hematopoiesis during chicken development.

    Priscila Tavares Guedes

    Full Text Available The use of avian animal models has contributed to the understanding of many aspects of the ontogeny of the hematopoietic system in vertebrates. However, specific events that occur in the model itself are still unclear. There is a lack of consensus, among previous studies, about which is the intermediate site responsible for expansion and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, and the liver's contribution to the development of this system. Here we aimed to evaluate the presence of hematopoiesis in the yolk sac and liver in chickens, from the stages of intra-aortic clusters in the aorta-genital ridges-mesonephros (AGM region until hatching, and how it relates to the establishment of the bone marrow. Gallus gallus domesticus L. embryos and their respective yolk sacs at embryonic day 3 (E3 and up to E21 were collected and processed according to standard histological techniques for paraffin embedding. The slides were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Lennert's Giemsa, and Sirius Red at pH 10.2, and investigated by light microscopy. This study demonstrated that the yolk sac was a unique hematopoietic site between E4 and E12. Hematopoiesis occurred in the yolk sac and bone marrow between E13 and E20. The liver showed granulocytic differentiation in the connective tissue of portal spaces at E15 and onwards. The yolk sac showed expansion of erythrocytic and granulocytic lineages from E6 to E19, and E7 to E20, respectively. The results suggest that the yolk sac is the major intermediate erythropoietic and granulopoietic site where expansion and differentiation occur during chicken development. The hepatic hematopoiesis is restricted to the portal spaces and represented by the granulocytic lineage.

  16. The effect of semen collection method and level of egg yolk on capability of dilution and storage of buck semen

    N.N. Dhaher


    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of semen collection method for reduction of the deleterious interaction between the enzymes of bulbourethral gland and egg yolk during the dilution and storage of buck semen by three different level of egg yolk. Ten bucks were used in this study; the bucks were divided into two groups (five bucks in each group. Semen samples were collected once a week for four weeks from the bucks in first group using an artificial vagina, and from the animals in second group using an electroejaculator. The collected semen samples were diluted with sodium citrate extender with three different level of egg yolk (5, 10 and 20%. Extend semen samples were stored at 5 °C for three days. Computer assisted sperm analysis and Sperm Class Analyzer® were used for evaluation of the buck semen samples. Sperm motility parameters were evaluated which includes; percentage of motile sperm, percentage of progressive motile sperm, the value of the linear velocity (VSL, the value of the average velocity (VAP, the value of the curvilinear velocity (VCL, and the amplitude of lateral movement of the head (ALH. Results showed that all sperm motility parameters under the different level of egg yolk in semen samples that collected by artificial vagina were significantly higher than those which collected by electroejaculator. The percentage of motile sperm and progressive motile sperm of samples that collected by artificial vagina were higher at 10% of egg yolk, while these motility parameters were higher at 5% of egg yolk for semen samples that collected by electroejaculator. The differences between the two methods of semen collection in VCL and ALH were clear and the values were higher in samples that collected using the artificial vagina. The values of VSL, VAP and VCL of semen samples that collected by artificial vagina were higher at the second day than first day of semen storage under 10% of egg yolk. In conclusion, there are effects

  17. Expression and immunolocalisation of the endocytic receptors megalin and cubilin in the human yolk sac and placenta across gestation.

    Burke, K A; Jauniaux, E; Burton, G J; Cindrova-Davies, T


    Megalin and cubilin are multifunctional endocytic receptors associated with many transporting epithelia. They play an essential role in transport of nutrients through the visceral yolk sac of rodents during embryogenesis. Here, we immunolocalise them to the endodermal layer of the human yolk sac, and to the syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast cells of placental villi. In villi, the protein level of both receptors increased with gestation. The mRNA for megalin remained constant, while that encoding cubilin increased with gestation. These results suggest megalin and cubilin may be important in human maternal-fetal transfer, and that they increase across gestation to facilitate this function.

  18. Interplay between SOX7 and RUNX1 regulates hemogenic endothelial fate in the yolk sac.

    Lilly, Andrew J; Costa, Guilherme; Largeot, Anne; Fadlullah, Muhammad Z H; Lie-A-Ling, Michael; Lacaud, Georges; Kouskoff, Valerie


    Endothelial to hematopoietic transition (EHT) is a dynamic process involving the shutting down of endothelial gene expression and switching on of hematopoietic gene transcription. Although the factors regulating EHT in hemogenic endothelium (HE) of the dorsal aorta have been relatively well studied, the molecular regulation of yolk sac HE remains poorly understood. Here, we show that SOX7 inhibits the expression of RUNX1 target genes in HE, while having no effect on RUNX1 expression itself. We establish that SOX7 directly interacts with RUNX1 and inhibits its transcriptional activity. Through this interaction we demonstrate that SOX7 hinders RUNX1 DNA binding as well as the interaction between RUNX1 and its co-factor CBFβ. Finally, we show by single-cell expression profiling and immunofluorescence that SOX7 is broadly expressed across the RUNX1(+) yolk sac HE population compared with SOX17. Collectively, these data demonstrate for the first time how direct protein-protein interactions between endothelial and hematopoietic transcription factors regulate contrasting transcriptional programs during HE differentiation and EHT. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Green synthesis and characterisation of platinum nanoparticles using quail egg yolk

    Nadaroglu, Hayrunnisa; Gungor, Azize Alayli; Ince, Selvi; Babagil, Aynur


    Nanotechnology is extensively used in all parts today. Therefore, nano synthesis is also significant in all explored areas. The results of studies conducted have revealed that nanoparticle synthesis is performed by using both chemical and physical methods. It is well known that these syntheses are carried out at high charge, pressure and temperature in harsh environments. Therefore, this study investigated green synthesis method that sustains more mild conditions. In this study, quail egg yolk having high vitamin and protein content was prepared for green synthesis reaction and used for the synthesis of platinum nanoparticles in the reaction medium. Reaction situations were optimised as a function of pH, temperature, time and concentration by using quail egg yolk. The results showed that the highest platinum nanoparticles were synthesised at 20 °C and pH 6.0 for 4 h. Also, optimal concentration of metal ions was established as 0.5 mM. The synthesised platinum nanoparticles were characterised by using UV spectrum, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope.

  20. Evaluation of cloned cells, animal model, and ATRA sensitivity of human testicular yolk sac tumor

    Zhao Junfeng


    Full Text Available Abstract The testicular yolk sac tumor (TYST is the most common neoplasm originated from germ cells differentiated abnormally, a major part of pediatric malignant testicular tumors. The present study aimed at developing and validating the in vitro and vivo models of TYST and evaluating the sensitivity of TYST to treatments, by cloning human TYST cells and investigating the histology, ultra-structure, growth kinetics and expression of specific proteins of cloned cells. We found biological characteristics of cloned TYST cells were similar to the yolk sac tumor and differentiated from the columnar to glandular-like or goblet cells-like cells. Chromosomes for tumor identification in each passage met nature of the primary tumor. TYST cells were more sensitive to all-trans-retinoic acid which had significantly inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Cisplatin induced apoptosis of TYST cells through the activation of p53 expression and down-regulation of Bcl- expression. Thus, we believe that cloned TYST cells and the animal model developed here are useful to understand the molecular mechanism of TYST cells and develop potential therapies for human TYST.

  1. Prophylactic and therapeutic effects of egg yolk immunoglobulin against porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus in piglets

    Yuzhu ZUO; Jinghui FAN; Huixia FAN; Tanqing LI; Xiaobo ZHANG


    Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is the causative agent of acute diarrhea of new-born piglets that provokes high mortality rates in affected farms. In this study, specific immunoglobulin from egg yolk against TGEV was produced by immunization of White leghorn hens. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization (VN) test revealed that the specific antibody titer started to increase on the tenth day post-immunization, reached its peak on the eighth week, and remained at a high level until the last week that we tested. The prophylactic and therapeutic effects of egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was investigated in piglets. IgY was found effective to increase piglets sur-vival rate significantly after challenge exposures in pro-phylactic efficacy analysis. The therapeutic effects test revealed that the mortality was dramatically reduced by orally administered IgY. All these results in our study indicated that IgY specific to TGEV could be an alterna-tive prophylactic method like colostral antibodies against TGEV in piglets.

  2. Purification of biotin-binding protein from chicken egg yolk and comparison with avidin.

    Murthy, C V; Adiga, P R


    A simple alternative procedure for the purification in higher yields of the biotin-binding protein from the chicken egg yolk in a ligand-free form is described. The isolated protein was homogeneous by the criteria of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, gel filtration chromatography, immuno-double diffusion and immuno-electrophoresis. The protein had an Mr of 72 000 +/- 2000 and was a homotetramer of subunit Mr of 18 000 +/- 1000. It bound [14C]biotin in the molar ratio of 1:4 with an association constant (Ka) of 0.58 X 10(12) M-1. The yolk biotin-binding protein and avidin exhibited qualitatively similar spectral changes on interaction with biotin and p- hydroxyazobenzoic acid, but quantitatively these changes were more pronounced with avidin. Despite the lack of gross immunological cross-reactivity between the two biotin-binders, evidence based on immunological techniques for some degree of common conformational characteristics restricted to or around the ligand-binding sites of the two proteins was adduced. The mixed subunits of the two proteins failed to form hetero-oligomers on reconstitution.

  3. Detection of Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin Y; a Potential Source of Anti- Escherichia coli

    Enayatollah Kalantar


    Full Text Available Background: E. coli strains can cause a wide variety of intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases. Increasing occurrence of antibioticresistance would complicate the treatment of such diseases. Objectives: The aim of this study was to detect the egg yolk immunoglobulin Y as a potential source of anti-Escherichia coli. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted by using killed E.coli with formaldehyde as antigen. Chickens were immunized with500 μL of antigen diluted in equal volume of Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA. Booster injections of increasing concentrations of antigenwere given to raise the antibody level in serum. The specificity of antibody was confirmed by ELISA method. Results: Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY were raised against E. coli in the serum after injections. Up to 1.10000 dilution antibodies weredetermined in serum, which shows high amount of antibodies are produced in immunized chickens. Conclusions: Further studies have to be conducted to evaluate the potency of these antibodies in treatment of variety of diseases. Theoutcome of this research work would be an alternative to the current antibiotic treatments.

  4. Antiosteoporotic effect of orally administered yolk-derived peptides on bone mass in women.

    Abdou, Adham M; Watabe, Kazuya; Yamane, Tetsuro; Isono, Tadayuki; Okamura, Yoshitaka; Kawahito, Seiji; Takeshima, Kazuhito; Masuda, Kazuyuki; Kim, Mujo


    The main objective of this study was to verify the effect of oral intake of a yolk-derived peptide preparation (HYP) obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of yolk water-soluble protein on bone markers and bone density in 65 perimenopausal women with an average age of 47.6 ± 5.2 years. Subjects were divided into three groups, and then enrolled in a 6-month, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Bone formation and resorption markers were measured at 0, 3, and 6 months, while bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spines was measured at 0 and 6 months. Although the bone formation marker levels showed the similarity changes among the groups, bone resorption markers in the test HYP group were significantly decreased after 3 and 6 months in comparison to other groups (P < 0.05). After 6 months, BMD in the test HYP group maintained at healthy numerical values whereas BMD values were decreased in other groups. Hence HYP would be an antiosteoporotic agent originated from natural food to maintain bone health, especially for women.

  5. Membrane reactor. Membrane reactor

    Shindo, Y.; Wakabayashi, K. (National Chemical Laboratory for Industry, Tsukuba (Japan))


    Many reaction examples were introduced of membrane reactor, to be on the point of forming a new region in the field of chemical technology. It is a reactor to exhibit excellent function, by its being installed with membrane therein, and is generally classified into catalyst function type and reaction promotion type. What firstly belongs to the former is stabilized zirconia, where oxygen, supplied to the cathodic side of membrane with voltage, impressed thereon, becomes O {sup 2 {minus}} to be diffused through the membrane and supplied, as variously activated oxygenous species, on the anodic side. Examples with many advantages can be given such as methane coupling, propylene oxidation, methanating reaction of carbon dioxide, etc. Apart, palladium film and naphion film also belong to the former. While examples of the latter comprise, among others, decomposition of hydrogen sulfide by porous glass film and dehydrogenation of cyclohexane or palladium alloy film, which are expected to be developed and materialized in the industry. 33 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Inoculation of a Poultry Isolate Salmonella enteritidis on Egg Vitelline Membrane: Survival and Growth in Egg Components after Different Refrigeration Storage Times

    Z. R. Howard


    Full Text Available An in vitro study was designed to determine the extent of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis survival and growth permissiveness in egg components isolated from shell eggs held at refrigeration temperature over an 8 week time period. Eggs were collected from a commercial laying facility at one-week intervals for eight weeks and stored at refrigeration temperature. After storage, eggs were dipped in ethanol, cracked aseptically and separated into yolk and albumen samples. S. enteritidis resistant to novobiocin and nalidixic acid were inoculated on to the surface of the yolk membrane at a concentration of approximately 106 CFU mLˉ1. Yolks were then covered with albumen and incubated for 24 hrs at 25°C. After incubation, eggs were separated into component parts. Samples were removed from yolk, albumen and yolk membrane and diluted 10-fold in sterile phosphate buffered saline. In albumen, S. enteritidis counts were increased in weeks 3 and 8 compared to week 1 (trial 2. The frequency of eggs exhibiting net growth of S. enteritidis in albumen occurred at week 7 versus weeks 0 and 1 in trial 1 and weeks 3 and 8 versus weeks 0 and 2 in trial 2. In the membrane fraction, the frequency of eggs exhibiting net growth of S. enteritidis occurred at weeks 5 and 8 versus week 0 in trial 2. In the yolk fractions, S. enteritidis counts recovered from week 6 eggs were significantly higher (PS. enteritidis positive eggs were greater in week 8 than week 5 in trial 1. This suggests that egg components recovered from aged eggs stored at refrigeration temperatures infrequently supported S. enteritidis net growth but generally did not inhibit survivability.

  7. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans made by different basement-membrane-producing tumors have immunological and structural similarities

    Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R; Hassell, J R


    Using immunological assays, we determined the relationship between the heparan sulfate proteoglycans produced by two different murine basement-membrane-producing tumors, i.e., the mouse Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) tumor and the L2 rat yolk-sac tumor. Antibodies prepared against the heparan sulfate...... mainly heparan sulfate (75%) along with smaller amounts of chondroitin sulfate (19%), whereas the L2 rat yolk-sac tumor produced mainly chondroitin sulfate (76%) with smaller amounts of heparan sulfate (21%). We conclude that these two murine basement-membrane-producing tumors elaborate...... proteoglycans obtained from these two sources immunoprecipitated the same precursor protein with a molecular mass of 400,000 daltons from 35S-methionine pulse-labeled cells of both tumors. Immunohistochemistry showed the heparan sulfate proteoglycan to be distributed in the extracellular matrix and also...

  8. Biobased Membrane

    Koenders, E.A.B.; Zlopasa, J.; Picken, S.J.


    The present invention is in the field of a composition for forming a bio-compatible membrane applicable to building material, such as concrete, cement, etc., to a meth od of applying said composition for forming a bio-compatible membrane, a biocompatible membrane, use of said membrane for various pu

  9. Membrane fusion

    Bendix, Pól Martin


    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  10. Biofortified orange maize enhances β-cryptoxanthin concentrations in egg yolks of laying hens better than tangerine peel fortificant.

    Heying, Emily K; Tanumihardjo, Jacob P; Vasic, Vedran; Cook, Mark; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A


    The xanthophyll β-cryptoxanthin provides vitamin A and has other purported health benefits. Laying hens deposit xanthophyll carotenoids into egg yolk. Hens (n = 8/group) were fed conventional-bred high β-cryptoxanthin biofortified (orange) maize, tangerine peel-fortified white maize, lutein-fortified yellow maize, or white maize for 40 d to investigate yolk color changes using L*a*b* scales, yolk carotenoid enhancement, and hen vitamin A status. Yolks from hens fed orange maize had scores indicating a darker, orange color and mean higher β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene concentrations (8.43 ± 1.82, 23.1 ± 4.8, 0.16 ± 0.08 nmol/g, respectively) than other treatments (P maize had higher liver retinol (0.53 ± 0.20 μmol/g liver) than other groups (P < 0.0001). β-Cryptoxanthin-biofortified eggs could be another choice for consumers, providing enhanced color through a provitamin A carotenoid and supporting eggs' status as a functional food.

  11. GnRH - a Missing Link between Testosterone Concentrations in Yolk and Plasma and Its Intergenerational Effects

    Müller, Wendt; Groothuis, Ton G.G.; Goerlich, Vivian C.; Eens, Marcel


    Despite the strong interest in hormone-mediated maternal effects two key questions concerning their mechanisms are as yet unanswered: First, whether the deposition of hormones in the egg yolk is coupled with the levels of these hormones in the maternal circulation, and second, whether epigenetic cha

  12. Proteomic analysis of the early bovine yolk sac fluid and cells from the day 13 ovoid and elongated preimplatation embryos

    Jensen, Pernille L.; Beck, Hans Christian; Petersen, Tonny S.


    differentiate into the hypoblast and epiblast, which remain surrounded by the trophectoderm. The formation of the hypoblast epithelium is also accompanied by a change in the fluid within the embryo, i.e., the blastocoel fluid gradually alters to become the primitive yolk sac (YS) fluid. Our previous research...

  13. Moisture content and particle size of dehydrated egg yolk affect lipid and cholesterol extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Froning, G W; Wehling, R L; Cuppett, S; Niemann, L


    Egg yolk was spray-dried under conditions to produce a small particle size powder and a large particle size powder. Particle size was determined using a Nikon Optiophot microscope. Spray-dried egg yolk was also adjusted to various moisture levels as follows: control (2 to 4% moisture), 7% moisture, and 12% moisture. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) of each of these moisture treatments at 45 C/306 atm using 30 g CO2/g of sample was completed. For the particle size study, 45 g CO2/g of sample at 45 C/306 atm was utilized. Particle size exhibited a significant effect on cholesterol and lipids extracted using SCE. As moisture content of dried egg yolk increased to 7%, there was a significant increase in lipids extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide. Moisture content had no significant effect on cholesterol extraction. After extracting SCE higher moisture spray-dried egg yolk, sponge cake volume was significantly reduced compared to that of the control. The reduced sponge cake volume may be due to protein denaturation.

  14. Consistent variation in yolk androgens in the Australian Brush-turkey, a species without sibling competition or parental care

    Goeth, Ann; Eising, Corine M.; Herberstein, Marie E.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.


    Maternal hormones are an excellent pathway for the mother to influence offspring development, and birds provide exceptional opportunities to study these hormone-mediated maternal effects. Two dominant hypotheses about the function of yolk androgens in avian eggs concern maternal manipulation of

  15. Effects of dietary supplementation with Gynura procumbens (Merr.) on egg yolk cholesterol, excreta microflora and laying hen performance.

    Lokhande, A; Ingale, S L; Lee, S H; Sen, S; Khong, C; Chae, B J; Kwon, I K


    Abstract 1. The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Gynura procumbens on egg yolk and serum cholesterol and triglycerides, excreta microflora, laying performance and egg quality. 2. A total of 160 Hy-Line Brown layers (45 weeks old) were randomly assigned into 4 treatments on the basis of laying performance. Each treatment had 4 replicates with 10 birds each. 3. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg diet G. procumbens during 56-d feeding period. 4. Serum (d 21, 42 and 56) and egg yolk (d 28, 42 and 56) cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were linearly reduced with increasing dietary concentrations of G. procumbens. 5. Increasing dietary concentrations of G. procumbens linearly reduced the excreta total anaerobic bacteria (d 28), Clostridium sp. and Escherichia coli (d 28 and 56) populations. 6. Overall egg production and egg mass were linearly increased, and overall feed efficiency was linearly improved with increase in dietary G. procumbens. 7. Dietary increasing concentrations of G. procumbens linearly improved egg yolk colour (d 28 and 56) and breaking strength of eggs (d 56). 8. The results obtained in the present experiment indicate that dietary supplementation with G. procumbens could reduce the egg yolk cholesterol, suppresses harmful excreta microflora and improves layers performance.


    Ricardo Toniolli


    Full Text Available Many attempts have been made to improve the conservation of boar semen. Egg yolk is known to have cryoprotectant properties. This study aimed to test different concentrations of egg yolk added to the coconut milk powder extender (ACP-103®, and verify which one is better to maintain sperm viability. The ejaculated (36 were diluted in ACP-103® supplemented with different concentrations of egg yolk (0%, 1%, 3%, 5% and 7%. The conservation occurred at 17 °C, and vigor and motility analysis were carried out daily. On days 1 (D0, 3 (D2 and 5 (D4 the semen was evaluated for vitality, morphology and osmotic resistance. For statistical nonparametric analysis Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s tests were performed, and for parametric data ANOVA and Tukey test were used. A decrease in vigor and motility was observed in all treatments. Treatments T2, T3 and T4 better maintained spermatic on D0 (2.4±0.8, 2.5±1.1, and 2.8±0.9, respectively, with no signi cant differences among them. The same was observed for motility (77±15%, 74±23%, and 81±16% on D0. Analyses of vitality, morphology and osmotic resistance did not show statistical difference among treatments. In conclusion, the concentration of egg yolk (7% added to the ACP-103® can be e ectively used as extender to maintain sperm viability.

  17. Facile one-pot synthesis of multi-yolk-shell Bi@C nanostructures by the nanoscale Kirkendall effect.

    Cui, C M; Guo, X H; Geng, Y M; Dang, T T; Xie, G; Chen, S P; Zhao, F Q


    Multi-yolk-shell Bi@C nanostructures were prepared via a facile one-pot template-free hydrothermal approach. The prepared Bi@C nanostructures can act as a solid catalyst in the thermal decomposition of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and display excellent catalytic activity, which highlights their application in the field of energetic materials.

  18. Evolutionary implications of interspecific variation in a maternal effect: a meta-analysis of yolk testosterone response to competition.

    Bentz, Alexandra B; Becker, Daniel J; Navara, Kristen J


    Competition between conspecifics during the breeding season can result in behavioural and physiological programming of offspring via maternal effects. For birds, in which maternal effects are best studied, it has been claimed that exposure to increased competition causes greater deposition of testosterone into egg yolks, which creates faster growing, more aggressive offspring; such traits are thought to be beneficial for high-competition environments. Nevertheless, not all species show a positive relationship between competitive interactions and yolk testosterone, and an explanation for this interspecific variation is lacking. We here test if the magnitude and direction of maternal testosterone allocated to eggs in response to competition can be explained by life-history traits while accounting for phylogenetic relationships. We performed a meta-analysis relating effect size of yolk testosterone response to competition with species coloniality, nest type, parental effort and mating type. We found that effect size was moderated by coloniality and nest type; colonial species and those with open nests allocate less testosterone to eggs when in more competitive environments. Applying a life-history perspective helps contextualize studies showing little or negative responses of yolk testosterone to competition and improves our understanding of how variation in this maternal effect may have evolved.

  19. Yolk proteolysis and aquaporin-1o play essential roles to regulate fish oocyte hydration during meiosis resumption.

    Fabra, M.; Raldua, D.; Bozzo, M.G.; Deen, P.M.T.; Lubzens, E.; Cerda, J.


    In marine fish, meiosis resumption is associated with a remarkable hydration of the oocyte, which contributes to the survival and dispersal of eggs and early embryos in the ocean. The accumulation of ions and the increase in free amino acids generated from the cleavage of yolk proteins (YPs) provide

  20. Yolk androgens do not appear to mediate sexual conflict over parental investment in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Doligez, Blandine; Tschirren, Barbara; Pitala, Natalia; Gustafsson, Lars; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Laaksonen, Toni


    Mates and females are in conflict over parental care, as it would be favourable for one parent to shift labour to the other. Yolk hormones may offer a mechanism through which female birds could influence offspring traits in ways that increase the relative investment by the male. We studied the role

  1. Spindle-shaped nanoscale yolk/shell magnetic stirring bars for heterogeneous catalysis in macro- and microscopic systems.

    Yang, Shuliang; Cao, Changyan; Peng, Li; Huang, Peipei; Sun, Yongbin; Wei, Fang; Song, Weiguo


    A new type of spindle-shaped nanoscale yolk/shell magnetic stirring bar containing noble metal nanoparticles was prepared. The as-synthesized Pd-Fe@meso-SiO2 not only showed impressive activity and stability as a heterogeneous catalyst in a macroscopic flask system, but also acted as an efficient nanoscale magnetic stir bar in a microscopic droplet system.

  2. Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hens.

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W


    Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the trial. Significantly less cholesterol was found in the egg yolks produced by the hens fed the diets with 14, 21, and 28% chia compared with the control, except at Day 90. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acid content decreased as chia percentage increased and as the trial progressed. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for both strains for all chia diets compared with the control diet. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the yolks from the chia diets was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than from the control diet. Generally, total PUFA content tended to be highest in the yolks of the white hens.

  3. Populasi Ascaridia galli Dalam Usus Halus Ayam Yang Diberikan Kombinasi Ekskretori/Sekretori L3 dan Imunoglobulin Yolk

    Darmawi Darmawi


    Full Text Available Ascaridia galli populations in intestine of chickens treated with combination of excretory/secretory L3 and immunoglobulin yolk ABSTRACT. The purpose of the present study was to determine the presence of worm populations in intestine of chickens vaccinated and combined with egg yolk to experimental Ascaridia galli infection. Amount of 18 head chickens were devided into six groups (A – F. Group A, the chickens were not vaccinated. Group B, the chickens were vaccinated with excretory/secretory of A. galli L3. Group C, the chickens were vaccinated with excretory/secretory of A. galli L3, challenged with dose 1000 L2, and treated ten times with 0,875 mg egg yolk with an interval of one day intra orally. Group D, the chickens were vaccinated with excretory/secretory of A. galli L3 and challenged with dose 1000 L2. Group E, the chickens were challenged with dose 1000 L2 and treated ten times with 0,875 mg egg yolk with an interval of one day intra orally. Group E, the chickens were challenged with dose 1000 L2. Intestinal worm burdens of infected groups were recorded. The result showed that excretory/secretory of A. galli L3 combined with egg yolk decreased significantly A. galli survival in intestine of laying hens. Vaccinations were positively correlated with worm burden at 12 weeks after chalanged. The results suggest that A. galli L3 excretory/secretory product contain potential antigen and that antibody-mediated mechanisms contribute to immune protection.

  4. Effect of tomato by-product diet supplementation on egg yolk colour

    L.G. Cavalchini


    Full Text Available Laying hen diets are usually rich in pigments, often synthetic, in order to intensify yolk colour as consumers’ requested (Baroli et al., 1996. Nowadays the public concern is oriented toward food safety; so, it is important to substitute synthetic products with natural pigments. It is important to look for new alternative natural pigment sources such as Spirulina algae (Anderson et al., 1991; Ross and Domini, 1990 or Haemococcus pluvialis that also have a probiotic effect on animals. Lycopen is one of the new carotenoids that could be used in animal production. This is a tomato extracted pigment and it is important for its role of beta-carotene precursor, for its immunostimulant effects and for its dietary and nutritional value in human health (Franceschi et al., 1995; Porrini et al., 1998; Ribaya-Mercado et al., 1995; Riso et al., 1999...

  5. Lower Cambrian yolk-pyramid embryos from Southern Shaanxi,China

    CHEN Junyuan; Andreas BRAUN; Dieter WALOSZEK; PENG Qingqing; Andreas MAAS


    Phosphatized globules with radially arranged pillars were recently recorded from the Lower Cambrian phosphate deposit, Ningqiang, Shaanxi by Yue and Bengtson. These authors interpreted the globules as blastula stage of embryos and the pillars as blastomeres. On the basis of new additional material, we reinterpret these structures as yolk-pyramid stages of possible arthropod eggs. The 20 embryos under present study range from 380 μm to 600 μm in diameter and contain about 120 pyramids. Some embryos having a higher number of pyramids are tentatively interpreted as slightly later developmental stages of the same animal. These 543-million-year-old embryos may push back the evolutionary history of the arthropods to a deeper time and also suggest that one important pattern of arthropod development was already present at the beginning of the Cambrian.

  6. Hormones and Sex-Specific Transcription Factors Jointly Control Yolk Protein Synthesis in Musca domestica

    Christina Siegenthaler


    Full Text Available In the housefly Musca domestica, synthesis of yolk proteins (YPs depends on the level of circulating ecdysteroid hormones. In female houseflies, the ecdysterone concentration in the hemolymph oscillates and, at high levels, is followed by expression of YP. In male houseflies, the ecdysterone titre is constantly low and no YP is produced. In some strains, which are mutant in key components of the sex-determining pathway, males express YP even though their ecdysterone titre is not significantly elevated. However, we find that these males express a substantial amount of the female variant of the Musca doublesex homologue, Md-dsx. The dsx gene is known to sex-specifically control transcription of yp genes in the fat body of Drosophila melanogaster. Our data suggest that Md-dsx also contributes to the regulation of YP expression in the housefly by modulating the responsiveness of YP-producing cells to hormonal stimuli.

  7. Mediastinal Yolk Sac Tumor Producing Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence or Antagonist-II.

    Akutsu, Noriyuki; Adachi, Yasushi; Isosaka, Mai; Mita, Hiroaki; Takagi, Hideyasu; Sasaki, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Yoshifumi; Masumori, Naoya; Endo, Takao; Shinomura, Yasuhisa


    Extragonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare. We herein report the case of a 66-year-old man with mediastinal, lung and liver tumors. The largest mass was located in the liver and contained a high concentration of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) and alpha-fetoprotein. Therefore, the lesion was difficult to distinguish from hepatocellular carcinoma. Finally, YST was diagnosed based on the results of a liver biopsy. Although chemotherapy was effective, the patient died of respiratory failure. The autopsy revealed primary mediastinal YST. In the current report, we describe this case of PIVKA-II-producing YST and review previous cases of PIVKA-II-producing tumors other than hepatoma.

  8. Pure yolk sac tumor of testis in a 50 years old : A rare case report

    Pradhan M Pagaro


    Full Text Available Yolk sac tumor (YST is most common in infants and children in age range of 3-8 years in pure form; however in adults, YST rarely occurs in pure form, but commonly occurs in association with other germ cell tumors as mixed forms. Less than 10 adult testicular pure YSTs have been reported in literature. We report a 50-year-old male with testicular neoplasm involving the left testis, with pain following trauma. Alpha-fetoprotein was markedly raised 5726 IU/ml, and on histopathology, characteristic features of YST with abundant Schiller–Duval bodies associated with reticular and microcystic pattern, and focal solid areas of nests and trabeculae of cuboidal cells, with prominent nucleoli and mitotic figures, were noted, and extensive histopathological search did not reveal presence of any other type of tumor.

  9. Forced convection to laminar flow of liquid egg yolk in circular and annular ducts

    M. Bernardi


    Full Text Available The steady-state heat transfer in laminar flow of liquid egg yolk - an important pseudoplastic fluid food - in circular and concentric annular ducts was experimentally investigated. The average convection heat transfer coefficients, determined by measuring temperatures before and after heating sections with constant temperatures at the tube wall, were used to obtain simple new empirical expressions to estimate the Nusselt numbers for fully established flows at the thermal entrance of the considered geometries. The comparisons with existing correlations for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids resulted in excellent agreement. The main contribution of this work is to supply practical and easily applicable correlations, which are, especially for the case of annulus, rather scarce and extensively required in the design of heat transfer operations dealing with similar shear-thinning products. In addition, the experimental results may support existing theoretical analyses.

  10. Experimental and theoretical NMR studies of interaction between phenylalanine derivative and egg yolk lecithin.

    Wałęsa, Roksana; Ptak, Tomasz; Siodłak, Dawid; Kupka, Teobald; Broda, Małgorzata A


    The interaction of phenylalanine diamide (Ac-Phe-NHMe) with egg yolk lecithin (EYL) in chloroform was studied by (1)H and (13)C NMR. Six complexes EYL-Ac-Phe-NHMe, stabilized by N-H···O or/and C-H···O hydrogen bonds, were optimized at M06-2X/6-31G(d,p) level. The assignment of EYL and Ac-Phe-NHMe NMR signals was supported using GIAO (gauge including atomic orbital) NMR calculations at VSXC and B3LYP level of theory combined with STO-3Gmag basis set. Results of our study indicate that the interaction of peptides with lecithin occurs mainly in the polar 'head' of the lecithin. Additionally, the most probable lecithin site of H-bond interaction with Ac-Phe-NHMe is the negatively charged oxygen in phosphate group that acts as proton acceptor. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Synergetic Effect of Yolk-Shell Structure and Uniform Mixing of SnS-MoS₂ Nanocrystals for Improved Na-Ion Storage Capabilities.

    Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan


    Mixed metal sulfide composite microspheres with a yolk-shell structure for sodium-ion batteries are studied. Tin-molybdenum oxide yolk-shell microspheres prepared by a one-pot spray pyrolysis process transform into yolk-shell SnS-MoS2 composite microspheres. The discharge capacities of the yolk-shell and dense-structured SnS-MoS2 composite microspheres for the 100th cycle are 396 and 207 mA h g(-1), and their capacity retentions measured from the second cycle are 89 and 47%, respectively. The yolk-shell SnS-MoS2 composite microspheres with high structural stability during repeated sodium insertion and desertion processes have low charge-transfer resistance even after long-term cycling. The synergetic effect of the yolk-shell structure and uniform mixing of the SnS and MoS2 nanocrystals result in the excellent sodium-ion storage properties of the yolk-shell SnS-MoS2 composite microspheres by improving their structural stability during cycling.

  12. Changes in Quality of Native and Frozenthawed Semen in Relation to Two Collections Performed in a 24-hour Interval and Adition of Clarified Egg Yolk to Extender

    Folková P.


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of repeated semen collection and the substitution of normal egg yolk with clarified egg yolk to commercially produced semen extender on qualitative parameters of frozen-thawed canine semen. Two semen collections were scheduled in a 24-hour interval and in each of six dogs, three 1st and three 2nd collections were performed. The frozen-thawed sperm samples were prepared either with clarified or normal egg yolk and motility and viability were evaluated. The effect of the sequence of semen collection was demonstrated by significant differences in motility and also in viability of sperms both in native and frozen-thawed ejaculate. The percentage of viable sperms was significantly higher in samples from the 2nd compared to the 1st collection. This trend was the same also in motility except in native ejaculate. The addition of clarified egg yolk was beneficial for higher survival of sperms immediately after thawing and also after 30 min of incubation, compared to samples with normal egg yolk. Sperm motility evaluated after thawing was higher in samples with clarified egg yolk, without an apparent connection with semen collection sequence. The decrease of values of the qualitative parameters of sperms observed in the period of 30 min of incubation was significantly slowed down when clarified egg yolk was used. This was especially obvious in samples from the 2nd collection.

  13. General route to multifunctional uniform yolk/mesoporous silica shell nanocapsules: a platform for simultaneous cancer-targeted imaging and magnetically guided drug delivery.

    Zhang, Lingyu; Wang, Tingting; Yang, Lei; Liu, Cong; Wang, Chungang; Liu, Haiyan; Wang, Y Andrew; Su, Zhongmin


    Hollow mesoporous SiO(2) (mSiO(2)) nanostructures with movable nanoparticles (NPs) as cores, so-called yolk-shell nanocapsules (NCs), have attracted great research interest. However, a highly efficient, simple and general way to produce yolk-mSiO(2) shell NCs with tunable functional cores and shell compositions is still a great challenge. A facile, general and reproducible strategy has been developed for fabricating discrete, monodisperse and highly uniform yolk-shell NCs under mild conditions, composed of mSiO(2) shells and diverse functional NP cores with different compositions and shapes. These NPs can be Fe(3)O(4) NPs, gold nanorods (GNRs), and rare-earth upconversion NRs, endowing the yolk-mSiO(2) shell NCs with magnetic, plasmonic, and upconversion fluorescent properties. In addition, multifunctional yolk-shell NCs with tunable interior hollow spaces and mSiO(2) shell thickness can be precisely controlled. More importantly, fluorescent-magnetic-biotargeting multifunctional polyethyleneimine (PEI)-modified fluorescent Fe(3)O(4)@mSiO(2) yolk-shell nanobioprobes as an example for simultaneous targeted fluorescence imaging and magnetically guided drug delivery to liver cancer cells is also demonstrated. This synthetic approach can be easily extended to the fabrication of multifunctional yolk@mSiO(2) shell nanostructures that encapsulate various functional movable NP cores, which construct a potential platform for the simultaneous targeted delivery of drug/gene/DNA/siRNA and bio-imaging.

  14. RNA-binding protein LIN28 is a sensitive marker of pediatric yolk sac tumors.

    Feng, Shaoguang; Huang, Songsong; Tong, Yulong; Chen, Zhongliang; Shen, Delei; Wu, Dazhou; Lai, Xin-He; Chen, Xiaoming


    RNA-binding protein LIN28 is involved in maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. It has been detected in different types of testicular and ovarian germ cell tumors (GCTs), but its status in pediatric YSTs (yolk sac tumors) is still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the immunohistochemical profile of LIN28 in pediatric YSTs. Immunohistochemistry detection of LIN28 was performed in 22 cases of pediatric YSTs and 10 mature teratomas. The percentage of tumor cells stained was scored as 0, 1+ (1-30 % cells), 2+ (31-60 %), 3+ (61-90 %), and 4+ (>90 %). To compare its sensitive and specificity with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), we also stained AFP in 22 cases of pediatric YSTs and 10 mature teratomas in children. LIN28 staining was high in all 22 pediatric yolk sac tumor (2+ in 1, 3+ in 1, and 4+ in 20), and weak staining of LIN28 was seen in 1 of 10 mature teratomas (1+), 9 of 10 mature teratomas were negative expression. However, the expression of AFP in pediatric YST was lower compared with Lin28 (- in 1, 1+ in 8, 2+ in 12, and 3+ in 1), and weak expression of AFP was seen in 2 of 10 mature teratomas (1+), 8 of 10 mature teratomas were negative. LIN28 had higher intensity expression than AFP in pediatric YSTs (P LIN28 is a sensitive marker for pediatric YSTs and it can be used to distinguish them from mature teratomas. LIN28 is likely to become a new and valuable biomarker for diagnosing of pediatric YST.

  15. Moderate heat challenge increased yolk steroid hormones and shaped offspring growth and behavior in chickens.

    Aline Bertin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental challenges might affect the maternal organism and indirectly affect the later ontogeny of the progeny. We investigated the cross-generation impact of a moderate heat challenge in chickens. We hypothesized that a warm temperature--within the thermotolerance range--would affect the hormonal environment provided to embryos by mothers, and in turn, affect the morphology and behavioral phenotype of offspring. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Laying hens were raised under a standard thermal condition at 21°C (controls or 30°C (experimental for 5 consecutive weeks. A significant increase was observed in the internal temperature of hens exposed to the warm treatment; however plasma corticosterone levels remained unaffected. The laying rate was not affected, but experimental hens laid lighter eggs than the controls during the treatment. As expected, the maternal thermal environment affected yolk hormone contents. Eggs laid by the experimental hens showed significantly higher concentrations of yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol. All chicks were raised under standard thermal conditions. The quality of hatchlings, growth, feeding behavior and emotional reactivity of chicks were analyzed. Offspring of experimental hens (C30 chicks were lighter but obtained better morphological quality scores at hatching than the controls (C21 chicks. C30 chicks expressed lesser distress calls when exposed to a novel food. Unlike C21 chicks, C30 chicks expressed no preference for energetic food. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that moderate heat challenge triggers maternal effects and modulate the developmental trajectory of offspring in a way that may be adaptive. This suggests that the impact of heat challenges on captive or wild populations might have a cross-generation effect.

  16. Immune responsiveness of Japanese quail selected for egg yolk testosterone content under severe protein restriction.

    Kankova, Zuzana; Okuliarova, Monika; Zeman, Michal


    Yolk testosterone concentrations vary in response to environmental conditions and different testosterone contents can subsequently modify the phenotypic traits of offspring. Apart from effects on growth, proactive behaviour and secondary sexual characteristics, the possible negative impacts of maternal testosterone on the immune system are often considered a limitation for its deposition. The effects of maternal testosterone can be modulated by postnatal environmental conditions, such as the availability of food resources. However, the majority of studies considering the effects of maternal testosterone on the immune system have been conducted under optimum conditions. We evaluated the influence of genetic selection for high (HET) and low (LET) egg testosterone content in Japanese quail on immune responsiveness of offspring to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation under severe protein restriction. Protein restriction negatively influenced body weight and performance in the PHA-test. We observed an increase in Cort (corticosterone) and He/Ly (heterophil/lymphocyte ratio) after LPS, while no changes occurred in total IgY levels in the protein-restricted group. HET quails showed higher body mass and total IgY levels and lower He/Ly ratio than LET quails, while the PHA index and Cort concentration did not differ between lines. No interactions were found between protein restriction and genetic line. In conclusion, the immune response was not compromised under conditions of severe protein restriction in the faster growing HET line compared with the LET line. We hypothesise that the immune responsiveness of birds with higher yolk testosterone may be linked with other maternally-derived substances in a context-dependent manner.

  17. Changes in the protein secondary structure of hen's egg yolk determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy during the first eight days of incubation.

    Lilienthal, Sabrina; Drotleff, Astrid M; Ternes, Waldemar


    In this study, incubation-induced alterations in the protein secondary structures of egg yolk and its major fractions (granules, plasma, and low-density lipoproteins [LDL]) were monitored during the first 8 d of embryogenesis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and isoelectric focusing (IEF). Two factors potentially connected with egg yolk protein secondary structure changes were evaluated, i.e., the pH value of incubated egg yolk, and phosvitin, an important egg yolk protein assumed to play an important role in hematopoiesis as the iron carrier during early embryogenesis. However, neither the significant increase in pH value (6.07 to 6.92) of egg yolk during incubation of fertilized eggs, nor the release of iron from phosvitin were found to be directly related to the changes in protein secondary structure in egg yolk and its fractions. FTIR showed that the protein conformation in whole egg yolk, granules, and LDL was stable during incubation, but separate evaluation of the plasma fraction revealed considerable changes in secondary structure. However, it is unlikely that these changes were provoked by structure changes of the proteins originally present in plasma; instead, the physiological influx of albumen into the yolk sac was expected to play an important role in the protein modifications of egg yolk, as was shown both by FTIR and IEF of the water-soluble egg yolk proteins. Moreover, FTIR was used to determine the naturally occurring proportions (%) of the secondary structure elements in egg yolk and its 3 fractions on d 0 of incubation. The granules fraction mainly consisted of a mixture of inter- and intramolecular β-sheets (57.04%±0.39%). The plasma fraction was found to consist mainly of α-helices (43.23%±0.27%), whereas LDL was composed almost exclusively of intramolecular β-sheets (67.36%±0.56%) or β-turns, or both. On the other hand, whole egg yolk was mainly composed of intermolecular β-sheets (39.77%±0.48%), potentially


    Wightman, Paul; Cohen, Eli B; Hunter, Stuart; Gartrell, Brett


    A 12-day-old Brown Kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) was presented with anorexia, torticollis, head-tilt, and coelomic distension. Radiographs showed an ill-defined, fat-opaque, coelomic mass displacing viscera craniodorsally. Curvilinear mineral opacities were superimposed over the ventral aspect of the mass. Computed tomography demonstrated the presence of mineral within the periphery of a fat attenuating mass consistent with a retained yolk sac. A deutectomy (yolk sac excision) was performed. Histopathology of the excised tissue confirmed the diagnosis of a retained yolk sac with multifocal mineralization.

  19. Membranous nephropathy

    ... page: // Membranous nephropathy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Membranous nephropathy is a kidney disorder that leads to changes ...

  20. Firing membranes

    Kappert, Emiel Jan


    Thermal processing is commonly employed to alter the chemistry and microstructure of membrane layers. It can shape, strengthen, and give functionality to a membrane. A good understanding of the processes taking place during the thermal processing of a membrane material allows for optimization and tu

  1. Membrane Biophysics

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad


    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  2. Sex-Specific Effects of High Yolk Androgen Levels on Constitutive and Cell-Mediated Immune Responses in Nestlings of an Altricial Passerine

    Muriel, Jaime; Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Ortíz-Santaliestra, Manuel E.; Puerta, Marisa; Gil, Diego


    Avian embryos are exposed to yolk androgens that are incorporated into the egg by the ovulating female. These steroids can affect several aspects of embryo development, often resulting in increases in overall size or the speed of growth of different traits. However, several studies suggest that they also entail immune costs to the offspring. In this study, we explored whether variation in yolk androgen concentration affected several measures of the constitutive and cell-m...

  3. Multi-dimensional construction of a novel active yolk@conductive shell nanofiber web as a self-standing anode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

    Liu, Hao; Chen, Luyi; Liang, Yeru; Fu, Ruowen; Wu, Dingcai


    A novel active yolk@conductive shell nanofiber web with a unique synergistic advantage of various hierarchical nanodimensional objects including the 0D monodisperse SiO2 yolks, the 1D continuous carbon shell and the 3D interconnected non-woven fabric web has been developed by an innovative multi-dimensional construction method, and thus demonstrates excellent electrochemical properties as a self-standing LIB anode.

  4. Three hen strains fed photoisomerized trans,trans CLA-rich soy oil exhibit different yolk accumulation rates and source-specific isomer deposition.

    Shinn, Sara E; Gilley, Alex D; Proctor, Andrew; Anthony, Nicholas B


    Most CLA chicken feeding trials used cis,trans (c,t) and trans,cis (t,c) CLA isomers to produce CLA-rich eggs, while reports of trans,trans (t,t) CLA enrichment in egg yolks are limited. The CLA yolk fatty acid profile changes and the 10-12 days of feeding needed for maximum CLA are well documented, but there is no information describing CLA accumulation during initial feed administration. In addition, no information on CLA accumulation rates in different hen strains is available. The aim of this study was to determine a mathematical model that described yolk CLA accumulation and depletion in three hen strains by using t,t CLA-rich soybean oil produced by photoisomerization. Diets of 30-week Leghorns, broilers, and jungle fowl were supplemented with 15% CLA-rich soy oil for 16 days, and eggs were collected for 32 days. Yolk fatty acid profiles were measured by GC-FID. CLA accumulation and depletion was modeled by both quadratic and piecewise regression analysis. A strong quadratic model was proposed, but it was not as effective as piecewise regression in describing CLA accumulation and depletion. Broiler hen eggs contained the greatest concentration of CLA at 3.2 mol/100 g egg yolk, then jungle fowl at 2.9 mol CLA, and Leghorns at 2.3 mol CLA. The t,t CLA isomer levels remained at 55% of total yolk CLA during CLA feeding. However, t-10,c-12 (t,c) CLA concentration increased slightly during CLA accumulation and was significantly greater than c-9,t-11 CLA. Jungle fowl had the smallest increase in yolk saturated fat with CLA yolk accumulation.

  5. Identification of the amino acid residues involved in human IgG transport into egg yolks of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Bae, Hae-Duck; Kobayashi, Misato; Horio, Fumihiko; Murai, Atsushi


    In avian species, maternal immunoglobulin (Ig) Y is selectively incorporated into the yolks of maturing oocytes, although the relevance of receptor-mediated uptake is unclear. When administered to birds, several mammalian Igs, including human IgG (hIgG), are also incorporated into the yolks. In the current study, to gain insight into selective Ig transport into yolks, we intended to identify the amino acid residues critical for Ig uptake into egg yolks using alanine and glycine-scanning mutagenesis of 16 residues located along the C(H)2 and C(H)3 domains of hIgG1. Wild-type hIgG1-Fc (WT) and its mutants were synthesized, and their uptakes into the egg yolks of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were determined. The triple mutation of loop MIS252-254 to GGG resulted in a 40% decrease in Fc uptake in comparison to that of the WT. Furthermore, quartet substitution of HEAL429-432 to GGGG located in an exposed loop at the C(H)3 domain completely abolished Fc uptake into egg yolks. Next, the residues HEAL429-432 were individually substituted with either alanine or glycine. Regardless of the glycine and alanine substitution, single mutations of H (429), E (430) and L (432) significantly reduced Fc uptake compared with WT uptake. Notably, the blood clearance rates of these mutants were equivalent to that of the WT. These results suggest that the clustered residues HEAL429-432 in the C(H)3 domain are important for the hIgG1 transport into the egg yolks. The sequence HEAL is conserved in chicken IgY at positions 550-553 within the C(H)4 domain, which might be involved in its uptake into the egg yolks by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cushing syndrome in a child due to pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) secretion from a yolk sac tumor.

    Gevers, Evelien F; Meredith, Suzanne; Shah, Pratik; Torpiano, John; Peters, Catherine; Sebire, Neil J; Slater, Olga; White, Anne; Dattani, Mehul T


    Pituitary microadenomas and adrenal tumours are the most common causes for endogenous Cushing syndrome (CS) in children. We describe a two-year old girl with Cushing syndrome due to ectopic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) production from an abdominal yolk sac tumor. Cortisol concentrations were elevated but adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations were equivocal. The use of antibodies specifically detecting ACTH precursors revealed that plasma ACTH precursors were elevated. Additionally, an ACTH assay with a low cross-reactivity for precursors showed low concentrations of ACTH. Immunohistochemistry suggested POMC but not ACTH production by the tumour. We describe a yolk sac tumour as a novel source of ectopic POMC production leading to CS in a young girl. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  7. Lipase-catalyzed interesterification of egg-yolk phosphatidylcholine and plant oils

    Chojnacka, A.


    Full Text Available The incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into the sn-1 position of egg-yolk phosphatidylcholine (PC in the process of lipase-catalyzed interesterification was investigated. For this purpose plant oils containing these acids in the triacylglycerol (TAG form were used as acyl donors and three commercially available immobilized lipases were examined as biocatalysts. In all the experiments the best results were obtained using Novozym 435. After 72 h of the reaction of PC with linseed oil the maximum incorporation of α-linolenic acid into PC was 34%. The result of this reaction was also a reduction in the n-6/n-3 ratio in egg-yolk PC from 24.5 to 0.7. The highest incorporation n-6 PUFAs into PC were obtained with evening primrose oil as the acyl donor, and in this case, 50.7% of n-6 PUFA as the sum of linoleic and γ-linolenic was achieved. The highest content of γ-linolenic acid in modified PC (7.3% was achieved in the reaction of PC with borage oil.Se ha investigado la incorporación de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados en la posición sn-1 de fosfatidilcolina de yema de huevo (PC en el proceso de interesterificación catalizado por lipasas. Para lograr este propósito, fueron examinados aceites vegetales que contienen estos ácidos en la forma de triacilgliceroles (TAG como donadores de acilo y tres lipasas inmovilizadas disponibles comercialmente. En todos los experimentos los mejores resultados se obtuvieron para Novozym 435. La incorporación máxima de ácido α-linolénico en PC fue del 34% después de 72h de la reacción de PC con aceite de linaza. El resultado de esta reacción fue también la reducción de la relación de n-6/n-3 en PC de yema de huevo de 24.5 a 0.7. La incorporación más alta de n-6 PUFAs en PC se logró para el aceite de onagra como donador de acilo, en este caso se alcanzó el 50.7% de n-6 PUFA, como suma de los ácidos linoleico y γ-linolénico. El mayor contenido de ácido γ-linolénico en PC modificado (7

  8. Egg Yolk Protein Delays Recovery while Ovalbumin Is Useful in Recovery from Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Yukiko Kobayashi


    Full Text Available Protein is a main nutrient involved in overall iron metabolism in vivo. In order to assess the prevention of iron deficiency anemia (IDA by diet, it is necessary to confirm the influence of dietary protein, which coexists with iron, on iron bioavailability. We investigated the usefulness of the egg structural protein in recovery from IDA. Thirty-one female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control group (n = 6 fed a casein diet (4.0 mg Fe/100 g for 42 days and an IDA model group (n = 25 created by feeding a low-iron casein diet (LI, 0.4 mg Fe/100 g for 21 days and these IDA rats were fed normal iron diet with different proteins from eggs for another 21 days. The IDA rats were further divided into four subgroups depending on the proteins fed during the last 21 days, which were those with an egg white diet (LI-W, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6, those with an ovalbumin diet (LI-A, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 7, those with an egg yolk-supplemented diet (LI-Y, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6, and the rest with a casein diet (LI-C, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6. In the LI-Y group, recovery of the hematocrit, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation level and the hepatic iron content were delayed compared to the other groups (p < 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively, resulting in no recovery from IDA at the end of the experimental period. There were no significant differences in blood parameters in the LI-W and LI-A groups compared to the control group. The hepatic iron content of the LI-W and LI-A groups was higher than that of the LI-C group (p < 0.05. We found that egg white protein was useful for recovery from IDA and one of the efficacious components was ovalbumin, while egg yolk protein delayed recovery of IDA. This study demonstrates, therefore, that bioavailability of dietary iron varies depending on the source of dietary protein.

  9. Egg Yolk Protein Delays Recovery while Ovalbumin Is Useful in Recovery from Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Kobayashi, Yukiko; Wakasugi, Etsuko; Yasui, Risa; Kuwahata, Masashi; Kido, Yasuhiro


    Protein is a main nutrient involved in overall iron metabolism in vivo. In order to assess the prevention of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) by diet, it is necessary to confirm the influence of dietary protein, which coexists with iron, on iron bioavailability. We investigated the usefulness of the egg structural protein in recovery from IDA. Thirty-one female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control group (n = 6) fed a casein diet (4.0 mg Fe/100 g) for 42 days and an IDA model group (n = 25) created by feeding a low-iron casein diet (LI, 0.4 mg Fe/100 g) for 21 days and these IDA rats were fed normal iron diet with different proteins from eggs for another 21 days. The IDA rats were further divided into four subgroups depending on the proteins fed during the last 21 days, which were those with an egg white diet (LI-W, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6), those with an ovalbumin diet (LI-A, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 7), those with an egg yolk-supplemented diet (LI-Y, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6), and the rest with a casein diet (LI-C, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6). In the LI-Y group, recovery of the hematocrit, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation level and the hepatic iron content were delayed compared to the other groups (p < 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively), resulting in no recovery from IDA at the end of the experimental period. There were no significant differences in blood parameters in the LI-W and LI-A groups compared to the control group. The hepatic iron content of the LI-W and LI-A groups was higher than that of the LI-C group (p < 0.05). We found that egg white protein was useful for recovery from IDA and one of the efficacious components was ovalbumin, while egg yolk protein delayed recovery of IDA. This study demonstrates, therefore, that bioavailability of dietary iron varies depending on the source of dietary protein. PMID:26083113

  10. The research about microscopic structure of emulsion membrane in O/W emulsion by NMR and its influence to emulsion stability.

    Xie, Yiqiao; Chen, Jisheng; Zhang, Shu; Fan, Kaiyan; Chen, Gang; Zhuang, Zerong; Zeng, Mingying; Chen, De; Lu, Longgui; Yang, Linlin; Yang, Fan


    This paper discussed the influence of microstructure of emulsion membrane on O/W emulsion stability. O/W emulsions were emulsified with equal dosage of egg yolk lecithin and increasing dosage of co-emulsifier (oleic acid or HS15). The average particle size and centrifugal stability constant of emulsion, as well as interfacial tension between oil and water phase were determined. The microstructure of emulsion membrane had been studied by (1)H/(13)C NMR, meanwhile the emulsion droplets were visually presented with TEM and IFM. With increasing dosage of co-emulsifier, emulsions showed two stable states, under which the signal intensity of characteristic group (orient to lipophilic core) of egg yolk lecithin disappeared in NMR of emulsions, but that (orient to aqueous phase) of co-emulsifiers only had some reduction at the second stable state. At the two stable states, the emulsion membranes were neater in TEM and emulsion droplets were rounder in IFM. Furthermore, the average particle size of emulsions at the second stable state was bigger than that at the first stable state. Egg yolk lecithin and co-emulsifier respectively arranged into monolayer and bilayer emulsion membrane at the two stable states. The microstructure of emulsion membrane was related to the stability of emulsion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Release of Ecdysteroid-Phosphates from Egg Yolk Granules and Their Dephosphorylation during Early Embryonic Development in Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Yamada, Ryouichi; Yamahama, Yumi; Sonobe, Haruyuki


    Newly laid eggs of many insect species store maternal ecdysteroids as physiologically inactive phosphoric esters. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, we previously reported the presence of a specific enzyme, called ecdysteroid-phosphate phosphatase (EPPase), which catalyzes the dephosphorylation of ecdysteroid-phosphates to increase the amount of free ecdysteroids during early embryonic development. In this study, we demonstrated that (1) EPPase is found in the cytosol of yolk cells, (2) ecdysteroid...

  12. Gold Nanorod@TiO2 Yolk-Shell Nanostructures for Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol.

    Li, Ang; Zhang, Peng; Chang, Xiaoxia; Cai, Weiting; Wang, Tuo; Gong, Jinlong


    Fine gold nanorod@TiO2 yolk-shell catalysts are synthesized by an improved silica template method. With a hollow TiO2 shell and a unique tunable cylindrical gold core, the catalyst exhibits a high surface area and a wide range of photoabsorption, from ultraviolet to near infrared. The remarkable photochemical activity is obtained when such catalyst is utilized to oxidize benzyl alcohol.

  13. Definitive Hematopoiesis in the Yolk Sac Emerges from Wnt-Responsive Hemogenic Endothelium Independently of Circulation and Arterial Identity.

    Frame, Jenna M; Fegan, Katherine H; Conway, Simon J; McGrath, Kathleen E; Palis, James


    Adult-repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge in low numbers in the midgestation mouse embryo from a subset of arterial endothelium, through an endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition. HSC-producing arterial hemogenic endothelium relies on the establishment of embryonic blood flow and arterial identity, and requires β-catenin signaling. Specified prior to and during the formation of these initial HSCs are thousands of yolk sac-derived erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs). EMPs ensure embryonic survival prior to the establishment of a permanent hematopoietic system, and provide subsets of long-lived tissue macrophages. While an endothelial origin for these HSC-independent definitive progenitors is also accepted, the spatial location and temporal output of yolk sac hemogenic endothelium over developmental time remain undefined. We performed a spatiotemporal analysis of EMP emergence, and document the morphological steps of the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition. Emergence of rounded EMPs from polygonal clusters of Kit(+) cells initiates prior to the establishment of arborized arterial and venous vasculature in the yolk sac. Interestingly, Kit(+) polygonal clusters are detected in both arterial and venous vessels after remodeling. To determine whether there are similar mechanisms regulating the specification of EMPs with other angiogenic signals regulating adult-repopulating HSCs, we investigated the role of embryonic blood flow and Wnt/β-catenin signaling during EMP emergence. In embryos lacking a functional circulation, rounded Kit(+) EMPs still fully emerge from unremodeled yolk sac vasculature. In contrast, canonical Wnt signaling appears to be a common mechanism regulating hematopoietic emergence from hemogenic endothelium. These data illustrate the heterogeneity in hematopoietic output and spatiotemporal regulation of primary embryonic hemogenic endothelium.

  14. Chronobiological studies of chicken IgY: monitoring of infradian, circadian and ultradian rhythms of IgY in blood and yolk of chickens.

    He, Jin-Xin; Thirumalai, Diraviyam; Schade, Rüdiger; Zhang, Xiao-Ying


    IgY is the functional equivalent of mammalian IgG found in birds, reptiles and amphibians. Many of its biological aspects have been explored with different approaches. In order to evaluate the rhythmicity of serum and yolk IgY, four chickens were examined and reared under the same conditions. To monitor biological oscillations of IgY in yolk and serum, the eggs and blood samples were collected over a 60 day period and the rhythm of yolk and serum IgY was determined by direct-ELISA. Results indicated that, there is a significant circaseptan rhythm in yolk IgY and circaquattran rhythm in serum IgY. The serum IgY concentration reached a peak in the morning, decreased to a minimum during the daytime and increased again at night revealing a significant circadian rhythm was superimposed by an ultradian rhythm. These data are suited to address the controversies concerning the IgY concentration in egg yolk and blood of laying hens. In addition, this study raised new questions, if the different rhythms in yolk and serum are concerned.

  15. Core-shell yolk-shell Si@C@Void@C nanohybrids as advanced lithium ion battery anodes with good electronic conductivity and corrosion resistance

    Xie, Jian; Tong, Liang; Su, Liwei; Xu, Yawei; Wang, Lianbang; Wang, Yuanhao


    Yolk-shell Si@void@C nanostructure has greatly improved the low Li+/electron conductivity and buffered the huge volume variation of Si, whereas the surface corrosion and passivation of the Si yolks in electrolytes still limit the lithium storage capability. Herein, core-shell yolk-shell Si@C@void@C nanohybrids were proposed and successfully prepared for the first time. Compared with Si@void@C, the newly-proposed structure introduced core-shell Si@C nanoparticles as the yolks instead. Such extra carbon shell can not only decrease the electrical resistance between Si yolks and hollow carbon shells but also effectively protect Si yolks from electrolyte corrosion, i.e., the formation of Li2SiF6 layers on Si surface confirmed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. As a result, the Si@C@void@C electrodes exhibited remarkably enhanced reversible capacity, cycling stability (∼1366 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles at 500 mA g-1, with a capacity retention of ∼71% with respect to the initial reversible capacity of 1910 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1), and rate performance (with a capacity retention of ∼60% at 4000 mA g-1). This work shows the paramount role of the inner carbon shell of Si@C@void@C in limiting the electrolyte corrosion and probably improving the electronic conductivity.

  16. The influence of dietary palm olein, fish oil and lard on the egg yolk and plasma lipid composition, and performances of laying hens.

    Hodzic, A; Hamamdzic, M; Gagic, A; Mihaljevic, M; Vegara, M; Krnic, J; Pasic Juhas, E


    The influence of dietary palm olein, in comparison to fish oil and lard, on lipid levels in egg yolk and blood plasma, the fatty acid composition of egg yolk, and various production parameters were studied. Brown Lohman laying hens (n=45) were randomly assigned into three groups of 15 birds, and treated with experimental diets with either 3% palm olein (PO), fish oil (FO) or lard (L) for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, feed consumption was significantly lower for hens fed the PO diet, except week 6 of the experiment. The concentration of plasma triglycerides was increased by all experimental diets, whereas there were no significant increases of plasma total lipid and total cholesterol concentrations only in the PO group. For yolk lipids a decrease in triglycerides in the FO and L groups was observed, while total cholesterol and total lipid were significantly decreased in the PO group. Feeding with the PO diet resulted in the lowest concentrations of palmitic, stearic and linoleic acid, as well as in the highest concentration of monounsaturated oleic acid in the yolk total lipid. It was concluded that the composition of yolk lipids did not closely match the concentrations of lipids observed in experimental diets or plasma. Based on the current work it seems that the PO diet modulates egg yolk lipid content best.

  17. Development of a low resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopic technique for the study of matrix mobility in fresh and freeze-thawed hen egg yolk.

    Au, Carmen; Wang, Tong; Acevedo, Nuria C


    Three experiments were conducted in developing a low resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopic technique to study matrix mobility in fresh and freeze-thawed gelled yolk. The Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence was used to measure spin-spin relaxation times of proton pools representing major yolk constituents. A component identification test distinguished 3-4 pools. The least mobile pool was assigned to proteins, protein-lipid and protein-water interactions, and the most mobile to unbound water. The remaining pools were assigned to lipids, lipid-protein and lipid-water interactions. A stability test indicated that yolk had varied matrix mobility within the same sample across five days of refrigeration storage. A reproducibility test demonstrated high repeatability of fresh yolk measurements, but significant differences (p<0.05) were found within gelled yolk samples. This research determined that (1)H NMR spectroscopy, a non-destructive technique, can identify yolk components and detect changes in the matrix.

  18. Characterization of culturable bacterial flora in yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L. with "gaping jaws" syndrome

    Rocío Urtubia


    Full Text Available One of the main problems facing Atlantic halibut hatcheries is the high mortality in the early stages of larval development. Several factors could be involved, for example: water quality, diseases or abnormalities, such as deformities occurring in the yolk sac larvae prior to exogenous feeding. The aim of this study was to identify differences in bacterial flora associated with yolk sac larvae with oral deformity. We also aimed to establish whether there is any relationship between bacterial strains and the "gaping jaws" syndrome. During our study, 74 bacterial isolates were obtained using three different nutrient media: Marine Agar, R2A and TCBS. Some of these bacteria were characterized using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP and 16S rRNA sequencing. The immune response in larvae exhibiting the "gaping jaws" condition was measured by real time PCR. Our results showed significant differences in bacterial flora between normal and gaping larvae. The gaping yolk sac larvae were predominantly colonized by members of the families Vibrionaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. Bacteria belonging to the Bacillus and Pseudoalteromonas genera were also present but less frequent. It was not possible to associate a type or group of bacteria directly related to "gaping". Strikingly, larvae with gaping jaws had an increase in the expression of two immune related genes, like hepcidin and chemokine (MIP-1B. These results indicate activation of the immune response in larvae with "gaping jaws" syndrome and this response could be related to bacteria isolated from gaping condition.

  19. Development of blood-yolk-polymyxin B-trimethoprim agar for the enumeration of Bacillus cereus in various foods.

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyunsook; Chon, Jung-Whan; Moon, Jin-San; Song, Kwang-Young; Seo, Kun-Ho


    Blood-yolk-polymyxin B-trimethoprim agar (BYPTA) was developed by the addition of egg yolk, laked horse blood, sodium pyruvate, polymyxin B, and trimethoprim, and compared with mannitol-yolk-polymyxin B agar (MYPA) for the isolation and enumeration of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) in pure culture and various food samples. In pure culture, there was no statistical difference (p>0.05) between the recoverability and sensitivity of MYPA and BYPTA, whereas BYPTA exhibited higher specificity (pcereus was experimentally spiked into six types of foods, triangle kimbab, sandwich, misugaru, Saengsik, red pepper powder, and soybean paste. No statistical difference was observed in recoverability (p>0.05) between MYPA and BYPTA in all tested foods, whereas BYPTA exhibited higher selectivity than MYPA, especially in foods with high background microflora, such as Saengsik, red pepper powder, and soybean paste. The newly developed selective medium BYPTA could be a useful enumeration tool to assess the level of B. cereus in foods, particularly with high background microflora.


    Tatyane Bandeira Barros


    Full Text Available The conservation of boar semen at lower temperatures might contribute to the further expansion of artificial insemination in this species. Egg yolk cryoprotectant properties have already been extensively tested on sperm cryopreservation of several species. This study aimed to test different temperature curves for the conservation of boar semen diluted with coconut milk powdered (ACP®-103 add 7% egg yolk and to verify which one better maintains sperm viability. For this, 36 ejaculates were diluted and stored at 17, 10 and 5 °C. Daily analysis of vigor and motility were performed, and on days D0, D2, and D4 semen was evaluated regarding vitality, morphology, and osmotic resistance. For the statistical analysis we performed the tests of Kruska-Wallis with Dunns post-test (nonparametric data and ANOVA and Tukey test (parametric data. The storage temperature of 10 °C was the best one   to maintain spermatic motility at appropriate levels to be used in an artificial insemination program. Analyses of viability, morphology, and hypoosmotic test did not show statistical difference among the treatments. In conclusion, the best temperature curve was 10 °C with diluted semen previously kept at 17 °C to maintain the viability of sperm cells in pigs for a longer period. Keywords: boar semen; coconut water powder; conservation; egg yolk.

  1. Intracranial yolk sac tumor in an adult patient: MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging and 1H MR spectroscopy features

    Mačvanski Marija


    Full Text Available Introduction. Yolk sac tumors represent only 5%-7% of intracranial germ cell tumors, which comprise about 1% of all primary brain tumors in adults. Literature data about nonspecific imaging characteristics of these tumors are scant. We presented magnetic resonance imaging findings with diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of this rare type of tumor in an adult patient. Case report. A 55-year-old man with progressive left side weakness, headache, dizziness and ataxia, underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. After surgical resection and histological analysis, the final diagnosis of yolk sac tumor was established. Retrospective imaging analysis were performed in order to determine imaging and biochemical parameters that could be useful in the diagnostic evaluation of this tumor type. Conclusion. Though the imaging features of yolk sac tumor are not specific, morphoanatomical and metabolic imaging could offer the information that provides new insights into this tumor that may facilitate further therapeutic decision process and potentially provides better information regarding the disease prognosis.

  2. Facile Synthesis of Yolk/Core-Shell Structured TS-1@Mesosilica Composites for Enhanced Hydroxylation of Phenol

    Zou, Houbing


    © 2015 by the authors. In the current work, we developed a facile synthesis of yolk/core-shell structured TS-1@mesosilica composites and studied their catalytic performances in the hydroxylation of phenol with H2O2 as the oxidant. The core-shell TS-1@mesosilica composites were prepared via a uniform coating process, while the yolk-shell TS-1@mesosilica composite was prepared using a resorcinol-formaldehyde resin (RF) middle-layer as the sacrificial template. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 sorption, Fourier transform infrared spectoscopy (FT-IR) UV-Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The characterization results showed that these samples possessed highly uniform yolk/core-shell structures, high surface area (560–700 m2 g−1) and hierarchical pore structures from oriented mesochannels to zeolite micropores. Importantly, owing to their unique structural properties, these composites exhibited enhanced activity, and also selectivity in the phenol hydroxylation reaction.

  3. Egg shell and yolk quality characteristics of layers fed with sugarcane press residue in soya and fish based diets

    N. Suma


    Full Text Available Aim: Sugarcane press residue (SPR, a by-product of sugarcane industry, which is rich in inorganic salts was assessed at different levels in both soya based and fish based diets of layers for egg shell and yolk quality characteristics. Materials and Methods: SPR was incorporated in 32-week-old white leghorn layer diets at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% either in the soya based or fish based diets to form T1 to T8 diets, respectively. Each diet was offered to five replicates of four laying hens each constituting a total of one sixty birds kept for 84 days under colony cages. Results: Mean egg shell thickness obtained from eggs of experimental hens measured was 0.342, 0.329, 0.320, 0.322, 0.319, 0.332, 0.328 and 0.336 mm in T1 through T8 groups, respectively. About the main factor effects, both showed non-significant results. Similarly, influence of different treatment diets, in imparting colour to the yolks, was found to be non-significant (p>0.05 at different 28-day time intervals. Further, the average yolk index values ranged non-significantly from 0.360 (T6 to 0.383 (T4. Conclusion: The SPR can be incorporated into layer diet as a source of inorganic as well as organic nutrients without affecting its egg quality characteristics.

  4. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes

    Aleksandra Zambrowicz


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properties of the egg-yolk protein by-product (YP hydrolysates were evaluated based on their radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, Fe2+chelating effect and ferric reducing power (FRAP. Furthermore, antimicrobial properties of obtained hydrolysates against Bacillus species were studied. The degrees (DHs of hydrolysis for 4h hydrolysates were: 19.1%, 13.5% and 13.0%, for pepsin, chymotrypsin and trypsin, respectively. Pepsin was the most effective in producing the free amino groups (1410.3 μmolGly/g. The RP-HPLC profiles of the protein hydrolysates showed differences in the hydrophobicity of the generated peptides.Trypsin hydrolysate obtained after 4h reaction demonstrated the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (0.85 µmol Troloxeq/mg. Trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates obtained after 4h reaction exhibited 4 times higher ferric reducing capacity than those treated bypepsin. The hydrolysis products obtained from YP exhibited significant chelating activity. The 4h trypsin hydrolysate exhibited weak antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis B3; B. cereus B512; B. cereus B 3p and B. laterosporum B6.

  5. Electrical Detection of Dengue Biomarker Using Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin as the Biological Recognition Element

    Figueiredo, Alessandra; Vieira, Nirton C. S.; Dos Santos, Juliana F.; Janegitz, Bruno C.; Aoki, Sergio M.; Junior, Paulo P.; Lovato, Rodrigo L.; Nogueira, Maurício L.; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Guimarães, Francisco E. G.


    Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is secreted by dengue virus in the first days of infection and acts as an excellent dengue biomarker. Here, the direct electrical detection of NS1 from dengue type 2 virus has been achieved by the measurement of variations in open circuit potential (OCP) between a reference electrode and a disposable Au electrode containing immobilized anti-NS1 antibodies acting as immunosensor. Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was utilized for the first time as the biological recognition element alternatively to conventional mammalian antibodies in the detection of dengue virus NS1 protein. NS1 protein was detected in standard samples in a 0.1 to 10 µg.mL-1 concentration range with (3.2 +/- 0.3) mV/µg.mL-1 of sensitivity and 0.09 µg.mL-1 of detection limit. Therefore, the proposed system can be extended to detect NS1 in real samples and provide an early diagnosis of dengue.

  6. Transfer of Immunity from Mother to Offspring Is Mediated via Egg-Yolk Protein Vitellogenin.

    Heli Salmela


    Full Text Available Insect immune systems can recognize specific pathogens and prime offspring immunity. High specificity of immune priming can be achieved when insect females transfer immune elicitors into developing oocytes. The molecular mechanism behind this transfer has been a mystery. Here, we establish that the egg-yolk protein vitellogenin is the carrier of immune elicitors. Using the honey bee, Apis mellifera, model system, we demonstrate with microscopy and western blotting that vitellogenin binds to bacteria, both Paenibacillus larvae--the gram-positive bacterium causing American foulbrood disease--and to Escherichia coli that represents gram-negative bacteria. Next, we verify that vitellogenin binds to pathogen-associated molecular patterns; lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan and zymosan, using surface plasmon resonance. We document that vitellogenin is required for transport of cell-wall pieces of E. coli into eggs by imaging tissue sections. These experiments identify vitellogenin, which is distributed widely in oviparous species, as the carrier of immune-priming signals. This work reveals a molecular explanation for trans-generational immunity in insects and a previously undescribed role for vitellogenin.

  7. Invitro Assessment of Bacteriostatic Potency of Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin against Escherichia coli

    Vikrama Chakravarthi. P1

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in commercial layer chickens to assess the bacteriostatic potency of egg yolk immunoglobulin IgY against food poisoning pathogen. The O antigen of food poisoning pathogen Escherichia coli was prepared and used to immunize commercial layer chickens. The eggs which contain anti-E.Coli IgY was collected on 30 th day of first injection and stored at 4 0 C. The antibacterial IgY was separated by water dilution method (10 times diluted with distilled water, pH 5.0 - 5.5, incubated at 4 0 C for 6 hrs and purified by 60 % ammonium sulphate. The recovery of IgY was in range of 57-62 %. The pathogens in Tryptic soya broth (approx. 6X108/ ml were cultured with anti-E.coli IgY @ 20 mg /ml and inhibitory effect was measured in UV spectrophotometer at 550 nm. The resultant growth curve indicated that the application of polyclonal antibodies (Ig Y on meat could be used to prevent the E.coli food poisoning. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 460-462

  8. Primary Yolk Sac Tumor of the Omentum: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Kenichi Harano


    Full Text Available Yolk sac tumor (YST is a rare malignant tumor originating from germ cells. YST normally originates from the gonads, rarely occurring in extragonadal sites. We report a 35-year-old man with YST arising in the omentum, which is the first reported case of a primary YST of the omentum in an adult male. The patient presented to the community hospital with abdominal distension. A CT scan showed thickening of the omentum with ascites. The patient underwent open biopsy of the omental mass. The Pathology Department of the hospital could not make a definitive diagnosis at that time, and the tumor was considered a cancer of unknown primary (CUP origin with features of primary colorectal cancer based on the immunohistochemistry (IHC findings of the biopsy specimen (CK7–/CK20+ and CDX-2+. He was then referred to our hospital. We found that serum α-fetoprotein was abnormally elevated to 7,144 ng/ml (normal <10.0, and reevaluation of the biopsy specimen revealed microcystic or reticular patterns of tumor cells with Schiller-Duval bodies typical of YST. The present case suggests that IHC is a very useful diagnostic tool for subtyping CUP but should be interpreted in the context of clinical and morphological findings.

  9. Production, characterization and applications for Toxoplasma gondii-specific polyclonal chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins.

    Álvaro Ferreira Júnior

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii may cause abortions, ocular and neurological disorders in warm-blood hosts. Immunized mammals are a wide source of hyperimmune sera used in different approaches, including diagnosis and the study of host-parasite interactions. Unfortunately, mammalian antibodies present limitations for its production, such as the necessity for animal bleeding, low yield, interference with rheumatoid factor, complement activation and affinity to Fc mammalian receptors. IgY antibodies avoid those limitations; therefore they could be an alternative to be applied in T. gondii model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we immunized hens with soluble tachyzoite antigens of T. gondii (STAg and purified egg yolk antibodies (IgY by an inexpensive and simple method, with high yield and purity degree. IgY anti-STAg antibodies presented high avidity and were able to recognize a broad range of parasite antigens, although some marked differences were observed in reactivity profile between antibodies produced in immunized hens and mice. Interestingly, IgY antibodies against Neospora caninum and Eimeria spp. did not react to STAg. We also show that IgY antibodies were suitable to detect T. gondii forms in paraffin-embedded sections and culture cell monolayers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Due to its cost-effectiveness, high production yield and varied range of possible applications, polyclonal IgY antibodies are useful tools for studies involving T. gondii.

  10. Interactions of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine with cholesteryl polyethoxy neoglycolipids containing N-acetyl- D-glucosamine

    Kemoun, Rachida; Gelhausen, Micaèle; Besson, Françoise; Lafont, Dominique; Buchet, René; Boullanger, Paul; Roux, Bernard


    Series of neoglycolipids containing cholesteryl and N-acetyl- D-glucosaminyl groups were synthesized with various ethoxy linkers. Their self aggregations and intermolecular interactions, without and with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC), were characterized in dry and hydrated states, by using infrared spectroscopy. The neoglycolipids in the dry state formed intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the CO and N-H or O-H groups of N-acetyl- D-glucosamine (GlcNAc). In the presence of EYPC, these intermolecular interactions were broken and new hydrogen bonds, involving the phosphate group of EYPC and N-H or O-H groups of GlcNAc of neoglycolipid, were formed. The presence of water molecules altered these intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The CO groups of EYPC were not affected by the presence of neoglycolipids, either in hydrated or in dry states, indicating that the GlcNAc polar groups interacted mostly with EYPC phosphate residues. The phase transition-temperature of mixtures of EYPC containing either cholesterol or neoglycolipid were similar, indicating that the cholesteryl group of the neoglycolipid interacted in the same manner as cholesterol with hydrocarbon chains of EYPC. Some structural models of molecular interactions of neoglycolipids were discussed in relation with the molecular recognition of wheat germ agglutinin.

  11. HPLC Analysis of Egg Yolk Phosphatidylcholine by Evaporative Light Scattering Detector

    周婧; 胡仙妹; 王田心; 梁浩; 袁其朋


    Egg yolk phosphatidylcholine(EYPC) is being widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries nowadays owing to its surface activity,pharmaceutical usefulness,and so on.Common determination methods of phospholipids were based on the American Oil Chemists' Society(AOCS) Official Method Ja7b-91,in which n-hexane/2-propanol/acetate buffer was used as the mobile phase.In order to achieve desired results,gradient elu-tion or buffer solution was used,which made the detection process more complicated.Moreover,water or buffer solution could affect the silica gel column both on its lifespan and the separation efficiency significantly.In this study,different mobile phase and detector were used to simplify EYPC analyzing process instead of using water within the mobile phase.The optimized HPLC operating conditions are as follows:pure methanol as a mobile phase,flow rate of 1.0 ml·min-1,silica gel column(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm,Inertsil GLTM),column temperature 30 ℃ and low temperature evaporative light scattering detector(40 ℃,0.35 MPa) as used.Under this optimal condition,the linear relative coefficient of the standard curve is 0.998 and the recovery was in the range of 96.83%-101.58% with a relative standard deviation of 1.79%(n=6).

  12. Specific egg yolk immunoglobulin as a new preventive approach for Shiga-toxin-mediated diseases.

    Paola Neri

    Full Text Available Shiga toxins (Stxs are involved in the development of severe systemic complications associated with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC infection. Various neutralizing agents against Stxs are under investigation for management of EHEC infection. In this study, we immunized chickens with formalin-inactivated Stx-1 or Stx-2, and obtained immunoglobulin Y (IgY from the egg yolk. Anti-Stx-1 IgY and anti-Stx-2 IgY recognized the corresponding Stx A subunit and polymeric but not monomeric B subunit. Anti-Stx-1 IgY and anti-Stx-2 IgY suppressed the cytotoxicity of Stx-1 and Stx-2 to HeLa 229 cells, without cross-suppressive activity. The suppressive activity of these IgY was abrogated by pre-incubation with the corresponding recombinant B subunit, which suggests that the antibodies directed to the polymeric B subunits were predominantly involved in the suppression. In vivo, the intraperitoneal or intravenous administration of these IgY rescued mice from death caused by intraperitoneal injection of the corresponding toxin at a lethal dose. Moreover, oral administration of anti-Stx-2 IgY reduced the mortality of mice infected intestinally with EHEC O157:H7. Our results therefore suggest that anti-Stx IgY antibodies may be considered as preventive agents for Stx-mediated diseases in EHEC infection.

  13. Impact of humic acids on EYL liposome membranes: ESR method

    Pytel Barbara


    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of model (commercial and natural (extracted from peat humic substances on the membrane of liposomes formed with egg yolk lecithin (EYL are presented. In our research, mass concentrations of fulvic and humic acids were used, which in relation to lecithin varied from 0% to 13%. To study membrane fluidity, electron spin resonance (EPR was used with two spin probes, penetrating various regions of the lipid bilayer. The effects of model and natural humic substances (humic acids – HAs and fulvic acids – FAs on the lipid membrane in different regions were researched: the lipid-water interphase, and in the middle of the lipid bilayer. It was shown that FA and HA impact the fluidity of liposome membranes in different ways. Increased mass concentrations of HAs decreased membrane fluidity in both acids: extracted from peat and the model. However, increased mass concentration of FAs extracted from peat, decreased membrane fluidity in the surface region, at the same time stiffening the central part of the bilayer. Increasing the concentration of FAs extracted from peat had the opposite effect when compared to model FA. This effect may be related to the complexation of xenobiotics present in the soil environment and their impact on biological membranes.

  14. Guanidination of notexin alters its membrane-damaging activity in response to sphingomyelin and cholesterol

    Pei-Hsiu Kao; Yi-Ling Chiou; Shinne-Ren Lin; Long-Sen Chang


    To elucidate the contribution of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity of notexin to its ability to perturb membranes, comparative studies on the interaction of notexin and guanidinated notexin (Gu-notexin) with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC), EYPC/egg yolk sphingomyelin (EYSM) and EYPC/EYSM/cholesterol vesicles were conducted. EYSM notably reduced the membrane-damaging activity of notexin against EYPC vesicles, but had an insignificant influence on that of Gu-notexin. Unlike the effects noted with notexin, inactivation of PLA2 activity by EDTA led to a reduction in the ability of Gu-notexin to induce EYPC/EYSM vesicle leakage and to increase Gu-notexin-induced membrane permeability of EYPC/EYSM/cholesterol vesicles. The geometrical arrangement of notexin and Gu-notexin in contact with either EYPC/EYSM vesicles or EYPC/EYSM/cholesterol vesicles differed. Moreover, global conformation of notexin and Gu-notexin differed in either Ca2+-bound or metal-free states. These results indicate that notexin and Gu-notexin could induce membrane permeability without the involvement of PLA2 activity, and suggest that guanidination alters the membrane-bound mode of notexin on damaging phospholipid vesicles containing sphingomyelin and cholesterol.

  15. An ELISA for quantifying quail IgY and characterizing maternal IgY transfer to egg yolk in several quail strains.

    Murai, Atsushi; Kakiuchi, Misako; Hamano, Takahito; Kobayashi, Misato; Tsudzuki, Masaoki; Nakano, Mikiharu; Matsuda, Yoichi; Horio, Fumihiko


    In avian species, maternal blood immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is transferred to the egg yolks of maturing oocytes, but the mechanism underlying this transfer is unknown. To gain insight into the mechanism of maternal IgY transfer in quail, we established an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantitation of quail IgY. We characterized strain differences in blood and egg yolk IgY concentrations and exogenously injected IgY-Fc uptakes into egg yolks. A specific rabbit polyclonal antibody to quail IgY was raised for the ELISA. Blood and egg yolk IgY concentrations were determined in six quail strains (one inbred strain, L; four closed population strains, AWE, DB, PS, WE; one commercial strain, Commercial). The birds were also injected with digoxigenin-labeled quail IgY-Fc, and its uptakes into laid eggs were compared. The strain difference in blood and egg yolk IgY concentrations was at most 2.5-fold, between PS and AWE. The rank order of IgY concentrations was AWE, Commercial, DB, L≥WE≥PS. A significant positive correlation (|R|=0.786) between individual blood IgY and egg yolk IgY and the concentrated egg yolk IgY (1.5-2-fold) against blood IgY was observed. Interestingly, there was a significant inverse correlation (|R|=0.452) between injected IgY-Fc uptakes and the blood IgY concentration, implying competition of the injected IgY-Fc and blood IgY in the process of IgY uptake into egg yolks. In conclusion, we successfully determined blood and egg yolk IgY concentrations in various quail strains by a quail IgY-specific ELISA. The concentrated egg yolk IgY against the blood IgY and the inverse relationship of exogenous IgY-Fc uptake against the blood IgY supports the existence of a selective IgY transport mechanism in avian maturing oocytes.

  16. Lutein and zeaxanthin: Role as macular pigment and factors that control bioavailability from egg yolks and nanoemulsions

    Vishwanathan, Rohini

    Lutein and zeaxanthin, two oxygenated carotenoids, exclusively accumulate in the macula, protecting the underlying photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells from damaging blue radiation of sunlight. As macular pigment, lutein and zeaxanthin are also potent antioxidants protecting the vulnerable regions of retina from free radical injury. Oxidative stress and cumulative light damage play an important role in pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly population. Antioxidant and lutein supplementation has been shown to decrease the risk and prevent the progression of AMD. The egg yolk is a highly bioavailable source of lutein and zeaxanthin and thus a possible contender for AMD prevention and treatment. Consumption of 2 egg yolks/d for 5 weeks was shown herein to significantly increase serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentration and clinically improve macular pigment concentrations at 0.5° retinal eccentricity in an older adult population taking cholesterol-lowering statins. Four egg yolks/d not only raised serum lutein and zeaxanthin significantly but also macular pigment densities at 0.25°, 0.5° and 1° retinal eccentricity. A positive outcome of the 2 egg yolk consumption was the significant increase in serum HDL-C with a tendency of serum LDL-C to decrease, although not significantly. Four egg yolks/d seemed to cross the threshold for dietary cholesterol tolerance as serum LDL-C tended to increase, although not significantly, despite the significant increase in serum HDL-C. There is a strong possibility that greater build up of lutein and zeaxanthin in the macula may have been observed with 2 egg yolks/d if the intervention period was longer than 5 weeks. Addition of up to 2 eggs a day to the diet is suggested to benefit an older adult population, especially those who are already taking cholesterol-lowering statins by (a) building their macular pigment and possibly protect against AMD and (b

  17. Tris-egg yolk-glycerol (TEY) extender developed for freezing dog semen is a good option to cryopreserve bovine epididymal sperm cells.

    Lopes, G; Soares, L; Ferreira, P; Rocha, A


    Cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa is often performed after shipping the excised testis-epididymis complexes, under refrigeration, to a specialized laboratory. However, epididymal spermatozoa can be collected immediately after excision of the epididymis and sent extended and refrigerated to a laboratory for cryopreservation. In this experiment, we evaluated the effect of both methods of cold storage bovine epididymal spermatozoa as well as of two different extenders on spermatozoa characteristics after freeze-thawing. For that, spermatozoa collected from the caudae epididymis of 19 bulls were extended and cryopreserved in either AndroMed(®) or a Tris-egg yolk (TEY)-based extender. Cryopreservation of sperm cells was performed immediately after castration (Group A, n = 9) or after cold storage for 24 h diluted in the two extenders and (Group B, n = 9) and also after cold storage for 24 h within the whole epididymis (Group C, n = 10). Sperm subjective progressive motility (light microscopy), plasma membrane integrity (hypoosmotic swelling test) and sperm viability (eosin-nigrosin) were evaluated. In vitro fertilization and culture (IVF) was performed to assess the blastocyst rate. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed on post-thaw sperm parameters between samples from Group A, B and C. TEY extended samples presented a higher (p sperm, than those extended in AndroMed(®) . Blastocyst rate after IVF differed only (p sperm can be shipped chilled overnight either within the epididymal tail or after dilution without deleterious effect on post-thaw sperm quality. TEY extender was more suitable for cold storage and freezing bovine epididymal sperm, than the commercial extender AndroMed®.

  18. Intra-clutch ratio of yolk progesterone level changes with laying date in rockhopper penguins: a strategy to influence brood reduction?

    Maud Poisbleau

    Full Text Available Hatching asynchrony in avian species generally leads to a size hierarchy among siblings, favouring the first-hatched chicks. Maternally deposited hormones affect the embryo and chick's physiology and behaviour. It has been observed that progesterone, a hormone present at higher levels than other steroid hormones in egg yolks, is negatively related to body mass in embryos, chicks and adults. A differential within-clutch progesterone deposition could therefore be linked to the size hierarchy between siblings and to the resulting brood reduction. We tested whether yolk progesterone levels differed between eggs according to future parental ability to feed the entire clutch in wild rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome. This species presents a unique reversed egg-size dimorphism and hatching asynchrony, with the larger second-laid egg (B-egg hatching before the smaller first-laid egg (A-egg. Yolk progesterone levels increased only slightly with female body mass at laying. However, intra-clutch ratios were not related to female body mass. On the other hand, yolk progesterone levels increased significantly with the date of laying onset for A-eggs while they decreased for B-eggs. Early clutches therefore had proportionally more progesterone in the B-egg compared to the A-egg while late clutches had proportionally less progesterone in the B-egg. We propose that females could strategically regulate yolk progesterone deposition within clutches according to the expected food availability during chick growth, an adaptive strategy to adjust brood reduction to conditions. We also discuss these results, relating to yolk progesterone, in the broader context of other yolk steroids.

  19. Kilogram-scale production of SnO(2) yolk-shell powders by a spray-drying process using dextrin as carbon source and drying additive.

    Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan


    A simple and general method for the large-scale production of yolk-shell powders with various compositions by a spray-drying process is reported. Metal salt/dextrin composite powders with a spherical and dense structure were obtained by spray drying and transformed into yolk-shell powders by simple combustion in air. Dextrin plays a key role in the preparation of precursor powders for fabricating yolk-shell powders by spray drying. Droplets containing metal salts and dextrin show good drying characteristics even in a severe environment of high humidity. Sucrose, glucose, and polyvinylpyrrolidone are widely used as carbon sources in the preparation of metal oxide/carbon composite powders; however, they are not appropriate for large-scale spray-drying processes because of their caramelization properties and adherence to the surface of the spray dryer. SnO2 yolk-shell powders were studied as the first target material in the spray-drying process. Combustion of tin oxalate/dextrin composite powders at 600 °C in air produced single-shelled SnO2 yolk-shell powders with the configuration SnO2 @void@SnO2 . The SnO2 yolk-shell powders prepared by the simple spray-drying process showed superior electrochemical properties, even at high current densities. The discharge capacities of the SnO2 yolk-shell powders at a current density of 2000 mA g(-1) were 645 and 570 mA h g(-1) for the second and 100th cycles, respectively; the corresponding capacity retention measured for the second cycle was 88 %.

  20. Architecture engineering toward highly active palladium integrated titanium dioxide yolk-double-shell nanoreactor for catalytic applications

    Liu, Baocang; Wang, Qin; Yu, Shengli; Jing, Peng; Liu, Lixia; Xu, Guangran; Zhang, Jun


    Rational design of the hierarchical architecture of a material with well controlled functionality is crucially important for improving its properties. In this paper, we present the general strategies for rationally designing and constructing three types of hierarchical Pd integrated TiO2 double-shell architectures, i.e. yolk-double-shell TiO2 architecture (Pd@TiO2/Pd@TiO2) with yolk-type Pd nanoparticles residing inside the central cavity of the hollow TiO2 structure; ultrafine Pd nanoparticles homogenously dispersed on both the external and internal surfaces of the inner TiO2 shell; and double-shell TiO2 architecture (@TiO2/Pd@TiO2) with Pd nanoparticles solely loaded on the external surface of the inner TiO2 shell, and double-shell TiO2 architecture (@TiO2@Pd@TiO2) with Pd nanoparticles dispersed in the interlayer space of double TiO2 shells, via newly developed Pd2+ ion-diffusion and Pd sol impregnation methodologies. These architectures are well controlled in structure, size, morphology, and configuration with Pd nanoparticles existing in various locations. Owing to the variable synergistic effects arising from the location discrepancies of Pd nanoparticle in the architectures, they exhibit remarkable variations in catalytic activity. In particular, different from previously reported yolk-shell structures, the obtained yolk-double-shell Pd@TiO2/Pd@TiO2 architecture, which is revealed for the first time, possesses a uniform hierarchical structure, narrow size distribution, and good monodispersibility, and it creates two Pd-TiO2 interfaces on the external and internal surfaces of the inner TiO2 shell, leading to the strongest synergistic effect of Pd nanoparticles with TiO2 shell. Furthermore, the interlayer chamber between the double TiO2 shells connecting with the central cavity of the hollow TiO2 structure through the mesoporous TiO2 wall forms a nanoreactor for enriching the reactants and preventing the deletion of Pd nanoparticles during the reaction, thus

  1. Rat visceral yolk sac cells: viability and expression of cell markers during maternal diabetes

    Aires, M.B. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, J.R.A. [Departamento de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Souza, K.S.; Farias, P.S. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, A.C.V. [Departamento de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Fioretto, E.T. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Maria, D.A. [Laboratório de Bioquímica e Biofísica, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The function of the visceral yolk sac (VYS) is critical for embryo organogenesis until final fetal development in rats, and can be affected by conditions such as diabetes. In view of the importance of diabetes during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal health, the objective of this study was to assess fetal weight, VYS cell markers, and viability in female Wistar rats (200-250 g) with induced diabetes (alloxan, 37 mg/kg) on the 8th gestational day (gd 8). At gd 15, rats from control (n=5) and diabetic (n=5) groups were anesthetized and laparotomized to remove the uterine horns for weighing of fetuses and collecting the VYS. Flow cytometry was used for characterizing VYS cells, and for determining mitochondrial activity, cell proliferation, DNA ploidy, cell cycle phases, and caspase-3 activity. Fetal weight was reduced in the diabetic group. Expression of the cell markers CD34, VEGFR1, CD115, CD117, CD14, CCR2, CD90, CD44, STRO-1, OCT3/4, and Nanog was detected in VYS cells in both groups. In the diabetic group, significantly decreased expression of CD34 (P<0.05), CCR2 (P<0.001), and OCT3/4 (P<0.01), and significantly increased expression of CD90 (P<0.05), CD117 (P<0.01), and CD14 (P<0.05) were observed. VYS cells with inactive mitochondria, activated caspase-3, and low proliferation were present in the rats with diabetes. Severe hyperglycemia caused by maternal diabetes had negative effects on pregnancy, VYS cell viability, and the expression of cell markers.

  2. In vitro human embryonic stem cell hematopoiesis mimics MYB-independent yolk sac hematopoiesis.

    Vanhee, Stijn; De Mulder, Katrien; Van Caeneghem, Yasmine; Verstichel, Greet; Van Roy, Nadine; Menten, Björn; Velghe, Imke; Philippé, Jan; De Bleser, Dominique; Lambrecht, Bart N; Taghon, Tom; Leclercq, Georges; Kerre, Tessa; Vandekerckhove, Bart


    Although hematopoietic precursor activity can be generated in vitro from human embryonic stem cells, there is no solid evidence for the appearance of multipotent, self-renewing and transplantable hematopoietic stem cells. This could be due to short half-life of hematopoietic stem cells in culture or, alternatively, human embryonic stem cell-initiated hematopoiesis may be hematopoietic stem cell-independent, similar to yolk sac hematopoiesis, generating multipotent progenitors with limited expansion capacity. Since a MYB was reported to be an excellent marker for hematopoietic stem cell-dependent hematopoiesis, we generated a MYB-eGFP reporter human embryonic stem cell line to study formation of hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro. We found CD34(+) hemogenic endothelial cells rounding up and developing into CD43(+) hematopoietic cells without expression of MYB-eGFP. MYB-eGFP(+) cells appeared relatively late in embryoid body cultures as CD34(+)CD43(+)CD45(-/lo) cells. These MYB-eGFP(+) cells were CD33 positive, proliferated in IL-3 containing media and hematopoietic differentiation was restricted to the granulocytic lineage. In agreement with data obtained on murine Myb(-/-) embryonic stem cells, bright eGFP expression was observed in a subpopulation of cells, during directed myeloid differentiation, which again belonged to the granulocytic lineage. In contrast, CD14(+) macrophage cells were consistently eGFP(-) and were derived from eGFP-precursors only. In summary, no evidence was obtained for in vitro generation of MYB(+) hematopoietic stem cells during embryoid body cultures. The observed MYB expression appeared late in culture and was confined to the granulocytic lineage.

  3. IgY Technology: Extraction of Chicken Antibodies from Egg Yolk by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Precipitation

    Pauly, Diana; Chacana, Pablo A.; Calzado, Esteban G.; Brembs, Björn; Schade, Rüdiger


    Hens can be immunized by means of i.m. vaccination (Musculus pectoralis, left and right, injection volume 0.5-1.0 ml) or by means of Gene-Gun plasmid-immunization. Dependent on the immunogenicity of the antigen, high antibody-titres (up to 1:100,000 - 1:1,000,000) can be achieved after only one or 3 - 4 boost immunizations. Normally, a hen lays eggs continuously for about 72 weeks, thereafter the laying capacity decreases. This protocol describes the extraction of total IgY from egg yolk by means of a precipitation procedure (PEG. Polson et al. 1980). The method involves two important steps. The first one is the removal of lipids and the second is the precipitation of total IgY from the supernatant of step one. After dialysis against a buffer (normally PBS) the IgY-extract can be stored at -20°C for more than a year. The purity of the extract is around 80 %, the total IgY per egg varies from 40-80 mg, dependent on the age of the laying hen. The total IgY content increases with the age of the hen from around 40 mg/egg up to 80 mg/egg (concerning PEG precipitation). The laying capacity of a hen per year is around 325 eggs. That means a total potential harvest of 20 g total IgY/year based on a mean IgY content of 60 mg total IgY/egg (see Table 1). PMID:21559009

  4. Fatty acid composition of the adipose tissue and yolk lipids of a bird with a marine-based diet, the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri).

    Speake, B K; Decrock, F; Surai, P F; Groscolas, R


    The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is an Antarctic seabird feeding mainly on fish and therefore has a high dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The yolk is accumulated in the developing oocyte while the females are fasting, and a large proportion of the fatty acid components of the yolk lipids are derived by mobilization from the female's adipose tissue. The fatty acid composition of the total lipid of the yolk was characterized by high levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, it differed in several respects from that of the maternal adipose tissue. For example, the proportions of 14:0, 16:1n-7, 20:1n-9, 22:1n-9, 20:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 were significantly greater in adipose tissue than in yolk. Thus adipose tissue lipids contained 7.6+/-0.3% and 8.0+/-0.3% (wt% of total fatty acids; mean +/- SE; n = 5) of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, respectively, whereas the yolk total lipid contained 1.6+/-0.1 and 5.5+/-0.3% of these respective fatty acids. The proportions of 16:0, 18:0, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, and 20:4n-6 were significantly lower in the adipose tissue than in the yolk lipids. The proportions of triacylglycerol, phospholipid, free cholesterol, and cholesteryl ester in the yolk lipid were, respectively, 67.0+/-0.2, 25.4+/-0.3, 5.3+/-0.2, and 1.8+/-0.2% (wt% of total yolk lipid). The proportions of 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3 were, respectively, 5.7+/-0.3, 2.8+/-0.2, 1.4+/-0.1, and 11.7+/-0.5% in phospholipid and 0.4+/-0.0, 1.2+/-0.1, 0.8+/-0.1 and 3.6+/-0.3% in triacylglycerol. About 95% of the total vitamin E in the yolks was in the form of alpha-tocopherol with gamma-tocopherol forming the remainder. Two species of carotenoids, one identified as lutein, were present.

  5. New Nanoconfined Galvanic Replacement Synthesis of Hollow Sb@C Yolk-Shell Spheres Constituting a Stable Anode for High-Rate Li/Na-Ion Batteries.

    Liu, Jun; Yu, Litao; Wu, Chao; Wen, Yuren; Yin, Kuibo; Chiang, Fu-Kuo; Hu, Renzong; Liu, Jiangwen; Sun, Litao; Gu, Lin; Maier, Joachim; Yu, Yan; Zhu, Min


    In the current research project, we have prepared a novel Sb@C nanosphere anode with biomimetic yolk-shell structure for Li/Na-ion batteries via a nanoconfined galvanic replacement route. The yolk-shell microstructure consists of Sb hollow yolk completely protected by a well-conductive carbon thin shell. The substantial void space in the these hollow Sb@C yolk-shell particles allows for the full volume expansion of inner Sb while maintaining the framework of the Sb@C anode and developing a stable SEI film on the outside carbon shell. As for Li-ion battery anode, they displayed a large specific capacity (634 mAh g(-1)), high rate capability (specific capabilities of 622, 557, 496, 439, and 384 mAh g(-1) at 100, 200, 500, 1000, and 2000 mA g(-1), respectively) and stable cycling performance (a specific capacity of 405 mAh g(-1) after long 300 cycles at 1000 mA g(-1)). As for Na-ion storage, these yolk-shell Sb@C particles also maintained a reversible capacity of approximate 280 mAh g(-1) at 1000 mA g(-1) after 200 cycles.

  6. [Preparation and immunological evaluation of oral solution of egg yolk-derived hepatitis B virus-specific transfer factor].

    Xu, Yanping; Zhang, Qing; Zhan, Xuejun; Xie, Daze; Dai, Ge; Yang, Hui


    To prepare the oral solution of egg yolk hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific transfer factor (EYHBV-TF) and evaluate its immunological activity as an immune regulator against hepatitis B. From hens immunized with the Hepatitis B vaccine the egg yolk was isolated to extract the specific transfer factor EYHBV-TF, and its physicochemical properties were examined. Leukocyte adhesion inhibition test (LAI) was performed to detect the immunogenic activity of EYHBV-TF. The solution of EYHBV-TF was then administered orally in normal mice, and the specific cellular immune activity induced was assayed with delayed type skin hypersensitivity test (DTH), with the non-specific immune activity assessed with immune organ index. The immune responses induced by oral EYHBV-STF solution were compared with those by EYHBV-STF injection and by different dosages (injection and oral) of porcine spleen HBV-specific transfer factor (PSHBV-STF), porcine spleen nonspecific transfer factor, and egg yolk extracts from non-immunized hens. The prepared EYHBV-STF oral solution, which met the standards for biological products, could inhibit leukocyte adhesion in vitro and significantly enhance mouse foot pad swelling, demonstrating its capability of transferring antigen-specific delayed type hypersensitivity reactions to naive recipient. EYHBV-STF oral solution also significantly improved the immune organ index in mice (P<0 01) with similar effects to those caused by EYHBV-STF injections and by PSHBV-STF injection and oral solution. Orally administered EYHBV-STF and EYHBV-STF injection both possess hepatitis B antigen-specific cellular immune activity and can significantly enhance specific cellular immune responses.

  7. Aktivitas Biologis Imunoglobulin Yolk Anti Parvovirus Setelah Perlakuan Suhu (BIOLOGY ACTIVITIES OF IgY PARVOVIRUS AFTER HEAT TREATMENT

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Suartini


    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of temperature on the biological activity of various crude and precipitate specific Immunoglobulin (IgY Canine parvovirus (CPV. Hiperimun serum conducted on Isa Brown chickens injected with antigen CPV. Crude yolk Ig preparations derived from chicken serum without purification while the yolk Ig preparations precipitates obtained by the chicken serum was precipitated with ammonium sulfate and dialyzed. Both types of Ig yolk given treatment temperature 50ºC, 60ºC, 70ºC, and 80ºC for 15 minutes. To test Gel Precipitation Test (AGPT is performed to determine whether there is a specific IgY CPV in the serum of chickens. Biological activity of both types of Ig detected with Barriers Haemagglutination test (HI. The design used in this study is completely randomized design factorial. The results of this study indicate that the temperature was highly significant on the activities of IgY crude and precipitates. Activities IgY crude and precipitate down to the treatment temperature of 50ºC, 60ºC, 70ºC, and 80ºC. Geometric Mean Titer crude IgY respectively - were 26.67, 26, 25.33, and <2º Unit HI while IgY precipitates are respectively 26.33, 25.67, 24, and <2º Unit HI. Based on the results of this study concluded that the biological activity of crude IgY better than IgY precipitates after treatment of a wide range of temperatures.

  8. Quercetin modulates activities of Taiwan cobra phospholipase A2 via its effects on membrane structure and membrane-bound mode of phospholipase A2

    Yi-Ling Chiou; Shinne-Ren Lin; Wan-Ping Hu; Long-Sen Chang


    The goal of the present study is to elucidate the mechanism of quercetin on modulating Naja naja atra phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities. Sphingomyelin inhibited PLA2 enzymatic activity and membrane-damaging activity against egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC), while cholesterol and quercetin abrogated the sphingomeyelin inhibitory effect. Quercetin incorporation led to a reduction in PLA2 enzymatic activity and membrane-damaging activity toward EYPC/sphingomyelin/cholesterol vesicles. Both cholesterol and quercetin increased detergent resistance and reduced membrane fluidity of EYPC/sphingomyelin vesicles. Quercetin reduced detergent insolubility but increased ordered lipid packing of EYPC/sphingomyelin/cholesterol vesicles. Acrylamide quenching studies and trinitrophenylation of Lys residues revealed that quercetin altered the membrane-bound mode of PLA2 differently upon absorption onto the membrane bilayers of different lipid compositions. However, 8-anilinonaphthalene sulphonate-binding assay revealed that quercetin marginally affected the interaction between active site of PLA2 with phospholipid vesicles. Collectively, our data indicate that membrane-inserted quercetin modulates PLA2 interfacial activity and membrane-damaging activity via its effects on membrane structure and membrane-bound mode of PLA2.

  9. Mapping of egg yolk and animal skin glue paint binders in Early Renaissance paintings using near infrared reflectance imaging spectroscopy.

    Dooley, Kathryn A; Lomax, Suzanne; Zeibel, Jason G; Miliani, Costanza; Ricciardi, Paola; Hoenigswald, Ann; Loew, Murray; Delaney, John K


    In situ chemical imaging techniques are being developed to provide information on the spatial distribution of artists' pigments used in polychrome works of art such as paintings. The new methods include reflectance imaging spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence mapping. Results from these new methods have extended the knowledge obtained from site-specific chemical analyses widely in use. While these mapping methods have aided in determining the distribution of pigments, there is a growing interest to develop methods capable of identifying and mapping organic paint binders as well. Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been extensively used in the remote sensing field as well as in the chemical industry to detect organic compounds. NIR spectroscopy provides a rapid method to assay organics by utilizing vibrational overtones and combination bands of fundamental absorptions that occur in the mid-IR. Here we explore the utility of NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy to map organic binders in situ by examining a series of panel paintings known to have been painted using distemper (animal skin glue) and tempera (egg yolk) binders as determined by amino acid analysis of samples taken from multiple sites on the panels. In this report we demonstrate the success in identifying and mapping these binders by NIR reflectance imaging spectroscopy in situ. Three of the four panel paintings from Cosimo Tura's The Annunciation with Saint Francis and Saint Louis of Toulouse (ca. 1475) are imaged using a highly sensitive, line-scanning hyperspectral imaging camera. The results show an animal skin glue binder was used for the blue skies and blue robe of the Virgin Mary, and egg yolk tempera was used for the red robes and brown landscape. The mapping results show evidence for the use of both egg yolk and animal skin glue in the faces of the figures. The strongest absorption associated with lipidic egg yolk features visually correlates with areas that appear to have white

  10. CT Findings of Intrarenal Yolk Sac Tumor with Tumor Thrombus Extending into the Inferior Vena Cava: A Case Report

    Lin, Shao Chun; Li, Xue Hua; Sun, Can Hui; Feng, Shi Ting; Peng, Zhen Peng; Huang, Si Yun; Li, Zi Ping [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)


    Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a rare germ cell neoplasm of childhood that usually arises from the testis or ovary. The rare cases of YST in various extragonadal locations have been reported, but the primary intrarenal YST is even more uncommon. Here, we report a case of a primary intrarenal YST with tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava and left renal vein in a 2-year-old boy, with an emphasis on the CT features. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an intrarenal YST with intravascular involvement.

  11. Soybean lecithin-based extender preserves spermatozoa membrane integrity and fertilizing potential during goat semen cryopreservation.

    Chelucci, Sara; Pasciu, Valeria; Succu, Sara; Addis, Daniela; Leoni, Giovanni G; Manca, Maria E; Naitana, Salvatore; Berlinguer, Fiammetta


    Soybean lecithin may represent a suitable alternative to egg yolk for semen cryopreservation in livestock species. However, additional studies are needed to elucidate its effects on spermatozoa functional properties. Semen collected from five Sarda bucks was cryopreserved in Tris-based extender and glycerol (4% v:v) with different supplementations. In a preliminary experiment, different soybean lecithin concentrations were tested (1%-6% wt/vol) and results in terms of viability, percentages of progressive motile and rapid spermatozoa, and DNA integrity after thawing showed that the most effective concentration was 1%. In the second experiment, semen was frozen in a Tris-based extender with no supplementation (EXT), with 1% lecithin (EXT LC), and 20% egg yolk (EXT EY). The effectiveness of these extenders was also compared with a commercial extender. The EXT EY led to the highest viability and motility parameters after freezing and thawing (P lecithin can be considered as a suitable alternative to egg yolk in goat semen cryopreservation, because it ensures higher fertilization rates and a better protection from membrane damage by cold shock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxicity of parathion on embryo and yolk-sac larvae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata l.): effects on survival, cholinesterase, and carboxylesterase activity.

    Arufe, M Isabel; Arellano, Juana M; Albendín, Gemma; Sarasquete, Carmen


    This study was conducted to examine the acute toxicity of the organophosphorus pesticide (OP) parathion on embryos and yolk-sac larvae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), and to investigate the effects of this compound on cholinesterase and carboxylesterase activity of seabream larvae in the phase of endogenous feeding. The 72-h LC50 for yolk-sac larvae (0.523 mg L⁻¹) was about two-fold lower than the 48-h LC50 for embryos (1.005 mg L⁻¹). Parathion significantly inhibited the activity of ChE and CaE activity in yolk sac larvae but there were not significant differences in the sensitivity of both esterases to parathion as inferred by their 72-h IC50 values. Larvae exposed to parathion for 72 h showed a 70% inhibition of the whole body acetylcholinesterase at approximately the LC50.

  13. Porous yolk-shell microspheres as N-doped carbon matrix for motivating the oxygen reduction activity of oxygen evolution oriented materials

    Zhou, Jinqiu; Wang, Mengfan; Qian, Tao; Liu, Sisi; Cao, Xuecheng; Yang, Tingzhou; Yang, Ruizhi; Yan, Chenglin


    It is highly challenging to explore high-performance bi-functional oxygen electrode catalysts for their practical application in next-generation energy storage and conversion devices. In this work, we synthesize hierarchical N-doped carbon microspheres with porous yolk-shell structure (NCYS) as a metal-free electrocatalyst toward efficient oxygen reduction through a template-free route. The enhanced oxygen reduction performances in both alkaline and acid media profit well from the porous yolk-shell structure as well as abundant nitrogen functional groups. Furthermore, such yolk-shell microspheres can be used as precursor materials to motivate the oxygen reduction activity of oxygen evolution oriented materials to obtain a desirable bi-functional electrocatalyst. To verify its practical utility, Zn-air battery tests are conducted and exhibit satisfactory performance, indicating that this constructed concept for preparation of bi-functional catalyst will afford a promising strategy for exploring novel metal-air battery electrocatalysts.

  14. Evaluation of an egg yolk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody test and its use to assess the prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in laying hens in Italy

    Marco Tamba


    Full Text Available The prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in commercial layers was established by the presence of antibodies in eggs. Saline-extracted yolks were used with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. For the prevalence study, yolks from 30 eggs were obtained from each of 66 flocks coming from 36 layer farms. The prevalence of egg antibodies to Mycoplasma gallisepticum was 33.3% in single-age farms and 77.8% in multi-age farms. In 27 flocks, antibody titers were compared with results obtained from blood samples taken in the same flock and in the same period and analyzed with the same kit. This study has confirmed that egg yolk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody test is a suitable and practical approach for assessing the flock prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in layer hens.

  15. The dynamics of the surface layer of lipid membranes doped by vanadium complex: computer modeling and EPR studies

    Olchawa Ryszard


    Full Text Available Penetration of the liposome membranes doped with vanadium complex formed in the liquid-crystalline phase from egg yolk lecithin (EYL by the TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl spin probes has been investigated. The penetration process was followed by 360 hours at 24°C, using the electron spin resonance (EPR method. The spectroscopic parameter of the partition (F of this probe indicated that a maximum rigidity of the membrane was at 3% concentration of the vanadium complex. Computer simulations showed that the increase in the rigidity of the membrane corresponds to the closure of gaps in the surface layer of the membrane, and indicates the essential role of the membrane surface in transport processes.

  16. 腌制过程咸蛋黄的脂质特性研究%Study on changes of duck egg yolk lipid properties during salting processing

    彭辉; 林捷; 郑茵; 黄娟; 郑华


    经过食盐的腌制作用,鸭蛋黄出现了明显的出油和固化现象,蛋黄脂质发生了微弱的氧化。共轭二烯酸(CDA)含量在第7周达到最大值0.21%,随后下降,而游离脂肪酸(FFA)含量在第11周出现最大值3.4%。经脂肪酸的气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)分析发现,腌制后咸蛋黄与新鲜蛋黄脂肪酸的组成含量差异不明显。新鲜蛋黄和咸蛋黄中同时发现一定含量的对人体有益的脂肪酸,如共轭亚油酸和花生四烯酸。新鲜蛋黄和咸蛋黄均含有大量不饱和脂肪酸,含量约为67.8%。%During salting processing,the yolk gradually became solidified and oily,and oxidation occurred in egg yolk lipid.Conjugated dienoic acid(CDA) values went up to the maximum in the 7th weeks,which was 0.21%;and free fatty acid(FFA) content reached the peak(3.4%) in the 11th week.Composition of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS),no significant difference was found between fresh yolk and salted yolk.67.8% unsaturated fatty acids and a certain content of healthy fatty acid was found in both fresh egg yolk and salted yolk,such as conjugated linoleic acid and arachidonic acid.

  17. Effect of storage duration on the rheological properties of goose liquid egg products and eggshell membranes.

    Kumbar, V; Nedomova, S; Trnka, J; Buchar, J; Pytel, R


    In practice, goose eggs are increasingly used and, therefore, the rheological properties have to be known for processing. The eggs of geese (Landes Goose, Anser anser f. domestica) were stored for one, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 wk at a constant temperature 4°C. First of all, the egg quality parameters were described in terms of egg weight, egg weight loss, egg shape index, yolk height, albumen height, yolk index, albumen index, and Haugh units. In the next step the rheological behavior of liquid egg products (egg yolk, albumen, and whole liquid egg) was studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Flow curves of all liquid egg products exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior. This behavior can be described using the Herschel-Bulkley model and for technical application using the Ostwald-de Waele model. The effect of the storage duration on the rheological behavior is different for the different liquid egg products. With the exception of very low shear rates, the viscosity of the egg yolk as well as of the whole liquid egg decreases with storage time. At lower shear rates there is a tendency toward increased albumen viscosity with storage duration. The storage duration also affects the mechanical properties of the eggshell membrane. This effect has been evaluated in terms of the ultimate tensile strength, fracture strain, and fracture toughness. All these parameters increased with the loading rate, but decreased during the egg storage. These mechanical phenomena should be respected, namely in the design of the egg model for the numerical simulation of the egg behavior under different kinds of the mechanical loading.

  18. Morphoproteomics Identifies the EZH2 and SIRT1 Pathways as Potential Blocks to Differentiation in Yolk Sac Tumor of the Ovary and Provides Therapeutic Options: a Case Study.

    Kojima, Yumi A; Assylbekova, Binara; Zhao, Bihong; Nugent, Elizabeth; Brown, Robert E


    Yolk sac tumor of the ovary is a rare but highly malignant and aggressive germ cell tumor. The objective of this case study of an ovarian yolk sac tumor was to identify putative pathways that are known to pose a block in differentiation, both in early embryogenesis and in tumorigenesis, that might be amenable to low toxicity therapies designed to promote differentiation to a more benign state and prevent recurrent disease in such tumors. The enhancer of Zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a histone methyl transferase, and silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+ histone deacetylase, are two such pathways.

  19. Generation and characterization of chicken egg yolk antibodies against propionibacterium acnes for the prevention of acne vulgaris

    Karthika Selvan


    Full Text Available Introduction: Antigen-specific antibody has been widely used for immunological analysis in the field of diagnosis as well as in pure scientific research, where the IgY antibodies can be raised against P acnes antigen. Material and Methods: To produce IgY against Propionibacterium acnes, laying hens were immunized with P acnes (MTCC No: 1951 and subsequent booster injections were given. The antibodies produced were purified from the egg yolk of immunized chicken using the polyethylene glycol and ammonium sulfate precipitation method and, further, by Diethylaminoethyl (DEAE cellulose ion-exchange column chromatography. The protein fraction of IgY was isolated from the egg yolk. The separation was rapid, and the success of each step was viewed on Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The reactivity of anti-P acnes was evaluated by the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test and the dot-immunoassay. Results: With ELISA, the highest titter of 1:10000 was observed on the 150 th day after vaccination. The results of dot-immunoassay suggested that anti-P acnes IgY developed a brown color as positive reaction, which showed the antigen-antibody binding even after a maximum dilution of 1/500. These results suggest that anti-acne IgY was produced and had strong specific antibody reactivity. Conclusion: The findings indicate that anti-acne IgY is worth utilizing as a preventive agent for acne vulgaris.

  20. Influence of sex, age, and fasting on blood parameters and body, bursa, spleen and yolk sac weights of broiler chicks

    DL Pires


    Full Text Available The effects of water and feed fasting for 24, 48 and 72 hours post-hatching on blood parameters (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; red blood-cell, RBC; hematocrit, HCT; hemoglobin, HGB; plasma glucose, CGP; plasma total protein, PP, and differential leukocytes count, and on body, liver, spleen, bursa, and yolk sac weights were analyzed. Erythrogram data were obtained with a blood cell counter. Total plasma protein and plasma glucose were determined by using the Bradford method (1976 and a glucose PAP liquiform kit (Labtest, cat. n. 84, respectively. Specific leukocyte counts were carried out on blood smears stained with Rosenfeld solution. According to the obtained data, water and feed post-hatching fasting reduced MCV values, which also were lower in males than that in females. Fasting for 48 hours promoted an increase in PP, while fasting for 72 hours reduced HCT. Chicks submitted to fasting presented lower body weights as compared to fed chicks, but their liver weight did not increase between 48 and 72 hours of age. Fasting decreased spleen weight, but bursa and yolk sac weight were not affected. Data showed that female and male chicks react in a similar way to post-hatching fasting, which affects body weight, liver and spleen weight, and HCT and PP values. Moreover, 72 hours of fasting affected more intensely HCT and MCV values.

  1. Rational Integration of Inbuilt Aperture with Mesoporous Framework in Unusual Asymmetrical Yolk-Shell Structures for Energy Storage and Conversion.

    Zhu, Ting; Zhu, Liangliang; Wang, Jing; Ho, Ghim Wei


    Despite the attractive benefits of hollow structures as electrodes for advanced energy storage-conversion capabilities, one prevailing shortcoming is their compromised structural integrity and volumetric energy density due to the introduction of an ultrathin shell with an excessively underutilized large hollow cavity. Herein, we report a facile and template-free synthetic route to realize unusual asymmetrical yolk-shell (AYs) structures composed of mixed-valence NiCo2O4 material. Explicitly, this work highlights the unusual off-central core, an AYs structure that encompasses a hemispherical hollow interior, and a mesoporous solid counterpart. As such, it retains desirable hollow structural characteristics while favorably precludes the excessive unexploited hollow interior space for increased active material packing. Unlike the conventional symmetrical yolk-shell (SYs) which is composed of a porous shell framework radially throughout the structure, the mesoporous solid constitution of the AYs structure offers an inbuilt reinforced framework to support the partial porous shell and concurrently leaves sufficient void for volumetric buffering. Another unique structural feature of the AYs structure is the formation of a submicron aperture or opening on the shell that enhances accessibility of electrolyte diffusion. All of these synergistic structural features of NiCo2O4 AYs structures enhance the pseudocapacitive and electrocatalytic properties.

  2. Diurnal rhythm in expression and release of yolk protein in the testis of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Kotwica, Joanna; Joachimiak, Ewa; Polanska, Marta A; Majewska, Magdalena M; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M; Bebas, Piotr


    Circadian clocks (oscillators) regulate multiple life functions in insects. The circadian system located in the male reproductive tract of Lepidoptera is one of the best characterized peripheral oscillators in insects. Our previous research on the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis, demonstrated that this oscillator controls the rhythm of sperm release from the testis and coordinates sperm maturation in the upper vas deferens (UVD). We demonstrated previously that a protein that functions as yolk protein in females is also produced in cyst cells surrounding sperm bundles in the testis, and is released into the UVD. Here, we investigated the temporal expression of the yolk protein 2 (yp2) gene at the mRNA and protein level in the testis of S. littoralis, and inquired whether their expression is regulated by PER-based molecular oscillator. We describe a circadian rhythm of YP2 accumulation in the UVD seminal fluid, where this protein interacts with sperm in a circadian fashion. However, we also demonstrate that yp2 mRNA and YP2 protein levels within cyst cells show only a diurnal rhythm in light/dark (LD) cycles. These rhythms do not persist in constant darkness (DD), suggesting that they are non-circadian. Interestingly, the per gene mRNA and protein levels in cyst cells are rhythmic in LD but not in DD. Nevertheless, per appears to be involved in the diurnal timing of YP2 protein accumulation in cyst cells.

  3. Assay and properties of rat yolk sac 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ 1. cap alpha. -hydroxylase

    Paulson, S.K.; Phelps, M.; DeLuca, H.F.


    An in vitro assay has been developed for the rat yolk sac 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ 1..cap alpha..-hydroxylase (1..cap alpha..-hydroxylase). The subcellular location and some properties of the enzyme are described. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ produced from incubations of yolk sac homogenates was extracted, purified by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and straight- and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and measured by a competitive binding assay using chick intestinal receptor. The reaction is linear with time for up to 45 min at a substrate concentration of 80 and 4-6 mg/mL microsomal protein. The enzyme, located in the microsomes, requires molecular oxygen and NADPH. Metyrapone (1 x 10/sup -3/ M) was found to inhibit 1-hydroxylation, but a 90% carbon monoxide-10% oxygen atmosphere did not, leaving open the question of involvement of cytochrome P-450. Diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine, a lipid peroxidase inhibitor, inhibited 1..cap alpha..-hydroxylation.

  4. Uniform Yolk-Shell MoS2 @Carbon Microsphere Anodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Pan, Yunmei; Zhang, Jiajia; Lu, Hongbin


    As an electrode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), MoS2 has attracted much attention because of its high capacity and low cost. However, the rational design of a novel electrode structure with a high capacity, fast charge/discharge rate, and long cycling lifetime remains a great challenge. Herein, a environmentally friendly etching strategy is reported for the construction of monodisperse, inner void-controlled yolk-shell MoS2 @carbon microspheres. The resulting anode reveals an initial discharge capacity up to 1813 mAh g(-1) , a high reversible capacity (1016 mAh g(-1) ), excellent cycling stability (200 cycles), and superior rate performance. Such microspheres consist of nanosized MoS2 yolks (≈280 nm), porous carbon shells (≈25 nm) and well-controlled internal voids in between, opening a new pathway for the optimization of the electrochemical properties of MoS2 -based anodes without sacrificing their capacity. In addition, this etching strategy offers a new method for the development of functional, hollow MoS2 -based composites. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Fetal Membrane Ultrastructure and Development in the Oviparous Milksnake Lampropeltis triangulum (Colubridae) with Reference to Function and Evolution in Snakes.

    Kim, Young K; Blackburn, Daniel G


    In eggs of oviparous reptiles, fetal membranes maintain developing embryos through the exchange of respiratory gases and provision of water and calcium. As part of a survey of reptilian fetal membranes, we used scanning electron microscopy to study fetal membrane morphology in the oviparous Pueblan milksnake, Lampropeltis triangulum campbelli. The chorioallantois initially is an avascular structure lined by enlarged chorionic and allantoic epithelia. Upon vascularization, the chorionic epithelium becomes greatly attenuated, enhancing the potential for gas exchange; the allantoic epithelium also flattens. The bilaminar omphalopleure of the yolk sac lacks blood vessels, but it becomes vascularized by allantoic capillaries and transformed into an omphalallantois. Upon regression of the isolated yolk mass, this membrane is converted to chorioallantois, equipping it for gas exchange. Allantoic fluid serves as a water reservoir, and we postulate that it facilitates water uptake by establishing an osmotic gradient. Early in development, epithelia of both the chorion and the omphalopleure show apical microvilli that greatly increase the cell surface area available for water uptake. However, these features are incompatible with gas exchange and are lost as oxygen needs take precedence. A comparison of the fetal membranes to those of other squamate species (both oviparous and viviparous) reveals characteristics that are probably ancestral for snakes, some of which are plesiomorphic for Squamata. The widespread phylogenetic distribution of these features reflects their utility as adaptations that serve functional requirements of squamate embryos.

  6. Primordial membranes

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Monnard, Pierre-Alain


    Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during the...

  7. Robotic membranes

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette


    , Vivisection and Strange Metabolisms, were developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen as a means of engaging intangible digital data with tactile physical material. As robotic membranes, they are a dual examination...

  8. Mesoporous titania based yolk-shell nanoparticles as multifunctional theranostic platforms for SERS imaging and chemo-photothermal treatment

    Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Yunqing; Sun, Xiuyan; Wang, Wenhai; Chen, Lingxin


    Recently surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) imaging guided theranostic nanoplatforms have attracted considerable attention. Herein, we developed novel yolk-shell gold nanorod@void@mesoporous titania nanoparticles (AuNR@void@mTiO2 NPs) for simultaneous SERS imaging and chemo-photothermal therapy. Our work showed three highlighted features: first, we proposed a facile and versatile ``up to down'' SERS labeling strategy for the drug delivery system, in which ``empty carriers'' were pre-synthesized, followed by co-loading of Raman reporters on AuNR and anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) in mTiO2 in sequence. The acquired SERS signal was strong enough for tracking NPs at both living cells and mice levels. Second, we selected mTiO2 as a novel drug loading material instead of the widely used mesoporous silica (mSiO2). The mTiO2 shared satisfactory drug loading and release behavior as mSiO2 but it was chemically inert. This property not only provided a facile way to form a yolk-shell structure but also rendered it with superior structural stability in a biological system. Third, the near infrared (NIR) light absorbing property of the AuNR SERS substrate was also explored for drug release regulation and photothermal treatment. Significantly greater MCF-7 cell killing was observed when treated together with DOX-loaded NPs and NIR laser irradiation, attributable to the synergistic chemo-thermal therapeutic effect. Our results indicated the established SERS labeled yolk-shell NP as a promising theranostic platform and suggested its potential in vivo applications.Recently surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) imaging guided theranostic nanoplatforms have attracted considerable attention. Herein, we developed novel yolk-shell gold nanorod@void@mesoporous titania nanoparticles (AuNR@void@mTiO2 NPs) for simultaneous SERS imaging and chemo-photothermal therapy. Our work showed three highlighted features: first, we proposed a facile and versatile ``up to down'' SERS

  9. Replacing Corn and Wheat in Layer Diets with Hulless Oats Shows Effects on Sensory Properties and Yolk Quality of Eggs

    Louisa R. Winkler


    Full Text Available US organic poultry producers are under pressure to find feed alternatives to corn and wheat. Hulless oats offer advantages such as wide geographic adaptation of the plant and high concentrations of protein and oil in the grain. They have shown considerable potential in experimental work as a feed grain for poultry, but more research is needed into their influence on the sensory and nutritional properties of eggs. In this study, hulless oats were substituted for corn or wheat at 200 g kg−1 in diets fed to Hy-Line Brown hens and eggs were sampled for sensory evaluation after 8 weeks. Discrimination tests of blended and baked egg samples found evidence of difference between eggs from oat-based diets and those from the oat-free control (p < 0.05 for eggs from an oat-corn diet, p < 0.01 for eggs from an oat-wheat diet. Acceptance tests of similar samples showed that eggs from the oat-wheat diet were significantly less liked than control eggs for their texture (p < 0.01 and response to cooking (p < 0.01, while eggs from the oat-corn diet were somewhat less liked. Yolk weight was greater (p < 0.05 in control eggs (34.1 g than eggs from oat-corn (31.6 g or oat-wheat (31.2 g diets, leading to smaller yolk proportion in the oat-fed eggs. Fatty acid profile differences across treatments were not of nutritional significance, and no evidence was found that the feeding of hulless oats improved storage properties of eggs. In this study, modifying the carbohydrate source in layer diets was shown to change textural properties of cooked eggs in a way that was perceptible to untrained consumers, probably by reducing the yolk proportion. This finding was not commercially relevant owing to small effect size, and results overall add to existing evidence that hulless oats can be fed to poultry at a moderate proportion of the diet with no negative effect on consumer acceptability of eggs. Regardless of the small effect size, however

  10. Effect of Red Pepper ( Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens

    Huaqiang Li


    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3. In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3. In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (p0.05. However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (p<0.05. All the red pepper powder treatments also increased (p<0.05 the yolk color score compared with the control. The results of the present study suggest that both red pepper powder and pigment are effective feed additives for improving egg yolk color for laying hens.

  11. Replacing Corn and Wheat in Layer Diets with Hulless Oats Shows Effects on Sensory Properties and Yolk Quality of Eggs

    Winkler, Louisa R.; Hasenbeck, Aimee; Murphy, Kevin M.; Hermes, James C.


    US organic poultry producers are under pressure to find feed alternatives to corn and wheat. Hulless oats offer advantages such as wide geographic adaptation of the plant and high concentrations of protein and oil in the grain. They have shown considerable potential in experimental work as a feed grain for poultry, but more research is needed into their influence on the sensory and nutritional properties of eggs. In this study, hulless oats were substituted for corn or wheat at 200 g kg−1 in diets fed to Hy-Line Brown hens and eggs were sampled for sensory evaluation after 8 weeks. Discrimination tests of blended and baked egg samples found evidence of difference between eggs from oat-based diets and those from the oat-free control (p oat-corn diet, p oat-wheat diet). Acceptance tests of similar samples showed that eggs from the oat-wheat diet were significantly less liked than control eggs for their texture (p oat-corn diet were somewhat less liked. Yolk weight was greater (p oat-corn (31.6 g) or oat-wheat (31.2 g) diets, leading to smaller yolk proportion in the oat-fed eggs. Fatty acid profile differences across treatments were not of nutritional significance, and no evidence was found that the feeding of hulless oats improved storage properties of eggs. In this study, modifying the carbohydrate source in layer diets was shown to change textural properties of cooked eggs in a way that was perceptible to untrained consumers, probably by reducing the yolk proportion. This finding was not commercially relevant owing to small effect size, and results overall add to existing evidence that hulless oats can be fed to poultry at a moderate proportion of the diet with no negative effect on consumer acceptability of eggs. Regardless of the small effect size, however, findings are interesting from the food chemistry perspective because they provide novel evidence of how the thermal properties of eggs can be altered by a change in hen dietary carbohydrate

  12. Effects of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens

    Xuemei Ding


    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the effect of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens. A total of 960 Lohmann laying hens aged 53 weeks were enrolled, under 4 different treatment diets supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg essential oils (Enviva EO, Dupont Nutrition Biosciences ApS, Denmark, respectively. Each treatment was replicated 8 times with 30 birds each. Birds were fed dietary treatment diets for 12 weeks (54 to 65 weeks. For data recording and analysis, a 12-week period was divided into 3 periods of 4 weeks' duration each: period 1 (54 to 57 weeks, period 2 (58 to 61 weeks, and period 3 (62 to 65 weeks. For the diet supplemented with Enviva EO, hen-day egg production and the feed conversion ratio (FCR were significantly improved (P < 0.05 at weeks 58 to 61, and the eggshell thickness was significantly increased (P < 0.05 at week 65. However, egg production, egg weight, feed intake, FCR and other egg quality parameters (albumen height, Haugh unit, egg yolk color and eggshell strength were not affected by the dietary treatment. In addition, compared with the control diet, protein digestibility in the 100 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment group was significantly increased (P < 0.05, and fat digestibility in the 100 and 150 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment groups was significantly decreased (P < 0.05, but Enviva EO had no effect on energy apparent digestibility. Saturated fatty acid (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA gradually decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA increased with Enviva EO supplementation, but the difference was not significant. The data suggested that the supplementation of essential oils (Enviva EO in laying hen diet did not show a significant positive effect on performance and yolk fatty acid composition but it tended to increase eggshell thickness and protein digestibility, especially at the dose of 50 mg/kg.

  13. Alternations in Cholesterol and Fatty Acids Composition in Egg Yolk of Rhode Island Red x Fyoumi Hens Fed with Hemp Seeds (Cannabis sativa L.

    Suhaib Shahid


    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of hemp seed (HS supplementation on egg yolk cholesterol and fatty acid composition in laying hens. Sixty hens (Rhode Island Red x Fyoumi were evenly distributed into four groups (three replicates per group at the peak production (34 weeks. HS was included into the ration at the level of 0.0 (HS-0, 15 (HS-15, 20 (HS-20, and 25% (HS-25 and continued the supplementation for consecutively three weeks. At the end of the experiment, three eggs per replicate were randomly collected and analyzed for egg yolk fatty acids and cholesterol profile. The statistical analysis of the result revealed that supplementation of HS-25 significantly (P<0.05 decreased egg yolk total cholesterol, myristic (C14:0, palmitic (C16:0, and stearic (C18:0. Similarly, total as well as individual monounsaturated fatty acids decreased significantly (P<0.05 while total and individual polyunsaturated fatty acids increased significantly in the HS-25. In addition, total omega-3 and omega-6 increased significantly in the HS-25 group. From the present result, we concluded that addition of HS at the rate of 25% to the diet of laying hens augmented the cholesterol and fatty acids profile in egg yolk.

  14. Effects of rice bran on performance, egg quality, oxidative status, yolk fatty acid composition, and fatty acid metabolism-related gene expression in laying ducks.

    Ruan, D; Lin, Y C; Chen, W; Wang, S; Xia, W G; Fouad, A M; Zheng, C T


    The study was designed to evaluate the effects of different dietary levels of rice bran (RB) in laying duck diets on performance, egg quality, oxidation status, egg yolk fatty acid composition, and hepatic expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes. Longyan females (1080) with similar BW at 19 wk of age were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments, each consisting of 6 replicates of 30 birds. The basal diet (I) was a typical corn-soybean ration while the experimental diets (II to VI) substituted RB for corn and wheat bran and a small reduction of soybean meal. The level of substitution in diets (II to VI) was 6%, 12%, 18%, 24%, and 30%, respectively. The experiment lasted for 12 wks. Average egg weight and daily egg mass decreased linearly as the level of RB inclusion increased (Pegg yolk linearly decreased with increasing RB, and many of the key polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), like C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3, linearly increased (Pegg yolk cholesterol or triglyceride content (P>0.05). In conclusion, the current study suggests that ducks from 19 to 31 wk could be fed diets with up to about 18% RB without effect on the number of eggs produced, egg quality, and oxidative status. Increasing amounts of RB linearly increased egg yolk concentrations of key fatty acids like C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 and decreased the hepatic abundance of FAS and SREBP-1 transcripts.

  15. Influence of sumac (Rhus Coriaria L.) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on egg yolk fatty acid, cholesterol and blood parameters in laying hens.

    Gurbuz, Y; Salih, Y G


    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential effect of different levels of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) seed powder and ginger (Zingiber officinale) root powder on egg yolk fatty acid composition, blood/yolk cholesterol in laying hen. A total of 63 (ATAK-S: Domestic Turkish Laying Hens) laying hens (average weight: 1470 g each hen, 25-weeks of age) were assigned to seven treatment diets including sumac seed (S) and ginger root powder (G) at 0 g/kg (control), 10 g/kg (S1), 20 g/kg (S2), and 30 g/kg (S3); 10 g/kg (G1), 20 g/kg (G2), or 30 g/kg in rations respectively, for 8 weeks. After a two-week adaptation period to cages, the hens were allocated to 7 groups with 9 replicates of 1 hen in per cage each. The replications were allotted equally into the upper and lower cages to minimize the effects of cage level. In this study, egg yolk cholesterol had a decrease (p laying hens. Supplementation of sumac and ginger affected on HDL, there was found a significant effect (p laying hens. It can be concluded that ginger root and sumac seed powder can be used as an effective feed additive to improve fatty acid composition and yolk and blood cholesterol in ATAK-S laying hens.

  16. Identification and molecular characterisation of a biotin-binding protein distinct from avidin of chicken egg white and comparison with yolk biotin-binding protein.

    Seshagiri, P B; Adiga, P R


    By immunological and biochemical methods a biotin-binding protein, distinct from avidin, has been shown to be present in chicken egg white. This vitamin-binding protein (Mr 67,000) bound [14C]biotin, displayed thermally induced biotin exchange reaction and exhibited gross immunological cross-reactivity with the purified yolk biotin-binding protein. In vitro labelling of soluble proteins with radioactive amino acids in the oviduct tissue explants from estrogenised chicks revealed that approx. 2% of the total radioactive proteins was immunoprecipitated with anti-yolk biotin-binding protein antibodies. The protein could be purified to homogeneity by employing ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and biotin-AH Sepharose affinity chromatography. The purified protein specifically bound [14C]biotin, and exhibited complete immunological homology with the yolk biotin-binding protein but not with avidin. Its electrophoretic mobility (at pH 8.3), acidic nature, biotin-binding characteristics, immunological cross-reactivity and tryptic peptide maps were very similar to that of yolk biotin-binding protein, and not avidin.

  17. The Effect of a Two-Hour, Room Temperature Incubation of Human Spermatozoa in TEST-Yolk Buffer on the Rate of Fertilization in Vitro

    Jensen, Julie R.; Walker, John H.; Milki, Amin A.; Westphal, Lynn; Behr, Barry


    Patients: To reassess the use of TEST-yolk buffer (TYB) in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) program by comparing fertilization rates achieved in a glucose-free cleavage medium by the standard IVF preparation of sperm versus a 2-h, room temperature incubation of sperm in TYB.

  18. Effects of experimental calcium availability and anthropogenic metal pollution on eggshell characteristics and yolk carotenoid and vitamin levels in two passerine birds.

    Espín, Silvia; Ruiz, Sandra; Sánchez-Virosta, Pablo; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Eeva, Tapio


    The maternal investment into egg quality depends on the condition of the female, the quality of the mate, and the quality of the environment. In that sense, availability of nutrients and exposure to pollutants are essential parameters to consider. The main aim of this study is to assess the effects of calcium (Ca) availability and anthropogenic metal pollution on early-stage reproduction in two passerine species, great tits (Parus major) and pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca), inhabiting a Ca-poor and metal-polluted area in SW Finland. Both species were able to obtain sufficient Ca for eggshell formation, and metal pollution was below the level of having negative effects in the egg size and eggshell characteristics. However, metal polluted environment negatively affected yolk lutein and vitamin D3 levels in both species, probably because of a lower access to carotenoid-rich diet and higher metal interference with vitamin D3 metabolism. The higher levels of vitamin D3 in yolks in the unpolluted zone could also be due to upregulated D3 levels as a response to the lower natural Ca availability. Yolk carotenoids and vitamin D3 were positively associated with nestling growth and size, supporting their importance for the appropriate chick development. The interspecific differences in yolk nutrient concentrations possibly reflect the different growth rate of these species. Pied flycatchers are likely adapted to low Ca availability through an efficient vitamin D3 metabolism, but their Ca intake could be close to a deficient level.

  19. Sex-Specific Effects of High Yolk Androgen Levels on Constitutive and Cell-Mediated Immune Responses in Nestlings of an Altricial Passerine.

    Muriel, Jaime; Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Puerta, Marisa; Gil, Diego

    Avian embryos are exposed to yolk androgens that are incorporated into the egg by the ovulating female. These steroids can affect several aspects of embryo development, often resulting in increases in overall size or the speed of growth of different traits. However, several studies suggest that they also entail immune costs to the offspring. In this study, we explored whether variation in yolk androgen concentration affected several measures of the constitutive and cell-mediated immune axes in the spotless starling (Sturnus unicolor). Using a within-brood design, we injected different doses of androgens (testosterone and androstenedione) into the eggs. Our study showed that experimentally increased yolk androgens led to sex-specific immunosuppression in both the innate and adaptive axes of the immune system. Both cell-mediated immune response (CMI) and lysozyme activity decreased with increasing androgen levels injected into the egg in the case of male nestlings, whereas there were no effects on females. The effects that we found were always linear: no quadratic or threshold patterns were detected. We found no effects of the experimental treatment in hemolysis or agglutination capacity, but these measures were negatively correlated with CMI, suggesting negative correlation among different branches of the immune system. Blood (trypanosomes and hemosporidians) and intestinal (coccidia) parasites were not affected by the experimental increase of yolk androgen levels. Our results show that in our study species yolk androgens induce immunosuppression in some axes of the male nestling immune system. Further studies should analyze the proximate causes for these contrasting effects in different axes of the immune system and the reason for the differential impact on males and females.

  20. Relative bioavailability of copper in tribasic copper chloride to copper in copper sulfate for laying hens based on egg yolk and feather copper concentrations.

    Kim, J W; Kim, J H; Shin, J E; Kil, D Y


    This experiment was conducted to determine the relative bioavailability (RBV) of Cu in tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) to Cu in copper sulfate (monohydrate form; CuSO4·H2O) for layer diets based on egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations. A total of 252, 72-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were allotted to 1 of 7 treatments with 6 replicates consisting of 6 hens per replicate in a completely randomized design. Hens were fed corn-soybean meal-based basal diets supplemented with 0 (basal), 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4 or TBCC for 4 wk. Results indicated that egg production, egg weight, and egg mass were not affected by dietary treatments. However, increasing inclusion levels of Cu in diets from CuSO4 decreased (P hens fed diets containing CuSO4 than for hens fed diets containing TBCC. The values for the RBV of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 based on log10 transformed egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations were 107.4% and 69.5%, respectively. These values for the RBV of Cu in TBCC did not differ from Cu in CuSO4 (100%). The RBV measured in egg yolk did not differ from the RBV measured in feather. In conclusion, the RBV of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 can be determined using Cu concentrations of egg yolk and feathers although the values depend largely on target tissues of laying hens. For a practical application, however, the RBV value of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 could be 88.5% when the RBV values determined using egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations were averaged.

  1. The impact of humic and fulvic acids on the dynamic properties of liposome membranes: the ESR method.

    Man, Dariusz; Pisarek, Izabella; Braczkowski, Michał; Pytel, Barbara; Olchawa, Ryszard


    This paper presents the results of research on the influence of two fractions of humic substances (HS): fulvic acids (FA) and humic acids (HA), as a function of concentration, on the liposome membranes formed from egg yolk lecithin (EYL). The concentration of HS in relation to EYL changed from 0% to 10% by weight. The influence of HS on various areas of membranes: interphase water-lipid, in the lipid layer just below the polar part of the membrane and in the middle of the lipid bilayer, was investigated by different spin labels (TEMPO, DOXYL 5, DOXYL 16). The study showed that HA slightly decreased the fluidity of the analyzed membranes on the surface layer, while FA significantly liquidated the center of the lipid bilayer. The strong effect of both fractions of HS on the concentration of free radicals as a function of time was also described.

  2. Determination of some solubilization parameters with surfactants of egg-yolk lecithin multilamellar vesicles by static light-scattering measurements

    Hobai, S; Hobai, St.; Fazakas, Zita


    Effective surfactant:phospholipid ratios (i.e. molar ratios in the mixed aggregates, vesicles or micelles) have been determined by static light-scattering for the interaction of egg-yolk lecithin (EYL) multilamellar vesicles (MLV) with Triton X-100 (TX-100), sodium deoxycholate (DOCNa) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMB). The suspension of MLV-EYL was mixed with appropriate volumes of surfactant solution and was left overnight to reaches thermodynamic equilibrium. Rectan-gular optic diffusion data were used to compute the solubilization parameters: total surfactant concentrations, at saturation and solubilization Dtsat and Dtsol respectively, and effective molar ratios, Resat and Resol respectively. From the Resat value ob-tained graphically for interaction of vesicles with TX-100 resulted that in vesicle bilayers a surfactant molecule is surrounded with seven phospholipid molecules and the Resol value suggests that in mixed micelles ten lipid molecules with about fifteen surfactant molecules coexist. T...

  3. Giant seminoma case with very small yolk sac and embryo carcinoma components, detected by intensive histopathological examination

    Takeo Nakaya, MD


    Full Text Available We experienced the giant seminoma with 18 × 10 × 10 cm sized and about 2.6 kg weight of 25 year old patient. We intensively examined the histological tissue type distributions in this giant seminoma. Most of the tumor consisted of seminoma components. In addition, the tumor included the very small fragments of yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma component at the root part of the seminoma mass. This shows that intensive histological examination may contribute to the finding of other embryonic component of the large seminoma. This may show that leaving the seminoma growing may generate the other embryonic tumor component, not always big enough to find out in a routine procedure, during the growth, in the different way from the original mixed cell germ tumor.

  4. Carbon sphere@Co9S8 yolk-shell structure with good morphology stability for improved lithium storage performance

    Tang, Xuekun; Huang, Jing; Feng, Qiming; Liu, Kun; Luo, Xianping; Li, Zishun


    The poor electronic conductivity and huge volume expansion of cobalt sulfides upon cycling would lead to their poor electrochemical performances for Lithium-ion batteries. Here, we rationally design a yolk-shell carbon sphere@Co9S8 (C@CS) composite, which demonstrates improved kinetics and excellent morphology stability during cycling. This structure can keep Co9S8 shell from collapse and aggregation. After cycling, a layer of thin solid electrolyte interphase is coated on the Co9S8 shells and prevented them from dissolving in electrolyte, which is helpful for the electrochemical performances. As a result, the C@CS electrodes exhibit good lithium storage performances, including excellent cyclic stability up to 300 cycles at 1000 and 2000 mA g-1 and high-rate property of 4000 mA g-1 with a capacity of 489 mA h g-1.

  5. Side-specific effect of yolk testosterone elevation on second-to-fourth digit ratio in a wild passerine

    Nagy, Gergely; Blázi, György; Hegyi, Gergely; Török, János


    Second-to-fourth digit ratio is a widely investigated sexually dimorphic morphological trait in human studies and could reliably indicate the prenatal steroid environment. Conducting manipulative experiments to test this hypothesis comes up against ethical limits in humans. However, oviparous tetrapods may be excellent models to experimentally investigate the effects of prenatal steroids on offspring second-to-fourth digit ratio. In this field study, we injected collared flycatcher ( Ficedula albicollis) eggs with physiological doses of testosterone. Fledglings from eggs with elevated yolk testosterone, regardless of their sex, had longer second digits on their left feet than controls, while the fourth digit did not differ between groups. Therefore, second-to-fourth digit ratio was higher in the testosterone-injected group, but only on the left foot. This is the first study which shows experimentally that early testosterone exposure can affect second-to-fourth digit ratio in a wild population of a passerine bird.




    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained in a study on the comparative evaluation of the effect of a diet with safflower oil and flax seeds compared to a control soybean oil diet given to layers on the bioproductive effects, egg characteristics and yolk fatty acids profile. The trial involved 32 Lowman Brown layers during the age period 23- 28 weeks (1 week of accommodation and 4 experimental weeks. The layers, assigned to 2 groups (16 layers/group, 4 layers/cage received diets based on corn, wheat and soybean meal. The diets differed by the source of fatty acids: soybean oil for the control group (SO; safflower oil and flax seeds for SSO+FS. The diets were supplemented with 250 ppm vitamin E. Twelve eggs per group were collected randomly 10 and 30 days, respectively, after the beginning of the experiment. The paper presents comparative data on the: average egg weight, egg component (egg shell, yolk, egg white weight, intensity of yolk colour (Hoffman – La Roche colour range, yolk protein, fat yolk pH (measured one week after collection, the eggs being kept at 50C and yolk fatty acids. All data show that the profile of yolk unsaturated fatty acids can be handled quite easily by the nature of the dietary fats, their level of inclusion and their dietary ratio.

  7. Position-Dependent Influence of the Three Trp Residues on the Membrane Activity of the Antimicrobial Peptide, Tritrpticin

    Mauricio Arias


    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs constitute promising candidates for the development of new antibiotics. Among the ever-expanding family of AMPs, tritrpticin has strong antimicrobial activity against a broad range of pathogens. This 13-residue peptide has an unusual amino acid sequence that is almost symmetrical and features three central Trp residues with two Arg residues near each end of the peptide. In this work, the role of the three sequential Trp residues in tritrpticin was studied in a systematic fashion by making a series of synthetic peptides with single-, double- and triple-Trp substitutions to Tyr or Ala. 1H NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated the ability of all of the tritrpticin-analog peptides to interact with negatively-charged membranes. Consequently, most tritrpticin analogs exhibited the ability to permeabilize synthetic ePC:ePG (egg-yolk phosphatidylcholine (ePC, egg-yolk phosphatidylglycerol (ePG vesicles and live Escherichia coli bacteria. The membrane perturbation characteristics were highly dependent on the location of the Trp residue substitution, with Trp6 being the most important residue and Trp8 the least. The membrane permeabilization activity of the peptides in synthetic and biological membranes was directly correlated with the antimicrobial potency of the peptides against E. coli. These results contribute to the understanding of the role of each of the three Trp residues to the antimicrobial activity of tritrpticin.

  8. Sperm-egg penetration assay assessment of the contraceptive effects of glycerol and egg yolk in rooster sperm diluents.

    Abouelezz, F M K; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Esteso, M C; López-Sebastián, A; Campo, J L; Santiago-Moreno, J


    Glycerol (GLY) and egg yolk (EY) are good cryoprotectants of avian and mammalian sperm, but in birds, they strongly inhibit the eventual fertilization of ova. Using the sperm penetration (SP-holes) assay and fertility trials, the present study investigates (1) the possible mechanism by which this contraceptive effect occurs in chickens and (2) the maximum concentrations of GLY and EY tolerated by fresh rooster sperm. Seventy Black-Barred Andaluza hens (five per treatment) were inseminated four times (twice per week) with 0.1 mL of fresh semen from roosters of the same breed diluted 1:1 (v:v) with Lake and Ravie medium containing different concentrations of GLY or EY. No adverse effects on acrosome integrity, sperm motility, or viability were seen with any concentration of GLY or EY. The number of SP-holes on perivitelline layer samples taken from above the germinal disc became progressively lower at GLY concentrations of 1.5% or greater (P > 0.05). No holes caused by sperms were seen in unfertilized eggs. The corresponding fertility results showed similar reductions when the GLY concentration was 1.5% or greater. No changes in the number of SP-holes were seen with increasing EY concentrations (0%-7.5%), nor were any differences in fertility observed, except for a reduction when 15% EY was used. The results therefore reveal that GLY affects the transit of sperms through the oviduct in their attempt to reach the infundibulum area, limiting their access to the ovum perivitelline layer. Egg yolk had no such effect, nor did it influence acrosome reaction capacity; its mechanism of contraceptive action therefore remains unknown. The maximum GLY and EY concentrations tolerated by the rooster sperm were 0.75% and 7.5%, respectively.

  9. Growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli strains by neutralizing IgY antibodies from ostrich egg yolk

    Fernando Luiz Tobias


    Full Text Available Ostrich raising around the world have some key factors and farming profit depend largely on information and ability of farmers to rear these animals. Non fertilized eggs from ostriches are discharged in the reproduction season. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are microorganisms involved in animal and human diseases. In order to optimize the use of sub products of ostrich raising, non fertilized eggs of four selected birds were utilized for development of polyclonal IgY antibodies. The birds were immunized (200ug/animal with purified recombinant staphylococcal enterotoxin C (recSEC and synthetic recRAP, both derived from S. aureus, and recBFPA and recEspB involved in E. coli pathogenicity, diluted in FCA injected in the braquial muscle. Two subsequent immunization steps with 21 days intervals were repeated in 0,85% saline in FIA. Blood and eggs samples were collected before and after immunization steps. Egg yolk immunoglobulins were purified by precipitation with 19% sodium sulfate and 20% ammonium sulphate methodologies. Purified IgY 50µL aliquots were incubated in 850µL BHI broth containing 50µL inoculums of five strains of S. aureus and five strains of E.coli during four hours at 37ºC. Growth inhibition was evaluated followed by photometry reading (DO550nm. Egg yolk IgY preparation from hiperimmunized birds contained antibodies that inhibited significantly (p<0,05 growth of strains tested. Potential use of ostrich IgY polyclonal antibodies as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool is proposed for diseased animals.

  10. Protection of Carassius auratus Gibelio against infection by Aeromonas hydrophila using specific immunoglobulins from hen egg yolk

    LI Xiao-liang; SHUAI Jiang-bing; FANG Wei-huan


    Specific immunoglobulin (IgY) from egg yolk against Aeromonas hydrophila was produced by immunization of White Leghorn hens with formalin-killed whole cells of A. hydrophila. ELISA test using A. hydrophila as the coating antigen revealed that the specific antibody titer started to increase in the egg yolk at the 13th day post-immunization (P/N=2.18), reached the peak at the 56th day (P/N=13.82), and remained at high level until day 133 (P/N=7.03). The antibody was purified by saturated ammonium sulphate with a recovery rate of 63.5%. The specific IgY inhibited the growth ofA. hydrophila at a concentration of 1.0mg/ml during the 18 h incubation. Pre-treatment of polyploid gibel carps Carassius auratus Gibelio with specific IgY had a protection rate of 60% (6/10) against challenge with A. hydrophila, while none of the fishes in the control groups receiving sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or non-specific IgY survived the challenge. Treatment of fishes with the specific IgY 4 h after the challenge also had lower mortality (70%, 7/10), a 30% reduction against the control PBS or non-specific IgY groups (10/10).These results indicate that specific IgY antibodies could be obtained easily from hens immunized with an inactivated A. hydrophila and could provide a novel alternative approach to control of diseases in fishes caused by this organism.

  11. Facile synthesis of yolk-shell magnetic mesoporous carbon microspheres for efficient enrichment of low abundance peptides

    Wan, Hao; Qin, Hongqiang; Xiong, Zhichao; Zhang, Weibing; Zou, Hanfa


    Magnetic mesoporous carbon microspheres with a yolk-shell structure (YSMMCS) have been prepared via a new in situ carbon source strategy. The material was fabricated by two shells coated onto the Fe3O4 particles; the inner dense and thick silica shell could protect the magnetic core from harsh acidic solvents as well as induce the void between the core and the outer shell for the yolk-shell structure, while the outer organosilica shell was used as the template and carbon source for in situ preparation of a carbon shell with mesoporous structure. A C18-alkyl chain was incorporated in situ as the carbon precursor efficiently, avoiding the conventional infiltration step, which was very difficult to manipulate and time-consuming with the possibility of losing the carbon precursor. The resulting yolk-shell magnetic mesoporous carbon microspheres exhibited a high surface area (273.15 m2 g-1), a large pore volume (0.31 cm3 g-1), and a strong magnetic response (a saturation magnetization value of 34.57 emu g-1). As a result of the void between the core and the outer shell and the π-π stacking effect, adsorption capacity reached 191.64 mg g-1 by using Rhodamine B as a standard analyte, indicating the great potential application of the material as drug carriers. Owing to the inherent hydrophobicity and high surface area, the composite material showed better performance in the enrichment of peptides than a magnetic mesoporous silica material (Fe2O3@nSiO2@mSiO2). According to the LC-MS/MS results, about 51 and 29 nonredundant peptides were identified from tryptic digests of 5 nM BSA. Additionally, taking advantage of the mesoporous structure and strong magnetic response, the material was utilized to selectively extract low abundance endogenous peptides from human serum in the presence of high abundance proteins. Based on the LC-MS/MS results, 962 endogenous peptides were obtained by 2.5 mg YSMMCS relative to 539 endogenous peptides by 5 mg Fe2O3@nSiO2@mSiO2, confirming the

  12. Preservasi Semen Kambing Peranakan Etawa dalam Pengencer Tris dan Sitrat Kuning Telur dengan Penambahan Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (THE PRESERVATION OF ETTAWA GRADE BUCK SEMEN IN TRIS AND CITRATE EGG YOLK DILUENTS SUPPLEMENTED WITH SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE

    Nur Hidayati


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determineSDS concentration also to compare Tris egg yolk and citrateegg yolk on the quality of ettawa grade chilled semen. The study consist of two experiments. The firstexperiment was to determine the best SDS concentration in Tris egg yolk diluents and the second experimentwas to compare the SDS suplementation in tris and citrate egg yolk in the quality of ettawa grade chilledsemen. The semen were collected from three bucks, immediately after collection the semen evalutedmacro and microscopycally. Semen demonstrate more than 70% motility and less than 10% spermatozoaabnormality, individually divided into four tube, each tube was diluted in egg yolk supplemented with 0;0,025; 0,05; and 0.075% SDS then stored at 5°C for 72 hours. The quality of chilled semen was observefor motility and viability every 12 hours. Result demonstrated that 0.05% SDS was the best concentrationcompared to others. In the second experiment,the semen were diluted in four different diluents, it wereTris egg yolk (TEY, Tris egg yolk with 0.05% SDS (TEYS, citrate egg yolk (CEY and citrate egg yolk with0.05% SDS (CEYS. Result demonstrated that the mean value of motility and viability of spermatozoa inTEYSdiluents (67.08 ± 6.43% and77.07 ± 6.78% was higher (p<0.05 than CEYS (60.42 ± 9.05% and72.31± 7.45%, TEY (59.23 ± 9.41% and71.21 ± 8.56% and CEY (53.45 ± 11.33% and67.74 ± 8.90%. In conclusion,supplementation of 0.05% SDS in TEY was maintained best sperm quality compared to other diluentsduring preservation.

  13. Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on ram semen freeze ability and fertility using soybean lecithin- and egg yolk-based extenders.

    Masoudi, R; Sharafi, M; Zare Shahneh, A; Towhidi, A; Kohram, H; Zhandi, M; Esmaeili, V; Shahverdi, A


    Ram semen cryopreservation is not efficient for artificial insemination in commercial herds. Beneficial effects of dietary fish oil have been evaluated for cryopreservation of ram semen in soybean lecithin (SL) and egg yolk (EY)-based extenders. A factorial study (two diets × two extenders) was used to analyze the effects of two diets supplemented with fish oil (n-3 fatty acid) or palm oil (saturated fatty acids; [SFAs]) to freeze ram semen in two extenders containing SL or EY. Motility characteristics, membrane integrity, abnormal morphology, mitochondria activity, acrosome integrity, apoptotic status, and fertilizing ability were assessed after freeze-thawing. Although diet had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effects on the quality parameters of frozen-thawed sperm, effects of extenders on these traits were not significant (P > 0.05). The higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of total motility and progressive motility were observed in n-3/SL (44.83 ± 1.56 and 28.33 ± 1.4) and n-3/EY (43.33 ± 1.56 and 28.50 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL (32.16 ± 1.56 and 14.00 ± 1.4) and SFA/EY (31.66 ± 1.56 and 12.66 ± 1.4) groups. Moreover, n-3/SL and n-3/EY produced the higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of membrane integrity of sperm (39.83 ± 1.4 and 37.33 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (29.83 ± 1.4 and 28.5 ± 1.4). For viability results, the higher significant percentage of live sperm was observed in n-3/SL and n-3/EY (43.16 ± 1.38 and 45.66 ± 1.38) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (28.66 ± 1.38 and 27.5 ± 1.38). For fertility trials, n-3-based diets (n-3/SL and n-3/EY) improved significantly (P ≤ 0.05) pregnancy rate (44% and 46%), parturition rate (42% and 42%), and lambing rate (46% and 44%) compared with the SFA-based diets (SFA/SL and SFA/EY). No interaction effects have been found between diets and extenders (P > 0.05). It seems that dietary fish oil can improve the semen performance after freezing-thawing process and

  14. From biological membranes to biomimetic model membranes

    Eeman, M.


    Full Text Available Biological membranes play an essential role in the cellular protection as well as in the control and the transport of nutrients. Many mechanisms such as molecular recognition, enzymatic catalysis, cellular adhesion and membrane fusion take place into the biological membranes. In 1972, Singer et al. provided a membrane model, called fluid mosaic model, in which each leaflet of the bilayer is formed by a homogeneous environment of lipids in a fluid state including globular assembling of proteins and glycoproteins. Since its conception in 1972, many developments were brought to this model in terms of composition and molecular organization. The main development of the fluid mosaic model was made by Simons et al. (1997 and Brown et al. (1997 who suggested that membrane lipids are organized into lateral microdomains (or lipid rafts with a specific composition and a molecular dynamic that are different to the composition and the dynamic of the surrounding liquid crystalline phase. The discovery of a phase separation in the plane of the membrane has induced an explosion in the research efforts related to the biology of cell membranes but also in the development of new technologies for the study of these biological systems. Due to the high complexity of biological membranes and in order to investigate the biological processes that occur on the membrane surface or within the membrane lipid bilayer, a large number of studies are performed using biomimicking model membranes. This paper aims at revisiting the fundamental properties of biological membranes in terms of membrane composition, membrane dynamic and molecular organization, as well as at describing the most common biomimicking models that are frequently used for investigating biological processes such as membrane fusion, membrane trafficking, pore formation as well as membrane interactions at a molecular level.

  15. Transfer of flubendazole and tylosin at cross contamination levels in the feed to egg matrices and distribution between egg yolk and egg white.

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Delahaut, P; Pierret, G; De Backer, P; Daeseleire, E; Croubels, S


    Chemical residues may be present in eggs from laying hens' exposure to drugs or contaminants. These residues may pose risks to human health. In this study, laying hens received experimental feed containing flubendazole or tylosin at cross contamination levels of 2.5, 5, and 10% of the therapeutic dose. Eggs were collected daily and analysis of the whole egg, egg white, and egg yolk was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Highest concentrations of the parent molecule flubendazole, as well as the hydrolyzed and the reduced metabolite, were detected in egg yolk. Residue concentrations of the parent molecule were higher compared with those of the metabolites in all egg matrices. No tylosin residue concentrations were detected above the limit of quantification for all concentration groups and in all egg matrices. Neither molecule exceeded the set maximum residue limits.

  16. Soft template strategy to synthesize iron oxide-titania yolk-shell nanoparticles as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion battery applications.

    Lim, Joohyun; Um, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Jihoon; Yu, Seung-Ho; Sung, Yung-Eun; Lee, Jin-Kyu


    Yolk-shell-structured nanoparticles with iron oxide core, void, and a titania shell configuration are prepared by a simple soft template method and used as the anode material for lithium ion batteries. The iron oxide-titania yolk-shell nanoparticles (IO@void@TNPs) exhibit a higher and more stable capacity than simply mixed nanoparticles of iron oxide and hollow titania because of the unique structure obtained by the perfect separation between iron oxide nanoparticles, in combination with the adequate internal void space provided by stable titania shells. Moreover, the structural effect of IO@void@TNPs clearly demonstrates that the capacity retention value after 50 cycles is approximately 4 times that for IONPs under harsh operating conditions, that is, when the temperature is increased to 80 °C.

  17. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) as a sacrificial template: one-pot synthesis of hollow poly(dopamine) nanocapsules and yolk-structured poly(dopamine) nanocomposites

    Ran, Jingyu; Xiao, Lihua; Wu, Weidang; Liu, Yike; Qiu, Wei; Wu, Jianming


    Hollow poly(dopamine) (PDA) nanocapsules and yolk-structured PDA nanocomposites were prepared by an aqueous one-pot synthesis method utilizing zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) nanocrystals as a sacrificial template without any special etchant. The resulting PDA nanocapsules show negligible cytotoxicity in HeLa cells after incubation for 48 h at various doses, which implies their potential as candidates for practical applications in drug transport and targeting.

  18. 腌制对鸭蛋中油脂品质的影响%The effect of salting on the quality of yolk lipid in duck eggs

    张振山; 范双娇; 刘玉兰; 纪怀瑞; 钟雪玲


    以新鲜鸭蛋为原料,采用裹蛋腌制法制备咸鸭蛋。研究了腌制过程中不同腌制时间对咸鸭蛋的蛋黄指数、水分含量,以及对蛋黄油皂化值、酸值、胆固醇含量、脂肪酸构成等指标的影响。研究结果表明,随着腌制时间的延长,鸭蛋中的水分含量逐渐降低,而蛋黄指数、蛋黄油皂化值、酸值、胆固醇含量逐渐增加。腌制后的鸭蛋中不饱和脂肪酸含量略有降低,而饱和脂肪酸和反式脂肪酸含量略有增加。总体而言,腌制并没有鸭蛋中蛋黄油的食用品质产生严重的影响。%In this paper,salted duck egg was prepared by coating egg method.The effect of salting time on yolk index,water content,lipid content,and saponification value,acid value,cholesterol content,fatty acids composition of yolk lipid were investigated.It was found that water content of duck egg decreased along with the increase of salting time,whereas yolk index,saponification value,acid value,cholesterol content were increased as the increase of salting time.Compared with fresh duck eggs,salted duck egg contained less unsaturated fatty acids,but more saturated fatty acid and trans fatty acids.On the whole,yolk oil of duck egg was not serious affected by the salting processing.

  19. Effects of food availability on yolk androgen deposition in the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla, a seabird with facultative brood reduction.

    Z M Benowitz-Fredericks

    Full Text Available In birds with facultative brood reduction, survival of the junior chick is thought to be regulated primarily by food availability. In black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla where parents and chicks are provided with unlimited access to supplemental food during the breeding season, brood reduction still occurs and varies interannually. Survival of the junior chick is therefore affected by factors in addition to the amount of food directly available to them. Maternally deposited yolk androgens affect competitive dynamics within a brood, and may be one of the mechanisms by which mothers mediate brood reduction in response to a suite of environmental and physiological cues. The goal of this study was to determine whether food supplementation during the pre-lay period affected patterns of yolk androgen deposition in free-living kittiwakes in two years (2003 and 2004 that varied in natural food availability. Chick survival was measured concurrently in other nests where eggs were not collected. In both years, supplemental feeding increased female investment in eggs by increasing egg mass. First-laid ("A" eggs were heavier but contained less testosterone and androstenedione than second-laid ("B" eggs across years and treatments. Yolk testosterone was higher in 2003 (the year with higher B chick survival across treatments. The difference in yolk testosterone levels between eggs within a clutch varied among years and treatments such that it was relatively small when B chick experienced the lowest and the highest survival probabilities, and increased with intermediate B chick survival probabilities. The magnitude of testosterone asymmetry in a clutch may allow females to optimize fitness by either predisposing a brood for reduction or facilitating survival of younger chicks.

  20. Template-free synthesis of hierarchical ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell microspheres for high-sensitivity acetone sensors

    Zhou, Xin; Wang, Boqun; Sun, Hongbin; Wang, Chen; Sun, Peng; Li, Xiaowei; Hu, Xiaolong; Lu, Geyu


    Metal oxides with hierarchical microstructures have attracted tremendous attention with respect to their enhanced gas sensing properties. Herein, we reported the facile synthesis of hierarchical ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell microspheres via a template-free solvothermal strategy and the subsequent annealing and chemical etching process. Electron microscopy images undoubtedly demonstrated that the novel ZnFe2O4 architecture was constructed of a large number of nanosheet subunits with a thickness around 20 nm. As a proof-of-concept demonstration of the function, when evaluated as gas sensing materials, the as-prepared ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell microspheres manifested an extremely high response and a low detection limit to acetone at the operating temperature of 200 °C. Significantly, the response to 20 ppm acetone was retained well even after 200 cycles and continuous measurement for 30 days, indicating superior cyclability and long-term stability.Metal oxides with hierarchical microstructures have attracted tremendous attention with respect to their enhanced gas sensing properties. Herein, we reported the facile synthesis of hierarchical ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell microspheres via a template-free solvothermal strategy and the subsequent annealing and chemical etching process. Electron microscopy images undoubtedly demonstrated that the novel ZnFe2O4 architecture was constructed of a large number of nanosheet subunits with a thickness around 20 nm. As a proof-of-concept demonstration of the function, when evaluated as gas sensing materials, the as-prepared ZnFe2O4 yolk-shell microspheres manifested an extremely high response and a low detection limit to acetone at the operating temperature of 200 °C. Significantly, the response to 20 ppm acetone was retained well even after 200 cycles and continuous measurement for 30 days, indicating superior cyclability and long-term stability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06308f

  1. Use of an additive canthaxanthin based and annatto extract in diets of laying hens and its effect on the color of the yolk and the egg shelf life

    Víctor Rojas V.


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an additive canthaxanthin based and annatto extract (Bixa orellana L. in diets of laying hens and its effect on the color of the yolk and the egg shelf life. Position 864 hens 34 to 45 weeks old, distributed in a completely randomized design with six replicates per treatment were used. Treatments were T0 (control diet, T1 (T0 + 30 g of canthaxanthin and annatto extract and T2 (T0 + 60 g of canthaxanthin and annatto extract. The results were 88.6; 91.9 and 90.8% for laying percentage; 60.5; 61.6 and 61.5 g for egg weight; 53.6; 56.4 and 55.7 g for egg mass. The yolk color temperature 7 °C for Roche scale was 6, 9 and 12 and colorimetric Minolta was to "L" of 42.10; 40.24 and 39.65; for "a" of 0.07; 3.68 and 6.44 and for "b" of 19.35; 18.36 and 18.18. Shelf life at room temperature 7 °C was 81, 86 and 90 UH. Lipid peroxidation was 0.10; 0.07 and 0.05 μmol MDA.g-1 yolk; for T0, T1 and T2 respectively. In all variables indicated statistically significant differences between treatments (p < 0.05. Food consumption was 103.9; 109.2 and 107.5 g and feed conversion of 1.94; 1.93 and 1.92. It is concluded that the addition of canthaxanthin and annatto extract to 30 and 60 g t-1 feed than the control, improved performance parameters, yolk color and egg shelf life.

  2. Preparation of powdered egg yolk using a mini spray dryer Estudo da obtenção de ovo em pó usando mini spray dryer

    Rene Maria Ignário


    Full Text Available Powdered egg is used as an emulsifying agent in emulsion formulations. It is an excellent source of high quality protein, of which the yolk contains 44% and the egg white 56%. Spray drying is a widely applied method for drying aqueous or organic solutions and emulsions in the chemical and food industries. Spray drying can be used to preserve food or simply as a rapid drying method. The objective of this work was to study the viability of obtaining powdered egg yolk powder using a Büchi B-190 Mini Spray Dryer. The egg yolk protein was evaluated by the semi-micro Kjeldahl method. It was concluded that the use of the Büchi B-190 Mini Spray Dryer to produce powdered egg yolk is perfectly feasible.Ovo em pó pode ser usado como agente emulsificante. É uma excelente fonte de alta qualidade protéica contendo 44% na gema e 56% na clara. Spray dryer é um método amplamente usado para secar soluções aquosas ou orgânicas, emulsões, na indústria química e alimentícia. Spray dryer pode ser usado para preservar alimentos ou simplesmente como um método rápido de secagem. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a viabilidade de obtenção de gema de ovo em pó utilizando o Büchi B-190 Mini Spray Dryer. O teor de proteínas da gema de ovo foi analisado pelo método semi-micro Kjeldahl. Concluiu-se o uso do Büchi B-190 Mini Spray Dryer para a obtenção de gema de ovo em pó é perfeitamente viável.

  3. Microporous Inorganic Membranes as Proton Exchange Membranes

    Vichi, F.M. Tejedor-Tejedor, M.I. Anderson, Marc A


    Porous oxide electrolyte membranes provide an alternative approach to fabricating proton exchange membrane fuel cells based on inorganic materials. This study focused on elucidating the properties of these inorganic membranes that make them good electrolyte materials in membrane electrode assemblies; in particular, we investigated several properties that affect the nature of proton conductivity in these membranes. This report discusses our findings on the effect of variables such as site density, amount of surface protonation and surface modification on the proton conductivity of membranes with a fixed pore structure under selected conditions. Proton conductivities of these inorganic membranes are similar to conductivities of nafion, the polymeric membrane most commonly used in low temperature fuel cells.

  4. Internalization of LDL-receptor superfamily yolk-protein receptors during mosquito oogenesis involves transcriptional regulation of PTB-domain adaptors.

    Mishra, Sanjay K; Jha, Anupma; Steinhauser, Amie L; Kokoza, Vladimir A; Washabaugh, Charles H; Raikhel, Alexander S; Foster, Woodbridge A; Traub, Linton M


    In the anautogenous disease vector mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti, egg development is nutritionally controlled. A blood meal permits further maturation of developmentally repressed previtellogenic egg chambers. This entails massive storage of extraovarian yolk precursors by the oocyte, which occurs through a burst of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Yolk precursors are concentrated at clathrin-coated structures on the oolemma by two endocytic receptors, the vitellogenin and lipophorin receptors. Both these mosquito receptors are members of the low-density-lipoprotein-receptor superfamily that contain FxNPxY-type internalization signals. In mammals, this tyrosine-based signal is not decoded by the endocytic AP-2 adaptor complex directly. Instead, two functionally redundant phosphotyrosine-binding domain adaptors, Disabled 2 and the autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein (ARH) manage the internalization of the FxNPxY sorting signal. Here, we report that a mosquito ARH-like protein, which we designate trephin, possess similar functional properties to the orthologous vertebrate proteins despite engaging AP-2 in an atypical manner, and that mRNA expression in the egg chamber is strongly upregulated shortly following a blood meal. Temporally regulated trephin transcription and translation suggests a mechanism for controlling yolk uptake when vitellogenin and lipophorin receptors are expressed and clathrin coats operate in previtellogenic ovaries.

  5. Exploring the relationship between protein secondary structures, temperature-dependent viscosities, and technological treatments in egg yolk and LDL by FTIR and rheology.

    Blume, K; Dietrich, K; Lilienthal, S; Ternes, W; Drotleff, A M


    Egg yolk and its main component, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), were consecutively pasteurised, optimally freeze-dried, and dispersed in various NaCl solutions (0-10%). Heat-induced changes in the protein secondary structures which accompanied viscosity-increasing aggregation processes were monitored using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine the intensities of intermolecular β-sheets (1622 cm(-1)) and results were compared with the temperature-dependent viscosities. Considerable changes in secondary structures observed after reconstitution of freeze-dried LDL had no detectable effect on the characteristic heat-induced viscosity curves but suggest that LDL plays a particular role in the unwanted gel formation of egg yolk after conventional freezing. For all egg yolk samples and all NaCl-containing LDL samples, the sigmoidal changes in the absorbance units vs. temperature curves corresponded with the first increase in heat-induced viscosity. Both analytical methods showed that the presence of ionic strength caused a shift in curve progressions towards higher temperatures, indicating increased thermal stability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil (Ricinus communis) on the oocyte yolk components of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Arnosti, André; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; de Carvalho, Pedro Luiz Pucci Figueiredo; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel


    Rhipicephalus sanguineus are bloodsucking ectoparasites, whose main host is the domestic dog, thus being present in urban areas and closely located to people. Eventually, this tick species parasitize humans and can become a potential vector of infectious diseases. Methods to control this type of pest have been the focus of many research groups worldwide. The use of natural products is increasingly considered nowadays, due to the low toxicity levels to the host and low waste generation to the environment. This study tested the effect of ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil (as an potential acaricide) on the reproductive system of R. sanguineus females, more specifically on the vitellogenesis process. For this, two groups were established: the control group (CG) and the treatment group (TG) with five rabbits in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. NaCl and ester were added to rabbits' food and offered to the hosts. After full engorgement, the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. The ticks ovaries were submitted to histochemical techniques so the effects of esters could be observed over polysaccharides, proteins and lipids yolk. Changes in the deposition of yolk components were observed. This caused modifications on elements of polysaccharide origin and on glycoprotein compounds, interfering in the final yolk synthesis and compromising the development of the future embryo. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped Fe3O4-Co3O4 yolk-shell nanostructures for advanced catalytic oxidation based on sulfate radicals

    Zhang, Lishu; Yang, Xijia; Han, Erfen; Zhao, Lijun; Lian, Jianshe


    In this work, we designed and synthesized a high performance catalyst of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) wrapped Fe3O4-Co3O4 (RGO/Fe3O4-Co3O4) yolk-shell nanostructures for advanced catalytic oxidation based on sulfate radicals. The synergistic catalytic action of the RGO/Fe3O4-Co3O4 yolk-shell nanostructures activate the peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to produce sulfate radicals (SO4rad -) for organic dyes degradation, and the Orange II can be almost completely degradated in 5 min. Meanwhile the RGO wrapping prevents the loss of cobalt in the catalytic process, and the RGO/Fe3O4-Co3O4 can be recycled after catalyzed reaction due to the presence of magnetic iron core. What's more, it can maintain almost the same high catalytic activity even after 10 cycles through repeated NaBH4 reduction treatment. Hence, RGO/Fe3O4-Co3O4 yolk-shell nanostructures possess a great opportunity to become a promising candidate for waste water treatment in industry.

  8. Age validation and growth of yolked larvae of Patagonotothen tessellata (Richardson, 1845 (Pisces: Nototheniidae from the rocky littoral of the Beagle Channel, Argentina

    Gustavo Alfredo Rae


    Full Text Available Age and growth estimation of Patagonotothen tessellata larvae over the endogenous period was estimated by examining their otolith microstructure and the associated increment deposition rate. Analyzed specimens were incubated from egg-masses collected in Lapataia Bay, Beagle Channel, Argentina. Validation was performed by monitoring reared larvae of known ages. Actual age and increment count were regressed suggesting a daily deposition of one ring in the otolith, which began at hatching time and continued until larvae reached sixteen days old (time of massive mortality. Mean lengths at each age were estimated using Richards´ growth function; their constant (m attained a value close to zero indicating that the data fitted to the von Bertalanffy model. Absolute growth rate was 0.55 mm*d-1of total length at hatching, dropped near zero on the fifth day after hatching and afterwards, there was no growth. Yolk absorption rate (expressed as a ratio between minor axis/major axis of the vitelline-sac showed a similar variation as that observed in absolute growth rate during the endogenous period. The total yolk absorption took five days in the unfed larvae group and seven days in the fed larvae group. The rapid absorption of the yolk and the observed growth pattern suggest that Patagonotothen tessellata larvae have a short endogenous period, reaching the state of first food uptake five days after hatching.

  9. Effect of Ducks Yolk and Formic Acid in Fat Liquoring Process on the Physical Quality of Broiler Chicken Shank Chrome Tanning

    Mustakim Mustakim


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of ducks yolk and formic acid in fat liquoring process of the tanned skin.  The materials used in this study were 30 pieces of 7 weeks of broiler chicken shank. The study was carried out using completely randomized design. The variables measured were softness, tensile strength and stretch of the tanned skin. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The research results showed that the addition of ducks yolk and formic acid didn’t gave significantly affect on the softness (p>0.05, while gave highly significant affect on tensile strength and stretch (p0.05 on the softness and stretch, and have significantly (p<0.05 on the tensile strength of leather. The conclusion of this research the addition of 11% duck yolk and 1% formic acid in fat liquoring is the best treatment for broiler chicken shank chrome tanning on the skin softness (2,667, tensile strength (135,707 kg/cm2, and stretch (37,34%, respectively.

  10. The influence of different salinity conditions on egg buoyancy and development and yolk sac larval survival and morphometric traits of Baltic Sea sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus Schneider

    Christoph Petereit


    Full Text Available The small pelagic sprat (Sprattus sprattus is a key ecologic player in the Baltic Sea. However, there is long-term variability in recruitment which is thought to be influenced by fluctuations in abiotic and biotic conditions experienced during the early life stages. This study concentrates on the influence of different ambient salinities on sprat egg development, egg buoyancy and survival as well as early yolk sac larval morphometric traits. Egg buoyancy significantly decreased with increasing salinity experienced during fertilization and/or incubation experiments. Field egg buoyancy measurements in 2007 and 2008 exhibited annual and seasonal differences in specific gravity, potentially associated with changes in adult sprat vertical distribution. Neither egg development time nor the duration of the yolk sac phase differed among salinity treatments. At eye pigmentation, larval standard length exhibited high variance among individuals but did not differ among treatments. The largest ecological impact of salinity experienced during spawning was the modification the buoyancy of eggs and yolk sac larvae, which determines their vertical habitat in the Baltic Sea. There are strong thermo- and oxyclines in the Baltic Sea, and thus salinity can indirectly impact the survival of these early life stages by modifying the ambient temperatures and oxygen conditions experienced.

  11. A Cluster of Vitellogenin Genes in the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis Capitata: Sequence and Structural Conservation in Dipteran Yolk Proteins and Their Genes

    Rina, M.; Savakis, C.


    Four genes encoding the major egg yolk polypeptides of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, vitellogenins 1 and 2 (VG1 and VG2), were cloned, characterized and partially sequenced. The genes are located on the same region of chromosome 5 and are organized in pairs, each encoding the two polypeptides on opposite DNA strands. Restriction and nucleotide sequence analysis indicate that the gene pairs have arisen from an ancestral pair by a relatively recent duplication event. The transcribed part is very similar to that of the Drosophila melanogaster yolk protein genes Yp1, Yp2 and Yp3. The Vg1 genes have two introns at the same positions as those in D. melanogaster Yp3; the Vg2 genes have only one of the introns, as do D. melanogaster Yp1 and Yp2. Comparison of the five polypeptide sequences shows extensive homology, with 27% of the residues being invariable. The sequence similarity of the processed proteins extends in two regions separated by a nonconserved region of varying size. Secondary structure predictions suggest a highly conserved secondary structure pattern in the two regions, which probably correspond to structural and functional domains. The carboxy-end domain of the C. capitata proteins shows the same sequence similarities with triacylglycerol lipases that have been reported previously for the D. melanogaster yolk proteins. Analysis of codon usage shows significant differences between D. melanogaster and C. capitata vitellogenins with the latter exhibiting a less biased representation of synonymous codons. PMID:1903120

  12. In-depth nanocrystallization enhanced Li-ions batteries performance with nitrogen-doped carbon coated Fe3O4 yolk-shell nanocapsules

    Wu, Qianhui; Zhao, Rongfang; Liu, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiue; Shen, Xiao; Li, Wenlong; Diao, Guowang; Chen, Ming


    In this paper nitrogen-doped carbon-encapsulation Fe3O4 yolk-shell magnetic nanocapsules (Fe3O4@C-N nanocapsules) have been successfully constructed though a facile hydrothermal method and subsequent annealing process. Fe3O4 nanoparticles are completely enclosed in nitrogen-doped carbon shells with void space between the nanoparticle and the shell. The yolk-shell structure allows Fe3O4 nanoparticles to expand freely without breaking the outer carbon shell during the lithiation/delithiation processes. The volume expansion of Fe3O4 results in the in-depth nanocrystallization. Fortunately, the new generated small nanoparticles can increase the capability with the cycle increase due to the unique confinement effect and excellent electronic conductivity of the nitrogen-doped carbon shells. Hence, after 150 cycles, the discharge capacity of Fe3O4@C-N-700 nanocapsules still remained 832 mA h g-1 at 500 mA g-1, which corresponds to 116.7% of the lowest capacity (713 mA h g-1) at the 16th cycle. We believe that the yolk-shell structure is conducive to enhance the capacity of easy pulverization metal oxidation during the charge/discharge processes.

  13. One-pot synthesis of Au@TiO2 yolk-shell nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light.

    Sun, Hang; He, Qinrong; She, Ping; Zeng, Shan; Xu, Kongliang; Li, Jiayi; Liang, Song; Liu, Zhenning


    Natural biological systems often use hollow structures to decrease reflection and achieve high solar light utilization. Herein, bio-inspired Au@TiO2 yolk-shell nanoparticles (NPs) have been designed to combine the advantages of noble metal coupling and hollow structures, and subsequently synthesized via a facile one-pot hydrothermal approach. The Au@TiO2 yolk-shell NPs not only exhibit reduced reflectance by multiple reflections and scattering within the hollow NPs, but also show enhanced photocatalytic activity in Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation by simultaneously improving light harvesting, charge separation and reaction site accessibility. Specifically, compared to the commercial TiO2 (P25), Au/TiO2 hybrid and Au@TiO2 core-shell NPs, the Au@TiO2 yolk-shell NPs demonstrate lower reflectance over a broader range and superior photocatalytic activity with more than 98.1% of RhB decomposed within 4h under visible light. The bio-inspired nanostructure, as well as the facile and scalable fabrication approach, will open a new avenue to the rational design and preparation of efficient photocatalysts for pollutant removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gd-based upconversion nanocarriers with yolk-shell structure for dual-modal imaging and enhanced chemotherapy to overcome multidrug resistance in breast cancer

    Pan, Yuanwei; Zhang, Ling'e.; Zeng, Leyong; Ren, Wenzhi; Xiao, Xueshan; Zhang, Jichao; Zhang, Lili; Li, Aiguo; Lu, Guangming; Wu, Aiguo


    Multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancers is still a major challenge, and it is very important to develop visualized nanoprobes for the diagnosis and treatment of drug resistant cancers. In this work, we developed a multifunctional delivery system based on DOX-encapsulated NaYF4:Yb/Er@NaGdF4 yolk-shell nanostructures for simultaneous dual-modal imaging and enhanced chemotherapy in drug resistant breast cancer. Using the large pore volume of the nanostructure, the delivery system had a high loading efficiency and excellent stability. Also, an in vitro and in vivo toxicity study showed the good biocompatibility of the as-prepared yolk-shell nanomaterials. Moreover, by nanocarrier delivery, the uptake of DOX could be greatly increased in drug resistant MCF-7/ADR cells. Compared with free DOX, the as-prepared delivery system enhanced the chemotherapy efficacy against MCF-7/ADR cells, indicating the excellent capability for overcoming MDR. Furthermore, core-shell NaYF4:Yb/Er@NaGdF4 improved the upconversion luminescence (UCL) performance, and the designed delivery system could also be applied for simultaneous UCL and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, which could be a good candidate as a dual-modal imaging nanoprobe. Therefore, we developed a multifunctional yolk-shell delivery system, which could have potential applications as a visualized theranostic nanoprobe to overcome MDR in breast cancer.

  15. Ultrastructure of cyst shell and underlying membranes of three strains of the brine shrimp Artemia (Branchiopoda: Anostraca) from South India.

    Sugumar, V; Munuswamy, N


    The cyst of Artemia has shell and membranous coverings over the embryo. The membranous coverings have special adaptive features to allow the physical changes accompanying repeated hydration and dehydration cycles that might occur and adversely influence postembryonic development. Whole and slices of cryptobiotic cysts were processed for electron microscopy to study the internal details and to compare the morphological architecture of three Artemia strains of South India. Surface topography of scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies revealed distinct button shaped structures on the cyst of Puthalam strain. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies of the cysts displayed the conventional pattern of anostracan crustaceans with outer cortex and alveolar layer, cuticular membranes, and the cytoplasmic inclusions namely nucleus, yolk droplets, lipoid bodies, and mitochondria. The prominent wavy outer cortex layer of Puthalam cysts corroborates the results of SEM studies.

  16. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Are membranes really necessary?

    Davila, M.; Kassab, G.; Klapwijk, A.; Lier, van J.B.


    Membranes themselves represent a significant cost for the full scale application of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). The possibility of operating an AnMBR with a self-forming dynamic membrane generated by the substances present in the reactor liquor would translate into an important saving. A

  17. Model cell membranes

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Nylander, Tommy; Cardenas Gomez, Marite


    The high complexity of biological membranes has motivated the development and application of a wide range of model membrane systems to study biochemical and biophysical aspects of membranes in situ under well defined conditions. The aim is to provide fundamental understanding of processes...... controlled by membrane structure, permeability and curvature as well as membrane proteins by using a wide range of biochemical, biophysical and microscopic techniques. This review gives an overview of some currently used model biomembrane systems. We will also discuss some key membrane protein properties...... that are relevant for protein-membrane interactions in terms of protein structure and how it is affected by membrane composition, phase behavior and curvature....

  18. Yolk-shell hybrid nanoparticles with magnetic and pH-sensitive properties for controlled anticancer drug delivery

    Li, Shunxing; Zheng, Jianzhong; Chen, Dejian; Wu, Yijin; Zhang, Wuxiang; Zheng, Fengying; Cao, Jing; Ma, Heran; Liu, Yaling


    A facile and effective way for the preparation of nano-sized Fe3O4@graphene yolk-shell nanoparticles via a hydrothermal method is developed. Moreover, the targeting properties of the materials for anticancer drug (doxorubicin hydrochloride) delivery are investigated. Excitingly, these hybrid materials possess favorable dispersibility, good superparamagnetism (the magnetic saturation value is 45.740 emu g-1), high saturated loading capacity (2.65 mg mg-1), and effective loading (88.3%). More importantly, the composites exhibit strong pH-triggered drug release response (at the pH value of 5.6 and 7.4, the release rate was 24.86% and 10.28%, respectively) and good biocompatibility over a broad concentration range of 0.25-100 μg mL-1 (the cell viability was 98.52% even at a high concentration of 100 μg mL-1) which sheds light on their potentially bright future for bio-related applications.

  19. Detection of CD2 expression in chicken hematogenic embryo yolk sac lymphoid cells prior to thymus genesis

    Dongyu Zhou; Jigui Wang; Weiquan Liu; Rongxiu Liu; Yuehu Pei


    Lymphoid mononuclear cells from chick embryos at stage 16 were collected prior to fetal liver and thymus genesis to study the differentiation and function of the hematogenic yolk sac and to detect whether CD2 occurs on the surface of lymphoid mononuclear cells.The phenotype and functional activity of the cell surface protein E receptor and the ultrastructure of embryonic E+ cells were compared with those of mature T cells.Our results indicate 99.36% homology between the E receptors of embryonic lymphocytes and mature T cells.Other similarities,including molecular distribution,motivation,the ability to form an erythrocyte rosette,the structure of the receptor-ligand complex,and the conformation of the signal channel,were detected between embryonic lymphocytes and mature CD2-expressing T cells.These results indicate that CD2 is already expressed prior to fetal fiver and thymus genesis and that its expression is not dependent on the thymic microenvironment.

  20. A place to hide in the home-cage decreases yolk androgen levels and offspring emotional reactivity in Japanese quail.

    Vanessa Guesdon

    Full Text Available An animal's emotional responses are the result of its cognitive appraisal of a situation. This appraisal is notably influenced by the possibility of an individual to exert control over an aversive event. Although the fact that environment controllability decreases emotional responses in animals is well established, far less is known about its potential trans-generational effects. As the levels of avian yolk hormones can vary according to the mother's environment, we hypothesized that housing environment of mothers would modulate the quality of her eggs and in turn her offspring's behaviour. Two groups of female Japanese quail were constituted: a group that had access to a place to hide in their home-cage (Hd, n = 20 and a group that had nowhere to hide (NoHd, n = 20 when stressed. Both groups were submitted to daily human disturbances for a twenty-day-period. Hd females produced eggs with both less testosterone and androstenedione than did NoHd females. The emotional and social reactivity of Hd females' offspring were lower and their growth was slower than those of NoHd females' offspring. Our results show that a minor difference in housing environment had substantial effects on eggs and offspring. The presence of a shelter probably helped quail to cope with daily human disturbances, producing less reactive offspring. This transgenerational effect caused by an opportunity to hide could lead to applications in care of laboratory animals, conservation biology and animal welfare.

  1. Replacing Corn and Wheat in Layer Diets with Hulless Oats Shows Effects on Sensory Properties and Yolk Quality of Eggs.

    Winkler, Louisa R; Hasenbeck, Aimee; Murphy, Kevin M; Hermes, James C


    US organic poultry producers are under pressure to find feed alternatives to corn and wheat. Hulless oats offer advantages such as wide geographic adaptation of the plant and high concentrations of protein and oil in the grain. They have shown considerable potential in experimental work as a feed grain for poultry, but more research is needed into their influence on the sensory and nutritional properties of eggs. In this study, hulless oats were substituted for corn or wheat at 200 g kg(-1) in diets fed to Hy-Line Brown hens and eggs were sampled for sensory evaluation after 8 weeks. Discrimination tests of blended and baked egg samples found evidence of difference between eggs from oat-based diets and those from the oat-free control (p cooking (p cooked eggs in a way that was perceptible to untrained consumers, probably by reducing the yolk proportion. This finding was not commercially relevant owing to small effect size, and results overall add to existing evidence that hulless oats can be fed to poultry at a moderate proportion of the diet with no negative effect on consumer acceptability of eggs. Regardless of the small effect size, however, findings are interesting from the food chemistry perspective because they provide novel evidence of how the thermal properties of eggs can be altered by a change in hen dietary carbohydrate source.

  2. Viability and fertility of cooled equine semen diluted with skimmed milk or glycine egg yolk-based extenders

    Guilherme Pugliesi


    Full Text Available Two semen extenders were compared for their ability to maintain viability of horse semen during 24 hours of cold preservation, and for the pregnancy rate after artificial insemination. In the experiment 1, five ejaculates from three stallions were split-diluted in either a skimmed milk-based extender (Kenney extender or a glycine egg yolk-based extender (Foote extender and cooled at 6-8 ºC for 24 hours. Semen samples stored in Kenney extender for 24 hours had higher motility and spermatic vigor compared with those stored in Foote extender. However, samples stored in Foote extender had higher number of reactive sperm by hypoosmotic test and greater viability by epifluorescence test compared with those in Kenney extender. In the experiment 2, 17 and 23 ejaculates from two stallions were split-diluted with Kenney extender and Foote extender. The sperm concentration in each extender was adjusted to 500 million viable sperms per insemination dose. Semen was cooled to 6-8 ºC and stored for 24 hours. Seventy-four cycles of crossbred mares were inseminated with either semen diluted in Kenney extender or semen diluted in Foote extender. The pregnancy rate was higher from semen diluted in Kenney extender than that from semen in Foote extender (0.553 vs. 0.306. The Kenney extender is effective in preserving the motility, vigor and fertility of stallion semen after 24 hours of cold storage, whereas the Foote extender is not acceptable.

  3. Nitrogen-Doped Yolk-Shell-Structured CoSe/C Dodecahedra for High-Performance Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Zhang, Yifang; Pan, Anqiang; Ding, Lin; Zhou, Zilong; Wang, Yaping; Niu, Shaoyu; Liang, Shuquan; Cao, Guozhong


    In this work, nitrogen-doped, yolk-shell-structured CoSe/C mesoporous dodecahedra are successfully prepared by using cobalt-based metal-organic frameworks (ZIF-67) as sacrificial templates. The CoSe nanoparticles are in situ produced by reacting the cobalt species in the metal-organic frameworks with selenium (Se) powder, and the organic species are simultaneously converted into nitrogen-doped carbon material in an inert atmosphere at temperatures between 700 and 900 °C for 4 h. For the composite synthesized at 800 °C, the carbon framework has a relatively higher extent of graphitization, with high nitrogen content (17.65%). Furthermore, the CoSe nanoparticles, with a size of around 15 nm, are coherently confined in the mesoporous carbon framework. When evaluated as novel anode materials for sodium ion batteries, the CoSe/C composites exhibit high capacity and superior rate capability. The composite electrode delivers the specific capacities of 597.2 and 361.9 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 and 16 A g(-1), respectively.

  4. [Simultaneous determination of canthaxanthin and Sudan Red in salted duck egg yolk by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].

    Wang, Quanlin; Shi, Pingping; Zhang, Shufen; Shen, Jian; Fu, Xiao


    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of canthaxanthin, Sudan Red I , Sudan Red II , Sudan Red III and Sudan Red IV in salted duck egg yolk has been developed. These canthaxanthin and Sudan Red dyes were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile, methanol, and chloroform (1 : 0.5 : 0.5, v/v). The extract was dried by a rotary evaporator. The residue was transferred to a graduated tube and diluted to 10 mL with acetonitrile. The canthaxanthin and Sudan Red dyes were separated on a XDB-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm), with acetonitrile-water (95:5, v/v) as mobile phase. They were then detected at 478 nm - 520 nm - 471 nm at different retention times by UV/Vis spectrophotometer. The recoveries of sudan I , sudan II, sudan II, sudan IV, and canthaxanthin were 97.34%, 89.56%, 90.98%, 93.63% and 95.15% respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 4.7%, 4.3%, 5.1%, 4.9% and 3.1%, respectively. The method is simple, rapid and accurate.

  5. The presence of 19-norandrostenedione and its sulphate form in yolk-sac fluid of the early equine conceptus.

    Raeside, J I; Christie, H L


    C(18) neutral steroid formation by cytochrome P450 aromatase has been recorded for several equine and porcine tissues. High activity of P450 aromatase is reflected in the quantities of estrogens in yolk-sac (y-s) fluid of early equine conceptuses. In a previous study of y-s fluid we detected large amounts of androgens by radioimmunoassay (RIA), using an antiserum for androstenedione (A(4)). Here, we report that RIA, following chromatography, gave tentative identification of the major peak as norandrostenedione (19-norA) not as A(4). Furthermore, even greater quantities of 19-norA seemed to be present in y-s fluid as a sulphoconjugate, as noted from extraction, solvolysis, HPLC, followed by RIA. Confirmation of these unusual findings was attained after further purification with two HPLC systems and definitive identification by LC-MS with an authentic standard of 19-norA. Initial extraction of the steroid sulphate as a methylene-blue complex also yielded 19-norA suggesting that the 3-enol form had enabled sulphoconjugation. The biological significance of retention mainly as a sulphate is not known; however, the large amounts of 19-norA found in the fluid accords well with reports on the catalytic activity shown in vitro by the blastocyst isozyme of P450 aromatase in the pig and horse.

  6. Organisation and expression of a cluster of yolk protein genes in the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina.

    Scott, Maxwell J; Atapattu, Asela; Schiemann, Anja H; Concha, Carolina; Henry, Rebecca; Carey, Brandi-lee; Belikoff, Esther J; Heinrich, Jörg C; Sarkar, Abhimanyu


    The Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina is a major pest for the Australian and New Zealand sheep industries. With the long-term aim of making a strain of L. cuprina suitable for a genetic control program, we previously developed a tetracycline-repressible female lethal genetic system in Drosophila. A key part of this system is a female-specific promoter from a yolk protein (yp) gene controlling expression of the tetracycline-dependent transactivator (tTA). Here we report the sequence of a 14.2 kb genomic clone from L. cuprina that contains a cluster of three complete yp genes and one partial yp gene. The Lcyp genes are specifically expressed in females that have received a protein meal. A bioinformatic analysis of the promoter of one of the yp genes (LcypA) identified several putative binding sites for DSX, a known regulator of yp gene expression in other Diptera. A transgenic strain of L. cuprina was made that contained the LcypA promoter driving the expression of the Escherichia coli lacZ reporter gene. Transgenic females express high levels of β-galactosidase after a protein meal. Thus the LcypA promoter could be used to obtain female-specific expression of tTA in transgenic L. cuprina.

  7. Fluorescence studies on radiation oxidative damage to membranes with implications to cellular radiosensitivity

    K P Mishra


    Radiation oxidative damage to plasma membrane and its consequences to cellular radiosensitivity have received increasing attention in the past few years. This review gives a brief account of radiation oxidative damage in model and cellular membranes with particular emphasis on results from our laboratory. Fluorescence and ESR spin probes have been employed to investigate the structural and functional alterations in membranes after g-irradiation. Changes in the lipid bilayer in irradiated unilamellar liposomes prepared from egg yolk lecithin (EYL) were measured by using diphenylhexatriene (DPH) as a probe. The observed increase in DPH polarization and decrease in fluorescence intensity after g-irradiation of liposomes imply radiationinduced decrease in bilayer fluidity. Inclusion of cholesterol in liposome was found to protect lipids against radiation damage, possibly by modulation of bilayer organization e.g. lipid packing. Measurements on dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes loaded with 6-carboxyfluorescein (CF) showed radiation dose-dependent release of the probe indicating radiation-induced increased permeability. Changes in plasma membrane permeability of thymocytes were monitored by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined by 2,7-dichlorodihydro fluorescein diacetate (DCH-FDA). Results suggest a correlation between ROS generation and membrane permeability changes induced by radiation within therapeutic doses (0-10 Gy). It is concluded that increase in membrane permeability was the result of ROS-mediated oxidative reactions, which might trigger processes leading to apoptotic cell death after radiation exposure.

  8. The carnivore pregnancy: the development of the embryo and fetal membranes.

    Miglino, Maria Angelica; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo; dos Santos Martins, Daniele; Wenceslau, Cristiane Valverde; Pfarrer, Christiane; Leiser, Rudolf


    The aim of this research was to compare the morphological aspects during the development of pregnancy in dogs and cats, distinguishing features of the fetal membranes, such as yolk sac evolution and differentiation of hemangioblasts, and the degree of elaboration of the amnion and allantois. Canine and feline placentae from 20, 24, 35, 45 and 55 d of pregnancy were perfusion-fixed for histological investigation and vascular corrosion casts were produced. The casts were prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the embryo and fetal membrane development was analyzed. The growth patterns of the conceptuses were compared with the organization of the placentation process, and changes of the morphology during pregnancy were recorded. In feline placentae, an incomplete zonary shape was present in 62.5% out of 60 studied cases. This was located distal to the insertion of the umbilical cord. In the lamellar zone, the interhemal membrane or placental barrier resembled endotheliochorial conditions, and the maternal-fetal microvascular blood flow interrelationship was of simple crosscurrent type. Dogs have a zonary placenta, completely surrounding the fetus, and complex lamellar organization of maternal and fetal tissues. At the border, two marginal hematomes with green colouration delimited the central placental girdle. The yolk sac consisted of one large sacculation with an inverted "T" shape and an enormous number of blood vessels; it had hemangioblast cells in contact with the epithelium. The amnion was avascular in early stages, but became vascularized by blood vessels of the internal allantoic membrane in later stages of pregnancy by intrinsic relation.

  9. Erythrocyte membrane proteins and membrane skeleton

    LU Yiqin; LIU Junfan


    Considerable advances in the research field of erythrocyte membrane were achieved in the recent two decades.New findings in the structure-function correlation and interactions of erythrocyte membrane proteins have attracted extensive attention.Interesting progress was also made in the molecular pathogenesis of erythrocyte membrane disorders.Advances in the composition,function and interaction of erythrocyte membrane proteins,erythrocyte membrane skeleton,and relevant diseases are briefly described and summarized here on the basis of domestic and world literatures.

  10. Orchestration of avian reproductive effort: an integration of the ultimate and proximate bases for flexibility in clutch size, incubation behaviour, and yolk androgen deposition.

    Sockman, Keith W; Sharp, Peter J; Schwabl, Hubert


    How much effort to expend in any one bout of reproduction is among the most important decisions made by an individual that breeds more than once. According to life-history theory, reproduction is costly, and individuals that invest too much in a given reproductive bout pay with reduced reproductive output in the future. Likewise, investing too little does not maximize reproductive potential. Because reproductive effort relative to output can vary with predictable and unpredictable challenges and opportunities, no single level of reproductive effort maximizes fitness. This leads to the prediction that individuals possessing behavioural mechanisms to buffer challenges and take advantage of opportunities would incur fitness benefits. Here, we review evidence in birds, primarily of altricial species, for the presence of at least two such mechanisms and evidence for and against the seasonal coordination of these mechanisms through seasonal changes in plasma concentrations of the pituitary hormone prolactin. First, the seasonal decline in clutch size of most bird species may partially offset a predictable seasonal decline in the reproductive value of offspring. Second, establishing a developmental sibling-hierarchy among offspring may hedge against unpredictable changes in resource availability and offspring viability or quality, and minimize energy expenditure in raising a brood. The hierarchy may be a product, in part, of the timing of incubation onset relative to clutch completion and the rate of yolk androgen deposition during the laying cycle. Because clutch size should influence the effects of both these traits on the developmental hierarchy, we predicted and describe evidence in some species that females adjust the timing of incubation onset and rate of yolk androgen deposition to match clutch size. Studies on domesticated precocial species reveal an inhibitory effect of the pituitary hormone prolactin on egg laying, suggesting a possible hormonal basis for the

  11. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    Kosel, Jurgen


    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  12. Compositional asynchronous membrane systems

    Cosmin Bonchis; Cornel Izbasa; Gabriel Ciobanu


    This paper presents an algorithmic way of building complex membrane systems by coupling elementary membranes. Its application seems particularly valuable in the case of asynchronous membrane systems, since the resulting membrane system remains asynchronous. The composition method is based on a handshake mechanism implemented by using antiport rules and promoters.

  13. Composite sensor membrane

    Majumdar, Arun; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Yue, Min


    A sensor may include a membrane to deflect in response to a change in surface stress, where a layer on the membrane is to couple one or more probe molecules with the membrane. The membrane may deflect when a target molecule reacts with one or more probe molecules.

  14. Large-scale aerosol-assisted synthesis of biofriendly Fe2O3 yolk-shell particles: a promising support for enzyme immobilization

    Patel, Sanjay K. S.; Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jung-Kul


    Multiple-shelled Fe2O3 yolk-shell particles were synthesized using the spray drying method and intended as a suitable support for the immobilization of commercial enzymes such as glucose oxidase (GOx), horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and laccase as model enzymes. Yolk-shell particles have an average diameter of 1-3 μm with pore diameters in the range of 16 to 28 nm. The maximum immobilization of GOx, HRP, and laccase resulted in the enzyme loading of 292, 307 and 398 mg per g of support, respectively. After cross-linking of immobilized laccase by glutaraldehyde, immobilization efficiency was improved from 83.5% to 90.2%. Km and Vmax values were 41.5 μM and 1722 μmol min-1 per mg protein for cross-linked laccase and those for free laccase were 29.3 μM and 1890 μmol min-1 per mg protein, respectively. The thermal stability of the enzyme was enhanced up to 18-fold upon cross-linking, and the enzyme retained 93.1% of residual activity after ten cycles of reuse. The immobilized enzyme has shown up to 32-fold higher stability than the free enzyme towards different solvents and it showed higher efficiency than free laccase in the decolorization of dyes and degradation of bisphenol A. The synthesized yolk-shell particles have 3-fold higher enzyme loading efficiency and lower acute toxicity than the commercial Fe2O3 spherical particles. Therefore, the use of unique yolk-shell structure Fe2O3 particles with multiple-shells will be promising for the immobilization of various enzymes in biotechnological applications with improved electrochemical properties. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of one pot synthesized Fe2O3 yolk-shell structure particles for the immobilization of enzymes.Multiple-shelled Fe2O3 yolk-shell particles were synthesized using the spray drying method and intended as a suitable support for the immobilization of commercial enzymes such as glucose oxidase (GOx), horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and laccase as model enzymes

  15. Storage stability of a commercial hen egg yolk powder in dry and intermediate-moisture food matrices.

    Rao, Qinchun; Fisher, Mary Catherine; Guo, Mufan; Labuza, Theodore P


    Quality loss in intermediate-moisture foods (IMF) such as high-protein nutrition bars (HPNB) in the form of hardening, nonenzymatic browning, and free amino group loss is a general concern for the manufacturers. To measure the extent of quality loss over time in terms of these negative attributes, through changing the ratio by weight between two commercial spray-dried hen egg powders, egg white (DEW) and egg yolk (DEY), the storage stability of 10 IMF systems (water activity (aw) ∼ 0.6) containing 5% glycerol, 10% shortening, 35% protein, and 50% sweetener (either maltitol or 50% high-fructose corn syrup/50% corn syrup (HFCS/CS)) were studied. Additionally, the storage stability of the DEY powder itself was investigated. Overall, during storage at different temperatures (23, 35, and 45 °C), the storage stability of DEY in dry and IMF matrices was mainly controlled by the coaction of three chemical reactions (disulfide bond interaction, Maillard reaction, and lipid oxidation). The results showed that by replacing 25% of DEW in an IMF model system with DEY, the rate of bar hardening was significantly lower than that of the models with only DEW at all temperatures due to the softening effect of the fat in DEY. Furthermore, the use of maltitol instead of HFCS/CS in all bar systems not only resulted in decreased hardness but also drastically decreased the change in the total color difference (ΔE*). Interestingly, there was no significant loss of free amino groups in the maltitol systems at any DEW/DEY ratio.

  16. Effects of inulin on performance, egg quality, gut microflora and serum and yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

    Shang, H M; Hu, T M; Lu, Y J; Wu, H X


    1. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin on laying hens. A total of 360 Brown Nick laying hens were divided randomly into 6 groups of 60 with 6 replicates of 10 hens and fed on diets containing 0 (control), 0·1, 0·5, 1·0, 1·5 or 2·0% inulin during the 4-week trial. 2. Dietary supplementation of inulin reduced cholesterol concentration (mg/g yolk) and content (mg/egg) in eggs. Cholesterol content in eggs decreased linearly with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. 3. Supplementation of inulin in diets decreased coliform bacteria counts and pH in the caecum. The lowest coliform bacteria counts (6·30 ± 0·03 log10 cfu/g) and pH (6·47 ± 0·01) were obtained in the 2·0% inulin group, the two indices decreasing by 21·6% and 3·0% respectively, compared with the control group. Coliform bacteria count and pH were changed linearly in accordance with increasing levels of dietary inulin level. Caecal Bifidobacteria counts were increased in the 2·0%-inulin group. 4. Inulin supplementation of layer diets did not appear to have any adverse effects on laying rate, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, cracked-egg rate, eggshell thickness or Haugh unit compared with the control laying hens. 5. Therefore, dietary supplementation with inulin may lead to the development of low-cholesterol chicken eggs as demanded by health-conscious consumers.

  17. Sheet Membrane Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis; Zapata, Felipe; Dillion, Paul; Castillo, Juan; Vonau, Walter; Wilkes, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Frodge, Curtis


    A document describes a sheet membrane spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME), which allows for the use of one common water tank that can supply cooling water to the astronaut and to the evaporator. Test data showed that heat rejection performance dropped only 6 percent after being subjected to highly contaminated water. It also exhibited robustness with respect to freezing and Martian atmospheric simulation testing. Water was allowed to freeze in the water channels during testing that simulated a water loop failure and vapor backpressure valve failure. Upon closing the backpressure valve and energizing the pump, the ice eventually thawed and water began to flow with no apparent damage to the sheet membrane. The membrane evaporator also serves to de-gas the water loop from entrained gases, thereby eliminating the need for special degassing equipment such as is needed by the current spacesuit system. As water flows through the three annular water channels, water evaporates with the vapor flowing across the hydrophobic, porous sheet membrane to the vacuum side of the membrane. The rate at which water evaporates, and therefore, the rate at which the flowing water is cooled, is a function of the difference between the water saturation pressure on the water side of the membrane, and the pressure on the vacuum side of the membrane. The primary theory is that the hydrophobic sheet membrane retains water, but permits vapor pass-through when the vapor side pressure is less than the water saturation pressure. This results in evaporative cooling of the remaining water.

  18. Structure and formation of egg membranes in Aedes aegypti. (L. ) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Mathew, G.; Rai, K.S.


    An ultrastructural study of mosquito ovarioles reveals that both the vitelline membrane and the endochorion are secreted by the follicular epithelium. The presecretory phase is characterized by the hypertrophy of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex in the follicle cells. Synthesis of vitelline membrane precursors begins immediately after yolk protein uptake by micropinocytosis. Secretory droplets are budded off Golgi cisternae and released into the follicle cell--oocyte interface by exocytosis. The vitelline membrane first appears as dense plaques which eventually fuse to form a single homogeneous layer. Two types of secretory material are identified in the follicle cells prior to the formation of the endochorion. Golgi cisternae bud off small droplets similar in size and appearance to the precursors of the vitelline membrane. These migrate to the apical surface and accumulate between surface folds in the plasma membrane. The second type is a fibrous material formed in endoplasmic reticulum. When fully secreted, the endochorion is a 2-layered structure. The lower layer is comprised of pillar-like structures alternating with fibrous mesh-like areas. The pillars are formed by the coalescence of droplets released from Golgi, while the mesh-like areas presumably arise from the fibrous material. The outer layer is also fibrous. The follicle cells degenerate once the endochorion is laid down. endochorion is laid down.

  19. The influence of year, laying date, egg fertility and incubation, individual hen, hen age and mass and clutch size on maternal immunoglobulin Y concentration in captive Steller's and spectacled eider egg yolk.

    Counihan, Katrina L; Maniscalco, John M; Bozza, Maryann; Hendon, Jill M; Hollmén, Tuula E


    Steller's eiders and spectacled eiders are sea duck species whose populations have declined significantly and infectious diseases could influence offspring survival. Therefore, the maternal transfer of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) into yolk was investigated in captive Steller's and spectacled eiders during the 2007-2013 breeding seasons. This project had two objectives: establish baseline IgY levels in Steller's and spectacled eider yolk under controlled captive conditions and evaluate the effect of year, laying date, egg fertility, egg incubation duration, individual hen, hen age and mass, and laying order to determine which variables influenced IgY levels. Average IgY concentrations were 0.03-0.48 mg ml(-1) in Steller's eider yolk and 0.10-0.51 mg ml(-1) in spectacled eider yolk. The year and individual hen influenced IgY concentration in Steller's and spectacled eider yolk. The laying date was negatively correlated with egg IgY levels for most Steller's eider hens, but laying order was positively correlated with egg IgY concentration for spectacled eiders.

  20. Tin compounds interaction with membranes of egg lecithin liposomes

    Man, D.; Podolak, M. [Opole Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Physics


    This work is a continuation of earlier research concerning the influence of tin compounds on the dynamic properties of liposome membranes produced with lecithin hen egg yolks (EYL). The experiments were carried out at room temperature (about 25 C). Four tin compounds were chosen, including three organic ones, (CH{sub 3}){sub 4}Sn, (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4}Sn and (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 3}SnCl, and one inorganic, SnCl{sub 2}. The investigated compounds were admixed to water dispersions of liposomes. The content of the admixture changed within the range 0 mol-% to 11 mol-% in proportion to EYL. Two spin probes were used in the experiment: 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine- 1-oxyl (TEMPO) and 2-ethyl-2-(15-methoxy-15-oxopentadecyl)-4,4-dimethyl-3-oxazolidinyloxyl (16-DOXYL-stearic acid), which penetrated through different areas of the membrane. It was found that tin compounds containing chlorine were the most active in interaction with liposome membranes. In the case of (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 3}SnCl, after exceeding 4% admixture content, an additional line appeared in the spectrum of the TEMPO probe which can be a result of formation of domain structures in the membranes of the studied liposomes. Compounds containing chlorine are of ionized form in water solution. The obtained results can thus mean that the activity of admixtures can be seriously influenced by their ionic character. In case of an admixture of non-ionic compounds the compound with a longer hydrocarbon chain displayed a slightly stronger effect on the spectroscopic parameters of the probes. (orig.)

  1. Membrane Automata with Priorities

    Luděk Cienciala; Lucie Ciencialová


    In this paper the one-way P automata with priorities are introduced. Such automata are P systemshere the membranes are only allowed to consume objects from parent membranes, under the given conditions. The result of computation of these systems is the set of multiset sequences consumed by skin membrane intc the system. The rules associated in some order with each membrane cannot modify any objects, they can only move them through membrane. We show that P automata with priorities and two membranes can accept every recursively enumerated language.

  2. Omega-3 enriched egg production: the effect of α -linolenic ω -3 fatty acid sources on laying hen performance and yolk lipid content and fatty acid composition.

    Antruejo, A; Azcona, J O; Garcia, P T; Gallinger, C; Rosmini, M; Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Perez, C D


    1. Diets high in total lipids, saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and having high ω-6:ω-3 fatty acid ratios, have been shown to be related to increased instances of coronary heart disease, while diets high in ω-3 fatty acids have been shown to decrease the risk. 2. Feeding ω-3 fatty acid diets to laying hens has been shown to improve the quality of eggs produced in terms of saturation and ω-3 content. 3. A study was undertaken to determine if the ω-3 fatty acid source, when fed to hens, influences the amount transferred to eggs. 4. Flaxseed and flaxseed oil, along with chia seed and chia seed oil, were the two main sources of ω-3 fatty acid examined during the 84 d trial. 5. All α-linolenic enriched treatments yielded significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid contents per g of yolk and per yolk, than the non-α-linolenic enriched diets. Chia oil and chia seed yielded 54·5 and 63·5% more mg of ω-3 fatty acid per g of yolk for the 56 d test period, and 13·4 and 66·2% more for the 84 d test period, than flaxseed oil and flaxseed, respectively. 6. The differences in omega-3 content were significant, except for the chia oil compared with the flax oil, at the end of the trial. 7. This trial has shown that differences in conversion exist among ω-3 fatty acid sources, at least when fed to hens, and indicates that chia may hold a significant potential as a source of ω-3 fatty acid for enriching foods, thereby making these foods a healthier choice for consumers.

  3. Silver-loaded nitrogen-doped yolk-shell mesoporous TiO2 hollow microspheres with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.

    Jiang, Zhifeng; Wei, Wei; Mao, Danjun; Chen, Cheng; Shi, Yunfei; Lv, Xiaomeng; Xie, Jimin


    Silver-loaded nitrogen-doped yolk-shell mesoporous TiO2 hollow microspheres (Ag-N-TiO2-YSM) were prepared by employing acetic acid as the hollowing controller and triethanolamine as the N source for the first time. Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were uniformly deposited by a simple in situ photo-reduction method, which can prevent the aggregation of Ag NPs. The efficiency of the as-prepared samples was investigated by monitoring the degradation of rhodamine B and ciprofloxacin under visible light irradiation. The experimental results indicate that N-doped yolk-shell mesoporous TiO2 hollow microspheres show higher photocatalytic activity than P25 TiO2 under visible light irradiation because of N doping and the unique yolk-shell structure. In addition, Ag-N-TiO2-YSM shows enhanced activity compared with N-TiO2-YSM due to the SPR absorption of silver NPs and the fast generation, separation and transportation of the photogenerated carriers. Moreover, the Ag contents can affect the photocatalytic activity of the Ag-N-TiO2-YSM composite. A suitable amount of Ag deposition gives the highest photocatalytic activity. A higher loading does not improve the photocatalytic activity of N-TiO2-YSM further. The active species generated in the photocatalytic system were also investigated. Based on our experimental results, a possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed. The strategy presented here gives a promising route towards the development of delicate metal@hollow semiconductor composites for many applications in photocatalysis.

  4. 斑点免疫结合法测定卵黄抗体的活性%Dot-immunobinding assay for the activity of egg yolk anibody

    阮光萍; 安梅; 王桂华; 叶蕾; 邓淑芬


    Kunming General Hospital of Chengdu Military Area Command of Chinese PLA from January to June 2006. Two White Leghorn hens (30 weeks old) were selected. HLA-A*0201 α chain served as the antigen. The total protein concentration of the purified antigen was 0.04 g/L with the molecular mass of 32 000(self-prepared); nitrocellulose filter (NC, import and divided); nonfat dry milk (Anyi Corp. No. 20051220); DAB (Boshide Corp.);caprylic acid (made by Shanghai Xinghuo Chemical Factory); ammonium sulfate (Shantou Guanghua Chemical product).METHODS: ①HLA-A*0201 α chain with the total protein concentration of 0.04 g/L was purified with egg yolk antibody,and identified by SDS-PAGE. ②1 μL antigen was spotted into the center of NC membrane and dried in the incubator at 37 ℃. Then the NC membrane was blocked in 1 mL PBST and put in the incubator at 37℃ with shaking in 90 r per minute for 15 minutes. Then the liquid was exchanged with 1 mL PBST and added the primary antibody at a final concentration of 10 mg/L. After 30 minutes shaking in the incubator at 37 ℃, the NC membrane was washed in PBST for three times. The second antibody, mouse anti-chicken IgY conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was added and after 30 minutes incubation, the NC membrane was washed three times in PBST. Binding was revealed by incubation with a DAB reagent. A positive reaction was represented by adeep brown spot,Irdlcating that IgY had better activity; if the spot became lighter IgY lost part activity, and when the spot disappeared, the IgY lost a the activty.According to intensity (gray degree)of the dot compared tothe standard, the remained percent of activity of the IgY was calculated. ③IgY was adjusted to three different protein concentrations with PBS: 1, 0.1, 0.01 g/L and stayed at room temperature for four months. 10 μg lgY was taken out from each concentration sample every month to detect the activity by dot-immunobinding assay. ④IgY was put into seven EP tubes with 100 μL per

  5. Precocious puberty secondary to a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with an ovarian yolk sac tumor: a case report

    Metwalley Kotb


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ovarian tumors are the least common cause of sexual precocity in girls. Mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumors associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary are rare neoplasms, of which only a small number of well-documented cases have been described so far. Here, we report precocious puberty in a four-year-old Egyptian girl caused by a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary. Case presentation A four-year-old Egyptian girl was referred to our pediatric endocrinology unit for evaluation of bilateral breast budding, pubic hair and vaginal bleeding. On examination, we found that her breast enlargement and pubic hair were compatible with Tanner III. A thorough workup revealed a large mass in her right ovary. Magnetic resonance imaging ofher brain showed that her pituitary gland was normal. A hormonal assay revealed high levels of estradiol, 280 to 375pmol/L; progesterone, 5.3 nmol/L; testosterone 38.9 pg/mL; and androstenedione, 4.1 ng/mL. Her basal and stimulated levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were low. Tumor markers levels were high, with a total inhibin of 1,069U/L and an alpha-fetoprotein of 987 μg/L. Her chromosomes were normal (46XX. Our patient underwent an explorative laparotomy and a solid tumor localized to her right ovary was identified. A right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and the histopathological diagnosis was a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumorwith a yolk sac tumor of the ovary. Postoperatively, she was started on treatment with chemotherapy. Our patient is doing well without evidence of tumor recurrence or metastasis during eight months of postoperative follow-up. Conclusion Although a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary is a rare occurrence, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis for a prepubescent girl with an abdominal mass and precocious puberty.

  6. Apolipocrustacein, formerly vitellogenin, is the major egg yolk precursor protein in decapod crustaceans and is homologous to insect apolipophorin II/I and vertebrate apolipoprotein B

    Lubzens Esther


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In animals, the biogenesis of some lipoprotein classes requires members of the ancient large lipid transfer protein (LLTP superfamily, including the cytosolic large subunit of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP, vertebrate apolipoprotein B (apoB, vitellogenin (Vtg, and insect apolipophorin II/I precursor (apoLp-II/I. In most oviparous species, Vtg, a large glycolipoprotein, is the main egg yolk precursor protein. Results This report clarifies the phylogenetic relationships of LLTP superfamily members and classifies them into three families and their related subfamilies. This means that the generic term Vtg is no longer a functional term, but is rather based on phylogenetic/structural criteria. In addition, we determined that the main egg yolk precursor protein of decapod crustaceans show an overall greater sequence similarity with apoLp-II/I than other LLTP, including Vtgs. This close association is supported by the phylogenetic analysis, i.e. neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods, of conserved sequence motifs and the presence of three common conserved domains: an N-terminal large lipid transfer module marker for LLTP, a DUF1081 domain of unknown function in their central region exclusively shared with apoLp-II/I and apoB, and a von Willebrand-factor type D domain at their C-terminal end. Additionally, they share a conserved functional subtilisin-like endoprotease cleavage site with apoLp-II/I, in a similar location. Conclusion The structural and phylogenetic data presented indicate that the major egg yolk precursor protein of decapod crustaceans is surprisingly closely related to insect apoLp-II/I and vertebrate apoB and should be known as apolipocrustacein (apoCr rather than Vtg. These LLTP may arise from an ancient duplication event leading to paralogs of Vtg sequences. The presence of LLTP homologs in one genome may facilitate redundancy, e.g. involvement in lipid metabolism and as

  7. Enrichment of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid on Egg Yolks%多不饱和脂肪酸在鸡蛋蛋黄中的富集作用

    叶天; 赵淑娟; 敬璞


    日粮中脂肪酸的含量会影响蛋黄中脂肪酸的组成和含量。在产蛋鸡的日粮中分别添加10%的黄粉虫,10%的紫苏籽,10%的亚麻籽,5%的黄粉虫,5%黄粉虫+5%紫苏籽,5%黄粉虫+5%亚麻籽,研究多不饱和脂肪酸在青壳鸡蛋蛋黄中的富集作用。结果表明:与对照组相比,添加10%黄粉虫和5%黄粉虫+5%紫苏籽的试验组中,蛋黄脂肪酸和胆固醇含量显著变化,明显改善了蛋黄中多不饱和脂肪酸和饱和脂肪酸的比例,同时,ω-6/ω-3发生变化,说明通过改善日粮中脂肪酸的含量和组成,可在蛋黄中富集多不饱和脂肪酸。%The lipid content of hen eggs could be affected by the levels and types of dietary lipids.The effect of different diets on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of hen egg yolk had been studied.Six experimental diets with different fatty acid composition were used,including 10% tenebrio molitor,10% perilla,10% flaxseed,5% tenebrio molitor,5% tenebrio molitor +5% perilla and 5% tenebrio molitor +5% flaxseed,respectively.The fatty acid composition of yolk lipids was affected by the experimental diets with 10% tenebrio molitor and 5% tenebrio molitor +5% perilla.In addition,higher PUFA/SFA and lower ω-6/ω-3 fatty acid ratios were obtained in the diets with addition of functional oils in the diets.The conclusion was that the functional oils had concentrated in egg yolks.That was explain that the fatty acid composition in egg yolks was altered by addition of different dietary lipids in Green laying hen diets.

  8. A novel strategy to fabricate multifunctional Fe3O4@C@TiO2 yolk-shell structures as magnetically recyclable photocatalysts

    Chen, Lulu; Li, Lu; Wang, Tingting; Zhang, Lingyu; Xing, Shuangxi; Wang, Chungang; Su, Zhongmin


    Using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a template, a novel Fe3O4@C@TiO2 yolk-shell structure derived from heat treatment on Fe2O3@PAA@TiO2 core-shell structures is constructed, where the interior void volume and shell thickness are readily tuned. In this method, the PAA shell between the original spherical α-Fe2O3 nanoparticle (NP) core and the outer TiO2 shell replaces the common SiO2 template leaving out the tedious treatment procedure of the template. After calcination, the α-Fe2O3 core was reduced to the Fe3O4 core providing the NPs with magnetic properties and the middle carbon coating around the magnetic core could avoid the occurrence of photodissolution. Moreover, the obtained Fe3O4@C@TiO2 yolk-shell nanocomposites (NCs) exhibit fine photocatalytic activity for the photodegradation of organic contaminants in waste water.Using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a template, a novel Fe3O4@C@TiO2 yolk-shell structure derived from heat treatment on Fe2O3@PAA@TiO2 core-shell structures is constructed, where the interior void volume and shell thickness are readily tuned. In this method, the PAA shell between the original spherical α-Fe2O3 nanoparticle (NP) core and the outer TiO2 shell replaces the common SiO2 template leaving out the tedious treatment procedure of the template. After calcination, the α-Fe2O3 core was reduced to the Fe3O4 core providing the NPs with magnetic properties and the middle carbon coating around the magnetic core could avoid the occurrence of photodissolution. Moreover, the obtained Fe3O4@C@TiO2 yolk-shell nanocomposites (NCs) exhibit fine photocatalytic activity for the photodegradation of organic contaminants in waste water. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00175c

  9. Isolation of egg yolk IgY from hens immunized with S.mutans B29-33 and S.sobrinus 6715


    目的:从鸡蛋中提取特异性抗体,鉴定抗体性质并分析其蛋白质含量,以探索一种制备被动免疫防龋抗体的制备方法。方法:变形链球菌 GTF高表达株S.mutans B29-33 及茸毛链球菌S.sobrinus 6715免疫母鸡,采用硫酸铵沉淀法提取鸡蛋黄抗体,SDS-PAGE凝胶扫描鉴定抗体性质,分析其纯度并用分光光度法测蛋白质含量。结果:用硫酸铵沉淀法可提取出鸡蛋黄抗体,其性质为IgG,蛋白质含量约为7.00mg/ml。结论:鸡蛋黄抗体含量高,作为被动免疫抗体的载体有较好的应用前景。%Objective:The specific antibody was isolated from egg yolk in order to find a new method for passive immunization against dental caries. Methods:50 hens were divided into two groups and were injected with S.mutans B29-33 and S.sobrinus 6715 whole cells respectively. Egg yolk antibody IgY were isolated by sodium sulfate precipitating method and identified by SDS-PAGE. After electrophoresis the gel was scanned by chromatographic scanner and the protein content was evaluated by absorption spectrometry. Results: SDS-PAGE and gel scanner revealed the substance isolated from egg yolk was IgG. The protein content was 7.00mg/ml. Conclusion:Egg yolk antibody was isolated conveniently and the protein content was high. So it can be use as a suitable source of antibody for passive immunization.

  10. Delivery of recombinant vaccines against bovine herpesvirus type 1 gD and Babesia bovis MSA-2c to mice using liposomes derived from egg yolk lipids.

    Rodriguez, Anabel E; Zamorano, Patricia; Wilkowsky, Silvina; Torrá, Florencia; Ferreri, Lucas; Dominguez, Mariana; Florin-Christensen, Mónica


    Liposomes prepared from total egg yolk lipid extracts were used to deliver experimental DNA vaccines to mice consisting of pCI-neo plasmids encoding bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) gD or Babesia bovis MSA-2c. A significantly higher proportion of mice in the B. bovis MSA-2c group, but not those in the BoHV-1 gD group, developed detectable immunoglobulin G responses when vaccinated with liposome encapsulated DNA in comparison with mice vaccinated with naked DNA. In both groups, antibody titres were similar between mice vaccinated with liposome encapsulated DNA and naked DNA.

  11. Composite zeolite membranes

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Thoma, Steven G.; Ashley, Carol S.; Reed, Scott T.


    A new class of composite zeolite membranes and synthesis techniques therefor has been invented. These membranes are essentially defect-free, and exhibit large levels of transmembrane flux and of chemical and isotopic selectivity.

  12. Oxygen transport membrane


    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  13. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)


    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  14. Solvent resistant nanofiltration membranes

    Dutczak, S.M.


    This thesis describes preparation and characterization of membranes for organic solvent filtration (OSF). The main aim was developing membranes for solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) with molecular weight cut-off below 500 g mol-1.

  15. Transmembrane Signalling: Membrane messengers

    Cockroft, Scott L.


    Life has evolved elaborate means of communicating essential chemical information across cell membranes. Inspired by biology, two new artificial mechanisms have now been developed that use synthetic messenger molecules to relay chemical signals into or across lipid membranes.

  16. Ionene membrane battery separator

    Moacanin, J.; Tom, H. Y.


    Ionic transport characteristics of ionenes, insoluble membranes from soluble polyelectrolyte compositions, are studied for possible application in a battery separator. Effectiveness of the thin film of separator membrane essentially determines battery lifetime.

  17. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.


    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  18. Membrane contactor applications

    Klaassen, R.; Feron, P.H.M.; Jansen, A.


    In a membrane contactor the membrane separation is completely integrated with an extraction or absorption operation in order to exploit the benefits of both technologies fully. Membrane contactor applications that have been developed can be found in both water and gas treatment. Several recently dev

  19. On "spinning" membrane models

    Bergshoeff, E.; Sezgin, E.; Townsend, P.K.


    Several alternative actions for a bosonic membrane have recently been proposed. We show that a linearly realized locally world-volume-supersymmetric (spinning membrane) extension of any of these actions implies an analogous extension of the standard Dirac membrane action. We further show that a

  20. Tracking membrane protein association in model membranes.

    Myriam Reffay

    Full Text Available Membrane proteins are essential in the exchange processes of cells. In spite of great breakthrough in soluble proteins studies, membrane proteins structures, functions and interactions are still a challenge because of the difficulties related to their hydrophobic properties. Most of the experiments are performed with detergent-solubilized membrane proteins. However widely used micellar systems are far from the biological two-dimensions membrane. The development of new biomimetic membrane systems is fundamental to tackle this issue.We present an original approach that combines the Fluorescence Recovery After fringe Pattern Photobleaching technique and the use of a versatile sponge phase that makes it possible to extract crucial informations about interactions between membrane proteins embedded in the bilayers of a sponge phase. The clear advantage lies in the ability to adjust at will the spacing between two adjacent bilayers. When the membranes are far apart, the only possible interactions occur laterally between proteins embedded within the same bilayer, whereas when membranes get closer to each other, interactions between proteins embedded in facing membranes may occur as well.After validating our approach on the streptavidin-biotinylated peptide complex, we study the interactions between two membrane proteins, MexA and OprM, from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa efflux pump. The mode of interaction, the size of the protein complex and its potential stoichiometry are determined. In particular, we demonstrate that: MexA is effectively embedded in the bilayer; MexA and OprM do not interact laterally but can form a complex if they are embedded in opposite bilayers; the population of bound proteins is at its maximum for bilayers separated by a distance of about 200 A, which is the periplasmic thickness of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We also show that the MexA-OprM association is enhanced when the position and orientation of the protein is restricted by the

  1. Fabrication of Yolk-Shell Cu@C Nanocomposites as High-Performance Catalysts in Oxidative Carbonylation of Methanol to Dimethyl Carbonate

    Wang, Juan; Hao, Panpan; Shi, Ruina; Yang, Leilei; Liu, Shusen; Zhao, Jinxian; Ren, Jun; Li, Zhong


    A facile way was developed to fabricate yolk-shell composites with tunable Cu cores encapsulated within hollow carbon spheres (Cu@C) with an average diameter about 210 nm and cavity size about 80 nm. During pyrolysis, the confined nanospace of hollow cavity ensures that the nucleation-and-growth process of Cu nanocrystals take place exclusively inside the cavities. The size of Cu cores can be easily tuned from 30 to 55 nm by varying the copper salt concentration. By deliberately creating shell porosity through KOH chemical activation, at an optimized KOH/HCS mass ratio of 1/4, the catalytic performance for the oxidative carbonylation of methanol to dimethyl carbonate (DMC) of the activated sample is enhanced remarkably with TOF up to 8.6 h-1 at methanol conversion of 17.1%. The activated yolk-shell catalyst shows promising catalytic properties involving the reusability with slight loss of catalytic activity and negligible leaching of activated components even after seven recycles, which is beneficial to the implementation of clean production for the eco-friendly chemical DMC thoroughly.

  2. Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol.

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V


    The present study was designed to determine the effect on laying performance and egg quality resulting from total substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber sunflower meal (SFM; Helianthus annus L.) meal in diet of hens. ISA Brown layers, 28 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were kept in a free-range environment and fed 2 wheat middling-based diets consisting of a control diet, which contained SBM (153 g/kg of diet), and a test diet containing low-fiber SFM (160 g/kg of diet) as the main protein source. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Low-fiber SFM was obtained by a combination of sieving and air classification processes. Feed consumption was recorded daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were collected weekly to evaluate egg components and quality. The total substitution of SBM with low-fiber SFM had no adverse effect on growth performance of laying hens. Egg production and none of egg quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P hens fed the low-fiber SFM diet. Including low-fiber SFM decreased serum and egg yolk total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P laying hens to improve egg quality and to develop low-cholesterol eggs.

  3. Strategic glycan elution map for the production of human-type N-linked oligosaccharides: the case of hen egg yolk and white.

    Sumiyoshi, Wataru; Nakakita, Shin-ichi; Miyanishi, Nobumitsu; Hirabayashi, Jun


    Glycans play important roles in various biological phenomena, but the lack of a systematic procedure for producing complex structures of glycans severely restricts their application in the medical and industrial fields. In this paper, we propose a basic strategy for the preparation of substantial amounts (>100 mg) of N-linked oligosaccharides, where the structure of each glycan is mapped with its elution position in liquid chromatography as well as the empirical yield. In model experiments using hen egg white and yolk as starting materials, the former provided a series of agalactosylated complex-type and hybrid-type N-linked oligosaccharides containing bisecting N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) in addition to two high-mannose type glycans. In contrast, egg yolk gave predominantly alpha2-6sialylated biantennary glycans together with a high-mannose type one, reflecting the difference in the origins of the tissues. Due to the total identity of the glycans obtained to human ones, the present strategy should provide a practical scheme for the production of human-type N-linked oligosaccharides.

  4. Functional characterisation of the maternal yolk-associated protein (LsYAP) utilising systemic RNA interference in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    Dalvin, Sussie; Frost, Petter; Biering, Eirik; Hamre, Lars A; Eichner, Christiane; Krossøy, Bjørn; Nilsen, Frank


    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is an important pathogen in salmon aquaculture and a serious threat to wild populations of salmon. Knowledge of its basic biological processes such as reproduction is crucial for the control of this parasite and can facilitate development of a vaccine. Here, a novel yolk-associated protein, LsYAP, was characterised. Quantitative PCR and in situ analysis demonstrated that transcription of LsYAP takes place in the subcuticular tissue of adult females in the reproductive phase. LsYAP protein is transported and deposited in the developing eggs in the genital segment, where further processing takes place. The sequence characteristics, histological localisation and transcript regulation suggest that LsYAP is a yolk-associated protein. In addition, the use of RNA interference is, to our knowledge, demonstrated for the first time in a copepod. Treatment of adult females with double-stranded RNA led to lethality and deformations of offspring only. This result confirms that the LsYAP protein is produced in adult females but is utilised by the offspring.

  5. Effect of dietary energy and protein on the performance, egg quality, bone mineral density, blood properties and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens

    Md. Rakibul Hassan


    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary metabolizable energy (ME and crude protein (CP on the performance, egg quality, blood properties, bone characteristics and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens. At 23 weeks, a total of 600 Brown nick laying hens were randomly distributed into 24 outdoor pens (4 replicate pens/treatment; 25 birds/pen and were given (2750, 2775 and 2800 kcal of ME/kg and CP (16 and 17% resulting in a 3×2 factorial arrangement of organic dietary treatments. The experiment lasted 23 weeks. The performance of laying hens were not affected by the dietary treatment while the egg weight was increased with energy and CP levels in the diet (P<0.05. Serum total protein was not affected by dietary energy and protein level. Total cholesterol and triglyceride tend to reduce with the increasing amount of CP in the diet. Thereafter, bone and egg quality characteristics were numerically increased in dietary 2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. On the other hand, docosahexanoic acid content in egg yolk was higher (P<0.01 in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 17% CP treatment. As a result, the performance, blood and fatty acid composition were maximized in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. Thus, dietary 2750-2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP may enhance performance, blood and fatty acid composition of organic laying hens.

  6. Effect of Different Levels of L-Carnitine on the Productive Performance, Egg Quality, Blood Parameters and Egg Yolk Cholesterol in Laying Hens

    Kazemi-Fard M


    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of L-carnitine on productive performance, egg quality and blood parameters in laying hens. Forty-eight Hy-Line W-36 egg Layers were weighed at 90 weeks of age and randomly allocated into 16 cages (three hens per cage. Four dietary treatments were prepared by supplementing L-carnitine (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of diet to corn-soybean meal diet and offered ad libitum to hens. After two weeks of acclimatization, the eggs were weighed daily and feed intake as well as egg quality traits were measured biweekly. At the end of the experiment, two hens from each cage were selected to determine blood parameters and two eggs from each replicate were collected for cholesterol analysis. Results showed that L-carnitine supplementation at 100 and 150 mg/kg significantly increased egg production and egg mass, but decreased yolk cholesterol content. Laying hens receiving diet containing 50 mg/kg L-carnitine had significantly higher Hough unit, but lower progesterone than the hens fed control diet (P < 0.05. The results of this study showed that supplementing hens' diet with L-carnitine had beneficial effects on productive performance and decreased yolk cholesterol concentration; so it can be used as an effective supplement in the diet of laying hens.

  7. Butylated hydroxytoluene can reduce oxidative stress and improve quality of frozen-thawed bull semen processed in lecithin and egg yolk based extenders.

    Khumran, A M; Yimer, N; Rosnina, Y; Ariff, M O; Wahid, H; Kaka, Asmatullah; Ebrahimi, M; Sarsaifi, K


    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of anti-oxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), when added at different concentrations into lecithin-based Bioxcell(®) (BX) and two egg-yolk-based; Tris (TY) and citrate (CE) semen extenders, on post-thaw bull sperm quality and oxidative stress. A total of 30 ejaculates from three bulls were collected using an electro ejaculator. Ejaculates were extended with one of the BX, TY and CE extenders, which contained different concentrations (0.0 - control, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0mM/ml) of BHT. The extended semen samples were chilled to 4 °C, and then frozen slowly to -196 °C in 0.25 ml straws before being stored in liquid nitrogen for 2 weeks. Results showed that supplementation of BHT improved (Plecithin or egg-yolk based extenders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Separation membrane development

    Lee, M.W. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)


    A ceramic membrane has been developed to separate hydrogen from other gases. The method used is a sol-gel process. A thin layer of dense ceramic material is coated on a coarse ceramic filter substrate. The pore size distribution in the thin layer is controlled by a densification of the coating materials by heat treatment. The membrane has been tested by permeation measurement of the hydrogen and other gases. Selectivity of the membrane has been achieved to separate hydrogen from carbon monoxide. The permeation rate of hydrogen through the ceramic membrane was about 20 times larger than Pd-Ag membrane.

  9. Water Membrane Evaporator

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Almlie, Jay C.


    A water membrane evaporator (WME) has been conceived and tested as an alternative to the contamination-sensitive and corrosion-prone evaporators currently used for dissipating heat from space vehicles. The WME consists mainly of the following components: An outer stainless-steel screen that provides structural support for the components mentioned next; Inside and in contact with the stainless-steel screen, a hydrophobic membrane that is permeable to water vapor; Inside and in contact with the hydrophobic membrane, a hydrophilic membrane that transports the liquid feedwater to the inner surface of the hydrophobic membrane; Inside and in contact with the hydrophilic membrane, an annular array of tubes through which flows the spacecraft coolant carrying the heat to be dissipated; and An inner exclusion tube that limits the volume of feedwater in the WME. In operation, a pressurized feedwater reservoir is connected to the volume between the exclusion tube and the coolant tubes. Feedwater fills the volume, saturates the hydrophilic membrane, and is retained by the hydrophobic membrane. The outside of the WME is exposed to space vacuum. Heat from the spacecraft coolant is conducted through the tube walls and the water-saturated hydrophilic membrane to the liquid/vapor interface at the hydrophobic membrane, causing water to evaporate to space. Makeup water flows into the hydrophilic membrane through gaps between the coolant tubes.

  10. Interaction and transport of cysteamine (MEA) through membrane models. {sup 15}N-NMR et {sup 1}H-NMR; Interaction et transport de la cysteamine (MEA) a travers des membranes modeles. Etude par {sup 15}N-RMN et {sup 1}H-RMN

    Lagoueyte, C.; Subra, G.; Bonnet, P.A.; Chapat, J.P.; Debouzy, J.C.; Fauvelle, F.; Berleur, F.; Roman, V.; Fatome, M.; Fernandez, J.P.


    We investigated by {sup 15}N-NMR the interactions of [{sup 15}N]-MEA, a radio-protecting aminothiol, with model membranes (SUVs and LUVs) of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidic acid. We prepared LUVs with a pH gradient between the intravesicular space and the bulk medium. Even though the external pH was low, MEA penetrates into the vesicles. With SUVs, {sup 1}H-NMR revealed that the interactions of unlabeled MEA within the hydrophobic core of the bilayer vary with external pH value. (author). 5 refs.

  11. The evolution of fetal membranes and placentation in carnivores and ungulates (Ferungulata)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, Andrea


    Molecular phylogenetics has made a substantial contribution to our understanding of the relationships between mammalian orders and has generated trees that can be used to examine the evolution of anatomical and physiological traits. We here summarize findings on fetal membranes and placentation...... in Ferungulata, a clade comprising carnivores, pangolins, and even- and odd-toed ungulates. Their early ontogeny shows several conserved traits such as superficial attachment of the blastocyst, amnion formation by folding, a large allantoic sac and a temporary yolk sac placenta. In contrast, several characters...... of the chorioallantoic placenta are derived, including the diffuse and cotyledonary placental types in ungulates and zonary placenta in carnivores, specializations of the interhaemal barrier, the presence of areolae or haemophagous regions and lack of stromal decidual cells. Ungulates produce large amounts of placental...

  12. Supported ionic liquid membrane in membrane reactor

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, M.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.; Wenten, I. G.


    Membrane reactor is a device that integrates membrane based separation and (catalytic) chemical reaction vessel in a single device. Ionic liquids, considered to be a relatively recent magical chemical due to their unique properties, have a large variety of applications in all areas of chemical industries. Moreover, the ionic liquid can be used as membrane separation layer and/or catalytically active site. This paper will review utilization of ionic liquid in membrane reactor related applications especially Fischer-Tropsch, hydrogenation, and dehydrogenation reaction. This paper also reviews about the capability of ionic liquid in equilibrium reaction that produces CO2 product so that the reaction will move towards the product. Water gas shift reaction in ammonia production also direct Dimethyl Ether (DME) synthesis that produces CO2 product will be discussed. Based on a review of numerous articles on supported ionic liquid membrane (SILM) indicate that ionic liquids have the potential to support the process of chemical reaction and separation in a membrane reactor.

  13. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    Erşahin, M.E.


    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become

  14. Emulsification using microporous membranes

    Goran T. Vladisavljević


    Full Text Available Membrane emulsification is a process of injecting a pure dispersed phase or pre-emulsion through a microporous membrane into the continuous phase. As a result of the immiscibility of the two phases, droplets of the dispersed phase are formed at the outlets of membrane pores. The droplets formed in the process are removed from the membrane surface by applying cross-flow or stirring of the continuous phase or using a dynamic (rotating or vibrating membrane. The most commonly used membrane for emulsification is the Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG membrane, fabricated through spinodal decomposition in a melt consisting of Japanese volcanic ash (Shirasu, boric acid and calcium carbonate. Microsieve membranes are increasingly popular as an alternative to highly tortuous glass and ceramic membranes. Microsieves are usually fabricated from nickel by photolithography and electroplating or they can be manufactured from silicon nitride via Reactive Ion Etching (RIE. An advantage of microsieves compared to the SPG membrane is in much higher transmembrane fluxes and higher tolerance to fouling by the emulsion ingredients due to the existence of short, straight through pores. Unlike conventional emulsification devices such as high-pressure valve homogenisers and rotor-stator devices, membrane emulsification devices permit a precise control over the mean pore size over a wide range and during the process insignificant amount of energy is dissipated as heat. The drop size is primarily determined by the pore size, but it depends also on other parameters, such as membrane wettability, emulsion formulation, shear stress on the membrane surface, transmembrane pressure, etc.


    A.Abbas, S. M. H. Andrabiand N. Ahmad


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out the minimum number of sperm cells per dose of insemination that will not affect the conception rate, if levels of egg yolk and glycerol are increased. For this purpose, sperm motion characteristics and plasma membrane integrity in three concentrations of sperm cells per dose, each with two levels of egg yolk and glycerol were compared. Semen was collected from buffalo bulls using an artificial vagina. Split pool ejaculates possessing more than 60% visual sperm motility were diluted in Tris-citric acid (TCA extender at 37°C, either in (1 30-6-20 (Number of sperm cells in millions/0.5 ml insemi1:1ation dose-Glycerol%-Egg yolk %,(2 15-6-20, (3 7.5-6-20, (4 30-10- 20, (5 15-10-20, (6 7.5-10-20, (7 30-6-30, (8 15-6-30, (9 7.5-6-30, (10 30-10-30, (11 15-10-30 and (12 7.5-10-30. Semen was cooled to 4°C in 2 hours, equilibrated at 4aC for 4 hours, filled in 0.5 ml straws and frozen in a programmable cell freezer ( + 4 to -15°C @ -3°C/minute and then to -80°C@ -10°C/minute before plunging them into liquid nitrogen (-196°C. Thawing of frozen semen was performed after 24 hours at 37°C for 15 seconds. Sperm motion characteristics, including motilities (computer-assisted, linear and circular, velocities (straight-line, average path and curvilinear, and lateral head displacement (LHD were assessed using computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA. Plasma membrane integrity was determined by using Hypo-Osmotic Swelling assay (HOS. Analysis of variance revealed that visual motility, computer-assisted motility, linear motility, circular motility, and plasma membrane integrity did not vary significantly when cell number was reduced from 30x106/dose to 15x106/dose. However, visual motility, computer-assisted motility and plasma membrane integrity were reduced significantly (P<0.05 when cell number was decreased to 7.5x106/dose. The velocities (straight- line, average path, curvilinear and LHD did not vary

  16. Proteins causing membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors.

    Miyoshi, Taro; Nagai, Yuhei; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Kimura, Katsuki; Watanabe, Yoshimasa


    In this study, the details of proteins causing membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) treating real municipal wastewater were investigated. Two separate pilot-scale MBRs were continuously operated under significantly different operating conditions; one MBR was a submerged type whereas the other was a side-stream type. The submerged and side-stream MBRs were operated for 20 and 10 days, respectively. At the end of continuous operation, the foulants were extracted from the fouled membranes. The proteins contained in the extracted foulants were enriched by using the combination of crude concentration with an ultrafiltration membrane and trichloroacetic acid precipitation, and then separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). The N-terminal amino acid sequencing analysis of the proteins which formed intensive spots on the 2D-PAGE gels allowed us to partially identify one protein (OmpA family protein originated from genus Brevundimonas or Riemerella anatipestifer) from the foulant obtained from the submerged MBR, and two proteins (OprD and OprF originated from genus Pseudomonas) from that obtained from the side-stream MBR. Despite the significant difference in operating conditions of the two MBRs, all proteins identified in this study belong to β-barrel protein. These findings strongly suggest the importance of β-barrel proteins in developing membrane fouling in MBRs.

  17. Chelating polymeric membranes

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor


    The present application offers a solution to the current problems associated with recovery and recycling of precious metals from scrap material, discard articles, and other items comprising one or more precious metals. The solution is premised on a microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  18. Polyarylether composition and membrane

    Hung, Joyce; Brunelle, Daniel Joseph; Harmon, Marianne Elisabeth; Moore, David Roger; Stone, Joshua James; Zhou, Hongyi; Suriano, Joseph Anthony


    A composition including a polyarylether copolymer is provided. The copolymer includes a polyarylether backbone; and a sulfonated oligomeric group bonded to the polyarylether suitable for use as a cation conducting membrane. Method of bonding a sulfonated oligomeric group to the polyarylether backbone to form a polyarylether copolymer. The membrane may be formed from the polyarylether copolymer composition. The chain length of the sulfonated oligomeric group may be controlled to affect or control the ion conductivity of the membrane.

  19. Membrane binding domains

    Hurley, James H.


    Eukaryotic signaling and trafficking proteins are rich in modular domains that bind cell membranes. These binding events are tightly regulated in space and time. The structural, biochemical, and biophysical mechanisms for targeting have been worked out for many families of membrane binding domains. This review takes a comparative view of seven major classes of membrane binding domains, the C1, C2, PH, FYVE, PX, ENTH, and BAR domains. These domains use a combination of specific headgroup inter...

  20. Applications of membrane computing

    Ciobanu, Gabriel; Păun, Gheorghe


    Membrane computing is a branch of natural computing which investigates computing models abstracted from the structure and functioning of living cells and from their interactions in tissues or higher-order biological structures. The models considered, called membrane systems (P systems), are parallel, distributed computing models, processing multisets of symbols in cell-like compartmental architectures. In many applications membrane systems have considerable advantages - among these are their inherently discrete nature, parallelism, transparency, scalability and nondeterminism. In dedicated cha

  1. Efeito do extrato de urucum na pigmentação da gema dos ovos Effect of anatto extract oil on the egg yolk colour

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva


    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado para avaliar níveis de adição do extrato de urucum (EU a uma ração em que o sorgo foi utilizado como principal fonte de energia. Um total de 280 poedeiras no segundo ciclo de produção, 140 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL e 140 Isa Brown (IB, foi alojado em densidade de duas aves/gaiola e alimentado ad libitum com sete rações. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma ração controle positiva com milho, como principal fonte de energia, e uma ração basal contendo sorgo, como principal fonte de energia, suplementada com seis níveis de EU em 0,0; 0,10; 0,15; 0,30; 0,45; e 0,60%. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso em esquema fatorial 7 x 2 (tratamento e linhagem, com cinco repetições de quatro aves. A adição de EU à ração à base de sorgo melhorou a pigmentação da gema dos ovos linearmente. A linhagem IB apresentou melhor pigmentação da gema dos ovos que a linhagem LSL. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a adição de 0,1% de EU à ração com sorgo promoveu similar pigmentação da gema do ovo que a ração à base de milho.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the increasing levels of anatto extract (AE oil in sorghum-based diets as the main energy source. A total of 280 laying hens in the second production cycle, 140 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL and 140 Isa Brown (IB, was allotted to a density two birds/pen and full fed seven diets. The treatments consisted of a positive control corn based diet, as principal energy source, and a basal sorghum diet, as principal energy source, supplemented with 0.0, 0.10, 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, and 0.60% of AE. A completely randomized design in a 7 x 2 factorial arrangement (treatment and line, with five replicates of four birds, was used. The egg yolk colour was linearly improved by addition of AE to the sorghum-based diets. The brown-egg layers presented better egg yolk colour than the white-egg layers. The addition of 0.1% AE to the sorghum-based diets produced

  2. Changeability of sperm chromatin structure during liquid storage of ovine semen in milk-egg yolk- and soybean lecithin-based extenders and their relationships to field-fertility.

    Khalifa, Tarek; Lymberopoulos, Aristotelis


    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of semen extender on sperm chromatin structure and to correlate chromatin integrity with field-fertility of preserved ram semen. Ejaculates of at least 2 × 10(9) sperm/ml and 70 % progressive motility were collected using an artificial vagina from Chios rams (n = 11, 4-6 years old), split-diluted to 1 × 10(9) sperm/ml with milk-egg yolk- and soybean lecithin (Ovixcell®)-based extenders, packaged in 0.5-ml straws and examined after 6, 24 and 48 h of storage at 5 ± 1 °C. Evaluation endpoints were computer-assisted sperm motion analysis, fluorescence-based analysis of chromatin structure by chromomycin A3 and acridine orange assays, and 65-day pregnancy rate (PR) of 34- to 36-h preserved semen after intra-cervical insemination of ewes (n = 154) in progestagen-synchronized estrus. Neither extender nor storage time had any influence on incidence of decondensed chromatin. Unlike Ovixcell® extender, deterioration of sperm motility (P egg yolk extender. Sperm motility accounted for 14.4-18.5 % of variations in chromatin integrity (P egg yolk-stored semen. Nevertheless, PR differed between rams (14.3-71.4 %; P egg yolk extender in preserving chromatin stability and motility. Chromatin defects are negatively associated with sperm fertility.

  3. Regioisomerism of triacylglycerols in lard, tallow, yolk, chicken skin, palm oil, palm olein, palm stearin, and a transesterified blend of palm stearin and coconut oil analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Kallio, H; Yli-Jokipii, K; Kurvinen, J P; Sjövall, O; Tahvonen, R


    Triacylglycerols (TAG) of lard, tallow, egg yolk, chicken skin, palm oil, palm olein, palm stearin, and a transesterified blend of palm stearin and coconut oil (82:18) were investigated by chemical ionization and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. Accurate molecular level information of the regioisomeric structures of individual TAGs was achieved. When existing in a TAG molecule of lard, palmitic acid occupied 90-100% of the sn-2 position. Within the major fatty acid combinations in tallow TAGs, the secondary position sn-2 was preferentially occupied in the decreasing order by oleoyl > palmitoyl > stearoyl residues, the order in saturated TAGs being myristoyl > stearoyl = palmitoyl. TAGs in egg yolk were more asymmetric than in chicken skin, with linoleic acid highly specifically attached in the yolk sn-2 carbon. Nearly 50% of yolk TAGs contained 52 carbon atoms with two or three double bonds. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids were in the sn-2 location in decreasing quantities in palm oil and its fractions. Triacylglycerols of equal molecular weight behaved similarly in the fractionation process. Randomization of the parent oil TAGs was seen in the transesterified oil. The tandem mass spectrometric analysis applied provided detailed information of the distribution of fatty acids in individual combinations in TAGs.

  4. Effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens.

    Shin, H S; Kim, J W; Kim, J H; Lee, D G; Lee, S; Kil, D Y


    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens. A total of 300 57-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to one of 5 treatment groups (feeding duration) with 6 replicates consisting of 5 consecutive cages with 2 hens per cage. Diets were formulated to contain either 0% (the control diet) or 20% DDGS. Experimental diets were fed to hens for 12 wk. The feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS was 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 wk before the conclusion of the experiment. Feeding the diet containing 20% DDGS for 3, 6, or 9 wk followed feeding the control diet for 9, 6, or 3 wk, respectively. The data for productive performance were summarized for 12 wk of the feeding trial. Results indicated that increasing feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS had no effects on productive performance of laying hens, but increased egg yolk color (linear, P hens has no adverse effects on productive performance. Increasing the feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS improves egg yolk coloration with a concomitant increase in lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolks in laying hens.

  5. Gas separation membranes

    Schell, William J.


    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.

  6. Anion exchange membrane

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus


    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  7. Photoresponsive nanostructured membranes

    Madhavan, P.


    The perspective of adding stimuli-response to isoporous membranes stimulates the development of separation devices with pores, which would open or close under control of environment chemical composition, temperature or exposure to light. Changes in pH and temperature have been previously investigated. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of photoresponsive isoporous membranes, applying self-assembly non-solvent induced phase separation to a new light responsive block copolymer. First, we optimized the membrane formation by using poly(styrene-b-anthracene methyl methacrylate-b-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA) copolymer, identifying the most suitable solvent, copolymer block length, and other parameters. The obtained final triblock copolymer membrane morphologies were characterized using atomic force and electron microscopy. The microscopic analysis reveals that the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer can form both lamellar and ordered hexagonal nanoporous structures on the membrane top layer in appropriate solvent compositions. The nanostructured membrane emits fluorescence due to the presence of the anthracene mid-block. On irradiation of light the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer membranes has an additional stimuli response. The anthracene group undergoes conformational changes by forming [4 + 4] cycloadducts and this alters the membrane\\'s water flux and solute retention. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. How a membrane agent buys goods in a membrane store

    Rudolf Freund; Marion Oswald; Thomas Schirk


    In this paper we consider a specific model of membrane systems, i.e. membrane systems with attributes. In these systems, the information is placed at the membranes in form of attributes, no objects are considered inside the membranes except for other membranes. The membrane system with attributes evolves according to rules that compute new values for the attributes from the attributes assigned to the membranes involved in the rule. The model of membrane systems with attributes allows us to specify business transactions in a precise way and to simulate different models for such transactions with a suitable tool for membrane systems with attributes.

  9. Scanning electron microscopy of the fetal membranes of an oviparous squamate, the corn snake Pituophis guttatus (Colubridae).

    Knight, Siobhan M; Blackburn, Daniel G


    Although the fetal membranes of viviparous squamates have received much study, morphology of their homologues among oviparous reptiles is poorly understood. The scarcity of information about these membranes in egg-laying reptiles hampers attempts to distinguish specializations for viviparity from ancestral oviparous features. We used scanning electron microscopy to examine fetal membranes of an oviparous snake (Pituophis guttatus) throughout the developmental period from oviposition to hatching. The external surface of the chorion contains broad, flattened cells that lack surface features; these cells form a continuous layer over the allantoic capillaries and offer a minimal barrier to respiratory exchange. In contrast, the surface epithelium of the omphalopleure bears elaborate surface ridges suggestive of absorptive capabilities. These ridges are prominent in the first few weeks after oviposition, but diminish thereafter. During development, the isolated yolk mass (IYM) of the omphalopleure becomes depleted, and the tissue becomes heavily vascularized by allantoic vessels. Surface features of the omphalopleure progressively take on the appearance of the chorioallantois, but the changes are not synchronous with loss of the IYM or membrane vascularization. Previous studies on viviparous snakes suggest that the chorioallantois and omphalopleure are respectively specialized for gas exchange and absorption in the intrauterine environment. Our studies of fetal membranes in P. guttatus offer evidence that cytological specializations for these functions originated under oviparous conditions, reflecting functional capacities that predate viviparity. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Developmental expression of calcium transport proteins in extraembryonic membranes of oviparous and viviparous Zootoca vivipara (Lacertilia, Lacertidae).

    Stewart, James R; Ecay, Tom W; Heulin, Benoit; Fregoso, Santiago P; Linville, Brent J


    The eggshell of oviparous lizards is a significant source of calcium for embryos, whereas the eggshell of viviparous lizards, when present, contains little calcium. In view of the potential cost to embryonic nutrition occasioned by the loss of eggshell calcium, the large number of independent origins of viviparity among lizards is surprising. Concomitant evolution of viviparity and calcium placentotrophy would ameliorate the loss of eggshell calcium, but a mechanism linking these events has yet to be discovered. Zootoca vivipara, a lizard with geographic variation in its mode of parity, is an excellent model for studying mechanisms of calcium transport to oviparous and viviparous embryos because each is highly dependent on calcium secreted by the uterus (eggshell or placenta) and ontogenetic patterns of embryonic calcium mobilization are similar. We compared developmental expression of the calcium transport protein calbindin-D(28K) in yolk splanchnopleure and chorioallantoic membranes of oviparous and viviparous embryos to test the hypothesis that the mechanism of calcium transport does not differ between modes of parity. We found that the ontogenetic pattern of protein expression is similar between reproductive modes and is correlated with calcium uptake from yolk and either eggshell or placenta. Calbindin-D(28K) is localized in the chorionic epithelium of embryos of both reproductive modes. These findings suggest that the embryonic calcium transport machinery is conserved in the transition between reproductive modes and that an adaptation of oviparous embryos for calcium uptake from eggshells functions similarly to transport calcium directly from uterine secretions.

  11. Transfer of the coccidiostats monensin and lasalocid from feed at cross-contamination levels to whole egg, egg white and egg yolk.

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Huyghebaert, G; Delahaut, P; Pierret, G; De Backer, P; Croubels, S; Daeseleire, E


    Recent legislation has addressed the unavoidable carry-over of coccidiostats and histomonostats in feed, which may lead to the presence of residues of these compounds in eggs. In this study, laying hens received cross-contaminated feed at a ratio of 2.5%, 5% and 10% of the therapeutic dose of monensin and lasalocid for broilers. The eggs were collected during the treatment and depletion period and were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The different egg matrices were separated and analysed during the plateau phase. High lasalocid concentrations, which exceeded the maximum residue level, and low monensin concentrations were found in whole egg. Plateau levels were reached at days 7-9 for lasalocid and at days 3-5 for monensin. For lasalocid, the highest concentrations were measured in egg yolk; residue concentrations in egg white were very low.

  12. Dietary supplementation of organic selenium could improve performance, antibody response, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed on diets containing oxidized fat.

    Laika, M; Jahanian, R


    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of organic selenium (Se) on performance, egg quality indices, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed diets with different fat sources. A total of 270 Hy-line W-36 Leghorn hens of 47 weeks of age were randomly distributed into the 5 replicate cages of 9 dietary treatments. Experimental diets consisted of a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three different fat sources (soybean oil, SO; yellow grease, YG; and palm fat powder, PFP) and three different levels of supplemental Se (0, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg of diet) as supplied by zinc-L-selenomethionine (ZnSeMet) complex, which fed during a 77-day feeding trial including 7 days for adaptation and 70 days as the main recording period. Results showed that the highest (P < 0.05) egg weights assigned to the hens fed on SO-supplemented diets. Hen-day egg production was affected by both dietary fat source (P < 0.01) and Se level (P < 0.05) throughout the trial period. Regardless of dietary fat source, dietary supplementation of ZnSeMet improved (P < 0.05) egg mass during all trial periods. Moreover, the significant (P < 0.05) fat  source× Se interactions were observed for egg mass, so that dietary supplementation with 0.4 mg/kg Se was more effective in diets supplemented with YG. Although feed intake was not affected by experimental diets during the first 35-day period, dietary inclusion of PFP reduced feed intake during both second 35-day (P < 0.01) and entire trial period (P < 0.05). The best (P < 0.01) feed conversion ratio during the first 35-day period was assigned to the birds fed on SO-diets, followed by those fed YG-diets. Dietary supplementation of ZnSeMet improved (P < 0.05) feed efficiency during the first 35-day period. Supplementation of ZnSeMet into the diets increased yolk index, with more impact in hens fed on YG-diets. The highest concentration of yolk

  13. Au@Void@TiO2 yolk-shell nanostructures as catalysts for the promotion of oxidation reactions at cryogenic temperatures

    Lee, Ilkeun; Joo, Ji Bong; Yin, Yadong; Zaera, Francisco


    A new gold-titania catalyst has been developed for cryogenic oxidations based on a yolk-shell nanoarchitecture. The synthesis of those structures involves the sequential deposition of a sacrificial silica layer and a titania shell around well-defined gold nanoparticles followed by removal of the silica via NaOH etching. The resulting catalyst contains an amorphous titania shell with sodium titanate and silicon impurities that proved critical for the cryogenic activity; removal of those via HCl treatment kills most of the catalytic conversion. Oxidation of carbon monoxide is possible with this Au@Void@TiO2 catalyst at temperatures as low as 120 K, by a mechanism different than the one operative at room temperature that involves a weakly-adsorbed CO species with a Csbnd O stretching frequency of 2162 cm- 1, possibly at Au-TiO2 interfacial sites.

  14. Fertilization potential and qualitative characteristics of human spermatozoa after short-term cryostorage at 5 degrees C in two different TEST-yolk buffer preparations.

    Zavos, P M; Correa, J R; Foster, C L; Massey, J B; Zarmakoupis-Zavos, P N


    Use of the media TEST-yolk buffer (TYB) in semenology today enables the short-term incubation and cryostorage of spermatozoa and its subsequent use in the various assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Preparation of TYB media involves the addition of egg yolk (20% v/v) to a physiological solution of the zwitterion buffers TES and Tris. The TYB is usually thermoprecipitated to remove the majority of the egg yolk globules and other macromolecules from the medium. However, removal of these egg yolk constituents could possibly eliminate or reduce essential factors that could enhance the sperm viability and fertilization potential after short-term dilution and storage. Improvements in the quality of the TYB could add greater benefits to those techniques employed in the various forms of ART. The objectives of the investigation were 1) to study the sperm qualitative characteristics following short-term cryostorage at 5 degrees C in either thermoprecipitated (T-TYB) or non-thermoprecipitated (NT-TYB), and 2) to compare the fertilizing potential of spermatozoa stored for 24 hours at 5 degrees C in the two TYB preparations. In Experiment 1, semen specimens from 15 patients were collected, assessed and split into two aliquots. Sperm specimens were processed by diluting 1:1 (v/v) with the T-TYB or NT-TYB, followed by centrifugation and reconstitution of the specimen to its initial volume with the corresponding TYB medium. Sperm specimens were cryostored for 1, 2, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Samples were taken at each interval and placed in a 37 degrees C water bath and allowed to warm for 15 minutes after each cryostorage interval. Semen specimens were assessed for percentage and grade of motility. The results of this study indicated that, although the NT-TYB yielded better results than the T-TYB, overall those differences were not statistically significant. In Experiment 2, the fertilization potential of spermatozoa recovered after 24 hours of cryostorage in the two TYB

  15. Membrane fluidity and the surface properties of the lipid bilayer: ESR experiment and computer simulation.

    Man, Dariusz; Olchawa, Ryszard; Kubica, Krystian


    Penetration of the liposome membranes formed in the gel phase from DPPC (DPPC liposomes) and in the liquid-crystalline phase from egg yolk lecithin (EYL liposomes) by the TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) and 16 DOXYL (2-ethyl-2-(15-methoxy-oxopentadecyl)-4,4-dimethyl-3-oxazolidinyloxy) spin probes has been investigated. The penetration process was followed by 120 hours at 24(0)C, using the electron spin resonance (ESR) method. The investigation of the kinetics of the TEMPO probe building into the membranes of both types of liposomes revealed differences appearing 30 minutes after the start of the experiment. The number of TEMPO particles built into the EYL liposome membranes began to clearly rise, aiming asymptotically to a constant value after about 100 minutes, whereas the number of the TEMPO particles built into the DPPC liposome membranes was almost constant in time. The interpretation of the obtained experimental results was enriched with those of computer simulation, following the behavior of the polar heads (dipoles) of the lipid particles forming a lipid layer due to the change in the value of the model parameter, k, determining the mobility of the dipoles. The possibility of the formation of an irregular ordering of the polar part of lipid membranes was proved, which leads to the appearance of spaces filled with of water for k > 0.4. The appearance of these defects enables the penetration of the bilayer by the TEMPO particles. The limited mobility of lipid polar heads (k < 0.2) prevents the appearance of such areas facilitating the penetration of the lipid membrane by alien particles in the gel phase.

  16. Use of Candida-specific chicken egg yolk antibodies to inhibit the adhering of Candida to denture base materials: prevention of denture stomatitis.

    Kamikawa, Yoshiaki; Fujisaki, Junichi; Nagayama, Tomohiro; Kawasaki, Kiyotsugu; Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Hamada, Tomofumi; Sakamoto, Ryoich; Mukai, Hiroshi; Sugihara, Kazumasa


    Polyclonal anti-Candida chicken egg yolk antibodies (anti-IgY) were used to investigate the prevention of adherence of Candida species to denture base material in vitro. Candida is a potential virulence factor that can cause systemic infection and even death in immunocompromised individuals. Because long-term antifungal treatment may lead to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, it is necessary to develop novel preventive measures and treatments for candidiasis. Three types of chicken egg yolk antibodies were used in this study: non-specific antibody (control IgY), Candida albicans-specific antibody (anti-C.a.IgY) and Candida glabrata-specific antibody (anti-C.g.IgY). A mixture of different dilutions of each antibody with a suspension of Candida species and denture base material was incubated for 3 h, and then the colony-forming units of Candida on the denture base material were counted. Compared with control IgY, anti-C.a.IgY and anti-C.g.IgY significantly inhibited the adherence of C. albicans, but anti-C.a.IgY tended to be more potent than anti-C.g.IgY. The adherence of C. glabrata was also inhibited significantly by anti-C.a.IgY and anti-C.g.IgY with almost equivalent potency, indicating that their actions against C. glabrata were comparable. This study revealed the inhibitory effects of anti-C.a.IgY and anti-C.g.IgY against the adherence of C. albicans and C. glabrata to denture base material. This finding indicates the possibility of a beneficial effect of IgYs for the prevention of denture stomatitis and candidiasis in clinical settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Mayonnaise contributes to increasing postprandial serum β-carotene concentration through the emulsifying property of egg yolk in rats and humans.

    Takeda, Sayaka; Kimura, Mamoru; Marushima, Ranko; Takeuchi, Ayako; Takizawa, Kazue; Ogino, Yuji; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kunou, Masaaki; Hasegawa, Mineo; Maruyama, Chizuko


    We performed in vitro, animal, and human studies to clarify the effect of mayonnaise on β-carotene intake and its mechanism. In an artificial gastric juice model, we examined the transfer of β-carotene from grated carrot to mayonnaise or vegetable oil. Mayonnaise was more easily dispersed in artificial gastric juice than vegetable oil. The β-carotene concentration was greater in mayonnaise than vegetable oil. In rats, the postprandial serum β-carotene concentration in the mayonnaise group (β-carotene with mayonnaise) was higher than that in the control (β-carotene only) and vegetable oil (β-carotene with vegetable oil) groups. Continuous feeding of dietary β-carotene (14 d), employing mayonnaise or egg yolk, resulted in an increased accumulation of β-carotene in the liver. In a human study, diets were provided in the form of (1) carrot as a control (CON), (2) carrot juice (JU), (3) carrot with oil (OIL) and (4) carrot with mayonnaise (MS). Following collection of fasting blood samples, nine adult males consumed one of the four diets in random order. Fasting and postprandial changes in serum β-carotene were assessed at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 h following ingestion of each diet. The incremental areas under the curves of serum β-carotene concentration were higher following MS than following both CON and JU. In conclusion, we suggest that mayonnaise contributes to raising the serum β-carotene concentration when consumed with carrots rich in β-carotene, and that its mechanism is related to the emulsifying property of the egg yolk contained in mayonnaise.

  18. 卵黄抗体鸡蛋粉喷雾干燥工艺研究%Preparation of yolk immunoglobulin-rich egg powder by spray-drying

    谭佩毅; 黄秀锦


    以活性保留率、出粉率为指标,对影响卵黄抗体鸡蛋粉喷雾干燥效果的因素进行了考察,并通过正交实验确定了最佳工艺条件为:进料速度500mUh、蛋液质量浓度20%、进口温度160℃,此条件下出粉率达到16.23%,IgY(卵黄抗体球蛋白)活性保留率达到92.60%;各因素对出粉率的影响依次为:进口温度〉蛋液浓度〉进料速度。%The effect of reaction parameters on spray-drying of yolk immunoglobulin-rich egg powder were conducted to explore by single factor experiments and orthogonal experiment with activity assays of IgY(yolk immunoglobulin) and yield of egg powder as antigens. The optimal spray-drying conditions were obtained as follows:the feed flow rate was 500mL/h,the concentration of egg liquid was 20% and the inlet air temperature was 160℃. Under those conditions,the yield of egg powder was 16.23% and the activity assays of IgY was 92.60%. In addition,the inlet air temperature had the largest impact on the yield of egg powder followed by concentration of egg liquid and feed flow rate.

  19. 不同方法制蛋黄油中脂肪油的研究%Studies on Fatty Oils in Yolk Oil Processed by Different Methods

    张振凌; 房方; 李军; 张本山


    目的:考察不同炮制方法对蛋黄油中主要成分脂肪油的影响。方法:罗紫-哥特里法测定脂肪油含量,气相色谱法测定脂肪酸含量,药典法测定脂肪油理化性质。结果:烘法和干馏法炮制的蛋黄油中脂肪油含量,所含脂肪酸的种类、含量以及酸值、碘值、皂化值、相对密度、折光率相近,氯仿提取法制备品则差异较大。结论:烘法和干馏法制备的蛋黄油中脂肪油部分没有明显区别,二者与直接用氯仿提取的蛋黄脂肪油相比则有较大差异。%Objective:To investigate the influence of different processing methods on fatty oils in yolk oil. Method: The contents of fatty oils and fatty acids were determind by ROESS GOTTILE and GC respectively, and the physicochemical properties of fatty oils were identified by pharmacopoeial method. Result and Conclusion: The yolk oils processed by daking and dry distillation are almost similar in the contents of fatty oils, type of fatty acids, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, relative density and refractive index, while obvious differences were found in the products processed by chloroform extraction.

  20. Plasma membrane ATPases

    Palmgren, Michael Broberg; Bækgaard, Lone; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura


    The plasma membrane separates the cellular contents from the surrounding environment. Nutrients must enter through the plasma membrane in order to reach the cell interior, and toxic metabolites and several ions leave the cell by traveling across the same barrier. Biological pumps in the plasma me...

  1. Thin supported silica membranes

    Zivkovic, Tijana


    This thesis discusses several transport-related aspects relevant for the application of thin supported silica membranes for gas separation and nanofiltration. The influence of support geometry on overall membrane performance is investigated. Planar (i.e., flat plate), tubular, and multichannel suppo

  2. Membrane capacitive deionization

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Wal, van der A.


    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is an ion-removal process based on applying an electrical potential difference across an aqueous solution which flows in between oppositely placed porous electrodes, in front of which ion-exchange membranes are positioned. Due to the applied potential, ions ar

  3. Membrane projection lithography

    Burckel, David Bruce; Davids, Paul S; Resnick, Paul J; Draper, Bruce L


    The various technologies presented herein relate to a three dimensional manufacturing technique for application with semiconductor technologies. A membrane layer can be formed over a cavity. An opening can be formed in the membrane such that the membrane can act as a mask layer to the underlying wall surfaces and bottom surface of the cavity. A beam to facilitate an operation comprising any of implantation, etching or deposition can be directed through the opening onto the underlying surface, with the opening acting as a mask to control the area of the underlying surfaces on which any of implantation occurs, material is removed, and/or material is deposited. The membrane can be removed, a new membrane placed over the cavity and a new opening formed to facilitate another implantation, etching, or deposition operation. By changing the direction of the beam different wall/bottom surfaces can be utilized to form a plurality of structures.

  4. Ion-conducting membranes

    Masel, Richard L.; Chen, Qingmei; Liu, Zengcai; Kutz, Robert


    An ion conducting polymeric composition mixture comprises a copolymer of styrene and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. R.sub.s is selected from the group consisting of imidazoliums and pyridiniums. The composition contains 10%-90% by weight of vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. The composition can further comprise a polyolefin comprising substituted polyolefins, a polymer comprising cyclic amine groups, a polymer comprising at least one of a phenylene group and a phenyl group, a polyamide, and/or the reaction product of a constituent having two carbon-carbon double bonds. The composition can be in the form of a membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  5. Ion-conducting membranes

    Masel, Richard I.; Chen, Qingmei; Liu, Zengcai; Kutz, Robert


    An ion conducting polymeric composition mixture comprises a copolymer of styrene and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. R.sub.s is selected from the group consisting of imidazoliums, pyridiniums, pyrazoliums, pyrrolidiniums, pyrroliums, pyrimidiums, piperidiniums, indoliums, and triaziniums. The composition contains 10%-90% by weight of vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. The composition can further comprise a polyolefin comprising substituted polyolefins, a polymer comprising cyclic amine groups, a polymer comprising at least one of a phenylene group and a phenyl group, a polyamide, and/or the reaction product of a constituent having two carbon-carbon double bonds. The composition can be in the form of a membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  6. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuitry.

    Lequier, Laurance; Horton, Stephen B; McMullan, D Michael; Bartlett, Robert H


    The extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit is made of a number of components that have been customized to provide adequate tissue oxygen delivery in patients with severe cardiac and/or respiratory failure for a prolonged period of time (days to weeks). A standard extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit consists of a mechanical blood pump, gas-exchange device, and a heat exchanger all connected together with circuit tubing. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuits can vary from simple to complex and may include a variety of blood flow and pressure monitors, continuous oxyhemoglobin saturation monitors, circuit access sites, and a bridge connecting the venous access and arterial infusion limbs of the circuit. Significant technical advancements have been made in the equipment available for short- and long-term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation applications. Contemporary extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuits have greater biocompatibility and allow for more prolonged cardiopulmonary support time while minimizing the procedure-related complications of bleeding, thrombosis, and other physiologic derangements, which were so common with the early application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Modern era extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuitry and components are simpler, safer, more compact, and can be used across a wide variety of patient sizes from neonates to adults.

  7. Ordered ceramic membranes

    Anderson, M.A.; Hill, C.G. Jr.; Zeltner, W.A.


    Ceramic membranes have been formed from colloidal sols coated on porous clay supports. These supported membranes have been characterized in terms of their permeabilities and permselectivities to various aqueous test solutions. The thermal stabilities and pore structures of these membranes have been characterized by preparing unsupported membranes of the correpsonding material and performing N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption and X-ray diffraction studies on these membranes. To date, membranes have been prepared from a variety of oxides, including TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, as well as Zr-, Fe-, and Nb-doped TiO{sub 2}. In many of these membranes pore diameters are less than 2 nm, while in others the pore diameters are between 3 and 5 nm. Procedures for fabricating porous clay supports with reproducible permeabilities for pure water are also discussed. 30 refs., 59 figs., 22 tabs.


    Daniel J. Stepan; Bradley G. Stevens; Melanie D. Hetland


    The overall project consists of several integrated research phases related to the applicability, continued development, demonstration, and commercialization of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration process. Work performed during this reporting period consisted of Phase 2 evaluation of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration technology and Phase 3, Technology Partnering. During Phase 1 testing conducted at the EERC using the SpinTek ST-IIL unit operating on a surrogate tank waste, a solids cake developed on the membrane surface. The solids cake was observed where linear membrane velocities were less than 17.5 ft/s and reduced the unobstructed membrane surface area up to 25%, reducing overall filtration performance. The primary goal of the Phase 2 research effort was to enhance filtration performance through the development and testing of alternative turbulence promoter designs. The turbulence promoters were designed to generate a shear force across the entire membrane surface sufficient to maintain a self-cleaning membrane capability and improve filtration efficiency and long-term performance. Specific Phase 2 research activities included the following: System modifications to accommodate an 11-in.-diameter, two-disk rotating membrane assembly; Development and fabrication of alternative turbulence promoter designs; Testing and evaluation of the existing and alternative turbulence promoters under selected operating conditions using a statistically designed test matrix; and Data reduction and analysis; The objective of Phase 3 research was to demonstrate the effectiveness of SpinTek's centrifugal membrane filtration as a pretreatment to remove suspended solids from a liquid waste upstream of 3M's WWL cartridge technology for the selective removal of technetium (Tc).

  9. Electrochemically switchable polypyrrole coated membranes

    Weidlich, Claudia, E-mail: weidlich@dechema.d [DECHEMA e.V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Mangold, Klaus-Michael [DECHEMA e.V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)


    A method for coating membranes with polypyrrole (PPy) has been developed. Different membranes, such as microfiltration as well as ion exchanger membranes have been coated with PPy to yield electrical conductivity of the membranes. The coated membranes have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy and their permeability and permselectivity have been tested. The results show that PPy can be tailored as cation or anion exchanger and its porosity can be controlled to avoid any impairment of the membrane by the polymer layer. These PPy coated membranes can be applied as electrochemically switchable, functionalised membranes with controllabel and variable separation properties.

  10. Nanoengineered membrane electrode assembly interface

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A


    A membrane electrode structure suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that comprises membrane-affixed metal nanoparticles whose formation is controlled by a photochemical process that controls deposition of the metal nanoparticles using a photocatalyst integrated with a polymer electrolyte membrane, such as an ionomer membrane. Impregnation of the polymer membrane with the photocatalyst prior to metal deposition greatly reduces the required amount of metal precursor in the deposition reaction solution by restricting metal reduction substantially to the formation of metal nanoparticles affixed on or near the surface of the polymer membrane with minimal formation of metallic particles not directly associated with the membrane.

  11. Cor, betacaroteno e colesterol em gema de ovos obtidos de poedeiras que receberam diferentes dietas Color, beta-caroten and cholesterol in yolks of eggs by different diets of laying hens

    Luciana Marino e Biscaro


    Full Text Available O ovo é um alimento considerado nutricionalmente completo, e contém quantidade significativa de nutrientes. Para os consumidores, a qualidade deste alimento está relacionada com o prazo de validade do produto e com as características sensoriais, como cor da gema e da casca. Poucos estudos foram efetuados no Brasil sobre a utilização de agentes pigmentantes e seus efeitos sobre a coloração das gemas e proporção e qualidade química dos componentes do ovo. Com base nisso, objetivou-se com este trabalho relacionar diferentes dietas com cor, quantidade de betacaroteno e teor colesterol das gemas dos ovos. Foram coletados ovos de poedeiras que receberam 4 diferentes tipos de ração. A cor foi medida em colorímetro Minolta, o beta-caroteno separado em coluna e medido em espectrofotômetro e o colesterol extraído com clorofórmio e quantificado por método colorimétrico. Os resultados mostraram que não há relação entre a cor e aumento do teor de betacaroteno das gemas dos ovos, mas a alimentação alterou a cor da gema. O teor de colesterol foi diferente (pEgg is a nutritional complete food, and content significant quantity of nutrients. For the consumers, the food quality is related with validity date of product and with sensorial characteristics, like yolk color and hull. Few studies were done in Brazil about utilization of colorfull agents and theirs effects in yolk color and chemical quality of egg compounds. The objective of this research was related different feeds with the color, beta-carotene and cholesterol amount of egg yolk. Eggs were caught of laying hens that received 4 feed types. The color measure was done by Minolta colorimeter, beta-carotene separated by column and spectrophotometer and cholesterol separated with chloroform and measured by colorimetric method. The results showed that there is not a relation between the color an increase of beta-carotene amount in the yolks, but feed altered the yolk color. Cholesterol

  12. Hydrogen transport membranes

    Mundschau, Michael V.


    Composite hydrogen transport membranes, which are used for extraction of hydrogen from gas mixtures are provided. Methods are described for supporting metals and metal alloys which have high hydrogen permeability, but which are either too thin to be self supporting, too weak to resist differential pressures across the membrane, or which become embrittled by hydrogen. Support materials are chosen to be lattice matched to the metals and metal alloys. Preferred metals with high permeability for hydrogen include vanadium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, palladium, and alloys thereof. Hydrogen-permeable membranes include those in which the pores of a porous support matrix are blocked by hydrogen-permeable metals and metal alloys, those in which the pores of a porous metal matrix are blocked with materials which make the membrane impervious to gases other than hydrogen, and cermets fabricated by sintering powders of metals with powders of lattice-matched ceramic.

  13. Synthesis of zeolite membranes

    JIANG Haiyang; ZHANG Baoquan; Y. S. Lin; LI Yongdan


    Zeolite membranes offer great application potentials in membrane separation and/or reaction due to their excellent separation performance and catalytic ability. Up to present, various synthesis methods of zeolite membranes have been developed, including embedded method,in-situ hydrothermal synthesis method, and secondary growth method etc. Compared with the in-situ hydrothermal synthesis method, the secondary growth method possesses a variety of advantages such as easier operation, higher controllability in crystal orientation, microstructure and film thickness, leading to much better reproducibility. This review provides a concise summary and analysis of various synthesis methods reported in the literature. In particular, the secondary growth method was discussed in detail in terms of crystal orientation, defects and crystal grain layers. Some critical issues were also highlighted, which were conducive to the improvement in the synthesis technology of zeolite membranes.

  14. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors



    This factsheet describes a research project that will focus on the development and application of nonporous high gas flux perfluoro membranes with high temperature rating and excellent chemical resistance.

  15. Membranes and Fluorescence microscopy

    Bagatolli, Luis


    be provided by microscopy-related techniques. In this chapter, I will attempt to summarize representative examples concerning how microscopy (which provides information on membrane lateral organization by direct visualization) and spectroscopy techniques (which provides information about molecular interaction...

  16. Gel layer formation on membranes in Membrane Bioreactors

    Van den Brink, P.F.H.


    The widespread application of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for municipal wastewater treatment is hampered by membrane fouling. Fouling increases energy demand, reduces process performance and creates the need for more frequent (chemical) membrane cleaning or replacement. Membrane fouling in MBRs is k

  17. Impact on floating membranes

    Vandenberghe, Nicolas; Duchemin, Laurent


    When impacted by a rigid object, a thin elastic membrane with negligible bending rigidity floating on a liquid pool deforms. Two axisymmetric waves radiating from the impact point propagate. In the first place, a longitudinal wave front -- associated with in-plane deformation of the membrane and traveling at constant speed -- separates an outward stress free domain with a stretched but flat domain. Then, in the stretched domain a dispersive transverse wave travels at a wave speed that depends...

  18. Location and activity of ubiquinone 10 and ubiquinone analogues in model and biological membranes

    Cornell, B.A.; Keniry, M.A.; Post, A.; Roberston, R.N.; Weir, L.E.; Westerman, P.W.


    Deuteriated analogues of ubiquinone 10 (Q/sup 10/) have been dispersed with plasma membranes of Escherichia coli and with the inner membranes of beetroot mitochondria. Orientational order at various deuteriated sites was measured by solid-state deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (/sup 2/H NMR). Similar measurements were made, using the compounds dispersed in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and egg yolk lecithin and dispersions prepared from the lipid extracts of beetroot mitochondria. In all cases only a single unresolved /sup 2/H NMR spectrum (typically 1000-Hz full width at half-height) was observed at concentrations down to 0.02 mol % Q/sub 10/ per membrane lipid. This result shows that most Q/sub 10/ is in a mobile environment which is physically separate from the orientational constraints of the bilayer lipid chains. In contrast, a short-chain analog of Q/sub 10/, in which the 10 isoprene groups have been replaced by a perdeuteriated tridecyl chain, showed /sup 2/H NMR spectra with quadrupolar splittings typical of an ordered lipid that is intercalated into the bilayer. The NADH oxidase activity and O/sub 2/ uptake in Escherichia coli and in mitochondria were independent of which analog was incorporated into the membrane. Thus, despite the major difference in their physical association with membranes, or their lipid extracts, the electron transport function of the long- and short-chain ubiquinones is similar, suggesting that the bulk of the long-chain ubiquinone does not have a direct function in electron transporting activity. The physiologically active Q/sub 10/ may only be a small fraction of the total ubiquinone, a fraction that is below the level of detection of the present NMR equipment. However, our results do not support any model of Q/sub 10/ electron transport action that includes intercalation of the long isoprenoid chain in lipid.

  19. Area per lipid and cholesterol interactions in membranes from separated local-field (13)C NMR spectroscopy.

    Leftin, Avigdor; Molugu, Trivikram R; Job, Constantin; Beyer, Klaus; Brown, Michael F


    Investigations of lipid membranes using NMR spectroscopy generally require isotopic labeling, often precluding structural studies of complex lipid systems. Solid-state (13)C magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy at natural isotopic abundance gives site-specific structural information that can aid in the characterization of complex biomembranes. Using the separated local-field experiment DROSS, we resolved (13)C-(1)H residual dipolar couplings that were interpreted with a statistical mean-torque model. Liquid-disordered and liquid-ordered phases were characterized according to membrane thickness and average cross-sectional area per lipid. Knowledge of such structural parameters is vital for molecular dynamics simulations, and provides information about the balance of forces in membrane lipid bilayers. Experiments were conducted with both phosphatidylcholine (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC)) and egg-yolk sphingomyelin (EYSM) lipids, and allowed us to extract segmental order parameters from the (13)C-(1)H residual dipolar couplings. Order parameters were used to calculate membrane structural quantities, including the area per lipid and bilayer thickness. Relative to POPC, EYSM is more ordered in the ld phase and experiences less structural perturbation upon adding 50% cholesterol to form the lo phase. The loss of configurational entropy is smaller for EYSM than for POPC, thus favoring its interaction with cholesterol in raftlike lipid systems. Our studies show that solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy is applicable to investigations of complex lipids and makes it possible to obtain structural parameters for biomembrane systems where isotope labeling may be prohibitive.

  20. Innexin7a forms junctions that stabilize the basal membrane during cellularization of the blastoderm in Tribolium castaneum.

    van der Zee, Maurijn; Benton, Matthew A; Vazquez-Faci, Tania; Lamers, Gerda E M; Jacobs, Chris G C; Rabouille, Catherine


    In insects, the fertilized egg undergoes a series of rapid nuclear divisions before the syncytial blastoderm starts to cellularize. Cellularization has been extensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster, but its thick columnar blastoderm is unusual among insects. We therefore set out to describe cellularization in the beetle Tribolium castaneum, the embryos of which exhibit a thin blastoderm of cuboidal cells, like most insects. Using immunohistochemistry, live imaging and transmission electron microscopy, we describe several striking differences to cellularization in Drosophila, including the formation of junctions between the forming basal membrane and the yolk plasmalemma. To identify the nature of this novel junction, we used the parental RNAi technique for a small-scale screen of junction proteins. We find that maternal knockdown of Tribolium innexin7a (Tc-inx7a), an ortholog of the Drosophila gap junction gene Innexin 7, leads to failure of cellularization. In Inx7a-depleted eggs, the invaginated plasma membrane retracts when basal cell closure normally begins. Furthermore, transiently expressed tagged Inx7a localizes to the nascent basal membrane of the forming cells in wild-type eggs. We propose that Inx7a forms the newly identified junctions that stabilize the forming basal membrane and enable basal cell closure. We put forward Tribolium as a model for studying a more ancestral mode of cellularization in insects.

  1. Criticality in Plasma Membranes

    Machta, Benjamin; Papanikolaou, Stefanos; Sethna, James; Veatch, Sarah


    We are motivated by recent observations of micron-sized critical fluctuations in the 2d Ising Universality class in plasma membrane vesicles that are isolated from cortical cytoskeleton. We construct a minimal model of the plasma membrane's interaction with intact cytoskeleton which explains why large scale phase separation has not been observed in Vivo. In addition, we use analytical techniques from conformal field theory and numerical simulations to investigate the form of effective forces mediated by the membrane's proximity to criticality. We show that the range of this force is maximized near a critical point and we quantify its usefulness in mediating communication using techniques from information theory. Finally we use theoretical techniques from statistical physics in conjunction with Monte-Carlo simulations to understand how criticality can be used to increase the efficiency of membrane bound receptor mediated signaling. We expect that this sort of analysis will be broadly useful in understanding and quantifying the role of lipid ``rafts'' in a wide variety of membrane bound processes. Generally, we demonstrate that critical fluctuations provide a physical mechanism to organize and spatially segregate membrane components by providing channels for interaction over relatively large distances.


    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana


    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.


    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana


    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  4. Improved hydrophobic grid membrane filter method, using EF-18 agar, for detection of Salmonella in foods: collaborative study.

    Entis, P


    A collaborative study was carried out in 30 laboratories to validate improvements to the official final action hydrophobic grid membrane filter (HGMF) screening method for Salmonella in foods, 985.42, by comparing the performance of the improved HGMF method against that of the AOAC/BAM conventional culture method. Six products were included in the collaborative study: milk chocolate, raw deboned poultry meat, black pepper, soy flour, egg yolk powder, and nonfat dry milk. The raw deboned poultry meat was naturally contaminated with Salmonella, and the remaining 5 products were each inoculated in advance with low levels of individual Salmonella serotypes. The AOAC/BAM method produced 11 false negative results and the improved HGMF method produced 18 false negative results. The improved HGMF Salmonella method has been approved interim official first action for all foods to replace the HGMF official final action method, 985.42.

  5. Inverse colloidal crystal membranes for hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography.

    Vu, Anh T; Wang, Xinying; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil; Yu, Bing; Yuan, Hua; Cong, Hailin; Luo, Yongli; Tang, Jianguo


    Hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography has gained interest due to its excellent performance in the purification of humanized monoclonal antibodies. The membrane material used in hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography has typically been commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride. In this contribution, newly developed inverse colloidal crystal membranes that have uniform pores, high porosity and, therefore, high surface area for protein binding are used as hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography membranes for humanized monoclonal antibody immunoglobulin G purification. The capacity of the inverse colloidal crystal membranes developed here is up to ten times greater than commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride membranes with a similar pore size. This work highlights the importance of developing uniform pore size high porosity membranes in order to maximize the capacity of hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Fabrication of electrospun nanofibrous membranes for membrane distillation application

    Francis, Lijo


    Nanofibrous membranes of Matrimid have been successfully fabricated using an electrospinning technique under optimized conditions. Nanofibrous membranes are found to be highly hydrophobic with a high water contact angle of 130°. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and pore size distribution analysis revealed the big pore size structure of electrospun membranes to be greater than 2 μm and the pore size distribution is found to be narrow. Flat sheet Matrimid membranes were fabricated via casting followed by phase inversion. The morphology, pore size distribution, and water contact angle were measured and compared with the electrospun membranes. Both membranes fabricated by electrospinning and phase inversion techniques were tested in a direct contact membrane distillation process. Electrospun membranes showed high water vapor flux of 56 kg/m2-h, which is very high compared to the casted membrane as well as most of the fabricated and commercially available highly hydrophobic membranes. ©2013 Desalination Publications.

  7. Biomimetic membranes and methods of making biomimetic membranes

    Rempe, Susan; Brinker, Jeffrey C.; Rogers, David Michael; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Yang, Shaorong


    The present disclosure is directed to biomimetic membranes and methods of manufacturing such membranes that include structural features that mimic the structures of cellular membrane channels and produce membrane designs capable of high selectivity and high permeability or adsorptivity. The membrane structure, material and chemistry can be selected to perform liquid separations, gas separation and capture, ion transport and adsorption for a variety of applications.

  8. Fractal reconstruction of rough membrane surface related with membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor.

    Zhang, Meijia; Chen, Jianrong; Ma, Yuanjun; Shen, Liguo; He, Yiming; Lin, Hongjun


    In this paper, fractal reconstruction of rough membrane surface with a modified Weierstrass-Mandelbrot (WM) function was conducted. The topography of rough membrane surface was measured by an atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the results showed that the membrane surface was isotropous. Accordingly, the fractal dimension and roughness of membrane surface were calculated by the power spectrum method. The rough membrane surface was reconstructed on the MATLAB platform with the parameter values acquired from raw AFM data. The reconstructed membrane was much similar to the real membrane morphology measured by AFM. The parameters (including average roughness and root mean square (RMS) roughness) associated with membrane morphology for the model and real membrane were calculated, and a good match of roughness parameters between the reconstructed surface and real membrane was found, indicating the feasibility of the new developed method. The reconstructed membrane surface can be potentially used for interaction energy evaluation.

  9. Relative efficacy of egg yolk and soya milk-based extenders for cryopreservation (−196°C of buffalo semen

    D.V. Chaudhari


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to compare commercially available soybean milk-based extenders, viz. Bioxcell® and Optixcell® (IMV, France with standard Tris-citrate-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol (TFYG extender for cryopreservation of buffalo semen. Materials and Methods: Semen was collected twice a week in artificial vagina from six sexually mature, 4-6 years old, healthy breeding bulls of Surti buffalo breed. In all 48 qualifying ejaculates (8 per bull having initial motility >70% were split into three equal aliquots and were diluted (at 34°C keeping 100×106 sperm ml−1 in TFYG, Bioxcell and Optixcell extenders. The French mini straws filled from each aliquot were gradually cooled to 4-5°C, equilibrated at 4°C for 4 h and frozen in liquid nitrogen 2 vapor using programmable biofreezer. Just before freezing (post-equilibration and 24 h after frozen storage, the samples were evaluated for various sperm quality parameters using standard protocols. Frozen semen straws were thawed in a water bath at 37°C for 30 s. The post-thaw incubation survival (37°C for 1 h was assessed through motility rating at 0, 30 and 60 min of incubation. Results: The mean percentages of prefreeze sperms in TFYG, Bioxcell and Optixcell extenders in terms of progressive motility (69.48±0.37, 68.02±0.49, 70.94±0.38, viability (79.21±0.39, 77.38±0.48, 81.58±0.38, total abnormalities (7.90±0.14, 8.60±0.16, 7.08±0.15, intact acrosome (89.54± 0.18, 88.58±0.22, 90.52±0.21 and hypoosmotic swelling (HOS reactivity (67.96±0.32, 65.65±0.42, 70.23±0.37 varied significantly (p<0.05 between extenders. Similar pattern of significant (p<0.05 variations between these extenders for post-thaw sperm progressive motility (47.71±0.79, 44.38±0.85, 49.90±0.90, viability (57.19±0.79, 53.85±0.84, 59.67±0.91, total abnormalities (12.33±0.17, 12.75±0.21, 11.27±0.18, intact acrosome (76.83±0.23, 75.90± 0.27, 78.50±0.25 and HOS reactivity (45.02±0.84, 42.31±0.82, 47.81±0.90 was

  10. 儿童卵黄囊瘤病理学特征及鉴别诊断%Pathological characteristics and differential diagnosis of yolk sac tumor in children

    许恪淳; 管雯斌; 许艳春; 姚晓虹; 王立峰; 祝明洁


    Objective To investigate the pathological features of yolk sac tumor ( YST) in children, determine the immunohistochemical characteristics and their role in pathological diagnosis of YST, and discuss the differential diagnosis of YST. Methods The clinical data of 21 cases of YST were retrospectively summarized, among which 8 were concerned with gonad, and the other 13 non-gonad. The characteristics of histology and immunohistochemical staining were observed. Results There were various pathological organizations for YST. There was micro capsule and reticular structure in 17 cases, embryo sinus structure in 16 cases, gland tube-gland bubble structure in 10 cases, papillary structure in 8 cases, giant cystic structure in 3 cases, intestinal type structure in 3 cases, polycystic bubble yolk sac sample structure in 2 cases and mucus tumor sample structure in 1 case. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the positive expression rate of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was 95. 24% (20/21), that of cytokeratin ( CK) was 100% (21/21), and that of vimentin ( Vim) was 76. 19% (16/21) . Conclusion Besides gonad (testis and ovary), YST in children can also involve non-gonad parts such as sacroiliac region, abdominopelvic cavity, cerebellum and soft tissues. The histological features of YST are diverse, which are characterized by the common structures such as micro capsule and reticular structure, inner embryo sinus structure, gland tube-gland bubble structure and papillary structure and rare structures such as giant cystic structure, intestinal type structure, mucus tumor sample structure and polycystic bubble yolk sac sample structure. Histomorphological characteristics and immunohistochemical findings may help to determine the pathological diagnosis and differential diagnosis of YST.%目的 了解儿童卵黄囊瘤(YST)的组织形态学特征,明确免疫组织化学特点及其在YST病理学诊断中的作用,探讨YST鉴别诊断要点.方法 回顾总结21例YST(性腺8

  11. Membrane biology: fission behind BARs.

    Haucke, Volker


    Membrane bending is accomplished in part by amphipathic helix insertion into the bilayer and the assembly of BAR domain scaffolds preparing the membrane for fission. Two recent studies highlight the roles of amphipathic helices and BAR scaffolds in membrane fission and establish the structural basis of membrane bending by the N-BAR protein endophilin.

  12. A facile in situ self-assembly strategy for large-scale fabrication of CHS@MOF yolk/shell structure and its catalytic application in a flow system.

    Gao, Hongyi; Luan, Yi; Chaikittikul, Kullapat; Dong, Wenjun; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiaowei; Jia, Dandan; Yang, Mu; Wang, Ge


    A hierarchical yolk/shell copper hydroxysulfates@MOF (CHS@MOF, where MOF = metal-organic frameworks) structure was fabricated from a homogeneous yolk/shell CHS template composed of an active shell and a stabilized core via a facile self-template strategy at room temperature. The active shell of the template served as the source of metal ion and was in situ transformed into a well-defined MOF crystal shell, and the relatively stabilized core retained its own nature during the formation of the MOF shell. The strategy of in situ transformation of CHS shell to MOF shell avoided the self-nucleation of MOF in the solution and complex multistep procedures. Furthermore, a flow reaction system using CHS@MOF as self-supported stationary-phase catalyst was developed, which demonstrated excellent catalytic performance for aldehyde acetalization with ethanol, and high yields and selectivities were achieved under mild conditions.

  13. 蛋黄水凝胶中可冻结水的同步热分析结果及其讨论%The Results of the Freezing Water in Yolk Hydrogel by Simultaneous Thermal Analysis and Its Discussions

    何婷; 王丽娜; 李新芳


    为了研究蛋白质水凝胶中水的状态,利用同步热分析仪,研究了鸡蛋中蛋黄和蒸馏水的热流量、质量随温度的变化.实验结果表明:1)在-50℃~50℃温度范围内,以10K/min的升温过程中,蛋黄和蒸馏水样品均出现了熔化现象,在测量温度范围内样品的热性质与热历史无关.2)蛋黄样品和蒸馏水的熔化峰形在测量的温度区间内,低温区重合得不是很好,但在高温区有很好的重合,说明蛋黄和蒸馏水样品的吸热行为在初始熔化时不同,在峰值以上温区内,基本一致.3)蛋黄蛋白质水凝胶中可冻结水晶粒尺寸与蒸馏水中的晶粒尺寸不同,导致了蛋黄中可冻结水与等质量的蒸馏水在熔化过程中吸收的热量不同,且蛋黄的熔化峰出现在比蒸馏水熔化峰低的温区内.4)实验经过多次反复测量,实验结果具有很好的可靠性和可重复性,表明利用DSC方法通过熔化峰的吸热量计算蛋白质水凝胶中可冻结水含量的方法存在系统误差,但偶然误差小.%To study of water status in protein hydrogel, Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer is employed to study yolk samples and distilled samples water, and the heat flow Φ and the relative quality m/m0 changes with temperature T of which are gained. The following results are gotten after the analysis. 1) Both yolk and distilled water have the melting phenomena and absorb heat in the heating process, in the temperature range of-50℃~50℃, which in the 10K/min heating process respectively;Moreover,the experiment shows that the change of yolk is a reversible process without the thermal history. 2) The melting peaks of yolk and distilled water are significantly different at low temperature,but in the high temperature side show good similarity, however, which show that the melting mechanism of yolk and distilled water is different at the initial melting and the same above the melting peak temperature

  14. Antimicrobial residue detection in chicken yolk samples following administration to egg-producing chickens and effects of residue detection on competitive exclusion culture (PREEMPT) establishment.

    McReynolds, J L; Caldwell, D Y; McElroy, A P; Hargis, B M; Caldwell, D J


    Competitive exclusion (CE) cultures may offer alternatives to antimicrobial agents for disease prophylaxis in poultry. To avoid potential transfer of antibiotic resistance, safe and effective CE cultures must, by necessity, be highly sensitive to antimicrobial residues. The following studies evaluated the effect of maternal administration of selected antibiotics on the establishment of a licensed CE culture, PREEMPT. Selected antibiotics were administered to actively laying hens for a period of 7 days (experiment 1) or 9 days (experiment 2) in drinking water [sulfadimethoxine (0.05%), enrofloxacin (0.005%), and tylosin tartrate (0.05%)] or feed (sulfadimethoxine with ormetoprim, 250 ppm). In experiment 1, fertile eggs were collected daily and subjected to bioassay for detectable antimicrobial residues in yolk. Antimicrobial residues were not detected during the 7 days of treatment or the subsequent 3 days following cessation of treatment in the control, sulfadimethoxine, sulfadimethoxine with ormetoprim, or tylosin treatment groups. However, detectable residues were observed in eggs derived from enrofloxacin-treated hens on days 6 and 7 during antibiotic administration and also on days 2 and 3 post-antibiotic administration. In experiment 2, antimicrobial residues were also only detected in yolks from hens treated with enrofloxacin. Residue detection occurred on days 2-6 of antibiotic administration, on day 9 of antibiotic administration, on days 1-3 post-antibiotic administration, and also on day 7 post-antibiotic administration. A subset of eggs from each experimental group, corresponding to days 2-6 of antibiotic administration, days 4-6 post-antibiotic administration, and days 14-16 post-antibiotic administration, were pooled for incubation, and chicks hatched from these pools of fertile eggs were treated with PREEMPT at hatch. When 48-h cecal propionate concentrations were used as an index of culture establishment, reduced (P < 0.05) efficacy was observed only

  15. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims


    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the current research, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured as a function of temperature in air. Based on these measurements, the charge carrier concentration, net acceptor dopant concentration, activation energy of conduction and mobility were estimated. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature have been completed and reported previously. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affects the mechanical properties. To study the effect of temperature on the membranes when exposed to an inert environment, the membranes (LAFT and Dual phase) were heat treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} atmosphere and hardness and fracture toughness of the membranes were studied after the treatment. The indentation method was used to find the fracture toughness and the effect of the heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the membranes. Further results on the investigation of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appears to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model will serve to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  16. Evolutionary origins of membrane proteins

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.; Galperin, Michael Y.

    Although the genes that encode membrane proteins make about 30% of the sequenced genomes, the evolution of membrane proteins and their origins are still poorly understood. Here we address this topic by taking a closer look at those membrane proteins the ancestors of which were present in the Last Universal Common Ancestor, and in particular, the F/V-type rotating ATPases. Reconstruction of their evolutionary history provides hints for understanding not only the origin of membrane proteins, but also of membranes themselves. We argue that the evolution of biological membranes could occur as a process of coevolution of lipid bilayers and membrane proteins, where the increase in the ion-tightness of the membrane bilayer may have been accompanied by a transition from amphiphilic, pore-forming membrane proteins to highly hydrophobic integral membrane complexes.

  17. Electrical properties of polar membranes

    Mosgaard, Lars D; Heimburg, Thomas


    Biological membranes are capacitors that can be charged by applying a field across the membrane. The charges on the capacitor exert a force on the membrane that leads to electrostriction, i.e. a thinning of the membrane. Since the force is quadratic in voltage, negative and positive voltage have an identical influence on the physics of symmetric membranes. However, this is not the case for a membrane with an asymmetry leading to a permanent electric polarization. Positive and negative voltages of identical magnitude lead to different properties. Such an asymmetry can originate from a lipid composition that is different on the two monolayers of the membrane, or from membrane curvature. The latter effect is called 'flexoelectricity'. As a consequence of permanent polarization, the membrane capacitor is discharged at a voltage different from zero. This leads to interesting electrical phenomena such as outward or inward rectification of membrane permeability. Here, we introduce a generalized theoretical framework...

  18. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine


    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  19. Surface glycosylation of polymeric membranes

    DAI ZhengWei; WAN LingShu; XU ZhiKang


    Surface glycosylation of polymeric membranes has been inspired by the structure of natural biomembranes. It refers to that glycosyl groups are introduced onto the membrane surface by various strategies, which combine the separation function of the membrane with the biological function of the saccharides in one system. In this review, progress in the surface glycosylation of polymeric membranes is highlighted in two aspects, i.e. the glycosylation methods and the potential applications of the surface-glycosylated membranes.

  20. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    Erşahin, M.E.


    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become m