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Sample records for yolk membrane zfym

  1. Laminin, a noncollagenous component of epithelial basement membranes synthesized by a rat yolk sac tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R; Ruoslahti, E

    1981-01-01

    Laminin, a glycoprotein antigenically similar or identical to a component of epithelial basement membranes, was identified as a major component of the abundant extracellular matrix synthesized by an experimentally induced rat yolk sac tumor. Immunocytochemical staining revealed laminin in cultured...... polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 200,000 and 400,000. These comigrated with the polypeptides of mouse laminin isolated previously. The yolk sac tumor tissue grown in vivo contained laminin in the tumor cells and in the extracellular material as evidenced by immunofluorescence...... membranes in rat tissues in a manner indistinguishable from antilaminin. The presence of laminin in rat yolk sac cells, the presumed origin of our yolk sac tumor, was studied in some detail. Laminin was found to be present in normal cells of the visceral as well as the parietal yolk sac layer...

  2. Egg yolk plasma can replace egg yolk in stallion freezing extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet, E; Duchamp, G; Batellier, F; Beaumal, V; Anton, M; Desherces, S; Schmitt, E; Magistrini, M

    2011-01-01

    Hen egg yolk is normally used as a cryoprotective agent in semen freezing extenders, but its use has sanitary and practical disadvantages. Moreover the protection afforded by egg yolk has not yet been completely elucidated. The objective of this study was to compare the egg yolk plasma fraction to whole egg yolk in stallion freezing extender. Plasma contains mainly Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), which are widely presumed to be the cryoprotective agent in egg yolk. Plasma can be produced on an industrial scale, sterilised by gamma-irradiation and incorporated in a ready-to-use extender (our ultimate objective). Plasma samples were subjected to different doses of gamma-irradiation (3, 5, 10 kGy) without dramatic chemical changes that may affect their cryoprotective properties. Stallion semen was frozen with whole egg yolk as a control and with sterilised egg yolk plasma. A fertility trial was conducted on a total of 70 mares' cycles. Fertility per cycle was 60% after insemination of semen frozen in our control extender containing egg yolk (EY), compared to 69% for the extender containing sterilised egg yolk plasma (EYP) (P > 0.05). Post-thaw motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa were also analysed. Motility parameters were not significantly different between extenders except for the variable VAP (for EY versus EYP, VAP: 63 μm.s(-1) versus 59 μm.s(-1), a, b: P 0.05). Membrane integrity was better preserved in EY than in EYP but the difference between extenders was small (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrated that sterilised egg yolk plasma has the potential to replace egg yolk in stallion freezing extender. This experiment led to the development of a ready-to-use extender called INRA-Freeze(®) (IMV-Technologies, France). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Embryonic cholesterol esterification is regulated by a cyclic AMP-dependent pathway in yolk sac membrane-derived endodermal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siou-Huei Wang

    Full Text Available During avian embryonic development, endodermal epithelial cells (EECs absorb yolk through the yolk sac membrane. Sterol O-acyltransferase (SOAT is important for esterification and yolk lipid utilization during development. Because the major enzyme for yolk sac membrane cholesteryl ester synthesis is SOAT1, we cloned the avian SOAT1 promoter and elucidated the cellular functions of SOAT1. Treatments with either glucagon, isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX, an adenylate cyclase activator (forskolin, a cAMP analog (dibutyryl-cAMP, or a low glucose concentration all increased SOAT1 mRNA accumulation in EECs from Japanese quail, suggesting that SOAT1 is regulated by nutrients and hormones through a cAMP-dependent pathway. Activity of protein kinase A (PKA was increased by IBMX, whereas co-treatment with the PKA inhibitor, H89 negated the increase in PKA activity. Cyclic AMP-induced EECs had greater cholesterol esterification than untreated EECs. By promoter deletion and point-mutation, the cAMP-response element (-349 to -341 bp was identified as critical in mediating transcription of SOAT1. In conclusion, expression of SOAT1 was regulated by a cAMP-dependent pathway and factors that increase PKA will increase SOAT1 to improve the utilization of lipids in the EECs and potentially modify embryonic growth.

  4. Embryo yolk sac membrane kynurenine formamidase of l-tryptophan to NAD+ pathway as a primary target for organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) in OPI-induced NAD-associated avian teratogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Josef

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to provide in ovo evidence for the proposed role of kynurenine formamidase of l-tryptophan to NAD + pathway in embryo yolk sac membranes as a primary target for organophosphorus insecticide (OPI) teratogens in OPI-induced NAD-associated avian teratogenesis. Slices prepared from yolk sac membranes or embryo livers of chicken eggs treated with the OPI dicrotophos and/or methyl parathion were incubated with l-tryptophan. Yolk sac membrane slices metabolized l-tryptophan in the pathway to NAD + before that function was established in livers. OPI interfered in ovo with the second step of l-tryptophan to NAD + biosynthesis by inhibiting kynurenine formamidase. Its inhibition due to the teratogen dicrotophos occurred in yolk sac membranes during the period of embryo highest susceptibility to OPI teratogens in contrast to delayed and lower inhibition caused by the nonteratogen methyl parathion. Both OPI affected liver kynurenine formamidase in a similar manner. The onsets of liver enzyme inhibition, however, were delayed by about two days and occurred at the time of the reduced embryo susceptibility to teratogens. The early disruption of l-tryptophan metabolism and higher inhibition of kynurenine formamidase in yolk sac membranes may be the factors that determine action of OPI as teratogens in chicken embryos. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of egg weight on composition, embryonic growth, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M X; Li, X G; Yan, H C; Wang, X Q; Gao, C Q

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of egg weight on the composition of the egg, the growth of the embryo, and the expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia). A total of 240 fertilized eggs were collected and divided into two groups based on the weight of the eggs, light (LE) and heavy (HE). The composition of 20 eggs from each group was measured, and the remaining eggs were weighed and placed in an incubator. On embryonic days (E) 9, 11, 13, and 15 and day of hatch (DOH), 15 embryos/hatchlings from each group were measured for embryonic growth, and samples were collected. The HE had heavier yolk and albumen weights than the LE (P < 0.01). Compared with the LE, the HE had heavier yolk-free embryonic body and yolk sac weights from E13 to DOH (P < 0.05). Additionally, the HE had larger yolk sac membrane weights from E13 to E15 (P < 0.05) and had more residual yolk sac content on DOH than those of the LE (P < 0.01). The yolk absorption was greater for the HE than for the LE from E11 to E13 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the abundance of CAT2 and PepT1 mRNA in the yolk sac membranes was greater in the HE than in the LE on E13 (P < 0.05). Compared with the LE, the gene expression of EAAT2 in the intestine on E13 was greater in the HE, whereas the expression of EAAT3 was lower in the HE (P < 0.05). Taken together, our results suggest that egg weight influenced the composition of the eggs, embryonic development, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of pigeon embryos. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Egg Yolk Protective Effect in Boar Spermatozoa Cooled at 5ºC

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    Alexandru-Vasile Rusu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many boar reproduction researches are directed to improve extenders and to increase cold shock protection of semen. Little research is focused on the influence of egg yolk combined with alternative cold shock protective media. Egg yolk could interfere with other compounds present in the extender composition. The influence of egg yolk addition was assessed in boar sperm cells, cooled at 5ºC, to elucidate its effect on motility and membrane integrity. Flow Cytometry and Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA were used to determine the rate of sperm with intact plasma and acrosomal membrane, respectively the sperm cells motility. Statistical analyses (T-Test were performed using GraphPad Prism version 5.00. Androhep Plus supplemented with 20% egg yolk (AhPlus+20%EY indicated a higher cold shock protection in progressive motility (93.9±2.64% and membrane integrity (79.78±4.14%, rather than the extender without egg yolk (p0.05. The combination egg yolk-AhPlus seems to be an alternative to standard extenders, conferring stability in boar sperm cells against cold shock.

  7. Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R

    1984-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma has been purified and partially characterized. The proteoglycan has an apparent Mr of 750 000, 35% of which represents the core protein. The core protein seems to be homogeneous, whereas the heparan sulfate chains are heterogeneous...... with an Mr of about 50 000-70 000, with 30% of the glucosamine being N-sulfated. Antibodies raised against the core protein of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan reacted with basement membranes of various rat and human tissue....

  8. The Atg1-Tor pathway regulates yolk catabolism in Drosophila embryos.

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    Kuhn, Hallie; Sopko, Richelle; Coughlin, Margaret; Perrimon, Norbert; Mitchison, Tim

    2015-11-15

    Yolk provides an important source of nutrients during the early development of oviparous organisms. It is composed mainly of vitellogenin proteins packed into membrane-bound compartments called yolk platelets. Catabolism of yolk is initiated by acidification of the yolk platelet, leading to the activation of Cathepsin-like proteinases, but it is unknown how this process is triggered. Yolk catabolism initiates at cellularization in Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Using maternal shRNA technology we found that yolk catabolism depends on the Tor pathway and on the autophagy-initiating kinase Atg1. Whereas Atg1 was required for a burst of spatially regulated autophagy during late cellularization, autophagy was not required for initiating yolk catabolism. We propose that the conserved Tor metabolic sensing pathway regulates yolk catabolism, similar to Tor-dependent metabolic regulation on the lysosome. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Basement membrane components secreted by mouse yolk sac carcinoma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damjanov, A; Wewer, U M; Tuma, B

    1990-01-01

    Three new cell lines (NE, ME, LRD) were cloned from mouse-embryo-derived teratocarcinomas and characterized on the basis of developmental, ultrastructural, and cytochemical criteria as nullipotent embryonal carcinoma (EC), pure parietal yolk sac (PYS) carcinoma and mixed parieto-visceral yolk sac...

  10. Silencing of RpATG6 impaired the yolk accumulation and the biogenesis of the yolk organelles in the insect vector R. prolixus.

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    Priscila H Vieira

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In oviparous animals, the egg yolk is synthesized by the mother in a major metabolic challenge, where the different yolk components are secreted to the hemolymph and delivered to the oocytes mostly by endocytosis. The yolk macromolecules are then stored in a wide range of endocytic-originated vesicles which are collectively referred to as yolk organelles and occupy most of the mature oocytes cytoplasm. After fertilization, the contents of these organelles are degraded in a regulated manner to supply the embryo cells with fundamental molecules for de novo synthesis. Yolk accumulation and its regulated degradation are therefore crucial for successful development, however, most of the molecular mechanisms involved in the biogenesis, sorting and degradation of targeted yolk organelles are still poorly understood. ATG6 is part of two PI3P-kinase complexes that can regulate the recruitment of the endocytic or the autophagy machineries. Here, we investigate the role of RpATG6 in the endocytosis of the yolk macromolecules and in the biogenesis of the yolk organelles in the insect vector Rhodnius prolixus. We found that vitellogenic females express high levels of RpATG6 in the ovaries, when compared to the levels detected in the midgut and fat body. RNAi silencing of RpATG6 resulted in yolk proteins accumulated in the vitellogenic hemolymph, as a consequence of poor uptake by the oocytes. Accordingly, the silenced oocytes are unviable, white (contrasting to the control pink oocytes, smaller (62% of the control oocyte volume and accumulate only 40% of the yolk proteins, 80% of the TAG and 50% of the polymer polyphosphate quantified in control oocytes. The cortex of silenced oocytes present atypical smaller vesicles indicating that the yolk organelles were not properly formed and/or sorted, which was supported by the lack of endocytic vesicles near the plasma membrane of silenced oocytes as seen by TEM. Altogether, we found that RpATG6 is central for the

  11. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen so...

  12. Cryopreservation of Dog Semen in a Tris Extender with 1% or 2% Soya Bean Lecithin as a Replacement of Egg Yolk.

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    Axnér, E; Lagerson, E

    2016-04-01

    Egg yolk is usually included in extenders used for preservation of dog semen. Lecithin is an interesting animal-protein free alternative to egg yolk for semen preservation. The aim of our study was to evaluate soya bean lecithin for cryopreservation of dog semen. Five ejaculate replicates were divided in three equal parts, centrifuged and each pellet diluted with one of the three Tris-based extenders containing 20% egg yolk, 1% soya bean lecithin or 2% soya bean lecithin. Extended semen was loaded in 0.5-ml straws, cooled and diluted a second time and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapours. Sperm motility parameters (CASA), acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA/PI) and sperm membrane integrity (C-FDA) were evaluated 5 min post-thaw and after 2 and 4 h of incubation. Total motility was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in any of the lecithin-based extender and was better in the 1% lecithin extender than in the 2% lecithin extender. Sperm membrane integrity was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in any of the lecithin-based extenders but did not differ significantly between the 1% and 2% lecithin extenders. Acrosome integrity was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in the 2% lecithin extender but did not differ between the egg yolk extender and the 1% lecithin extender or between the two lecithin extenders. In conclusion, egg yolk was superior to lecithin in our study. The extender with 1% lecithin preserved sperm motility better than the extender with 2% lecithin. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Testing an egg yolk supplemented diet on boars to aid in sperm adaptation at 5°C.

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    Casas, Isabel; Miller-Lux, Yvonne; Osborne, Betty; Bonet, Sergi; Althouse, Gary C

    2015-01-01

    In many species, extended semen can be stored at low temperatures to slow bacterial growth. However, boar semen performs poorly at temperatures below 15 °C and this poses unique challenges, as it is not easy to maintain a constant 15-19 °C during shipment. Some extenders have been formulated with egg yolk for storage at 5 °C but the addition of egg yolk is not applicable in the majority of commercial operations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if boar dietary supplementation with powdered egg yolk imparts any protective effects on sperm quality when stored at 15 °C and 5 °C for up to 11 days in a conventional extender. Ten boars were fed a commercial diet with the addition of 0.11 Kg of powdered egg yolk for 10 weeks. Ejaculates collected on weeks 4, 6, 8, and 10 were processed for storage at both 15 °C and 5 °C and compared with ejaculates from boars fed a standard diet. Throughout an 11-day storage period, sperm quality was assessed including several motility and morphologic parameters and select plasma membrane properties (fluidity, integrity, and triacylglycerol content). Linear regression models were used to describe effects of treatment, storage day, week and temperature on all sperm parameters. Overall, there were minimal beneficial effects of egg yolk treatment on sperm quality parameters. Sperm from egg yolk supplemented boars did have a slower decline in viability and plasma membrane fluidity than that observed in the control sperm when stored at 5 °C (p boars compared to controls at week 10 (p boars.

  14. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg yolks. 160.185 Section 160.185 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.185 Dried egg yolks. (a) Dried egg yolks, dried yolks is the food prepared by drying egg yolks that conform to...

  15. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks that...

  16. Effects of DHA-enriched hen egg yolk and L-cysteine supplementation on quality of cryopreserved boar semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanapiwat, Panida; Kaeoket, Kampon; Tummaruk, Padet

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched hen egg yolks and L-cysteine supplementation on the qualities of the cryopreserved boar semen. A total of 15 ejaculates from 5 Pietrain boars were divided into 4 groups according to the compositions of the freezing extenders used, that is, normal hen egg yolk (group I), DHA-enriched hen egg yolk (group II), normal hen egg yolk with 5 mmol L(-1) of cysteine supplementation (group III) and DHA-enriched hen egg yolk with 5 mmol L(-1) of cysteine supplementation (group IV). The semen was cryopreserved using controlled rate freezer and was thawed at 50 degrees C for 12 s. Progressive motility, sperm viability, acrosome integrity and functional integrity of sperm plasma membrane of the post-thawed semen were evaluated. The supplementation of L-cysteine in the freezing extender alone (group III) improved progressive motility (P semen qualities (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the supplementation of antioxidant L-cysteine alone or in combination with DHA-enriched hen egg yolk significantly improved the post-thawed semen qualities, especially progressive motility and acrosome integrity.

  17. Yolk formation in some Charadriiform birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudybush, T.E.; Grau, C.R.; Petersen, M.R.; Ainley, D.G.; Hirsch, K.V.; Gilman, A.P.; Patten, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    By counting and measuring the major ova of breeding birds at autopsy and combining these data with time intervals between ovipositions, rough estimates have been made of the time required to form yolk in some non-captive birds (King 1973). Direct studies have been made in domestic fowl (Gallus gallus var. domesticus; Gilbert 1972), turkeys (Meleagris galloparvo; Bacon and Cherms 1968), and Common quail (Coturnix coturnix; Bacon and Koontz 1971), by feeding the birds a capsule containing dye each day, and counting dye rings in the yolks after the eggs have been hardcooked. Recently developed methods of fixing and staining eggs have revealed differences in yolk deposited during day and night, thus permitting another estimation of the number of days during which yolk was deposited, and without direct contact with the female (Grau 1976). In eggs from chickens and quail that have been fed dyes, yolk that stained darkly with dichromate was shown to be deposited during the active daytime feeding periods, while pale-staining yolk was deposited during the night. Thus, pairs of light and dark rings, which together take a day to be deposited, may be counted to estimate time of yolk formation.In the present study we have applied the yolk ring method of estimating the number of days during which the bulk of the yolk is deposited around the central white core (Grau 1976) to the eggs of some shorebirds, gulls, terns and alcids.

  18. In vitro assessment of soybean lecithin and egg yolk based diluents for cryopreservation of goat semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani, Hossein; Towhidi, Armin; Zhandi, Mahdi; Bahreini, Majid; Sharafi, Mohsen

    2014-04-01

    Soybean lecithin is a suitable plant-based cryoprotectant for freezing ruminant sperm. Optimum level of lecithin was not clear for goat semen cryopreservation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of soybean lecithin in semen extender on post-thaw sperm quality including CASA-motion parameters, viability, plasma membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation. Semen samples were collected from 4 Mahabadi bucks using an artificial vagina. Different concentrations of soy lecithin (SL, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5% w/v) were compared to 15% (v/v) egg yolk-based extender (TR-EY). No significant difference was observed for sperm progressive motility, viability or plasma membrane integrity in 1.5% SL media (33.8%, 66%, and 62.7%, respectively) and TR-EY medium (35.4%, 67.2%, and 64.9%, respectively). Sperm motion characteristics (VAP, VSL, VCL, ALH and LIN) and rapid spermatozoa were improved with extender containing 1% and 1.5% SL, compared to TR-EY extender. Furthermore, egg yolk produced significantly higher malondialdehyde (4.02±0.21) than other groups. Results suggest that the optimal lecithin concentration in the semen extender was 1.5% and also soy lecithin can substitute for egg yolk during cryopreservation for caprine sperm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The multivariate egg: quantifying within- and among-clutch correlations between maternally derived yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens using multivariate mixed models.

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    Postma, Erik; Siitari, Heli; Schwabl, Hubert; Richner, Heinz; Tschirren, Barbara

    2014-03-01

    Egg components are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects in birds and other oviparous species. Because different egg components can have opposite effects on offspring phenotype, selection is expected to favour their mutual adjustment, resulting in a significant covariation between egg components within and/or among clutches. Here we tested for such correlations between maternally derived yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens in great tit (Parus major) eggs using a multivariate mixed-model approach. We found no association between yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens within clutches, indicating that within clutches the two egg components are deposited independently. Across clutches, however, there was a significant negative relationship between yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens, suggesting that selection has co-adjusted their deposition. Furthermore, an experimental manipulation of ectoparasite load affected patterns of covariance among egg components. Yolk immunoglobulins are known to play an important role in nestling immune defence shortly after hatching, whereas yolk androgens, although having growth-enhancing effects under many environmental conditions, can be immunosuppressive. We therefore speculate that variation in the risk of parasitism may play an important role in shaping optimal egg composition and may lead to the observed pattern of yolk immunoglobulin and yolk androgen deposition across clutches. More generally, our case study exemplifies how multivariate mixed-model methodology presents a flexible tool to not only quantify, but also test patterns of (co)variation across different organisational levels and environments, allowing for powerful hypothesis testing in ecophysiology.

  20. Thermodynamics of the interaction between bovine binder of sperm BSP1 and low-density lipoprotein from hen's egg yolk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusignan, Marie-France; Manjunath, Puttaswamy [Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital Research Center and Department of Medicine, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3J7 (Canada); Lafleur, Michel, E-mail: michel.lafleur@umontreal.ca [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Self-Assembled Chemical Structures (CSACS), Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2011-03-20

    Research highlights: {yields} Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed Binder-of-SPerm BSP1 protein has high affinity for egg yolk low density lipoproteins. {yields} It is estimated that 104 BSP1 molecules could bind one LDL particle. {yields} BSP1 has 2 phosphocholine binding sites and the BSP1/LDL ratio corresponds to 1.6 phosphatidylcholine per bound BSP1. {yields} The strong interaction between LDL particles and BSP1 is proposed to be important for sperm protection by egg yolk extender. - Abstract: Egg yolk is used in extender to protect sperm from cold shock and freezing during preservation. It is the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction of egg yolk that protects sperm. Even though essential for sperm capacitation, the major proteins from bull seminal plasma, the Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins, are detrimental for sperm preservation because they induce a continual phospholipids and cholesterol efflux from sperm membranes. The BSP proteins were proposed to bind to egg yolk LDL, preventing the sperm membrane damage. We characterized the binding between the BSP proteins and the LDL by isothermal titration calorimetry, providing the thermodynamics and quantitative description of this putative association. The association between BSP1 (major BSP proteins) and LDL is characterized by an affinity constant (K{sub a}) of 3.4 {+-} 0.4 {mu}M{sup -1}. A protein/LDL ratio of 104 {+-} 5 was determined indicating that 104 molecules of BSP1 would bind to one LDL particle. This stoichiometry leads to proposing that the association involves 1.6 {+-} 0.1 phosphatidylcholines (PC) per BSP protein. This finding is satisfactorily consistent with the fact that each BSP1 protein has 2 binding sites for choline group. In conclusion, the formation of a high affinity complex between BSP1 and LDL is proposed to be important for the protection of sperm by egg yolk extender.

  1. Enteral Formula Containing Egg Yolk Lecithin Improves Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Tetsuro; Muto, Ayano; Takahashi, Yayoi; Nishiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Diarrhea often occurs during enteral nutrition. Recently, several reports showed that diarrhea improves by adding egg yolk lecithin, an emulsifier, in an enteral formula. Therefore, we evaluated if this combination could improve diarrhea outcomes. We retrospectively investigated the inhibitory effects on watery stools by replacing a polymeric fomula with that containing egg yolk lecithin. Then, we investigated the emulsion stability in vitro. Next, we examined the lipid absorption using different emulsifiers among bile duct-ligated rats and assessed whether egg yolk lecithin, medium-chain triglyceride, and dietary fiber can improve diarrhea outcomes in a rat model of short bowel syndrome. Stool consistency or frequency improved on the day after using the aforementioned combination in 13/14 patients. Average particle size of the egg yolk lecithin emulsifier did not change by adding artificial gastric juice, whereas that of soy lecithin and synthetic emulsifiers increased. Serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in the egg yolk lecithin group compared with the soybean lecithin and synthetic emulsifier groups in bile duct-ligated rats. In rats with short bowels, the fecal consistency was a significant looser the dietary fiber (+) group than the egg yolk lecithin (+) groups from day 6 of test meal feedings. The fecal consistency was also a significant looser the egg yolk lecithin (-) group than the egg yolk lecithin (+) groups from day 4 of test meal feeding. The fecal consistency was no significant difference between the medium-chain triglycerides (-) and egg yolk lecithin (+) groups. Enteral formula emulsified with egg yolk lecithin promotes lipid absorption by preventing the destruction of emulsified substances by gastric acid. This enteral formula improved diarrhea and should reduce the burden on patients and healthcare workers.

  2. A STUDY ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF YOLK RETENTION IN BROILER CHICKS

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    Kashif Aziz Khan. Shakeel Akhtar Khan, Shahnaz Hamid2. Asim Aslam and Masood

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The present project was designed to identify the factors responsible for yolk retention in broiler chicks. Four different experiments were conducted to find out the effect of four factors (experimental yolk sac infection with Echerichia coli, off-feed period between hatching and housing. first feeding time in the poultry house and type of initial feed on yolk absorption. Results of these experiments showed that yolk sac infection with E. coli led to decrease in rate of yolk absorption. Moisture and protein percentage was increased in infected yolk but fat percentage was not affected by yolk sac infection. On the other hand, post hatch starvation due to delay in housing and delay in first feeding did not affect rate of yolk absorption. Moisture percentage was not affected while fat absorption increased and protein absorption decreased due to fasting. It was also observed that feeding ground corn in early life of chick led to slow absorption of yolk contents as compared to feeding commercial starter ration and 2% sugar solution. Yolk composition was not affected by feeding commercial starter ration, ground corn and 2% sugar solution in early life of chick. It is concluded that experimental infection with E. coli and ground corn as initial feed leads to slow absorption of yolk sac in young broiler chicks.

  3. Oil exudation and histological structures of duck egg yolks during brining.

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    Lai, K M; Chung, W H; Jao, C L; Hsu, K C

    2010-04-01

    Changes in oil exudation and histological structures of salted duck egg yolks during brining up to 5 wk were investigated. During brining, the salt contents of albumen, exterior yolk (hardened portion), and interior yolk (soft or liquid portion) gradually increased accompanied by slight decreases in moisture content. The hardening ratio of salted egg yolks increased rapidly to about 60% during the first week of brining and then reached 100% at the end of brining. After brining, part of the lipids in salted egg yolk became free due to the structural changes of low-density lipoprotein induced by dehydration and increase of salt content, and more free lipids in salted egg yolk were released after the cooking process. With the brining time increased up to 5 wk, the outer region of the cooked salted yolk gradually changed into dark brown, brown, orange, and then dark brown, whereas the center region changed into light yellow, yellow, dark yellow, and then yellow again. The microstructures of cooked salted egg yolks showed that the yolk spheres in the outer and middle regions retained their original shape, with some shrinking and being packed more loosely when brining time increased, and the exuded oil filled the space between the spheres. Furthermore, the yolk spheres in the center region transformed to a round shape but still showed granulation after 4 wk of brining, whereas they were mostly disrupted after 2 to 5 wk of brining. One of the most important characteristics of cooked salted egg yolks, gritty texture, contributed to oil exudation and granulated yolk spheres were observed at the brining time of 4 wk.

  4. EGG YOLK AND LDL: POSSIBILITIES FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN EQUINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor F. Canisso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The world horse industry exerts an important role as a job and income generation source. Reproductive technologies arises as an important tool in the service of world equine growth. Artificial insemination (AI is perhaps the biotechnology with greater impact on equine breeding; a stallion can leave hundreds of offsprings over his reproductive life if AI is efficiently used. In some countries, egg yolk is frequently used as part of equine seminal extenders. The egg yolk provides the spermatozoa “resistance factors’’ when it is added. The protective fraction of the egg yolk probably is the low density lipoproteins (LDL. Several studies have reported successful results with the addition and replacement of egg yolk by LDL. There are many citations about the use of egg yolk in seminal extenders for stallion’s cooled and frozen semen, and in the equine reproduction practice. The egg yolk dilutors are used with good fertility results. New research is needed for the better understanding of the protective effects of egg yolk and the LDL for stallion semen. The LDL would be a great solution for dilutors to artificial insemination in horse. This review discusses the use and the advantages of egg yolk and LDL as constituents of equine semen extenders.

  5. Using life-histories to predict and interpret variability in yolk hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, O P; Gilchrist, H G; Bêty, J; Wynne-Edwards, K E; Berzins, L; Williams, T D

    2009-09-01

    Variation in yolk hormones is assumed to provide the plasticity necessary for mothers to individually optimize reproductive decisions via changes in offspring phenotype, the benefit being to maximise fitness. However, rather than routinely expecting adaptive variation within all species, the pattern and magnitude of yolk hormone deposition should theoretically relate to variation in life-histories. Here we present data on intra-clutch variation in yolk corticosterone in three species along a developmental continuum (European starling (Sturnus vulgaris): fully altricial; black guillemot (Cepphus grylle): semi-precocial; common eider (Somateria mollissima): fully precocial) to examine how and why variation in life-histories might relate to the evolution of variation in yolk steroids. Starlings and guillemots showed a significant increase in yolk corticosterone across the laying sequence; however, we found no pattern within eider clutches. Moreover, starlings showed the largest difference (94.6%) in yolk corticosterone between first- and last-laid eggs, whereas guillemots showed a moderate difference (58.9%). Despite these general species-specific patterns, individuals showed marked variation in the intra-clutch patterns of yolk corticosterone within each species indicating potential differences in intra-clutch flexibility among females. It is well documented that exposure to elevated yolk glucocorticoids reduces offspring quality at birth/hatching in many taxa and it has therefore been proposed that elevated yolk levels may modulate offspring competition and/or facilitate brood reduction under harsh conditions in birds. Our data suggests that intra-clutch variation in yolk corticosterone has the potential to act as an adaptive maternal effect in species where modulation of competition between nest-bound offspring would benefit mothers (starlings and guillemots). However, in precocial species where mothers would not benefit from a modulation of offspring quality

  6. Soft template synthesis of yolk/silica shell particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Jun; Xu, Dongsheng

    2010-04-06

    Yolk/shell particles possess a unique structure that is composed of hollow shells that encapsulate other particles but with an interstitial space between them. These structures are different from core/shell particles in that the core particles are freely movable in the shell. Yolk/shell particles combine the properties of each component, and can find potential applications in catalysis, lithium ion batteries, and biosensors. In this Research News article, a soft-template-assisted method for the preparation of yolk/silica shell particles is presented. The demonstrated method is simple and general, and can produce hollow silica spheres incorporated with different particles independent of their diameters, geometry, and composition. Furthermore, yolk/mesoporous silica shell particles and multishelled particles are also prepared through optimization of the experimental conditions. Finally, potential applications of these particles are discussed.

  7. Effect of different dietary energy and protein sources on antioxidant status, fresh yolk fatty acid profile and microstructure of salted yolks in laying ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, D; Hu, Y J; Fouad, A M; Lin, C X; Xu, Z P; Chen, W; Fan, Q L; Xia, W G; Wang, S; Wang, Y; Yang, L; Zheng, C T

    2018-01-08

    The study investigated whether different dietary energy and protein sources affect laying performance, antioxidant status, fresh yolk fatty acid profile and quality of salted yolks in laying ducks. In all, 360 19-week-old Longyan ducks were randomly assigned to four diets in a factorial arrangement (2×2). The four diets consisted of two energy sources, corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and two protein sources, soybean meal (SM) and rapeseed meal with corn distillers dried grains with solubles (RMD), and each treatment contained six replicates of 15 birds each. The experimental diets were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 10.84 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (CP, 17%). The results showed that egg production, average egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion ratio were not affected by diets (P>0.05). Plasma contents of reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH/oxidized glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were lower (P<0.05) in ducks fed the RMD diets compared with those fed SM diets with a substantial increase (P=0.006) in plasma content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Egg yolks from ducks fed SO diets had higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids compared with CO diets (P<0.001). Similarly, ducks fed RMD diets had a higher content of PUFA and n-6/n-3 ratio in fresh yolks (P<0.001), and increased salted yolk MDA, carbonylated proteins content and incidence of hard salted yolks (P<0.05) compared with SM diets. Scanning electron microscopy showed that salted yolks contained rougher polyhedral granules and fewer fat droplets, and were surrounded with a layer of bunchy fibers in ducks fed SO+RMD than those fed CO+SM diet. In conclusion, the current study showed that feeding laying ducks with diets containing SO or RMD reduced antioxidant capacity and increased egg yolk concentrations of PUFA. It appeared that egg yolks from ducks fed these diets were more sensitive to lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation during salting, and

  8. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis with small teratomatous foci: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Prabir

    2015-01-01

    I have reported a case of endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis in a 20-year-old boy. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is a rare tumor. A few cases have been reported in ovary. In case of male, a case of pure glandular endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is reported in a 43 years male in right undescended testis and another case of abdominal metastasis showing endometrioid pattern from mixed testicular germ cell tumor comprising of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma. My patient was a 20-year-old male presented with painless enlargement of right testis. Grossly the tumor was glistening creamish white with a multicystic appearance. Histopathological examination showed the tumor to be composed of glandular elements resembling early secretory endometrium, foci of keratinized thin squamous epithelium and a single focus of benign cartilage. The glandular elements show immunohistochemical positivity for AFP, cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA).

  9. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis with small teratomatous foci: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabir Hazarika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available I have reported a case of endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis in a 20-year-old boy. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is a rare tumor. A few cases have been reported in ovary. In case of male, a case of pure glandular endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is reported in a 43 years male in right undescended testis and another case of abdominal metastasis showing endometrioid pattern from mixed testicular germ cell tumor comprising of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma. My patient was a 20-year-old male presented with painless enlargement of right testis. Grossly the tumor was glistening creamish white with a multicystic appearance. Histopathological examination showed the tumor to be composed of glandular elements resembling early secretory endometrium, foci of keratinized thin squamous epithelium and a single focus of benign cartilage. The glandular elements show immunohistochemical positivity for AFP, cytokeratin 7 (CK7 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA.

  10. Effect of domestic cooking methods on egg yolk xanthophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Lopes-Lutz, Daise; Schieber, Andreas; Wu, Jianping

    2012-12-26

    Xanthophylls are a class of bioactive compounds known to play an important role in preventing age-related macular degeneration. Egg yolk is a rich source of highly bioavailable xanthophylls including lutein and zeaxanthin. The effects of domestic cooking methods (boiling, frying, microwaving) on egg yolk xanthophyll content were investigated. A LC-(APCI)-MS/MS method was used to identify and quantify all-E- and Z-isomers of lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, and β-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester in fresh and cooked egg yolks. Both fresh and cooked yolks showed similar xanthophyll profiles but with higher contents of Z-isomers in cooked samples. All-E-lutein was the most affected, with 22.5%, 16.7%, and 19.3% reductions in boiled, microwaved, and fried yolk extracts, respectively. Total xanthophyll losses ranged from 6% to 18%. The results presented here could be useful in calculating the dietary intake of xanthophylls and also in assessing the xanthophyll profiles and contents of egg-containing products.

  11. Yolk sac development in lizards (Lacertilia: Scincidae): New perspectives on the egg of amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James R; Thompson, Michael B

    2017-04-01

    Embryos of oviparous reptiles develop on the surface of a large mass of yolk, which they metabolize to become relatively large hatchlings. Access to the yolk is provided by tissues growing outward from the embryo to cover the surface of the yolk. A key feature of yolk sac development is a dedicated blood vascular system to communicate with the embryo. The best known model for yolk sac development and function of oviparous amniotes is based on numerous studies of birds, primarily domestic chickens. In this model, the vascular yolk sac forms the perimeter of the large yolk mass and is lined by a specialized epithelium, which takes up, processes and transports yolk nutrients to the yolk sac blood vessels. Studies of lizard yolk sac development, dating to more than 100 years ago, report characteristics inconsistent with this model. We compared development of the yolk sac from oviposition to near hatching in embryonic series of three species of oviparous scincid lizards to consider congruence with the pattern described for birds. Our findings reinforce results of prior studies indicating that squamate reptiles mobilize and metabolize the large yolk reserves in their eggs through a process unknown in other amniotes. Development of the yolk sac of lizards differs from birds in four primary characteristics, migration of mesoderm, proliferation of endoderm, vascular development and cellular diversity within the yolk sac cavity. Notably, all of the yolk is incorporated into cells relatively early in development and endodermal cells within the yolk sac cavity align along blood vessels which course throughout the yolk sac cavity. The pattern of uptake of yolk by endodermal cells indicates that the mechanism of yolk metabolism differs between lizards and birds and that the evolution of a fundamental characteristic of embryonic nutrition diverged in these two lineages. Attributes of the yolk sac of squamates reveal the existence of phylogenetic diversity among amniote lineages

  12. Effect of seminal plasma and egg yolk concentration on freezability of goat semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg yolk and seminal plasma on the viability of cryopreserved goat semen. To this end, four fertile Saanen bucks, aged between 10 months and 1 year, and weighing 18 to 25 kg, were used. Semen was collected from each buck by the artificial vagina method at the end of breeding season (June-July. The extender used was the yolk citrate, which was split into two equal aliquots: 5% egg yolk (2.5 mL egg yolk: 47.5 mL citrate solution were added to one of the samples and 10% egg yolk (5.0 mL egg yolk: 45.0 mL citrate solution were added to another. The sperm motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT were evaluated and the data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the F test at 5.0% probability. The observed values for motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT, fast and slow, according to the presence of seminal plasma and egg yolk percentage were: 5% egg yolk with plasma (25.0% and 3.3; 1.60% and 0.7; 12.36% and 1.6, respectively; 5% egg yolk without plasma (23.61% and 3.1; 1.25% and 0.2; 9.93% and 1.3, respectively; 10% egg yolk with plasma (30.8% and 3.3; 4.4% and 1.9; 19.5% and 2.7, respectively; and 10% egg yolk without plasma (13.4% and 2.5; 4.1% and 0.5; 17.0% and 1.0, respectively. There were significant differences between the analyzed data in relation to semen with or without plasma at different percentages of egg yolk, and the group that presented the best results was 10% egg yolk citrate in extender with plasma. The presence of seminal plasma and higher concentration of egg yolk in extender provide a higher viability of cryopreserved goat semen.

  13. An Emerging Complimentary Medicine-Yolk Oil Made from Heating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Ming Hu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Yolk oil is common in Asia. According to the Flora Sinensis, yolk oil is a multipurpose medicine, with specific dermatological and fever indications. Nowadays, it is generally used as a complimentary medicine for heart diseases. Yolk oil can be made from heating or chemical extraction method. It is generally believed that yolk oil made from heating (YOheat method is more effective as a medicine than that from extraction (YOext. The technical details of the heating method remain an issue of argument, including the degree of char and the threat of carcinogens formed during the heating process. Most yolk oil related studies used YOext as research material. Nevertheless, animal studies have showed that YOheat reduced triglycerides and total cholesterol in rodent liver. It is expected an easy-to-make complimentary medicine like YOheat may become even more common and thus evidence based studies should be conducted to verify its pharmacological effects and safety.

  14. Cryopreservation of boar semen by egg yolk-based extenders containing lactose or fructose is better than sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanapiwat, Panida; Kaeoket, Kampon; Tummaruk, Padet

    2012-03-01

    The present study determined the effect of different types of sugars (lactose, fructose, glucose and sorbitol) used in egg yolk-based extender on the post-thawed boar semen quality. Twenty-two ejaculates from 6 fertility-proven Yorkshire boars were cryopreserved by liquid nitrogen vapor method. Sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity and intact functional plasma membrane were determined at 0, 2 and 4 hr after thawing. It was found that the lactose-based extender resulted in a higher percentage of post-thawed sperm motility, viability, intact acrosome and functional plasma membrane than sorbitol-based extender (Pextender yielded a higher post-thawed sperm motility and viability than sorbitol-based extender (Pboar semen.

  15. Brominated flame retardants in Canadian chicken egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, D F K; Sadler, A; Quade, S C; Sun, W-F; Lau, B P-Y; Kosarac, I; Hayward, S; Ryan, J J

    2011-06-01

    Chicken eggs categorised as conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range and organic were collected at grading stations in three regions of Canada between 2005 and 2006. Free run eggs, which were only available for collection from two regions, were also sampled during this time frame. Egg yolks from each of these egg types (n = 162) were analysed to determine brominated flame retardant levels, specifically polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). PBDEs were detected in 100% of the 162 samples tested, while HBCD was observed in 85% of the egg yolks. Total PBDE concentrations in egg yolks ranged from 0.018 to 20.9 ng g(-1) lipid (median = 3.03 ng g(-1) lipid), with PBDE 209 identified as being the major contributor to ΣPBDE concentrations. In addition to PBDE 209, PBDE 99, 47, 100, 183 and 153 were important contributors to ΣPBDE concentrations. Total HBCD concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection to a maximum concentration of 71.9 ng g(-1) lipid (median = 0.053 ng g(-1) lipid). The α-isomer was the dominant contributor to ΣHBCD levels in Canadian egg yolks and was the most frequently detected HBCD isomer. ΣPBDE levels exhibited large differences in variability between combinations of region and type. ΣHBCD concentrations were not significantly different among regions, although differences were observed between the different types of egg yolks analysed in the present study.

  16. Proteomic analysis of proteins secreted by the extra-embryonic membranes of the preimplantation sheep conceptus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.S.F.

    2001-01-01

    The extraembryonic membranes (EEM) of the preimplantation sheep conceptus play a major role in the supply of nutrition to the embryo and subsequently participate in the formation of the placentomes. Such functions are likely to be mediated by proteins secreted by the EEM. These proteins may mediate maternal-embryonic interactions or provide the embryo with essential nutrients during the period of early organogenesis and rapid growth and differentiation of the EEM, leading up to implantation. Large format (40 x 40 cm) 2-D gels were used to analyze proteins secreted by the trophoblast, allantois and the yolk sac of day 17 or 18 conceptuses after incubation separately for 3h in the presence of [ 35 S]-methionine. Hundreds of proteins were detected, many of which have not been identified. Each of these EEM secreted different compositions of proteins, as did the two cell layers of the trophoblast. Several proteins that were secreted by the trophectoderm were absent in proteins secreted by the mesoderm layer of the trophoblast. Two of those were identified as interferon-τ and aldose reductase. The proteins secreted by the yolk sac differed markedly from those secreted by the allantois even though both of these membranes were derived from endodermal and mesodermal lineages and are both vascularized. Many of the yolk sac secretory proteins were glycoproteins similar to those found in serum that are normally synthesized by the adult liver; one of these was identified as transferrin. Northern analysis showed that the transferrin mRNA in the yolk sac was even more abundant than it was in adult liver. The similarity between the set of proteins secreted by the yolk sac and those in serum that are attributable to the liver suggests that the yolk sac performs in part, the function of the liver in the synthesis of these proteins. Many proteins secreted by the trophoblast and yolk Sac were detectable in the allantoic fluid even though these membranes were not in contact with the

  17. Effect of food additives on egg yolk gelation induced by freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primacella, Monica; Fei, Tao; Acevedo, Nuria; Wang, Tong

    2018-10-15

    This study demonstrates technological advances in preventing yolk gelation during freezing and thawing. Gelation negatively affects yolk functionality in food formulation. Preventing gelation using 10% salt or sugar limits the application of the yolk. Novel food additives were tested to prevent gelation induced by freezing. Significant reduction (p freezing at -20 °C) indicates that hydrolyzed carboxymethyl cellulose (HCMC), proline, and hydrolyzed egg white and yolk (HEW and HEY) are effective gelation inhibitors. The mechanisms in which these additives prevented gelation were further studied through measuring the changes in the amount of freezable water, lipoprotein particle size, and protein surface hydrophobicity. Overall, this study provides several alternatives of gelation inhibitor that have great potentials in replacing the use of salt or sugar in commercial operation of freezing egg yolk for shelf-life extension. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cryosurvival of goat spermatozoa in tris-egg yolk extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of vitamin E supplementation in tris-egg yolk extender on sperm parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) goat bucks was determined. Tris-egg yolk extenders supplemented with different levels of ... of WAD goat bucks during cryopreservation. Keywords: Antioxidants, bucks, freezing, oxidative stress, sperm ...

  19. Cryoprotective and contraceptive properties of egg yolk as an additive in rooster sperm diluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Moreno, Julián; Castaño, Cristina; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Coloma, Miguel A; López-Sebastián, Antonio; Prieto, María T; Campo, Jose L

    2012-12-01

    The addition of chicken egg yolk to semen extenders is thought to reduce the fertilizing potential of rooster spermatozoa--but not (or at least not as much) that of other avian species. The aim of the present study was to determine whether quail egg yolk, a novel extender additive, provides advantages over chicken egg yolk in the cryopreservation of rooster spermatozoa. Experiments were also performed to determine whether the harmful effect of egg yolk occurs during cryopreservation or during fertilization after artificial insemination. Heterospermic rooster semen samples were divided into aliquots and cooled in a polyvinylpyrrolidone-based medium containing 15% chicken egg yolk, 15% quail egg yolk or no egg yolk at all. The viability of spermatozoa of cooled samples (5 °C) without egg yolk were less viable (Prooster sperm cells against cold shock and during freezing and thawing, but exerts a contraceptive effect in the genital tract of the hen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Properties of low-fat, low-cholesterol egg yolk prepared by supercritical CO2 extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringe, N A

    1997-01-01

    A dry egg yolk ingredient called Eggcellent has 74% less fat and 90% less cholesterol than liquid egg yolks, when reconstituted on an equal protein basis. The phospholipids and proteins are retained, enabling the ingredient to have the taste and texturizing properties of fresh egg yolk. Using the new yolk, it is possible to significantly improve the acceptability of low-fat, low-cholesterol bakery products, scrambled eggs and mayonnaise dressings without losing nutritional claims. The structures and functional properties of egg yolk components and the conditions required to optimize their benefits in foods are reviewed. The lipoproteins of low-fat, low-cholesterol yolk have valuable properties as flavorants, texturizers, foaming agents, emulsifiers, antioxidants, colorants, and nutraceuticals.

  1. Study on preparation the egg yolk puff with chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Hui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper was studied chitosans with different degrees of deacetylation (70%,80%,90%,95% and different usages of chitosan that were added to research the effect of functional indexs in the egg yolk puff,such as calcium content and cholesterol content.Preliminarily chitosan was explored in the application of the Egg yolk puff.Text results showed that when the deacetylation degree of chitosan and its usage were 90% and 1% separately,the functional indexs and sensory quality of the Egg yolk puff can reach the equilibrium.Its calcium content was 76.2 mg/100 g,increased by 44.3 percent.Its cholesterol content was 290 mg/100 g,decreased by 35.1%.

  2. Ovarian yolk sac tumour in a girl - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Charu; Shah, Hemanshi; Sisodiya Shenoy, Neha; Makhija, Deepa; Waghmare, Mukta

    2017-01-01

    Yolk sac tumours are rare ovarian malignancies accounting for less than 1% of malignant ovarian germ cell tumours. They are mostly seen in adolescents and young women and are usually unilateral making fertility preservation imperative. Raised alpha-feto protein level is the hallmark of this tumour. We describe stage III yolk sac tumour in a girl child.

  3. Insulin-egg yolk dispersions in self microemulsifying system

    OpenAIRE

    Singnurkar P; Gidwani S

    2008-01-01

    Formulation of insulin into a microemulsion very often presents a physicochemical instability during their preparation and storage. In order to overcome this lack of stability and facilitate the handling of these colloidal systems, stabilization of insulin in presence of hydrophobic components of a microemulsion appears as the most promising strategy. The present paper reports the use of egg yolk for stabilization of insulin in self microemulsifying dispersions. Insulin loaded egg yolk self m...

  4. Gal d 6 is the second allergen characterized from egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo, Alvaro; Rodríguez-Pérez, Rosa; Blanco, Juan; Villota, Julian; Juste, Sonsoles; Moneo, Ignacio; Caballero, María Luisa

    2010-06-23

    Only one allergen from the egg yolk, alpha-livetin (Gal d 5) has been described thus far. A new egg yolk allergen was detected studying 27 egg allergic patients. The study was performed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and IgE-immunoblotting and IgE-immunoblotting-inhibition assays. An egg yolk extract was fractioned by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and the new allergen detected was characterized by N-terminal amino acid analysis. A total of 5 of the 27 patients (18%) detected a yolk allergen of an apparent molecular weight of 35 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Heating and reduction treatments did not affect its allergenicity, although digestion with simulated gastric fluid diminished the IgE-binding capacity of the allergen. The N-terminal amino acid sequence corresponded with the YGP42 protein, a fragment of the vitellogenin-1 precursor. Thus, a second egg yolk allergen has been described and designated Gal d 6 by the World Health Organization (WHO)/International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee.

  5. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bertin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H and from sham embryos (C that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment.

  6. High Yolk Testosterone Transfer Is Associated with an Increased Female Metabolic Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirren, Barbara; Ziegler, Ann-Kathrin; Canale, Cindy I; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Giraudeau, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Yolk androgens of maternal origin are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects. Although in many species short-term benefits of exposure to high yolk androgen concentrations for the offspring have been observed, females differ substantially in the amount of androgens they transfer to their eggs. It suggests that costs for the offspring or the mother constrain the evolution of maternal hormone transfer. However, to date, the nature of these costs remains poorly understood. Unlike most previous work that focused on potential costs for the offspring, we here investigated whether high yolk testosterone transfer is associated with metabolic costs (i.e., a higher metabolic rate) for the mother. We show that Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) females that deposit higher testosterone concentrations into their eggs have a higher resting metabolic rate. Because a higher metabolic rate is often associated with a shorter life span, this relationship may explain the negative association between yolk testosterone transfer and female longevity observed in the wild. Our results suggest that metabolic costs for the mother can balance the short-term benefits of yolk testosterone exposure for the offspring, thereby contributing to the maintenance of variation in maternal yolk hormone transfer in natural populations.

  7. Yolk@Shell Nanoarchitectures with Bimetallic Nanocores-Synthesis and Electrocatalytic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiet, Amandine; Unmüssig, Tobias; Göbel, Caren; Vainio, Ulla; Wollgarten, Markus; Driess, Matthias; Schlaad, Helmut; Polte, Jörg; Fischer, Anna

    2016-10-10

    In the present paper, we demonstrate a versatile approach for the one-pot synthesis of metal oxide yolk@shell nanostructures filled with bimetallic nanocores. This novel approach is based on the principles of hydrophobic nanoreactor soft-templating and is exemplified for the synthesis of various AgAu NP @tin-rich ITO (AgAu@ITO TR ) yolk@shell nanomaterials. Hydrophobic nanoreactor soft-templating thereby takes advantage of polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpiridine) inverse micelles as two-compartment nanoreactor template, in which the core and the shell of the micelles serve as metal and metal oxide precursor reservoir, respectively. The composition, size and number of AuAg bimetallic nanoparticles incorporated within the ITO TR yolk@shell can easily be tuned. The conductivity of the ITO TR shell and the bimetallic composition of the AuAg nanoparticles, the as-synthesized AuAg NP @ITO TR yolk@shell materials could be used as efficient electrocatalysts for electrochemical glucose oxidation with improved onset potential when compared to their gold counterpart.

  8. Egg quality and yolk lipid composition of laying hens fed diets containing cashew nut meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fontoura Vidal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the addition of cashew nuts meal (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% to laying hen diets on egg quality and yolk composition. The variables studied were: egg weight, specific gravity, Haugh Units, percentages of shell, albumen, and yolk, moisture, total solids, total lipids, fatty acids profile, and yolk cholesterol. The addition of up to 25% of cashew nuts meal to hen diets did not affect egg quality and freshness, moisture and total solids content. However, an increase in total lipid content and a decrease in yolk pigmentation was observed. Oleic acid level increased in the yolk, whereas palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid levels decreased. The addition of cashew nuts meal increased the monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio in the yolk and reduced the cholesterol content. Therefore, the use of cashew nuts meal in laying hen diets favorably modifies the fatty acid composition of egg yolk and contributes to a better acceptance of this food by consumers since it also reduces yolk cholesterol levels.

  9. Comparison of yolk fatty acid content, blood and egg cholesterol of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-07

    POO) and Kilka fish oil. (KFO) on yolk fatty acid content .... Egg quality parameters such as; haugh unit score, yolk color index (as measured by ..... oil) diet on performance, carcass quality and fat status in broilers. Afr. J. Biotechnol.

  10. Effect of egg yolk on growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 7H12 liquid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononov, Y.; Ta, K.D.; Heifets, L.

    1988-01-01

    Of 92 drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from sputum specimens, 86 showed growth in two types of 7H12 broth, one with egg yolk and the other without egg yolk. In addition, two strains grew only in plain 7H12 broth without yolk, and four others were recovered only in the medium supplemented with egg yolk. The radiometrically detected growth was higher in the presence of egg yolk, corresponding to a higher number of CFU per milliliter in these cultures. The improvement of growth in 7H12 broth supplemented with egg yolk was most noticeable in cultures isolated from sputum specimens having a low number of acid-fast bacilli in the smear and producing only a few colonies on solid media

  11. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Yousr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF. Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y and tryptophan (W, in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23 and KLSDW (EYGF-33, contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56 was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69% and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL. The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL. In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33 (10 mg/mL had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk.

  12. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousr, Marwa; Howell, Nazlin

    2015-12-07

    Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF). Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y) and tryptophan (W), in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23) and KLSDW (EYGF-33), contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56) was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69%) and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL). The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL) had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL). In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33) (10 mg/mL) had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk.

  13. Efficacy of egg-yolk citrate extender fortified with aqueous garlic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was designed to harness the potential of aqueous fresh and dried garlic extracts supplement in egg yolk extender for rooster semen to improve fertility and hatchability of egg. Aqueous extract of fresh and dry garlic were obtained and supplemented into egg yolk-citrate buffer at 0,1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7% for ...

  14. Effect of different concentrations of egg yolk and virgin coconut oil in Tris-based extenders on chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarig, A A; Wahid, H; Rosnina, Y; Yimer, N; Goh, Y M; Baiee, F H; Khumran, A M; Salman, H; Ebrahimi, M

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 8% virgin coconut oil (VCO) combined with different percentages of egg yolk in Tris extender on the quality of chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen. A total of 24 ejaculates from four bulls were collected using an electroejaculator. Semen samples were diluted with 8% VCO in Tris extender which contained different concentrations 0% (control), 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% egg yolk. The diluted semen samples were divided into two fractions: one was chilled and stored at 4°C until evaluation after 24, 72, and 144h; the second fraction was processed by chilling for 3h at 4°C to equilibrate, then packaged in 0.25ml straws and frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen at -196°C until evaluation after 7 and 14 days. Both chilled and frozen semen samples were then thawed at 37°C and assessed for general motility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA), viability, acrosome integrity, and morphology (eosin-nigrosin), membrane integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling test) and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)). The results indicate treatments with 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% egg yolk with 8% VCO had greater sperm quality (Psemen. In conclusion, the use of 8% VCO combined with 20% egg yolk in a Tris-based extender enhanced the values for chilled and frozen-thawed quality variables of bull sperm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of 60Co γ-ray irradiation on salmonella in high immunity egg yolk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Haili; Han Keguang; Zheng Mingxue; Li Guozhu

    2002-01-01

    Salmonella were inoculated into the yolk and irradiated with different dose of 60 Co γ-ray. The results show that 3 kGy irradiation dose can kill all Salmonella in the yolk and D 10 value of Salmonella in the yolk is 0.36-0.46 kGy

  16. Yolk coelomitis in Fiji Island banded iguanas (Brachylophus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Brian A; Howard, Lauren; Kinkaid, John; Vidal, Justin D; Papendick, Rebecca

    2008-06-01

    Yolk coelomitis is a major cause of death in captive sexually mature female Fiji Island banded iguanas (Brachylophus fasciatus) maintained by the Zoological Society of San Diego. The medical records, breeding histories, and pathology archival materials from this group were reviewed to study this health problem. From 1987 through 2004, deaths of nine of 21 adult females were due to yolk coelomitis. Most iguanas had a history of reproduction-related problems, which included reproductive failure, episodes of lethargy associated with ovarian activity, folliculostasis, ovostasis, and behavioral abnormalities. Most affected iguanas either were found dead or presented moribund and subsequently died or were euthanized. Clinical signs were nonspecific and included lethargy, cutaneous discoloration, and coelomic effusion. Yolk leakage in most cases was associated with the presence of large vitellogenic follicles undergoing atresia and resulted in coelomitis characterized by florid mesothelial proliferation.

  17. Does the oviparity-viviparity transition alter the partitioning of yolk in embryonic snakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Qing; Qu, Yan-Fu; Wang, Xue-Ji; Gao, Jian-Fang; Ji, Xiang

    2017-11-29

    The oviparity-viviparity transition is a major evolutionary event, likely altering the reproductive process of the organisms involved. Residual yolk, a portion of yolk remaining unutilized at hatching or birth as parental investment in care, has been investigated in many oviparous amniotes but remained largely unknown in viviparous species. Here, we used data from 20 (12 oviparous and 8 viviparous) species of snakes to see if the oviparity-viviparity transition alters the partitioning of yolk in embryonic snakes. We used ANCOVA to test whether offspring size, mass and components at hatching or birth differed between the sexes in each species. We used both ordinary least squares and phylogenetic generalized least squares regressions to test whether relationships between selected pairs of offspring components were significant. We used phylogenetic ANOVA to test whether offspring components differed between oviparous and viviparous species and, more specifically, the hypothesis that viviparous snakes invest more in the yolk as parental investment in embryogenesis to produce more well developed offspring that are larger in linear size. In none of the 20 species was sex a significant source of variation in any offspring component examined. Newborn viviparous snakes on average contained proportionally more water and, after accounting for body dry mass, had larger carcasses but smaller residual yolks than did newly hatched oviparous snakes. The rates at which carcass dry mass (CDM) and fat body dry mass (FDM) increased with residual yolk dry mass (YDM) did not differ between newborn oviparous and viviparous snakes. Neither CDM nor FDM differed between newborn oviparous and viviparous snakes after accounting for YDM. Our results are not consistent with the hypothesis that the partitioning of yolk between embryonic and post-embryonic stages differs between snakes that differ in parity mode, but instead show that the partitioning of yolk in embryonic snakes is species

  18. Effect of Freezing, Thermal Pasteurization, and Hydrostatic Pressure on Fractionation and Folate Recovery in Egg Yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Nassim; Pouliot, Yves; House, James D; Doyen, Alain

    2017-09-06

    In this study, the impact of pasteurization and freezing of raw material, as performed at a commercial scale, on egg yolk fractionation and folate recovery was assessed. Freezing induced denaturation of the lipoproteins in egg yolk, which prevented further fractionation of the yolk. Thermal pasteurization of egg yolk at 61.1 °C for 3.5 min as well as high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (400 MPa for 5 min) did not change (p < 0.05) the composition of egg yolk or yolk fractions after their recovery by centrifugation. Expressed as dry matter, folate in pasteurized yolk was measured to be 599 μg/100 g, while its concentration reached 1969.7 μg/100 g for pasteurized granule and 1902.5 μg/100 g for HHP-treated granule. Folate was not detected in plasma, emphasizing the complete separation of yolk folate into granule. Further, we studied the effect of HHP on different dilutions of egg yolk, which were then fractionated. Egg yolk was diluted with water at different concentrations (0.1, 1.0, 10, 25, and 50%), HHP-treated at 400 MPa for 5 min, and centrifuged. Characterization of the compositions of the separated granule and plasma followed. Folate was stable under the HHP conditions used. However, HHP caused separation of folate from the yolk structure into water-soluble plasma. After HHP processing, the amount of folate detected in the plasma fraction was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (1434.9 μg/100 g) in the 25% diluted samples but was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in HHP-treated granule samples. Native sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis results showed that phosvitin, α-livetin, and apovitellenin VIa were the proteins most resistant to HHP. This study confirms that dilution of egg yolk before HHP treatment can significantly (p < 0.05) change the composition of granule and plasma fractions after centrifugal fractionation of egg yolk.

  19. Comparison of yolk fatty acid content, blood and egg cholesterol of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    POO) and Kilka fish oil (KFO) on yolk fatty acid content, ratio of fatty acids (FAs), antibody titre, and blood and yolk cholesterol of laying hens. One hundred White Hy-Line 26-wk-old (W-36) hens were allotted to 6 dietary treatments containing 0, 1.5 ...

  20. Pinocytosis in the rat visceral yolk sac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, R.; Lloyd, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Low temperature, 2,4-dinitrophenol and moniodoacetate could each completely abolish the pinocytic uptake of 125 I-labelled polyvinylpyrrolidone, 125 I-labelled bovine serum albumin or colloidal 198 Au by 17.5-day rat visceral yolk sac cultured in vitro. Cytochalasin B and colchicine caused a partial and dose-dependent inhibition. It is concluded that the mechanism of pinocytic uptake of these substrates is not micropinocytosis as conventionally defined. Removal of extracellular calcium or the presence of theophylline inhibited liquid-phase pinocytosis by the rat yolk sac, whereas addition of ouabain caused a biphasic response: a slight stimulation of pinosome formation at a low concentration, and an inhibitory effect at a higher concentration. (Auth.)

  1. Yolk sac mesenchymal progenitor cells from New World mice (Necromys lasiurus with multipotent differential potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phelipe Oliveira Favaron

    Full Text Available Fetal membranes are abundant, ethically acceptable and readily accessible sources of stem cells. In particular, the yolk sac is a source of cell lineages that do not express MHCs and are mainly free from immunological incompatibles when transferred to a recipient. Although data are available especially for hematopoietic stem cells in mice and human, whereas other cell types and species are dramatically underrepresented. Here we studied the nature and differentiation potential of yolk sac derived mesenchymal stem cells from a New World mouse, Necromys lasiurus. Explants from mid-gestation were cultured in DMEM-High glucose medium with 10% defined fetal bovine serum. The cells were characterized by standard methods including immunophenotyping by fluorescence and flow cytometry, growth and differentiation potential and tumorigenicity assays. The first adherent cells were observed after 7 days of cell culture and included small, elongated fibroblast-like cells (92.13% and large, round epithelial-like cells with centrally located nuclei (6.5%. Only the fibroblast-like cells survived the first passages. They were positive to markers for mesenchymal stem cells (Stro-1, CD90, CD105, CD73 and pluripotency (Oct3/4, Nanog as well as precursors of hematopoietic stem cells (CD117. In differentiation assays, they were classified as a multipotent lineage, because they differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages and, finally, they did not develop tumors. In conclusion, mesenchymal progenitor cells with multipotent differentiation potential and sufficient growth and proliferation abilities were able to be obtained from Necromys yolk sacs, therefore, we inferred that these cells may be promising for a wide range of applications in regenerative medicine.

  2. Effect of different dietary concentrations of brown marine algae (Sargassum dentifebium prepared by different methods on plasma and yolk lipid profiles, yolk total carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. El-Deek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different concentrations (0%, 3% and 6% of brown marine algae (BMA, Sargassum dentifebium prepared according to different methods (sun-dried, SBMA; boiled, BBMA; autoclaved, ABMA on plasma and yolk lipid profiles, carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin in egg yolks was studied in hens aged from 23 to 42 weeks (30 hens per treatment. We determined the fatty acid profiles in BMA and in the egg yolk of hens fed different levels of BMA prepared according to different methods. In addition, plasma and yolk lipid profiles, yolk total carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin were determined at week 42 of age. Plasma and yolk cholesterol were significantly lower in groups fed diets containing either 3% or 6% BMA than in the control group, but high-density lipoprotein (HDL significantly decreased as BMA concentration increased. There was a significant similar decline in yolk triglycerides with inclusion of either 3% or 6% BMA in the laying hen diet. Palmitic acid was the main saturated fatty acid (SFA found in BMA and oleic acid (omega-9 and linoleic acid (omega-6 were the main unsaturated fatty acids (UFA, while there was a significant increase in palmitic acid in egg yolk when BMA was included at 6%. There was a significant increase in oleic acid (omega-9 when feed containing 3% BMA was given compared to the control group, but this decreased with a further increase in BMA. Linoleic acid (omega-6 also significantly decreased with inclusion of either 3% or 6% BMA. There was a significant increase in total carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin in the laying hen eggs as a result of feeding diets containing 3% and 6% BMA.

  3. The ontogeny of nutrient transporter and digestive enzyme gene expression in domestic pigeon (Columba livia) intestine and yolk sac membrane during pre- and posthatch development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X Y; Wang, Y M; Yuan, C; Zou, X T

    2012-08-01

    To better understand the digestive capacity in domestic pigeons (Columba livia), this study was conducted to evaluate nutrient transporters and digestive enzymes gene expression in small intestine and yolk sac membrane (YSM) during pre- and posthatch development. We investigated the oligopeptide transporter Pept1, sodium glucose transporter SGLT1, glucose transporter GLUT2, aminopeptidase-N (APN), and sucrase-isomaltase (SI). Intestine was collected at embryo d 12, 14, and 16, day of hatch, and d 1, 3, 5, 8, and 14 posthatch. The YSM was collected at embryo d 12, 14, 16, and day of hatch. The cDNA fragments for Pept1, SGLT1, GLUT2, APN, and SI were isolated and cloned using reverse-transcription PCR. The sequences data showed that these genes were highly identical to the gene of chicken. The mRNA expression of each gene was assayed using real-time PCR. Expression of intestinal nutrient transporters increased linearly (Ppigeons and establish a foundation for future research on the nutrients requirements for young pigeons.

  4. Identification of double-yolked duck egg using computer vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ma

    Full Text Available The double-yolked (DY egg is quite popular in some Asian countries because it is considered as a sign of good luck, however, the double yolk is one of the reasons why these eggs fail to hatch. The usage of automatic methods for identifying DY eggs can increase the efficiency in the poultry industry by decreasing egg loss during incubation or improving sale proceeds. In this study, two methods for DY duck egg identification were developed by using computer vision technology. Transmittance images of DY and single-yolked (SY duck eggs were acquired by a CCD camera to identify them according to their shape features. The Fisher's linear discriminant (FLD model equipped with a set of normalized Fourier descriptors (NFDs extracted from the acquired images and the convolutional neural network (CNN model using primary preprocessed images were built to recognize duck egg yolk types. The classification accuracies of the FLD model for SY and DY eggs were 100% and 93.2% respectively, while the classification accuracies of the CNN model for SY and DY eggs were 98% and 98.8% respectively. The CNN-based algorithm took about 0.12 s to recognize one sample image, which was slightly faster than the FLD-based (about 0.20 s. Finally, this work compared two classification methods and provided the better method for DY egg identification.

  5. Effect of Dialkyl Ammonium Cationic Surfactants on the Microfluidity of Membranes Containing Raft Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyama, Makoto; Inoue, Kaori; Kinoshita, Koichi; Miyahara, Reiji; Yokoyama, Hirokazu; Nakano, Minoru

    2018-01-01

    It has been reported that a lot of receptors localize in lipid raft domains and that the microfluidity of these domains regulates the activation of these receptors. In this study, we focused on the lipid raft and in order to evaluate the physicochemical effects of surfactants on microfluidity of lipid membranes, we used liposomes comprising of egg-yolk L-α-phosphatidylcholine, egg-yolk sphingomyelin, and cholesterol as a model of cell membranes containing raft domains. The microfluidity of the domains was characterized by fluorescence spectrometry using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene and 2-dimethylamino-6-lauroylnaphthalene. Among several surfactants, dialkylammonium-type cationic surfactants most efficiently increased the microfluidity. It is therefore concluded that (1) the electrostatic interaction between the cationic surfactant and eggPC/eggSM/cholesterol liposome could be important, (2) surfactants with alkyl chains more effectively inserted into membranes than those with acyl chains, and (3) cationic surfactants with lower T m values have a greater ability to increase the fluidity.

  6. Effect of Enterococcus faecium M74 strain on egg yolk fat and cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim was to evaluate the functional efficiency of a probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium M74 in the feed on egg yolk weight, egg yolk fat and cholesterol contents of Shaver Starcross 288 hens.  Feed in the experimental group was enriched with a probiotic additive containing of 5*109 viable Enterococcus faecium per g. Egg samples a total 30 pcs per group were collected during the first egg-laying period at week 28 and 38 of hens´ age. Non-significantly lower of egg yolk weight was observed in the experimental group at all sampling times compared with their respective controls. Non-significantly lower of egg yolk weight was observed in the experimental group at all sampling times compared with their respective controls. Significantly lower concentrations of egg yolk cholesterol were found in the experimental group at week 28, and week 38 in compare with controls. In conclusion, the addition of probiotic strains Enterococcus faecium M74 to the feed of Shaver Starcross 288 hens reduced cholesterol in egg yolk at all sampling times. Even though the hypocholesterolemic mechanism of probiotics has not yet been fully understood, it is an established fact that cholesterol and bile salt metabolism are closely linked. However, the hypocholesterolemic mechanism of probiotics based on the bile salt hydrolase activity hypothesis has not yet been sufficiently elucidated.

  7. Insulin-egg yolk dispersions in self microemulsifying system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singnurkar, P S; Gidwani, S K

    2008-11-01

    Formulation of insulin into a microemulsion very often presents a physicochemical instability during their preparation and storage. In order to overcome this lack of stability and facilitate the handling of these colloidal systems, stabilization of insulin in presence of hydrophobic components of a microemulsion appears as the most promising strategy. The present paper reports the use of egg yolk for stabilization of insulin in self microemulsifying dispersions. Insulin loaded egg yolk self microemulsifying dispersions were prepared by lyophilization followed by dispersion into self microemulsifying vehicle. The physicochemical characterization of selfmicroemulsifying dispersions includes such as insulin encapsulation efficiency, in vitro stability of insulin in presence of proteolytic enzymes and in vitro release. The biological activity of insulin from the dispersion was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and in vivo using Wistar diabetic rats. The particle size ranged 1.023±0.316 μm in diameter and insulin encapsulation efficiency was 98.2±0.9 %. Insulin hydrophobic self microemulsifying dispersions suppressed insulin release in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer and shown to protect insulin from enzymatic degradation in vitro in presence of chymotripsin. Egg yolk encapsulated insulin was bioactive, demonstrated through both in vivo and in vitro.

  8. Low-density Lipoprotein Improves Motility and Plasma Membrane Integrity of Cryopreserved Canine Epididymal Spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapaiwan, N; Tharasanit, T; Punjachaipornpol, S; Yamtang, D; Roongsitthichai, A; Moonarmart, W; Kaeoket, K; Manee-In, S

    2016-05-01

    Cryopreservation of caudal epididymal spermatozoa is an effective technique to conserve genetic potentials of superior dogs when it is not possible to collect ejaculated spermatozoa. Although hen egg yolk is commonly supplemented into the semen extender, active substances within the egg yolk which protect sperm against cryoinjury remain to be discovered. Among its compositions, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been reported to have a cryoprotective property for sperm cryopreservation. However, the effects of LDL on dog epididymal spermatozoa during cryopreservation have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of LDL on epididymal spermatozoa quality following cryopreservation and thawing. After routine castration of 12 dogs, caudal epididymides from individuals were separated from the testes and cut into a few pieces in a Tris-buffer. Spermatozoa recovered from each sample were examined at once for sperm quality and divided into six groups of extender: no LDL, 20% egg yolk, 4%, 8%, 16%, and 24% LDL, before cryopreservation. The sperm aliquots were then equilibrated and conventionally frozen. After thawing, sperm motility, morphology, plasma membrane integrity, and acrosome integrity were evaluated. The results revealed that 4% LDL and 20% egg yolk yielded significantly higher sperm motility (57.69% and 52.69%, respectively, p<0.05) than other LDLs. In addition, 4% LDL yielded the significantly highest plasma membrane integrity (70.54%, p<0.05). In conclusion, the supplementation of 4% LDL in Tris-glucose extender could be applied for cryopreservation of canine epididymal spermatozoa.

  9. Low-density Lipoprotein Improves Motility and Plasma Membrane Integrity of Cryopreserved Canine Epididymal Spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Prapaiwan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation of caudal epididymal spermatozoa is an effective technique to conserve genetic potentials of superior dogs when it is not possible to collect ejaculated spermatozoa. Although hen egg yolk is commonly supplemented into the semen extender, active substances within the egg yolk which protect sperm against cryoinjury remain to be discovered. Among its compositions, low-density lipoprotein (LDL has been reported to have a cryoprotective property for sperm cryopreservation. However, the effects of LDL on dog epididymal spermatozoa during cryopreservation have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of LDL on epididymal spermatozoa quality following cryopreservation and thawing. After routine castration of 12 dogs, caudal epididymides from individuals were separated from the testes and cut into a few pieces in a Tris-buffer. Spermatozoa recovered from each sample were examined at once for sperm quality and divided into six groups of extender: no LDL, 20% egg yolk, 4%, 8%, 16%, and 24% LDL, before cryopreservation. The sperm aliquots were then equilibrated and conventionally frozen. After thawing, sperm motility, morphology, plasma membrane integrity, and acrosome integrity were evaluated. The results revealed that 4% LDL and 20% egg yolk yielded significantly higher sperm motility (57.69% and 52.69%, respectively, p<0.05 than other LDLs. In addition, 4% LDL yielded the significantly highest plasma membrane integrity (70.54%, p<0.05. In conclusion, the supplementation of 4% LDL in Tris-glucose extender could be applied for cryopreservation of canine epididymal spermatozoa.

  10. Direct Effects of Microalgae and Protists on Herring (Clupea harengus Yolk Sac Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Illing

    Full Text Available This study investigated effects of microalgae (Rhodomonas baltica and heterotrophic protists (Oxyrrhis marina on the daily growth, activity, condition and feeding success of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus larvae from hatch, through the end of the endogenous (yolk sac period. Yolk sac larvae were reared in the presence and absence of microplankton and, each day, groups of larvae were provided access to copepods. Larvae reared with microalgae and protists exhibited precocious (2 days earlier and ≥ 60% increased feeding incidence on copepods compared to larvae reared in only seawater (SW. In the absence and presence of microalgae and protists, life span and growth trajectories of yolk sac larvae were similar and digestive enzyme activity (trypsin and nutritional condition (RNA-DNA ratio markedly declined in all larvae directly after yolk sac depletion. Thus, microplankton promoted early feeding but was not sufficient to alter life span and growth during the yolk sac phase. Given the importance of early feeding, field programs should place greater emphasis on the protozooplankton-ichthyoplankton link to better understand match-mismatch dynamics and bottom-up drivers of year class success in marine fish.

  11. Direct Effects of Microalgae and Protists on Herring (Clupea harengus) Yolk Sac Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Björn; Moyano, Marta; Niemax, Jan; Peck, Myron A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of microalgae (Rhodomonas baltica) and heterotrophic protists (Oxyrrhis marina) on the daily growth, activity, condition and feeding success of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae from hatch, through the end of the endogenous (yolk sac) period. Yolk sac larvae were reared in the presence and absence of microplankton and, each day, groups of larvae were provided access to copepods. Larvae reared with microalgae and protists exhibited precocious (2 days earlier) and ≥ 60% increased feeding incidence on copepods compared to larvae reared in only seawater (SW). In the absence and presence of microalgae and protists, life span and growth trajectories of yolk sac larvae were similar and digestive enzyme activity (trypsin) and nutritional condition (RNA-DNA ratio) markedly declined in all larvae directly after yolk sac depletion. Thus, microplankton promoted early feeding but was not sufficient to alter life span and growth during the yolk sac phase. Given the importance of early feeding, field programs should place greater emphasis on the protozooplankton-ichthyoplankton link to better understand match-mismatch dynamics and bottom-up drivers of year class success in marine fish.

  12. A Novel Pattern of Yolk Processing in Developing Snake Eggs (Colubridae: Lampropeltini) and its Functional and Evolutionary Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kathryn G; Blackburn, Daniel G

    2017-07-01

    Early amniotic vertebrates evolved large-yolked eggs that permitted production of well-developed, terrestrial hatchlings. This reproductive pattern required new mechanisms for cellularizing the yolk and mobilizing it for embryonic use. In birds, cells that line the yolk sac cavity phagocytose and digest the yolk material, a pattern that is commonly assumed to be universal among oviparous amniotes. However, recent evidence challenges the assumption that all squamate reptiles conform to the avian developmental pattern. In this paper, scanning electron microscopy and histology were used to study mechanisms of yolk processing in two colubrid snakes, the kingsnake Lampropeltis getula and the milksnake L. triangulum. Endodermal cells from the yolk sac splanchnopleure proliferate massively as they invade the yolk sac cavity, forming elaborate chains of interlinked cells. These cells grow in size as they phagocytose yolk material. Subsequently, vitelline capillaries invade the masses of yolk-laden cells and become coated with the endodermal cells, forming an elaborate meshwork of cell-coated strands. The close association of cells, yolk, and blood vessels allows yolk material to be cellularized, digested, and transported for embryonic use. The overall pattern is like that of the corn snake Pantherophis guttatus, but contrasts markedly with that of birds. Given recent evidence that this developmental pattern may also occur in certain lizards, we postulate that it is ancestral for squamates. Studies of lizards, crocodilians, and turtles are needed to clarify the evolutionary history of this pattern and its implications for the evolution of the amniotic (terrestrial) vertebrate egg. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Effects on egg yolk colour of paprika or paprika combined with marigold flower extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Saito

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available COLOR-UP® and COLOR-UP YELLOW-S® were fed to a total of 144 twenty-five-week-old Charoen Pokphand brown laying hens to investigate whether yellow xanthophylls present in marigold flowers in combination with red xanthophylls from paprika fruit can further enhance egg yolk colour. The birds were randomly assigned to three groups: yellow corn basal diet control group (17.50 CP, 2750 kcal/kg ME; the 0.1% dietary paprika group; and the 0.1% dietary paprika plus 0.1% marigold group. Each group contained four replicates with 12 birds. Egg quality was recorded weekly from 25 to 28 weeks of age. Parameters did not show any difference except for egg yolk colour. Egg yolk colour scores were greater in the paprika group than in the control group (11.47 vs. 8.64; P<0.05. Egg yolk colour scores of the paprika plus marigold group (12.17 were higher than those of the paprika group (P<0.05. Compared with the control, mean lightness value decreased in the paprika plus marigold group (P<0.05, suggesting a deep egg yolk colour in this group. Redness, yellowness, and chroma were improved in both experimental groups (P<0.05. The spectral reflectance wavelength of egg yolk from the experimental groups increased between 600 and 700 nm, suggesting improved chroma. These results indicate that yellow xanthophylls from marigold flower extract (COLOR-UP YELLOW-S® in combination with red xanthophylls present in paprika (COLOR-UP® can further enhance egg yolk colour and chroma.

  14. Effects on egg yolk colour of paprika or paprika combined with marigold flower extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Komori

    Full Text Available COLOR-UP® and COLOR-UP YELLOW-S® were fed to a total of 144 twenty-five-week-old Charoen Pokphand brown laying hens to investigate whether yellow xanthophylls present in marigold flowers in combination with red xanthophylls from paprika fruit can further enhance egg yolk colour. The birds were randomly assigned to three groups: yellow corn basal diet control group (17.50 CP, 2750 kcal/kg ME; the 0.1% dietary paprika group; and the 0.1% dietary paprika plus 0.1% marigold group. Each group contained four replicates with 12 birds. Egg quality was recorded weekly from 25 to 28 weeks of age. Parameters did not show any difference except for egg yolk colour. Egg yolk colour scores were greater in the paprika group than in the control group (11.47 vs 8.64; P<0.05. Egg yolk colour scores of the paprika plus marigold group (12.17 were higher than those of the paprika group (P<0.05. Compared with the control, mean lightness value decreased in the paprika plus marigold group (P<0.05, suggesting a deep egg yolk colour in this group. Redness, yellowness and chroma were improved in both experimental groups (P<0.05. The spectral reflectance wavelength of egg yolk from the experimental groups increased between 600 and 700 nm, suggesting improved chroma. These results indicate that yellow xanthophylls from marigold flower extract (COLOR-UP YELLOW-S® in combination with red xanthophylls present in paprika (COLOR-UP® can further enhance egg yolk colour and chroma.

  15. An unusual feature of yolk sac placentation in Necromys lasiurus (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favaron, P O; Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, A M

    2012-01-01

    . Elsewhere it was non-villous and closely attached to the uterus. The uterine glands were shallow and wide mouthed. They were associated with vessels and filled with secretion, suggesting the release of histotroph. This feature was absent at later stages. The intimate association of the yolk sac......We studied the development of the inverted yolk sac in a New World rodent, Necromys lasiurus during early placentation. Ten implantation sites were investigated by means of histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The yolk sac was villous near its attachment to the placenta...

  16. Evaluation of pepper spent as an egg yolk colouring agent in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of pepper spent as an egg yolk colouring agent in the diet of white leghorn layers. ... Evaluation was based on egg yolk colour intensity measured based on Roche colour fan scores, potassium dichromate grades and consumer preference scores on raw, boiled and fried egg samples. Egg production, feed ...

  17. Reproductive tradeoffs and yolk steroids in female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, T; Crews, D; Fivizzani, A; Elf, P

    2006-11-01

    Life history theory predicts tradeoffs among reproductive traits, but the physiological mechanisms underlying such tradeoffs remain unclear. Here we examine reproductive tradeoffs and their association with yolk steroids in an oviparous lizard. Female leopard geckos lay two eggs in a clutch, produce multiple clutches in a breeding season, and reproduce for several years. We detected a significant tradeoff between egg size and the number of clutches laid by females during their first two breeding seasons. Total reproductive effort was strongly condition-dependent in the first season, but much less so in the second season. Although these and other tradeoffs were unmistakable, they were not associated with levels of androstenedione, oestradiol, or testosterone in egg yolk. Female condition and egg size, however, were inversely related to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in egg yolk. Finally, steroid levels in egg yolk were not directly related to steroid levels in the maternal circulation when follicles were developing, indicating that steroid transfer to eggs is regulated. These findings suggest that maternal allocation of DHT could mitigate tradeoffs that lead to poor offspring quality (i.e. poor female condition) and small offspring size (i.e. small egg size).

  18. Antiproliferative Activity of Egg Yolk Peptides in Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousr, Marwa N; Aloqbi, Akram A; Omar, Ulfat M; Howell, Nazlin K

    2017-01-01

    Egg yolk peptides were successfully prepared from egg yolk protein by-products after lecithin extraction. Defatted egg yolk protein was hydrolyzed with pepsin and pancreatin and purified by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fraction (EYGF-33) with antiproliferative activity. The highlight of this study was that the peptide EYGF-33 (1.0 mg/ml) significantly inhibits cell viability of colon cancer cells (Caco-2) with no inhibitory effects on the viability of human colon epithelial normal cells (HCEC) after 48 h. Reduced cell viability can be explained by cell cycle arrest in the S-phase in which DNA replication normally takes place. EYGF-33 significantly enhanced the production of superoxide anions in the mitochondria of Caco-2 cells; this could activate a mitochondrial apoptotic pathway leading to typical Poly Adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage as observed in the Western blot result. The induction of apoptotic cell death by EYGF-33 was supported by the externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS). However, further elucidation of the mechanism of EYGF-33-mediated apoptosis would provide further support for its use as a potential therapeutic and chemopreventive agent.

  19. Morphofunctional transformations of the yolk syncytial layer during zebrafish development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondakova, Ekaterina Alexandrovna A; Efremov, Vladimir Ivanovich I

    2014-02-01

    The yolk syncytial layer (YSL) is a provisory extraembryonic structure of teleost fishes and representatives of some other taxa with meroblastic cleavage. The YSL of teleosts is a symplast with polymorphous polyploid nuclei. It is known to perform nutritional, morphogenetic, immune, and, probably, other functions. Data about the YSL organization, functioning and regulation is fragmentary. Although gene expression patterns and other aspects of YSL functioning have been studied in Danio rerio, the morphology of its YSL has not been described in detail. The study of zebrafish YSL structure on sequential developmental stages is necessary to recognize specific features of this important polyfunctional system in this model organism and to extend our knowledge about provisory systems. The thickness of the YSL and the distribution of its nuclei are not uniform on each stage and change during development. During oblong and sphere stages the internal YSL (I-YSL) is filled with yolk inclusions; interphase yolk syncytial nuclei (YSN) and mitotic asters can be seen. During doming and epiboly the external YSL (E-YSL) is thicker than I-YSL. On the subsequent stages the YSL is thickened caudally. The dorsal YSL part is thickened during early segmentation stages and becomes the thinnest YSL region later. The anterior part of the YSL is thin, but enlarges during larval period. The YSN of different size and diverse forms, from regular to lobed, are present and form clusters. The number of irregular-shaped nuclei increases during development. The YSL thickens in the end of endotrophic and in the course of endo-exotrophic period, and its cytoplasm contains numerous yolk inclusions. After yolk exhaustion the YSL is flat. As the YSL degrades, the YSN become pycnotic, and the YSL remnant probably is cleared by phagocytes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Distinct antigenic characteristics of murine parietal yolk sac laminin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Tichy, D; Damjanov, A

    1987-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (LAM-A and LAM-B) specific for laminin from normal and neoplastic parietal yolk sac (PYS) cells were produced in rats immunized with a mouse yolk sac carcinoma cell line. Both antibodies immunoprecipitated the 400,000- and 200,000-Da chains of laminin and reacted...... with purified PYS laminin in ELISA. LAM-A reacted with mouse and rat PYS laminin, whereas LAM-B reacted only with mouse PYS laminin. Formaldehyde- and methanol-fixed adult and fetal somatic tissues were immunohistochemically unreactive with either of the two antibodies. In acetone-fixed tissue sections, both...

  1. Metabolic fate of yolk fatty acids in the developing king penguin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groscolas, René; Fréchard, Françoise; Decrock, Frédéric; Speake, Brian K

    2003-10-01

    This study examines the metabolic fate of total and individual yolk fatty acids (FA) during the embryonic development of the king penguin, a seabird characterized by prolonged incubation (53 days) and hatching (3 days) periods, and a high n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated FA ratio in the egg. Of the approximately 15 g of total FA initially present in the egg lipid, 87% was transferred to the embryo by the time of hatching, the remaining 13% being present in the internalized yolk sac of the chick. During the whole incubation, 83% of the transferred FA was oxidized for energy, with only 17% incorporated into embryo lipids. Prehatching (days 0-49), the fat stores (triacylglycerol) accounted for 58% of the total FA incorporated into embryo lipid. During hatching (days 49-53), 40% of the FA of the fat stores was mobilized, the mobilization of individual FA being nonselective. At hatch, 53% of the arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) of the initial yolk had been incorporated into embryo lipid compared with only 15% of the total FA and 17-24% of the various n-3 polyunsaturated FA. Similarly, only 32% of the yolk's initial content of 20:4n-6 was oxidized for energy during development compared with 72% of the total FA and 58-66% of the n-3 polyunsaturated FA. The high partitioning of yolk FA toward oxidization and the intense mobilization of fat store FA during hatching most likely reflect the high energy cost of the long incubation and hatching periods of the king penguin. The preferential partitioning of 20:4n-6 into the structural lipid of the embryo in the face of its low content in the yolk may reflect the important roles of this FA in tissue function.

  2. Reflection of serum immunoglobulin isotypes in the egg yolk of laying hens immunized with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Nath Barman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the seroconversion and development of egg yolk immunoglobulins in adult laying White Leghorn hens immunized against an isolate of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC bearing K91 and K88ac antigens, obtained from diarrheic piglet. Materials and Methods: Adult laying White Leghorn hens were immunized with inactivated enterotoxic E. coli strain isolated originally from a case of piglet diarrhea following recommended schedule. The development of whole antibodies and isotype-specific antibodies in serum and egg yolk were measured using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Piglets suffering from diarrhea with fecal samples positive for ETEC were fed with egg yolk and compared with diarrheic control group. Results: The serum and egg yolk ELISA antibody titer against E. coli strain used in the present study was as high as 2666.66±307.92 and 933.33±203.67 respectively on 50 day-post-vaccination (DPV. The immunoglobulin Y (IgY was the predominant isotype in serum and egg yolk, which reached the peak titer of 2200±519.61 in serum on 40 DPV and 800±244.94 in egg yolk on 50 DPV. IgM titer in serum and egg yolk was found to be meager, and no IgA could be detected. Diarrheic piglets fed with the egg yolk suspension from immunized hens showed a promising result in controlling diarrhea. Conclusion: Egg yolk antibodies are considered a suitable immunotherapeutic alternative to conventional antibiotic therapy. High titer of egg yolk antibodies raised in the immunized hen against an isolate of ETEC holds the potential to be used for passive protection of diarrheic piglets during their most susceptible period of infection.

  3. Geographical trends in the yolk carotenoid composition of the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeva, T.; Ruuskanen, S.; Salminen, J.P.; Belskii, E.; Jarvinen, A.; Kerimov, A.; Korpimäki, E.; Krams, I.; Moreno, J.; Morosinotto, C.; Mänd, R.; Orell, M.; Qvarnström, A.; Siitari, H.; Slater, F.M.; Tilgar, V.; Visser, M.E.; Winkel, W.; Zang, H.; Laaksonen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids in the egg yolks of birds are considered to be important antioxidants and immune stimulants during the rapid growth of embryos. Yolk carotenoid composition is strongly affected by the carotenoid composition of the female’s diet at the time of egg formation. Spatial and temporal

  4. Effect of egg yolk powder on freezability of Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of commercial egg yolk powder as an alternative to fresh egg yolk on freezability of Murrah buffalo semen. Materials and Methods: Semen samples (12 from 3 Murrah buffaloes (4 from each bull with mass motility (≥3+ and total motility (70% and above were utilized in this study. Immediately after collection, each sample was divided into four groups. Groups I was diluted up to 60×106 sperm/ml with tris extender containing 10% fresh egg yolk and Groups II, III, and IV were diluted up to 60×106 sperm/ml with tris extender containing 2%, 4%, and 6% egg yolk powder, respectively. Semen samples were processed and cryopreserved followed by examination of frozen semen samples after 24 h. Semen samples from each group were evaluated for total motility, viability, acrosomal integrity, abnormality, and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST response after dilution, pre-freeze, and post-thaw stage. Results: Pre-freeze total motility was significantly (p<0.05 higher in Groups III and IV as compared to Groups I and II, and post-thaw total motility was significantly (p<0.01 higher in Group III as compared to other three groups. Viability was significantly (p<0.05 higher in Groups II, III, and IV than Group I at the pre-freeze stage. Significantly (p<0.01 higher viability and acrosomal integrity were recorded in Group III as compared to other three groups at the post-thaw stage. Abnormality was significantly (p<0.05 higher in Group IV than other three groups. HOST response was significantly (p<0.05 higher in Groups II and III than Groups I and IV at the pre-freeze and post-thaw stages. Conclusion: Addition of egg yolk powder at 4% level yielded significantly better results in terms of post-thaw semen quality as compared to the fresh egg yolk and other concentrations of egg yolk powder (2% and 6%.

  5. The Effects of Biopolymer Encapsulation on Total Lipids and Cholesterol in Egg Yolk during in Vitro Human Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Kyung Lee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract.

  6. The Effects of Biopolymer Encapsulation on Total Lipids and Cholesterol in Egg Yolk during in Vitro Human Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun-Jin; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Inwook; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23965957

  7. Interspecies variation in yolk selenium concentrations among eggs of free-living birds: The effect of phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Athanasios C; Karadas, Filiz; Surai, Peter F; Wood, Nicholas A R; Cassey, Phillip; Bortolotti, Gary R; Speake, Brian K

    2006-01-01

    Birds deposit the trace element selenium (Se) into their eggs because an adequate supply of this micronutrient is essential for embryonic development. Although there is considerable interest in egg Se with regard to topics as diverse as poultry nutrition and environmental pollution, data on the natural levels of Se in eggs of free-living avian species are currently very limited. To address this lack of information, we measured the yolk Se concentrations in eggs of 14 avian species collected in the wild. The concentrations (ng/g wet yolk) varied from 394 to 2238, with a mean value of 1040. Values (means+/-SD) for eggs from the UK, Canada and New Zealand were, respectively, 522+/-192 (3 species), 1194+/-584 (8 species) and 1147+/-200 (3 species). However, analysis by appropriate statistical models indicates that the effect of phylogenetic relatedness among these species is so significant that it removes any effect of geographical location. In particular, species belonging to the order Passeriformes displayed significantly higher yolk Se levels than Non-Passeriforme species. In marked contrast to the free-living species, our previously published data indicate that the Se concentration in egg yolk of the domestic chicken is only about 100 ng/g wet yolk when the birds are maintained on a basal commercial diet without supplementary Se. The results reveal an extensive interspecies variation in yolk Se (across a 6-fold range) for eggs collected from the wild. Nevertheless, the Se concentrations in the yolks of all the free-living species were far higher (4-21-fold) than that achieved in the yolk of the domestic chicken consuming a standard basal diet.

  8. Sex-specific effects of yolk testosterone on survival, begging and growth of zebra finches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Engelhardt, N; Carere, C; Dijkstra, C; Groothuis, TGG

    2006-01-01

    Yolk androgens affect offspring hatching, begging, growth and survival in many bird species. If these effects are sex-specific, yolk androgen deposition may constitute a mechanism for differential investment in male and female offspring. We tested this hypothesis in zebra finches. In this species,

  9. Effect of storage duration on the rheological properties of goose liquid egg products and eggshell membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumbár, V.; Nedomová, Š.; Trnka, Jan; Buchar, J.; Pytel, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 7 (2016), s. 1693-1701 ISSN 0032-5791 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : egg yolk * albumen * liquid whole egg * rheology * eggshell membrane Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.908, year: 2016 http://ps.oxfordjournals.org/

  10. Failure of zinc to prevent dysmorphogenesis of cultured rat conceptuses by anti-yolk sac antiserum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, R.; Freeman, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Day 10 rat conceptuses were cultured for 48h in the presence of either cadmium or anti-vesceral yolk sac antiserum (AVYS). Cadmium was embryotoxic at concentrations exceeding 0.25 ug/ml while AVYS caused embryonic dysmorphogenesis, particularly affecting the optic vesicles, at concentrations of 2 ul/ml and above. The effect of pretreatment with zinc on embryotoxicity caused by cadmium or AVYS was studied. Zinc ameliorated the effects of cadmium but had no effect on AVYS-induced embryonic abnormalities. In a second set of experiments inhibition of 125 I-labelled PVP uptake by the yolk sac of cultured whole conceptuses was studied. Cadmium and AVYS both inhibited uptake compared to control cultures. Zinc again ameliorated the effect of cadmium but had no action against AVYS-induced inhibition. These results are in contrast to their previous findings using isolated cultured yolk sacs in which zinc ameliorated the inhibitory effects on 125 I-labelled PVP uptake of both cadmium and AVYS. These data show that in experiments using the isolated cultured yolk sac and the intact cultured conceptus, a qualitatively different response in yolk sac behavior is observed under similar experimental conditions

  11. Yolk sac tumor in a patient with transverse testicular ectopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yi-Ping

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE is a rare anomaly in which both testes descend through a single inguinal canal. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the ectopic testis of a patient with TTE. A 24-year-old man presented to our hospital with a left inguinal-mass, right cryptorchidism and elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP. A left herniotomy 3 years earlier demonstrated both testes in the left scrotum, one above another positionally. Four months ago, a left scrotal mass appeared and radical orchiectomy of both testes revealed testicular yolk sac tumor of the ectopic testis. An enlarging left inguinal-mass appeared 2 months ago and he was referred to our hospital. Laboratory data showed an elevation of AFP (245.5 ng/ml and a 46 XY karyotype. He underwent bilateral retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and simultaneous left inguinal mass dissection. Histopathologic examination revealed a diagnosis of recurrent yolk sac tumor in the left inguinal mass. The retroperitoneal lymph node was not enlarged and, on histopathology, was not involved. The patient has now been followed up for 8 months without evidence of biochemical or radiological recurrence.

  12. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  13. Improved fatty acid analysis of conjugated linoleic acid rich egg yolk triacylglycerols and phospholipid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Sara; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jack; Proctor, Andrew

    2014-07-16

    Reports from chicken conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) feeding trials are limited to yolk total fatty acid composition, which consistently described increased saturated fatty acids and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids. However, information on CLA triacylglycerol (TAG) and phospholipid (PL) species is limited. This study determined the fatty acid composition of total lipids in CLA-rich egg yolk produced with CLA-rich soy oil, relative to control yolks using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), determined TAG and PL fatty acid compositions by thin-layer chromatography-GC-FID (TLC-GC-FID), identified intact PL and TAG species by TLC-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (TLC-MALDI-MS), and determined the composition of TAG and PL species in CLA and control yolks by direct flow infusion electrospray ionization MS (DFI ESI-MS). In total, 2 lyso-phosphatidyl choline (LPC) species, 1 sphingomyelin species, 17 phosphatidyl choline species, 19 TAG species, and 9 phosphatidyl ethanolamine species were identified. Fifty percent of CLA was found in TAG, occurring predominantly in C52:5 and C52:4 TAG species. CLA-rich yolks contained significantly more LPC than did control eggs. Comprehensive lipid profiling may provide insight on relationships between lipid composition and the functional properties of CLA-rich eggs.

  14. Development of the inverted visceral yolk sac in three species of caviids (Rodentia, Caviomorpha, Caviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglino, M A; Franciolli, A L R; de Oliveira, M F; Ambrósio, C E; Bonatelli, M; Machado, M R F; Mess, A

    2008-08-01

    Guinea pig related rodents possess numerous derived placental characters. We attempt to identify diversity within the visceral yolk sac and its association with the chorioallantoic placenta in three species of caviids, two of them possessing a capsule formed by the decidua that covers the chorioallantoic placenta. The results verify that in early pregnancy all three species have an inverted yolk sac placenta. In advanced pregnancy the species differ: Galea spixii, as representative without a capsule, bear a yolk sac in apposition to the chorioallantoic placenta with signs of exchange activity until term. Galea is similar to other caviomorphs in this respect. In Dasyprocta leporina and Cuniculus paca, the representatives possessing a capsule, the yolk sac endoderm lacks signs of substance exchange. Evidently, the presence of a capsule prevents such an interaction. The variations established here must be considered if animal models for human placentation are required which have restricted access to the chorioallantoic placenta from the outside.

  15. Supplementation of different concentrations of Orvus Es Paste (OEP) to ostrich egg yolk lipoprotein extender improves post-thaw boar semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, L; Jasiewicz, E; Kordan, W

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare post-thaw quality of boar semen following freezing in an ostrich egg yolk lipoprotein (LPFo) extender supplemented with 0%, 0.25% and 0.50% Orvus Es Paste (OEP). Sperm assessments included total motility (TMOT), mitochondrial function (MF), plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and acrosome integrity (normal apical ridge, NAR). Considerable variations among boars and OEP treatments had a significant effect (P semen samples frozen in the absence of OEP. By contrast, lactose-LPFo-glycerol extender supplemented with either 0.25% OEP or 0.50% OEP markedly enhanced post-thaw sperm characteristics. In all boars, there were no marked differences in post-thaw sperm TMOT between the freezing extenders supplemented with 0.25% and 0.50% OEP. However, a decline in the percentage of post-thaw motile spermatozoa was more pronounced in the extender supplemented with 0.50% OEP following a 120-min incubation period. Furthermore, the proportions of frozen-thawed spermatozoa with MF, PMI and NAR acrosomes varied significantly among the boars in the OEP-supplemented extenders. The findings of this study indicate that different OEP concentrations, in the presence of ostrich egg yolk lipoproteins, could have varying effects on post-thaw sperm survival.

  16. NAA Comparison of Nutriens in Egg Yolk and Egg White

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruangdit, S.; Maijan, P.; Channuie, J.; Picha, R.

    2014-01-01

    Food we eat has significant effects on our wellbeing. Eggs are among food products widely consumed and contain many essential nutrients. Yet eggs often are involved in dietary controversy regarding benefit versus risk. The fear of serum cholesterol has driven a large number of people away from consuming egg yolks. In this study, we assessed the nutritional importance of eggs using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique at Thai Research Reactor, operating at 1.2 MW. We investigated whether consumers miss any health benefits by choosing to eat only egg whites or yolks rather than whole natural eggs. Essential minerals such as sodium, potassium, manganese, magnesium, copper, selenium, iron and zinc are studied using three NAA loading methods: short-term individual pneumatic transfer system loading using inner-core tubes, medium-term CA3 loading and long-term Lazy Susan (LS) loading for 10 s, 7 h and 3 d, respectively. Two Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were used to find the nutrient concentrations and validate the method. From the study, we found significant differences in nutritional contents between egg yolks and egg whites. Along with literature review conducted as part of this study, we evaluated the consumption choice when it comes to eggs.

  17. Endocytosis of the major yolk proteins of the silkmoth, Hyalophora cecropia: Uptake kinetics and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakosky, P.C.

    1989-01-01

    The oocytes of Lepidopteran insects take up several yolk proteins in defined proportions even though their relative availability in the hemolymph changes during the several days required to complete yolk formation in all the eggs. There are three hemolymph yolk precursors, vitellogenin, microvitellogenin and lipophorin; one precursor, paravitellogenin is produced in the ovary. The control mechanism for their proportional endocytosis is not known. In this thesis, the author describe the purification of all four proteins and the radiolabeling of the hemolymph precursors. The radiolabeled proteins were tested with an in vitro incubation system to assess the biological activity of the proteins and the reliability of the incubation methods. All of the labeled probes were transferred from the incubation medium to yolk spheres within the oocyte in a saturable, energy-dependent, and stage-specific manner. The rates of uptake were similar to the estimated rates of uptake in situ. The concentration dependence of in vitro uptake was investigated and found to be consistent with in situ concentrations and the composition of yolk in mature eggs. Two precursors, vitellogenin and lipophorin, competed for uptake indicating that they share a common binding site while the third, microvitellin, did not compete with the others. Though vitellogenin and lipophorin competed for uptake, only vitellogenin displayed the unique ability to increase the uptake rate of microvitellin and fluid in vitro

  18. Semen Quality of Post-Thawed Local Ram’s in Tris-Egg Yolk Extender with Different Glutathione Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solihati, N.; Rasad, S. D.; Setiawan, R.; Foziah, E. N.; Wigiyanti, E. T.

    2018-02-01

    The aims of this research were to find out the effect of glutathione level on semen quality of local ram and to find out the glutathione level that provide the best quality of local ram semen. This research use Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with five treatments of glutathione level (0 mM, 4 mM, 5 mM, 6 mM and 7mM) and was repeated for 10 times. Data were analyzed using analysis of varians (ANOVA) and differences between treatment was analyzed using Duncan test. The parameter were semen quality consist of motility, intact plasma membrane (IPM), abnormality, and recovery rate. Result of this research showed that glutathione level significantly (pegg yolk tris extender provide the best quality of local ram semen.

  19. Bioavailability of lutein from a lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage and its dried re-suspended versions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunger, M.; Quataert, M.C.J.; Kamps, L.M.; Versloot, P.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Togtema, K.A.; Amerongen, van A.; Mensink, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Drying a fresh lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage would extend its shelf life, however, functional properties should not be affected. It was investigated whether consumption of a dried beverage containing lutein-enriched egg-yolk significantly increases serum lutein. One-hundred healthy young

  20. Ovarian mixed germ cell tumor with yolk sac and teratomatous components in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nicholas A; Manivel, J Carlos; Olson, Erik J

    2013-05-01

    Mixed germ cell tumors of the ovary have rarely been reported in veterinary species. A 3-year-old intact female Labrador Retriever dog was presented for lethargy, abdominal distention, and a midabdominal mass. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (23 cm in diameter) left ovarian tumor and multiple small (2-3 cm in diameter) pale tan masses on the peritoneum and abdominal surface of the diaphragm. Histological examination of the left ovary revealed a mixed germ cell tumor with a yolk sac component with rare Schiller-Duval bodies and a teratomatous component comprised primarily of neural differentiation. The abdominal metastases were solely comprised of the yolk sac component. The yolk sac component was diffusely immunopositive for cytokeratin with scattered cells reactive for α-fetoprotein and placental alkaline phosphatase. Within the teratomatous component, the neuropil was diffusely immunopositive for S100, neuron-specific enolase, and neurofilaments with a few glial fibrillary acidic protein immunopositive cells. Ovarian germ cell tumors may be pure and consist of only 1 germ cell element or may be mixed and include more than 1 germ cell element, such as teratoma and yolk sac tumor.

  1. Primary Yolk Sac Tumor of the Omentum: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Chang Kyu; Oh, Young Taik; Jung, Dae Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institue of Radiological Science, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yoon Sung [Dept. of Pathology, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    A 32-year-old woman had been referred to our hospital for lower abdominal pain. Pelvic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a huge solid mass with an internal cystic portion. The patient underwent a staging laparotomy and subsequent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph nodes sampling, and total omentectomy. At staging laparotomy, a large omental mass was found. The tumor displayed the typical histological patterns observed in the yolk sac tumor. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum value on the 10th day after surgery was 11,576.67 IU/mL and decreased to 6.46 IU/mL after chemotherapy. At the end of the treatment, all the findings, including the AFP level, were normal. We report a case of primary yolk sac tumor of the omentum in a 32-year-old woman.

  2. Primary Yolk Sac Tumor of the Omentum: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Chang Kyu; Oh, Young Taik; Jung, Dae Chul; Bae, Yoon Sung

    2012-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman had been referred to our hospital for lower abdominal pain. Pelvic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a huge solid mass with an internal cystic portion. The patient underwent a staging laparotomy and subsequent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph nodes sampling, and total omentectomy. At staging laparotomy, a large omental mass was found. The tumor displayed the typical histological patterns observed in the yolk sac tumor. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum value on the 10th day after surgery was 11,576.67 IU/mL and decreased to 6.46 IU/mL after chemotherapy. At the end of the treatment, all the findings, including the AFP level, were normal. We report a case of primary yolk sac tumor of the omentum in a 32-year-old woman.

  3. Multi-shelled ZnCo2O4 yolk-shell spheres for high-performance acetone gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ya; Zhu, Zongye; Ding, Degong; Lu, Wenbo; Xue, Qingzhong

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, multi-shelled ZnCo2O4 yolk-shell spheres have been successfully prepared by using carbonaceous microspheres as templates. It is found that the multi-shelled ZnCo2O4 yolk-shell spheres based sensor shows optimal sensing performances (response value of 38.2, response/recovery time of 19 s/71 s) toward 500 ppm acetone at 200 °C. In addition, this sensor exhibits a low detection limit of 0.5 ppm acetone (response value of 1.36) and a good selectivity toward hydrogen, methane, ethanol, ammonia and carbon dioxide. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that acetone gas response of multi-shelled ZnCo2O4 yolk-shell spheres is significantly better than that of ZnCo2O4 nanotubes and ZnCo2O4 nanosheets. High acetone response of the multi-shelled ZnCo2O4 yolk-shell spheres is attributed to the enhanced gas accessibility of the multi-shell morphology caused by the small crystalline size and high specific surface area while the short response/recovery time is mainly related to the rapid gas diffusion determined by the highly porous structure. Our work puts forward an exciting opportunity in designing various yolk-shelled structures for multipurpose applications.

  4. Influence of natural and synthetic carotenoids on the color of egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Papa Spada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Carotenoids are incorporated into the diet of laying hens in order to modify the yolk color. A natural source of carotenoids in tropical countries is annatto, which could be used in the diets of hens. This study aimed to evaluate the addition of natural (annatto and synthetic carotenoids to the diet of laying hens (commercial and alternative and their effects on yolk color and consumer sensory perception of fresh and stored eggs obtained from two different preparations (boiled and fried. Physicochemical analysis of proximate composition, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, emulsion activity and instrumental color were performed. Cooking caused significant alterations to the moisture in the preparations and this may have directly affected the color intensity, influencing factors related to egg appearance. In this study, 85 % of the panelists indicated that yolk color is an important attribute of the product’s quality. There was no antioxidant effect of the carotenoids in raw eggs. Synthetic additives should be better dosed to obtain the desired effect. Storage did not alter the proximate composition of the eggs.

  5. Preparation of yolk-shell MoS2 nanospheres covered with carbon shell for excellent lithium-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bangjun; Feng, Yu; Chen, Xiaofan; Li, Bo; Yu, Ke

    2018-03-01

    Molybdenum disulfide is regarded as one of the most promising electrode materials for high performance lithium-ion batteries. Designing firm basal structure is a key point to fully utilize the high capacity of layered MoS2 nanomaterials. Here, yolk-shell structured MoS2 nanospheres is firstly designed and fabricated to meet this needs. This unique yolk-shell nanospheres are transformed from solid nanospheres by a simply weak alkaline etching method. Then, the yolk-shell MoS2/C is synthesized by a facile process to protect the outside MoS2 shell and promote the conductivity. Taking advantages of high capacity and well-defined cavity space, allowing the core MoS2 to expand freely without breaking the outer shells, yolk-shell MoS2/C nanospheres delivers long cycle life (94% of capacity retained after 200 cycles) and high rate behaviour (830 mA h g-1 at 5 A g-1). This design of yolk-shell structure may set up a new strategy for preparing next generation anode materials for LIBs.

  6. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the carotenoid concentration in egg yolks depending on the feeding and housing conditions of the laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterberg, Karoline; Schanzer, Sabine; Patzelt, Alexa; Sterry, Wolfram; Fluhr, Joachim W; Meinke, Martina C; Lademann, Jürgen; Darvin, Maxim E

    2012-01-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopic measurements are suited to analyze the concentration of carotenoid antioxidants in biological samples. Previously, it has been shown that the carotenoid concentration of nutritional egg yolks has a direct influence on the carotenoid content of human skin in vivo. In the present study, resonance Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze the carotenoid concentration in the yolks of hen eggs, which were housed in battery cages or alternatively on free-range grassland. The egg yolks of hens, which had access to grassland, contained approximately double the amount of carotenoid concentration than the egg yolks of hens housed in battery cages (p egg yolks, depending on fodder, housing and weather conditions, were investigated. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Improved quality of frozen boer goat semen with the addition of sweet orange essential oil on tris yolk and gentamicin extender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitepu, S. A.; Zaituni, U.; Jaswandi; Hendri

    2018-02-01

    This research aimed to determine the extent of frozen semen quality Boer Goat by essential oils of sweet orange peel in tris yolk and gentamicin extender. Research has been conducted at the Laboratory Loka Penelitian Kambing Potong Sei Putih, Deli Serdang, North Sumatra in February 2017. This study used a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 5 replications. Treatments are 0.25; 0.5; 0.75 and 1% essential oils as additional diluent. The parameters were measured percentage Motility, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and viability Boer Goat frozen semen. The results showed that the addition of essential oils as diluent semen was significant (P essential oil as much as 1%.

  8. Yolk-albumen testosterone in a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination: relation with development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Victoria; Bowden, Rachel M; Crews, David

    2013-06-01

    The leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination as well as temperature-influenced polymorphisms. Research suggests that in oviparous reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination, steroid hormones in the yolk might influence sex determination and sexual differentiation. From captive leopard geckos that were all from the same incubation temperature regime, we gathered freshly laid eggs, incubated them at one of two female-biased incubation temperatures (26 or 34°C), and measured testosterone content in the yolk-albumen at early or late development. No differences in the concentration of testosterone were detected in eggs from different incubation temperatures. We report testosterone concentrations in the yolk-albumen were higher in eggs of late development than early development at 26°C incubation temperatures, a finding opposite that reported in other TSD reptiles studied to date. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Yolk coelomitis in a white-throated monitor lizard (Varanus albigularis : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Gardner

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Yolk coelomitis as a result of pre-ovulatory follicular stasis is a common disorder in captive reptiles, especially in captive lizards of various genera. The clinical signs are generally fairly non-specific and diagnosis is based on clinical signs together with most of the common diagnostic modalities. The condition is most likely a husbandry and environment-related reproductive disorder. It has not been reported in wild free-living specimens. This report describes the clinical presentation and post mortem lesions in a white-throated monitor lizard that died during treatment for non-specific clinical signs related to a severe yolk coelomitis.

  10. The potency of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY specific as immunotherapy to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Agus Sudjarwo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgYs specific as immunotherapy to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC infection. Lohmann laying hens were immunized intramuscularly with antigenic of MTBC. Egg yolk was separated from egg white, and IgY antibody was then purified by multiple polyethylene glycols 6000 extraction and ammonium sulfate purification steps. The IgY anti-MTBC concentration in egg yolk increased at 2 weeks and it reached a maximum at 4 weeks after immunization. After 6 weeks, the levels of IgY anti-MTBC decreased gradually. The antibody of MTBC was detected and produces a specific line of precipitation in agar gel precipitation test beginning the week 2 after the first immunization. Analysis of results obtained with ELISA showed a significant increase in the MTBC specific antibodies after 2 weeks and reached a plateau at 4 weeks from the booster immunization. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the IgY preparation to be pure and dissociated into protein bands with molecular weights of 112, 78, 69, 49, and 28 kDa and Western blot analysis shown the presence of anti-MTBC IgY in egg yolks, with molecular weights of approximately 78 kDa. These results suggested that egg yolk could be a practical strategy in large-scale production of specific anti-MTBC IgY for immunotherapy of TBC.

  11. Epididymal sperm from Spix's yellow-toothed cavies sperm successfully cryopreserved in Tris extender with 6% glycerol and 20% egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andréia M; Praxedes, Erica C G; Campos, Lívia B; Bezerra, Luana G P; Moreira, Samara S J; Maia, Keilla M; Souza, Ana L P; Silva, Alexandre R

    2018-04-01

    As a non-threatened hystricognath rodent species, Spix's yellow-toothed cavies can be used as a model for the development of assisted reproductive techniques for the conservation of closely related species. The objective was to establish a functional protocol for cryopreservation of epididymal sperm from these cavies. Twelve sexually mature males, ∼2 y old and weighing ∼300 g, were euthanized. Sperm were recovered by retrograde flushing of the vas deferens and cauda epididymis with Tris extender. Thereafter, sperm were extended in Tris plus 20% egg yolk, with 3%, 6% or 9% glycerol or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), placed in 0.25 mL straws and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. Sperm concentration, motility (using computer-assisted sperm analysis; CASA), plasma membrane integrity, osmotic response, morphology and sperm binding-ability were determined in fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. For most sperm endpoints, glycerol was a more desirable cryoprotectant than DMSO. Data (mean ± SEM) were similar with use of 3%, 6%, and 9% glycerol (P > 0.05) in osmotic response (40.66 ± 6.3%, 42.5 ± 7.1%, and 39.5 ± 5.0% respectably), and membrane integrity (55.17 ± 5.5%, 68.4 ± 4.1%, and 59.1 ± 4.9% respectably). Among concentrations assessed, the use of 6% glycerol resulted in the greatest (P < 0.05) post-thaw values for total motility (60.9 ± 4.4%), rapid subpopulation motility (27.7 ± 3.1%) and sperm-binding capability (227.0 ± 20.2). In conclusion, epididymal sperm from the Spix's yellow-toothed cavies (G. spixii) are optimally cryopreserved in Tris extender with 6% glycerol and 20% egg yolk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Liposome encapsulated soy lecithin and cholesterol can efficiently replace chicken egg yolk in human semen cryopreservation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutalik, Srinivas; Salian, Sujith Raj; Avadhani, Kiran; Menon, Jyothsna; Joshi, Haritima; Hegde, Aswathi Raju; Kumar, Pratap; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Cryopreservation of spermatozoa plays a significant role in reproductive medicine and fertility preservation. Chicken egg yolk is used as an extender in cryopreservation of human spermatozoa using glycerol egg yolk citrate (GEYC) buffered medium. Even though 50% survival of spermatozoa is generally achieved with this method, the risk of high levels of endotoxins and transmission pathogens from chicken egg yolk is a matter of concern. In the present study we attempted to establish a chemically defined cryopreservation medium which can replace the chicken egg yolk without affecting sperm survival. Ejaculates from 28 men were cryopreserved with GEYC based freezing medium or liposome encapsulated soy lecithin-cholesterol based freezing medium (LFM). The semen samples were subjected to rapid thawing after 14 days of storage in liquid nitrogen. Post-thaw analysis indicated significantly higher post-thaw motility and sperm survival in spermatozoa cryopreserved with LFM compared to conventional GEYC freezing medium. The soy lecithin and cholesterol at the ratio of 80:20 with sucrose showed the highest percentage of post-thaw motility and survival compared to the other compositions. In conclusion, chemically defined cryopreservation medium with liposome encapsulated soy lecithin and cholesterol can effectively replace the chicken egg yolk from human semen cryopreservation medium without compromising post-thaw outcome.

  13. Au@TiO2 yolk-shell nanostructures for enhanced performance in both photoelectric and photocatalytic solar conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinrong; Sun, Hang; Shang, Yinxing; Tang, Yanan; She, Ping; Zeng, Shan; Xu, Kongliang; Lu, Guolong; Liang, Song; Yin, Shengyan; Liu, Zhenning

    2018-05-01

    Solar energy conversion is an important field gaining increasing interest. Herein, bio-inspired Au@TiO2 yolk-shell nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared via a facial one-pot hydrothermal approach. The Au@TiO2 yolk-shell NPs can self-assemble into 3D-structure to form photoelectrode for photoelectric conversion. The obtained photoelectrode demonstrates a swift and stable photocurrent of 3.5 μA/cm2, which is 4.2 and 1.6 times higher than those of the photocurrents generated by the counterparts of commercial TiO2 and Au@TiO2 core-shell NPs, respectively. Moreover, compared to the commercial TiO2 and Au@TiO2 core-shell NPs, the Au@TiO2 yolk-shell NPs also exhibit superior photocatalytic activity, delivering a H2 evolution rate of 4.92 mmol/g h. The performance improvement observed for the Au@TiO2 yolk-shell NPs is likely contributed by two synergistic factors, i.e. the incorporation of AuNPs and the unique hollow structure, which benefit the activity by simultaneously enhancing light utilization, charge separation and reaction site accessibility. The rational design and fabrication of Au@TiO2 yolk-shell NPs hold great promise for future application in efficient solar energy conversion.

  14. Induction of rat yolk sac carcinomas with consistent pattern of laminin, entactin, and type IV collagen biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-four yolk sac carcinomas in Lewis rats were experimentally induced by puncturing the pregnant uterine wall with a hypodermic needle at day 9-13 of gestation. Morphologically, the tumours were composed of parietal- and visceral yolk sac carcinoma and to a less degree of trophoblastic giant...

  15. Zebrafish Embryonic Lipidomic Analysis Reveals that the Yolk Cell Is Metabolically Active in Processing Lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fraher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of lipids in providing energy and structural cellular components during vertebrate development is poorly understood. To elucidate these roles further, we visualized lipid deposition and examined expression of key lipid-regulating genes during zebrafish embryogenesis. We also conducted a semiquantitative analysis of lipidomic composition using liquid chromatography (LC-mass spectrometry. Finally, we analyzed processing of boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY lipid analogs injected into the yolk using thin layer chromatography. Our data reveal that the most abundant lipids in the embryo are cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, and triglyceride. Moreover, we demonstrate that lipids are processed within the yolk prior to mobilization to the embryonic body. Our data identify a metabolically active yolk and body resulting in a dynamic lipid composition. This provides a foundation for studying lipid biology during normal or pharmacologically compromised embryogenesis.

  16. Biofortified orange maize enhances β-cryptoxanthin concentrations in egg yolks of laying hens better than tangerine peel fortificant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heying, Emily K; Tanumihardjo, Jacob P; Vasic, Vedran; Cook, Mark; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2014-12-10

    The xanthophyll β-cryptoxanthin provides vitamin A and has other purported health benefits. Laying hens deposit xanthophyll carotenoids into egg yolk. Hens (n = 8/group) were fed conventional-bred high β-cryptoxanthin biofortified (orange) maize, tangerine peel-fortified white maize, lutein-fortified yellow maize, or white maize for 40 d to investigate yolk color changes using L*a*b* scales, yolk carotenoid enhancement, and hen vitamin A status. Yolks from hens fed orange maize had scores indicating a darker, orange color and mean higher β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene concentrations (8.43 ± 1.82, 23.1 ± 4.8, 0.16 ± 0.08 nmol/g, respectively) than other treatments (P eggs could be another choice for consumers, providing enhanced color through a provitamin A carotenoid and supporting eggs' status as a functional food.

  17. Soybean lecithin-based extender preserves spermatozoa membrane integrity and fertilizing potential during goat semen cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelucci, Sara; Pasciu, Valeria; Succu, Sara; Addis, Daniela; Leoni, Giovanni G; Manca, Maria E; Naitana, Salvatore; Berlinguer, Fiammetta

    2015-04-01

    Soybean lecithin may represent a suitable alternative to egg yolk for semen cryopreservation in livestock species. However, additional studies are needed to elucidate its effects on spermatozoa functional properties. Semen collected from five Sarda bucks was cryopreserved in Tris-based extender and glycerol (4% v:v) with different supplementations. In a preliminary experiment, different soybean lecithin concentrations were tested (1%-6% wt/vol) and results in terms of viability, percentages of progressive motile and rapid spermatozoa, and DNA integrity after thawing showed that the most effective concentration was 1%. In the second experiment, semen was frozen in a Tris-based extender with no supplementation (EXT), with 1% lecithin (EXT LC), and 20% egg yolk (EXT EY). The effectiveness of these extenders was also compared with a commercial extender. The EXT EY led to the highest viability and motility parameters after freezing and thawing (P lecithin can be considered as a suitable alternative to egg yolk in goat semen cryopreservation, because it ensures higher fertilization rates and a better protection from membrane damage by cold shock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Volatile flavours in raw egg yolk of hens fed on different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagemann, Ina; Zelena, Kateryna; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G

    2011-08-30

    Recent studies have suggested that the composition of lipophilic components of egg yolk is influenced by the feed. The aim of the present study was to isolate volatile flavours from egg yolk after different feeding trials using solvent extraction and thin layer high-vacuum distillation. The resulting aroma extract was analysed by various gas chromatographic techniques. Chickens were either fed with laying meal, laying meal plus cabbage and onion or laying meal plus rapeseed oil or held in free-range. The predominating odour impressions were described as onion-like. Comparing all analytical and sensory data of the flavour extracts, there were minimal differences among the respective samples. Free-range eggs contained fewer volatile compounds than the other samples, whereas rapeseed oil supplementation caused an enrichment of sulfur compounds. While data from gas chromatography/flame ionisation detection, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/olfactometry were less conclusive, the results from sulfur-specific analysis using gas chromatography/flame photometric detection showed a considerable effect. However, because of the low abundance of sulfur compounds in the yolk, these differences are not expected to be perceivable by the consumer. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Effects of lutein-enriched egg yolk in buttermilk or skimmed milk on serum lipids & lipoproteins of mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severins, N; Mensink, R P; Plat, J

    2015-02-01

    Earlier studies in our group suggested that traditionally prepared buttermilk influences cholesterol metabolism. We therefore designed a study to evaluate whether traditionally prepared buttermilk lowers serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or prevents the LDL-C raising effect of egg yolks. Mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects were randomly allocated to one of four diet groups consuming daily at lunch 80 ml skimmed milk with (n = 23) or without (n = 25) lutein-enriched egg yolk (28 g from 1.5 eggs providing 323 mg cholesterol) or traditionally prepared buttermilk with (n = 23) or without (n = 21) lutein-enriched egg yolk during a 12 week period. Fasting blood samples were taken to measure concentrations of serum lipids, (apo)lipoproteins, liver and kidney function markers, and plasma lutein, zeaxanthin and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Egg yolk consumption significantly increased serum total cholesterol (total-C) (p = 0.035) and LDL-C concentrations (p = 0.022). Buttermilk did not change the effects of egg yolk on serum lipids and (apo)lipoproteins. There was a trend towards significant lower total-C (p = 0.077), but not LDL-C (p = 0.204) concentrations in the buttermilk groups. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations increased significantly (p < 0.001) in the egg yolk groups. In mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects, daily consumption of traditionally prepared buttermilk for 12 weeks did not lower serum total-C or LDL-C concentrations, nor did it prevent the serum total-C and LDL-C raising effect of daily egg yolk consumption. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01566305. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cu₂O template synthesis of high-performance PtCu alloy yolk-shell cube catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Sheng-Hua; He, Xu-Jun; Ding, Liang-Xin; Pan, Zheng-Wei; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Wu, Mingmei; Li, Gao-Ren

    2014-10-21

    Novel PtCu alloy yolk-shell cubes were fabricated via the disproportionation and displacement reactions in Cu2O yolk-shell cubes, and they exhibit significantly improved catalytic activity and durability for methanol electrooxidation.

  1. Cryosurvival of goat spermatozoa in tris-egg yolk extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of melatonin supplementation in semen extenders on cryosurvival of spermatozoa obtained from West African Dwarf (WAD) goat bucks was studied. Tris-egg yolk extenders supplemented with different levels of melatonin (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 mM) were diluted with semen samples. The diluted semen samples were ...

  2. Distributional shift of urea production site from the extraembryonic yolk sac membrane to the embryonic liver during the development of cloudy catshark (Scyliorhinus torazame).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Wataru; Kajimura, Makiko; Tanaka, Hironori; Hasegawa, Kumi; Ogawa, Shuntaro; Hyodo, Susumu

    2017-09-01

    Urea is an essential osmolyte for marine cartilaginous fishes. Adult elasmobranchs and holocephalans are known to actively produce urea in the liver, muscle and other extrahepatic organs; however, osmoregulatory mechanisms in the developing cartilaginous fish embryo with an undeveloped urea-producing organ are poorly understood. We recently described the contribution of extraembryonic yolk sac membranes (YSM) to embryonic urea synthesis during the early developmental period of the oviparous holocephalan elephant fish (Callorhinchus milii). In the present study, to test whether urea production in the YSM is a general phenomenon among oviparous Chondrichthyes, we investigated gene expression and activities of ornithine urea cycle (OUC) enzymes together with urea concentrations in embryos of the elasmobranch cloudy catshark (Scyliorhinus torazame). The intracapsular fluid, in which the catshark embryo develops, had a similar osmolality to seawater, and embryos maintained a high concentration of urea at levels similar to that of adult plasma throughout development. Relative mRNA expressions and activities of catshark OUC enzymes were significantly higher in YSM than in embryos until stage 32. Concomitant with the development of the embryonic liver, the expression levels and activities of OUC enzymes were markedly increased in the embryo from stage 33, while those of the YSM decreased from stage 32. The present study provides further evidence that the YSM contributes to embryonic urea homeostasis until the liver and other extrahepatic organs become fully functional, and that urea-producing tissue shifts from the YSM to the embryonic liver in the late developmental period of oviparous marine cartilaginous fishes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Diagnostic utility of egg yolk for the detection of avian metapneumovirus antibodies in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kang-Seuk; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Park, Mi-Ja; Yoo, Yae-Na; Kwon, Jun-Hun

    2010-12-01

    Surveillance and diagnosis of avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) infection typically involve measurement of serum antibodies. In the current study, eggs instead of serum samples were used for the detection of AMPV antibodies in egg-laying chicken hens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). AMPV-free commercial layer hens were experimentally challenged with AMPV strain SC1509 through intravenous or oculonasal administration. Antibody levels were determined by ELISA. AMPV antibodies were detected in egg yolks from challenged hens by 7 days postinoculation (dpi), with the peak titer at 16 dpi. Antibody levels in eggs laid at 28 dpi correlated well (r = 0.93) with sera taken 28 dpi from the same hens. In a field trial of the yolk ELISA, six broiler breeder farms were surveyed, and all tested positive for AMPV antibodies in hen eggs, although positivity varied from farm to farm. Abnormal discolored eggs collected from outbreak farms had significantly higher titers of AMPV yolk antibodies than normal eggs from the same farm, unlike clinically healthy farms, where normal and abnormal eggs had similar antibody titers. These results indicate that diagnosis of AMPV infection by yolk ELISA to detect anti-AMPV antibodies may be a suitable alternative to serologic testing.

  4. An evaluation of soybean lecithin as an alternative to avian egg yolk in the cryopreservation of fish sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Cengiz; Bozkurt, Yusuf; Yavas, Ilker

    2013-08-01

    Plant-derived lecithin has been used as a more sanitary alternative to avian egg yolk in livestock sperm cryopreservation protocols but its efficacy for cryopreserving fish sperm has not previously been tested comparatively. Here various concentrations of soybean lecithin were evaluated for the cryopreservation of carp (Cyprinus carpio) sperm. Sexually mature fish were induced to spermiation and ovulation with ovopel. The extenders were prepared by using 300 mM glucose, 10% DMSO, supplemented with different ratios of lecithin (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) and 10% egg yolk (control I). Negative control was made without egg yolk and soybean lecithin (control II). The pooled semen was diluted separately at ratio of 1:3 (v/v) by using egg yolk and soybean-based extenders. Diluted semen placed into 0.25 ml straws were equilibrated at 4 °C for 15 min and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor. Fertilization was conducted using a ratio of 1 × 10(5)spermatozoa/egg. Supplementation of 10% lecithin to extender showed the best cryoprotective effect for sperm motility and duration of motility against freezing damage compared to 15%, 20% and control II groups (plecithin provided a greater result in terms of fertilization success when compared to extenders containing 20% lecithin or control II (plecithin has a similar cryoprotective actions with conventional egg yolk-based extender against freezing damages and fertilization. Therefore, soybean lecithin is a suitable alternative to avian egg yolk for the cryopreservation of fish sperm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparisons among serum, egg albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone as biomarkers of basal and stimulated adrenocortical activity of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, N J; Renema, R; Wilkinson, C; Schaefer, A L

    2009-09-01

    1. Serial blood samples from individual birds were analysed for corticosterone concentrations under basal and stimulated conditions, and matched to eggs from the same birds for comparison to albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone. 2. Serum corticosterone exhibited increases in response to stimulation by ACTH and Handling stress. There were no significant increases in egg albumin or yolk concentrations of corticosterone following stimulation. 3. Several significant correlations were observed between the mean and area under the curve (AUC) measurements of serum corticosterone concentrations with albumin and yolk corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid from 1 to 2 d later. 4. The results demonstrated a relationship between endogenous concentrations of serum corticosterone that reflected daily adrenocortical output with albumin and yolk corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid the following day. 5. The results do not support the concept of albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone as biomarkers of acute adrenocortical responses to stimulation.

  6. Alkali resistant Ni-loaded yolk-shell catalysts for direct internal reforming in molten carbonate fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Won-Jun; Hong, Young Jun; Kim, Hak-Min; Shim, Jae-Oh; Roh, Hyun-Seog; Kang, Yun Chan

    2017-06-01

    A facile and scalable spray pyrolysis process is applied to synthesize multi-shelled Ni-loaded yolk-shell catalysts on various supports (Al2O3, CeO2, ZrO2, and La(OH)3). The prepared catalysts are applied to direct internal reforming (DIR) in a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). Even on exposure to alkali hydroxide vapors, the Ni-loaded yolk-shell catalysts remain highly active for DIR-MCFCs. The Ni@Al2O3 microspheres show the highest conversion (92%) of CH4 and the best stability among the prepared Ni-loaded yolk-shell catalysts. Although the initial CH4 conversion of the Ni@ZrO2 microspheres is higher than that of the Ni@CeO2 microspheres, the Ni@CeO2 microspheres are more stable. The catalytic performance is strongly dependent on the surface area and acidity and also partly dependent on the reducibility. The acidic nature of Al2O3 combined with its high surface area and yolk-shell structure enhances the adsorption of CH4 and resistance against alkali poisoning, resulting in efficient DIR-MCFC reactions.

  7. Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk from Chickens Fed a Diet including Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Altuntaş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diet supplemented with marigold on egg yolk fatty acid composition and egg quality parameters. Sixty hens were assigned into three groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control, 10 g kg−1, or 20 g kg−1 marigold for 42 days. Eggs collected at the 6th week of the study were analyzed for fatty acid analysis. Laying performance, egg quality parameters, and feed intake were also evaluated. Yolk color scores in the group fed the 20 g kg−1 marigold-supplemented diet were found greater than control (10.77 versus 9.77. Inclusion of 20 g kg−1 marigold in diet influenced egg weights adversely compared to the control. Diet supplemented with 10 g kg−1 or 20 g kg−1 marigold increased the levels of C16:0 and C18:0 and decreased levels of C16:1 (n-7 and C18:1 (n-9 in the egg yolk. Also, diet including marigold increased total saturated fatty acids (SFA and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA in the egg yolk.

  8. Contribution to the study of the reduction of sulfate by the yolk sac of the chicken embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, Claude

    1958-11-01

    This academic reports addresses additional information obtained about the reduction of sulfate into sulphite by the yolk sac of a chicken embryo. Two important difficulties have been faced: the impossibility to isolate this reduction from reactions which immediately use the formed sulphite, and the impossibility to obtain an acellular preparation able to reduce the sulfate. Then, the problem of reduction of sulfate into sulphite by the yolk sac is associated with the problem of permeability of yolk sac cells to the studied substances. Thus, the author studied whether other animal species could provide a better material than the chicken embryo for this study of sulfate reduction. It appears that some vertebrate embryos present some evidence of sulphur metabolism similar to that of chicken embryo. However, this last one revealed to be the most favourable for the study. The author reports the study of the evolution of the reduction activity of the yolk sac sulfate with respect to the embryo age, and the effect of some metabolic inhibitors on this activity [fr

  9. Chronobiological studies of chicken IgY: monitoring of infradian, circadian and ultradian rhythms of IgY in blood and yolk of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin-Xin; Thirumalai, Diraviyam; Schade, Rüdiger; Zhang, Xiao-Ying

    2014-08-15

    IgY is the functional equivalent of mammalian IgG found in birds, reptiles and amphibians. Many of its biological aspects have been explored with different approaches. In order to evaluate the rhythmicity of serum and yolk IgY, four chickens were examined and reared under the same conditions. To monitor biological oscillations of IgY in yolk and serum, the eggs and blood samples were collected over a 60 day period and the rhythm of yolk and serum IgY was determined by direct-ELISA. Results indicated that, there is a significant circaseptan rhythm in yolk IgY and circaquattran rhythm in serum IgY. The serum IgY concentration reached a peak in the morning, decreased to a minimum during the daytime and increased again at night revealing a significant circadian rhythm was superimposed by an ultradian rhythm. These data are suited to address the controversies concerning the IgY concentration in egg yolk and blood of laying hens. In addition, this study raised new questions, if the different rhythms in yolk and serum are concerned. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Deposition of carotenoids in egg yolk by short-term supplement of coloured carrot (Daucus carota) varieties as forage material for egg-laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammershøj, Marianne; Kidmose, Ulla; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2010-05-01

    Supplying egg-laying hens with different forage materials may influence egg production and quality. The aim of this study was to examine the short-term effects of standard feed plus 70 g day(-1) per hen of three coloured carrot varieties (orange, yellow and purple) as forage material in comparison with a standard feed control on egg production, egg yolk colour and deposition of carotenoids in the yolk. Carrot supplementation reduced feed intakes significantly, but not on a dry matter basis. Orange carrot treatment significantly reduced egg mass production, whereas yellow and purple carrot treatments did not differ from the control. Egg and yolk weights of all carrot-supplemented treatments were significantly lower than those of the control, but yolk percentages were similar. Yolk redness increased significantly in the order control 1.5-fold) and beta-carotene (>100-fold) compared with the control. Supplementing the feed of egg-laying hens with coloured carrots efficiently increased yolk colour parameters and carotenoid contents, which gives opportunities for improved nutritional value of eggs from forage material-supplemented hens.

  11. Offspring sex ratio is related to paternal train elaboration and yolk corticosterone in peafowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Thomas W; Petrie, Marion

    2005-06-22

    Several recent experimental studies have provided strong evidence for the ability of birds to manipulate the sex ratio of their offspring prior to laying. Using a captive population of peafowl (Pavo cristatus), we tested experimentally the effects of paternal attractiveness on offspring sex ratio, and related sex ratio deviations to egg-yolk concentrations of testosterone, 17beta-estradiol and corticosterone. When females were mated to males whose attractiveness had been experimentally reduced by removing prominent eyespot feathers from their trains, they produced significantly more female offspring, had significantly higher yolk corticosterone concentrations and tended to have lower levels of yolk testosterone than when mated to the same males with their full complement of feathers. Concentrations of 17beta-estradiol did not vary consistently with sex ratio biases. These findings add to the small number of studies providing experimental evidence that female birds can control the primary sex ratio of their offspring in response to paternal attractiveness, and highlight the possibility that corticosterone and perhaps testosterone are involved in the sex manipulation process in birds.

  12. Production and Purification Immunoglobulin against E. coli in Egg Yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Nassiri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chicken is the only avian species in which polyclonal antibodies, like IgG is transported from the hen to the egg yolk in a similar manner as the transport of mammalian IgG from the mother to the fetus. Immunoglobulin Y in the chicken is transported to the egg and accumulates in the egg yolk in large quantities. IgY is an egg yolk antibody that has been used widely for treatment and prevention of infections in humans and animal. IgY is used for passive protection of the pathogen infections such as Escherichia coli, bovine and human rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, salmonella, staphylococcus and Pseudomonas. IgY is a promising candidate as an alternative to antibiotics. Eschericha coli strains of serotype O157: H7 belongs to a family of pathogenic E. coli called enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC strains responsible for hemorrhagic colitis, bloody or non-bloody diarrhea, and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. This strain of E. coli pathogenises by adhering to host intestinal epithelium and forming bacterial colonies. The purpose of this study was to produce and purify immunoglobulin Y against E. coli O157:H7 and develop specific polyclonal anti E. coli antibody in the egg yolk. Materials and Methods Sixteen-week-old laying hens (Mashhad, Iran were kept in individual cages with food and water ad libitum. Immunization of hens was performed by intramuscularly injecting killed E. coli O157: H7 with an equal volume of Freund’s complete adjuvant into two sides of chest area (Sigma, USA for the first immunization. Two booster immunizations followed up using complete and incomplete Freund’s adjuvants in two weeks interval. Freund’s adjuvant without antigen was injected to the control group. Two weeks after the last injection, the eggs were collected daily for eight weeks, marked and stored at 4 ºC. In order to IgY purification, eggs were collected. Purification of IgY from egg yolk was based on Polson and using PEG6000. Finally, the

  13. Evaluation of yolk protein as biomarkers for endocrine disruption in molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Jane Ebsen; Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund

    is also regulated by estrogens in molluscs even though it still remains unknown if and where vertebrate steroids are synthesized in molluscs and regulation of the endocrine system in molluscs is also unknown. By using our newly developed ELISA the present work investigates if yolk protein is a suitable......During recent years invertebrates and especially molluscs have received increasing attention in the field of endocrine disruption and development of OECD test guidelines to assess the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in molluscs is under development. The development of standardized...... tests to detect effects of EDCs in molluscs has proved cumbersome due to lack of specific biomarkers and endpoints for endocrine effects. Intersex (presence of oocytes in the testis) and induction of vitellogenin (the yolk protein precursor in oviparous vertebrates) have been used as biomarkers for EDCs...

  14. Rational design and synthesis of yolk-shell ZnGa2O4@C nanostructure with enhanced lithium storage properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Nao; Xia, Yuguo; Han, Yanyang; Jiao, Xiuling; Chen, Dairong

    2018-03-01

    The ability to create hybrid nanostructure with synergistic effect and confined morphology to achieve high performance and long-term stability is high desirable in lithium ion batteries. Although transition metal oxides as anode material reveal high theoretical capacities, the significant volume changes during repeated lithium insertion and extraction cause pulverization of electrode materials, resulting in rapid fade in capacity. Herein, yolk-shell nanostructure of ZnGa2O4 encapsulated by amorphous carbon is rationally designed and synthesized through two-step surface coating followed by thermal treatment and etching process. It is noteworthy that ZnGa2O4@C with yolk-shell structure is superior to pristine ZnGa2O4 and ZnGa2O4@C with core-shell structure in term of lithium storage. The stable reversible capacity of yolk-shell ZnGa2O4@C can be retained at 657.2 mAh g-1 at current density of 1 A g-1 after completion of 300 cycles, which also reveals superior rate performance. The appropriate carbon shell and void space involved in the yolk-shell structure are considered to be the crucial factor in accommodating volume expansion as well as preserving the structural integrity of yolk-shell ZnGa2O4@C.

  15. Effect of Olive Leaf ( Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05 while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p0.05. To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets.

  16. Identification and Extraction of Chicken Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin from Egg by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus strains exhibiting multiple antibiotic resistances are isolatedfrom most communities and hospital infections. Treatment of patients with these infections hasbeen difficult. The aim of this study was to detect and extract, the egg yolk immunoglobulin Y asa potential source of anti- S. aureus antibody.Methods: Specific IgY was produced by immunizing hens with formalin-killed S. aureus. Thespecificity of serum`s antibody was confirmed by ELISA method. The antibodies were extractedfrom egg yolk by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation. Proteins were analysed by sodiumdodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE.Results: Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY were raised against S. aureus in the serum afterinjections. Up to 104 dilution specific antibodies were determined in serum.Conclusion: The results of the ELISA indicates the specificity of the immunoglobulin Y to thetarget antigen. In order to find a viable alternative to antibiotic treatments, more research must bedone on the ability of these antibodies to inhibit the growth of S. aureus.

  17. Characterization of PHB1 and its role in mitochondrial maturation and yolk platelet degradation during development of Artemia embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To cope with harsh environments, crustaceans such as Artemia produce diapause gastrula embryos (cysts with suppressed metabolism. Metabolism and development resume during post-diapause development, but the mechanism behind these cellular events remains largely unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Our study investigated the role of prohibitin 1 (PHB1 in metabolic reinitiation during post-diapause development. We found that PHB1 was developmentally regulated via changes in phosphorylation status and localization. Results from RNA interference experiments demonstrated PHB1 to be critical for mitochondrial maturation and yolk degradation during development. In addition, PHB1 was present in yolk platelets, and it underwent ubiquitin-mediated degradation during the proteolysis of yolk protein. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PHB1 has an indispensable role in coordinating mitochondrial maturation and yolk platelet degradation during development in Artemia. This novel function of PHB1 provides new clues to comprehend the roles of PHB1 in metabolism and development.

  18. General applicability of chicken egg yolk antibodies: the performance of IgY immunoglobulins raised against the hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha

    OpenAIRE

    Camenisch, G; Tini, M; Chilov, D; Kvietikova, I; Srinivas, V; Caro, J; Spielmann, P; Wenger, R H; Gassmann, M

    1999-01-01

    Avian embryos and neonates acquire passive immunity by transferring maternal immunoglobulins from serum to egg yolk. Despite being a convenient source of antibodies, egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) from immunized hens have so far received scant attention in research. Here we report the generation and rapid isolation of IgY from the egg yolk of hens immunized against the alpha subunit of the human hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1alpha). Anti-HIF-1alpha IgY antibodies were affinity purified and...

  19. Effects of selection for yolk cholesterol on growth and meat quality in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Bednarczyk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Descendants ( of S18 generation of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica, selected for low (line 11, n=15 or for high (line 12, n=6 yolk cholesterol content were used for this experiment. The high (12 and low (11 lines were developed from a control egg type (line13 wild color plumage stock 07, from Poultry Breeding Station in Ivanka at Danube (Slovakia that was maintained without conscious selection. The results of selected lines were compared to this one from unselected lines, egg type (line 13, n=15 and meat type (line 8, n=15, to study productive performance (growth and carcass weight as well as meat quality traits (intramuscular collagen properties, fatty and cholesterol content. The birds were grown up to 35 days of age. Quails were fed ad libitum with commercial diets according to their ages. Animals had free access to water during the experiment. The body weight of the quails was controlled every week (from week 1 to 5. At the slaughter (at avg. weight of 104.0, 107.7, 110.6 g vs 209.3 g for lines 11, 12, 13 vs 8, respectively; P<0.05 the hot carcass weight was recorded and dressing percentage was calculated. Pectoralis superficialis muscles were removed from the carcasses to assess intramuscular collagen (IMC properties (collagen and crosslink concentrations, intramuscular lipid and cholesterol contents. Growth and slaughter performance, intramuscular fat percentage and IMC properties of Pectoralis superficialis were not different between the birds selected for low (line 11 and high (line 12 yolk cholesterol content and were also found to be similar between the quails of egg type and those selected for yolk cholesterol content (lines 11 and 12. Compared to the birds of egg type line and those selected for yolk cholesterol content, the quails of meat type had higher growth and carcass traits (P<0.05, while meat quality traits were found to be similar. The meat of the quails selected for low cholesterol in the egg yolk (line 11

  20. Yolk-sac larval development of the substrate-brooding cichlid Archocentrus nigrofasciatus in relation to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Nikolaos; Vasilopoulos, Michael; Mente, Eleni; Hotos, George; Katselis, George; Vidalis, Kosmas

    2015-09-01

    In order to conserve and culture the cichlid fish Archocentrus nigrofasciatus, more information about its reproductive biology and its larval behavior and morphogenesis is necessary. Currently, temperatures ranging from 21 to 27 °C are used in ornamental aquaculture hatcheries. Lower temperatures are preferred to reduce the costs of water heating, and 23 °C is usually the selected temperature. However, there is limited information on culturing protocols for ornamental species and most of the information generated on this topic remains scarce. Thus, the present study examines the morphological development of Archocentrus nigrofasciatus during the yolk-sac period up to the age of 100 h post-hatching in relation to 2 temperature regimes used in ornamental aquaculture: a temperature of 27 °C (thermal optimum) and a decreased temperature of 23 °C (thermal tolerance). The results of this study suggest that the 27 °C temperature generates intense morphological changes in yolk-sac development in a shorter period. This has advantages as it reduces the time of yolk-sac larval development, and, thus, minimizes the transition phase to exogenous feeding and maximizes the efficiency at which yolk is converted into body tissues. The present paper provides necessary information to produce freshwater ornamental fish with better practices so as to increase larval survival and capitalize on time for growth. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Enzymatic exchange of sulphur between cysteine and hydrogen sulphide in the yolk sac of an incubated bird's egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapeville, F.; Fromageot, P.

    1960-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the formation of cysteic acid from sulphate in incubated hen's eggs is due to the following reactions: a) reduction of sulphate to sulphite by the yolk sac endoderm cells; b) synthesis of cysteic acid from the sulphite in the presence of cysteine with liberation of hydrogen sulphide: HS-CH 2 -CH(NH 2 )-COOH + SO 3 H - → H 2 S + - O 3 S-CH 2 -CH(NH 2 )-COOH (1). The enzymatic system responsible for this reaction is localized on the yolk sac endoderm and in the yolk. It may be wondered whether reaction (1) is not made up of two consecutive reactions, one of which is reversible: HS-CH 2 -CH(NH 2 )-COOH ↔ H 2 S + organic chain (2) and organic chain + SO 3 H - → - O 3 S-CH 2 -CH(NH 2 )-COOH (3). It would then be clear why the addition of sulphite displaces the equilibrium towards the production of cysteic acid and hydrogen sulphide. If this is the case, the addition of ordinary cysteine and of marked hydrogen sulphide to the biological medium should make it possible to detect the formation of 35 S cysteine. The present work shows that the desulphurization of the cysteine (reaction 2) by the yolk sac + the yolk is in fact a reversible reaction, and that an enzymatic exchange occurs between the sulphur of the cysteine and that of the hydrogen sulphide. (author) [fr

  2. EFFECT OF UNRIPE GRAPE JUICE (VERJUICE ON PLASMA LIPID LEVELS IN RABBITS RENDERED HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC BY FEEDING EGG YOLK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aminian

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Since many years it has been a general belief in Iranian traditional medicine that unripe grape juice (verjuice has lipid-lowering effect. This study was designed to test this hypothesis. Fifty rabbits were selected and divided into 5 groups with 10 rabbits in each. Group 1 had no supplemental diet. Group 2 were fed 10 ml egg yolk daily and group 3 were fed 10 ml egg yolk plus 20 ml verjuice daily for six weeks. In the second part of study, 20 rabbits rendered hypercholesterolemic by feeding egg yolk for six weeks, then they were divided into two groups: Group 4 received 10 ml of the egg yolk daily, and group 5 received 10 ml of the egg yolk plus 20 ml verjuice daily for the next 6 weeks. The plasma lipid profiles were measured at the beginning and then every two weeks. In the first part of study total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C concentrations in group 2 rose 10 times in comparison with group 1, but addition of verjuice in group 3 did not prevent rising of these values. In the second part of study, TC and LDL-C values rose in groups 4 and 5 in a parallel fashion. Changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and triglyceride (TG were not statistically significant throughout the study. In conclusion, this study did not support preventive or therapeutic effect of verjuice in hypercholesterolemia.

  3. Supplementation of laying-hen feed with palm tocos and algae astaxanthin for egg yolk nutrient enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Laurie A; Wang, Tong; Xin, Hongwei; Dolde, David

    2012-02-29

    Adding supplements to hen feed can increase egg nutritional value. Astaxanthin, tocotrienols, and tocopherols are potent antioxidants that provide health benefits to humans. We hypothesized that the addition of these nutrients to hen feed would result in an increased nutrient content in egg yolk with minimum changes in functional properties. Laying hens (Hy-Line W-36 breed) were fed four diets with different supplementation levels of palm toco concentrate and algae biomass containing astaxanthin for 8 weeks. Egg yolks were analyzed for physical, chemical, and functional properties. The feed with the highest nutrient concentration was also studied for stability of these antioxidants using the Arrhenius approach. No significant differences were observed in functional properties except for emulsification capacity and sensory characteristics among eggs from different diet treatments. Changes in egg yolk color reached the maximum values at day 8. Incorporation of tocopherols and tocotrienols increased until day 8, astaxanthin incorporation increased until day 10, and all decreased thereafter. Feed nutrients resulted in a dose-response relationship of these compounds in the egg yolk. The transfer efficiency ranged from 0 to 9.9% for tocotrienols and tocopherols and from 7.6 to 14.9% for astaxanthin at their peak values. Results of the Arrhenius accelerated stability study showed significant differences in the shelf life of various nutrients, and these results can be used to properly formulate and store the feed materials.

  4. Effects of different rearing and feeding systems on lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity of freeze-dried egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignoli, Giovanni; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Mandrioli, Mara; Barbanti, Lorenzo; Rizzi, Laura; Lercker, Giovanni

    2009-12-23

    Lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity of freeze-dried egg yolks produced with two rearing systems (battery cages and free-range) and two types of feedings (conventional and organic) were studied. Nine fresh egg yolks of each crossed treatment were pooled, frozen for a month, freeze-dried, vacuum-packed, and kept at -18 degrees C until analysis. No significant differences were observed in the lipid (58.0-62.1%) and total sterol contents (33.0-35.5 g/kg of lipids) of the freeze-dried egg yolks. Free rearing and conventional feeding systems resulted in significantly higher total tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol, and lutein contents, as compared to the battery cage and the organic feed, respectively. However, no significant differences were found in lipid oxidation (peroxide value = 0.7-0.9 mequiv of O(2)/kg of fat; thiobarbituric reactive substances = 1.0-1.3 mg of malonylaldehyde/kg of sample) and cholesterol oxidation (28.8-43.5 mg of cholesterol oxidation products/kg of lipids; 0.08-0.12% oxidized cholesterol) of freeze-dried egg yolks except for 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol, which was significantly lower in samples obtained with organic feed.

  5. Zebrafish yolk lipid processing: a tractable tool for the study of vertebrate lipid transport and metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa L. Miyares

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemias are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, particularly in developed nations. Investigating lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in experimentally tractable animal models is a crucial step towards understanding and treating human dyslipidemias. The zebrafish, a well-established embryological model, is emerging as a notable system for studies of lipid metabolism. Here, we describe the value of the lecithotrophic, or yolk-metabolizing, stages of the zebrafish as a model for studying lipid metabolism and lipoprotein transport. We demonstrate methods to assay yolk lipid metabolism in embryonic and larval zebrafish. Injection of labeled fatty acids into the zebrafish yolk promotes efficient uptake into the circulation and rapid metabolism. Using a genetic model for abetalipoproteinemia, we show that the uptake of labeled fatty acids into the circulation is dependent on lipoprotein production. Furthermore, we examine the metabolic fate of exogenously delivered fatty acids by assaying their incorporation into complex lipids. Moreover, we demonstrate that this technique is amenable to genetic and pharmacologic studies.

  6. Facile Synthesis of Yolk/Core-Shell Structured TS-1@Mesosilica Composites for Enhanced Hydroxylation of Phenol

    KAUST Repository

    Zou, Houbing

    2015-12-14

    © 2015 by the authors. In the current work, we developed a facile synthesis of yolk/core-shell structured TS-1@mesosilica composites and studied their catalytic performances in the hydroxylation of phenol with H2O2 as the oxidant. The core-shell TS-1@mesosilica composites were prepared via a uniform coating process, while the yolk-shell TS-1@mesosilica composite was prepared using a resorcinol-formaldehyde resin (RF) middle-layer as the sacrificial template. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 sorption, Fourier transform infrared spectoscopy (FT-IR) UV-Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The characterization results showed that these samples possessed highly uniform yolk/core-shell structures, high surface area (560–700 m2 g−1) and hierarchical pore structures from oriented mesochannels to zeolite micropores. Importantly, owing to their unique structural properties, these composites exhibited enhanced activity, and also selectivity in the phenol hydroxylation reaction.

  7. Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poisbleau, Maud; Mueller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Martina S.; Roelofs, Yvonne; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Deschner, Tobias; Müller, Wendt; Reina, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive

  8. Colour and viscosity of egg yolk after addition of beetroot to feed for laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Kopřiva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The colour and viscosity of egg yolk are among major indicators assessed by consumers and food technology. This study attempts to evaluate the colour and viscosity of yolk in laying hens’ eggs after the addition of dried beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. esculenta var. rubra at the amount of 1% and 2% per feeding dose (in July and August 2012. The experiment was performed on 24 hens that were divided into three groups of 8 laying hens. The preparatory phase lasted one week (standard diet, followed by four weeks during which experimental layers received a diet enriched with beetroot. Then, all layers were fed a mixture without beetroot for the following four weeks. Eggs were collected during the whole period of 8 weeks. In total, 30 eggs from each group were subjected to analysis. The colour of eggs was determined using spectrophotometry, by the Colour-guide sphere spex portable colorimeter. The results showed a significant (P ab did not show a significant difference (P < 0.05 between the control and experimental groups. The egg yolk viscosity was lower in experimental groups compared to the control group but the difference was not significant. The addition of dried beetroot at the amount of 1 and 2% per feeding dose had no effect on colour and viscosity. This paper supported the null hypothesis that the addition of dried beetroot to the feeding dose at the amount of 1% and 2% has no effect on the colour and viscosity of egg yolk.

  9. Self-template synthesis of yolk-shelled NiCo2O4 spheres for enhanced hybrid supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Jiao, Xinyan; Liu, Peng; Ouyang, Yu; Xia, Xifeng; Lei, Wu; Hao, Qingli

    2018-01-01

    A self-template method is developed for hierarchically yolk-shelled NiCo2O4 spheres (YS-NiCo2O4) through a controlled hydrolysis process and followed by a thermal annealing treatment. The yolk-shelled NiCo2O4 spheres possess out-shell consisting of hundreds of ultrathin sheets with 3-5 nm in thickness and solid yolk composing of a large number of nanoparticles. The YS-NiCo2O4 generates a large specific surface area of 169.6 m2 g-1. Benefit from the large specific surface area and rich oxygen vacancy, the as-fabricated YS-NiCo2O4 as electrode materials for supercapacitor exhibits high specific capacitance of 835.7 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1, an enhanced rate capability and excellent electrochemical stability with 93% retention after 10,000 cycles even at 10 A g-1. Moreover, a hybrid supercapacitor combined with YS-NiCo2O4 and graphene shows a high energy density of 34.7 Wh kg-1 at the power density of 395.0 W kg-1 at 0.5 A g-1, even at 20 A g-1, the hybrid supercapacitor still delivers the energy density of about 12.1 Wh kg-1 and the power density of 11697 W kg-1. The desirable performance of yolk-shelled NiCo2O4 suggests it to be a promising material as supercapacitor electrodes.

  10. Determination of egg yolk xanthophylls by isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulc, Lučka; Simonovska, Breda; Vovk, Irena; Glavnik, Vesna

    2013-11-29

    An isocratic HPLC method was developed for the determination of eight xanthophylls (lutein, capsanthin, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, β-apo-8'-carotenal, ethyl-8'-apo-β-carotene-8'-oate, citranaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin; registered as additives in poultry feeding) in egg yolks. Optimum separation of all-E-isomers of these xanthophylls was achieved in less than 18min on a ProntoSIL C30 column at 27°C using acetone-methanol-0.5M triethylammonium acetate buffer pH 7 14:5:1 (v/v) as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 1mL/min using spectrophotometric detection at 450nm. Other mobile phases were also found suitable, including acetone-water 93:7 (v/v) and acetone-methanol 1:4 (v/v) and the influences of column temperature on the separation and addition of triethylammonium acetate buffer pH 7 to the mobile phase on enhancement of the peak areas were evaluated. Preparation of test solution from yolks included a short vortexing of 0.5g of yolk in 10mL of acetone, followed by 15min magnetic stirring under nitrogen and centrifugation. The method was validated for 5 analytes. The calibration range was between 0.04 and 2μg/mL and the mean recovery of the analytes (95%) and the intra-day precision of the method (RSD less than 5%) on three levels in triplicates were obtained. Analyses of eggs from four husbandry classes showed the presence of up to four xanthophylls (lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin and ethyl-8'-apo-β-carotene-8'-oate) and traces of β-cryptoxanthin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparing sugar type supplementation for cryopreservation of boar semen in egg yolk based extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, C; Gil, L; Gonzalez, N; Cano, R; de Blas, I; Espinosa, E

    2010-08-01

    Cryopreservation of boar semen is still considered suboptimal due to lower fertility when compared to fresh semen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of different sugars (lactose, trehalose and glucose) on boar spermatozoa cryopreserved in an egg yolk based extender. Ejaculates were collected from a boar previously selected and semen samples were processed using the straw freezing procedure. In experiment 1, subsamples of semen were frozen in three different extenders: recommended lactose egg yolk extender (LEY); trehalose egg yolk extender (TEY) and glucose egg yolk extender (GEY). Sperm quality was assessed for motility, viability, acrosome integrity and hypoosmotic swelling test response upon collection, after freezing and thawing and then every hour for 3h. Results showed that total motility at 1 and 3h, progressive motility at 3h, positive hypoosmotic response at 2 and 3h and acrosome integrity at all times were significantly improved when trehalose was added to the extender. In experiment 2, sugar influence was also demonstrated in vitro fertilization. A total of 1691 oocytes were in vitro matured and inseminated with frozen-thawed sperm at 2000:1 sperm:oocyte ratio and coincubated for 6h. Presumptive zygotes were cultured in NCSU-23 medium to assess fertilization parameters and embryo development. Both penetration and monospermy rates were significantly higher for trehalose frozen semen. A significant increase was observed in efficiency and blastocyst formation rates from TEY to the other groups. Our results demonstrated that trehalose extender enhances spermatozoa viability and its in vitro fertilization parameters in boar ejaculates with good sperm freezability. Further studies are necessary to assess the impact of sugars on the entire population. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Controlled Synthesis of Au@AgAu Yolk-Shell Cuboctahedra with Well-Defined Facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono-Calderon, Alejandra; Bahena, Daniel; Yacaman, Miguel J

    2016-08-02

    The synthesis of Au@AgAu yolk-shell cuboctahedra nanoparticles formed by galvanic replacement in a seed-mediated method is described. Initially, single-crystal Au seeds are used for the formation of Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes, which serve as the template material for the deposition of an external Au layer. The well-controlled synthesis yields the formation of cuboctahedra nanoparticles with smooth inner and outer Au/Ag surfaces. The deposition/oxidation process is described to understand the formation of cuboctahedra and octahedra nanoparticles. The Au core maintains the initial morphology of the seed and remains static at the center of the yolk-shell because of residual Ag. Structural analysis of the shell indicates intrinsic stacking faults (SFs) near the surface. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) compositional analysis show an Au-Ag nonordered alloy forming the shell. The three-dimensional structure of the nanoparticles presented open facets on the [111] as observed by electron tomography SIRT reconstruction over a stack of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) images. The geometrical model was validated by analyzing the direction of streaks in coherent nanobeam diffraction (NBD). The catalytic activity was evaluated using a model reaction based on the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NTP) by NaBH4 in the presence of Au@AgAu yolk-shell nanoparticles.

  13. [Separation and identification of red pigments in natural red yolk of duck's eggs by HPLC-MS-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangzhong; Zhang, Min; Peng, Guanghua; Wang, Haibin; Zhang, Shenghua

    2004-05-01

    The natural red yolk of duck's eggs is produced by the laying duck in the lake areas in southward of China. In the laying duck breeding areas such as Honghu, Jianli, Xiantao, Tianmen and Hanchuan citys in Hubei Province, the culturists are used to feeding fresh pondweeds to the laying ducks. The yolk of duck's eggs is natural red with the chrominance reaching up to and/or above RCF (Roche Yolk Color Fan) 15. The red pigment components of natural red yolk of duck's eggs were separated and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) and high resolution electron impact-mass spectrometry (EI-MS). Four isomers of red pigments were separated by HPLC on a RP-C18 column with methanol-water (99.5:0.5, v/v) as mobile phase. The lambda(max) of the four components were 482, 488, 496, 501 nm, respectively, and all of them were single peak on chromatogram. They had the same molecular mass (Mr = 562), and had the same fragment peaks of MS2 with rhodoxanthin. The molecular formula of red pigments was determined as C40H50O2 by high resolution EI-MS. The results indicate that the red pigment is rhodoxanthin, and they are all cis-isomers of rhodoxanthin.

  14. Yolk protein is expressed in the insect testis and interacts with sperm

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    Joachimiak Ewa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male and female gametes follow diverse developmental pathways dictated by their distinct roles in fertilization. While oocytes of oviparous animals accumulate yolk in the cytoplasm, spermatozoa slough off most of their cytoplasm in the process of individualization. Mammalian spermatozoa released from the testis undergo extensive modifications in the seminal ducts involving a variety of glycoproteins. Ultrastructural studies suggest that glycoproteins are involved in sperm maturation in insects; however, their characterization at the molecular level is lacking. We reported previously that the circadian clock controls sperm release and maturation in several insect species. In the moth, Spodoptera littoralis, the secretion of glycoproteins into the seminal fluid occurs in a daily rhythmic pattern. The purpose of this study was to characterize seminal fluid glycoproteins in this species and elucidate their role in the process of sperm maturation. Results We collected seminal fluid proteins from males before and after daily sperm release. These samples were separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis, and gels were treated with a glycoprotein-detecting probe. We observed a group of abundant glycoproteins in the sample collected after sperm release, which was absent in the sample collected before sperm release. Sequencing of these glycoproteins by mass spectroscopy revealed peptides bearing homology with components of yolk, which is known to accumulate in developing oocytes. This unexpected result was confirmed by Western blotting demonstrating that seminal fluid contains protein immunoreactive to antibody against yolk protein YP2 produced in the follicle cells surrounding developing oocytes. We cloned the fragment of yp2 cDNA from S. littoralis and determined that it is expressed in both ovaries and testes. yp2 mRNA and YP2 protein were detected in the somatic cyst cells enveloping sperm inside the testis. During the period of sperm

  15. Yolk hormones influence in ovo chemosensory learning, growth, and feeding behavior in domestic chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Aline; Meurisse, Maryse; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Constantin, Paul; Cornilleau, Fabien; Vaudin, Pascal; Burlot, Thierry; Delaveau, Joel; Rat, Christophe; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we assessed whether prenatal exposure to elevated yolk steroid hormones can influence in ovo chemosensory learning and the behavior of domestic chicks. We simulated a maternal environmental challenge by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The embryos from these hormones-treated eggs (HO) as well as sham embryos (O) that had received the vehicle-only were exposed to the odor of fish oil (menhaden) between embryonic Days 11 and 20. An additional group of control embryos (C) was not exposed to the odor. All chicks were tested following hatching for their feeding preferences between foods that were or were not odorized with the menhaden odor. In the 3-min choice tests, the behavior of O chicks differed significantly according to the type of food whereas C and HO chicks showed no preference between odorized and non-odorized food. Our result suggests weaker response in HO chicks. In addition, HO chicks showed impaired growth and reduced intake of an unfamiliar food on the 24-h time scale compared to controls. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to increased yolk hormone levels can alter growth, chemosensory learning, and the development of feeding behaviors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Yolk proteins in the male reproductive system of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster: spatial and temporal patterns of expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Magdalena M; Suszczynska, Agnieszka; Kotwica-Rolinska, Joanna; Czerwik, Tomasz; Paterczyk, Bohdan; Polanska, Marta A; Bernatowicz, Piotr; Bebas, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    In insects, spermatozoa develop in the testes as clones of single spermatogonia covered by specialized somatic cyst cells (cc). Upon completion of spermatogenesis, spermatozoa are released to the vas deferens, while the cc remain in the testes and die. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the released spermatozoa first reach the seminal vesicles (SV), the organ where post-testicular maturation begins. Here, we demonstrate the temporal (restricted to the evening and early night hours) accumulation of membranous vesicles containing proteins in the SV lumen of D. melanogaster. When SV vesicles were isolated from the semen and co-incubated with testis-derived spermatozoa in vitro, their contents bound to the spermatozoa along their tails. The proteins of the SV vesicles were then characterized using 2-D electrophoresis. We identified a prominent protein spot of around 45-47 kDa, which disappears from the SV vesicles in the night, i.e. shortly after they appear in the SV lumen. Sequencing of peptides derived from this spot by mass spectrometry revealed identity with three yolk proteins (YP1-3). This unexpected result was confirmed by western blotting, which demonstrated that SV vesicles contain proteins that are immunoreactive with an antibody against D. melanogaster YP1-3. The expression of all yp genes was shown to be a unique feature of testis tissues. Using RNA probes we found that their transcripts localize exclusively to the cc that cover fully developed spermatozoa in the distal part of each testis. Temporally, the expression of yp genes was found to be restricted to a short period during the day and is followed by the evening accumulation of YP proteins in the cc. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed that cc are the source of SV vesicles containing YPs that are released into the SV lumen. These vesicles interact with spermatozoa and as a result, YPs become extrinsic proteins of the sperm membrane. Thus, we describe for the first time the expression of

  17. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multiple detections: A complementary approach in the characterization of egg yolk plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Haiyang; Li, Yueqiu; Choi, Jaeyeong; Huo, Shuying; Ding, Liang; Shen, Shigang; Lee, Seungho

    2016-09-23

    The capability of asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with UV/VIS, multiangle light scattering (MALS) and quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) (AF4-UV-MALS-QELS) for separation and characterization of egg yolk plasma was evaluated. The accuracy of hydrodynamic radius (Rh) obtained from QELS and AF4 theory (using both simplified and full expression of AF4 retention equations) was discussed. The conformation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and its aggregates in egg yolk plasma was discussed based on the ratio of radius of gyration (Rg) to Rh together with the results from bio-transmission electron microscopy (Bio-TEM). The results indicate that the full retention equation is more relevant than simplified version for the Rh determination at high cross flow rate. The Rh from online QELS is reliable only at a specific range of sample concentration. The effect of programmed cross flow rate (linear and exponential decay) on the analysis of egg yolk plasma was also investigated. It was found that the use of an exponentially decaying cross flow rate not only reduces the AF4 analysis time of the egg yolk plasma, but also provides better resolution than the use of either a constant or linearly decaying cross flow rate. A combination of an exponentially decaying cross flow AF4-UV-MALS-QELS and the utilization of full retention equation was proved to be a useful method for the separation and characterization of egg yolk plasma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative study on immunoglobulin Y transfer from breeding hens to egg yolk and progeny chicks in different breeds of poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Agrawal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the immunoglobulin Y (IgY level and its efficacy in laying hens of four different breeds of poultry (viz.,Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown and its relative transfer in egg yolk and chick. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 48 apparently healthy laying hens vaccinated with Salmonella inactivated polyvalent vaccine, eggs and progeny chicks; 12 each from four different breeds of poultry,viz.,Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown. The methodology included measurement of egg and yolk weight, total protein and IgY in egg yolk, total serum protein and IgY in breeding hens, and progeny chicks and extent of IgY transfer from hens to yolk then to chicks. Further, Salmonella-specific antibodies in breeding hens, egg yolk and progeny chicks were assessed using O and H antigen by tube agglutination test. Results: The egg weight differed nonsignificantly (p>0.05 among breeds, however, breed wise significant variation (p0.05 difference among breed was found in total protein of egg yolk and chick. The IgY concentration in hens, egg yolk and chick was found to be in the range of 5.35±0.63- 5.83±0.65, 2.3±0.1-2.6±0.2, and 1.3±0.11-1.7±0.16 mg/ml, respectively which is uniform and independent of total protein concentration at all the three levels. Significant breed variations were not observed in maternal IgY transfer from breeding hens to chicks and were 25.62±1.42-36.06±4.34% of total IgY in parent flock. Moderate to higher rate of seroprevalence with peak titers of 1:640 against Salmonella-specific antibodies was observed in only 41.6% of breeding hens. Conclusion: No significant difference in the rate of transfer of IgY was observed in four breeds studied (viz.,Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown and moderate seropositivity was detected for Salmonella-specific antibodies in progeny chicks.

  19. Lutein and zeaxanthin: Role as macular pigment and factors that control bioavailability from egg yolks and nanoemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Rohini

    Lutein and zeaxanthin, two oxygenated carotenoids, exclusively accumulate in the macula, protecting the underlying photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells from damaging blue radiation of sunlight. As macular pigment, lutein and zeaxanthin are also potent antioxidants protecting the vulnerable regions of retina from free radical injury. Oxidative stress and cumulative light damage play an important role in pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly population. Antioxidant and lutein supplementation has been shown to decrease the risk and prevent the progression of AMD. The egg yolk is a highly bioavailable source of lutein and zeaxanthin and thus a possible contender for AMD prevention and treatment. Consumption of 2 egg yolks/d for 5 weeks was shown herein to significantly increase serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentration and clinically improve macular pigment concentrations at 0.5° retinal eccentricity in an older adult population taking cholesterol-lowering statins. Four egg yolks/d not only raised serum lutein and zeaxanthin significantly but also macular pigment densities at 0.25°, 0.5° and 1° retinal eccentricity. A positive outcome of the 2 egg yolk consumption was the significant increase in serum HDL-C with a tendency of serum LDL-C to decrease, although not significantly. Four egg yolks/d seemed to cross the threshold for dietary cholesterol tolerance as serum LDL-C tended to increase, although not significantly, despite the significant increase in serum HDL-C. There is a strong possibility that greater build up of lutein and zeaxanthin in the macula may have been observed with 2 egg yolks/d if the intervention period was longer than 5 weeks. Addition of up to 2 eggs a day to the diet is suggested to benefit an older adult population, especially those who are already taking cholesterol-lowering statins by (a) building their macular pigment and possibly protect against AMD and (b

  20. Green synthesis and characterisation of platinum nanoparticles using quail egg yolk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadaroglu, Hayrunnisa; Gungor, Azize Alayli; Ince, Selvi; Babagil, Aynur

    2017-02-01

    Nanotechnology is extensively used in all parts today. Therefore, nano synthesis is also significant in all explored areas. The results of studies conducted have revealed that nanoparticle synthesis is performed by using both chemical and physical methods. It is well known that these syntheses are carried out at high charge, pressure and temperature in harsh environments. Therefore, this study investigated green synthesis method that sustains more mild conditions. In this study, quail egg yolk having high vitamin and protein content was prepared for green synthesis reaction and used for the synthesis of platinum nanoparticles in the reaction medium. Reaction situations were optimised as a function of pH, temperature, time and concentration by using quail egg yolk. The results showed that the highest platinum nanoparticles were synthesised at 20 °C and pH 6.0 for 4 h. Also, optimal concentration of metal ions was established as 0.5 mM. The synthesised platinum nanoparticles were characterised by using UV spectrum, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope.

  1. Effect of Increasing Yolk Testosterone Levels on Early Behaviour in Japanese Quail Hatchlings

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    M. Okuliarová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate effects of increased testosterone content in egg yolk on early behaviour of 1- and 2-day-old Japanese quail. Three different doses of testosterone (0.25; 2.5 and 25 ng, not exceeding a physiological range, were examined in three separate experiments. Testosterone propionate dissolved in 20 μl olive oil was injected into the yolk before the onset of incubation. Behaviour of newly hatched chicks was recorded in response to both a novel environment in the open-field test and manual restraining in the test of tonic immobility (TI. Behavioural consequences of embryonic exposure to elevated testosterone were observed in the open-field test in all three experiments which indicated inhibition of behavioural responses in hatchlings. Birds treated with testosterone in ovo displayed longer latency to leave the start square, decreased locomotor activity, enhanced defecation and lower number of distress calls as compared to control birds. In TI test, the influence of treatment was manifested at the highest concentration only. Hatchlings from testosterone treated eggs expressed longer duration of TI and required less attempts to induce TI in comparison with the control group. Our results demonstrated increased fearfulness of Japanese quail chicks hatched from eggs with experimentally elevated testosterone content. The effect is specific for a short period after hatching since previous studies reported stimulatory effect of yolk testosterone on behaviour of Japanese quail later in ontogeny.

  2. Protection Efficacy of Multivalent Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin against Eimeria Tenella Infection in Chickens

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    JJ Xu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To control avian coccidiosis with drug-independent strategy effec­tively and safely, multivalent hyperimmune egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY was prepared and its ability to protect against Eimeria tenella infection was evaluated.Methods: Hens were orally immunized with live oocysts of 5 species of Eimeria for six times, antibody titers in serum and yolk were monitored by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The specific IgY was isolated, purified and lyophi­lized. IgY powder was orally administrated as dietary supplement in newly hatched chicks at various dosages. Birds were orally challenged with 10000 sporulated oo­cysts of E. tenella at 10 days of age, weighed and killed at 8 days post challenge, and the protective effect was assessed.Results: The averge yeid of IgY was 9.2 mg/ml yolk, the antibody titer of IgY reached to 1:163840 per mg with the purity up to 98%. Chickens fed IgY resulted in reduced mortality, increased body weight gain (BWG, reduced oocyst shedding, reduced caecal lesion score and increased anti-coccidial index. In terms of BWG and caecal lesion, IgY significantly enhanced the resistance of bird at ≥ 0.05% of IgY in the diet when compared with the challenged control group (P0.05.Conclusion: Supplementing newly hatched chicks with Eimeria-specific IgY represents a promising strategy to prevent avian coccidiosis.

  3. DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF POWDERED EGG YOLK ADDED TO THE ACP-103® EXTENDER IN SWINE SEMEN CONSERVATION

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    Ricardo Toniolli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many attempts have been made to improve the conservation of boar semen. Egg yolk is known to have cryoprotectant properties. This study aimed to test different concentrations of egg yolk added to the coconut milk powder extender (ACP-103®, and verify which one is better to maintain sperm viability. The ejaculated (36 were diluted in ACP-103® supplemented with different concentrations of egg yolk (0%, 1%, 3%, 5% and 7%. The conservation occurred at 17 °C, and vigor and motility analysis were carried out daily. On days 1 (D0, 3 (D2 and 5 (D4 the semen was evaluated for vitality, morphology and osmotic resistance. For statistical nonparametric analysis Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s tests were performed, and for parametric data ANOVA and Tukey test were used. A decrease in vigor and motility was observed in all treatments. Treatments T2, T3 and T4 better maintained spermatic on D0 (2.4±0.8, 2.5±1.1, and 2.8±0.9, respectively, with no signi cant differences among them. The same was observed for motility (77±15%, 74±23%, and 81±16% on D0. Analyses of vitality, morphology and osmotic resistance did not show statistical difference among treatments. In conclusion, the concentration of egg yolk (7% added to the ACP-103® can be e ectively used as extender to maintain sperm viability.

  4. Influence of sumac (Rhus Coriaria L.) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on egg yolk fatty acid, cholesterol and blood parameters in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Y; Salih, Y G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential effect of different levels of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) seed powder and ginger (Zingiber officinale) root powder on egg yolk fatty acid composition, blood/yolk cholesterol in laying hen. A total of 63 (ATAK-S: Domestic Turkish Laying Hens) laying hens (average weight: 1470 g each hen, 25-weeks of age) were assigned to seven treatment diets including sumac seed (S) and ginger root powder (G) at 0 g/kg (control), 10 g/kg (S1), 20 g/kg (S2), and 30 g/kg (S3); 10 g/kg (G1), 20 g/kg (G2), or 30 g/kg in rations respectively, for 8 weeks. After a two-week adaptation period to cages, the hens were allocated to 7 groups with 9 replicates of 1 hen in per cage each. The replications were allotted equally into the upper and lower cages to minimize the effects of cage level. In this study, egg yolk cholesterol had a decrease (p <0.05) in supplemented diet( sumac seed and ginger root powder). Fatty acid content in yolk; saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and rate of n6/n3 were not significant (p <0.05). However, dietary supplementation with sumac and ginger powder reduced and yolk/blood cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. Supplementation of sumac and ginger affected on HDL, there was found a significant effect (p < 0.05) in treatment groups. Moreover, LDL positively decreased in all treatment groups compared with the control group. The findings of this study suggested that feeding sumac and ginger tend to be decreasing cholesterol levels in both yolk and blood on laying hens. It can be concluded that ginger root and sumac seed powder can be used as an effective feed additive to improve fatty acid composition and yolk and blood cholesterol in ATAK-S laying hens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Kriopreservasi Semen Domba Garut Menggunakan Tris Kuning Telur yang Disuplementasi Omega-3 Minyak Ikan Salmon (CRYOPRESERVATION GARUT SHEEP SEMEN USING TRIS EGG YOLK SUPPLEMENTED OMEGA-3 FISH OIL SALMON

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    Nurcholis Nurcholis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The availability of superior seeds garut sheep relatively few and the unavailability of seed supply ofsuperior male garut sheep that is continuously high productive is also a problem. . The success ofcryopreservation is influenced by the diluent being used. This study aimed was to compare the Tris EggYolk containing omega-3 (TEYO and Tris used commercial egg yolk plus omega-3 fish oil salmon (TEYOSto the success of cryopreservation of garut sheep semen. Five garut ram aged 1,5 – 2,0 years were used inthis study. Semen was collected using an artificial vagina, then it was evaluated and divided into twotubes, each of them was diluted with TEYO and TEYOS (50x106 sel/straw, before they then packed intostraws, equilibrated (5°C, and frozen with liquid nitrogen vapour (-130oC for10 minutes and storedthem in the container (-196oC for further evaluation. The results showed that post thawing values of thesperm motility, viability and intact plasma membrane were 53,75±2,46; 60,75±2,17and 72,58±2,12%respectively, diluted with TEYOS were higher (P<0,05 than those diluted with TEYOS with the spermmotility, viability and intact plasma membrane only at 41,50±1,25; 50,50±1,04 and 57,58±1,03%respectively. This result demonstrated that the recovery rate of spermatozoa in TEYOS diluent washigher (P<0,05 than TEYO. Its concluded that fish salmon oil omega-3 supplemented in TEYOS better incryopreservation of garut ram semen compared to the TEYO diluent.

  6. Yolk-Shell Porous Microspheres of Calcium Phosphate Prepared by Using Calcium L-Lactate and Adenosine 5'-Triphosphate Disodium Salt: Application in Protein/Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guan-Jun; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Qi, Chao; Sun, Tuan-Wei; Wu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2015-06-26

    A facile and environmentally friendly approach has been developed to prepare yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate by using calcium L-lactate pentahydrate (CL) as the calcium source and adenosine 5'-triphosphate disodium salt (ATP) as the phosphate source through the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The effects of the concentration of CL, the microwave hydrothermal temperature, and the time on the morphology and crystal phase of the product are investigated. The possible formation mechanism of yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate is proposed. Hemoglobin from bovine red cells (Hb) and ibuprofen (IBU) are used to explore the application potential of yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate in protein/drug loading and delivery. The experimental results indicate that the as-prepared yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate have relatively high protein/drug loading capacity, sustained protein/drug release, favorable pH-responsive release behavior, and a high biocompatibility in the cytotoxicity test. Therefore, the yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate have promising applications in various biomedical fields such as protein/drug delivery. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Passive Immune-Protection of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infections with Anti-Vibrio Egg Yolk (IgY-Encapsulated Feed

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    Xiaojian Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio spp. are major causes of mortality in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei which is lacking adaptive immunity. Passive immunization with a specific egg yolk antibody (IgY is a potential method for the protection of shrimp against vibriosis. In this study, immune effects of the specific egg yolk powders (IgY against both V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus on white shrimp were evaluated. The egg yolk powders against V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus for passive immunization of white shrimp were prepared, while a tube agglutination assay and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA were used for detection of IgY titer. Anti-Vibrio egg yolk was encapsulated by β-cyclodextrin, which could keep the activity of the antibody in the gastrointestinal tract of shrimp. The results showed that the anti-Vibrio egg powders had an inhibiting effect on V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus in vitro. Lower mortality of infected zoeae, mysis, and postlarva was observed in groups fed with anti-Vibrio egg powders, compared with those fed with normal egg powders. The bacterial load in postlarva fed with specific egg powders in seeding ponds was significantly lower than those fed with normal egg powders in seeding ponds. These results show that passive immunization by oral administration with specific egg yolk powders (IgY may provide a valuable protection of vibrio infections in white shrimp.

  8. Sphingomyelin exhibits greatly enhanced protection compared with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine against detergent bile salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschetta, A.; vanBerge-Henegouwen, G. P.; Portincasa, P.; Palasciano, G.; Groen, A. K.; van Erpecum, K. J.

    2000-01-01

    Inclusion of phosphatidylcholine within bile salt micelles protects against bile salt-induced cytotoxicity. In addition to phosphatidylcholine, bile may contain significant amounts of sphingomyelin, particularly under cholestatic conditions. We compared protective effects of egg yolk

  9. Phase-pure β-NiMoO4 yolk-shell spheres for high-performance anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jee Hyun; Park, Gi Dae; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jong-Heun

    2015-01-01

    Phase-pure β-NiMoO 4 yolk-shell spheres for lithium-ion battery anodes were prepared for the first time by one-pot spray pyrolysis, and their electrochemical properties were investigated. The yolk-shell-structured β-NiMoO 4 powders exhibited high initial discharge/charge capacities (1634/1253 mA h g −1 ) at a current density of 1000 mA g −1 . After 200 cycles, these powders exhibited a high discharge capacity of 1292 mA h g −1 , whereas the initial discharge capacity (1341 mA h g −1 ) of the filled structured NiMoO 4 powders was dramatically decreased to 479 mA h g −1 . The significant enhancement of the cycling performance of the β-NiMoO 4 powders with ultrafine crystallite size was attributed to the structural stability of the yolk-shell structure

  10. Increased exposure to yolk testosterone has feminizing effects in chickens, Gallus gallus domesticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riedstra, B.; Pfannkuche, K. A.; Groothuis, T. G. G.

    Competing for food by altricial and semiprecocial bird nestlings is a behaviour well known for its sensitivity to maternal androgens during prenatal development. Whether a similar effect is present in precocial species that do not beg is less well known. We therefore increased yolk testosterone

  11. Production and purification of IgY antibodies from chicken egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wala Ahmad Amro

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of polyclonal antibodies from the serum of immunized mammals has significantly contributed to scientific research and diagnosis. The fact that recent technologies allow the production of antibodies in the yolk of eggs laid by hens, has led to the development of an alternative method for antibody generation that is less stressful to animals. As hens are kept under almost all their natural conditions, antibodies are isolated from the collected eggs; this technology is expected to become an interesting alternative to the conventionally serum-based techniques that eventually require to sacrifice the animal.Here we present a modified protocol for the isolation of IgY antibodies from immunized chickens and provide comparison between two chicken breeds in relative to IgY yield per egg. Our results show the possibility of generating large quantities of highly pure IgY from chicken eggs and also show large differences in the yield of IgY production between the two studied breeds. The results of this work indicate that IgY technology can be used for the production of primary antibodies for immunological work and disease diagnosis. Keywords: IgY, Chicken egg yolk, Gel filtration chromatography, Salmonella typhimurium

  12. The effect of a diet supplemented with sea-buckthorn pomace on the colour and viscosity of the egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dvořák

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea-buckthorn pomace is a very valuable product which contains not only important nutrients but also high-quality oils. The question addressed in the present study was to what extent the diet containing the sea-buckthorn pomace would affect the viscosity and colour of egg yolk measured in the CIELAB system. The feeding mixture for laying hens was supplemented with 20; 50 and 100 g∙kg-1 of sea-buckthorn pomace. As a result, colour indices of the egg yolk such as L*, a* and b* changed significantly (α = 0.01. The greatest relative enhancement was observed for indicator a* for the red colour. Visually, this corresponds to the more intense orange colour of the egg yolk. The addition of sea-buckthorn pomace to the diet for laying hens resulted in a larger increase in indicator ∆E* (CIE total colour difference compared to the control group. Colour indicator hab is the only indicator whose value oscillated around that determined for the control group. The addition of sea-buckthorn pomace to the diet resulted in an increase in colour indices a*, b* and C*ab. Indicator ∆E* also increased significantly with an increasing amount of sea-buckthorn pomace in a diet. Egg yolks were darker, had more intense red and yellow colours, and showed lower viscosity which are all features preferred by the consumer.

  13. Egg yolk IgY: protection against rotavirus induced diarrhea and modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, C; Bok, M; Chacana, P; Saif, L; Fernandez, F; Parreño, V

    2011-08-15

    Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is an important cause of diarrhea in newborn calves. Local passive immunity is the most efficient protective strategy to control the disease. IgY technology (the use of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins) is an economic and practical alternative to prevent BRV diarrhea in dairy calves. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protection and immunomodulation induced by the oral administration of egg yolk enriched in BRV specific IgY to experimentally BRV infected calves. All calves in groups Gp 1, 2 and 3 received control colostrum (CC; BRV virus neutralization Ab titer - VN=65,536; ELISA BRV IgG(1)=16,384) prior to gut closure. After gut closure, calves received milk supplemented with 6% BRV-immune egg yolk [(Gp 1) VN=2048; ELISA IgY Ab titer=4096] or non-immune control egg yolk [(Gp 2) VNcontrols (Gp 3 and 4, respectively). Calves were inoculated with 10(5.85)focus forming units (FFU) of virulent BRV IND at 2 days of age. Control calves (Gp 3 and 4) and calves fed control IgY (Gp 2) were infected and developed severe diarrhea. Around 80% calves in Gp 1 (IgY 4096) were infected, but they showed 80% (4/5) protection against BRV diarrhea. Bovine RV-specific IgY Ab were detected in the feces of calves in Gp 1, indicating that avian antibodies (Abs) remained intact after passage through the gastrointestinal tract. At post infection day 21, the duodenum was the major site of BRV specific antibody secreting cells (ASC) in all experimental groups. Mucosal ASC responses of all isotypes were significantly higher in the IgY treated groups, independently of the specificity of the treatment, indicating that egg yolk components modulated the immune response against BRV infection at the mucosal level. These results indicate that supplementing newborn calves' diets for the first 14 days of life with egg yolk enriched in BRV-specific IgY represents a promising strategy to prevent BRV diarrhea. Moreover a strong active ASC immune response is induced in the

  14. Comparison of Bioactive Compound Content in Egg Yolk Oil Extracted from Eggs Obtained from Different Laying Hen Housing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandrs Kovalcuks

    2015-01-01

    Egg yolk oil is a natural source of bioactive compounds such as unsaturated fatty acids, oil soluble vitamins, pigments and others. Bioactive compound content in egg yolk oil depends from its content in eggs, from which oil was extracted. Many studies show that bioactive compound content in egg is correlated to the content of these compounds in hen feed, but there is also an opinion that hen housing systems also have influence on egg chemical content. The aim of this stud...

  15. Maternal androgens in egg yolks : Relation with sex, incubation time and embryonic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, C.M; Müller, W; Dijkstra, C.; Groothuis, A.G.G.

    2003-01-01

    Hormones of maternal origin are known to be transferred to the egg yolks of oviparous species. Several studies have shown that within and between clutch variation of maternal androgens may be adaptively tuned. Moreover, it has recently been hypothesized that sex steroids of maternal origin may play

  16. Immunohistochemical demonstration of a hitherto undescribed localization of hemoglobin A and F in endodermal cells of normal human yolk sac and endodermal sinus tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, R; Wewer, U; Wimberley, P D

    1980-01-01

    In this study of 4 human yolk sacs, the presence of hemoglobin A and F (HbA and HbF) is demonstrated for the first time in epithelial cells (type 1) and erythroid-like cells (type 2) in the endodermal layer by immunoperoxidase technique. Our findings strongly support the hypothesis previously...... proposed that the red blood cells formed in the yolk sac are of endodermal origin. Tumor with yolk sac differentiation (8 endodermal sinus tumors and 1 embryonal carcinoma with vitelline areas) similarly showed HbA and HbF localisation in endodermal cells. None of 59 germ cell tumors of other types...

  17. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... samples for diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic... for diagnostic testing. (b) The authorized laboratory must identify each egg as to the breeding flock...

  18. Measurement of Iron in Egg Yolk: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment Using Biochemical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kevin M.; Quiazon, Emmanuel M.; Indralingam, Ramee

    2008-01-01

    The generally accepted method to determine iron content in food is by acid digestion or dry ashing and subsequent flame atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. We have developed an experiment that chemically extracts the iron from an egg yolk and quantifies it using UV-vis absorption…

  19. Metabolic activity of boar semen stored in different extenders supplemented with ostrich egg yolk lipoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Dziekońska Anna; Kinder Marek; Fraser Leyland; Strzeżek Jerzy; Kordan Władysław

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lipoprotein fraction isolated from ostrich egg yolk (LPFo) on the metabolic activity of boar spermatozoa following liquid semen storage in different extenders and temperatures.

  20. Manipulative signals in family conflict? On the function of maternal yolk hormones in birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Wendt; Lessells, C(Kate). M.; Korsten, Peter; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus

    Maternal hormones in the yolk of birds' eggs have been a focus of attention in behavioral and evolutionary ecology stimulated by the pioneering work of Hubert Schwabl. Since then, knowledge of both the factors that influence maternal deposition patterns and their consequences for offspring

  1. Oxidative Damage Caused by Common Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria in Egg Yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhaneh Afshordi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacteria in foodstuff are the most important agent of foodborne disease. Aside from their infectious effects, obligate aerobes have a respiratory metabolism with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. Therefore, they can produce reactive oxygen species and free radicals in contaminated food. Malondialdehyde (MDA is a product of lipid peroxidation used as an indicator of oxidative stress. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the oxidative damage produced by two common food pathogenic bacteria in foodstuff. Materials and Methods: The egg yolks were incubated with different dilutions (105,106, and 107 of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis at 37°C for 20 hours. The level of MDA in egg yolk was measured by fast and simple enzymatic or colorimetric methods, such as the thiobarbituric acid reactive species method. Results: The high group (107 had a higher MDA level of 1.97 ± 0.11 (μg MDA/g in S. aureus and 1.65 ± 0.27 (mg MDA/L in S. enteritidis than the control (0.90 ± 0.13 mg MDA/L. Conclusions: We concluded that common food pathogenic bacteria can induce oxidative damage in foodstuff aside from other common problems. Heating or sterilization methods cannot protect foodstuff from the damage caused by the presence of pathogenic bacteria.

  2. Metabolic activity of boar semen stored in different extenders supplemented with ostrich egg yolk lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziekońska Anna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lipoprotein fraction isolated from ostrich egg yolk (LPFo on the metabolic activity of boar spermatozoa following liquid semen storage in different extenders and temperatures.

  3. The Effect of NaOH Concentration on pH, Egg White Protein Content and Yolk Colour Pidan Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herly Evanuarini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the best treatment NaOH addition on pidan eggs. The materials used for this research was pidan made from duck egg, NaOH, salt, black tea and water. The method was used experiment laboratory and Completely Randomized Design (CRD using 4 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were T0 (control, T1 (1.4%, T2 (2.8% and T3 (4.2%. The data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA if there was significantly continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The result showed that NaOH concentration on pidan eggs gave significant effect (P<0.05 on albumen protein content, gave highly significant (P<0.01 on pH value and yolk colour. The conclusion of this research was 4.2% NaOH addition on pidan egg was the best treatment with gave result yolk and albumen pH: 10.69; 10.25, albumen protein content 26.89%, egg yolk colour L* (lightness, a* (redness, b* (yellowness:  26.89; 11.33, and 26.77. The suggestion of this research was ussed different immersion time on pidan egg production.

  4. Mass spectrometry characterization for N-glycosylation of immunoglobulin Y from hen egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Long; He, Zhenjiao; Liu, Yaping; Ma, Meihu; Cai, Zhaoxia

    2018-03-01

    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is a new therapeutic antibody that exists in hen egg yolk. It is a glycoprotein, not much is known about its N-glycan structures, site occupancy and site-specific N-glycosylation. In this study, purified protein from hen egg yolk was identified as IgY based on SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. N-glycan was released from IgY using peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) asparagine-amidase treatment, and the molecular weight of IgY was calculated using the difference between the molecular weight of IgY and deglycosylated IgY. Two potential N-Glycosylation sites (ASN 308 and ASN 409 ) were detected on IgY by nanoLC-ESI MS. Sugar chains were separated using normal phase liquid chromatography after fluorescence labeling, and 17 N-glycan structures were confirmed using ESI-MS. The sugar chain pattern contained high-mannose oligosaccharide, hybrid oligosaccharide and complex oligosaccharide. These results could lead to other important information regarding IgY glycosylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Fab' fragments of specific egg yolk antibody (IgY-Fab') against Shewanella putrefaciens on the preservation of refrigerated turbot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Lin, Hong; Sui, Jianxin; Wang, Jingxue; Cao, Limin

    2015-01-01

    In our previous studies the specific egg yolk antibody (IgY) against Shewanella putrefaciens (one of the specific spoilage organisms for marine products during aerobic chilling storage) demonstrated significant activity to prolong the shelf life of refrigerated fish. The exploitation of the antigen-binding fragment plus the hinge region (IgY-Fab') is now considered a promising method for improving the efficiency of such natural antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial activity of IgY-Fab' against S. putrefaciens was investigated using refrigerated turbot as samples. By microbial, chemical and sensory tests, it was shown to be able to effectively inhibit bacterial growth and prolong the shelf life of samples, with an efficiency evaluated significantly higher than that of whole IgY with the same molarity. The interaction between IgY agents and S. putrefaciens cells was also investigated, and the IgY-Fab' showed a much greater ability to damage cell membranes than the whole IgY. Compared to whole IgY with the same molarity, IgY-Fab' demonstrated higher and more durable antimicrobial efficiency. Such a result was assumed to be closely related to its structural properties (such as the much lower molecular weight), which may enhance its ability to influence physiological activities of antigen bacteria, especially the property or/and structure of cell membranes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Quantification of antibody (IgY) titers in hen eggs following immunization and their use in detecting cell surface molecules on nitrocellulose membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Guang-Ping; Ma, Li; Meng, Xiao-Jing; Meng, Min-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Lin, Ying; Wu, Zheng-Qiang; He, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Ju-Fang; Zhu, Yong

    2007-01-01

    HLA-A*0201 alpha chain and beta2m were expressed from a prokaryotic system, and after refolding and purification, the alpha chain and beta2m were used to immunize eight laying hens. The titer of egg yolk antibody against alpha chain increased from 10(2) to 10(5.3) The titer of egg yolk antibody against beta2m increased from 10(1) to 10(4.7). The extent of titer increase is similar between the two antigens. An average of 135 mg purified polyclonal antibody (IgY) can be easily obtained from one egg yolk. The use of egg collection rather than serum collection is compatible with modern animal protection regulations. An average of 28 eggs were obtained from a laying hen every month, with a total amount of 3780 mg immunoglobulin extracted from one immunized hen every month, which would be equivalent to 630 mL of serum or 1260 mL of blood per month. Chickens are an optimal host for the production of polyclonal antibodies with high titer and high yield. Purified IgY was labeled with horseradish peroxidase and reacted with PBMC on nitrocellulose membranes indicating that the antibody can bind to the native conformation of class I HLA molecule on PBMC.

  7. Aspectos morfológicos do saco vitelino em roedores da subordem Hystricomorpha: paca (Agouti paca e cutia (Dasyprocta aguti Morphological aspects of yolk sac from rodents of Hystricomorpha subordem: paca (Agouti paca and agouti (Dasyprocta aguti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Arcuri Conceição

    2008-05-01

    the embryos/fetuses. Microscopically, the vitelline placenta was constituted by endoderm epithelium and mesenchyme, in which vitelline vessels are abundant. The ultrastructure of the samples showed that the visceral yolk sac of the paca was formed by endodermic cells with nuclei in the median region, and that the visceral yolk sac of the agouti was formed by nuclei arranged apically; other characteristic was the large number of mitochondrias, eletrodense vesicles with microvilosities We conclude that (1 the vitelline placenta of the two species presents insertion in the surface of the main placenta; (2 the vitelline placenta of paca rests on the Reichert's membrane, whereas the agouti vitelline placenta does not have this membrane; (3 the chorion and allantoic are fusioned; and (4 the chorioallantoic placenta and the yolk sac in both species are reversed and vascularized.

  8. Structure and formation of egg membranes in Aedes aegypti. (L. ) (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, G; Rai, K S

    1975-01-01

    An ultrastructural study of mosquito ovarioles reveals that both the vitelline membrane and the endochorion are secreted by the follicular epithelium. The presecretory phase is characterized by the hypertrophy of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex in the follicle cells. Synthesis of vitelline membrane precursors begins immediately after yolk protein uptake by micropinocytosis. Secretory droplets are budded off Golgi cisternae and released into the follicle cell--oocyte interface by exocytosis. The vitelline membrane first appears as dense plaques which eventually fuse to form a single homogeneous layer. Two types of secretory material are identified in the follicle cells prior to the formation of the endochorion. Golgi cisternae bud off small droplets similar in size and appearance to the precursors of the vitelline membrane. These migrate to the apical surface and accumulate between surface folds in the plasma membrane. The second type is a fibrous material formed in endoplasmic reticulum. When fully secreted, the endochorion is a 2-layered structure. The lower layer is comprised of pillar-like structures alternating with fibrous mesh-like areas. The pillars are formed by the coalescence of droplets released from Golgi, while the mesh-like areas presumably arise from the fibrous material. The outer layer is also fibrous. The follicle cells degenerate once the endochorion is laid down. endochorion is laid down.

  9. Testosterone influences song behaviour and social dominance – But independent of prenatal yolk testosterone exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergauwen, Jonas; Groothuis, Ton G.G.; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, maternally derived yolk androgens have been shown to significantly alter offspring development, and a number of these effects persist into adulthood. However, little is known about their underlying mechanisms. Mechanisms that have been suggested are changes in the endogenous

  10. Salovum egg yolk containing antisecretory factor as an adjunct therapy in severe cholera in adult males: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nur H; Ashraf, Hasan; Olesen, Maryam; Salam, Mohammed A; Gyr, Niklaus; Meier, Remy

    2011-08-01

    Cholera involves stimulation of intestinal secretory process in response to cholera toxin leading to profuse watery diarrhoea that might cause death due to dehydration unless timely rehydration therapy is initiated. Efforts to identify and test potential antisecretory agents are ongoing. Antisecretory factor (AF) is a naturally-occurring protein produced in the human secretory organs, including the intestine, with antisectory properties demonstrated in animal and human models of secretory diarrhoea. Salovum egg yolk powder contains antisecretory proteins in a much higher (500 times) concentration than that of normal hen eggs. This is achieved by feeding hens with specially-processed cereals, capable of inducing antisecretory proteins in the yolk. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of Salovum egg yolk powder containing AF in the treatment of adult cholera patients. In an open, randomized controlled trial (pilot study), 40 adult male patients with severe cholera were studied: 20 received standard treatment (oral rehydration solution, antibiotic, and usual hospital diet) plus Salovum egg yolk powder (study group) and 20 received standard treatment alone (control group). All the patients received tablet doxycycline (300 mg) once immediately after randomization. Written informed consent was obtained from each subject before enrollment. The main outcome measures were stool weight and duration of diarrhoea. The demographic and baseline clinical characteristics of the study patients were comparable between the groups. No significant differences were found in the mean stool weight, g/kg of body-weight during the first 24 hours [study vs control group, mean +/- standard deviation (SD), 218 +/- 119 vs 195 +/- 136], second 24 hours (mean +/- SD, 23 +/- 39 vs 22 +/- 34), and cumulative up to 72 hours (mean +/- SD, 245 +/- 152 vs 218 +/- 169). The duration (hours) of diarrhoea after admission in the hospital was also similar in both the groups (mean +/- SD, 33 +/- 14

  11. Xanthophylls in commercial egg yolks: quantification and identification by HPLC and LC-(APCI)MS using a C30 phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatterer, Jörg; Breithaupt, Dietmar E

    2006-03-22

    The xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin have attracted a lot of interest since it was presumed that an increased nutritional uptake may prevent adult macula degeneration (AMD). Although egg yolks serve as an important dietary source of lutein and zeaxanthin, data on xanthophyll concentrations in commercial egg yolks are not available. Thus, an high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed allowing for simultaneous separation of eight xanthophylls used to fortify poultry feed. Peak identification was carried out by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry [LC-(APCI)MS]. Egg yolks of four types of husbandry (seven batches each) were examined. Lutein and zeaxanthin were the predominant xanthophylls in egg yolks produced in accordance with ecological husbandry (class 0) because the concentrations of these xanthophylls ranged from 1274 to 2478 microg/100 g and from 775 to 1288 microg/100 g, respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) proved that both mean lutein and mean zeaxanthin concentrations of eggs from class 0 were statistically discriminable from mean lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations from eggs of all other classes (P xanthophylls in eggs of classes 1 (free range), 2 (barn), and 3 (cage) were as follows: canthaxanthin, 707 +/- 284 microg/100 g; beta-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester, 639 +/- 391 microg/100 g; and citranaxanthin, 560 +/- 231 microg/100 g. Experiments with boiled eggs proved that beta-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester was the xanthophyll with the highest stability, whereas lutein was degraded to the largest extent (loss of 19%). Detailed knowledge about the xanthophyll amounts in eggs is indispensable to calculate the human uptake.

  12. Response surface optimization of pH and ionic strength for emulsion characteristics of egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, S; Zorba, O

    2009-11-01

    Effects of pH (3.5, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 8.5) and ionic strength (0.05, 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, and 0.55 M NaCl) on emulsion capacity, emulsion stability (ES), apparent yield stress of emulsion (AYS), and emulsion density (ED) of egg yolk were studied by using a model system. Ionic strength and pH had significant (P emulsion characteristics of egg yolk. Their interaction effects also have been found significant on ES, AYS, and ED. Predicted solutions of ES, emulsion capacity, and ED were minimum. The critical point of ES was determined to be at pH 6.08 and an ionic strength of 0.49 (M NaCl). Predicted solution for AYS was a maximum, which was determined to be at pH 6.04 and an ionic strength of 0.29 (M NaCl). Optimum values of pH and ionic strenght were 4.61 to 7.43 and 0.10 to 0.47, respectively.

  13. Effect of marine by-product meals on hen egg production parameters, yolk lipid composition and sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyes-Vargas, E; Ortega-Pérez, R; Espinoza-Villavicencio, J L; Arellano-Pérez, M; Civera, R; Palacios, E

    2018-04-01

    The effect of including 5% marine by-product meals in feeds of laying hens on egg production, composition and sensory characteristics was tested. Marine by-product meals were prepared using two methods: (i) cooking (100°C/10 min) followed by drying (60°C/24 hr) or (ii) grinding followed by drying. The raw materials used for meal production were scallop or squid viscera, shrimp heads or whole mackerel. A total of 108 laying hens were allocated to nine diet treatments; one control diet (corn and soya bean based) and eight experimental diets, containing 95% of the control feed and 5% of the experimental meal for three weeks. Daily intake was higher in hens fed the dried mackerel and cooked shrimp meals. All the experimental treatments showed significantly higher concentration of n-3 HUFA in yolk reserves and phospholipids compared to the control (0.12-0.13 g per 100 g), especially those with scallop or squid prepared by both methods (0.53-0.95 g per 100 g). Scallop, squid and shrimp meal inclusion in the feed produced eggs with more astaxanthin (0.22 mg per 100 g) while this carotenoid was absent in the control and mackerel treatments. Visual evaluation of raw yolk colour increased with the inclusion of marine by-product meals with higher values in hens fed shrimp heads (13), followed by scallop viscera (11), squid viscera (9), and with similar values for mackerel and control (4). The taste, aroma, texture and colour of cooked eggs from different treatments were not statically different when evaluated by a panel of 60 untrained people. These results suggest that meals from marine by-products are a better alternative for improving egg yolk composition by increasing n-3 HUFA when compared to fishmeal as they also increase astaxanthin and yolk pigmentation without affecting egg sensory characteristics. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Establishment of the fatty acid profile of the brain of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) at hatch: effects of a yolk that is naturally rich in n-3 polyunsaturates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speake, Brian K; Decrock, Frederic; Surai, Peter F; Wood, Nicholas A R; Groscolas, René

    2003-01-01

    Because the yolk lipids of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) contain the highest concentrations of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids yet reported for an avian species, the consequences for the establishment of the brain's fatty acid profile in the embryo were investigated. To place the results in context, the fatty acid compositions of yolk lipid and brain phospholipid of the king penguin were compared with those from three other species of free-living birds. The proportions of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) in the total lipid of the initial yolks for the Canada goose (Branta canadensis), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), and king penguin were (% w/w of fatty acids) 1.0+/-0.1, 1.9+/-0.2, 3.3+/-0.1, and 5.9+/-0.2, respectively. The respective concentrations of DHA (% w/w of phospholipid fatty acids) in brains of the newly hatched chicks of these same species were 18.5+/-0.2, 19.6+/-0.7, 16.9+/-0.4, and 17.6+/-0.1. Thus, the natural interspecies diversity in yolk fatty acid profiles does not necessarily produce major differences in the DHA content of the developing brain. Only about 1% of the amount of DHA initially present in the yolk was recovered in the brain of the penguin at hatch. There was no preferential uptake of DHA from the yolk during development of the king penguin.

  15. Interaction and transport of cysteamine (MEA) through membrane models. {sup 15}N-NMR et {sup 1}H-NMR; Interaction et transport de la cysteamine (MEA) a travers des membranes modeles. Etude par {sup 15}N-RMN et {sup 1}H-RMN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagoueyte, C.; Subra, G.; Bonnet, P.A.; Chapat, J.P.; Debouzy, J.C.; Fauvelle, F.; Berleur, F.; Roman, V.; Fatome, M.; Fernandez, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    We investigated by {sup 15}N-NMR the interactions of [{sup 15}N]-MEA, a radio-protecting aminothiol, with model membranes (SUVs and LUVs) of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidic acid. We prepared LUVs with a pH gradient between the intravesicular space and the bulk medium. Even though the external pH was low, MEA penetrates into the vesicles. With SUVs, {sup 1}H-NMR revealed that the interactions of unlabeled MEA within the hydrophobic core of the bilayer vary with external pH value. (author). 5 refs.

  16. THE EGG – FUNCTIONAL FOOD.COMPARATIVE STUDY ON VARIOUS NUTRITIONAL SOLUTIONS TO ENRICH THE EGG POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS. II YOLK FATTY ACIDS PROFILE RESULTING FROM THE DIETARY USE OF SAFFLOWER OIL AND FLAX SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTE RODICA. D.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained in a study on the comparative evaluation of the effect of a diet with safflower oil and flax seeds compared to a control soybean oil diet given to layers on the bioproductive effects, egg characteristics and yolk fatty acids profile. The trial involved 32 Lowman Brown layers during the age period 23- 28 weeks (1 week of accommodation and 4 experimental weeks. The layers, assigned to 2 groups (16 layers/group, 4 layers/cage received diets based on corn, wheat and soybean meal. The diets differed by the source of fatty acids: soybean oil for the control group (SO; safflower oil and flax seeds for SSO+FS. The diets were supplemented with 250 ppm vitamin E. Twelve eggs per group were collected randomly 10 and 30 days, respectively, after the beginning of the experiment. The paper presents comparative data on the: average egg weight, egg component (egg shell, yolk, egg white weight, intensity of yolk colour (Hoffman – La Roche colour range, yolk protein, fat yolk pH (measured one week after collection, the eggs being kept at 50C and yolk fatty acids. All data show that the profile of yolk unsaturated fatty acids can be handled quite easily by the nature of the dietary fats, their level of inclusion and their dietary ratio.

  17. Preservasi Semen Kambing Peranakan Etawa dalam Pengencer Tris dan Sitrat Kuning Telur dengan Penambahan Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (THE PRESERVATION OF ETTAWA GRADE BUCK SEMEN IN TRIS AND CITRATE EGG YOLK DILUENTS SUPPLEMENTED WITH SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hidayati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determineSDS concentration also to compare Tris egg yolk and citrateegg yolk on the quality of ettawa grade chilled semen. The study consist of two experiments. The firstexperiment was to determine the best SDS concentration in Tris egg yolk diluents and the second experimentwas to compare the SDS suplementation in tris and citrate egg yolk in the quality of ettawa grade chilledsemen. The semen were collected from three bucks, immediately after collection the semen evalutedmacro and microscopycally. Semen demonstrate more than 70% motility and less than 10% spermatozoaabnormality, individually divided into four tube, each tube was diluted in egg yolk supplemented with 0;0,025; 0,05; and 0.075% SDS then stored at 5°C for 72 hours. The quality of chilled semen was observefor motility and viability every 12 hours. Result demonstrated that 0.05% SDS was the best concentrationcompared to others. In the second experiment,the semen were diluted in four different diluents, it wereTris egg yolk (TEY, Tris egg yolk with 0.05% SDS (TEYS, citrate egg yolk (CEY and citrate egg yolk with0.05% SDS (CEYS. Result demonstrated that the mean value of motility and viability of spermatozoa inTEYSdiluents (67.08 ± 6.43% and77.07 ± 6.78% was higher (p<0.05 than CEYS (60.42 ± 9.05% and72.31± 7.45%, TEY (59.23 ± 9.41% and71.21 ± 8.56% and CEY (53.45 ± 11.33% and67.74 ± 8.90%. In conclusion,supplementation of 0.05% SDS in TEY was maintained best sperm quality compared to other diluentsduring preservation.

  18. Effect of Ducks Yolk and Formic Acid in Fat Liquoring Process on the Physical Quality of Broiler Chicken Shank Chrome Tanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustakim Mustakim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of ducks yolk and formic acid in fat liquoring process of the tanned skin.  The materials used in this study were 30 pieces of 7 weeks of broiler chicken shank. The study was carried out using completely randomized design. The variables measured were softness, tensile strength and stretch of the tanned skin. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The research results showed that the addition of ducks yolk and formic acid didn’t gave significantly affect on the softness (p>0.05, while gave highly significant affect on tensile strength and stretch (p0.05 on the softness and stretch, and have significantly (p<0.05 on the tensile strength of leather. The conclusion of this research the addition of 11% duck yolk and 1% formic acid in fat liquoring is the best treatment for broiler chicken shank chrome tanning on the skin softness (2,667, tensile strength (135,707 kg/cm2, and stretch (37,34%, respectively.

  19. Formation of NiCo{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} yolk-double shell spheres with enhanced lithium storage properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yan; Nai, Jianwei; Lou, Xiong Wen David [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore)

    2018-03-05

    Complex nanostructures with multi-components and intricate architectures hold great potential in developing high-performance electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, we demonstrate a facile self-templating strategy for the synthesis of metal vanadate nanomaterials with complex chemical composition of NiCo{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} and a unique yolk-double shell structure. Starting with the Ni-Co glycerate spheres, NiCo{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} yolk-double shell spheres are synthesized through an anion-exchange reaction of Ni-Co glycerate templates with VO{sub 3}{sup -} ions, followed by an annealing treatment. By virtue of compositional and structural advantages, these NiCo{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} yolk-double shell spheres manifest outstanding lithium storage properties when evaluated as anodes for LIBs. Impressively, an extra-high reversible capacity of 1228 mAh g{sup -1} can be retained after 500 cycles at a high current density of 1.0 Ag{sup -1}. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Yolk-shell structured composite for fast and selective lithium ion sieving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Lu, Deli; Zhang, Jinlong; Wang, Lingzhi

    2018-06-15

    Yolk-shell structured C@Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 microspheres composed of carbon core (ca. 500 nm) and sea urchin-like Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 shell (ca. 400-500 nm) are formed by hydrothermally treating the core-shell structured C@TiO 2 in the EtOH/H 2 O solution of LiOH and calcining it in N 2 atmosphere. Yolk-shell structured TiO 2 -type lithium ion sieve is further transformed from C@Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 through the acid treatment, which have a high specific surface area of 201.74 m 2 /g. The composite shows adsorption capacity towards Li + proportional to the pH value in the range of 7-13. The adsorption reaches equilibrium within 2 h with a high equilibrium adsorption capacity of 28.46 mg/g under alkaline conditions, which is ca. 8 times the value of ordinary TiO 2 lithium ion sieve with comparable size and surface area, demonstrating the enhanced adsorption is attributed to the generation of more accessible surficial voids by replacing internal part with light carbon core. The adsorption follows Freundlich and pseudo-second-order kinetic models with a high rate constant of 0.015 g/(mg·min). The selective adsorption to Li + is verified in the presence of K + , Na + , Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Alternations in Cholesterol and Fatty Acids Composition in Egg Yolk of Rhode Island Red x Fyoumi Hens Fed with Hemp Seeds (Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaib Shahid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of hemp seed (HS supplementation on egg yolk cholesterol and fatty acid composition in laying hens. Sixty hens (Rhode Island Red x Fyoumi were evenly distributed into four groups (three replicates per group at the peak production (34 weeks. HS was included into the ration at the level of 0.0 (HS-0, 15 (HS-15, 20 (HS-20, and 25% (HS-25 and continued the supplementation for consecutively three weeks. At the end of the experiment, three eggs per replicate were randomly collected and analyzed for egg yolk fatty acids and cholesterol profile. The statistical analysis of the result revealed that supplementation of HS-25 significantly (P<0.05 decreased egg yolk total cholesterol, myristic (C14:0, palmitic (C16:0, and stearic (C18:0. Similarly, total as well as individual monounsaturated fatty acids decreased significantly (P<0.05 while total and individual polyunsaturated fatty acids increased significantly in the HS-25. In addition, total omega-3 and omega-6 increased significantly in the HS-25 group. From the present result, we concluded that addition of HS at the rate of 25% to the diet of laying hens augmented the cholesterol and fatty acids profile in egg yolk.

  2. The Preparation of Au@TiO2 Yolk-Shell Nanostructure and its Applications for Degradation and Detection of Methylene Blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gengping; Peng, Xiange; Zeng, Min; Yu, Lei; Wang, Kan; Li, Xinyue; Wang, Guizhen

    2017-09-18

    This paper reports the synthesis of a new type of Au@TiO 2 yolk-shell nanostructures by integrating ion sputtering method with atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique and its applications as visible light-driven photocatalyst and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate. Both the size and amount of gold nanoparticles confined in TiO 2 nanotubes could be facilely controlled via properly adjusting the sputtering time. The unique structure and morphology of the resulting Au@TiO 2 samples were investigated by using various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques in detail. It is found that all tested samples can absorb visible light with a maximum absorption at localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelengths (550-590 nm) which are determined by the size of gold nanoparticles. The Au@TiO 2 yolk-shell composites were used as the photocatalyst for the degradation of methylene blue (MB). As compared with pure TiO 2 nanotubes, Au@TiO 2 composites exhibit improved photocatalytic properties towards the degradation of MB. The SERS effect of Au@TiO 2 yolk-shell composites was also performed to investigate the detection sensitivity of MB.

  3. The Preparation of Au@TiO2 Yolk-Shell Nanostructure and its Applications for Degradation and Detection of Methylene Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gengping; Peng, Xiange; Zeng, Min; Yu, Lei; Wang, Kan; Li, Xinyue; Wang, Guizhen

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of a new type of Au@TiO2 yolk-shell nanostructures by integrating ion sputtering method with atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique and its applications as visible light-driven photocatalyst and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate. Both the size and amount of gold nanoparticles confined in TiO2 nanotubes could be facilely controlled via properly adjusting the sputtering time. The unique structure and morphology of the resulting Au@TiO2 samples were investigated by using various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques in detail. It is found that all tested samples can absorb visible light with a maximum absorption at localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelengths (550-590 nm) which are determined by the size of gold nanoparticles. The Au@TiO2 yolk-shell composites were used as the photocatalyst for the degradation of methylene blue (MB). As compared with pure TiO2 nanotubes, Au@TiO2 composites exhibit improved photocatalytic properties towards the degradation of MB. The SERS effect of Au@TiO2 yolk-shell composites was also performed to investigate the detection sensitivity of MB.

  4. In-depth nanocrystallization enhanced Li-ions batteries performance with nitrogen-doped carbon coated Fe3O4 yolk-shell nanocapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qianhui; Zhao, Rongfang; Liu, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiue; Shen, Xiao; Li, Wenlong; Diao, Guowang; Chen, Ming

    2017-03-01

    In this paper nitrogen-doped carbon-encapsulation Fe3O4 yolk-shell magnetic nanocapsules (Fe3O4@C-N nanocapsules) have been successfully constructed though a facile hydrothermal method and subsequent annealing process. Fe3O4 nanoparticles are completely enclosed in nitrogen-doped carbon shells with void space between the nanoparticle and the shell. The yolk-shell structure allows Fe3O4 nanoparticles to expand freely without breaking the outer carbon shell during the lithiation/delithiation processes. The volume expansion of Fe3O4 results in the in-depth nanocrystallization. Fortunately, the new generated small nanoparticles can increase the capability with the cycle increase due to the unique confinement effect and excellent electronic conductivity of the nitrogen-doped carbon shells. Hence, after 150 cycles, the discharge capacity of Fe3O4@C-N-700 nanocapsules still remained 832 mA h g-1 at 500 mA g-1, which corresponds to 116.7% of the lowest capacity (713 mA h g-1) at the 16th cycle. We believe that the yolk-shell structure is conducive to enhance the capacity of easy pulverization metal oxidation during the charge/discharge processes.

  5. Yolk-shell structured Sb@C anodes for high energy Na-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Junhua; Yan, Pengfei; Luo, Langli; Qi, Xingguo; Rong, Xiaohui; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Biwei; Feng, Shuo; Wang, Chongmin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Lin, Yuehe; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Li, Xiaolin

    2017-10-01

    Despite great advances in sodium-ion battery developments, the search for high energy and stable anode materials remains a challenge. Alloy or conversion-typed anode materials are attractive candidates of high specific capacity and low voltage potential, yet their applications are hampered by the large volume expansion and hence poor electrochemical reversibility and fast capacity fade. Here, we use antimony (Sb) as an example to demonstrate the use of yolk-shell structured anodes for high energy Na-ion batteries. The Sb@C yolk-shell structure prepared by controlled reduction and selective removal of Sb2O3 from carbon coated Sb2O3 nanoparticles can accommodate the Sb swelling upon sodiation and improve the structural/electrical integrity against pulverization. It delivers a high specific capacity of ~554 mAh•g-1, good rate capability (315 mhA•g-1 at 10C rate) and long cyclability (92% capacity retention over 200 cycles). Full-cells of O3-Na0.9[Cu0.22Fe0.30Mn0.48]O2 cathodes and Sb@C-hard carbon composite anodes demonstrate a high specific energy of ~130 Wh•kg-1 (based on the total mass of cathode and anode) in the voltage range of 2.0-4.0 V, ~1.5 times energy of full-cells with similar design using hard carbon anodes.

  6. Dietary choline and phospholipid supplementation enhanced docosahexaenoic acid enrichment in egg yolk of laying hens fed a 2% Schizochytrium powder-added diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Zhang, H J; Wang, X C; Wu, S G; Wang, J; Xu, L; Qi, G H

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary phospholipid supplementation on laying hen performance, egg quality, and the fatty acid profile of egg yolks from hens fed a 2% Schizochytrium powder diet. Three-hundred-sixty 28-wk-old Hy-line W-36 laying hens were randomly allocated to one of the 5 dietary treatments, each treatment with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. All diets included 2% Schizochytrium powder (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 137.09 mg/g). The control group was not supplemented with any additional phospholipids, whereas the other 4 experimental diets were supplemented with 1,000 mg/kg choline (CHO), 1,000 mg/kg monoethanolamine (MEA), 1,000 mg/kg lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), or 500 mg/kg LPC + 500 mg/kg MEA (LPC + MEA). The experimental diets were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.15 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (crude protein, 16.60%). The feeding trial lasted 28 days. Laying hen performance and egg quality were not affected (P > 0.05) by the diets used. The monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) level was reduced in the LPC group at d 28 (P egg yolks in the LPC group had a trend to increase in comparison to the control (P = 0.07). The CHO and LPC groups had higher omega-3 (n-3) PUFA and DHA levels and lower n-6/n-3 ratios than the other groups at d 28 (P egg yolk reached a plateau after the laying hens consumed the experimental diets for 14 days, and higher yolk DHA contents were observed in the CHO and LPC groups as compared with the other groups at d 14. It was concluded that dietary choline supplementation for more than 14 d enhanced egg yolk enrichment with n-3 PUFA and DHA when laying hen diets were supplemented with 2% Schizochytrium powder. All the diets had no adverse effect on hen performance, egg quality, or egg components under the experimental condition. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Soy lecithin interferes with mitochondrial function in frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle, I; Gómez-Durán, A; Holt, W V; Muiño-Blanco, T; Cebrián-Pérez, J A

    2012-01-01

    Egg yolk and milk are the 2 major membrane cryoprotectants commonly used in freezing media for the long-term preservation of semen (alone or in combination with others). However, in recent years, there have been increasing arguments against the use of egg yolk or milk because of the risk of introducing diseases through the use of cryopreserved semen. In this study, we analyzed the protective effect of lecithin as an alternative to egg yolk for the cryopreservation of ram semen, using a range of functional markers for sperm viability, motility, apoptosis, and mitochondrial functionality analyses (mitochondrial inner membrane surface [MIMS], mitochondrial inner membrane potential [MIMP], and cell membrane potential) as methods of assessment in samples diluted in 3 different media: Tris-citrate-glucose as control and 2 media supplemented with soy lecithin or egg yolk. The results showed that lecithin was able to effectively protect certain sperm quality characteristics against freezing-induced damage. However, lecithin induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential or mitochondrial loss that was not reflected by modifications in sperm motility in fresh semen. MIMS and MIMP values decreased in thawed lecithin-treated samples, concomitant with a lower (P lecithin may have affected the inner mitochondrial membrane in frozenthawed spermatozoa and confirmed that sublethal damages that seriously affect sperm functionality, not detected by classic sperm quality analyses, can be evidenced by changes in the inner mitochondrial membrane surface. These findings strengthen the relationship between mitochondrial membrane potential and motility and show that the mitochondrial alterations induced by the cryopreservation process could be specific targets for the improvement of semen cryopreservation protocols.

  8. Effects of dietary yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, egg yolk fatty acid composition and humoral immune response of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, Sakine; Yalçin, Suzan; Cakin, Kemal; Eltan, Onder; Dağaşan, Levent

    2010-08-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary yeast autolysate on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, egg yolk fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation of egg yolk, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of laying hens during a 16 week period. A total of 225 Hyline Brown laying hens, 22 weeks of age, were allocated equally to one control group and four treatment groups. Yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, InteWall) was used at levels of 1, 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) in the diets of the first, second, third and fourth treatment groups respectively. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect body weight, feed intake and egg traits. Yeast autolysate supplementation increased egg production (P Yeast autolysate at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) decreased egg yolk cholesterol level as mg g(-1) yolk (P yeast autolysate supplementation. Dietary yeast autolysate at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) had beneficial effects on performance, egg cholesterol content and humoral immune response. It is concluded that 2 g kg(-1) yeast autolysate will be enough to have beneficial effects in laying hens. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Effect of flaxseed oil and microalgae DHA on the production performance, fatty acids and total lipids of egg yolk and plasma in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neijat, M; Ojekudo, O; House, J D

    2016-12-01

    The incorporation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the egg is dependent on both the transfer efficiency of preformed dietary omega-3 fatty acids to the eggs as well as endogenous PUFA metabolism and deposition. Employing an experimental design consisting of 70 Lohmann LSL-Classic hens (n=10/treatment) in a 6-week feeding trial, we examined the impact of graded levels of either flaxseed oil (alpha-linolenic acid, ALA) or algal DHA (preformed docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), each supplying 0.20%, 0.40% and 0.60% total omega-3s. The control diet was practically low in omega-3s. Study parameters included monitoring the changes of fatty acid contents in yolk, measures of hen performance, eggshell quality, total lipids and fatty acid contents of plasma. Data were analysed as a complete randomized design using Proc Mixed procedure of SAS. No significant differences were observed between treatments with respect to hen performance, eggshell quality and cholesterol content in plasma and egg yolk. Individual and total omega-3 PUFA in the yolk and plasma increased (PDHA-fed hens incorporated 3-fold more DHA in eggs compared with ALA-fed hens (179±5.55 vs. 66.7±2.25mg/yolk, respectively). In both treatment groups, maximal enrichment of total n-3 PUFA was observed by week-2, declined by week-4 and leveled thereafter. In addition, accumulation of DHA in egg yolk showed linear (PDHA (R 2 =0.95). The current data, based on defined level of total omega-3s in the background diet, provides evidence to suggest that exogenous as well as endogenous synthesis of DHA may be subject to a similar basis of regulation, and serve to highlight potential regulatory aspects explaining the limitations in the deposition of endogenously produced omega-3 LCPUFA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of cloned cells, animal model, and ATRA sensitivity of human testicular yolk sac tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Junfeng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The testicular yolk sac tumor (TYST is the most common neoplasm originated from germ cells differentiated abnormally, a major part of pediatric malignant testicular tumors. The present study aimed at developing and validating the in vitro and vivo models of TYST and evaluating the sensitivity of TYST to treatments, by cloning human TYST cells and investigating the histology, ultra-structure, growth kinetics and expression of specific proteins of cloned cells. We found biological characteristics of cloned TYST cells were similar to the yolk sac tumor and differentiated from the columnar to glandular-like or goblet cells-like cells. Chromosomes for tumor identification in each passage met nature of the primary tumor. TYST cells were more sensitive to all-trans-retinoic acid which had significantly inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Cisplatin induced apoptosis of TYST cells through the activation of p53 expression and down-regulation of Bcl- expression. Thus, we believe that cloned TYST cells and the animal model developed here are useful to understand the molecular mechanism of TYST cells and develop potential therapies for human TYST.

  11. Effects of food availability on yolk androgen deposition in the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla, a seabird with facultative brood reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z M Benowitz-Fredericks

    Full Text Available In birds with facultative brood reduction, survival of the junior chick is thought to be regulated primarily by food availability. In black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla where parents and chicks are provided with unlimited access to supplemental food during the breeding season, brood reduction still occurs and varies interannually. Survival of the junior chick is therefore affected by factors in addition to the amount of food directly available to them. Maternally deposited yolk androgens affect competitive dynamics within a brood, and may be one of the mechanisms by which mothers mediate brood reduction in response to a suite of environmental and physiological cues. The goal of this study was to determine whether food supplementation during the pre-lay period affected patterns of yolk androgen deposition in free-living kittiwakes in two years (2003 and 2004 that varied in natural food availability. Chick survival was measured concurrently in other nests where eggs were not collected. In both years, supplemental feeding increased female investment in eggs by increasing egg mass. First-laid ("A" eggs were heavier but contained less testosterone and androstenedione than second-laid ("B" eggs across years and treatments. Yolk testosterone was higher in 2003 (the year with higher B chick survival across treatments. The difference in yolk testosterone levels between eggs within a clutch varied among years and treatments such that it was relatively small when B chick experienced the lowest and the highest survival probabilities, and increased with intermediate B chick survival probabilities. The magnitude of testosterone asymmetry in a clutch may allow females to optimize fitness by either predisposing a brood for reduction or facilitating survival of younger chicks.

  12. Endometrial carcinoma with yolk sac tumor-like differentiation and elevated serum ß-hCG: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mingliang Ji,1 Yan Lu,1 Lina Guo,2 Fengzhi Feng,1 Xirun Wan,1 Yang Xiang1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Pathology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China Abstract: Endometrial carcinoma with a germ cell tumor component is a rare event. Here we report a uterine neoplasm with a unique combination of endometrioid adenocarcinoma and mixed germ cell malignant elements. A 28-year-old woman with abnormal vaginal bleeding, an abdominal mass, and elevated alfa-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG levels had a history of biopsy of an omental mass and chemotherapy in another hospital one month before her referral to our department. Histologic examination of the mass removed from the omentum revealed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor-like differentiation. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, infracolic omentectomy, and removal of metastatic disease were then undertaken at our hospital. Postoperative chemotherapy was given. Eight months postoperatively, serum alfa-fetoprotein and ß-hCG rose again. Cases with primary yolk sac tumors of the endometrium or endometrial carcinoma with trophoblastic differentiation in the literature were reviewed. Keywords: endometrial carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, trophoblastic differentiation

  13. The effect of storage temperature on the quality of eggs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rahim

    hens could be related to an increase of yolk water content, the movement of ions ... the vitelline membrane is disrupted, causing leakage of minerals and water ... yolk and albumen compared to the control group (R. Aydin, unpublished data).

  14. Aktivitas Biologis Imunoglobulin Yolk Anti Parvovirus Setelah Perlakuan Suhu (BIOLOGY ACTIVITIES OF IgY PARVOVIRUS AFTER HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Suartini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of temperature on the biological activity of various crude and precipitate specific Immunoglobulin (IgY Canine parvovirus (CPV. Hiperimun serum conducted on Isa Brown chickens injected with antigen CPV. Crude yolk Ig preparations derived from chicken serum without purification while the yolk Ig preparations precipitates obtained by the chicken serum was precipitated with ammonium sulfate and dialyzed. Both types of Ig yolk given treatment temperature 50ºC, 60ºC, 70ºC, and 80ºC for 15 minutes. To test Gel Precipitation Test (AGPT is performed to determine whether there is a specific IgY CPV in the serum of chickens. Biological activity of both types of Ig detected with Barriers Haemagglutination test (HI. The design used in this study is completely randomized design factorial. The results of this study indicate that the temperature was highly significant on the activities of IgY crude and precipitates. Activities IgY crude and precipitate down to the treatment temperature of 50ºC, 60ºC, 70ºC, and 80ºC. Geometric Mean Titer crude IgY respectively - were 26.67, 26, 25.33, and <2º Unit HI while IgY precipitates are respectively 26.33, 25.67, 24, and <2º Unit HI. Based on the results of this study concluded that the biological activity of crude IgY better than IgY precipitates after treatment of a wide range of temperatures.

  15. Egg shell and yolk quality characteristics of layers fed with sugarcane press residue in soya and fish based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Suma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sugarcane press residue (SPR, a by-product of sugarcane industry, which is rich in inorganic salts was assessed at different levels in both soya based and fish based diets of layers for egg shell and yolk quality characteristics. Materials and Methods: SPR was incorporated in 32-week-old white leghorn layer diets at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% either in the soya based or fish based diets to form T1 to T8 diets, respectively. Each diet was offered to five replicates of four laying hens each constituting a total of one sixty birds kept for 84 days under colony cages. Results: Mean egg shell thickness obtained from eggs of experimental hens measured was 0.342, 0.329, 0.320, 0.322, 0.319, 0.332, 0.328 and 0.336 mm in T1 through T8 groups, respectively. About the main factor effects, both showed non-significant results. Similarly, influence of different treatment diets, in imparting colour to the yolks, was found to be non-significant (p>0.05 at different 28-day time intervals. Further, the average yolk index values ranged non-significantly from 0.360 (T6 to 0.383 (T4. Conclusion: The SPR can be incorporated into layer diet as a source of inorganic as well as organic nutrients without affecting its egg quality characteristics.

  16. The relationship between carbon stable isotope ratios of hatchling down and egg yolk in Black-headed Gulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Baarspul, T.; Dekkers, T.; Van Tienen, P.

    2004-01-01

    We reconstructed the nutrient source for egg synthesis by sampling Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) eggs for yolk, analyzing their carbon stable isotope ratio, and comparing that to hatchling down. Most of the variation in carbon stable isotope ratio was explained by differences between nests,

  17. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped Fe3O4-Co3O4 yolk-shell nanostructures for advanced catalytic oxidation based on sulfate radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lishu; Yang, Xijia; Han, Erfen; Zhao, Lijun; Lian, Jianshe

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we designed and synthesized a high performance catalyst of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) wrapped Fe3O4-Co3O4 (RGO/Fe3O4-Co3O4) yolk-shell nanostructures for advanced catalytic oxidation based on sulfate radicals. The synergistic catalytic action of the RGO/Fe3O4-Co3O4 yolk-shell nanostructures activate the peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to produce sulfate radicals (SO4rad -) for organic dyes degradation, and the Orange II can be almost completely degradated in 5 min. Meanwhile the RGO wrapping prevents the loss of cobalt in the catalytic process, and the RGO/Fe3O4-Co3O4 can be recycled after catalyzed reaction due to the presence of magnetic iron core. What's more, it can maintain almost the same high catalytic activity even after 10 cycles through repeated NaBH4 reduction treatment. Hence, RGO/Fe3O4-Co3O4 yolk-shell nanostructures possess a great opportunity to become a promising candidate for waste water treatment in industry.

  18. Interface-modulated fabrication of hierarchical yolk-shell Co3O4/C dodecahedrons as stable anodes for lithium and sodium storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhu Wu; Jiashen Meng; Qi Li; Chaojiang Niu; Xuanpeng Wang; Wei Yang; Wei Li; Liqiang Mai

    2017-01-01

    Transition-metal oxides (TMOs) have gradually attracted attention from researchers as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) because of their high theoretical capacity.However,their poor cycling stability and inferior rate capability resulting from the large volume variation during the lithiation/sodiation process and their low intrinsic electronic conductivity limit their applications.To solve the problems of TMOs,carbon-based metal-oxide composites with complex structures derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as promising electrode materials for LIBs and SIBs.In this study,we adopted a facile interface-modulated method to synthesize yolk-shell carbon-based Co3O4 dodecahedrons derived from ZIF-67 zeolitic imidazolate frameworks.This strategy is based on the interface separation between the ZIF-67 core and the carbon-based shell during the pyrolysis process.The unique yolk-shell structure effectively accommodates the volume expansion during lithiation or sodiation,and the carbon matrix improves the electrical conductivity of the electrode.As an anode for LIBs,the yolk-shell Co3O4/C dodecahedrons exhibit a high specific capacity and excellent cycling stability (1,100 mAh·g-1 after 120 cycles at 200 mA·g-1).As an anode for SIBs,the composites exhibit an outstanding rate capability (307 mAh·g-1 at 1,000 mA·g-1 and 269 mAh·g-1 at 2,000 mA·g-1).Detailed electrochemical kinetic analysis indicates that the energy storage for Li+ and Na+ in yolk-shell Co3O4/C dodecahedrons shows a dominant capacitive behavior.This work introduces an effective approach for fabricating carbonbased metal-oxide composites by using MOFs as ideal precursors and as electrode materials to enhance the electrochemical performance of LIBs and SIBs.

  19. Template-free synthesis of hierarchical yolk-shell Co and N codoped porous carbon microspheres with enhanced performance for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shujun; Cui, Qian; Wang, Kui; Bai, Zhengyu; Yang, Lin; Qiao, Jinli

    2015-08-01

    The structures and compositions of materials have important influences on their performance. Herein, hierarchically structured yolk-shell Co and N codoped porous carbon microspheres (YS-Co/N-PCMs) have been successfully synthesized by using low-cost melamine, formaldehyde and cobalt acetate as raw materials via a facile template-free hydrothermal method and a subsequent pyrolysis. The formation process of the yolk-shell precursor is systematically investigated, involving a morphological evolution process from solid microspheres, ultrathin and wrinkled shells wrap, to yolk-shell structure formation. More importantly, the unique structure combines the favorable features towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), such as high surface area, sufficient Co-Nx and graphitic N active sites and suitable pore structures. As a result, the YS-Co/N-PCMs catalyst shows high catalytic activity for ORR in alkaline media for fuel cells, which not only outperforms commercial Pt-based catalysts in terms of resistance to methanol crossover and long-time stability, but is also better than many non-precious metal doped carbon-based catalysts reported previously. In addition, the YS-Co/N-PCMs catalyst also has high catalytic activity toward oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Therefore, the YS-Co/N-PCMs catalyst may serve as a promising alternative to Pt/C catalyst for ORR and OER in alkaline media.

  20. The effect of modified eggs and an egg-yolk based beverage on serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations and macular pigment optical density: results from a randomized trial.

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    Elton R Kelly

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests a beneficial effect of lutein and zeaxanthin on the progression of age-related macular degeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lutein or zeaxanthin enriched eggs or a lutein enriched egg-yolk based buttermilk beverage on serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations and macular pigment levels. Naturally enriched eggs were made by increasing the levels of the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin in the feed given to laying hens. One hundred healthy volunteers were recruited and randomized into 5 groups for 90 days. Group one added one normal egg to their daily diet and group two received a lutein enriched egg-yolk based beverage. Group three added one lutein enriched egg and group four one zeaxanthin enriched egg to their diet. Group five was the control group and individuals in this group did not modify their daily diet. Serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations and macular pigment densities were obtained at baseline, day 45 and day 90. Macular pigment density was measured by heterochromatic flicker photometry. Serum lutein concentration in the lutein enriched egg and egg yolk-based beverage groups increased significantly (p<0.001, 76% and 77%. A strong increase in the serum zeaxanthin concentration was observed in individuals receiving zeaxanthin enriched eggs (P< 0.001, 430%. No changes were observed in macular pigment density in the various groups tested. The results indicate that daily consumption of lutein or zeaxanthin enriched egg yolks as well as an egg yolk-based beverage show increases in serum lutein and zeaxanthin levels that are comparable with a daily use of 5 mg supplements.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00527553.

  1. Effect of Feeding Low-Oil Ddgs to Laying Hens and Broiler Chickens on Performance and Egg Yolk and Skin Pigmentation

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    A Cortes-Cuevas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritional quality of two sources of low-oil distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS and their pigmenting ability for broiler chicken skin and egg yolks. In Experiment 1, 360 Bovan-White hens between 69 and 77 weeks of age were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments with 6 replicates of 12 hens each. In Experiment 2, 375 Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to five treatments with three replicates of 25 birds each. The chickens were fed the experimental diets from one to 42 d of age. In both experiments, treatments consisted of a basal diet with no DDGS, and diets with 6% or 12% inclusion of DDGS from two sources. In Experiment 1, no significant differences in performance were detected among treatments (p> 0.05. Egg yolk pigmentation, according to CR-400 Minolta Colorimeter redness (a and yellowness (b, linearly increased (p0.05 were detected among treatments in growth performance, carcass yield, or abdominal fat at 42 d of age. Yellowness linearly increased (p<0.05 in the skin and abdominal fat of the birds that consumed diets with DDGS. The results of the current study indicate that feeding two sources of low-oil DDGS to broiler chicks or laying hens does not negatively affect egg production or growth performance while improves egg yolk and skin yellowness.

  2. Evaluation of an egg yolk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody test and its use to assess the prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in laying hens in Italy

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    Marco Tamba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in commercial layers was established by the presence of antibodies in eggs. Saline-extracted yolks were used with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. For the prevalence study, yolks from 30 eggs were obtained from each of 66 flocks coming from 36 layer farms. The prevalence of egg antibodies to Mycoplasma gallisepticum was 33.3% in single-age farms and 77.8% in multi-age farms. In 27 flocks, antibody titers were compared with results obtained from blood samples taken in the same flock and in the same period and analyzed with the same kit. This study has confirmed that egg yolk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody test is a suitable and practical approach for assessing the flock prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in layer hens.

  3. Elimination of hydrogen sulphide and β substitution in cystein, catalyzed by the cysteine-lyase of hens yolk-sac and yolk (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapeville, F.; Fromageot, P.

    1961-01-01

    The yolk of incubated hen's eggs contains a pyridoxal phosphate activated enzyme, free of iron, copper, magnesium and calcium. This enzyme activates the β-carbon atom of cysteine. Its reactivity is demonstrated by the ease with which this β-carbon fixes various sulfur containing substances in which the sulfur has reducing properties: inorganic sulfide, sulfide or cysteine itself. In the absence of substances able to react with the β-carbon atom, the active complex, consisting of the enzyme and the aminated tri-carbon chain, is hydrolysed to pyruvic acid and ammonia. The liberation of hydrogen sulfide thus appears to be the consequence either of the substitution of the β-carbon atom of cysteine or of the decomposition of the complex which this aminoacid forms with the enzyme studied. The latter seems therefore to possess an activity which differs from the activity of the desulfhydrases as yet known. We suggest to call this enzyme cystein-lyase. (authors) [fr

  4. Effects of rice bran on performance, egg quality, oxidative status, yolk fatty acid composition, and fatty acid metabolism-related gene expression in laying ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, D; Lin, Y C; Chen, W; Wang, S; Xia, W G; Fouad, A M; Zheng, C T

    2015-12-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effects of different dietary levels of rice bran (RB) in laying duck diets on performance, egg quality, oxidation status, egg yolk fatty acid composition, and hepatic expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes. Longyan females (1080) with similar BW at 19 wk of age were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments, each consisting of 6 replicates of 30 birds. The basal diet (I) was a typical corn-soybean ration while the experimental diets (II to VI) substituted RB for corn and wheat bran and a small reduction of soybean meal. The level of substitution in diets (II to VI) was 6%, 12%, 18%, 24%, and 30%, respectively. The experiment lasted for 12 wks. Average egg weight and daily egg mass decreased linearly as the level of RB inclusion increased (Pegg yolk linearly decreased with increasing RB, and many of the key polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), like C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3, linearly increased (Pegg yolk cholesterol or triglyceride content (P>0.05). In conclusion, the current study suggests that ducks from 19 to 31 wk could be fed diets with up to about 18% RB without effect on the number of eggs produced, egg quality, and oxidative status. Increasing amounts of RB linearly increased egg yolk concentrations of key fatty acids like C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 and decreased the hepatic abundance of FAS and SREBP-1 transcripts. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Modelling with response surface methodology of the effects of egg yolk, egg white and sodium carbonate on some textural properties of beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, Ozgür; Zorba, Omer; Kurt, Sükrü

    2014-04-01

    This study was accomplished to determine the effects of egg yolk, egg white and sodium carbonate on textural properties of beef patties by using Central Composite Design of Response Surface Methodology. Meat patties were prepared using beef, lamb tail fat and spices. Effects of addition of egg yolk powder (0-1%), egg white powder (0-1%) and sodium carbonate (0-1%) on textural properties were studied by using a texture analyzer. The TPA and cutting force tests were measured in the samples. Effects of sodium carbonate were found to be significant (P  0.05). The levels of sodium carbonate up to 0.72% improved the textural properties of beef patties.

  6. The impact of model peptides on structural and dynamic properties of egg yolk lecithin liposomes - experimental and DFT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wałęsa, Roksana; Man, Dariusz; Engel, Grzegorz; Siodłak, Dawid; Kupka, Teobald; Ptak, Tomasz; Broda, Małgorzata A

    2015-07-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR), (1) H-NMR, voltage and resistance experiments were performed to explore structural and dynamic changes of Egg Yolk Lecithin (EYL) bilayer upon addition of model peptides. Two of them are phenylalanine (Phe) derivatives, Ac-Phe-NHMe (1) and Ac-Phe-NMe2 (2), and the third one, Ac-(Z)-ΔPhe-NMe2 (3), is a derivative of (Z)-α,β-dehydrophenylalanine. The ESR results revealed that all compounds reduced the fluidity of liposome's membrane, and the highest activity was observed for compound 2 with N-methylated C-terminal amide bond (Ac-Phe-NMe2 ). This compound, being the most hydrophobic, penetrates easily through biological membranes. This was also observed in voltage and resistance studies. (1) H-NMR studies provided a sound evidence on H-bond interactions between the studied diamides and lecithin polar head. The most significant changes in H-atom chemical shifts and spin-lattice relaxation times T1 were observed for compound 1. Our experimental studies were supported by theoretical calculations. Complexes EYLAc-Phe-NMe2 and EYLAc-(Z)-ΔPhe-NMe2 , stabilized by NH⋅⋅⋅O or/and CH⋅⋅⋅O H-bonds were created and optimized at M06-2X/6-31G(d) level of theory in vacuo and in H2 O environment. According to our molecular-modeling studies, the most probable lecithin site of H-bond interaction with studied diamides is the negatively charged O-atom in phosphate group which acts as H-atom acceptor. Moreover, the highest binding energy to hydrocarbon chains were observed in the case of Ac-Phe-NMe2 (2). Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  7. Synthesis of double-shelled sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe3O4/TiO2/Au microspheres and their catalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jie; Tan, Li; Wang, Ge; Yang, Mu

    2015-01-01

    Double-shelled sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 /Au microspheres were successfully synthesized through loading Au nanoparticles on the Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 support by a in situ reduction of HAuCl 4 with NaBH 4 aqueous solution. These microspheres possess tunable cavity size, adjustable shell layers, high structural stability and large specific surface area. The Au nanoparticles of approximately 5 nm in diameter were loaded both on the TiO 2 nanofibers and inside the cavities of sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 microspheres. The sea urchin-like structure composed of TiO 2 nanofibers ensure the good distribution of the Au nanoparticles, while the novel double-shelled yolk-shell structure guarantees the high stability of the Au nanoparticles. Furthermore, the Fe 3 O 4 magnetic core facilitates the convenient recovery of the catalyst by applying an external magnetic field. The Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 /Au microspheres display excellent activities and recycling properties in the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP): the rate constant is 1.84 min −1 and turnover frequency is 5457 h −1 . (paper)

  8. The Ability of Immunoglobulin Yolk Recognized the Antigen in the Tissue of Ascaridia galli

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    Darmawi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antigen-antibody reaction is an important tool for the analysis of localization of target molecules, including antigenic protein within worm tissues. The purpose of the present research was to demonstrate the ability of immunoglobulin yolk (IgY anti-excretory/secretory recognized the antigen in the tissue of Ascaridia galli by mean of immunohistochemistry method. The excretory/secretory protein was procured from A. galli and concentrated by mean of vivaspin 30,000 MWCO. IgY was produced by egg yolks of immunized chickens with excretory/secretory, and purified using fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC method. A. galli adult worms were cut in transversal and longitudinal section of the center and anterior region. Slides were incubated with both primary IgY for overnight at 4 oC and secondary antibody rabbit anti-chicken IgY HRP-conjugate for one hour at room temperature. The slides were stained with 3-amino, 9-ethylcarbazole (AEC chromogen, counterstained with Lillie Mayer Haematoxylin, and mounted in glyserin aqueous mount. Antigen-antibody reaction was investigated under a microscope. The result showed that antigen was appeared in the tissues such as cuticle, epicuticle, buccal cavity, and eggs inside the uterine of A. galli. This research concluded that IgY stimulated by the excretory/secretory was able to recognized the antigen scattered in the tissues of A. galli so the IgY could be applied for immunodiagnostic.

  9. Social environment during egg laying: Changes in plasma hormones with no consequences for yolk hormones or fecundity in female Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

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    Esther M A Langen

    Full Text Available The social environment can have profound effects on an individual's physiology and behaviour and on the transfer of resources to the next generation, with potential consequences for fecundity and reproduction. However, few studies investigate all of these aspects at once. The present study housed female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica in pairs or groups to examine the effects on hormone concentrations in plasma and yolk and on reproductive performance. Circulating levels of androgens (testosterone and 5-α-dihydrotestosterone and corticosterone were measured in baseline samples and after standardised challenges to assess the responsiveness of the females' endocrine axes. Effects of the social environment on female fecundity were analysed by measuring egg production, egg mass, fertilization rates, and number of hatched offspring. Counter to expectation, females housed in pairs had higher plasma androgen concentrations and slightly higher corticosterone concentrations than females housed in groups, although the latter was not statistically significant. Pair vs. group housing did not affect the females' hormonal response to standardised challenges or yolk testosterone levels. In contrast to previous studies, the females' androgen response to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge was not related to yolk testosterone levels. Non-significant trends emerged for pair-housed females to have higher egg-laying rates and higher fertility, but no differences arose in egg weight or in the number, weight or size of hatchlings. We propose that our unexpected findings are due to differences in the adult sex ratio in our social treatments. In pairs, the male may stimulate female circulating hormone levels more strongly than in groups where effects are diluted due to the presence of several females. Future studies should vary both group size and sex composition to disentangle the significance of sexual, competitive and affiliative social interactions for

  10. Effect of Dietary Marine Microalgae ( Powder on Egg Production, Blood Lipid Profiles, Egg Quality, and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk in Layers

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    J. H. Park

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and sixteen Institut de Sélection Animale (ISA brown layers (40 wks of age were studied for 6 wks to examine the effect of microalgae powder (MAP on egg production, egg quality, blood lipid profile, and fatty acid concentration of egg yolk. Dietary treatments were as follows: i CON (basal diet, ii 0.5% MAP (CON+0.5% Schizochytrium powder, and iii 1.0% MAP (CON+1.0% Schizochytrium powder. From 44 to 46 wks, egg production was higher in 1.0% MAP treatment than in control treatment (linear, p = 0.034; however, there was no difference on the egg production from 40 to 43 wks (p>0.05. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly reduced in the groups fed with MAP, compared to those in groups fed with control diets (Quadratic, p = 0.034 and p = 0.039, respectively. Inclusion of 0.5% MAP in the diet of layers improved egg yolk color, compared with hens fed with basal diet at 46 wks (quadratic, p = 0.044. Eggshell thickness was linearly increased in MAP-fed treatments at 46th wk (p<0.05. Concentration of yolk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3 was increased in treatment groups fed with MAP (linear, p<0.05. The n-6 fatty acids, n-6/n-3 fatty acid, and unsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid were decreased in treatment groups fed with MAP (linear, p<0.05. These results suggest that MAP improved the egg production and egg quality, and may affect serum lipid metabolites in the layers. In addition, MAP increases yolk DHA levels, and deceases n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio.

  11. Utilization Efficiency of Yolk Egg on Maanvis (Pterophyllum scalare Embryos and Larvae in Different Incubation Temperatures

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    T. Budiardi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the efficiency of yolk egg utilization in embryos and larvae, hatching rate, incubation time to hatch, and growth rate of maanvis (Pterophyllum scalare larvae incubated at room remperature, 27oC, and 30oC.  Results of study showed that yolk egg utilization efficiency of embryos and larvae incubated at 30oC was 73.70% and 0,18%, respectively, and no different with that of room and 27oC incubation temperatures.  Hatching rate of eggs incubated at 30oC (84.75% was also same with that of other treatments.  However, incubation time to hatch (27.41 hours was shorter than that of other treatments.  The growth rate by length of larvae (2.16% and survival rate (75.28% incubated at 30oC was also higher compared with that of other treatments.  Thus, in general, optimum temperature for egg hatching and larval rearing of maanvis was 30oC. Keywords: maanvis, Pterophyllum scalare, egg yolk, larvae, embryo, temperature   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui efisiensi pemanfaatan kuning telur pada embrio dan larva, derajat penetasan, lama inkubasi telur hingga menetas, dan laju pertumbuhan serta kelangsungan hidup larva ikan maanvis (Pterophyllum scalare yang diinkubasi pada suhu ruang, 27oC dan 30oC.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai efisiensi pemanfaatan kuning telur bila diinkubasi pada suhu 30oCsebesar 73,70% pada fase embrio dan 0,18% pada fase larva, dan tidak berbeda dengan suhu ruang dan 27oC.  Demikian juga dengan derajat penetasan telur  (84,75% tidak berbeda dengan perlakuan lainnya.  Sementara itu, lama inkubasi telur hingga menetas (27,41 jam lebih cepat dibandingkan dengan suhu inkubasi perlakuan lainnya. Demikian juga dengan laju pertumbuhan panjang (2,16% dan kelangsungan hidup larva (75,28% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan lainnya. Dengan demikian, secara umum suhu optimal untuk penetasan dan pemeliharaan larva ikan maanvis adalah 30°C. Kata kunci: ikan maanvis

  12. Cryopreservation of canine sperm using egg yolk and soy bean based extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Calabuig, María Jesús; Maillo, Verónica; Beltrán-Breña, Paula; de la Fuente Martínez, Julio; Galera-Carrillo, Silvestre; Pérez-Gutiérrez, José Félix; Pérez-Cerezales, Serafín

    2017-09-01

    Animal protein-based extenders are widely used despite being a potential source of bacterial or mycoplasma contamination. Its replacement with vegetal protein-based extenders could represent an interesting alternative for dog sperm cryopreservation. This technique could be further improved by the addition of Tris-Glucose-Citric acid (TGC) that could physically protect the spermatozoa and improve its homeostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate a cryopreservation protocol for dog spermatozoa using a soybean-based extender (LP1 ℗ ) as well as the effects of the addition of (TGC) immediately after the semen collection. Eleven ejaculates from purebred adult dogs were collected, centrifuged in the absence or presence of TGC and processed as fresh or cryopreserved spermatozoa with: egg yolk-based extender (CaniPRO) or LP1 ℗ . Freezing the spermatozoa in LP1 ℗ reduced the amplitude of the lateral head displacement, the percentage of spermatozoa that showed the intact acrosome and the mitochondrial function (P<0.05). These samples also showed a trend towards increased percentage of apoptotic spermatozoa (P<0.05). The addition of TGC before centrifugation did not improve the seminal parameters and adversely affected motility (P<0.05) in the spermatozoa cryopreserved in CaniPRO. However, TGC did not affect motility and increased (P<0.05) the percentage of intact acrosomes in the spermatozoa cryopreserved in LP1 ℗ , reaching similar values than those cryopreserved in CaniPRO. In conclusion, LP1 ® plus TGC provide the same level of protection to dog spermatozoa cryopreservation than the egg yolk based extender CaniPRO when comparing standard post-thaw sperm quality parameters. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  13. Soya-lecithin in extender improves the freezability and fertility of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Andrabi, S M H; Rakha, B A; Ullah, N; Khalid, M

    2012-10-01

    Egg yolk is routinely used as a cryoprotectant in semen extenders. However, it may contain cryoprotective antagonists, and there are hygienic risks associated with its use. Proteins of plant origin, like soya-lecithin, lack these hazards. The aim of this study was to use soya-lecithin as a cryoprotectant in extender and to investigate its effects on in vitro quality and in vivo fertility of buffalo semen. Semen from three buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing 5.0%, 10% or 15% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were assessed post-dilution, pre-freezing and post-thaw. In Post-dilution and pre-freezing, the values for motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability remained higher (p ≤ 0.05) in extenders containing 10% soya-lecithin and control compared with extender containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. However, motility, plasma membrane integrity and viability were higher (p lecithin compared with control and extenders containing 5% and 15% soya-lecithin. Semen from two buffalo bulls was frozen in tris-citric extender containing either 10% soya-lecithin or 20% egg yolk. Higher (p lecithin (56%) compared with 20% egg yolk (41.5%). The results suggest that 10% soya-lecithin in extender improves the freezability and fertility of buffalo bull spermatozoa and can be used as an alternate to egg yolk in cryopreservation of buffalo semen. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Synthesis of NiO-TiO2 hybrids/mSiO2 yolk-shell architectures embedded with ultrasmall gold nanoparticles for enhanced reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yiwei; Zhou, Yuming; Zhao, Shuo; Zhang, Chao; Huang, Mengqiu; Gao, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Novel NiO-TiO2 hybrids/mSiO2 yolk-shell architectures loaded with ultrasmall Au nanoparticles (STNVS-Au) were developed via the rational synthetic strategy. The hierarchical yolk-shell nanostructures (STNVS) with high surface areas were constructed by a facile "bottom-up" assembly process using SiO2 materials and polymer resins as cores/shells and sacrificial templates, accompanied by a simple hydrothermal incorporation of NiO into uniform amorphous TiO2 layers that were converted to NiO-anatase TiO2 p-n heterojunction hybrids. Then, numerous sub-3 nm Au nanoparticles were post encapsulated within STNVS nanostructures through the low-temperature hydrogen reduction based on the unique deposition-precipitation method with Au(en)2Cl3 compounds as gold precursors. The NiO-TiO2 hybrids alloying with Au nanoparticles were effectively protected and entrapped within STNVS architectures, and interacted with outer mSiO2-Au shells, which comprised the powerful STNVS-Au yolk-shell nanoreactors and produced stronger configural synergies in enhancing the heterogeneous catalysis. Into catalyzing the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, the STNVS-Au was shown with outstanding activity and reusability, and its pristine morphology was well retained during the recycling process.

  15. Effect of different concentration of fish oil in skim milk-egg yolk extenders on post- thawed semen qualities of Kalang swamp buffalo bull

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    Abdul Malik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of fish oil at different concentrations on post-thawed semen of Kalang swamp buffalo. Methods: A total of 4 Kalang swamp buffalo bulls with 3-5 years of age and weighed about 340-360 kg were slected. Semen was regularly collected from these buffalo bulls once a week by an artificial vagina. Fish oil was supplementary at the dosages of 0 mg (control, 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, and 200 mg to the extender (skim milk-egg yolk. Fresh, pre-freezing and frozen semen were thawed at 37 °C and evaluated for motility, viability, morphology, and plasma integrity of membrane. Results: The study results indicated that before freezing, supplementation of fish oil at the dose of 150 mg in the extender had significantly motility. And a significant (P<0.05 increase was observed in viability and motility of post-thawed semen at the dose of 150 mg fish oil, which was in difference with other treatment groups. Conclusions: Addition of 150 mg fish oil in the extender could be positive for the enhancement of the quality of post-thawed semen of Kalang swamp buffaloes.

  16. Precocious puberty secondary to a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with an ovarian yolk sac tumor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metwalley Kotb

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ovarian tumors are the least common cause of sexual precocity in girls. Mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumors associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary are rare neoplasms, of which only a small number of well-documented cases have been described so far. Here, we report precocious puberty in a four-year-old Egyptian girl caused by a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary. Case presentation A four-year-old Egyptian girl was referred to our pediatric endocrinology unit for evaluation of bilateral breast budding, pubic hair and vaginal bleeding. On examination, we found that her breast enlargement and pubic hair were compatible with Tanner III. A thorough workup revealed a large mass in her right ovary. Magnetic resonance imaging ofher brain showed that her pituitary gland was normal. A hormonal assay revealed high levels of estradiol, 280 to 375pmol/L; progesterone, 5.3 nmol/L; testosterone 38.9 pg/mL; and androstenedione, 4.1 ng/mL. Her basal and stimulated levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were low. Tumor markers levels were high, with a total inhibin of 1,069U/L and an alpha-fetoprotein of 987 μg/L. Her chromosomes were normal (46XX. Our patient underwent an explorative laparotomy and a solid tumor localized to her right ovary was identified. A right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and the histopathological diagnosis was a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumorwith a yolk sac tumor of the ovary. Postoperatively, she was started on treatment with chemotherapy. Our patient is doing well without evidence of tumor recurrence or metastasis during eight months of postoperative follow-up. Conclusion Although a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary is a rare occurrence, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis for a prepubescent girl with an abdominal mass and precocious puberty.

  17. Soft template strategy to synthesize iron oxide-titania yolk-shell nanoparticles as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joohyun; Um, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Jihoon; Yu, Seung-Ho; Sung, Yung-Eun; Lee, Jin-Kyu

    2015-05-18

    Yolk-shell-structured nanoparticles with iron oxide core, void, and a titania shell configuration are prepared by a simple soft template method and used as the anode material for lithium ion batteries. The iron oxide-titania yolk-shell nanoparticles (IO@void@TNPs) exhibit a higher and more stable capacity than simply mixed nanoparticles of iron oxide and hollow titania because of the unique structure obtained by the perfect separation between iron oxide nanoparticles, in combination with the adequate internal void space provided by stable titania shells. Moreover, the structural effect of IO@void@TNPs clearly demonstrates that the capacity retention value after 50 cycles is approximately 4 times that for IONPs under harsh operating conditions, that is, when the temperature is increased to 80 °C. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Age validation and growth of yolked larvae of Patagonotothen tessellata (Richardson, 1845 (Pisces: Nototheniidae from the rocky littoral of the Beagle Channel, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Alfredo Rae

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth estimation of Patagonotothen tessellata larvae over the endogenous period was estimated by examining their otolith microstructure and the associated increment deposition rate. Analyzed specimens were incubated from egg-masses collected in Lapataia Bay, Beagle Channel, Argentina. Validation was performed by monitoring reared larvae of known ages. Actual age and increment count were regressed suggesting a daily deposition of one ring in the otolith, which began at hatching time and continued until larvae reached sixteen days old (time of massive mortality. Mean lengths at each age were estimated using Richards´ growth function; their constant (m attained a value close to zero indicating that the data fitted to the von Bertalanffy model. Absolute growth rate was 0.55 mm*d-1of total length at hatching, dropped near zero on the fifth day after hatching and afterwards, there was no growth. Yolk absorption rate (expressed as a ratio between minor axis/major axis of the vitelline-sac showed a similar variation as that observed in absolute growth rate during the endogenous period. The total yolk absorption took five days in the unfed larvae group and seven days in the fed larvae group. The rapid absorption of the yolk and the observed growth pattern suggest that Patagonotothen tessellata larvae have a short endogenous period, reaching the state of first food uptake five days after hatching.

  19. Egg yolk antibodies for detection and neutralization of Clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, D L; Yang, M; Gonzalez, J; Larson, A E; Tepp, W H; Johnson, E A; Cook, M E

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this research project was to determine the usefulness of an egg antibody platform for producing materials for the detection and neutralization of botulinum type A neurotoxin. Yield estimates for detection and neutralizing antibodies produced using methods described were calculated. Antibody specific to botulinum toxoid A (aToxoid) and toxin A (aBoNT/A) was produced by immunizing hens with botulinum toxoid A (toxoid) followed by increasing amounts of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) in Freund incomplete adjuvant. Egg yolks were extracted with polyethylene glycol (PEG) for antibody detection and neutralization experiments. A model aToxoid/toxoid immunoassay using only egg yolk antibody was developed and had a detection limit of 1 pg/ml of toxoid. In an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of BoNT/A-specific antibody, the aBoNT/A contained more BoNT/A-specific antibody than did the aToxoid, and aBoNT/A was as effective as commercial rabbit antibody. The aToxoid provided no protection against BoNT/A in a standard mouse neutralization assay; however, 1 mg of PEG-extracted aBoNT/A neutralized 4,000 lethal doses of BoNT/A injected intraperitoneally. Based on these results, we calculated that in 1 month one hen could produce more than 100 liters of antibody detection reagents or enough antibody to neutralize approximately 11.6 million mouse lethal doses of botulinum toxin. Utilization of an egg antibody platform is potentially rapid (28 to 70 days) and scalable to kilogram quantities using current egg production facilities with as few as 1,000 hens.

  20. Ground annatto seeds (Bixa orellana L. in sorghum-based commercial layer diets and their effects on performance, egg quality, and yolk pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EA Garcia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumer demands for healthy foods have stimulated the research on the use of natural products in animal nutrition. Annatto can be used a pigmentation source to improve yolk color of commercial eggs. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of the inclusion of ground annatto seeds on the performance and egg quality of layers fed sorghum-based diets. A total of 336 40-w-old hens were distributed according to randomized blocks into seven treatments with six replicates of eight birds each. The following treatments were applied: T1- egg production feed based on corn and soybean meal; T2- egg production feed based on sorghum and soybean meal; T3, T4, T5, T6, and T7- egg production feed based on sorghum supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5% ground annatto seeds, respectively. As to performance parameters, only egg production was influenced, with hens fed the corn-based diet producing more eggs than those fed the sorghum-based diet with inclusion of 1.5 and 2.5% de annatto. The only egg quality parameter affected by treatments was the color of yolk, which pigmentation increased with increasing levels of ground annatto seeds. It is concluded that ground annatto seeds can be supplemented in sorghum-based production feeds for layers, and that the inclusion level of 0.89% is sufficient to promote the same yolk pigmentation as that obtained with corn-based diets.

  1. Mechanisms of Egg Yolk Formation and Implications on Early Life History of White Perch (Morone americana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Schilling

    Full Text Available The three white perch (Morone americana vitellogenins (VtgAa, VtgAb, VtgC were quantified accurately and precisely in the liver, plasma, and ovary during pre-, early-, mid-, and post-vitellogenic oocyte growth using protein cleavage-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (PC-IDMS. Western blotting generally mirrored the PC-IDMS results. By PC-IDMS, VtgC was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic ovary tissues and VtgAb was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic liver tissues however, neither protein was detected by western blotting in these respective tissues at this time point. Immunohistochemistry indicated that VtgC was present within pre-vitellogenic oocytes and localized to lipid droplets within vitellogenic oocytes. Affinity purification coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using highly purified VtgC as a bait protein revealed a single specific interacting protein (Y-box binding protein 2a-like [Ybx2a-like] that eluted with suramin buffer and confirmed that VtgC does not bind the ovary vitellogenin receptors (LR8 and Lrp13. Western blotting for LR8 and Lrp13 showed that both receptors were expressed during vitellogenesis with LR8 and Lrp13 expression highest in early- and mid-vitellogenesis, respectively. The VtgAa within the ovary peaked during post-vitellogenesis, while VtgAb peaked during early-vitellogenesis in both white perch and the closely related striped bass (M. saxatilis. The VtgC was steadily accumulated by oocytes beginning during pre-vitellogenesis and continued until post-vitellogenesis and its composition varies widely between striped bass and white perch. In striped bass, the VtgC accounted for 26% of the vitellogenin-derived egg yolk, however in the white perch it comprised only 4%. Striped bass larvae have an extended developmental window and these larvae have yolk stores that may enable them to survive in the absence of food for twice as long as white perch after hatch. Thus, the VtgC may play an integral role in providing nutrients to

  2. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane proteins in dividing eggs of the loach (Misgurnus fossilis): Regional differences and changes during the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhkova, V P; Budayova, M; Kvasnicka, P; Cigankova, N; Chorvat, D

    1994-12-01

    Regional differences in lateral diffusion rates of fluorescence-labeled proteins have been studied in the plasma membrane of dividing eggs of the loach (Misgurnus fossilis) by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Apparent animal-vegetal differences in fluorescence intensity, lateral diffusion coefficients, and fractions of mobile proteins have been found, with all these quantities being higher in the animal pole region than in the yolk region. Cyclic changes in protein diffusion coefficients and mobile fractions during the first few cell cycles have also been recorded. Soon after the end of a cleavage, the diffusion coefficient reaches its minimal value and increases rapidly before the next cleavage.

  3. IgY Technology: Extraction of Chicken Antibodies from Egg Yolk by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    Pauly, Diana; Chacana, Pablo A.; Calzado, Esteban G.; Brembs, Bj?rn; Schade, R?diger

    2011-01-01

    Hens can be immunized by means of i.m. vaccination (Musculus pectoralis, left and right, injection volume 0.5-1.0 ml) or by means of Gene-Gun plasmid-immunization. Dependent on the immunogenicity of the antigen, high antibody-titres (up to 1:100,000 - 1:1,000,000) can be achieved after only one or 3 - 4 boost immunizations. Normally, a hen lays eggs continuously for about 72 weeks, thereafter the laying capacity decreases. This protocol describes the extraction of total IgY from egg yolk b...

  4. Effects of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Ding

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the effect of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens. A total of 960 Lohmann laying hens aged 53 weeks were enrolled, under 4 different treatment diets supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg essential oils (Enviva EO, Dupont Nutrition Biosciences ApS, Denmark, respectively. Each treatment was replicated 8 times with 30 birds each. Birds were fed dietary treatment diets for 12 weeks (54 to 65 weeks. For data recording and analysis, a 12-week period was divided into 3 periods of 4 weeks' duration each: period 1 (54 to 57 weeks, period 2 (58 to 61 weeks, and period 3 (62 to 65 weeks. For the diet supplemented with Enviva EO, hen-day egg production and the feed conversion ratio (FCR were significantly improved (P < 0.05 at weeks 58 to 61, and the eggshell thickness was significantly increased (P < 0.05 at week 65. However, egg production, egg weight, feed intake, FCR and other egg quality parameters (albumen height, Haugh unit, egg yolk color and eggshell strength were not affected by the dietary treatment. In addition, compared with the control diet, protein digestibility in the 100 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment group was significantly increased (P < 0.05, and fat digestibility in the 100 and 150 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment groups was significantly decreased (P < 0.05, but Enviva EO had no effect on energy apparent digestibility. Saturated fatty acid (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA gradually decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA increased with Enviva EO supplementation, but the difference was not significant. The data suggested that the supplementation of essential oils (Enviva EO in laying hen diet did not show a significant positive effect on performance and yolk fatty acid composition but it tended to increase eggshell thickness and protein digestibility, especially at the dose of 50 mg/kg.

  5. Cor, betacaroteno e colesterol em gema de ovos obtidos de poedeiras que receberam diferentes dietas Color, beta-caroten and cholesterol in yolks of eggs by different diets of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marino e Biscaro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O ovo é um alimento considerado nutricionalmente completo, e contém quantidade significativa de nutrientes. Para os consumidores, a qualidade deste alimento está relacionada com o prazo de validade do produto e com as características sensoriais, como cor da gema e da casca. Poucos estudos foram efetuados no Brasil sobre a utilização de agentes pigmentantes e seus efeitos sobre a coloração das gemas e proporção e qualidade química dos componentes do ovo. Com base nisso, objetivou-se com este trabalho relacionar diferentes dietas com cor, quantidade de betacaroteno e teor colesterol das gemas dos ovos. Foram coletados ovos de poedeiras que receberam 4 diferentes tipos de ração. A cor foi medida em colorímetro Minolta, o beta-caroteno separado em coluna e medido em espectrofotômetro e o colesterol extraído com clorofórmio e quantificado por método colorimétrico. Os resultados mostraram que não há relação entre a cor e aumento do teor de betacaroteno das gemas dos ovos, mas a alimentação alterou a cor da gema. O teor de colesterol foi diferente (pEgg is a nutritional complete food, and content significant quantity of nutrients. For the consumers, the food quality is related with validity date of product and with sensorial characteristics, like yolk color and hull. Few studies were done in Brazil about utilization of colorfull agents and theirs effects in yolk color and chemical quality of egg compounds. The objective of this research was related different feeds with the color, beta-carotene and cholesterol amount of egg yolk. Eggs were caught of laying hens that received 4 feed types. The color measure was done by Minolta colorimeter, beta-carotene separated by column and spectrophotometer and cholesterol separated with chloroform and measured by colorimetric method. The results showed that there is not a relation between the color an increase of beta-carotene amount in the yolks, but feed altered the yolk color. Cholesterol

  6. Location and activity of ubiquinone 10 and ubiquinone analogues in model and biological membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornell, B.A.; Keniry, M.A.; Post, A.; Roberston, R.N.; Weir, L.E.; Westerman, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Deuteriated analogues of ubiquinone 10 (Q 10 ) have been dispersed with plasma membranes of Escherichia coli and with the inner membranes of beetroot mitochondria. Orientational order at various deuteriated sites was measured by solid-state deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance ( 2 H NMR). Similar measurements were made, using the compounds dispersed in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and egg yolk lecithin and dispersions prepared from the lipid extracts of beetroot mitochondria. In all cases only a single unresolved 2 H NMR spectrum (typically 1000-Hz full width at half-height) was observed at concentrations down to 0.02 mol % Q 10 per membrane lipid. This result shows that most Q 10 is in a mobile environment which is physically separate from the orientational constraints of the bilayer lipid chains. In contrast, a short-chain analog of Q 10 , in which the 10 isoprene groups have been replaced by a perdeuteriated tridecyl chain, showed 2 H NMR spectra with quadrupolar splittings typical of an ordered lipid that is intercalated into the bilayer. The NADH oxidase activity and O 2 uptake in Escherichia coli and in mitochondria were independent of which analog was incorporated into the membrane. Thus, despite the major difference in their physical association with membranes, or their lipid extracts, the electron transport function of the long- and short-chain ubiquinones is similar, suggesting that the bulk of the long-chain ubiquinone does not have a direct function in electron transporting activity. The physiologically active Q 10 may only be a small fraction of the total ubiquinone, a fraction that is below the level of detection of the present NMR equipment. However, our results do not support any model of Q 10 electron transport action that includes intercalation of the long isoprenoid chain in lipid

  7. Fe3O4@polyaniline yolk-shell micro/nanospheres as bifunctional materials for lithium storage and electromagnetic wave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Minwei; Zhao, Jianming; Huang, Guoyong; Sun, Hongyu

    2018-01-01

    Unique Fe3O4/polyaniline (PANI) composite with yolk-shell micro/nanostructure (FPys) has been successfully synthesized by a facile silica-assisted in-situ polymerization and subsequent etching strategy. The structural and compositional studies of the FPys composites are performed by employing X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The yolk-shell morphology of the products is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. When evaluated as anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared FPys electrodes deliver superior capacity, better cycling stability and rate capability than those of bare Fe3O4 micro/nanospheres and Fe3O4/PANI core-shell (FPcs) electrodes. Moreover, FPys also exhibits excellent electromagnetic wave absorption performance when comparing to the synthesized Fe3O4-based electromagnetic wave absorbers, in which strong reflection loss and extensive response bandwidth can be achieved simultaneously. The excellent bifunctional properties of FPys material are associated with the specially designed hierarchical micro/nanostructures. The current strategy that application directed structural design can be applied to the synthesis of other multifunctional materials.

  8. IFPA Senior Award Lecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fetal membrane development varies greatly across mammals with significant implications for models of human placentation. METHOD: Therefore the major patterns of fetal membrane development are reviewed with special focus on functions of the inverted yolk sac in murine rodents. FINDINGS...

  9. Protective effect of an egg yolk-derived immunoglobulin (IgY) against Prevotella intermedia-mediated gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Y-Y; Zhen, Y-H; Wang, D; Zhu, J; Sun, D-X; Liu, X-T; Wang, H-X; Liu, Y; Long, Y-Y; Shu, X-H

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effects of an egg yolk-derived immunoglobulin (IgY) specific to Prevotella intermedia in vitro and in vivo. An IgY specific to P. intermedia was produced by immunizing hens with formaldehyde-inactivated P. intermedia and showed high titres when subjected to an ELISA. The obtained IgY inhibited the growth of P. intermedia in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations from 1 to 20 mg ml(-1) in Center for Disease Control and Prevention liquid medium. Forty rats were challenged with P. intermedia on gingivae and then randomly divided into four groups, which were syringed respectively with phosphate-buffered saline, 1 mg ml(-1) of tinidazole, 20 mg ml(-1) of nonspecific IgY and 20 mg ml(-1) of the IgY specific to P. intermedia at a dosage of 300 μl per day. Gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), counts of white blood cell (WBC) and histopathological slide of the gums were measured after treatment for 15 days. The gingivitis rats treated with the IgY specific to P. intermedia showed significantly decreased GI, PI, BOP and WBC (P intermedia-mediated gingivitis. A new immunoglobulin specific to P. intermedia was developed from egg yolk. This specific IgY can dose-dependently inhibit the growth of P. intermedia and protect rats from gingivitis induced by P. intermedia. The new IgY has potential for the treatment of P. intermedia-mediated gingivitis. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Fertility results using bovine semen cryopreserved with extenders based on egg yolk and soy bean extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wagtendonk-de Leeuw, A M; Haring, R M; Kaal-Lansbergen, L M; den Daas, J H

    2000-07-01

    Semen extenders containing components such as egg yolk and skim milk are difficult to standardize and they introduce the risk of microbial contamination. A well-defined extender not originating from animal tissues would present a valuable contribution to the AI industry. We evaluated the fertility of bovine semen cryopreserved with 3 different extenders: 1) TRIS-Standard, prepared at 2 local AI laboratories, containing 20% (v/v) pasteurized egg yolk, 2) TRIS-Concentrate, prepared by adding 20% (v/v) pasteurized egg yolk and 1:5 (v/v) nonpyrogenic water, and 3) Biociphos Plus, a soybean extract containing extender, prepared by adding 1:5 nonpyrogenic water. Ejaculates of 4 Holstein bulls were split into 3 aliquots and cryopreserved with the 3 extenders. Prior to this study, the semen dose-response curve for each of the 4 bulls was developed in a field trial by freezing the semen and randomly distributing the straws throughout the Netherlands for insemination. Optimal semen doses were thus established to detect the effect of extenders on fertility, evaluated by 56-day non-return rate (NR56), and by the estimated conception rate and the calving rate, given a conception. We used the multiphasic model developed by Grossman et al. (7). A total of 22,246 first and second inseminations were recorded. The NR56 ranged among bulls from 67.0 to 70.1% for Tris-Standard, from 67.5 to 69.9% for Tris-Concentrate and from 60.2 to 66.7% for Biociphos Plus. No significant differences in NR56 were detected between Tris-Standard and Tris-Concentrate (P=0.54), whereas Biociphos Plus resulted in a significantly lower NR56 than Tris-Standard and Tris-Concentrate (P<0.05). Estimated conception rate was 72.1, 73.6 and 69.6% and estimated calving rate, given a conception was 80.6, 78.3 and 77.1 for Tris-Standard, Tris-Concentrate and Biociphos Plus, respectively. These results indicate that 1) semen extended with a custom made TRIS-Concentrate can be succesfully used in the field resulting

  11. The influence of different salinity conditions on egg buoyancy and development and yolk sac larval survival and morphometric traits of Baltic Sea sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus Schneider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Petereit

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The small pelagic sprat (Sprattus sprattus is a key ecologic player in the Baltic Sea. However, there is long-term variability in recruitment which is thought to be influenced by fluctuations in abiotic and biotic conditions experienced during the early life stages. This study concentrates on the influence of different ambient salinities on sprat egg development, egg buoyancy and survival as well as early yolk sac larval morphometric traits. Egg buoyancy significantly decreased with increasing salinity experienced during fertilization and/or incubation experiments. Field egg buoyancy measurements in 2007 and 2008 exhibited annual and seasonal differences in specific gravity, potentially associated with changes in adult sprat vertical distribution. Neither egg development time nor the duration of the yolk sac phase differed among salinity treatments. At eye pigmentation, larval standard length exhibited high variance among individuals but did not differ among treatments. The largest ecological impact of salinity experienced during spawning was the modification the buoyancy of eggs and yolk sac larvae, which determines their vertical habitat in the Baltic Sea. There are strong thermo- and oxyclines in the Baltic Sea, and thus salinity can indirectly impact the survival of these early life stages by modifying the ambient temperatures and oxygen conditions experienced.

  12. Differentiation of ruminal bacterial species by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using egg yolk antibodies from immunized chicken hens.

    OpenAIRE

    Ricke, S C; Schaefer, D M; Cook, M E; Kang, K H

    1988-01-01

    Cross-reactivity among four species of ruminal bacteria was examined by using egg yolk antibodies from immunized Leghorn laying hens and an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay. The effects of the four species on the hens were compared on various days postimmunization. Hens injected with the same bacterial species had similar apparent antibody levels over the entire postimmunization period, but only Bacteroides ruminicola B1(4) and Selenomonas ruminantium D antigens elicited early increases in a...

  13. Environmental calcium and variation in yolk sac size influence swimming performance in larval lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deslauriers, David; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Genz, Janet

    2018-01-01

    , because the yolk sac is likely to affect drag forces during swimming. Testing swimming performance of larval A. fulvescens reared in four different calcium treatments spanning the range of 4-132 mg l-1 [Ca2+], this study found no treatment effects on the sprint swimming speed. A novel test of volitional...... reduced swimming performance and could be more susceptible to predation or premature downstream drift. Our study reveals how environmental factors and phenotypic variation influence locomotor performance in a larval fish....

  14. Different extenders on sperm motility and plasmatic membrane integrity after ovine semen freezing and thawing Diferentes diluentes sobre a motilidade e integridade de membrana plasmática após o congelamento e descongelamento de sêmen ovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Raquel Quirino

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence at the progressive motility and post-thawing plasmatic membrane integrity of different extenders (Tris-Yolk-based, Tris-Yolk/Skim Milk-based and Skim Milk-based was studied in rams frozen semen, using a split-sample technique. The semen was obtained from four Santa Inês located in the district Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 8 semen collections per ram made possible 672 observations, i.e. 32 semen collections/ 3 semen extenders / 7 observations steps. The progressive motility was determined in the cool semen (Mpi and after dilution with fraction A of extender (Mp1, a 2-hour balance period (Mp2, dilution in fraction B (Mp3, a 14-hour balance period (Mp4, semen exposure to N2-liquid vapor (Mp5 and post-thawing (Mp6. The sperm plasmatic membrane integrity was determined by employing fluorochromes carboxyfluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide at post-thawing (Mp6. Tris-Yolk-extender showed a Tris-Yolk/Skim Milk- and Skim Milk-extenders superior performance on recovering the post-thawing progressive motility. The rams presented the highest post-thawing sperm membrane integrity when the semen was frozen in Skim Milk-extender, in comparison to the Tris-Yolk and Tris-Yolk/Skim Milk-extenders. Concluding, it is necessary to elucidate the protection underlying mechanism conferred by the extenders studied over the investigated sperm parameters, given the finding of different extenders specificities on protecting motility and sperm integrity.Foi estudada a influência do leite em pó desnatado, usando-se a técnica de subdivisões da amostragem, sobre a motilidade progressiva e integridade de membrana plasmática, após o congelamento/descongelamento de sêmen ovino. O sêmen foi obtido de quatro carneiros da raça Santa Inês, localizados no distrito de Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Um total de 8 coletas de sêmen por carneiro possibilitou 672 observações, i.e., 32 coletas de sêmen/ 3

  15. Use of an additive canthaxanthin based and annatto extract in diets of laying hens and its effect on the color of the yolk and the egg shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Rojas V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an additive canthaxanthin based and annatto extract (Bixa orellana L. in diets of laying hens and its effect on the color of the yolk and the egg shelf life. Position 864 hens 34 to 45 weeks old, distributed in a completely randomized design with six replicates per treatment were used. Treatments were T0 (control diet, T1 (T0 + 30 g of canthaxanthin and annatto extract and T2 (T0 + 60 g of canthaxanthin and annatto extract. The results were 88.6; 91.9 and 90.8% for laying percentage; 60.5; 61.6 and 61.5 g for egg weight; 53.6; 56.4 and 55.7 g for egg mass. The yolk color temperature 7 °C for Roche scale was 6, 9 and 12 and colorimetric Minolta was to "L" of 42.10; 40.24 and 39.65; for "a" of 0.07; 3.68 and 6.44 and for "b" of 19.35; 18.36 and 18.18. Shelf life at room temperature 7 °C was 81, 86 and 90 UH. Lipid peroxidation was 0.10; 0.07 and 0.05 μmol MDA.g-1 yolk; for T0, T1 and T2 respectively. In all variables indicated statistically significant differences between treatments (p < 0.05. Food consumption was 103.9; 109.2 and 107.5 g and feed conversion of 1.94; 1.93 and 1.92. It is concluded that the addition of canthaxanthin and annatto extract to 30 and 60 g t-1 feed than the control, improved performance parameters, yolk color and egg shelf life.

  16. Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) as non-antibiotic production enhancers for use in swine production: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Lili; Zhen, Yuhong; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the use of in-feed antibiotics for growth and disease prevention in livestock production has been under severe scrutiny. The use and misuse of in-feed antibiotics has led to problems with drug residues in animal products and increased bacterial resistance. Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) have attracted considerable attention as an alternative to antibiotics to maintain swine health and performance. Oral administration of IgY possesses many advantages over mammalian IgG such...

  17. Low-density Lipoprotein Improves Motility and Plasma Membrane Integrity of Cryopreserved Canine Epididymal Spermatozoa

    OpenAIRE

    N. Prapaiwan; T. Tharasanit; S. Punjachaipornpol; D. Yamtang; A. Roongsitthichai; W. Moonarmart; K. Kaeoket; S. Manee-in

    2016-01-01

    Cryopreservation of caudal epididymal spermatozoa is an effective technique to conserve genetic potentials of superior dogs when it is not possible to collect ejaculated spermatozoa. Although hen egg yolk is commonly supplemented into the semen extender, active substances within the egg yolk which protect sperm against cryoinjury remain to be discovered. Among its compositions, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been reported to have a cryoprotective property for sperm cryopreservation. Howeve...

  18. Biological activity of egg-yolk protein by-product hydrolysates obtained with the use of non-commercial plant protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zambrowicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic hydrolysis leads to improved functional and biological properties of protein by-products, which can be further used as nutraceuticals and protein ingredients for food applications.The present study evaluated ACE-inhibitory, antioxidant and immunostimulating activities in hydrolysates of egg-yolk protein by-product (YP, generated during industrial process of delipidation of yolk. The protein substrate was hydrolyzed using non-commercial protease from Asian pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia. The reaction was conducted in 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0 at temperature of 37°C for 4 hours using different enzyme doses (100-1000 U/mg of substrate. The protein degradation was monitored by the determination of the degree of hydrolysis (DH, release of free amino groups (FAG and by RP-HPLC. In the obtained hydrolysates we also evaluated biological activities. It was shown that the highest DH of substrate (46.6% was obtained after 4h of reaction at the highest amount of enzyme. This hydrolysate exhibited antioxidant activity, including ferricion reducing (FRAP (56.41 μg Fe2+/mg, ferric ion chelating (695.76 μg Fe2+/mg and DPPH free radical scavenging (0.89 μmol troloxeq/mg as well as ACE-inhibitory (IC50=837.75 μg/mL activities.The research showed improved biological properties of enzymatically modified YP by-product.

  19. Yolk-Shelled C@Fe3 O4 Nanoboxes as Efficient Sulfur Hosts for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiarui; Luo, Liu; Chen, Yuanfu; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2017-09-01

    Owing to the high theoretical specific capacity (1675 mA h g -1 ) and low cost, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries offer advantages for next-generation energy storage. However, the polysulfide dissolution and low electronic conductivity of sulfur cathodes limit the practical application of Li-S batteries. To address such issues, well-designed yolk-shelled carbon@Fe 3 O 4 (YSC@Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoboxes as highly efficient sulfur hosts for Li-S batteries are reported here. With both physical entrapment by carbon shells and strong chemical interaction with Fe 3 O 4 cores, this unique architecture immobilizes the active material and inhibits diffusion of the polysulfide intermediates. Moreover, due to their high conductivity, the carbon shells and the polar Fe 3 O 4 cores facilitate fast electron/ion transport and promote continuous reactivation of the active material during the charge/discharge process, resulting in improved electrochemical utilization and reversibility. With these merits, the S/YSC@Fe 3 O 4 cathodes support high sulfur content (80 wt%) and loading (5.5 mg cm -2 ) and deliver high specific capacity, excellent rate capacity, and long cycling stability. This work provides a new perspective to design a carbon/metal-oxide-based yolk-shelled framework as a high sulfur-loading host for advanced Li-S batteries with superior electrochemical properties. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) egg yolk concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and lipid increase during the last stage of embryonic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alava, Juan Jose [School of the Environment, University of South Carolina, 702G Byrnes Building, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States) and Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 219 Ft. Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States)]. E-mail: jalavasa@sfu.ca; Keller, Jennifer M. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States)]. E-mail: Jennifer.Keller@noaa.gov; Kucklick, John R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States); Wyneken, Jeanette [Florida Atlantic University, Department of Biological Sciences, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States); Crowder, Larry [Duke University Marine Laboratory, 135 Duke Marine Lab Road, Beaufort, NC 28516 (United States); Scott, Geoffrey I. [Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 219 Ft. Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Data are scarce describing the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in sea turtle eggs. The purpose of this study was to establish appropriate sample collection methodology to monitor these contaminants in sea turtle eggs. Contaminant concentrations were measured in yolk samples from eggs that failed to hatch from three loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nests collected in southern Florida to determine if concentrations change through embryonic development. One to three egg yolk samples per nest were analyzed from early, middle, and late developmental stages (n = 22 eggs total). PCB and pesticide concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Geometric mean concentrations of {sigma}PCBs (52 congeners), {sigma}DDTs, {sigma}chlordanes, and dieldrin in all eggs were 65.0 (range = 7.11 to 3930 ng/g lipid), 67.1 (range = 7.88 to 1340 ng/g lipid), 37.0 (range = 4.04 to 685 ng/g lipid), and 11.1 ng/g lipid (range = 1.69 to 44.0 ng/g lipid), respectively. Early and middle developmental stage samples had similar concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides on a wet-mass basis (ng/g tissue extracted), but the concentrations doubled by the late stage. This increase is most likely attributable to the 50% increase in lipid content observed in the late-stage yolk. These findings indicate that an early-stage sample cannot be directly compared to a late-stage sample, especially from different nests. These preliminary findings also allowed us to calculate the minimum number of eggs per nest required for analysis to obtain an acceptable mean concentration per nest. More research is required to investigate geographical trends of contaminant concentrations and potential health effects (i.e., abnormalities) caused by these contaminants on sea turtle development.

  1. Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) egg yolk concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and lipid increase during the last stage of embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alava, Juan Jose; Keller, Jennifer M.; Kucklick, John R.; Wyneken, Jeanette; Crowder, Larry; Scott, Geoffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Data are scarce describing the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in sea turtle eggs. The purpose of this study was to establish appropriate sample collection methodology to monitor these contaminants in sea turtle eggs. Contaminant concentrations were measured in yolk samples from eggs that failed to hatch from three loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nests collected in southern Florida to determine if concentrations change through embryonic development. One to three egg yolk samples per nest were analyzed from early, middle, and late developmental stages (n = 22 eggs total). PCB and pesticide concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Geometric mean concentrations of ΣPCBs (52 congeners), ΣDDTs, Σchlordanes, and dieldrin in all eggs were 65.0 (range = 7.11 to 3930 ng/g lipid), 67.1 (range = 7.88 to 1340 ng/g lipid), 37.0 (range = 4.04 to 685 ng/g lipid), and 11.1 ng/g lipid (range = 1.69 to 44.0 ng/g lipid), respectively. Early and middle developmental stage samples had similar concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides on a wet-mass basis (ng/g tissue extracted), but the concentrations doubled by the late stage. This increase is most likely attributable to the 50% increase in lipid content observed in the late-stage yolk. These findings indicate that an early-stage sample cannot be directly compared to a late-stage sample, especially from different nests. These preliminary findings also allowed us to calculate the minimum number of eggs per nest required for analysis to obtain an acceptable mean concentration per nest. More research is required to investigate geographical trends of contaminant concentrations and potential health effects (i.e., abnormalities) caused by these contaminants on sea turtle development

  2. Generation and characterization of chicken egg yolk antibodies against propionibacterium acnes for the prevention of acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthika Selvan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antigen-specific antibody has been widely used for immunological analysis in the field of diagnosis as well as in pure scientific research, where the IgY antibodies can be raised against P acnes antigen. Material and Methods: To produce IgY against Propionibacterium acnes, laying hens were immunized with P acnes (MTCC No: 1951 and subsequent booster injections were given. The antibodies produced were purified from the egg yolk of immunized chicken using the polyethylene glycol and ammonium sulfate precipitation method and, further, by Diethylaminoethyl (DEAE cellulose ion-exchange column chromatography. The protein fraction of IgY was isolated from the egg yolk. The separation was rapid, and the success of each step was viewed on Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The reactivity of anti-P acnes was evaluated by the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test and the dot-immunoassay. Results: With ELISA, the highest titter of 1:10000 was observed on the 150 th day after vaccination. The results of dot-immunoassay suggested that anti-P acnes IgY developed a brown color as positive reaction, which showed the antigen-antibody binding even after a maximum dilution of 1/500. These results suggest that anti-acne IgY was produced and had strong specific antibody reactivity. Conclusion: The findings indicate that anti-acne IgY is worth utilizing as a preventive agent for acne vulgaris.

  3. Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) yolk-sac fry mortality is associated with disturbances in the function of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF-1α) and consecutive gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuori, Kristiina A.M.; Soitamo, Arto; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Nikinmaa, Mikko

    2004-01-01

    Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) suffer from abnormally high yolk-sac fry mortality designated as M74-syndrome. In 1990s, 25-80% of salmon females, which ascended rivers to spawn, produced yolk-sac fry suffering from the syndrome. Symptoms of M74-affected fry include neurological disturbances, impaired vascular development and abnormal haemorrhages. The latter symptoms are observed in mammalian embryos if the function of hypoxia inducible transcription factor (HIF-1α), its dimerization partner aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT) or target gene vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is disturbed. To study the possible involvement of HIF-1α and its target gene VEGF in the development of the syndrome, we collected healthy and M74-affected wild Baltic salmon yolk-sac fry and analyzed HIF-1α mRNA and protein expression, HIF-1α DNA-binding, target gene VEGF protein expression, and blood vessel density in both groups at different stages of yolk-sac fry development. In addition, since Baltic salmon females contain organochlorine contaminants, which have been suggested to be the cause of M74 syndrome via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent gene expression pathway, we studied AhR protein expression, AhR DNA-binding and target gene CYP1A protein expression. Since the parents of both healthy and M74-affected wild fry will have experienced the organochlorine load from the Baltic Sea, hatchery-reared fry were included in the studies as an additional control. The results show that the vascular defects observed in fry suffering from M74 are associated with reduced DNA-binding activity of HIF-1α and subsequent downregulation of its target gene vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In addition, also AhR function is decreased in diseased fry making it unlikely that symptoms of M74-affected fry would be caused by an upregulation of xenobiotically induced AhR-dependent gene expression pathway

  4. Effect of Red Pepper ( Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3. In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3. In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (p0.05. However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (p<0.05. All the red pepper powder treatments also increased (p<0.05 the yolk color score compared with the control. The results of the present study suggest that both red pepper powder and pigment are effective feed additives for improving egg yolk color for laying hens.

  5. Effect of Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgY) against Diarrhea in Domesticated Animals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Diraviyam, Thirumalai; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Yuan; Schade, Ruediger; Michael, Antonysamy; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    Background IgY antibodies are serum immunoglobulin in birds, reptiles and amphibians, and are transferred from serum to egg yolk to confer passive immunity to their embryos and offspring. Currently, the oral passive immunization using chicken IgY has been focused as an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment and control of diarrhea in animals and humans. This systematic review was focused to determine the effect of IgY in controlling and preventing diarrhea in domesticated animals includ...

  6. The relationship of physical and chemical conditions of CEP diluent with egg yolk addition to bull spermatozoa quality before and after storage at temperaturof 4-5°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducha, N.; Hariani, D.; Budijastuti, W.

    2018-01-01

    Storage of semen requires diluent to dilute semen and maintain sperm quality. One of the diluent for bull semen was CEP. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of bull spermatozoa quality with the physical and chemical conditions of CEP diluents with the addition of egg yolk before and after the storage process. The study used Limousin bull with 5 replications. The quality of spermatozoa included motility and viability. Physical and chemical conditions included the pH and osmolarity of the diluent. The motility of spermatozoa was observed under a light microscope with 200 X magnification at 37°C by two people. The viability of spermatozoa was observed under a light microscope with 400 X magnification with nigrosine eosin staining. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and continued Duncan’s test. Dilution pH was measured using pH indicator paper ranging from 6-8. The osmolarity of the diluent was measured by electrical osmolarity. The results showed that the addition of egg yolk in the CEP diluent decreased the pH and increased osmolartitas, but the quality of spermatozoa can be kept up to 8 days of storage. The conclusion in this study was the addition of egg yolk in the CEP diluent provided physical and chemical conditions that can maintain the quality of spermatozoa during storage at a temperature of 4-5 ° C.

  7. Fe-N co-doped SiO2@TiO2 yolk-shell hollow nanospheres with enhanced visible light photocatalytic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hengcheng; Yao, Weitang; Zhu, Wenkun; Tang, Yi; Ge, Huilin; Shi, Xiaozhong; Duan, Tao

    2018-06-01

    SiO2@TiO2 yolk@shell hollow nanospheres (STNSs) is considered as an outstanding photocatalyst due to its tunable structure and composition. Based on this point, we present an unprecedentedly excellent photocatalytic property of STNSs toward tannic acid via a Fe-N co-doped strategy. Their morphologies, compositions, structure and properties are characterized. The Fe-N co-doped STNSs formed good hollow yolk@shell structure. The results show that the energy gap of the composites can be downgraded to 2.82 eV (pure TiO2 = 3.2 eV). Photocatalytic degradation of tannic acid (TA, 30 mg L-1) under visible light (380 nm TiO2 nanospheres, non-doped STNSs and N-doped STNSs, the Fe-N co-doped STNSs exhibits the highest activity, which can degrade 99.5% TA into CO2 and H2O in 80 min. The probable degradation mechanism of the composites is simultaneously proposed, the band gap of STNSs becomes narrow by co-doping Fe-N, so that the TiO2 shell can stimulate electrons under visible light exposure, generate the ions of radOH and radO2- with a strong oxidizing property. Therefore this approach works is much desired for radioactive organic wastewater photocatalytic degradation.

  8. Ácidos graxos da gema e composição do ovo de poedeiras alimentadas com rações com farelo de coco Yolk fatty acids and egg components from layers fed diets with coconut meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Carvalho Santiago Barreto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inclusão do farelo de coco (FC na ração e do tempo de alimentação de poedeiras comerciais, sobre os ácidos graxos da gema e os componentes do ovo. O delineamento foi em esquema fatorial 5x2, com cinco níveis de inclusão do FC (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% e dois tempos de alimentação (14 e 28 dias. Foram avaliados o peso e as porcentagens de albúmen, gema e casca dos ovos, bem como os sólidos e lipídios totais e o perfil de ácidos graxos das gemas. A inclusão do FC e o tempo de alimentação influenciaram apenas a proporção de ácido mirístico na gema, que aumentou com a inclusão do FC aos 28 dias de alimentação. Os ácidos esteárico e oléico variaram somente com o tempo de alimentação, e as maiores concentrações foram obtidas aos 28 dias. A relação de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados para ácidos graxos saturados da gema diminuiu a partir de 10% de inclusão e aumentou com o tempo de alimentação das aves. O uso de farelo de coco, na ração de poedeiras comerciais, não influencia a proporção dos componentes do ovo, apenas altera a concentração do ácido mirístico da gema.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of coconut meal (CM inclusion in commercial layer diets and feeding time, on egg components and yolk fatty acid composition. The experiment followed a factorial design 5x2, with five levels of CM inclusion (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% and two feeding time (14 and 28 days. Parameters evaluated included: egg weight, and albumen, yolk and shell percentages, as well as solids, lipids and fatty acid profile of the yolk. The inclusion of CM and feeding time affected the yolk content of myristic acid which increased with CM level and with feeding time. The levels of stearic and oleic acids in the yolk varied with feeding time and were higher in the eggs after 28 days. Polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio in yolk decreased, when dietary CM levels were

  9. Yolk concentrations of hormones and glucose and egg weight and egg dimensions in unincubated chicken eggs, in relation to egg sex and hen body weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M. Aamir; Hulst, Marcel; Hoving-Bolink, Rita A. H.; Smits, Mari A.; de Vries, Bonnie; Weites, Ilse; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Woelders, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Birds can manipulate offspring sex ratio under natural and experimental conditions and maternal hormones have been shown to be involved in this process. Studies also provided evidence for the presence of sex specific concentrations of yolk hormones in avian eggs. These findings led to the suggestion

  10. Emulsion of systems containing egg yolk, polysaccharides and vegetable oil Emulsão de sistemas contendo gema de ovo, polissacarídeos e óleo vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clitor Junior Fernandes de Souza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work characterizes the emulsifying properties of systems containing egg yolk (0.1; 1.0 and 2.5 % w/v and polysaccharides (xanthan gum, carrageen, pectin and carboxymethylcellulose and three different vegetable oils (sunflower, canola, and palm oils. Emulsifying activity and emulsion stability were measured of each combination and it was found the effect of the oil on emulsion stability correlated to the amount of monounsaturated fatty acid. Additionally, increased egg yolk concentration increased emulsifying activity by reducing coalescence of oil droplets. Lastly, 2.5% egg yolk and 0.2% polysaccharide generated emulsions with high emulsifying activity, excellent stability, and droplet size of 4.32 µm.Neste trabalho, caracterizam-se as propriedades emulsificantes de sistemas contendo gema de ovo (0,1; 1,0 e 2,5% m/v, polissacarídeos (goma xantana, carragena, pectina e carboximetilcelulose e três diferentes óleos vegetais (óleos de palma, canola e girassol. Atividade emulsificante e estabilidade da emulsão foram medidas para cada combinação e verificou-se o efeito do óleo sobre a estabilidade da emulsão correlacionada com a quantidade de ácido graxo monoinsaturado. Além disso, a concentração de gema de ovo aumentou a atividade emulsificante, reduzindo a coalescência das gotículas de óleo. Por último, 2,5 % de gema de ovo e 0,2% de polissacarídeo formaram emulsões com alta atividade emulsificante, excelente estabilidade e tamanho de gota de 4,32 µm.

  11. Irradiation of liquid egg, frozen egg, powdered egg, egg yolk and white of egg: reducing the population of Salmonella enteritidis and sensory aspects and physico-chemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Eggs and their products have been incriminated in foodborne disease outbreaks due to Salmonella enteritidis contamination. Irradiation is a food preservation technology that could be applied to minimize the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of irradiation in liquid and frozen egg as well as in powdered egg, egg yolk and egg white spiked with Salmonella enteritidis. Spiked samples of liquid egg, egg white and egg yolk were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 kGy and spiked samples of frozen and powdered egg were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 3,5 e 4,0 kGy. Raw odour, cooked odour and taste of non inoculated and irradiated samples and non irradiated samples of egg and egg products were analysed by a trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation (malonaldehyde concentration) were also determined. Doses of 2,0; 3,0; 3,5; 3,0 e 3,5 kGy reduced in 5 log the population of S. Enteritidis in liquid and frozen egg, powdered egg yolk, egg white and egg, respectively, with moderate alterations in relation to non irradiated samples detected by the trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation in the powdered products, however, showed more intense alterations. Therefore, irradiation can be considered a feasible process for liquid and frozen egg while when applied to powdered products it should be considered the type of food product to which they will be added due to alterations in viscosity. (author)

  12. Penambahan Astaxanthin pada Pengencer Kuning Telur Berbagai Jenis Unggas Dapat Memproteksi Semen Babi Selama Penyimpanan (THE ADDITION OF ASTAXANTHIN ON SPERM DILUENTS PHOSPHATE EGGYOLK OF VARIOUS POULTRY CAN PROTECT QUALITY OF PIG SPERM DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Bebas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to formulate semen diluent of pigswith a better quality, cheap and easy toprepare using egg yolk of various poultries such as chickens, ducks and quails in combinationwithastaxanthin, a potent antioxidant. The research design used was a completely randomized factorialdesign with three different types of sperm diluents and four levels of astaxanthin concentration. Spermdiluents used were phosphate duck egg yolk, phosphate quail egg yolk and yolks phosphate supplementedrespectivelywith 0,002%, 0,004% and 0,008%astaxanthine. The treated sperm were strored at 5oC for 48hours. The sperm qualities were examined for progressive motility, spermatozoa abnormalities, viabilityand plasma membrane integrity. The result showed that sperm diluents of using duck egg yolk phosphatein combination with 0.002% astaxanthinresulted in the highest progressive motility, viability and plasmamembrane intact while abnormalities spermatozoa is lowest. It can be concluded that phosphate duck eggyolk sperm diluents with the addition of 0,002% astaxanthinappeared to be able to maintain the qualityof pig sperm stored at 5oC for 48 hours.

  13. Influence of sex, age, and fasting on blood parameters and body, bursa, spleen and yolk sac weights of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DL Pires

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water and feed fasting for 24, 48 and 72 hours post-hatching on blood parameters (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; red blood-cell, RBC; hematocrit, HCT; hemoglobin, HGB; plasma glucose, CGP; plasma total protein, PP, and differential leukocytes count, and on body, liver, spleen, bursa, and yolk sac weights were analyzed. Erythrogram data were obtained with a blood cell counter. Total plasma protein and plasma glucose were determined by using the Bradford method (1976 and a glucose PAP liquiform kit (Labtest, cat. n. 84, respectively. Specific leukocyte counts were carried out on blood smears stained with Rosenfeld solution. According to the obtained data, water and feed post-hatching fasting reduced MCV values, which also were lower in males than that in females. Fasting for 48 hours promoted an increase in PP, while fasting for 72 hours reduced HCT. Chicks submitted to fasting presented lower body weights as compared to fed chicks, but their liver weight did not increase between 48 and 72 hours of age. Fasting decreased spleen weight, but bursa and yolk sac weight were not affected. Data showed that female and male chicks react in a similar way to post-hatching fasting, which affects body weight, liver and spleen weight, and HCT and PP values. Moreover, 72 hours of fasting affected more intensely HCT and MCV values.

  14. Growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli strains by neutralizing IgY antibodies from ostrich egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Tobias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ostrich raising around the world have some key factors and farming profit depend largely on information and ability of farmers to rear these animals. Non fertilized eggs from ostriches are discharged in the reproduction season. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are microorganisms involved in animal and human diseases. In order to optimize the use of sub products of ostrich raising, non fertilized eggs of four selected birds were utilized for development of polyclonal IgY antibodies. The birds were immunized (200ug/animal with purified recombinant staphylococcal enterotoxin C (recSEC and synthetic recRAP, both derived from S. aureus, and recBFPA and recEspB involved in E. coli pathogenicity, diluted in FCA injected in the braquial muscle. Two subsequent immunization steps with 21 days intervals were repeated in 0,85% saline in FIA. Blood and eggs samples were collected before and after immunization steps. Egg yolk immunoglobulins were purified by precipitation with 19% sodium sulfate and 20% ammonium sulphate methodologies. Purified IgY 50µL aliquots were incubated in 850µL BHI broth containing 50µL inoculums of five strains of S. aureus and five strains of E.coli during four hours at 37ºC. Growth inhibition was evaluated followed by photometry reading (DO550nm. Egg yolk IgY preparation from hiperimmunized birds contained antibodies that inhibited significantly (p<0,05 growth of strains tested. Potential use of ostrich IgY polyclonal antibodies as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool is proposed for diseased animals.

  15. Effects of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuemei; Yu, Yang; Su, Zhuowei; Zhang, Keying

    2017-06-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens. A total of 960 Lohmann laying hens aged 53 weeks were enrolled, under 4 different treatment diets supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg essential oils (Enviva EO, Dupont Nutrition Biosciences ApS, Denmark), respectively. Each treatment was replicated 8 times with 30 birds each. Birds were fed dietary treatment diets for 12 weeks (54 to 65 weeks). For data recording and analysis, a 12-week period was divided into 3 periods of 4 weeks' duration each: period 1 (54 to 57 weeks), period 2 (58 to 61 weeks), and period 3 (62 to 65 weeks). For the diet supplemented with Enviva EO, hen-day egg production and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly improved ( P  digestibility in the 100 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment group was significantly increased ( P  digestibility in the 100 and 150 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment groups was significantly decreased ( P  digestibility. Saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) gradually decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) increased with Enviva EO supplementation, but the difference was not significant. The data suggested that the supplementation of essential oils (Enviva EO) in laying hen diet did not show a significant positive effect on performance and yolk fatty acid composition but it tended to increase eggshell thickness and protein digestibility, especially at the dose of 50 mg/kg.

  16. CT Findings of Intrarenal Yolk Sac Tumor with Tumor Thrombus Extending into the Inferior Vena Cava: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shao Chun; Li, Xue Hua; Sun, Can Hui; Feng, Shi Ting; Peng, Zhen Peng; Huang, Si Yun; Li, Zi Ping [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-10-15

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a rare germ cell neoplasm of childhood that usually arises from the testis or ovary. The rare cases of YST in various extragonadal locations have been reported, but the primary intrarenal YST is even more uncommon. Here, we report a case of a primary intrarenal YST with tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava and left renal vein in a 2-year-old boy, with an emphasis on the CT features. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an intrarenal YST with intravascular involvement.

  17. Dietary High-Oleic Acid Soybean Oil Dose Dependently Attenuates Egg Yolk Content of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Laying Hens Fed Supplemental Flaxseed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Robert G; Kukorowski, Alexandra N; Ying, Yun; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2018-02-01

    Chickens can hepatically synthesize eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) from α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 n-3); however, the process is inefficient and competitively inhibited by dietary linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2 n-6). In the present study, the influence of dietary high-oleic acid (OLA; 18:1 n-9) soybean oil (HOSO) on egg and tissue deposition of ALA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) synthesized from dietary ALA was investigated in laying hens fed a reduced-LNA base diet supplemented with high-ALA flaxseed oil (FLAX). We hypothesized that reducing the dietary level of LNA would promote greater hepatic conversion of ALA to very long-chain (VLC; >20C) n-3 PUFA, while supplemental dietary HOSO would simultaneously further enrich eggs with OLA without influencing egg n-3 PUFA contents. Nine 51-week-old hens each were fed 0, 10, 20, or 40 g HOSO/kg diet for 12 weeks. Within each group, supplemental dietary FLAX was increased every 3 weeks from 0 to 10 to 20 to 40 g/kg diet. Compared to controls, dietary FLAX maximally enriched the total n-3 and VLC n-3 PUFA contents in egg yolk by 9.4-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively, while feeding hens 40 g HOSO/kg diet maximally attenuated the yolk deposition of ALA, VLC n-3 PUFA, and total n-3 PUFA by 37, 15, and 32%, respectively. These results suggest that dietary OLA is not neutral with regard to the overall process by which dietary ALA is absorbed, metabolized, and deposited into egg yolk, either intact or in the form of longer-chain/more unsaturated n-3 PUFA derivatives. © 2018 AOCS.

  18. Lipid metabolism during embryonic development of the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawniczak, Cynthia J; Teece, Mark A

    2009-05-01

    The metabolism of lipids and fatty acids during embryonic development of Chelydra serpentina (common snapping turtle) was investigated. Substantial changes in lipid class and fatty acid composition occurred as lipids were transferred from the yolk to the yolk sac membrane (YSM) and then to the brain, eyes, heart, and lungs of the hatchling. Lipids were hydrolyzed in the yolk prior to transport to the YSM, shown by a large increase in free fatty acids (FFAs) during the second half of development. Triglyceride-derived docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was utilized preferentially to phospholipid-derived DHA. In the YSM, arachidonic acid (ARA) was selectively incorporated into phospholipids while DHA was preferentially incorporated into triglycerides. Selective incorporation of DHA and ARA into the brain and eyes, and ARA into the heart was observed, indicating the importance of these PUFAs for organ development and function. The amount of DHA and ARA in each organ was less than 1% of that measured in the yolk of the freshly laid egg, indicating that only a small portion of yolk PUFAs were incorporated into the hatchling organs studied. We discuss the differences in the mechanisms and utilization of yolk lipids in turtles compared with lipid uptake during embryonic development in birds.

  19. Direct observation and analysis of yolk-shell materials using low-voltage high-resolution scanning electron microscopy: Nanometal-particles encapsulated in metal-oxide, carbon, and polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asahina, Shunsuke; Suga, Mitsuo; Takahashi, Hideyuki [JEOL Ltd., SM Business Unit, Tokyo (Japan); Young Jeong, Hu [Graduate School of EEWS, WCU/BK21+, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Galeano, Carolina; Schüth, Ferdi [Department of Heterogeneous Catalysis, Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Mülheim (Germany); Terasaki, Osamu, E-mail: terasaki@mmk.su.se, E-mail: terasaki@kaist.ac.kr [Graduate School of EEWS, WCU/BK21+, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Berzelii Centre EXSELENT on Porous Materials, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-11-01

    Nanometal particles show characteristic features in chemical and physical properties depending on their sizes and shapes. For keeping and further enhancing their features, the particles should be protected from coalescence or degradation. One approach is to encapsulate the nanometal particles inside pores with chemically inert or functional materials, such as carbon, polymer, and metal oxides, which contain mesopores to allow permeation of only chemicals not the nanometal particles. Recently developed low-voltage high-resolution scanning electron microscopy was applied to the study of structural, chemical, and electron state of both nanometal particles and encapsulating materials in yolk-shell materials of Au@C, Ru/Pt@C, Au@TiO{sub 2}, and Pt@Polymer. Progresses in the following categories were shown for the yolk-shell materials: (i) resolution of topographic image contrast by secondary electrons, of atomic-number contrast by back-scattered electrons, and of elemental mapping by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy; (ii) sample preparation for observing internal structures; and (iii) X-ray spectroscopy such as soft X-ray emission spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy was also used for characterization of Au@C.

  20. The structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) for reducing chicken embryo NAD(+) content in OPI-induced teratogenesis in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Josef

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the structural requirements of organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) for reducing chicken embryo nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) content in OPI-induced teratogenesis and compare them with those needed for OPI inhibition of yolk sac membrane kynurenine formamidase (KFase), the proposed primary target for OPI teratogens in chicken embryos. The comparative molecular field analysis (COMFA) of three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) revealed the electrostatic and steric fields as good predictors of OPI structural requirements to reduce NAD(+) content in chicken embryos. The dominant electrostatic interactions were localized at nitrogen-1, nitrogen-3, nitrogen of 2-amino substituent of the pyrimidinyl of pyrimidinyl phosphorothioates, and at the oxygen of crotonamide carbonyl in crotonamide phosphates. Bulkiness of the substituents at carbon-6 of the pyrimidinyls and/or N-substituents of crotonamides was the steric structural component that contributed to superiority of those OPI for reducing embryonic NAD(+) levels. Both electrostatic and steric requirements are similar to those defined in our previous study for OPI inhibition of chicken embryo yolk sac membrane KFase. The findings of this study provide another piece of evidence for the cause-and-effect relationship between yolk sac membrane KFase inhibition and reduced embryo NAD(+) content in NAD-associated OPI-induced teratogenesis in chickens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgY) for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Human and Animal Neonates: A Concise Review

    OpenAIRE

    Thu, Hlaing Myat; Myat, Theingi Win; Win, Mo Mo; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Rahman, Shofiqur; Umeda, Kouji; Nguyen, Sa Van; Icatlo, Faustino C.; Higo-Moriguchi, Kyoko; Taniguchi, Koki; Tsuji, Takao; Oguma, Keiji; Kim, Sang Jong; Bae, Hyun Suk; Choi, Hyuk Joon

    2017-01-01

    The rotavirus-induced diarrhea of human and animal neonates is a major public health concern worldwide. Until recently, no effective therapy is available to specifically inactivate the rotavirion particles within the gut. Passive immunotherapy by oral administration of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) has emerged of late as a fresh alternative strategy to control infectious diseases of the alimentary tract and has been applied in the treatment of diarrhea due to rotavirus infection. The purpos...

  2. Dietary supplementation of organic selenium could improve performance, antibody response, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed on diets containing oxidized fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laika, M; Jahanian, R

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of organic selenium (Se) on performance, egg quality indices, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed diets with different fat sources. A total of 270 Hy-line W-36 Leghorn hens of 47 weeks of age were randomly distributed into the 5 replicate cages of 9 dietary treatments. Experimental diets consisted of a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three different fat sources (soybean oil, SO; yellow grease, YG; and palm fat powder, PFP) and three different levels of supplemental Se (0, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg of diet) as supplied by zinc-L-selenomethionine (ZnSeMet) complex, which fed during a 77-day feeding trial including 7 days for adaptation and 70 days as the main recording period. Results showed that the highest (P hens fed on SO-supplemented diets. Hen-day egg production was affected by both dietary fat source (P feed intake was not affected by experimental diets during the first 35-day period, dietary inclusion of PFP reduced feed intake during both second 35-day (P feed conversion ratio during the first 35-day period was assigned to the birds fed on SO-diets, followed by those fed YG-diets. Dietary supplementation of ZnSeMet improved (P feed efficiency during the first 35-day period. Supplementation of ZnSeMet into the diets increased yolk index, with more impact in hens fed on YG-diets. The highest concentration of yolk malondialdehyde was observed in YG-fed groups, and ZnSeMet supplementation of diets decreased (P hens fed on diets supplemented by YG, followed by those on SO-diets. Although different fat sources had no effect on antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus, supplemental ZnSeMet improved (P hens, with the highest impact in diets containing oxidized (high peroxide values) fat sources.

  3. DNA fragmentation and membrane damage of bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae (Ostariophysi: Prochilodontidae sperm following cryopreservation with dimethylsulfoxide and glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gregorio Martínez

    Full Text Available The endangered bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae is a native freshwater fish of Colombia, the most captured species locally and one of the most important species for ex-situ conservation (germplasm banks. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of three concentrations of Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO (5%, 10%, 15% and three of glucose (305, 333, 361 mM in the extender on spermatic DNA fragmentation (F-DNA (by Halomax®, Chromatin dispersion and membrane damage (D-Me (by eosin-nigrosin staining. After assessment of sperm quality by computer analysis of motility, one part of semen from males was diluted separately with three parts of extender and filled into 0.5 ml straws. Freezing was carried out in liquid nitrogen vapor dry shipper for 30 minutes and thawed at 60ºC for 8 seconds in a water bath and evaluated for the percentage of cells found with F-DNA and D-Me. The results demonstrated that cryopreservation causes greater F-DNA (13.62 ± 1.6% to 28.91 ± 3.25 and D-Me (24.27 ± 1.1% to 58.33 ± 2.81% when compared with pre-freezing semen (PFS (6.71 ± 1.54% and 2.34 ± 0.5%, respectively for F-DNA and D-Me. A significant interaction was found between DMSO and glucose concentration in this experiment. Use of extender: 10% DMSO + 305 mM glucose + 12% chicken egg yolk and, 10% DMSO + 333 mM glucose + 12% chicken egg yolk, allow for lower F-DNA and D-Me during cryopreservation of bocachico semen. A high correlation between F-DNA and D-Me was found (r = 0.771.

  4. Invitro Assessment of Bacteriostatic Potency of Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin against Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrama Chakravarthi. P1

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in commercial layer chickens to assess the bacteriostatic potency of egg yolk immunoglobulin IgY against food poisoning pathogen. The O antigen of food poisoning pathogen Escherichia coli was prepared and used to immunize commercial layer chickens. The eggs which contain anti-E.Coli IgY was collected on 30 th day of first injection and stored at 4 0 C. The antibacterial IgY was separated by water dilution method (10 times diluted with distilled water, pH 5.0 - 5.5, incubated at 4 0 C for 6 hrs and purified by 60 % ammonium sulphate. The recovery of IgY was in range of 57-62 %. The pathogens in Tryptic soya broth (approx. 6X108/ ml were cultured with anti-E.coli IgY @ 20 mg /ml and inhibitory effect was measured in UV spectrophotometer at 550 nm. The resultant growth curve indicated that the application of polyclonal antibodies (Ig Y on meat could be used to prevent the E.coli food poisoning. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 460-462

  5. Effect of tea catechins on the structure of lipid membrane and beta-ray induced lipid peroxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, M.; Haga, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Okuno, K.; Yoshioka, H.; Yoshioka, H.

    2007-01-01

    Inhibiting effect of four tea catechins, (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), on the lipid peroxidation induced by β-ray in tritiated water was examined using a spin probe method. 16-Doxylstearic acid (16NS) was incorporated into the liposome prepared from egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and the rate of the decrease of ESR intensity of 16NS was used as a measure of the inhibiting effect. In the low concentration region below 10 -5 M, catechins showed their inhibitions on the lipid peroxidation according to the order of ECG>EGCG>EC>EGC. This result was explained by a model that the initiator of the peroxidation is the hydroxyl radical (·OH) and the catechins adsorbed on the lipid membrane surface acting as scavengers of ·OH. In the high concentration range, however, the effect was diverse and it decreased with the increase of it in the case of EGCG. EGCG in this range was considered to enter into the interior of the membrane and break the structure, which causes the decrease of 16NS. Observation with transmission electron microscope (TEM) revealed that the size of the liposome became larger with the increasing concentration of EGCG and finally it was broken into fragments, showing that EGCG broadened the area of the liposome as expected from the result of ESR. (author)

  6. Adjusting cryodiluent composition for improved post-thaw quality of rabbit spermatozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally E Hall

    Full Text Available Improved fertility following artificial insemination with frozen-thawed spermatozoa would offer rabbit producers faster genetic improvement. Previous work investigating cryoprotectants for rabbit spermatozoa have reported inconsistent results. Semen was collected from three rabbit bucks by artificial vagina and frozen using a standard procedure with varied cryodiluent components. Post-thaw analysis encompassed motility, sperm kinematic parameters and acrosome and membrane integrity. Spermatozoa were evaluated at 0, 2 and 4 h after thawing. Experiment 1 compared diluents with 3.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 1.5% acetamide, 1.75% DMSO + 0.75% acetamide or 3.5% DMSO + 1.5% acetamide. The treatment that resulted in the highest post-thaw motility (P<0.001 and acrosome integrity (P<0.001 was DMSO alone. Experiment 2 compared 3.5, 7 and 10% DMSO in the cryodiluent. The best post-thaw sperm motility (P<0.001 and linearity (P = .002 was in 3.5% DMSO, while 10% DMSO afforded higher acrosome/membrane integrity at this last time point (P<0.05. Experiment 3 varied the cryodiluent to contain either 9 or 17% egg yolk or 9 or 17% low density lipoproteins extracted from whole egg yolk. The treatment with the best post-thaw result was 17% egg yolk (motility, P = 0.01; acrosome/membrane integrity, P<0.001. Experiment 4 compared different carbohydrates in the cryodiluent; 50 mM glucose (TCG, 25 mM glucose with 25 mM sucrose (TCGS low, or 50 mM glucose with 50 mM sucrose (TCGS high. When data were pooled across time points, TCG had significantly higher motility than TCGS high (P = 0.021, but was not different from TCGS low. However, TCG had fewer spermatozoa with intact acrosomes and membranes than both TCGS low and TCGS high (P = .002. Put together, these results indicate that the best cryodiluent for rabbit spermatozoa frozen under the conditions used in this paper is with 7% DMSO and 17% egg yolk in a base medium containing 25 mM glucose and 25 mM sucrose.

  7. Fate of egg proteins during the development of Columba livia domestica embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shbailat, Seba Jamal; Aslan, Ibtisam Omar

    2018-01-01

    The transfer of egg white into the yolk and consumption of yolk proteins by the embryo are largely unexplored in the pigeon Columba livia domestica. Here, we investigated the route of egg white transfer as well as the degradation and uptake of yolk proteins by the pigeon embryo. Initially, we tested the electrophoretic patterns of proteins in different egg compartments throughout development. Then, we used lysozyme as a reference protein to follow the egg white transfer, and we measured its activity using Micrococcus lysodeikticus as a substrate. Moreover, we determined the general protease activity during different developmental stages in the yolk using casein. Finally, we examined the expression of aminopeptidase-N (APN) and oligopeptide transporter PepT1 genes in the yolk sac membrane (YSM) from incubation day 8 until day 17. Several electrophoretic bands of presumptive egg white proteins appeared in different egg compartments. Also, lysozyme activity was detected chronologically in the egg compartments. It appeared on day 12 in the amniotic and intestinal fluids and on day 14 in the yolk. Moreover, protease activity in the yolk increased significantly on day 14 and thereafter. APN expression was largest on day 8 and reduced generally afterward, whereas PepT1 expression peaked between days 13 and 15 but then reduced substantially. Our results suggest that the egg white proteins move through the amnion and intestine into the yolk where they undergo degradation by the activated proteases. Furthermore, the YSM appears to have a role in protein consumption, and this role decreases toward hatch. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Replacing Corn and Wheat in Layer Diets with Hulless Oats Shows Effects on Sensory Properties and Yolk Quality of Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa R. Winkler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available US organic poultry producers are under pressure to find feed alternatives to corn and wheat. Hulless oats offer advantages such as wide geographic adaptation of the plant and high concentrations of protein and oil in the grain. They have shown considerable potential in experimental work as a feed grain for poultry, but more research is needed into their influence on the sensory and nutritional properties of eggs. In this study, hulless oats were substituted for corn or wheat at 200 g kg−1 in diets fed to Hy-Line Brown hens and eggs were sampled for sensory evaluation after 8 weeks. Discrimination tests of blended and baked egg samples found evidence of difference between eggs from oat-based diets and those from the oat-free control (p < 0.05 for eggs from an oat-corn diet, p < 0.01 for eggs from an oat-wheat diet. Acceptance tests of similar samples showed that eggs from the oat-wheat diet were significantly less liked than control eggs for their texture (p < 0.01 and response to cooking (p < 0.01, while eggs from the oat-corn diet were somewhat less liked. Yolk weight was greater (p < 0.05 in control eggs (34.1 g than eggs from oat-corn (31.6 g or oat-wheat (31.2 g diets, leading to smaller yolk proportion in the oat-fed eggs. Fatty acid profile differences across treatments were not of nutritional significance, and no evidence was found that the feeding of hulless oats improved storage properties of eggs. In this study, modifying the carbohydrate source in layer diets was shown to change textural properties of cooked eggs in a way that was perceptible to untrained consumers, probably by reducing the yolk proportion. This finding was not commercially relevant owing to small effect size, and results overall add to existing evidence that hulless oats can be fed to poultry at a moderate proportion of the diet with no negative effect on consumer acceptability of eggs. Regardless of the small effect size, however

  9. Experimental and theoretical NMR studies of interaction between phenylalanine derivative and egg yolk lecithin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wałęsa, Roksana; Ptak, Tomasz; Siodłak, Dawid; Kupka, Teobald; Broda, Małgorzata A

    2014-06-01

    The interaction of phenylalanine diamide (Ac-Phe-NHMe) with egg yolk lecithin (EYL) in chloroform was studied by (1)H and (13)C NMR. Six complexes EYL-Ac-Phe-NHMe, stabilized by N-H···O or/and C-H···O hydrogen bonds, were optimized at M06-2X/6-31G(d,p) level. The assignment of EYL and Ac-Phe-NHMe NMR signals was supported using GIAO (gauge including atomic orbital) NMR calculations at VSXC and B3LYP level of theory combined with STO-3Gmag basis set. Results of our study indicate that the interaction of peptides with lecithin occurs mainly in the polar 'head' of the lecithin. Additionally, the most probable lecithin site of H-bond interaction with Ac-Phe-NHMe is the negatively charged oxygen in phosphate group that acts as proton acceptor. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Egg Yolk Antibodies, State of the Art and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Rüdiger; Hlinak, Andreas

    1996-01-01

    Immunization of chickens and extraction of antibodies from egg yolk belongs to the alternative methods since the animals suffering is reduced by non-invasive antibody-sampling. Also, the number of animals needed to produce a certain amount of antibody can be reduced since chickens produce a significant higher antibody quantity than rabbits. Despite its several advantages this technology (IgY-technology) is rather scarcely used. Traditional behavior as well as limited or no information at all may hamper a broader acceptance at present. However, significant arguments exist in chicken housing, the choice of appropriate IgY-extraction methods and a lack of information regarding the use of IgY-antibodies. This paper intends to give a short introduction in the IgY-technology, to briefly discuss the state of the art and to inform on recent developments and discussions in this field. The suitability of IgY for special fields of application (as a result of the structural differences between IgY and IgG) is emphasized (e.g. assays combining IgG and IgY, immunization of chickens against highly conserved anti-genes). In addition, it is stressed that the IgY-technology as an alternative method can particularly integrate requirements of animal protection (reduce, replace, refine), science (characteristics of avian immune system and resulting properties of IgY) and economy (amount of IgY produced from one chicken).

  11. Effect of Different Levels of L-Carnitine on the Productive Performance, Egg Quality, Blood Parameters and Egg Yolk Cholesterol in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemi-Fard M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of L-carnitine on productive performance, egg quality and blood parameters in laying hens. Forty-eight Hy-Line W-36 egg Layers were weighed at 90 weeks of age and randomly allocated into 16 cages (three hens per cage. Four dietary treatments were prepared by supplementing L-carnitine (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of diet to corn-soybean meal diet and offered ad libitum to hens. After two weeks of acclimatization, the eggs were weighed daily and feed intake as well as egg quality traits were measured biweekly. At the end of the experiment, two hens from each cage were selected to determine blood parameters and two eggs from each replicate were collected for cholesterol analysis. Results showed that L-carnitine supplementation at 100 and 150 mg/kg significantly increased egg production and egg mass, but decreased yolk cholesterol content. Laying hens receiving diet containing 50 mg/kg L-carnitine had significantly higher Hough unit, but lower progesterone than the hens fed control diet (P < 0.05. The results of this study showed that supplementing hens' diet with L-carnitine had beneficial effects on productive performance and decreased yolk cholesterol concentration; so it can be used as an effective supplement in the diet of laying hens.

  12. Two different pathways for the transport of primitive and definitive blood cells from the yolk sac to the embryo in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Jaime; Monge, Juan I; Niimi, Gen

    2010-08-01

    During the early human embryonic period nutrients and blood cells are temporarily provided by the extraembryonic yolk sac (YS). The YS before week six is involved not only in primitive but also in definitive erythropoiesis. While the destiny of primitive erythroid cells that fill the blood vessels of the YS is well known, the final destination of erythrocytes present in the endodermal vesicular system is unknown. In the present study we have investigated, step by step, the destiny of the erythrocytes present in the endodermal vesicles during the embryonic period. Twelve human YSs and their corresponding yolk stalks were analyzed between weeks 4 and 7 of embryonic age by light and scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that erythrocytes (according to their size and morphological features) located within the endodermal vesicles of the YS wall are pulled out through endodermal pits into the YS cavity, from where they reach the lumen of the primitive gut of the embryo through the vitelline duct, a temporary pathway communicating both compartments. During the study period no erythrocytes were seen within the embryo's vascular network where only primitive erythroblasts were identified. Our results indicate that the vitelline duct plays an important transient role as a pathway for the transport of nutrients and blood cells between the YS and the embryo before week five of embryonic development that ends just at the time when YS-embryo circulation becomes established. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Targeted heavy-ion microbeam irradiation of the embryo but not yolk in the diapause-terminated egg of the silkworm, bombyx mori, induces the somatic mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusawa, Toshiharu; Fukamoto, Kana; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Funayama, Tomoo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kakizaki, Takehiko; Wada, Seiichi; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Hiromi; Ishioka, Noriaki; Nagaoka, Shunji

    2009-01-01

    Using heavy-ion microbeam, we report target irradiation of selected compartments within the diapause-terminated egg and its mutational consequences in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. On one hand, carbon-ion exposure of embryo to 0.5-6 Gy increased the somatic mutation frequency, suggesting targeted radiation effects. On the other, such increases were not observed when yolk was targeted, suggesting a lack of nontargeted bystander effect. (author)

  14. The impact of production type and region on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations in Canadian chicken egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Sadler, Amy R; Quade, Sue C; Sun, Wing-Fung; Kosarac, Ivana; Hayward, Stephen; Ryan, J Jake

    2012-11-01

    Chicken eggs from five different production types (conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range, organic and free run) were collected, when available, from three regions (west, central and east) of Canada to determine persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (∑37 congeners) in yolks from the eggs ranged from 0.162 ng g(-1) lipid to 24.8 ng g(-1) lipid (median 1.25 ng g(-1) lipid) while the concentration of the sum of the 6 indicator PCBs ranged from 0.100 ng g(-1) lipid to 9.33 ng g(-1) lipid (median 0.495 ng g(-1) lipid). Total polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations ranged from 2.37 pg g(-1) lipid to 382 pg g(-1) lipid (median 9.53 pg g(-1) lipid). The 2005 WHO toxic equivalency (TEQ) ranged from 0.089 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+dioxin-like[DL]-PCB) g(-1) lipid to 12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid (median 0.342 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations were significantly different (pcollection. In contrast to observations in Europe, PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in Canadian egg yolks were not impacted solely by the production type (e.g., conventional, free range, organic, etc.) used to maintain the laying chickens. Additionally, only one Canadian free range yolk from western Canada (12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid) exceeded the European toxic equivalent concentration limits for eggs (5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). This differs from observations in Europe where free range/home produced eggs frequently have higher POP concentrations than eggs from other production types. Median PCB dietary intake estimates based on consumption of eggs were less than 10 ng d(-1) while median PCDD/F intakes were less than 45 pg d(-1). Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sperm-egg penetration assay assessment of the contraceptive effects of glycerol and egg yolk in rooster sperm diluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelezz, F M K; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Esteso, M C; López-Sebastián, A; Campo, J L; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2015-06-01

    Glycerol (GLY) and egg yolk (EY) are good cryoprotectants of avian and mammalian sperm, but in birds, they strongly inhibit the eventual fertilization of ova. Using the sperm penetration (SP-holes) assay and fertility trials, the present study investigates (1) the possible mechanism by which this contraceptive effect occurs in chickens and (2) the maximum concentrations of GLY and EY tolerated by fresh rooster sperm. Seventy Black-Barred Andaluza hens (five per treatment) were inseminated four times (twice per week) with 0.1 mL of fresh semen from roosters of the same breed diluted 1:1 (v:v) with Lake and Ravie medium containing different concentrations of GLY or EY. No adverse effects on acrosome integrity, sperm motility, or viability were seen with any concentration of GLY or EY. The number of SP-holes on perivitelline layer samples taken from above the germinal disc became progressively lower at GLY concentrations of 1.5% or greater (P > 0.05). No holes caused by sperms were seen in unfertilized eggs. The corresponding fertility results showed similar reductions when the GLY concentration was 1.5% or greater. No changes in the number of SP-holes were seen with increasing EY concentrations (0%-7.5%), nor were any differences in fertility observed, except for a reduction when 15% EY was used. The results therefore reveal that GLY affects the transit of sperms through the oviduct in their attempt to reach the infundibulum area, limiting their access to the ovum perivitelline layer. Egg yolk had no such effect, nor did it influence acrosome reaction capacity; its mechanism of contraceptive action therefore remains unknown. The maximum GLY and EY concentrations tolerated by the rooster sperm were 0.75% and 7.5%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effect of Egg Yolk Chicken Utilization In Fat Liquoring Process to Tensile Strength, Elongation at Break, Water Absorption and Shank Skin Leather Stitch Tear Strength of Combination Tanning (Chrome – Tannine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustakim Mustakim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research were to examine level of egg yolk chicken utilization that effective in fat liquoring process to tensile strength, elongation at break, watter absorptin and stitchtear strength of combination tann (Chrome – tannine of shank skin. The material used were fresh shank skin which seven week old, fresh egg with prserved for not more seven days. Data analyse used  in this study was complete randomice desaign (CRD. The research treatment was level of egg yolk utilization that are 5 % (P1, 7,5 % (P2, 10,0 % (P3 and 12,5 % (P4. Each treatment repeated four times, and the control using 6,0 % paradol HISN oil (%age calculated from the weight of wet blue. The result shown that rates of tensile strength of P1, P2, P3, P4 respectively were 67,93, 88,09, 89,31, 70,00 kg/cm2. Elongation at break by 24,5, 29,5, 30,0, 28,0 %. Watter absorption by 181,54, 146,20, 132,81, 132,56 %, and stritchtear strength by 43,00, 63,80, 69,50, 60,98 kg/cm. The utilization level of egg yolk 10 % could produce a better tensile strength and elongation at break, watter absorption and stitchtearstrength. It was suggested for used as fat liquoring agent in tanning process shsnk., skin leather. Keywords : Fat liquoring, Tensile strength, Elongation at break, Watter absorbtion,Stitchtear strength

  17. Effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on performance, egg quality, yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activity of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z H; Gong, J G; Zhao, G X; Lin, X; Liu, Y C; Ma, K W

    2017-10-01

    1. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on laying performance, egg quality, egg yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 360 Beijing PINK-1 laying hens (60 weeks old) were randomly distributed among five dietary treatments, each of which included 6 replicates of 12 hens. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg diet resveratrol. The study lasted for 9 weeks including 1 week of adaptation and 8 weeks of the main experimental period. 3. The results indicated that dietary resveratrol significantly improved feed conversion ratios during 5-8 weeks and 1-8 weeks of the trial. Increasing dietary concentrations of the resveratrol linearly improved Haugh unit and albumen height of eggs. 4. The content of total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) in serum and cholesterol in yolk was significantly decreased by dietary resveratrol, and there were significant linear correlations between these indexes and resveratrol supplemental levels. 5. Dietary resveratrol supplementation significantly improved serum Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activity and decreased serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content in groups with 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg resveratrol as compared to the control, respectively. However, supplementation of resveratrol did not affect the activity of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD). 6. It is concluded that resveratrol supplementation has a positive effect on performance, lipid-related traits and antioxidant activity of laying hens.

  18. Egg Yolk Protein Delays Recovery while Ovalbumin Is Useful in Recovery from Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Kobayashi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein is a main nutrient involved in overall iron metabolism in vivo. In order to assess the prevention of iron deficiency anemia (IDA by diet, it is necessary to confirm the influence of dietary protein, which coexists with iron, on iron bioavailability. We investigated the usefulness of the egg structural protein in recovery from IDA. Thirty-one female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control group (n = 6 fed a casein diet (4.0 mg Fe/100 g for 42 days and an IDA model group (n = 25 created by feeding a low-iron casein diet (LI, 0.4 mg Fe/100 g for 21 days and these IDA rats were fed normal iron diet with different proteins from eggs for another 21 days. The IDA rats were further divided into four subgroups depending on the proteins fed during the last 21 days, which were those with an egg white diet (LI-W, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6, those with an ovalbumin diet (LI-A, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 7, those with an egg yolk-supplemented diet (LI-Y, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6, and the rest with a casein diet (LI-C, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6. In the LI-Y group, recovery of the hematocrit, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation level and the hepatic iron content were delayed compared to the other groups (p < 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively, resulting in no recovery from IDA at the end of the experimental period. There were no significant differences in blood parameters in the LI-W and LI-A groups compared to the control group. The hepatic iron content of the LI-W and LI-A groups was higher than that of the LI-C group (p < 0.05. We found that egg white protein was useful for recovery from IDA and one of the efficacious components was ovalbumin, while egg yolk protein delayed recovery of IDA. This study demonstrates, therefore, that bioavailability of dietary iron varies depending on the source of dietary protein.

  19. Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect on laying performance and egg quality resulting from total substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber sunflower meal (SFM; Helianthus annus L.) meal in diet of hens. ISA Brown layers, 28 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were kept in a free-range environment and fed 2 wheat middling-based diets consisting of a control diet, which contained SBM (153 g/kg of diet), and a test diet containing low-fiber SFM (160 g/kg of diet) as the main protein source. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Low-fiber SFM was obtained by a combination of sieving and air classification processes. Feed consumption was recorded daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were collected weekly to evaluate egg components and quality. The total substitution of SBM with low-fiber SFM had no adverse effect on growth performance of laying hens. Egg production and none of egg quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P eggs (P egg yolk total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P egg quality and to develop low-cholesterol eggs. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. A yolk-shell V2O5 structure assembled from ultrathin nanosheets and coralline-shaped carbon as advanced electrodes for a high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ling-Li; Zhao, Gang-Gang; Huang, Ke-Jing; Wu, Xu

    2018-02-13

    Various V 2 O 5 three-dimensional nanostructures are synthesized using a facile template-free hydrothermal method and evaluated for use as supercapacitor electrode materials. As a result, the yolk-shell structure assembled from ultrathin nanosheets shows the best electrochemical performance, with a specific capacitance of 704.17 F g -1 at 1.0 A g -1 and a high capacity retention of 89% over 4000 cycles at 3.0 A g -1 . In addition, a continuous three-dimensional porous coralline-shaped carbon is synthesized from osmanthus and has a large Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 2840.88 m 2 g -1 . Then, an asymmetric supercapacitor is developed using the as-prepared yolk-shell V 2 O 5 as a positive electrode and the osmanthus derived coralline-shaped carbon as a negative electrode. This exhibits an energy density of 29.49 W h kg -1 at a power density of 800 W kg -1 with a good cycling performance that retains 90.6% of its initial capacity after 2000 cycles at 3.0 A g -1 . Furthermore, two cells in series can easily brightly light up a light-emitting diode (3 V), further demonstrating the great potential of the prepared materials for high-performance supercapacitor devices.

  1. Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, W. S. Winston

    2012-10-02

    Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes are provided. The membranes can include at least one hydrophilic polymer, at least one cross-linking agent, at least one base, and at least one amino compound. The methods of separating gases using membranes can include contacting a gas stream containing at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl with one side of a nonporous and at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl selectively permeable membrane such that at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl is selectively transported through the membrane.

  2. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erşahin, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become

  3. Transfer of Immunity from Mother to Offspring Is Mediated via Egg-Yolk Protein Vitellogenin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Salmela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Insect immune systems can recognize specific pathogens and prime offspring immunity. High specificity of immune priming can be achieved when insect females transfer immune elicitors into developing oocytes. The molecular mechanism behind this transfer has been a mystery. Here, we establish that the egg-yolk protein vitellogenin is the carrier of immune elicitors. Using the honey bee, Apis mellifera, model system, we demonstrate with microscopy and western blotting that vitellogenin binds to bacteria, both Paenibacillus larvae--the gram-positive bacterium causing American foulbrood disease--and to Escherichia coli that represents gram-negative bacteria. Next, we verify that vitellogenin binds to pathogen-associated molecular patterns; lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan and zymosan, using surface plasmon resonance. We document that vitellogenin is required for transport of cell-wall pieces of E. coli into eggs by imaging tissue sections. These experiments identify vitellogenin, which is distributed widely in oviparous species, as the carrier of immune-priming signals. This work reveals a molecular explanation for trans-generational immunity in insects and a previously undescribed role for vitellogenin.

  4. Fetal Bovine Serum dalam Pengencer Tris Mempertahankan Kehidupan dan Keutuhan Membran Plasma Spermatozoa Semen Beku Domba Garut (FETAL BOVINE SERUM IN TRIS EXTENDER MAINTAINING SPERMATOZOA VIABILITY AND PLASMA MEMBRANE INTEGRITY OF GARUT RAM FROZEN SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of fetal bovine serum (FBS against thequality of garut ram frozen semen. Semen was collected from one mature garut ram using artificial vagina.Fresh semen were evaluated then divided into four tubes at equal volume and each tube were diluted withTris extender containing 20% egg yolk (TEY-20, as control; TEY-20 + 8% FBS (FBS-8; TEY-20 + 10% FBS(FBS-10; and TEY-20 + 12% FBS (FBS-12, respectively. Semen at the concentration of 100x106 motilespermatozoa was loaded in 0.25 ml mini straw. Semen was equilibrated at 50C for three hours, then freezeand stored in liquid nitrogen container. The quality of the spermatozoa including percentages of motileand live spermatozoa, intact plasma membrane (IPM were evaluated following diluting, equilibratingand thawing process. A Complete Randomized design using four treatments and five replicates were usedin the study. The results showed that there was no significant difference (p<0.05 in percentage of motilespermatozoa following thawing between the control (44.0% and FBS-8 (46.0%, FBS-10 (48.0%, andFBS-12 (47.0%, respectively. The percentage of live spermatozoa and IPM were significantly higher (p<0.05in the FBS-8 (69.0% and 58.2%; FBS-10 (72.4% and 61.2%; FBS-12 (72.2% and 64.4% compared to thecontrol (64.8% and 52.8%, respectively. In conclusion, the addition of FBS into Tris extender was able tomaintain the viability and integrity of plasma membrane of garut ram frozen semen.

  5. Effects of dietary combination of chromium and biotin on egg production, serum metabolites, and egg yolk mineral and cholesterol concentrations in heat-distressed laying quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, K; Onderci, M; Sahin, N; Gursu, M F; Vijaya, J; Kucuk, O

    2004-11-01

    Chromium picolinate is used in the poultry diet because of its antistress effects in addition to the fact that the requirement for it is increased during stress. This study was conducted to determine if the negative effects of high ambient temperature (34 degrees C) on egg production, egg quality, antioxidant status, and cholesterol and mineral content of egg yolk could be alleviated by combination of chromium picolinate and biotin (0.6/2.0; Diachrome, as formulated by Nutrition 21 Inc.), in laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japanica). Quails (n= 240; 50 d old) were divided into 8 groups, 30 birds per group. The quails were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 2, 4, or 8 mg of Diachrome/kg diet. Birds were kept at 22 degrees C and 53% relative humidity (RH). At 14 wk of age, the thermoneutral (TN) group remained in the same temperature as at the beginning of experiment, whereas the heat stress (HS) group was kept in an environment-controlled room (34 degrees C and 41% RH) for 3 wk. Heat exposure decreased performance when the basal diet was fed (p = 0.001). Diachrome supplementation at 4 and 8 mg/kg diet, increased feed intake (p = 0.05), egg production (p = 0.05), feed efficiency (p = 0.01), egg weight (p = 0.05), and Haugh unit (p = 0.01) in quails reared under heat stress conditions. Heat exposure increased concentrations of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) (p = 0.001), glucose, and cholesterol (p = 0.01), which were elevated by supplemental Diachrome (p < or = 0.05). Egg yolk Cr, Zn, and Fe (p = 0.01) concentrations increased linearly, whereas MDA and cholesterol concentrations decreased (p = 0.05) as dietary Diachrome supplementation increased in HS groups. Similar effects of supplementation on serum levels of glucose and cholesterol (p = 0.05) and egg yolk concentrations of cholesterol (p = 0.05) and Cr (p = 0.01) were observed in TN groups. No significant differences in other values were observed in the TN groups. Results of the

  6. Multi-yolk-shell SnO2/Co3Sn2@C Nanocubes with High Initial Coulombic Efficiency and Oxygen Reutilization for Lithium Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Liwei; Xu, Yawei; Xie, Jian; Wang, Lianbang; Wang, Yuanhao

    2016-12-28

    The challenging problems of SnO 2 anode material for lithium ion batteries are the poor electronic conductivity and the low oxygen reutilization due to the irreversibility of Li 2 O generated in the initial discharge leading to a theoretical initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE) of only 52.4%. Different from these strategies, this work proposes a novel strategy to level up the oxygen reutilization in SnO 2 by introducing Co 3 Sn 2 nanoalloys which can release Co atoms to reversibly react with Li 2 O instead. According to this protocol, multi-yolk-shell SnO 2 /Co 3 Sn 2 @C nanocubes are designed and successfully prepared using hollow CoSn(OH) 6 nanocubes as precursors followed a hydrothermal carbon coating and calcination treatment. The unique multi-yolk-shell nanostructure offers adequate breathing space for the volumetric deformation during long-term cycling. Moreover, the removal of Li 2 O allows a high electronic conductivity and resultant rate performance. As a result, the efficient reutilization of oxygen enables a high ICE of 71.7% and a reversible capacity of 1003 mA h g -1 after 200 cycles at 100 mA g -1 . Cyclic voltammetry, cycling performance at different voltage windows, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm the proposed mechanism. This strategy employing oxygen-poor metals or alloys provides a novel approach to enhance the oxygen reutilization in SnO 2 for higher reversibility.

  7. Smart membranes for monitoring membrane based desalination processes

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-10-12

    Various examples are related to smart membranes for monitoring membrane based process such as, e.g., membrane distillation processes. In one example, a membrane, includes a porous surface and a plurality of sensors (e.g., temperature, flow and/or impedance sensors) mounted on the porous surface. In another example, a membrane distillation (MD) process includes the membrane. Processing circuitry can be configured to monitor outputs of the plurality of sensors. The monitored outputs can be used to determine membrane degradation, membrane fouling, or to provide an indication of membrane replacement or cleaning. The sensors can also provide temperatures or temperature differentials across the porous surface, which can be used to improve modeling or control the MD process.

  8. Recent advances on polymeric membranes for membrane reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Buonomenna, M. G.; Choi, Seung Hak

    2012-01-01

    . The successful use of membranes in membrane reactors is primary the result of two developments concerning: (i) membrane materials and (ii) membrane structures. The selection of a suited material and preparation technique depends on the application the membrane

  9. Giant seminoma case with very small yolk sac and embryo carcinoma components, detected by intensive histopathological examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Nakaya, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We experienced the giant seminoma with 18 × 10 × 10 cm sized and about 2.6 kg weight of 25 year old patient. We intensively examined the histological tissue type distributions in this giant seminoma. Most of the tumor consisted of seminoma components. In addition, the tumor included the very small fragments of yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma component at the root part of the seminoma mass. This shows that intensive histological examination may contribute to the finding of other embryonic component of the large seminoma. This may show that leaving the seminoma growing may generate the other embryonic tumor component, not always big enough to find out in a routine procedure, during the growth, in the different way from the original mixed cell germ tumor.

  10. Recent advances on polymeric membranes for membrane reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Buonomenna, M. G.

    2012-06-24

    Membrane reactors are generally applied in high temperature reactions (>400 °C). In the field of fine chemical synthesis, however, much milder conditions are generally applicable and polymeric membranes were applied without their damage. The successful use of membranes in membrane reactors is primary the result of two developments concerning: (i) membrane materials and (ii) membrane structures. The selection of a suited material and preparation technique depends on the application the membrane is to be used in. In this chapter a review of up to date literature about polymers and configuration catalyst/ membranes used in some recent polymeric membrane reactors is given. The new emerging concept of polymeric microcapsules as catalytic microreactors has been proposed. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. All rights reserved.

  11. Protective effects of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against experimental Vibrio splendidus infection in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Jing, Kailin; Wang, Xitao; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Meixia; Li, Zhen; Xu, Le; Wang, Lili; Xu, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio splendidus is one of the most harmful pathogens associated with skin ulceration syndrome in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) due to its high virulence and frequency of appearance. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against V. splendidus infection in the sea cucumber. Whole V. splendidus cells were used as an immunogen to immunize 20 White Leghorn hens (25 weeks old). IgY was produced from egg yolks obtained from these immunized hens using water dilution, two-step salt precipitation and ultrafiltration. The purity of the IgY produced was approximately 83%. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay indicated a high specificity for IgY with a maximum antibody titer of 320,000. The growth of V. splendidus in liquid medium was significantly inhibited by IgY in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 mg/mL. The protective effects of IgY were evaluated in sea cucumber by intraperitoneally injecting anti-V. splendidus IgY antibodies (10 mg/mL) or immersing the sea cucumber in aqueous IgY (1 g/L) after an intraperitoneal injection of V. splendidus. Intraperitoneal injection resulted in an 80% survival while immersion resulted in a 75% survival during the 11-day experimental period. The survival rates were significantly higher than the positive control and the non-specific IgY group (P sea cucumber treated with specific IgY than those treated with non-specific IgY. The phagocytosis of coelomocytes for V. splendidus in the presence of specific IgY was significantly (P sea cucumbers against V. splendidus infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on ram semen freeze ability and fertility using soybean lecithin- and egg yolk-based extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, R; Sharafi, M; Zare Shahneh, A; Towhidi, A; Kohram, H; Zhandi, M; Esmaeili, V; Shahverdi, A

    2016-10-01

    Ram semen cryopreservation is not efficient for artificial insemination in commercial herds. Beneficial effects of dietary fish oil have been evaluated for cryopreservation of ram semen in soybean lecithin (SL) and egg yolk (EY)-based extenders. A factorial study (two diets × two extenders) was used to analyze the effects of two diets supplemented with fish oil (n-3 fatty acid) or palm oil (saturated fatty acids; [SFAs]) to freeze ram semen in two extenders containing SL or EY. Motility characteristics, membrane integrity, abnormal morphology, mitochondria activity, acrosome integrity, apoptotic status, and fertilizing ability were assessed after freeze-thawing. Although diet had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effects on the quality parameters of frozen-thawed sperm, effects of extenders on these traits were not significant (P > 0.05). The higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of total motility and progressive motility were observed in n-3/SL (44.83 ± 1.56 and 28.33 ± 1.4) and n-3/EY (43.33 ± 1.56 and 28.50 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL (32.16 ± 1.56 and 14.00 ± 1.4) and SFA/EY (31.66 ± 1.56 and 12.66 ± 1.4) groups. Moreover, n-3/SL and n-3/EY produced the higher significant (P ≤ 0.05) percentage of membrane integrity of sperm (39.83 ± 1.4 and 37.33 ± 1.4) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (29.83 ± 1.4 and 28.5 ± 1.4). For viability results, the higher significant percentage of live sperm was observed in n-3/SL and n-3/EY (43.16 ± 1.38 and 45.66 ± 1.38) than SFA/SL and SFA/EY (28.66 ± 1.38 and 27.5 ± 1.38). For fertility trials, n-3-based diets (n-3/SL and n-3/EY) improved significantly (P ≤ 0.05) pregnancy rate (44% and 46%), parturition rate (42% and 42%), and lambing rate (46% and 44%) compared with the SFA-based diets (SFA/SL and SFA/EY). No interaction effects have been found between diets and extenders (P > 0.05). It seems that dietary fish oil can improve the semen performance after freezing-thawing process and

  13. Hen egg yolk antibodies (IgY, production and use for passive immunization against bacterial enteric infections in chicken: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalghoumi R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteric infections caused by Salmonella remain a major public health burden worldwide. Poultry, particularly chickens, are known to be the main reservoir for this zoonotic pathogen. Therefore, the prevention and monitoring of Salmonella infection during the live phase may greatly reduce the contamination of poultry meat during slaughter and processing. With the ban on sub-therapeutic antibiotic usage in Europe and the increasingly strictness of the European legislation on food hygiene, passive immunization by oral administration of pathogen-specific hen egg yolk antibody (IgY may be a useful and attractive alternative. This review offers summarized information about IgY production and the use of these antibodies for passive immunization, particularly in poultry.

  14. X-radiation damage of hydrated lecithin membranes detected by real-time X-ray diffraction using wiggler-enhanced synchrotron radiation as the ionizing radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffrey, M.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY

    1984-01-01

    Radiation damage of hydrated lecithin membranes brought about by exposure to wiggler-derived synchrotron radiation at 8.3 keV (1.5 A) is reported. Considerable damage was observed with exposures under 1 h at an incident flux density of 3 x 10 10 photons s -1 mm -2 , corresponding to a cumulative radiation dose of <= 10 MRad. Damage was so dramatic as to be initially observed while making real-time X-ray diffraction measurements on the sample. The damaging effects of 8.3 keV X-rays on dispersions of dipalmitoyllecithin and lecithin derived from hen egg yolk are as follows: (1) marked changes were noted in the X-ray diffraction behaviour, indicating disruption of membrane stacking. (2) Chemical breakdown of lecithin was observed. (3) The X-ray beam visibly damaged the sample and changed the appearance of the lipid dispersion, when viewed under the light microscope. Considering the importance of X-ray diffraction as a structural probe and the anticipated use of synchrotron radiation in studies involving membranes, the problem of radiation damage must be duly recognized. Furthermore, since dipalmitoyllecithin, the major lipid used in the present study, is a relatively stable compound, it is not unreasonable to expect that X-ray damage may be a problem with other less stable biological and non-biological materials. These results serve to emphasize that whenever a high intensity X-ray source is used, radiation damage can be a problem and that the sensitivity of the sample must always be evaluated under the conditions of measurement. (orig.)

  15. Membrane fouling mechanism of biofilm-membrane bioreactor (BF-MBR): Pore blocking model and membrane cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Wenxiang; Tang, Bing; Ding, Jie; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Zhien

    2018-02-01

    Biofilm membrane bioreactor (BF-MBR) is considered as an important wastewater treatment technology that incorporates advantages of both biofilm and MBR process, as well as can alleviate membrane fouling, with respect to the conventional activated sludge MBR. But, to be efficient, it necessitates the establishment of proper methods for the assessment of membrane fouling. Four Hermia membrane blocking models were adopted to quantify and evaluate the membrane fouling of BF-MBR. The experiments were conducted with various operational conditions, including membrane types, agitation speeds and transmembrane pressure (TMP). Good agreement between cake formation model and experimental data was found, confirming the validity of the Hermia models for assessing the membrane fouling of BF-MBR and that cake layer deposits on membrane. Moreover, the influences of membrane types, agitation speeds and transmembrane pressure on the Hermia pore blocking coefficient of cake layer were investigated. In addition, the permeability recovery after membrane cleaning at various operational conditions was studied. This work confirms that, unlike conventional activated sludge MBR, BF-MBR possesses a low degree of membrane fouling and a higher membrane permeability recovery after cleaning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of different extenders on DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa following freezing-thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian-hong; Li, Qing-wang; Jiang, Zhong-liang; Li, Wen-ye

    2008-12-01

    The sperm-rich fraction, collected from eight mature Yorkshire boars, was frozen in an extender containing 9% LDL (w/v), 100mM trehalose, or 20% yolk (v/v), respectively. Sperm DNA integrity was assessed using the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Other sperm quality characteristics such as motility, acrosome and membrane integrity were also monitored. The results showed that freezing-thawing caused an increase in sperm DNA fragmentation, and extender containing 9% LDL could significantly protect sperm DNA integrity (Pextender containing 100mM trehalose and 20% yolk (v/v). No significant difference in damaged DNA was detected between frozen and unfrozen semen samples for extender of 9% LDL and 100mM trehalose, but cryopreservation could increase the degree of DNA damage (Pboar sperm DNA damage and protecting DNA integrity. It can be suggested that evaluation of sperm DNA integrity, coupled with correlative and basic characteristics such as motility, acrosome integrity and membrane integrity, may aid in determining the quality of frozen boar semen.

  17. Experimental Investigations of Direct and Converse Flexoelectric Effect in Bilayer Lipid Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Angelio Todorov

    Flexoelectric coefficients (direct and converse), electric properties (capacitance and resistivity) and mechanical properties (thickness and elastic coefficients) have been determined for bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) prepared from egg yolk lecithin (EYL), glycerol monoleate (GMO), phosphatidyl choline (PC) and phosphatidyl serine (PS) as a function of frequency, pH and surface charge modifiers. Direct flexoelectric effect manifested itself in the development of microvolt range a.c. potential (U_{f}) upon subjecting one side of a BLM to an oscillating hydrostatic pressure, in the 100-1000 Hz range. Operationally, the flexoelectric coefficient (f) is expressed by the ratio between U_{f} and the change of curvature (c) which accompanied the flexing of the membrane. Membrane curvature was determined by means of either the electric method (capacitance microphone effect) or by the newly developed method of stroboscopic interferometry. Real-time stroboscopic interferometry coupled with simultaneous electric measurements, provided a direct method for the determination of f. Two different frequency regimes of f were recognized. At low frequencies (300 Hz), associated with free mobility of the surfactant, f-values of 24.1 times 10^{-19} and 0.87 times 10^ {-19} Coulombs were obtained for PC and GMO BLMs. At high frequencies (>300 Hz), associated with blocked mobility of the surfactant, f-values of 16.5 times 10^ {-19} and 0.30 times 10^{-19} Coulombs were obtained for PC and GMO BLMs. The theoretically calculated value for the GMO BLM oscillating at high frequency (0.12 times 10^{-19 } Coulombs) agreed well with that determined experimentally (0.3 times 10 ^{-19} Coulombs). For charged bovine brain PS BLM the observed flexocoefficient was f = 4.0 times 10^{ -18} Coulombs. Converse flexoelectric effect manifested itself in voltage-induced BLM curvature. Observations were carried out on uranyl acetate (UA) stabilized PS BLM under a.c. excitation. Frequency dependence of f

  18. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...... for the lateral organization of membranes as wells as for physical properties like bending, permeability and elasticity...

  19. Protein nutrition and metabolism during early development of the chick embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, N.W.

    1976-01-01

    Cultures of intact early chick embryos have been used as a model system in which to study the nutrition and metabolism of proteins during early embryonic development. Previous studies have shown that these embryos require nutrient proteins for growth and development. The protein requirement was found to be specific in that at least two proteins were essential; one a transferrin (either conalbumin or yolk transferrin) and the other either ovalbumin or lipovitellin. Variations in the quantity or type of protein provided in the medium altered the growth of embryo regions through regionally specific changes in protein breakdown. This was confirmed through protein synthetic studies with isolated polyribosomes. More recently such variations in protein nutrition have been shown also to affect the actual patterns of proteins synthesized by regions of the embryo. These observed responses to protein nutrition have been difficult to reconcile with our observation that proteins as such did not reach the embryo proper but were first degraded to amine acids within the yolk-sac membrane. Studies on the synthesis of serum proteins by the yolk-sac membrane have provided a possible explanation in that the relative synthesis of individual serum proteins was dramatically influenced by the protein composition of the culture medium. We are currently attempting to demonstrate that serum proteins are indeed the mediators of the response of embryos to protein nutrition. (author)

  20. Inverse colloidal crystal membranes for hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Anh T; Wang, Xinying; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil; Yu, Bing; Yuan, Hua; Cong, Hailin; Luo, Yongli; Tang, Jianguo

    2015-08-01

    Hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography has gained interest due to its excellent performance in the purification of humanized monoclonal antibodies. The membrane material used in hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography has typically been commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride. In this contribution, newly developed inverse colloidal crystal membranes that have uniform pores, high porosity and, therefore, high surface area for protein binding are used as hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography membranes for humanized monoclonal antibody immunoglobulin G purification. The capacity of the inverse colloidal crystal membranes developed here is up to ten times greater than commercially available polyvinylidene fluoride membranes with a similar pore size. This work highlights the importance of developing uniform pore size high porosity membranes in order to maximize the capacity of hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The impact of N-glycosylation on conformation and stability of immunoglobulin Y from egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Long; He, Zhenjiao; Chen, Jiahui; Liu, Yaofa; Ma, Meihu; Cai, Zhaoxia

    2017-03-01

    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is a new therapeutic antibody, and its applications in industry are very broad. To provide insight into the effects of N-glycosylation on IgY, its conformation and stability were studied. In this research, IgY was extracted from egg yolk and then digested by peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) asparagine-amidase. SDS-PAGE and infrared absorption spectrum showed that carbohydrates were distinctly reduced after enzymolysis. The circular dichroism spectrum indicated that the IgY molecule became more flexible and disordered after removal of N-glycan. The fluorescence intensity revealed that Trp residues were buried in a more hydrophobic environment after disposal of N-glycan. Storage stability decreased with the removal of oligosaccharide chains based on size-exclusion chromatography analysis. Deglycosylated IgY exhibited less resistance to guanidine hydrochloride-induced unfolding. After deglycosylation, IgY was more sensitive to pepsin. Therefore, N-glycosylation played an important role in the maintenance of the structure and stability of IgY. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasmon enhanced fluoro-immunoassay using egg yolk antibodies for ultra-sensitive detection of herbicide diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Kukkar, Manil; Ganguli, Ashok K; Bhasin, Aman; Suri, C Raman

    2013-08-07

    Plasmon enhanced fluorescence immunoassay (PEFI) format has been reported in developing a sensitive heterogeneous fluoroimmunoassay for monitoring the phenylurea herbicide diuron. Computer-assisted molecular modeling was carried out to study the conformational and electrostatic effects of synthesized hapten for producing highly specific egg yolk antibody against a phenyl urea herbicide diuron. The generated antibodies were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate at different molar ratios and used as tracer in the developed fluorescence based immunoassay. The sensitivity of the assay format was enhanced by using silver nanoparticles tagged with bovine serum albumin as a new blocking reagent in the developed PEFI format. Enhancer treatment on the developed immunoassay showed a significant improvement of fluorescence signal intensity with approximately 10 fold increase in assay sensitivity. The immunoassay has a detection limit of 0.01 ng mL(-1) with good signal precision (~2%) in the optimum working concentration range between 1 pg mL(-1) to 10 μg mL(-1) of diuron. These findings facilitate high throughput fluorescence-based processes that could be useful in biology, drug discovery and compound screening applications.

  3. Smart membranes for monitoring membrane based desalination processes

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Karam, Ayman M.

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are related to smart membranes for monitoring membrane based process such as, e.g., membrane distillation processes. In one example, a membrane, includes a porous surface and a plurality of sensors (e.g., temperature, flow and

  4. Biomimetic membranes and methods of making biomimetic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempe, Susan; Brinker, Jeffrey C.; Rogers, David Michael; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Yang, Shaorong

    2016-11-08

    The present disclosure is directed to biomimetic membranes and methods of manufacturing such membranes that include structural features that mimic the structures of cellular membrane channels and produce membrane designs capable of high selectivity and high permeability or adsorptivity. The membrane structure, material and chemistry can be selected to perform liquid separations, gas separation and capture, ion transport and adsorption for a variety of applications.

  5. Gel layer formation on membranes in Membrane Bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Brink, P.F.H.

    2014-01-01

    The widespread application of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for municipal wastewater treatment is hampered by membrane fouling. Fouling increases energy demand, reduces process performance and creates the need for more frequent (chemical) membrane cleaning or replacement. Membrane fouling in MBRs is

  6. Cathepsin activities and membrane integrity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) oocytes after freezing to -196 degrees C using controlled slow cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T; Rawson, D M; Tosti, L; Carnevali, O

    2008-04-01

    This study investigated enzymatic activity of cathepsins and the membrane integrity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) oocytes after freezing to -196 degrees C using controlled slow cooling. Stage III oocytes (>0.5mm), obtained through dissection of anaesthetised female fish and desegregation of ovarian cumulus, were exposed to 2M methanol or 2M DMSO (both prepared in Hank's medium) for 30min at 22 degrees C before being loaded into 0.5ml plastic straws and placed into a programmable cooler. After controlled slow freezing, samples were plunged into liquid nitrogen (LN) and held for at least 10min, and thawed by immersing straws into a 27 degrees C water bath for 10s. Thawed oocytes were washed twice in Hank's medium. Cathepsin activity and membrane integrity of oocytes were assessed both after cryoprotectant treatment at 22 degrees C and after freezing in LN. Cathepsin B and L colorimetric analyses were performed using substrates Z-Arg-ArgNNap and Z-Phe-Arg-4MbetaNA-HCl, respectively, and 2-naphthylamine and 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine were used as standards. Cathepsin D activity was performed by analysing the level of hydrolytic action on haemoglobin. Oocytes membrane integrity was assessed using 0.2% Trypan blue staining for 5min. Analysis of cathepsin activities showed that whilst the activity of cathepsin B and D was not affected by 2M DMSO treatment, their activity was lowered when treated with 2M methanol. Following freezing to -196 degrees C, the activity of all cathepsins (B, D and L) was significantly decreased in both 2M DMSO and 2M methanol. Trypan blue staining showed that 63.0+/-11.3% and 72.7+/-5.2% oocytes membrane stayed intact after DMSO and methanol treatment for 30min at 22 degrees C, respectively, whilst 14.9+/-2.6% and 1.4+/-0.8% stayed intact after freezing in DMSO and methanol to -196 degrees C. The results indicate that cryoprotectant treatment and freezing modified the activities of lysosomal enzymes involved in oocyte maturation and yolk

  7. Nanodisc-solubilized membrane protein library reflects the membrane proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Michael T; Wilcox, Kyle C; Klein, William L; Sligar, Stephen G

    2013-05-01

    The isolation and identification of unknown membrane proteins offers the prospect of discovering new pharmaceutical targets and identifying key biochemical receptors. However, interactions between membrane protein targets and soluble ligands are difficult to study in vitro due to the insolubility of membrane proteins in non-detergent systems. Nanodiscs, nanoscale discoidal lipid bilayers encircled by a membrane scaffold protein belt, have proven to be an effective platform to solubilize membrane proteins and have been used to study a wide variety of purified membrane proteins. This report details the incorporation of an unbiased population of membrane proteins from Escherichia coli membranes into Nanodiscs. This solubilized membrane protein library (SMPL) forms a soluble in vitro model of the membrane proteome. Since Nanodiscs contain isolated proteins or small complexes, the SMPL is an ideal platform for interactomics studies and pull-down assays of membrane proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the protein population before and after formation of the Nanodisc library indicates that a large percentage of the proteins are incorporated into the library. Proteomic identification of several prominent bands demonstrates the successful incorporation of outer and inner membrane proteins into the Nanodisc library.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation and storage on lutein and zeaxanthin in liquid, frozen and dried egg yolk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine Uygun-Saribay; Ece Ergun; Turhan Koeseoglu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the effects of gamma irradiation and storage on the content of lutein and zeaxanthin in egg yolk samples. Liquid, frozen and dried egg samples were subjected to gamma irradiation doses of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy followed by storage of liquid samples at +4 ± 1 deg C for 21 days, frozen samples at -18 ± 1 deg C and dried samples at room temperature for 1 year. The xanthophyll concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector. It was observed that concentrations of both lutein and zeaxanthin were decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after irradiation and during storage. The mechanism for radiation-induced degradation was proposed as radical formation which initiate chain reactions. It was suggested that during storage active radical species and oxygen caused the degradation. (author)

  9. Flux Enhancement in Membrane Distillation Using Nanofiber Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jiříček

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation (MD is an emerging separation technology, whose largest application potential lies in the desalination of highly concentrated solutions, which are out of the scope of reverse osmosis. Despite many attractive features, this technology is still awaiting large industrial application. The main reason is the lack of commercially available membranes with fluxes comparable to reverse osmosis. MD is a thermal separation process driven by a partial vapour pressure difference. Flux, distillate purity, and thermal efficiency are always in conflict, all three being strictly connected with pore size, membrane hydrophobicity, and thickness. The world has not seen the ideal membrane yet, but nanofibers may offer a solution to these contradictory requirements. Membranes of electrospun PVDF were tested under various conditions on a direct contact (DCMD unit, in order to determine the optimum conditions for maximum flux. In addition, their performance was compared to commonly available PTFE, PE, and PES membranes. It was confirmed that thinner membranes have higher fluxes and a lower distillate purity and also higher energy losses via conduction across the membrane. As both mass and heat transfer are connected, it is best to develop new membranes with a target application in mind, for the specific membrane module and operational conditions.

  10. Fabrication of electrospun nanofibrous membranes for membrane distillation application

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2013-02-01

    Nanofibrous membranes of Matrimid have been successfully fabricated using an electrospinning technique under optimized conditions. Nanofibrous membranes are found to be highly hydrophobic with a high water contact angle of 130°. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and pore size distribution analysis revealed the big pore size structure of electrospun membranes to be greater than 2 μm and the pore size distribution is found to be narrow. Flat sheet Matrimid membranes were fabricated via casting followed by phase inversion. The morphology, pore size distribution, and water contact angle were measured and compared with the electrospun membranes. Both membranes fabricated by electrospinning and phase inversion techniques were tested in a direct contact membrane distillation process. Electrospun membranes showed high water vapor flux of 56 kg/m2-h, which is very high compared to the casted membrane as well as most of the fabricated and commercially available highly hydrophobic membranes. ©2013 Desalination Publications.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of Pd@M(x)Cu(1-x) (M = Au, Pd, and Pt) nanocages with porous walls and a yolk-shell structure through galvanic replacement reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuifen; Jin, Mingshang; Tao, Jing; Wang, Yucai; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Zhu, Yimei; Xia, Younan

    2012-11-19

    This paper describes the synthesis of Pd@M(x)Cu(1-x) (M = Au, Pd, and Pt) nanocages with a yolk-shell structure through galvanic replacement reactions that involve Pd@Cu core-shell nanocubes as sacrificial templates and ethylene glycol as the solvent. Compared with the most commonly used templates based on Ag, Cu offers a much lower reduction potential (0.34 versus 0.80 V), making the galvanic reaction more easily to conduct, even at room temperature. Our structural and compositional characterizations indicated that the products were hollow inside, and each one of them contained porous M-Cu alloy walls and a Pd cube in the interior. For the Pd@Au(x)Cu(1-x) yolk-shell nanocages, they displayed broad extinction peaks extending from the visible to the near-IR region. Our mechanistic study revealed that the dissolution of the Cu shell preferred to start from the slightly truncated corners and then progressed toward the interior, because the Cu {100} side faces were protected by a surface capping layer of hexadecylamine. This galvanic approach can also be extended to generating other hollow metal nanostructures by using different combinations of Cu nanostructures and salt precursors. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Alternative energy efficient membrane bioreactor using reciprocating submerged membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, J; Smith, S; Roh, H K

    2014-01-01

    A novel membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot system, using membrane reciprocation instead of air scouring, was operated at constant high flux and daily fluctuating flux to demonstrate its application under peak and diurnal flow conditions. Low and stable transmembrane pressure was achieved at 40 l/m(2)/h (LMH) by use of repetitive membrane reciprocation. The results reveal that the inertial forces acting on the membrane fibers effectively propel foulants from the membrane surface. Reciprocation of the hollow fiber membrane is beneficial for the constant removal of solids that may build up on the membrane surface and inside the membrane bundle. The membrane reciprocation in the reciprocating MBR pilot consumed less energy than coarse air scouring used in conventional MBR systems. Specific energy consumption for the membrane reciprocation was 0.072 kWh/m(3) permeate produced at 40 LMH flux, which is 75% less than for a conventional air scouring system as reported in literature without consideration of energy consumption for biological aeration (0.29 kWh/m(3)). The daily fluctuating flux test confirmed that the membrane reciprocation is effective to handle fluctuating flux up to 50 LMH. The pilot-scale reciprocating MBR system successfully demonstrated that fouling can be controlled via 0.43 Hz membrane reciprocation with 44 mm or higher amplitude.

  13. Effect of dietary energy and protein on the performance, egg quality, bone mineral density, blood properties and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rakibul Hassan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary metabolizable energy (ME and crude protein (CP on the performance, egg quality, blood properties, bone characteristics and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens. At 23 weeks, a total of 600 Brown nick laying hens were randomly distributed into 24 outdoor pens (4 replicate pens/treatment; 25 birds/pen and were given (2750, 2775 and 2800 kcal of ME/kg and CP (16 and 17% resulting in a 3×2 factorial arrangement of organic dietary treatments. The experiment lasted 23 weeks. The performance of laying hens were not affected by the dietary treatment while the egg weight was increased with energy and CP levels in the diet (P<0.05. Serum total protein was not affected by dietary energy and protein level. Total cholesterol and triglyceride tend to reduce with the increasing amount of CP in the diet. Thereafter, bone and egg quality characteristics were numerically increased in dietary 2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. On the other hand, docosahexanoic acid content in egg yolk was higher (P<0.01 in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 17% CP treatment. As a result, the performance, blood and fatty acid composition were maximized in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. Thus, dietary 2750-2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP may enhance performance, blood and fatty acid composition of organic laying hens.

  14. Membrane order in the plasma membrane and endocytic recycling compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaea, David B; Maxfield, Frederick R

    2017-01-01

    The cholesterol content of membranes plays an important role in organizing membranes for signal transduction and protein trafficking as well as in modulating the biophysical properties of membranes. While the properties of model or isolated membranes have been extensively studied, there has been little evaluation of internal membranes in living cells. Here, we use a Nile Red based probe, NR12S, and ratiometric live cell imaging, to analyze the membrane order of the plasma membrane and endocytic recycling compartment. We find that after a brief incubation to allow endocytosis, NR12S is distributed between the plasma membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment. The NR12S reports that the endocytic recycling compartment is more highly ordered than the plasma membrane. We also find that the plasma membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment are differentially affected by altering cellular cholesterol levels. The membrane order of the plasma membrane, but not the endocytic recycling compartment, is altered significantly when cellular cholesterol content is increased or decreased by 20%. These results demonstrate that changes in cellular cholesterol differentially alter membrane order within different organelles.

  15. Side-specific effect of yolk testosterone elevation on second-to-fourth digit ratio in a wild passerine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Gergely; Blázi, György; Hegyi, Gergely; Török, János

    2016-02-01

    Second-to-fourth digit ratio is a widely investigated sexually dimorphic morphological trait in human studies and could reliably indicate the prenatal steroid environment. Conducting manipulative experiments to test this hypothesis comes up against ethical limits in humans. However, oviparous tetrapods may be excellent models to experimentally investigate the effects of prenatal steroids on offspring second-to-fourth digit ratio. In this field study, we injected collared flycatcher ( Ficedula albicollis) eggs with physiological doses of testosterone. Fledglings from eggs with elevated yolk testosterone, regardless of their sex, had longer second digits on their left feet than controls, while the fourth digit did not differ between groups. Therefore, second-to-fourth digit ratio was higher in the testosterone-injected group, but only on the left foot. This is the first study which shows experimentally that early testosterone exposure can affect second-to-fourth digit ratio in a wild population of a passerine bird.

  16. Yolk-shell gold nanoparticles as model materials for support-effect studies in heterogeneous catalysis: Au, @C and Au, @ZrO2 for CO oxidation as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Carolina; Güttel, Robert; Paul, Michael; Arnal, Pablo; Lu, An-Hui; Schüth, Ferdi

    2011-07-18

    The use of nanostructured yolk-shell materials offers a way to discriminate support and particle-size effects for mechanistic studies in heterogeneous catalysis. Herein, gold yolk-shell materials have been synthesized and used as model catalysts for the investigation of support effects in CO oxidation. Carbon has been selected as catalytically inert support to study the intrinsic activity of the gold nanoparticles, and for comparison, zirconia has been used as oxidic support. Au, @C materials have been synthesized through nanocasting using two different nonporous-core@mesoporous-shell exotemplates: Au@SiO(2)@ZrO(2) and Au@SiO(2)@m-SiO(2). The catalytic activity of Au, @C with a gold core of about 14 nm has been evaluated and compared with Au, @ZrO(2) of the same gold core size. The strong positive effect of metal oxide as support material on the activity of gold has been proved. Additionally, size effects were investigated using carbon as support to determine only the contribution of the nanoparticle size on the catalytic activity of gold. Therefore, Au, @C with a gold core of about 7 nm was studied showing a less pronounced positive effect on the activity than the metal oxide support effect. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Giant plasma membrane vesicles: models for understanding membrane organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levental, Kandice R; Levental, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    The organization of eukaryotic membranes into functional domains continues to fascinate and puzzle cell biologists and biophysicists. The lipid raft hypothesis proposes that collective lipid interactions compartmentalize the membrane into coexisting liquid domains that are central to membrane physiology. This hypothesis has proven controversial because such structures cannot be directly visualized in live cells by light microscopy. The recent observations of liquid-liquid phase separation in biological membranes are an important validation of the raft hypothesis and enable application of the experimental toolbox of membrane physics to a biologically complex phase-separated membrane. This review addresses the role of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) in refining the raft hypothesis and expands on the application of GPMVs as an experimental model to answer some of key outstanding problems in membrane biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Structure and physical properties of bio membranes and model membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibor Hianik

    2006-01-01

    Bio membranes belong to the most important structures of the cell and the cell organelles. They play not only structural role of the barrier separating the external and internal part of the membrane but contain also various functional molecules, like receptors, ionic channels, carriers and enzymes. The cell membrane also preserves non-equilibrium state in a cell which is crucial for maintaining its excitability and other signaling functions. The growing interest to the bio membranes is also due to their unique physical properties. From physical point of view the bio membranes, that are composed of lipid bilayer into which are incorporated integral proteins and on their surface are anchored peripheral proteins and polysaccharides, represent liquid s crystal of smectic type. The bio membranes are characterized by anisotropy of structural and physical properties. The complex structure of bio membranes makes the study of their physical properties rather difficult. Therefore several model systems that mimic the structure of bio membranes were developed. Among them the lipid monolayers at an air-water interphase, bilayer lipid membranes, supported bilayer lipid membranes and liposomes are most known. This work is focused on the introduction into the physical word of the bio membranes and their models. After introduction to the membrane structure and the history of its establishment, the physical properties of the bio membranes and their models are stepwise presented. The most focus is on the properties of lipid monolayers, bilayer lipid membranes, supported bilayer lipid membranes and liposomes that were most detailed studied. This lecture has tutorial character that may be useful for undergraduate and graduate students in the area of biophysics, biochemistry, molecular biology and bioengineering, however it contains also original work of the author and his co-worker and PhD students, that may be useful also for specialists working in the field of bio membranes and model

  19. Concentração de proteínas em gemas de ovos de poedeiras (Gallus gallus nos diferentes ciclos de postura e sua interferência na disponibilidade do ferro Protein concentration (phosvitin and lipovitelin in egg yolks of Laying Hens (Gallus gallus in different posture cycles and its interference in the iron availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Vidal Sartori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O ovo é o produto de eficiente transformação biológica feita pela galinha (Gallus gallus de postura, com alta qualidade nutricional para o consumo humano. Na gema do ovo encontra-se a proteína denominada fosvitina, que atua como carreadora do ferro se ligando a ele. A deficiência de ferro ocorre normalmente devido ao consumo insuficiente de alimentos fontes de ferro ou à baixa biodisponibilidade. O objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar a concentração de proteínas, em especial a fosvitina/lipovitelina presente em gemas de ovos crus e cozidos nos diferentes ciclos de postura (inicial, intermediário e final e avaliar a interferência desta proteína na disponibilidade do micronutriente ferro. Os tratamentos foram realizados em diferentes períodos e utilizaram ovos crus e cozidos, sendo gemas cruas de poedeiras em início, meio e fim de postura e gemas cozidas nos três ciclos de postura. Foram realizadas as análises de composição centesimal, concentração de ferro total e dialisável, concentração de proteínas em gemas e eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE. Houve diferença na concentração de proteínas e diferentes níveis de ferro dialisável nos três ciclos de postura, porém em gemas cruas e cozidas. Com o passar dos ciclos (inicial, intermediário e final, as poedeiras mais velhas, apresentaram ovos (gemas com um teor mais elevado de ferro disponível, porém uma quantidade inferior de proteínas em especial a fosvitina/lipovitelina, comparando-se com os ciclos inicial e intermediário. A disponibilidade de ferro foi mais elevada em gemas que passaram pelo processo de cocção, porém em poedeiras de postura final.The egg is the product of efficient biological transformation made by a laying hen. It has high nutritional value for human consumption. Most of the iron in egg yolk is bound by phosvitin, a major protein present in the egg yolk. Iron deficiency normally occurs due to insufficient intake of dietary iron

  20. Effect of different procedures of ejaculate collection, extenders and packages on DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa following freezing-thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, L; Strzezek, J

    2007-06-01

    Whole ejaculate or sperm-rich fraction, collected from four sexually mature boars, was frozen in an extender containing lactose-hen egg yolk with glycerol (lactose-HEY-G) or extender containing lactose, lyophilized lipoprotein fractions isolated from ostrich egg yolk and glycerol (lactose-LPFo-G), and Orvus Es Paste, respectively. The sperm samples were also frozen in a standard boar semen extender (Kortowo-3), without the addition of cryoprotective substances. Sperm DNA integrity was assessed using a modified neutral comet assay. Sperm characteristics such as motility, plasma membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI), mitochondrial function (rhodamine 123) and acrosome integrity were monitored. Freezing-thawing caused a significant increase (Pextender type. Sperm DNA fragmentation was significantly lower (Pextender exhibited lower (Pboar semen.

  1. Efeito do extrato de urucum na pigmentação da gema dos ovos Effect of anatto extract oil on the egg yolk colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado para avaliar níveis de adição do extrato de urucum (EU a uma ração em que o sorgo foi utilizado como principal fonte de energia. Um total de 280 poedeiras no segundo ciclo de produção, 140 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL e 140 Isa Brown (IB, foi alojado em densidade de duas aves/gaiola e alimentado ad libitum com sete rações. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma ração controle positiva com milho, como principal fonte de energia, e uma ração basal contendo sorgo, como principal fonte de energia, suplementada com seis níveis de EU em 0,0; 0,10; 0,15; 0,30; 0,45; e 0,60%. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso em esquema fatorial 7 x 2 (tratamento e linhagem, com cinco repetições de quatro aves. A adição de EU à ração à base de sorgo melhorou a pigmentação da gema dos ovos linearmente. A linhagem IB apresentou melhor pigmentação da gema dos ovos que a linhagem LSL. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a adição de 0,1% de EU à ração com sorgo promoveu similar pigmentação da gema do ovo que a ração à base de milho.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the increasing levels of anatto extract (AE oil in sorghum-based diets as the main energy source. A total of 280 laying hens in the second production cycle, 140 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL and 140 Isa Brown (IB, was allotted to a density two birds/pen and full fed seven diets. The treatments consisted of a positive control corn based diet, as principal energy source, and a basal sorghum diet, as principal energy source, supplemented with 0.0, 0.10, 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, and 0.60% of AE. A completely randomized design in a 7 x 2 factorial arrangement (treatment and line, with five replicates of four birds, was used. The egg yolk colour was linearly improved by addition of AE to the sorghum-based diets. The brown-egg layers presented better egg yolk colour than the white-egg layers. The addition of 0.1% AE to the sorghum-based diets produced

  2. An outbreak of food poisoning due to egg yolk reaction-negative Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, N; Kawamura, A; Masuda, T; Akiyama, M

    2001-03-20

    An outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning due to an egg yolk (EY) reaction-negative strain occurred in Japan. Twenty-one of 53 dam construction workers who ate boxed lunches prepared at their company cafeteria became ill, and eight required hospital treatment. The outbreak showed a typical incubation time (1.5-4 h with a median time of 2.7 h) and symptoms (vomiting and diarrhea) of staphylococcal food poisoning. Staphylococcus aureus, which produces staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) A, was isolated from four fecal specimens of eight patients tested. Scrambled egg in the boxed lunches contained 20-40 ng/g of SEA, and 3.0 x 10(9)/g of viable S. aureus cells that produced this toxin. All isolates from patients and the food were EY reaction-negative, coagulase type II, and showed the same restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern. We concluded that the outbreak was caused by scrambled egg contaminated with EY reaction-negative S. aureus. In Japan, outbreaks of staphylococcal food poisoning are mainly caused by EY reaction-positive S. aureus, and EY reaction-negative colonies grown on agar plates containing EY are usually not analyzed further for detection of S. aureus. The present outbreak suggested that EY reaction-negative isolates should be subjected to further analysis to detect the causative agents of staphylococcal food poisoning.

  3. Production, characterization and applications for Toxoplasma gondii-specific polyclonal chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Ferreira Júnior

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii may cause abortions, ocular and neurological disorders in warm-blood hosts. Immunized mammals are a wide source of hyperimmune sera used in different approaches, including diagnosis and the study of host-parasite interactions. Unfortunately, mammalian antibodies present limitations for its production, such as the necessity for animal bleeding, low yield, interference with rheumatoid factor, complement activation and affinity to Fc mammalian receptors. IgY antibodies avoid those limitations; therefore they could be an alternative to be applied in T. gondii model.In this study we immunized hens with soluble tachyzoite antigens of T. gondii (STAg and purified egg yolk antibodies (IgY by an inexpensive and simple method, with high yield and purity degree. IgY anti-STAg antibodies presented high avidity and were able to recognize a broad range of parasite antigens, although some marked differences were observed in reactivity profile between antibodies produced in immunized hens and mice. Interestingly, IgY antibodies against Neospora caninum and Eimeria spp. did not react to STAg. We also show that IgY antibodies were suitable to detect T. gondii forms in paraffin-embedded sections and culture cell monolayers.Due to its cost-effectiveness, high production yield and varied range of possible applications, polyclonal IgY antibodies are useful tools for studies involving T. gondii.

  4. Polyurethane Nanofiber Membranes for Waste Water Treatment by Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jiříček

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-sustained electrospun polyurethane nanofiber membranes were manufactured and tested on a direct-contact membrane distillation unit in an effort to find the optimum membrane thickness to maximize flux rate and minimize heat losses across the membrane. Also salt retention and flux at high salinities up to 100 g kg−1 were evaluated. Even though the complex structure of nanofiber layers has extreme specific surface and porosity, membrane performance was surprisingly predictable; the highest flux was achieved with the thinnest membranes and the best energy efficiency was achieved with the thickest membranes. All membranes had salt retention above 99%. Nanotechnology offers the potential to find modern solutions for desalination of waste waters, by introducing new materials with revolutionary properties, but new membranes must be developed according to the target application.

  5. Use of Candida-specific chicken egg yolk antibodies to inhibit the adhering of Candida to denture base materials: prevention of denture stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamikawa, Yoshiaki; Fujisaki, Junichi; Nagayama, Tomohiro; Kawasaki, Kiyotsugu; Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Hamada, Tomofumi; Sakamoto, Ryoich; Mukai, Hiroshi; Sugihara, Kazumasa

    2016-09-01

    Polyclonal anti-Candida chicken egg yolk antibodies (anti-IgY) were used to investigate the prevention of adherence of Candida species to denture base material in vitro. Candida is a potential virulence factor that can cause systemic infection and even death in immunocompromised individuals. Because long-term antifungal treatment may lead to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, it is necessary to develop novel preventive measures and treatments for candidiasis. Three types of chicken egg yolk antibodies were used in this study: non-specific antibody (control IgY), Candida albicans-specific antibody (anti-C.a.IgY) and Candida glabrata-specific antibody (anti-C.g.IgY). A mixture of different dilutions of each antibody with a suspension of Candida species and denture base material was incubated for 3 h, and then the colony-forming units of Candida on the denture base material were counted. Compared with control IgY, anti-C.a.IgY and anti-C.g.IgY significantly inhibited the adherence of C. albicans, but anti-C.a.IgY tended to be more potent than anti-C.g.IgY. The adherence of C. glabrata was also inhibited significantly by anti-C.a.IgY and anti-C.g.IgY with almost equivalent potency, indicating that their actions against C. glabrata were comparable. This study revealed the inhibitory effects of anti-C.a.IgY and anti-C.g.IgY against the adherence of C. albicans and C. glabrata to denture base material. This finding indicates the possibility of a beneficial effect of IgYs for the prevention of denture stomatitis and candidiasis in clinical settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effect of cyclodextrin-loaded cholesterol conjugates on plasma membrane viability of Piau swine breed frozen/thawed spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, R O; Lima, D M A; Shiomi, H H; Siqueira, J B; Silveira, C O; Faria, V R; Lopes, P S; Guimarães, S E F; Guimarães, J D

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cyclodextrin-loaded cholesterol conjugates addition to freezing extenders on plasma membrane viability of frozen-thawed spermatozoa of the Piau swine breed. Twenty semen samples were used from five males. The freezing extender was based on lactose-egg yolk extender, added to 2% glycerol, 3% dimethylacetamide. The addition of cyclodextrin-loaded cholesterol conjugates was performed after centrifugation, when semen was diluted with the cooling extender. Four groups were subjected to the following treatment: without addition (group 1); 1.5 mg of cyclodextrin-loaded cholesterol/120 × 10(6) sperm (group 2); 1.5 mg of cyclodextrin-loaded cholestanol/120 × 10(6) sperm (group 3); 1.5 mg of cyclodextrin-loaded desmosterol/120 × 10(6) sperm (group 4). To check post-thawing sperm quality sperm motility and sperm morphology evaluation were used. Additionally, to check sperm viability the hypoosmotic swelling test, supravital staining, and fluorescent assay were used. The mean values recorded for total sperm motility of semen immediately after thawing were 54.5 ± 5.8, 55.5 ± 5.3, 53.7 ± 6.7, and 52.5 ± 6.6% respectively for groups one to four, without difference between themselves (p > 0.05). Regarding fluorescent assay the results were 28.3 ± 13.2, 26.9 ± 12.2, 22.2 ± 11.4, and 32.0 ± 15.3% respectively for groups one to four, also without difference between groups (p > 0,05). Similarly, complementary tests for evaluating the integrity and functionality of the plasma membrane showed no difference between treatments (p > 0.05). In conclusion, use of cyclodextrin-loaded cholesterol conjugates added to the plasma membrane of sperm did not demonstrate any additive effect on increasing and/or maintaining sperm motility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fouling in Membrane Distillation, Osmotic Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Laqbaqbi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Various membrane separation processes are being used for seawater desalination and treatment of wastewaters in order to deal with the worldwide water shortage problem. Different types of membranes of distinct morphologies, structures and physico-chemical characteristics are employed. Among the considered membrane technologies, membrane distillation (MD, osmotic distillation (OD and osmotic membrane distillation (OMD use porous and hydrophobic membranes for production of distilled water and/or concentration of wastewaters for recovery and recycling of valuable compounds. However, the efficiency of these technologies is hampered by fouling phenomena. This refers to the accumulation of organic/inorganic deposits including biological matter on the membrane surface and/or in the membrane pores. Fouling in MD, OD and OMD differs from that observed in electric and pressure-driven membrane processes such electrodialysis (ED, membrane capacitive deionization (MCD, reverse osmosis (RO, nanofiltration (NF, ultrafiltration (UF, microfiltration (MF, etc. Other than pore blockage, fouling in MD, OD and OMD increases the risk of membrane pores wetting and reduces therefore the quantity and quality of the produced water or the concentration efficiency of the process. This review deals with the observed fouling phenomena in MD, OD and OMD. It highlights different detected fouling types (organic fouling, inorganic fouling and biofouling, fouling characterization techniques as well as various methods of fouling reduction including pretreatment, membrane modification, membrane cleaning and antiscalants application.

  8. Flow and fouling in membrane filters: Effects of membrane morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaei, Pejman; Cummings, Linda J.

    2015-11-01

    Membrane filters are widely-used in microfiltration applications. Many types of filter membranes are produced commercially, for different filtration applications, but broadly speaking the requirements are to achieve fine control of separation, with low power consumption. The answer to this problem might seem obvious: select the membrane with the largest pore size and void fraction consistent with the separation requirements. However, membrane fouling (an inevitable consequence of successful filtration) is a complicated process, which depends on many parameters other than membrane pore size and void fraction; and which itself greatly affects the filtration process and membrane functionality. In this work we formulate mathematical models that can (i) account for the membrane internal morphology (internal structure, pore size & shape, etc.); (ii) fouling of membranes with specific morphology; and (iii) make some predictions as to what type of membrane morphology might offer optimum filtration performance.

  9. Fundamentals of membrane bioreactors materials, systems and membrane fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Ladewig, Bradley

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a critical, carefully researched, up-to-date summary of membranes for membrane bioreactors. It presents a comprehensive and self-contained outline of the fundamentals of membrane bioreactors, especially their relevance as an advanced water treatment technology. This outline helps to bring the technology to the readers’ attention, and positions the critical topic of membrane fouling as one of the key impediments to its more widescale adoption. The target readership includes researchers and industrial practitioners with an interest in membrane bioreactors.

  10. Adaptive silicone-membrane lenses: planar vs. shaped membrane

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schneider, F

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Engineering, Georges-Koehler-Allee 102, Freiburg 79110, Germany florian.schneider@imtek.uni-freiburg.de ABSTRACT We compare the performance and optical quality of two types of adaptive fluidic silicone-membrane lenses. The membranes feature either a...-membrane lenses: planar vs. shaped membrane Florian Schneider1,2, Philipp Waibel2 and Ulrike Wallrabe2 1 CSIR, Materials Science and Manufacturing, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 2 University of Freiburg – IMTEK, Department of Microsystems...

  11. Degradation of Polypropylene Membranes Applied in Membrane Distillation Crystallizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Gryta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The studies on the resistance to degradation of capillary polypropylene membranes assembled in a membrane crystallizer were performed. The supersaturation state of salt was achieved by evaporation of water from the NaCl saturated solutions using membrane distillation process. A high feed temperature (363 K was used in order to enhance the degradation effects and to shorten the test times. Salt crystallization was carried out by the application of batch or fluidized bed crystallizer. A significant membrane scaling was observed regardless of the method of realized crystallization. The SEM-EDS, DSC, and FTIR methods were used for investigations of polypropylene degradation. The salt crystallization onto the membrane surface accelerated polypropylene degradation. Due to a polymer degradation, the presence of carbonyl groups on the membranes’ surface was identified. Besides the changes in the chemical structure a significant mechanical damage of the membranes, mainly caused by the internal scaling, was also found. As a result, the membranes were severely damaged after 150 h of process operation. A high level of salt rejection was maintained despite damage to the external membrane surface.

  12. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  13. Introducing Membrane Charge and Membrane Potential to T Cell Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqing Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available While membrane models now include the heterogeneous distribution of lipids, the impact of membrane charges on regulating the association of proteins with the plasma membrane is often overlooked. Charged lipids are asymmetrically distributed between the two leaflets of the plasma membrane, resulting in the inner leaflet being negatively charged and a surface potential that attracts and binds positively charged ions, proteins, and peptide motifs. These interactions not only create a transmembrane potential but they can also facilitate the formation of charged membrane domains. Here, we reference fields outside of immunology in which consequences of membrane charge are better characterized to highlight important mechanisms. We then focus on T cell receptor (TCR signaling, reviewing the evidence that membrane charges and membrane-associated calcium regulate phosphorylation of the TCR–CD3 complex and discuss how the immunological synapse exhibits distinct patterns of membrane charge distribution. We propose that charged lipids, ions in solution, and transient protein interactions form a dynamic equilibrium during T cell activation.

  14. Polyazole hollow fiber membranes for direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Francis, Lijo; Livazovic, Sara; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Amy, Gary L.; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Porous hollow fiber membranes were fabricated from fluorinated polyoxadiazole and polytriazole by a dry-wet spinning method for application in desalination of Red Sea water by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). The data were compared with commercially available hollow fiber MD membranes prepared from poly(vinylidene fluoride). The membranes were characterized by electron microscopy, liquid entry pressure (LEP), and pore diameter measurements. Finally, the hollow fiber membranes were tested for DCMD. Salt selectivity as high as 99.95% and water fluxes as high as 35 and 41 L m -2 h-1 were demonstrated, respectively, for polyoxadiazole and polytriazole hollow fiber membranes, operating at 80 C feed temperature and 20 C permeate. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. Polyazole hollow fiber membranes for direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul

    2013-08-07

    Porous hollow fiber membranes were fabricated from fluorinated polyoxadiazole and polytriazole by a dry-wet spinning method for application in desalination of Red Sea water by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). The data were compared with commercially available hollow fiber MD membranes prepared from poly(vinylidene fluoride). The membranes were characterized by electron microscopy, liquid entry pressure (LEP), and pore diameter measurements. Finally, the hollow fiber membranes were tested for DCMD. Salt selectivity as high as 99.95% and water fluxes as high as 35 and 41 L m -2 h-1 were demonstrated, respectively, for polyoxadiazole and polytriazole hollow fiber membranes, operating at 80 C feed temperature and 20 C permeate. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  16. Membrane fusion by VAMP3 and plasma membrane t-SNAREs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chuan; Hardee, Deborah; Minnear, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Pairing of SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins on vesicles (v-SNAREs) and SNARE proteins on target membranes (t-SNAREs) mediates intracellular membrane fusion. VAMP3/cellubrevin is a v-SNARE that resides in recycling endosomes and endosome-derived transport vesicles. VAMP3 has been implicated in recycling of transferrin receptors, secretion of α-granules in platelets, and membrane trafficking during cell migration. Using a cell fusion assay, we examined membrane fusion capacity of the ternary complexes formed by VAMP3 and plasma membrane t-SNAREs syntaxin1, syntaxin4, SNAP-23 and SNAP-25. VAMP3 forms fusogenic pairing with t-SNARE complexes syntaxin1/SNAP-25, syntaxin1/SNAP-23 and syntaxin4/SNAP-25, but not with syntaxin4/SNAP-23. Deletion of the N-terminal domain of syntaxin4 enhanced membrane fusion more than two fold, indicating that the N-terminal domain negatively regulates membrane fusion. Differential membrane fusion capacities of the ternary v-/t-SNARE complexes suggest that transport vesicles containing VAMP3 have distinct membrane fusion kinetics with domains of the plasma membrane that present different t-SNARE proteins

  17. Effects of inositol, inositol-generating phytase B applied alone, and in combination with 6-phytase A to phosphorus-deficient diets on laying performance, eggshell quality, yolk cholesterol, and fatty acid deposition in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyla, K; Mika, M; Duliński, R; Swiatkiewicz, S; Koreleski, J; Pustkowiak, H; Piironen, J

    2012-08-01

    Phytase B, a product of Aspergillus niger phyB gene expressed in Trichoderma reesei, which increased myo-inositol concentrations in 20 mM sodium phytate solution 7.5-fold during 120-min incubation, a combination of phytase B with 6-phytase A, and pure myo-inositol were tested as feed supplements in Bovans Brown laying hens. In the 2-factorial experiment (2×5), birds from wk 50 to 62 were fed 2 basal diets, corn-soybean (CSM) or wheat-soybean (WSM), using 12 one-hen cages per treatment. For both basal diets, the dietary treatments included negative control (0.08% nonphytate P in CSM, 0.13% nonphytate P in WSM; NC); internal control groups, NC+0.04% nonphytate P from monocalcium phosphate, MCP (IC); NC+0.1% of myo-inositol (Inos), NC+phytase B at 1,300 units of phytase B-acid phosphatase activity (AcPU)/kg (PhyB), NC+phytase B at 1,300 AcPU/kg+6-phytase A at 300 FTU/kg (PhyA+B). Feed intake, laying performance, and eggshell quality were determined. The total lipid and cholesterol contents as well as fatty acid profile were assessed in egg yolks collected from hens fed CSM diets, as was fatty acid profile. The hens fed the WSM diet consumed significantly more feed, laid a higher mass of eggs daily with higher mean weights, and had a higher hen-day egg production than the birds receiving the CSM diets. Similarly, higher values for yolk weights, shell weights, shell thickness, shell density, and breaking strengths were determined in the eggs laid by the hens fed the WSM diets. In hens fed either the CSM diets with phytase B alone, or in combination with 6-phytase A, enhanced feed intakes, egg mass, and hen-day egg production were recorded. Phytases also enhanced the eggshell quality parameters in the hens fed both variants of the diets. Phytase B alone, or in combination with 6-phytase A, reduced the total lipid and cholesterol concentrations in egg yolks collected from the hens fed the CSM diets, whereas the combination of both phytases improved the n-6:n-3

  18. Membrane Contact Sites: Complex Zones for Membrane Association and Lipid Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quon, Evan; Beh, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid transport between membranes within cells involves vesicle and protein carriers, but as agents of nonvesicular lipid transfer, the role of membrane contact sites has received increasing attention. As zones for lipid metabolism and exchange, various membrane contact sites mediate direct associations between different organelles. In particular, membrane contact sites linking the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represent important regulators of lipid and ion transfer. In yeast, cortical ER is stapled to the PM through membrane-tethering proteins, which establish a direct connection between the membranes. In this review, we consider passive and facilitated models for lipid transfer at PM–ER contact sites. Besides the tethering proteins, we examine the roles of an additional repertoire of lipid and protein regulators that prime and propagate PM–ER membrane association. We conclude that instead of being simple mediators of membrane association, regulatory components of membrane contact sites have complex and multilayered functions. PMID:26949334

  19. Liver plasma membranes: an effective method to analyze membrane proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rui; Liang, Songping

    2012-01-01

    Plasma membrane proteins are critical for the maintenance of biological systems and represent important targets for the treatment of disease. The hydrophobicity and low abundance of plasma membrane proteins make them difficult to analyze. The protocols given here are the efficient isolation/digestion procedures for liver plasma membrane proteomic analysis. Both protocol for the isolation of plasma membranes and protocol for the in-gel digestion of gel-embedded plasma membrane proteins are presented. The later method allows the use of a high detergent concentration to achieve efficient solubilization of hydrophobic plasma membrane proteins while avoiding interference with the subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis.

  20. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  1. Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Wu, Feifei; Thacker, Philip; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Sizhao; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (pfeeding red pepper powder did not affect egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (pfeed additives for improving egg yolk color for laying hens.

  2. Polyurethane Nanofiber Membranes for Waste Water Treatment by Membrane Distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiříček, T.; Komárek, M.; Lederer, T.

    2017-01-01

    Self-sustained electrospun polyurethane nanofiber membranes were manufactured and tested on a direct-contact membrane distillation unit in an effort to find the optimum membrane thickness to maximize flux rate and minimize heat losses across the membrane. Also salt retention and flux at high salinities up to 100 g kg−1 were evaluated. Even though the complex structure of nanofiber layers has extreme specific surface and porosity, membrane performance was surprisingly predictable; the highest ...

  3. Obtenção e avaliação da proteína BYC (Boophilus Yolk pro-Cathepsin) recombinante em uma vacina contra o carrapato Boophilus microplus

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Trindade Leal

    2006-01-01

    O carrapato Boophilus microplus é um ectoparasita hematófago que infesta os rebanhos bovinos de regiões tropicais e subtropicais, causando grande prejuízo à pecuária. O principal método de controle deste parasita baseia-se no uso de acaricidas, entretanto, o uso de vacinas tem sido estudado como um método de controle promissor. A Boophilus Yolk pro-Cathepsin (BYC) é uma aspártico proteinase presente no ovo do carrapato e envolvida na embriogênese que foi anteriormente testada como imunógeno v...

  4. Nanodisc-solubilized membrane protein library reflects the membrane proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Marty, Michael T.; Wilcox, Kyle C.; Klein, William L.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and identification of unknown membrane proteins offers the prospect of discovering new pharmaceutical targets and identifying key biochemical receptors. However, interactions between membrane protein targets and soluble ligands are difficult to study in vitro due to the insolubility of membrane proteins in non-detergent systems. Nanodiscs, nanoscale discoidal lipid bilayers encircled by a membrane scaffold protein belt, have proven to be an effective platform to solubilize membr...

  5. Proteomic analysis of the early bovine yolk sac fluid and cells from the day 13 ovoid and elongated preimplatation embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille L.; Beck, Hans Christian; Petersen, Tonny S.

    2014-01-01

    differentiate into the hypoblast and epiblast, which remain surrounded by the trophectoderm. The formation of the hypoblast epithelium is also accompanied by a change in the fluid within the embryo, i.e., the blastocoel fluid gradually alters to become the primitive yolk sac (YS) fluid. Our previous research......The bovine blastocyst hatches 8 to 9 days after fertilization, and this is followed by several days of preimplantation development during which the embryo transforms from a spherical over an ovoid to an elongated shape. As the spherical embryo enlarges, the cells of the inner cell mass...... describes the protein composition of human and bovine blastocoel fluid, which is surrounded by the trophectoderm and undifferentiated cells of the inner cell mass. In this study, we further examine the changes in the protein composition in both the primitive YS fluid and the embryonic cells during early...

  6. Impact of sludge flocs on membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Niessen, Wolfgang; Jørgensen, Mads Koustrup

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR) are widely used for wastewater treatment, but membrane fouling reduces membrane performance and thereby increases the cost for membranes and fouling control. Large variation in filtration properties measured as flux decline was observed for the different types of sludges....... Further, the flux could partly be reestablished after the relaxation period depending on the sludge composition. The results underline that sludge properties are important for membrane fouling and that control of floc properties, as determined by the composition of the microbial communities...... and the physico-chemical properties, is an efficient method to reduce membrane fouling in the MBR. High concentration of suspended extracellular substances (EPS) and small particles (up to 10 µm) resulted in pronounced fouling propensity. The membrane fouling resistance was reduced at high concentration...

  7. G protein-membrane interactions II: Effect of G protein-linked lipids on membrane structure and G protein-membrane interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Jesús; Ibarguren, Maitane; Álvarez, Rafael; Terés, Silvia; Lladó, Victoria; Piotto, Stefano P; Concilio, Simona; Busquets, Xavier; López, David J; Escribá, Pablo V

    2017-09-01

    G proteins often bear myristoyl, palmitoyl and isoprenyl moieties, which favor their association with the membrane and their accumulation in G Protein Coupled Receptor-rich microdomains. These lipids influence the biophysical properties of membranes and thereby modulate G protein binding to bilayers. In this context, we showed here that geranylgeraniol, but neither myristate nor palmitate, increased the inverted hexagonal (H II ) phase propensity of phosphatidylethanolamine-containing membranes. While myristate and palmitate preferentially associated with phosphatidylcholine membranes, geranylgeraniol favored nonlamellar-prone membranes. In addition, Gαi 1 monomers had a higher affinity for lamellar phases, while Gβγ and Gαβγ showed a marked preference for nonlamellar prone membranes. Moreover, geranylgeraniol enhanced the binding of G protein dimers and trimers to phosphatidylethanolamine-containing membranes, yet it decreased that of monomers. By contrast, both myristate and palmitate increased the Gαi 1 preference for lamellar membranes. Palmitoylation reinforced the binding of the monomer to PC membranes and myristoylation decreased its binding to PE-enriched bilayer. Finally, binding of dimers and trimers to lamellar-prone membranes was decreased by palmitate and myristate, but it was increased in nonlamellar-prone bilayers. These results demonstrate that co/post-translational G protein lipid modifications regulate the membrane lipid structure and that they influence the physico-chemical properties of membranes, which in part explains why G protein subunits sort to different plasma membrane domains. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Lipid Therapy: Drugs Targeting Biomembranes edited by Pablo V. Escribá. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pretreatment and Membrane Hydrophilic Modification to Reduce Membrane Fouling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Chu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of low pressure membranes (microfiltration/ultrafiltration has undergone accelerated development for drinking water production. However, the major obstacle encountered in its popularization is membrane fouling caused by natural organic matter (NOM. This paper firstly summarizes the two factors causing the organic membrane fouling, including molecular weight (MW and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of NOM, and then presents a brief introduction of the methods which can prevent membrane fouling such as pretreatment of the feed water (e.g., coagulation, adsorption, and pre-oxidation and membrane hydrophilic modification (e.g., plasma modification, irradiation grafting modification, surface coating modification, blend modification, etc.. Perspectives of further research are also discussed.

  9. Morphology, histochemistry and glycosylation of the placenta and associated tissues in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Carolyn J P; Carter, A M; Allen, W R

    2016-01-01

    glycosylated. Yolk sac inner and outer endoderm expressed similar glycans except for N-acetylgalactosamine residues in endodermal acini. DISCUSSION: New features of near-term hedgehog placenta and associated tissues are presented, including their glycosylation, and novel yolk sac acinar structures......INTRODUCTION: There are few descriptions of the placenta and associated tissues of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) and here we present findings on a near-term pregnant specimen. METHODS: Tissues were examined grossly and then formalin fixed and wax-embedded for histology...... and immunocytochemistry (cytokeratin) and resin embedded for lectin histochemistry. RESULTS: Each of four well-developed and near term hoglets displayed a discoid, haemochorial placenta with typical labyrinth and spongy zones. In addition there was a paraplacenta incorporating Reichert's membrane and a largely detached...

  10. Recent developments on ion-exchange membranes and electro-membrane processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarale, R K; Gohil, G S; Shahi, Vinod K

    2006-02-28

    Rapid growth of chemical and biotechnology in diversified areas fuels the demand for the need of reliable green technologies for the down stream processes, which include separation, purification and isolation of the molecules. Ion-exchange membrane technologies are non-hazardous in nature and being widely used not only for separation and purification but their application also extended towards energy conversion devices, storage batteries and sensors etc. Now there is a quite demand for the ion-exchange membrane with better selectivities, less electrical resistance, high chemical, mechanical and thermal stability as well as good durability. A lot of work has been done for the development of these types of ion-exchange membranes during the past twenty-five years. Herein we have reviewed the preparation of various types of ion-exchange membranes, their characterization and applications for different electro-membrane processes. Primary attention has been given to the chemical route used for the membrane preparation. Several general reactions used for the preparation of ion-exchange membranes were described. Methodologies used for the characterization of these membranes and their applications were also reviewed for the benefit of readers, so that they can get all information about the ion-exchange membranes at one platform. Although there are large number of reports available regarding preparations and applications of ion-exchange membranes more emphasis were predicted for the usefulness of these membranes or processes for solving certain type of industrial or social problems. More efforts are needed to bring many products or processes to pilot scale and extent their applications.

  11. Clustering on Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannes, Ludger; Pezeshkian, Weria; Ipsen, John H

    2018-01-01

    Clustering of extracellular ligands and proteins on the plasma membrane is required to perform specific cellular functions, such as signaling and endocytosis. Attractive forces that originate in perturbations of the membrane's physical properties contribute to this clustering, in addition to direct...... protein-protein interactions. However, these membrane-mediated forces have not all been equally considered, despite their importance. In this review, we describe how line tension, lipid depletion, and membrane curvature contribute to membrane-mediated clustering. Additional attractive forces that arise...... from protein-induced perturbation of a membrane's fluctuations are also described. This review aims to provide a survey of the current understanding of membrane-mediated clustering and how this supports precise biological functions....

  12. Specific egg yolk immunoglobulin as a new preventive approach for Shiga-toxin-mediated diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Neri

    Full Text Available Shiga toxins (Stxs are involved in the development of severe systemic complications associated with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC infection. Various neutralizing agents against Stxs are under investigation for management of EHEC infection. In this study, we immunized chickens with formalin-inactivated Stx-1 or Stx-2, and obtained immunoglobulin Y (IgY from the egg yolk. Anti-Stx-1 IgY and anti-Stx-2 IgY recognized the corresponding Stx A subunit and polymeric but not monomeric B subunit. Anti-Stx-1 IgY and anti-Stx-2 IgY suppressed the cytotoxicity of Stx-1 and Stx-2 to HeLa 229 cells, without cross-suppressive activity. The suppressive activity of these IgY was abrogated by pre-incubation with the corresponding recombinant B subunit, which suggests that the antibodies directed to the polymeric B subunits were predominantly involved in the suppression. In vivo, the intraperitoneal or intravenous administration of these IgY rescued mice from death caused by intraperitoneal injection of the corresponding toxin at a lethal dose. Moreover, oral administration of anti-Stx-2 IgY reduced the mortality of mice infected intestinally with EHEC O157:H7. Our results therefore suggest that anti-Stx IgY antibodies may be considered as preventive agents for Stx-mediated diseases in EHEC infection.

  13. Analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance with alternate membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakizoe, Masanobu; Velev, O A; Srinivasan, S [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Texas Engineering Experiment Station

    1995-02-01

    Renewed interest in proton exchange membrane fuel cell technology for space and terrestrial (particularly electric vehicles) was stimulated by the demonstration, in the mid 1980s, of high energy efficiencies and high power densities. One of the most vital components of the PEMFC is the proton conducting membrane. In this paper, an analysis is made of the performances of PEMFCs with Dupont`s Nafion, Dow`s experimental, and Asahi Chemical`s Aciplex-S membranes. Attempts were also made to draw correlations between the PEMFC performances with the three types of membranes and their physico-chemical characteristics. Practically identical levels of performances (energy efficiency, power density, and lifetime) were achieved in PEMFCs with the Dow and the Aciplex-S membranes and these performances were better than in the PEMFCs with the Nafion-115 membrane. The electrode kinetic parameters for oxygen reduction are better for the PEMFCs with the Aciplex-S and Nafion membranes than with the Dow membranes. The PEMFCs with the Aciplex-S and Dow membranes have nearly the same internal resistances which are considerably lower than for the PEMFC with the Nafion membrane. The desired membrane characteristics to obtain high levels of performance are low equivalent weight and high water content. (Author)

  14. Electrospun superhydrophobic membranes with unique structures for membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuan; Loh, Chun-Heng; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G

    2014-09-24

    With modest temperature demand, low operating pressure, and high solute rejection, membrane distillation (MD) is an attractive option for desalination, waste treatment, and food and pharmaceutical processing. However, large-scale practical applications of MD are still hindered by the absence of effective membranes with high hydrophobicity, high porosity, and adequate mechanical strength, which are important properties for MD permeation fluxes, stable long-term performance, and effective packing in modules without damage. This study describes novel design strategies for highly robust superhydrophobic dual-layer membranes for MD via electrospinning. One of the newly developed membranes comprises a durable and ultrathin 3-dimensional (3D) superhydrophobic skin and porous nanofibrous support whereas another was fabricated by electrospinning 3D superhydrophobic layers on a nonwoven support. These membranes exhibit superhydrophobicity toward distilled water, salty water, oil-in-water emulsion, and beverages, which enables them to be used not only for desalination but also for other processes. The superhydrophobic dual-layer membrane #3S-N with nanofibrous support has a competitive permeation flux of 24.6 ± 1.2 kg m(-2) h(-1) in MD (feed and permeate temperate were set as 333 and 293 K, respectively) due to the higher porosity of the nanofibrous scaffold. Meanwhile, the membranes with the nonwoven support exhibit greater mechanical strength due to this support combined with better long-term performance because of the thicker 3D superhydrophobic layers. The morphology, pore size, porosity, mechanical properties, and liquid enter pressure of water of these superhydrophobic composite membranes with two different structures are reported and compared with commercial polyvinylidene fluoride membranes.

  15. Microporous silica membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal stability is a crucial factor for the application of microporous silica-based membranes in industrial processes. Indeed, it is well established that steam exposure may cause densification and defect formation in microporous silica membranes, which are detrimental to both membrane...... permeability and selectivity. Numerous previous studies show that microporous transition metal doped-silica membranes are hydrothermally more stable than pure silica membranes, but less permeable. Here we present a quantitative study on the impact of type and concentration of transition metal ions...... on the microporous structure, stability and permeability of amorphous silica-based membranes, providing information on how to design chemical compositions and synthetic paths for the fabrication of silica-based membranes with a well accessible and highly stabile microporous structure....

  16. Composite Membrane with Underwater-Oleophobic Surface for Anti-Oil-Fouling Membrane Distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhangxin; Hou, Deyin; Lin, Shihong

    2016-04-05

    In this study, we fabricated a composite membrane for membrane distillation (MD) by modifying a commercial hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane with a nanocomposite coating comprising silica nanoparticles, chitosan hydrogel and fluoro-polymer. The composite membrane exhibits asymmetric wettability, with the modified surface being in-air hydrophilic and underwater oleophobic, and the unmodified surface remaining hydrophobic. By comparing the performance of the composite membrane and the pristine PVDF membrane in direct contact MD experiments using a saline emulsion with 1000 ppm crude oil (in water), we showed that the fabricated composite membrane was significantly more resistant to oil fouling compared to the pristine hydrophobic PVDF membrane. Force spectroscopy was conducted for the interaction between an oil droplet and the membrane surface using a force tensiometer. The difference between the composite membrane and the pristine PVDF membrane in their interaction with an oil droplet served to explain the difference in the fouling propensities between these two membranes observed in MD experiments. The results from this study suggest that underwater oleophobic coating can effectively mitigate oil fouling in MD operations, and that the fabricated composite membrane with asymmetric wettability can enable MD to desalinate hypersaline wastewater with high concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants.

  17. Comparison and analysis of membrane fouling between flocculent sludge membrane bioreactor and granular sludge membrane bioreactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jing-Feng

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of inoculating granules on reducing membrane fouling. In order to evaluate the differences in performance between flocculent sludge and aerobic granular sludge in membrane reactors (MBRs, two reactors were run in parallel and various parameters related to membrane fouling were measured. The results indicated that specific resistance to the fouling layer was five times greater than that of mixed liquor sludge in the granular MBR. The floc sludge more easily formed a compact layer on the membrane surface, and increased membrane resistance. Specifically, the floc sludge had a higher moisture content, extracellular polymeric substances concentration, and negative surface charge. In contrast, aerobic granules could improve structural integrity and strength, which contributed to the preferable permeate performance. Therefore, inoculating aerobic granules in a MBR presents an effective method of reducing the membrane fouling associated with floc sludge the perspective of from the morphological characteristics of microbial aggregates.

  18. Membrane Contact Sites: Complex Zones for Membrane Association and Lipid Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Evan Quon; Christopher T. Beh

    2016-01-01

    Lipid transport between membranes within cells involves vesicle and protein carriers, but as agents of nonvesicular lipid transfer, the role of membrane contact sites has received increasing attention. As zones for lipid metabolism and exchange, various membrane contact sites mediate direct associations between different organelles. In particular, membrane contact sites linking the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) represent important regulators of lipid and ion transfer...

  19. Autophagosomal membranes assemble at ER-plasma membrane contact sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbeni, Anna Chiara; Codogno, Patrice; Morel, Etienne

    2017-01-01

    The biogenesis of autophagosome, the double membrane bound organelle related to macro-autophagy, is a complex event requiring numerous key-proteins and membrane remodeling events. Our recent findings identify the extended synaptotagmins, crucial tethers of Endoplasmic Reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites, as key-regulators of this molecular sequence.

  20. Metal–Organic Framework-Functionalized Alumina Membranes for Vacuum Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zuo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nature-mimetic hydrophobic membranes with high wetting resistance have been designed for seawater desalination via vacuum membrane distillation (VMD in this study. This is achieved through molecular engineering of metal–organic framework (MOF-functionalized alumina surfaces. A two-step synthetic strategy was invented to design the hydrophobic membranes: (1 to intergrow MOF crystals on the alumina tube substrate and (2 to introduce perfluoro molecules onto the MOF functionalized membrane surface. With the first step, the surface morphology, especially the hierarchical roughness, can be controlled by tuning the MOF crystal structure. After the second step, the perfluoro molecules function as an ultrathin layer of hydrophobic floss, which lowers the surface energy. Therefore, the resultant membranes do not only possess the intrinsic advantages of alumina supports such as high stability and high water permeability, but also have a hydrophobic surface formed by MOF functionalization. The membrane prepared under an optimum condition achieved a good VMD flux of 32.3 L/m2-h at 60 °C. This study may open up a totally new approach for design of next-generation high performance membrane distillation membranes for seawater desalination.

  1. Focus on Membrane Differentiation and Membrane Domains in the Prokaryotic Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, Egbert J.; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan; van Bezouwen, Laura S.; Bolhuis, Henk; Folea, I. Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    A summary is presented of membrane differentiation in the prokaryotic cell, with an emphasis on the organization of proteins in the plasma/cell membrane. Many species belonging to the Eubacteria and Archaea have special membrane domains and/or membrane proliferation, which are vital for different

  2. Protein-centric N-glycoproteomics analysis of membrane and plasma membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bingyun; Hood, Leroy

    2014-06-06

    The advent of proteomics technology has transformed our understanding of biological membranes. The challenges for studying membrane proteins have inspired the development of many analytical and bioanalytical tools, and the techniques of glycoproteomics have emerged as an effective means to enrich and characterize membrane and plasma-membrane proteomes. This Review summarizes the development of various glycoproteomics techniques to overcome the hurdles formed by the unique structures and behaviors of membrane proteins with a focus on N-glycoproteomics. Example contributions of N-glycoproteomics to the understanding of membrane biology are provided, and the areas that require future technical breakthroughs are discussed.

  3. Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Yoong-Kee [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Henson, Neil J.; Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). We have elucidated that the aryl-ether moiety of membranes is one of the weakest site against attack of hydroxide ions. The results of DFT calculations for hydroxide initiated aryl-ether cleavage indicated that the aryl-ether cleavage occurred prior to degradation of cationic functional group. Such a weak nature of the aryl-ether group arises from the electron deficiency of the aryl group as well as the low bond dissociation energy. The DFT results suggests that removal of the aryl-ether group in the membrane should enhance the stability of membranes under alkaline conditions. In fact, an ether fee poly(phenylene) membrane exhibits excellent stability against the attack from hydroxide ions.

  4. Nafion/Silicon Oxide Composite Membrane for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Nafion/Silicon oxide composite membranes were produced via in situ sol-gel reaction of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) in Nafion membranes. The physicochemical properties of the membranes were studied by FT-IR, TG-DSC and tensile strength. The results show that the silicon oxide is compatible with the Nafion membrane and the thermo stability of Nafion/Silicon oxide composite membrane is higher than that of Nafion membrane. Furthermore, the tensile strength of Nafion/Silicon oxide composite membrane is similar to that of the Nafion membrane. The proton conductivity of Nafion/Silicon oxide composite membrane is higher than that of Nafion membrane. When the Nafion/Silicon oxide composite membrane was employed as an electrolyte in H2/O2 PEMFC, a higher current density value (1 000 mA/cm2 at 0.38 V) than that of the Nafion 1135 membrane (100 mA/cm2 at 0.04 V) was obtained at 110 ℃.

  5. Changes in the dielectric properties of medaka fish embryos during development, studied by electrorotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakashi, Ryo; Mischke, Miriam; Fischer, Peter; Memmel, Simon; Krohne, Georg; Fuhr, Günter R.; Zimmermann, Heiko; Sukhorukov, Vladimir L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Electrorotation offers a non-invasive tool for dielectric analysis of fish embryos. ► The three-shell dielectric model matches the rotation spectra of medaka eggs. ► The capacitance value suggests a double-membrane structure of yolk envelope. -- Abstract: The Japanese medaka fish, Oryzias latipes, has become a powerful vertebrate model organism in developmental biology and genetics. The present study explores the dielectric properties of medaka embryos during pre-hatching development by means of the electrorotation (ROT) technique. Due to their layered structure, medaka eggs exhibited up to three ROT peaks in the kHz–MHz frequency range. During development from blastula to early somite stage, ROT spectra varied only slightly. But as the embryo progressed to the late-somite stage, the ROT peaks underwent significant changes in frequency and amplitude. Using morphological data obtained by light and electron microscopy, we analyzed the ROT spectra with a three-shell dielectric model that accounted for the major embryonic compartments. The analysis yielded a very high value for the ionic conductivity of the egg shell (chorion), which was confirmed by independent osmotic experiments. A relatively low capacitance of the yolk envelope was consistent with its double-membrane structure revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Yolk-free dead eggs exhibited only one co-field ROT peak, shifted markedly to lower frequencies with respect to the corresponding peak of live embryos. The dielectric data may be useful for monitoring the development and changes in fish embryos’ viability/conditions in basic research and industrial aquaculture.

  6. Changes in the dielectric properties of medaka fish embryos during development, studied by electrorotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirakashi, Ryo, E-mail: aa21150@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Mischke, Miriam [Lehrstuhl fuer Biotechnologie und Biophysik, Biozentrum, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Fischer, Peter [Physiologische Chemie, Biozentrum, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Memmel, Simon [Lehrstuhl fuer Biotechnologie und Biophysik, Biozentrum, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Krohne, Georg [Abteilung fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, Biozentrum, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Fuhr, Guenter R. [Lehrstuhl fuer Biotechnologie und Medizintechnik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany); Zimmermann, Heiko [Lehrstuhl fuer Molekulare und Zellulaere Biotechnologie, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany); Sukhorukov, Vladimir L., E-mail: sukhorukov@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de [Lehrstuhl fuer Biotechnologie und Biophysik, Biozentrum, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrorotation offers a non-invasive tool for dielectric analysis of fish embryos. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The three-shell dielectric model matches the rotation spectra of medaka eggs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The capacitance value suggests a double-membrane structure of yolk envelope. -- Abstract: The Japanese medaka fish, Oryzias latipes, has become a powerful vertebrate model organism in developmental biology and genetics. The present study explores the dielectric properties of medaka embryos during pre-hatching development by means of the electrorotation (ROT) technique. Due to their layered structure, medaka eggs exhibited up to three ROT peaks in the kHz-MHz frequency range. During development from blastula to early somite stage, ROT spectra varied only slightly. But as the embryo progressed to the late-somite stage, the ROT peaks underwent significant changes in frequency and amplitude. Using morphological data obtained by light and electron microscopy, we analyzed the ROT spectra with a three-shell dielectric model that accounted for the major embryonic compartments. The analysis yielded a very high value for the ionic conductivity of the egg shell (chorion), which was confirmed by independent osmotic experiments. A relatively low capacitance of the yolk envelope was consistent with its double-membrane structure revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Yolk-free dead eggs exhibited only one co-field ROT peak, shifted markedly to lower frequencies with respect to the corresponding peak of live embryos. The dielectric data may be useful for monitoring the development and changes in fish embryos' viability/conditions in basic research and industrial aquaculture.

  7. Dynamic shaping of cellular membranes by phospholipids and membrane-deforming proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Shiro; Kurisu, Shusaku; Takenawa, Tadaomi

    2014-10-01

    All cellular compartments are separated from the external environment by a membrane, which consists of a lipid bilayer. Subcellular structures, including clathrin-coated pits, caveolae, filopodia, lamellipodia, podosomes, and other intracellular membrane systems, are molded into their specific submicron-scale shapes through various mechanisms. Cells construct their micro-structures on plasma membrane and execute vital functions for life, such as cell migration, cell division, endocytosis, exocytosis, and cytoskeletal regulation. The plasma membrane, rich in anionic phospholipids, utilizes the electrostatic nature of the lipids, specifically the phosphoinositides, to form interactions with cytosolic proteins. These cytosolic proteins have three modes of interaction: 1) electrostatic interaction through unstructured polycationic regions, 2) through structured phosphoinositide-specific binding domains, and 3) through structured domains that bind the membrane without specificity for particular phospholipid. Among the structured domains, there are several that have membrane-deforming activity, which is essential for the formation of concave or convex membrane curvature. These domains include the amphipathic helix, which deforms the membrane by hemi-insertion of the helix with both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions, and/or the BAR domain superfamily, known to use their positively charged, curved structural surface to deform membranes. Below the membrane, actin filaments support the micro-structures through interactions with several BAR proteins as well as other scaffold proteins, resulting in outward and inward membrane micro-structure formation. Here, we describe the characteristics of phospholipids, and the mechanisms utilized by phosphoinositides to regulate cellular events. We then summarize the precise mechanisms underlying the construction of membrane micro-structures and their involvements in physiological and pathological processes. Copyright © 2014 the

  8. Eggshell membrane-templated porous gold membranes using nanoparticles as building blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, S.; Khalid, Z. M.; Hussain, I.

    2013-01-01

    Highly porous gold membrane-like structures are formed using eggshell membrane, as such and heat denatured, as a template and gold nanoparticles as building blocks. Gold nanoparticles were produced in-situ on the eggshell membranes without using additional reducing agents. The morphology and loading of gold nanoparticles can easily be controlled by adjusting the pH and thus the redox potential of eggshell membranes. Lower pH favored the formation of irregularly-shaped but dense gold macro/ nanocrystals whereas higher pH(8-9) favored the formation of fairly uniform but less dense gold nanoparticles onto the eggshell membranes. Heat treatment of eggshell membrane-gold nanoparticle composites formed at pH 8-9 led to the formation of highly porous membrane like gold while mimicking the original structure of eggshell membrane. All these materials have been thoroughly characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ISP-AES). These highly porous membrane-like gold materials may have potential applications in catalysis, biosensors, electrode materials, optically selective coatings, heat dissipation and biofiltration. (author)

  9. Membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  10. Polymeric and Lipid Membranes-From Spheres to Flat Membranes and vice versa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveleva, Mariia S; Lengert, Ekaterina V; Gorin, Dmitry A; Parakhonskiy, Bogdan V; Skirtach, Andre G

    2017-08-15

    Membranes are important components in a number of systems, where separation and control of the flow of molecules is desirable. Controllable membranes represent an even more coveted and desirable entity and their development is considered to be the next step of development. Typically, membranes are considered on flat surfaces, but spherical capsules possess a perfect "infinite" or fully suspended membranes. Similarities and transitions between spherical and flat membranes are discussed, while applications of membranes are also emphasized.

  11. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Villalobos Vazquez de la Parra, Luis Francisco; Hilke, Roland

    2015-01-01

    microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  12. Photoresponsive nanostructured membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima

    2016-07-26

    The perspective of adding stimuli-response to isoporous membranes stimulates the development of separation devices with pores, which would open or close under control of environment chemical composition, temperature or exposure to light. Changes in pH and temperature have been previously investigated. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of photoresponsive isoporous membranes, applying self-assembly non-solvent induced phase separation to a new light responsive block copolymer. First, we optimized the membrane formation by using poly(styrene-b-anthracene methyl methacrylate-b-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA) copolymer, identifying the most suitable solvent, copolymer block length, and other parameters. The obtained final triblock copolymer membrane morphologies were characterized using atomic force and electron microscopy. The microscopic analysis reveals that the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer can form both lamellar and ordered hexagonal nanoporous structures on the membrane top layer in appropriate solvent compositions. The nanostructured membrane emits fluorescence due to the presence of the anthracene mid-block. On irradiation of light the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer membranes has an additional stimuli response. The anthracene group undergoes conformational changes by forming [4 + 4] cycloadducts and this alters the membrane\\'s water flux and solute retention. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Recent advances on membranes and membrane reactors for hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; Fernandez Gesalaga, E.; Corengia, P.; Sint Annaland, van M.

    2013-01-01

    Membranes and membrane reactors for pure hydrogen production are widely investigated not only because of the important application areas of hydrogen, but especially because mechanically and chemically stable membranes with high perm-selectivity towards hydrogen are available and are continuously

  14. Performance of different hollow fiber membranes for seawater desalination using membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane distillation requires a highly porous hydrophobic membrane with low surface energy. In this paper, we compare the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) performances of four different types of in-house fabricated hollow fiber membranes and two different commercially available hollow fiber membranes. Hollow fiber membranes are fabricated using wet-jet phase inversion technique and the polymeric matrices used for the fabrication are polyvinylidine fluoride (PVDF) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Commercial hollow fiber membrane materials are made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polypropylene (PP). PVDF hollow fibers showed a superior performance among all the hollow fibers tested in the DCMD process and gave a water vapor flux of 31 kg m-2h-1 at a feed and coolant inlet temperatures of 80 and 20°C, respectively. Under the same conditions, the water vapor flux observed for PP, PTFE, and PVC hollow fiber membranes are 13, 11, and 6 kg m-2h-1, respectively, with 99.99% salt rejection observed for all membranes used.

  15. Performance of different hollow fiber membranes for seawater desalination using membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-08-11

    Membrane distillation requires a highly porous hydrophobic membrane with low surface energy. In this paper, we compare the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) performances of four different types of in-house fabricated hollow fiber membranes and two different commercially available hollow fiber membranes. Hollow fiber membranes are fabricated using wet-jet phase inversion technique and the polymeric matrices used for the fabrication are polyvinylidine fluoride (PVDF) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Commercial hollow fiber membrane materials are made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polypropylene (PP). PVDF hollow fibers showed a superior performance among all the hollow fibers tested in the DCMD process and gave a water vapor flux of 31 kg m-2h-1 at a feed and coolant inlet temperatures of 80 and 20°C, respectively. Under the same conditions, the water vapor flux observed for PP, PTFE, and PVC hollow fiber membranes are 13, 11, and 6 kg m-2h-1, respectively, with 99.99% salt rejection observed for all membranes used.

  16. Improving Nanofiber Membrane Characteristics and Membrane Distillation Performance of Heat-Pressed Membranes via Annealing Post-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minwei Yao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun membranes are gaining interest for use in membrane distillation (MD due to their high porosity and interconnected pore structure; however, they are still susceptible to wetting during MD operation because of their relatively low liquid entry pressure (LEP. In this study, post-treatment had been applied to improve the LEP, as well as its permeation and salt rejection efficiency. The post-treatment included two continuous procedures: heat-pressing and annealing. In this study, annealing was applied on the membranes that had been heat-pressed. It was found that annealing improved the MD performance as the average flux reached 35 L/m2·h or LMH (>10% improvement of the ones without annealing while still maintaining 99.99% salt rejection. Further tests on LEP, contact angle, and pore size distribution explain the improvement due to annealing well. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses of the membranes showed that there was an increase in the crystallinity of the polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP membrane; also, peaks indicating the α phase of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF became noticeable after annealing, indicating some β and amorphous states of polymer were converted into the α phase. The changes were favorable for membrane distillation as the non-polar α phase of PVDF reduces the dipolar attraction force between the membrane and water molecules, and the increase in crystallinity would result in higher thermal stability. The present results indicate the positive effect of the heat-press followed by an annealing post-treatment on the membrane characteristics and MD performance.

  17. Membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane paradigm is a modified frozen star approach to modeling black holes, with particles and fields assuming a complex, static, boundary-layer type structure (membrane) near the event horizon. The membrane has no effects on the present or future evolution of particles and fields above itself. The mathematical representation is a combination of a formalism containing terms for the shear and bulk viscosity, surface pressure, momentum, temperature, entropy, etc., of the horizon and the 3+1 formalism. The latter model considers a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces in one-dimensional time. The membrane model considers a magnetic field threading the hole and undergoing torque from the hole rotation. The field is cleaned by the horizon and distributed over the horizon so that ohmic dissipation is minimized. The membrane paradigm is invalid inside the horizon, but is useful for theoretically probing the properties of slowly evolving black holes

  18. Ion-conducting membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Sajjad, Syed Dawar; Gao, Yan; Liu, Zengcai; Chen, Qingmei

    2017-12-26

    An anion-conducting polymeric membrane comprises a terpolymer of styrene, vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x. R.sub.s is a positively charged cyclic amine group. R.sub.x is at least one constituent selected from the group consisting Cl, OH and a reaction product between an OH or Cl and a species other than a simple amine or a cyclic amine. The total weight of the vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x groups is greater than 0.3% of the total weight of the membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  19. Influence of membrane properties on fouling in submerged membrane bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Marel, P.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Wessling, Matthias; Temmink, Hardy; van der Meer, Walterus Gijsbertus Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Polymeric flat-sheet membranes with different properties were used in filtration experiments with activated sludge from a pilot-scale MBR to investigate the influence of membrane pore size, surface porosity, pore morphology, and hydrophobicity on membrane fouling. An improved flux-step method was

  20. Exploring the potential of commercial polyethylene membranes for desalination by membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Zuo, Jian; Bonyadi, Sina; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    The potential of utilizing polyethylene (PE) membranes in membrane distillation (MD) for sea water desalination has been explored in this study. The advantages of using PE membranes are (1) their intrinsic hydrophobicity with low surface energy of 28-33×10N/m, (2) good chemical stability and low thermal conductivity and (3) their commercial availability that may expedite the MD commercialization process. Several commercial PE membranes with different physicochemical properties are employed to study the capability and feasibility of PE membrane application in an MD process. The effect of membrane pore size, porosity, thickness and wetting resistance on MD performance and energy efficiency have been investigated. The PE membranes demonstrate impressive separation performance with permeation fluxes reaching 123.0L/mh for a 3.5wt% sodium chloride (NaCl) feed solution at 80°C. This superior performance surpasses most of the prior commercial and lab-made flat sheet and hollow fiber membranes. A long term MD testing of 100h is also performed to evaluate the durability of PE membranes, and a relatively stable performance is observed during the entire experiment. This long term stability signifies the suitability of PE membranes for MD applications.

  1. Exploring the potential of commercial polyethylene membranes for desalination by membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Zuo, Jian

    2015-09-26

    The potential of utilizing polyethylene (PE) membranes in membrane distillation (MD) for sea water desalination has been explored in this study. The advantages of using PE membranes are (1) their intrinsic hydrophobicity with low surface energy of 28-33×10N/m, (2) good chemical stability and low thermal conductivity and (3) their commercial availability that may expedite the MD commercialization process. Several commercial PE membranes with different physicochemical properties are employed to study the capability and feasibility of PE membrane application in an MD process. The effect of membrane pore size, porosity, thickness and wetting resistance on MD performance and energy efficiency have been investigated. The PE membranes demonstrate impressive separation performance with permeation fluxes reaching 123.0L/mh for a 3.5wt% sodium chloride (NaCl) feed solution at 80°C. This superior performance surpasses most of the prior commercial and lab-made flat sheet and hollow fiber membranes. A long term MD testing of 100h is also performed to evaluate the durability of PE membranes, and a relatively stable performance is observed during the entire experiment. This long term stability signifies the suitability of PE membranes for MD applications.

  2. Cell-free system for synthesizing membrane proteins cell free method for synthesizing membrane proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Philip D; Hanson, Deborah K

    2013-06-04

    The invention provides an in vitro method for producing proteins, membrane proteins, membrane-associated proteins, and soluble proteins that interact with membrane-associated proteins for assembly into an oligomeric complex or that require association with a membrane for proper folding. The method comprises, supplying intracytoplasmic membranes from organisms; modifying protein composition of intracytoplasmic membranes from organism by modifying DNA to delete genes encoding functions of the organism not associated with the formation of the intracytoplasmic membranes; generating appropriate DNA or RNA templates that encode the target protein; and mixing the intracytoplasmic membranes with the template and a transcription/translation-competent cellular extract to cause simultaneous production of the membrane proteins and encapsulation of the membrane proteins within the intracytoplasmic membranes.

  3. Micro-and/or nano-scale patterned porous membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of using membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xianbin; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zhihong; Zhang, Xixiang; Yue, Weisheng; Lai, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for materials that include a pre-designed patterned, porous membrane (e.g., micro- and/or nano-scale patterned), structures or devices that include a pre-designed patterned, porous membrane, methods of making pre-designed patterned, porous membranes, methods of separation, and the like.

  4. Micro-and/or nano-scale patterned porous membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of using membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xianbin

    2015-01-22

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for materials that include a pre-designed patterned, porous membrane (e.g., micro- and/or nano-scale patterned), structures or devices that include a pre-designed patterned, porous membrane, methods of making pre-designed patterned, porous membranes, methods of separation, and the like.

  5. Separation membrane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.W. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A ceramic membrane has been developed to separate hydrogen from other gases. The method used is a sol-gel process. A thin layer of dense ceramic material is coated on a coarse ceramic filter substrate. The pore size distribution in the thin layer is controlled by a densification of the coating materials by heat treatment. The membrane has been tested by permeation measurement of the hydrogen and other gases. Selectivity of the membrane has been achieved to separate hydrogen from carbon monoxide. The permeation rate of hydrogen through the ceramic membrane was about 20 times larger than Pd-Ag membrane.

  6. Structure and properties of cell membranes. Volume 3: Methodology and properties of membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benga, G.

    1985-01-01

    This book covers the topics: Quantum chemical approach to study the mechanisms of proton translocation across membranes through protein molecules; monomolecular films as biomembrane models; planar lipid bilayers in relation to biomembranes; relation of liposomes to cell membranes; reconstitution of membrane transport systems; structure-function relationships in cell membranes as revealed by X-ray techniques; structure-function relationships in cell membranes as revealed by spin labeling ESR; structure and dynamics of cell membranes as revealed by NMR techniques; the effect of dietary lipids on the composition and properties of biological membranes and index

  7. A forced-flow membrane reactor for transfructosylation using ceramic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, K; Nakajima, M; Nabetani, H

    2000-04-05

    A forced-flow membrane reactor system for transfructosylation was investigated using several ceramic membranes having different pore sizes. beta-Fructofuranosidase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611 was immobilized chemically to the inner surface of a ceramic membrane activated by a silane-coupling reagent. Sucrose solution was forced through the ceramic membrane by crossflow filtration while transfructosylation took place. The saccharide composition of the product, which was a mixture of fructooligosaccharides (FOS), was a function of the permeate flux, which was easily controlled by pressure. Using 0.2 micrometer pore size of symmetric ceramic membrane, the volumetric productivity obtained was 3.87 kg m(-3) s(-1), which was 560 times higher than that in a reported batch system, with a short residence time of 11 s. The half-life of the immobilized enzyme in the membrane was estimated to be 35 days by a long-term operation. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Membrane microdomains, rafts, and detergent-resistant membranes in plants and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinsky, Jan; Opekarová, Miroslava; Grossmann, Guido; Tanner, Widmar

    2013-01-01

    The existence of specialized microdomains in plasma membranes, postulated for almost 25 years, has been popularized by the concept of lipid or membrane rafts. The idea that detergent-resistant membranes are equivalent to lipid rafts, which was generally abandoned after a decade of vigorous data accumulation, contributed to intense discussions about the validity of the raft concept. The existence of membrane microdomains, meanwhile, has been verified by unequivocal independent evidence. This review summarizes the current state of research in plants and fungi with respect to common aspects of both kingdoms. In these organisms, principally immobile microdomains large enough for microscopic detection have been visualized. These microdomains are found in the context of cell-cell interactions (plant symbionts and pathogens), membrane transport, stress, and polarized growth, and the data corroborate at least three mechanisms of formation. As documented in this review, modern methods of visualization of lateral membrane compartments are also able to uncover the functional relevance of membrane microdomains.

  9. Modification of chitosan membranes with nanosilica particles as polymer electrolyte membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusumastuti, Ella, E-mail: ella.kusuma@gmail.com; Siniwi, Widasari Trisna, E-mail: wsiniwi@gmail.com; Mahatmanti, F. Widhi; Jumaeri [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, State University of Semarang D6 Building 2" n" d floor, Sekaran Unnes Campus, Gunungpati, Semarang (Indonesia); Atmaja, Lukman; Widiastuti, Nurul [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Tenth November Institute of Technology Keputih ITS Campus, Sukolilo, Surabaya (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Chitosan has been widely used as polymer matrix for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) application replacing Nafion which has shortcomings in terms of high methanol permeability that degrades the performance of fuel cells. Chitosan membranes modification is performed by adding nanosilica to prevent methanol transport through the membrane. Nanosilica is synthesized by sol-gel method and the particle diameter is obtained by analysis using Breunner Emmet Teller (BET) that is 6.59 nm. Nanosilica is mixed with chitosan solution to obtain nanosilica-chitosan as polymer electrolyte membrane. The membranes are synthesized through phase inversion method with nanosilica composition including 0; 0.5; 1; 2; 3; 5; and 10% w/w of chitosan. Characterization of the membranes indicate that the results of water swelling, proton conductivity and methanol permeability of the membrane with 3% nanosilica respectively were 49.23%, 0.231 S/cm, and 5.43 x 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2}/s. Based on the results of membrane selectivity calculation, the optimum membrane is the composition of 3% nanosilica with value 5.91 x 105 S s cm{sup −3}. The results of functional groups analysis with FTIR showed that it was only physical interaction that occurred between chitosan and nanosilica since no significant changes found in peak around the wave number 1000-1250 cm{sup −-1}.

  10. Functionalization of a Hydrophilic Commercial Membrane Using Inorganic-Organic Polymers Coatings for Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Eykens

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation is a thermal separation technique using a microporous hydrophobic membrane. One of the concerns with respect to the industrialization of the technique is the development of novel membranes. In this paper, a commercially available hydrophilic polyethersulfone membrane with a suitable structure for membrane distillation was modified using available hydrophobic coatings using ORMOCER® technology to obtain a hydrophobic membrane that can be applied in membrane distillation. The surface modification was performed using a selection of different components, concentrations, and application methods. The resulting membranes can have two hydrophobic surfaces or a hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface depending on the application method. An extensive characterization procedure confirmed the suitability of the coating technique and the obtained membranes for membrane distillation. The surface contact angle of water could be increased from 27° up to 110°, and fluxes comparable to membranes commonly used for membrane distillation were achieved under similar process conditions. A 100 h test demonstrated the stability of the coating and the importance of using sufficiently stable base membranes.

  11. Photoresponsive nanostructured membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Madhavan, Poornima; Sutisna, Burhannudin; Sougrat, Rachid; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The perspective of adding stimuli-response to isoporous membranes stimulates the development of separation devices with pores, which would open or close under control of environment chemical composition, temperature or exposure to light. Changes in pH and temperature have been previously investigated. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the preparation of photoresponsive isoporous membranes, applying self-assembly non-solvent induced phase separation to a new light responsive block copolymer. First, we optimized the membrane formation by using poly(styrene-b-anthracene methyl methacrylate-b-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA) copolymer, identifying the most suitable solvent, copolymer block length, and other parameters. The obtained final triblock copolymer membrane morphologies were characterized using atomic force and electron microscopy. The microscopic analysis reveals that the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer can form both lamellar and ordered hexagonal nanoporous structures on the membrane top layer in appropriate solvent compositions. The nanostructured membrane emits fluorescence due to the presence of the anthracene mid-block. On irradiation of light the PS-b-PAnMMA-b-PMMA copolymer membranes has an additional stimuli response. The anthracene group undergoes conformational changes by forming [4 + 4] cycloadducts and this alters the membrane's water flux and solute retention. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Characteristics of membrane fouling in submerged membrane bioreactor under sub-critical flux operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y C; Huang, C P; Pan, Jill R; Lee, H C

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the membrane bioreactor (MBR) process has become one of the novel technologies to enhance the performance of biological treatment of wastewater. Membrane bioreactor process uses the membrane unit to replace a sediment tank, and this can greatly enhance treatment performance. However, membrane fouling in MBR restricts its widespread application because it leads to permeate flux decline, making more frequent membrane cleaning and replacement necessary, which then increases operating and maintenance costs. This study investigated the sludge characteristics in membrane fouling under sub-critical flux operation and also assessed the effect of shear stress on membrane fouling. Membrane fouling was slow under sub-critical flux operation. However, as filamentous microbes became dominant in the reactor, membrane fouling increased dramatically due to the increased viscosity and polysaccharides. A close link was found between membrane fouling and the amount of polysaccharides in soluble EPS. The predominant resistance was the cake resistance which could be minimized by increasing the shear stress. However, the resistance of colloids and solutes was not apparently reduced by increasing shear stress. Therefore, smaller particles such as macromolecules (e.g. polysaccharides) may play an important role in membrane fouling under sub-critical flux operation.

  13. Emulsification using microporous membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran T. Vladisavljević

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Membrane emulsification is a process of injecting a pure dispersed phase or pre-emulsion through a microporous membrane into the continuous phase. As a result of the immiscibility of the two phases, droplets of the dispersed phase are formed at the outlets of membrane pores. The droplets formed in the process are removed from the membrane surface by applying cross-flow or stirring of the continuous phase or using a dynamic (rotating or vibrating membrane. The most commonly used membrane for emulsification is the Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG membrane, fabricated through spinodal decomposition in a melt consisting of Japanese volcanic ash (Shirasu, boric acid and calcium carbonate. Microsieve membranes are increasingly popular as an alternative to highly tortuous glass and ceramic membranes. Microsieves are usually fabricated from nickel by photolithography and electroplating or they can be manufactured from silicon nitride via Reactive Ion Etching (RIE. An advantage of microsieves compared to the SPG membrane is in much higher transmembrane fluxes and higher tolerance to fouling by the emulsion ingredients due to the existence of short, straight through pores. Unlike conventional emulsification devices such as high-pressure valve homogenisers and rotor-stator devices, membrane emulsification devices permit a precise control over the mean pore size over a wide range and during the process insignificant amount of energy is dissipated as heat. The drop size is primarily determined by the pore size, but it depends also on other parameters, such as membrane wettability, emulsion formulation, shear stress on the membrane surface, transmembrane pressure, etc.

  14. Proton exchange membranes prepared by grafting of styrene/divinylbenzene into crosslinked PTFE membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingye; Ichizuri, Shogo; Asano, Saneto; Mutou, Fumihiro; Ikeda, Shigetoshi; Iida, Minoru; Miura, Takaharu; Oshima, Akihiro; Tabata, Yoneho; Washio, Masakazu

    2005-01-01

    Thin PTFE membranes were prepared by coating the PTFE dispersion onto the aluminum films. Thus the thin crosslinked PTFE (RX-PTFE) membranes were obtained by means of electron beam irradiation above the melting temperature of PTFE under oxygen-free atmosphere. The RX-PTFE membranes were pre-irradiated and grafted by styrene with or without divinylbenzene (DVB) in liquid phase. The existence of DVB accelerated the initial grafting rate. The styrene grafted RX-PTFE membranes are white colored, on the other hand, the styrene/DVB grafted RX-PTFE membranes are colorless. The proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were obtained by sulfonating the grafted membranes using chlorosulfonic acid. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) values of the PEMs ranging from 1.5 to 2.8 meq/g were obtained. The PEMs made from the styrene/DVB grafted membranes showed higher chemical stability than those of the styrene grafted membranes under oxidative circumstance

  15. Chorioamniotic membrane separation and preterm premature rupture of membranes complicating in utero myelomeningocele repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Shelly; Moldenhauer, Julie S; Spinner, Susan S; Rendon, Norma; Khalek, Nahla; Martinez-Poyer, Juan; Johnson, Mark P; Adzick, N Scott

    2016-05-01

    Since the results of the Management of Myelomeningocele Study were published, maternal-fetal surgery for the in utero treatment of spina bifida has become accepted as a standard of care alternative. Despite promise with fetal management of myelomeningocele repair, there are significant complications to consider. Chorioamniotic membrane separation and preterm premature rupture of membranes are known complications of invasive fetal procedures. Despite their relative frequency associated with fetal procedures, few data exist regarding risk factors that may be attributed to their occurrence or the natural history of pregnancies that are affected with chorionic membrane separation or preterm premature rupture of membranes related to the procedure. The objective of this study was to review chorioamniotic membrane separation and preterm premature rupture of membranes in a cohort of patients undergoing fetal management of myelomeningocele repair including identification of risk factors and outcomes. This was a retrospective review of patients undergoing fetal management of myelomeningocele repair and subsequent delivery from January 2011 through December 2013 at 1 institution. Patients were identified through the institutional fetal management of myelomeningocele repair database and chart review was performed. Perioperative factors and outcomes among patients with chorioamniotic membrane separation and preterm premature rupture of membranes were compared to those without. Risk factors associated with the development of chorioamniotic membrane separation and preterm premature rupture of membranes were determined. A total of 88 patients underwent fetal management of myelomeningocele repair and subsequently delivered during the study period. In all, 21 patients (23.9%) were diagnosed with chorioamniotic membrane separation by ultrasound and preterm premature rupture of membranes occurred in 27 (30.7%). Among the chorioamniotic membrane separation patients, 10 (47.6%) were

  16. Effect of feed grinding methods with and without expansion on prececal and total tract mineral digestibility as well as on interior and exterior egg quality in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, A; Mader, A; Ruhnke, I; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2016-01-01

    The grinding of cereals by various milling methods as well as thermal treatment of feed may influence mineral digestibility and egg quality. The present study investigated the effect of feed produced by disc mill (D) and wedge-shaped disc mill (WSD), as mash (M) or expandate (E) on apparent ileal absorption (AIA) and apparent total digestibility (ATD) of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, manganese, copper and iron, as well as on egg quality in laying hens. A total of 192 hens (Lohmann Brown) aged 19 wk, were assigned using a randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Four experimental diets were offered ad libitum. Eggs were analyzed for weight, shape index, area, shell weight per unit surface area, yolk color, air cell, blood spot, Haugh unit, albumen and yolk measures (index, weight, height, width and length), shell measures (surface area, stability, density, thickness and membrane weight), as well as percent contents of albumen, yolk, shell, and shell membrane. The ATD for phosphorus, manganese, and copper was higher in WSD compared with D treatment (P = 0.028, P = 0.028 and P = 0.016, respectively). The interaction between milling methods and thermal treatment influenced ATD of copper (P = 0.033), which was higher in WSD+M group (41.0 ± 20.2) compared with D+E group (-3.21 ± 25.1), whereas no differences were observed for D+M (1.90 ± 37.8) and WSD+E (8.02 ± 36.2) groups. Egg stability tended to be higher in E compared with M treatment (P = 0.055). Albumen weight, percentage albumen weight, and albumen: yolk were higher and percentage yolk weight was lower in D compared with WSD treatment (P = 0.043, P = 0.027, P = 0.024, and P = 0.041, respectively). Number of blood spots was higher in E than M treatment (P = 0.053). In conclusion, use of a wedge-shaped disc mill resulted in higher ATD for phosphorus, manganese, and copper than use of a disc mill; however, digestibility for majority of minerals as well as egg quality parameters was

  17. Pilot demonstration of energy-efficient membrane bioreactor (MBR) using reciprocating submerged membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jaeho; Smith, Shaleena; Patamasank, Jaren; Tontcheva, Petia; Kim, Gyu Dong; Roh, Hyung Keun

    2015-03-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is becoming popular for advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse. Air scouring to "shake" the membrane fibers is most suitable and applicable to maintain filtration without severe and rapidfouling. However, membrane fouling mitigating technologies are energy intensive. The goal of this research is to develop an alternative energy-saving MBR system to reduce energy consumption; a revolutionary system that will directly compete with air scouring technologies currently in the membrane water reuse market. The innovative MBR system, called reciprocation MBR (rMBR), prevents membrane fouling without the use of air scouring blowers. The mechanism featured is a mechanical reciprocating membrane frame that uses inertia to prevent fouling. Direct strong agitation of the fiber is also beneficial for the constant removal of solids built up on the membrane surface. The rMBR pilot consumes less energy than conventional coarse air scouring MBR systems. Specific energy consumption for membrane reciprocation for the pilot rMBR system was 0.072 kWh/m3 permeate produced at 40 LMH, which is 75% less than the conventional air scouring in an MBR system (0.29 kWh/m3). Reciprocation of the hollow-fiber membrane can overcome the hydrodynamic limitations of air scouring or cross-flow membrane systems with less energy consumption and/or higher energy efficiency.

  18. Actin filaments growing against an elastic membrane: Effect of membrane tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, Raj Kumar; Chatterjee, Sakuntala

    2018-03-01

    We study the force generation by a set of parallel actin filaments growing against an elastic membrane. The elastic membrane tries to stay flat and any deformation from this flat state, either caused by thermal fluctuations or due to protrusive polymerization force exerted by the filaments, costs energy. We study two lattice models to describe the membrane dynamics. In one case, the energy cost is assumed to be proportional to the absolute magnitude of the height gradient (gradient model) and in the other case it is proportional to the square of the height gradient (Gaussian model). For the gradient model we find that the membrane velocity is a nonmonotonic function of the elastic constant μ and reaches a peak at μ =μ* . For μ membrane energy keeps increasing with time. For the Gaussian model, the system always reaches a steady state and the membrane velocity decreases monotonically with the elastic constant ν for all nonzero values of ν . Multiple filaments give rise to protrusions at different regions of the membrane and the elasticity of the membrane induces an effective attraction between the two protrusions in the Gaussian model which causes the protrusions to merge and a single wide protrusion is present in the system. In both the models, the relative time scale between the membrane and filament dynamics plays an important role in deciding whether the shape of elasticity-velocity curve is concave or convex. Our numerical simulations agree reasonably well with our analytical calculations.

  19. Idiopathic epiretinal membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bu, Shao-Chong; Kuijer, Roelof; Li, Xiao-Rong; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Los, Leonoor I

    2014-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) is a fibrocellular membrane that proliferates on the inner surface of the retina at the macular area. Membrane contraction is an important sight-threatening event and is due to fibrotic remodeling. Methods: Analysis of the current literature

  20. Solid-state membrane module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard [Salt Lake City, UT; Taylor, Dale M [Murray, UT

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  1. The Role of Ion Exchange Membranes in Membrane Capacitive Deionisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanvand, Armineh; Wei, Kajia; Talebi, Sahar; Chen, George Q; Kentish, Sandra E

    2017-09-14

    Ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) are unique in combining the electrochemical properties of ion exchange resins and the permeability of a membrane. They are being used widely to treat industrial effluents, and in seawater and brackish water desalination. Membrane Capacitive Deionisation (MCDI) is an emerging, energy efficient technology for brackish water desalination in which these ion-exchange membranes act as selective gates allowing the transport of counter-ions toward carbon electrodes. This article provides a summary of recent developments in the preparation, characterization, and performance of ion exchange membranes in the MCDI field. In some parts of this review, the most relevant literature in the area of electrodialysis (ED) is also discussed to better elucidate the role of the ion exchange membranes. We conclude that more work is required to better define the desalination performance of the proposed novel materials and cell designs for MCDI in treating a wide range of feed waters. The extent of fouling, the development of cleaning strategies, and further techno-economic studies, will add value to this emerging technique.

  2. Model cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Nylander, Tommy; Cardenas Gomez, Marite

    2014-01-01

    The high complexity of biological membranes has motivated the development and application of a wide range of model membrane systems to study biochemical and biophysical aspects of membranes in situ under well defined conditions. The aim is to provide fundamental understanding of processes control...

  3. How the antimicrobial peptides destroy bacteria cell membrane: Translocations vs. membrane buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovic, Leonardo; Gao, Lianghui; Chen, Licui; Fang, Weihai

    2012-02-01

    In this study, coarse grained Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulation with implementation of electrostatic interactions is developed in constant pressure and surface tension ensemble to elucidate how the antimicrobial peptide molecules affect bilayer cell membrane structure and kill bacteria. We find that peptides with different chemical-physical properties exhibit different membrane obstructing mechanisms. Peptide molecules can destroy vital functions of the affected bacteria by translocating across their membranes via worm-holes, or by associating with membrane lipids to form hydrophilic cores trapped inside the hydrophobic domain of the membranes. In the latter scenario, the affected membranes are strongly corrugated (buckled) in accord with very recent experimental observations [G. E. Fantner et al., Nat. Nanotech., 5 (2010), pp. 280-285].

  4. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  5. Sweeping Gas Membrane Desalination Using Commercial Hydrophobic Hollow Fiber Membranes; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EVANS, LINDSEY; MILLER, JAMES E.

    2002-01-01

    Water shortages affect 88 developing countries that are home to half of the world's population. In these places, 80-90% of all diseases and 30% of all deaths result from poor water quality. Furthermore, over the next 25 years, the number of people affected by severe water shortages is expected to increase fourfold. Low cost methods of purifying freshwater, and desalting seawater are required to contend with this destabilizing trend. Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for separations that are traditionally accomplished via conventional distillation or reverse osmosis. As applied to desalination, MD involves the transport of water vapor from a saline solution through the pores of a hydrophobic membrane. In sweeping gas MD, a flowing gas stream is used to flush the water vapor from the permeate side of the membrane, thereby maintaining the vapor pressure gradient necessary for mass transfer. Since liquid does not penetrate the hydrophobic membrane, dissolved ions are completely rejected by the membrane. MD has a number of potential advantages over conventional desalination including low temperature and pressure operation, reduced membrane strength requirements, compact size, and 100% rejection of non-volatiles. The present work evaluated the suitability of commercially available technology for sweeping gas membrane desalination. Evaluations were conducted with Celgard Liqui-Cel(reg s ign) Extra-Flow 2.5X8 membrane contactors with X-30 and X-40 hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes. Our results show that sweeping gas membrane desalination systems are capable of producing low total dissolved solids (TDS) water, typically 10 ppm or less, from seawater, using low grade heat. However, there are several barriers that currently prevent sweeping gas MD from being a viable desalination technology. The primary problem is that large air flows are required to achieve significant water yields, and the costs associated with transporting this air are prohibitive. To

  6. Polymalic Acid Tritryptophan Copolymer Interacts with Lipid Membrane Resulting in Membrane Solubilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anionic polymers with membrane permeation functionalities are highly desirable for secure cytoplasmic drug delivery. We have developed tritryptophan containing copolymer (P/WWW of polymalic acid (PMLA that permeates membranes by a mechanism different from previously described PMLA copolymers of trileucine (P/LLL and leucine ethyl ester (P/LOEt that use the “barrel stave” and “carpet” mechanism, respectively. The novel mechanism leads to solubilization of membranes by forming copolymer “belts” around planar membrane “packages.” The formation of such packages is supported by results obtained from studies including size-exclusion chromatography, confocal microscopy, and fluorescence energy transfer. According to this “belt” mechanism, it is hypothesized that P/WWW first attaches to the membrane surface. Subsequently the hydrophobic tryptophan side chains translocate into the periphery and insert into the lipid bilayer thereby cutting the membrane into packages. The reaction is driven by the high affinity between the tryptophan residues and lipid side chains resulting in a stable configuration. The formation of the membrane packages requires physical agitation suggesting that the success of the translocation depends on the fluidity of the membrane. It is emphasized that the “belt” mechanism could specifically function in the recognition of abnormal cells with high membrane fluidity and in response to hyperthermia.

  7. Membrane Distillation of Meat Industry Effluent with Hydrophilic Polyurethane Coated Polytetrafluoroethylene Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Mostafa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Meat rendering operations produce stick water waste which is rich in proteins, fats, and minerals. Membrane distillation (MD may further recover water and valuable solids, but hydrophobic membranes are contaminated by the fats. Here, commercial hydrophobic polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE membranes with a hydrophilic polyurethane surface layer (PU-PTFE are used for the first time for direct contact MD (DCMD on real poultry, fish, and bovine stick waters. Metal membrane microfiltration (MMF was also used to capture fats prior to MD. Although the standard hydrophobic PTFE membranes failed rapidly, PU-PTFE membranes effectively processed all stick water samples to colourless permeate with sodium rejections >99%. Initial clean solution fluxes 5–6 L/m2/h declined to less than half during short 40% water recovery tests for all stick water samples. Fish stick water uniquely showed reduced fouling and up to 78% water recovery. Lost flux was easily restored by rinsing the membrane with clean water. MMF prior to MD removed 92% of fats, facilitating superior MD performance. Differences in fouling between stick waters were attributed to temperature polarisation from higher melt temperature fats and relative proportions to proteins. Hydrophilic coated MD membranes are applicable to stick water processing but further studies should consider membrane cleaning and longer-term stability.

  8. Membrane Distillation of Meat Industry Effluent with Hydrophilic Polyurethane Coated Polytetrafluoroethylene Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, M G; Zhu, Bo; Cran, Marlene; Dow, Noel; Milne, Nicholas; Desai, Dilip; Duke, Mikel

    2017-09-29

    Meat rendering operations produce stick water waste which is rich in proteins, fats, and minerals. Membrane distillation (MD) may further recover water and valuable solids, but hydrophobic membranes are contaminated by the fats. Here, commercial hydrophobic polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) membranes with a hydrophilic polyurethane surface layer (PU-PTFE) are used for the first time for direct contact MD (DCMD) on real poultry, fish, and bovine stick waters. Metal membrane microfiltration (MMF) was also used to capture fats prior to MD. Although the standard hydrophobic PTFE membranes failed rapidly, PU-PTFE membranes effectively processed all stick water samples to colourless permeate with sodium rejections >99%. Initial clean solution fluxes 5-6 L/m²/h declined to less than half during short 40% water recovery tests for all stick water samples. Fish stick water uniquely showed reduced fouling and up to 78% water recovery. Lost flux was easily restored by rinsing the membrane with clean water. MMF prior to MD removed 92% of fats, facilitating superior MD performance. Differences in fouling between stick waters were attributed to temperature polarisation from higher melt temperature fats and relative proportions to proteins. Hydrophilic coated MD membranes are applicable to stick water processing but further studies should consider membrane cleaning and longer-term stability.

  9. Evidence for conjugated linoleic acid-induced embryonic mortality that is independent of egg storage conditions and changes in egg relative fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, V A; Stransky, D L; Aydin, R; Cook, M E

    2009-09-01

    Three experiments were performed to determine the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on embryonic development in the absence of vitelline membrane disruption. In experiment 1, when eggs from control and CLA (0.5%)-fed hens were stored at 21 or 15 degrees C for 48 h, mineral movement between the yolk and albumen was not observed (with the exception of Mg and Na). Also, it was found that CLA-induced changes in yolk fatty acid content (e.g., increased saturated fatty acids and CLA) had begun to change after 5 d of feeding hens CLA, and no differences were detected in fatty acid composition after 14 d. In experiment 2, the hatchability of eggs incubated directly after oviposition or stored 24 h at 21 or 15 degrees C was determined from hens fed control or 0.5% CLA diets. Regardless of storage conditions, CLA reduced hatchability. These data showed that CLA elicits negative effects on hatchability independent of vitelline membrane disruption or egg storage condition. In experiment 3, eggs were collected from hens fed 0 or 1% CLA daily for 3 wk, stored at 21 degrees C for 24 h, and incubated. Not only did CLA decrease hatchability, the data showed as the days of CLA feeding increased, the days of survival during incubation decreased. Average days of embryonic survival during incubation for the CLA group diminished to 18.0, 13.4, and 6.3 d for wk 1, 2, and 3 of CLA feeding, respectively, and control remained at 20.6, 20.8, and 19.8 for the 3 wk. These studies suggested that without the disruption of the vitelline membrane, hatchability and embryonic days of survival were significantly reduced by maternal CLA feeding in comparison to control-fed hens. Evidence that embryos die earlier the longer the hens are fed CLA, even though no additional changes in the fatty acid content of eggs were found, suggested that factors other than storage and egg yolk fatty acid composition played a role in CLA-induced embryonic mortality.

  10. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-10-31

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  11. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jü rgen; Khashab, Niveen M.; Zaher, Amir

    2013-01-01

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  12. Chapter 6: cubic membranes the missing dimension of cell membrane organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almsherqi, Zakaria A; Landh, Tomas; Kohlwein, Sepp D; Deng, Yuru

    2009-01-01

    Biological membranes are among the most fascinating assemblies of biomolecules: a bilayer less than 10 nm thick, composed of rather small lipid molecules that are held together simply by noncovalent forces, defines the cell and discriminates between "inside" and "outside", survival, and death. Intracellular compartmentalization-governed by biomembranes as well-is a characteristic feature of eukaryotic cells, which allows them to fulfill multiple and highly specialized anabolic and catabolic functions in strictly controlled environments. Although cellular membranes are generally visualized as flat sheets or closely folded isolated objects, multiple observations also demonstrate that membranes may fold into "unusual", highly organized structures with 2D or 3D periodicity. The obvious correlation of highly convoluted membrane organizations with pathological cellular states, for example, as a consequence of viral infection, deserves close consideration. However, knowledge about formation and function of these highly organized 3D periodic membrane structures is scarce, primarily due to the lack of appropriate techniques for their analysis in vivo. Currently, the only direct way to characterize cellular membrane architecture is by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, deciphering the spatial architecture solely based on two-dimensionally projected TEM images is a challenging task and prone to artifacts. In this review, we will provide an update on the current progress in identifying and analyzing 3D membrane architectures in biological systems, with a special focus on membranes with cubic symmetry, and their potential role in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Proteomics and lipidomics approaches in defined experimental cell systems may prove instrumental to understand formation and function of 3D membrane morphologies.

  13. Membrane curvature enables N-Ras lipid anchor sorting to liquid-ordered membrane phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jannik Bruun; Jensen, Martin Borch; Bhatia, Vikram Kjøller

    2015-01-01

    Trafficking and sorting of membrane-anchored Ras GTPases are regulated by partitioning between distinct membrane domains. Here, in vitro experiments and microscopic molecular theory reveal membrane curvature as a new modulator of N-Ras lipid anchor and palmitoyl chain partitioning. Membrane...

  14. Membrane properties for permeability testing: Skin versus synthetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Anika; Dorrani, Mania; Goodyear, Benjamin; Joshi, Vivek; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena

    2018-03-25

    Synthetic membranes that are utilized in diffusion studies for topical and transdermal formulations are usually porous thin polymeric sheets for example cellulose acetate (CA) and polysulfones. In this study, the permeability of human skin was compared using two synthetic membranes: cellulose acetate and Strat-M® membrane and lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds either as saturated or formulated solutions as well as marketed dosage forms. Our data suggests that hydrophilic compounds have higher permeation in Strat-M membranes compared with lipophilic ones. High variation in permeability values, a typical property of biological membranes, was not observed with Strat-M. In addition, the permeability of Strat-M was closer to that of human skin than that of cellulose acetate (CA > Strat-M > Human skin). Our results suggest that Strat-M with little or no lot to lot variability can be applied in pilot studies of diffusion tests instead of human skin and is a better substitute than a cellulose acetate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Probing lipid membrane electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi

    The electrostatic properties of lipid bilayer membranes play a significant role in many biological processes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is highly sensitive to membrane surface potential in electrolyte solutions. With fully characterized probe tips, AFM can perform quantitative electrostatic analysis of lipid membranes. Electrostatic interactions between Silicon nitride probes and supported zwitterionic dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer with a variable fraction of anionic dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) were measured by AFM. Classical Gouy-Chapman theory was used to model the membrane electrostatics. The nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation was numerically solved with finite element method to provide the potential distribution around the AFM tips. Theoretical tip-sample electrostatic interactions were calculated with the surface integral of both Maxwell and osmotic stress tensors on tip surface. The measured forces were interpreted with theoretical forces and the resulting surface charge densities of the membrane surfaces were in quantitative agreement with the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model of membrane charge regulation. It was demonstrated that the AFM can quantitatively detect membrane surface potential at a separation of several screening lengths, and that the AFM probe only perturbs the membrane surface potential by external field created by the internai membrane dipole moment. The analysis yields a dipole moment of 1.5 Debye per lipid with a dipole potential of +275 mV for supported DOPC membranes. This new ability to quantitatively measure the membrane dipole density in a noninvasive manner will be useful in identifying the biological effects of the dipole potential. Finally, heterogeneous model membranes were studied with fluid electric force microscopy (FEFM). Electrostatic mapping was demonstrated with 50 nm resolution. The capabilities of quantitative electrostatic measurement and lateral charge density mapping make AFM a unique and powerful

  16. Application of the nanocomposite membrane as electrolyte of proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahreni

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen fuel cells proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is currently still in development and commercialization. Several barriers to the commercialization of these Nafion membrane as electrolyte is its very sensitive to humidity fluctuation. Nafion must be modified by making a composite Nafion-SiO 2 -HPA to increase electrolyte resistance against humidity fluctuations during the cell used. Research carried out by mixing Nafion solution with Tetra Ethoxy Ortho Silicate (TEOS) and conductive materials is phosphotungstic acid (PWA) by varying the ratio of Nafion, TEOS and PWA. The membrane is produced by heating a mixture of Nafion, TEOS and PWA by varying the evaporation temperature, time and annealing temperature to obtain the transparent membrane. The resulting membrane was analyzed its physical, chemical and electrochemical properties by applying the membrane as electrolyte of PEMFC at various humidity and temperature of operation. The results showed that at low temperatures (30-90 °C) and high humidity at 100 % RH, pure Nafion membrane is better than composite membrane (Nafion-SiO 2 -PWA), but at low humidity condition composite membrane is better than the pure Nafion membrane. It can be concluded that the composite membranes of (Nafion-SiO 2 -PWA) can be used as electrolyte of PEMFC operated at low humidity (40 % RH) and temperature between (30-90 °C). (author)

  17. Radiation-induced damage of membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonei, Shuji

    1977-01-01

    An outline of membranous structure was stated, and radiation-induced damage of membranes were surveyed. By irradiation, permeability of membranes, especially passive transportation mechanism, was damaged, and glycoprotein in the surface layers of cells and the surface layer structures were changed. The intramembranous damage was induced by decrease of electrophoresis of nuclear mambranes and a quantitative change of cytochrome P450 of microsomal membranes of the liver, and peroxidation of membranous lipid and SH substitute damage of membranous protein were mentioned as the mechanism of membranous damage. Recovery of membranous damage depends on radiation dose and temperature, and membranous damage participates largely in proliferation death. (tsunoda, M.)

  18. Studies on membrane for redox flow battery. 9. Crosslinking of the membrane by the electron radiation and durability of the membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Haruhiko; Minamihira, Kazunori; Hwang, Gab-Jin; Kawahara, Takashi; Aihara, Masahiko; Negishi, Youichi; Kang, An-Soo.

    1995-01-01

    Chlorosulfonated homogeneous and asymmetric cation exchange membranes were tested as separators for the all-vanadium redox flow battery. The membrane was prepared by chlorosulfonation of the polyethylene film in vapour phase. In the case of the polyethylene film of 20 μm thickness used for the homogeneous membrane, area resistivity of 0.5 Ω · cm 2 in 2M KCl aq. solution was reached at 120 min. chlorosulfonation time. In the case of heat laminated 20 μm thick PE film on a neutral porous polyolefin film of 200 μm thickness used for the asymmetric membrane, a minimum area resistivity of 1 Ω · cm 2 in 2M KCl was achieved at 120 min. chlorosulfonation time. The performance evaluation of the membranes as separators in the all-vanadium redox flow battery was also measured. The area resistivity of the membranes in the measuring-cell using charge-discharge current density 63.7 mA/cm 2 was 1.4 Ω · cm 2 and 2.2 Ω · cm 2 for charge and discharge respectively for the homogeneous membrane, and 3.6 Ω · cm 2 and 4.3 Ω · cm 2 for charge discharge cycles respectively for the asymmetric membrane. The chlorosulfonated homogeneous cation exchange membrane was cross-linked by the electron radiation to improve durability of the membrane. The crosslinked membrane which has the high degree of cross-linking, did not shown the mechanical breakage by swelling or shrinking in the acidic vanadium solution, but its area resistivity in the all-vanadium redox flow battery was increased. (author)

  19. Primordial membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2017-01-01

    Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during...... the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions...

  20. Recovery of real dye bath wastewater using integrated membrane process: considering water recovery, membrane fouling and reuse potential of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcik-Canbolat, Cigdem; Sengezer, Cisel; Sakar, Hacer; Karagunduz, Ahmet; Keskinler, Bulent

    2017-11-01

    It has been recognized by the whole world that textile industry which produce large amounts of wastewater with strong color and toxic organic compounds is a major problematical industry requiring effective treatment solutions. In this study, reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were tested on biologically treated real dye bath wastewater with and without pretreatment by nanofiltration (NF) membrane to recovery. Also membrane fouling and reuse potential of membranes were investigated by multiple filtrations. Obtained results showed that only NF is not suitable to produce enough quality to reuse the wastewater in a textile industry as process water while RO provide successfully enough permeate quality. The results recommend that integrated NF/RO membrane process is able to reduce membrane fouling and allow long-term operation for real dye bath wastewater.

  1. Vacuum membrane distillation of liquid desiccants Utilizing Hollow Fiber Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Lefers, Ryan

    2018-01-31

    This paper documents the testing of a vacuum membrane distillation system intended for use with liquid desiccants. Liquid desiccants offer the possibility for low-energy, ambient temperature dehumidification. Effective desalination and purification of diluted desiccants outputs two important products: a concentrated desiccant for reuse in dehumidification and fresh water. In this study, vacuum membrane distillation was used in the laboratory to purify diluted liquid desiccants. Calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were the desiccants selected for testing. Desiccant solutions were pumped through the lumens of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes at varying feed inlet temperatures, solution velocity rates and vacuum set points during membrane distillation. An average flux of 8 kg m-2 h-1 was obtained using 30 wt% magnesium chloride solution at a temperature of 50 °C while applying vacuum to achieve 25 mbar absolute pressure on the air side of the membrane. The results are promising for the development of a full-scale vacuum membrane distillation process for desiccant solution regeneration and fresh water recovery. In addition, the recovered condensate was of sufficient quality for use in agricultural irrigation or drinking water.

  2. Vacuum membrane distillation of liquid desiccants Utilizing Hollow Fiber Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Lefers, Ryan; Srivatsa Bettahalli, N.M.; Fedoroff, Nina V.; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Leiknes, TorOve

    2018-01-01

    This paper documents the testing of a vacuum membrane distillation system intended for use with liquid desiccants. Liquid desiccants offer the possibility for low-energy, ambient temperature dehumidification. Effective desalination and purification of diluted desiccants outputs two important products: a concentrated desiccant for reuse in dehumidification and fresh water. In this study, vacuum membrane distillation was used in the laboratory to purify diluted liquid desiccants. Calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were the desiccants selected for testing. Desiccant solutions were pumped through the lumens of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes at varying feed inlet temperatures, solution velocity rates and vacuum set points during membrane distillation. An average flux of 8 kg m-2 h-1 was obtained using 30 wt% magnesium chloride solution at a temperature of 50 °C while applying vacuum to achieve 25 mbar absolute pressure on the air side of the membrane. The results are promising for the development of a full-scale vacuum membrane distillation process for desiccant solution regeneration and fresh water recovery. In addition, the recovered condensate was of sufficient quality for use in agricultural irrigation or drinking water.

  3. Development of composite membranes of PVA-TEOS doped KOH for alkaline membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryadi,; Sugianto, D.; Ristopan, E.

    2015-01-01

    Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) play an important role in separating fuel and oxygen (or air) in the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells. Preparation of hybrid organic inorganic materials of Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) - Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) composite membrane doped KOH for direct alcohol alkaline fuel cell application has been investigated. The sol-gel method has been used to prepare the composite membrane of PVA-TEOS through crosslinking step and catalyzed by concentrated of hydrochloric acid. The gel solution was cast on the membrane plastic plate to obtain membrane sheets. The dry membranes were then doped by immersing in various concentrations of KOH solutions for about 4 hours. Investigations of the cross-linking process and the presence of hydroxyl group were conducted by FTIR as shown for frequency at about 1600 cm −1 and 3300 cm −1 respectively. The degree of swelling in ethanol decreased as the KOH concentration for membrane soaking process increased. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the membrane was 0.25meq/g. This composite membranes display significant ionic conductivity of 3.23 x 10 −2 S/cm in deionized water at room temperature. In addition, the morphology observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the membrane indicates that soaking process of membrane in KOH increased thermal resistant

  4. Development of composite membranes of PVA-TEOS doped KOH for alkaline membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryadi, Sugianto, D.; Ristopan, E.

    2015-12-01

    Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) play an important role in separating fuel and oxygen (or air) in the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells. Preparation of hybrid organic inorganic materials of Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) - Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) composite membrane doped KOH for direct alcohol alkaline fuel cell application has been investigated. The sol-gel method has been used to prepare the composite membrane of PVA-TEOS through crosslinking step and catalyzed by concentrated of hydrochloric acid. The gel solution was cast on the membrane plastic plate to obtain membrane sheets. The dry membranes were then doped by immersing in various concentrations of KOH solutions for about 4 hours. Investigations of the cross-linking process and the presence of hydroxyl group were conducted by FTIR as shown for frequency at about 1600 cm-1 and 3300 cm-1 respectively. The degree of swelling in ethanol decreased as the KOH concentration for membrane soaking process increased. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the membrane was 0.25meq/g. This composite membranes display significant ionic conductivity of 3.23 x 10-2 S/cm in deionized water at room temperature. In addition, the morphology observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the membrane indicates that soaking process of membrane in KOH increased thermal resistant.

  5. Development of composite membranes of PVA-TEOS doped KOH for alkaline membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haryadi,, E-mail: haryadi@polban.ac.id; Sugianto, D.; Ristopan, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Politeknik Negeri Bandung Jl. Gegerkalong Hilir, Ds. Ciwaruga, Bandung West Java (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) play an important role in separating fuel and oxygen (or air) in the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells. Preparation of hybrid organic inorganic materials of Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) - Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) composite membrane doped KOH for direct alcohol alkaline fuel cell application has been investigated. The sol-gel method has been used to prepare the composite membrane of PVA-TEOS through crosslinking step and catalyzed by concentrated of hydrochloric acid. The gel solution was cast on the membrane plastic plate to obtain membrane sheets. The dry membranes were then doped by immersing in various concentrations of KOH solutions for about 4 hours. Investigations of the cross-linking process and the presence of hydroxyl group were conducted by FTIR as shown for frequency at about 1600 cm{sup −1} and 3300 cm{sup −1} respectively. The degree of swelling in ethanol decreased as the KOH concentration for membrane soaking process increased. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the membrane was 0.25meq/g. This composite membranes display significant ionic conductivity of 3.23 x 10{sup −2} S/cm in deionized water at room temperature. In addition, the morphology observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the membrane indicates that soaking process of membrane in KOH increased thermal resistant.

  6. Fabrication of electrospun nanofibrous membranes for membrane distillation application

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Maab, Husnul; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Nanofibrous membranes of Matrimid have been successfully fabricated using an electrospinning technique under optimized conditions. Nanofibrous membranes are found to be highly hydrophobic with a high water contact angle of 130°. Field emission

  7. Effect of dope solution temperature on the membrane structure and membrane distillation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawi, N. I. M.; Bilad, M. R.; Nordin, N. A. H. M.

    2018-04-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is a non-isothermal process applicable to purify water using hydrophobic membrane. Membrane in MD is hydrophobic, permeable to water vapor but repels liquid water. MD membrane is expected to pose high flux, high fouling and scaling resistances and most importantly high wetting resistance. This study develops flat-sheet polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane by exploring both liquid-liquid and liquid-solid phase inversion technique largely to improve its wetting resistance and flux performance. We hypothesize that temperature of dope solution play roles in solid-liquid separation during membrane formation and an optimum balance between liquid-liquid and liquid-solid (crystallization) separation leads to highly performance PVDF membrane. Findings obtained from differential scanning calorimeter test show that increasing dope solution temperature reduces degree of PVDF crystallinity and suppresses formation of crystalline structure. The morphological images of the resulting membranes show that at elevated dope solution temperature (40, 60, 80 and 100°C), the spherulite-like structures are formed across the thickness of membranes ascribed from due to different type of crystals. The performance of direct-contact MD shows that the obtained flux of the optimum dope temperature (60°C) of 10.8 L/m2h is comparable to commercial PTFE-based MD membrane.

  8. Anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  9. Specific ion effects on membrane potential and the permselectivity of ion exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geise, Geoffrey M; Cassady, Harrison J; Paul, Donald R; Logan, Bruce E; Hickner, Michael A

    2014-10-21

    Membrane potential and permselectivity are critical parameters for a variety of electrochemically-driven separation and energy technologies. An electric potential is developed when a membrane separates electrolyte solutions of different concentrations, and a permselective membrane allows specific species to be transported while restricting the passage of other species. Ion exchange membranes are commonly used in applications that require advanced ionic electrolytes and span technologies such as alkaline batteries to ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis, but membranes are often only characterized in sodium chloride solutions. Our goal in this work was to better understand membrane behaviour in aqueous ammonium bicarbonate, which is of interest for closed-loop energy generation processes. Here we characterized the permselectivity of four commercial ion exchange membranes in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and ammonium bicarbonate. This stepwise approach, using four different ions in aqueous solution, was used to better understand how these specific ions affect ion transport in ion exchange membranes. Characterization of cation and anion exchange membrane permselectivity, using these ions, is discussed from the perspective of the difference in the physical chemistry of the hydrated ions, along with an accompanying re-derivation and examination of the basic equations that describe membrane potential. In general, permselectivity was highest in sodium chloride and lowest in ammonium bicarbonate solutions, and the nature of both the counter- and co-ions appeared to influence measured permselectivity. The counter-ion type influences the binding affinity between counter-ions and polymer fixed charge groups, and higher binding affinity between fixed charge sites and counter-ions within the membrane decreases the effective membrane charge density. As a result permselectivity decreases. The charge density and polarizability

  10. 3D pressure field in lipid membranes and membrane-protein complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollila, O H Samuli; Risselada, H Jelger; Louhivuori, Martti

    2009-01-01

    We calculate full 3D pressure fields for inhomogeneous nanoscale systems using molecular dynamics simulation data. The fields represent systems with increasing level of complexity, ranging from semivesicles and vesicles to membranes characterized by coexistence of two phases, including also...... a protein-membrane complex. We show that the 3D pressure field is distinctly different for curved and planar bilayers, the pressure field depends strongly on the phase of the membrane, and that an integral protein modulates the tension and elastic properties of the membrane....

  11. Improving Hemocompatibility of Membranes for Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenators by Grafting Nonthrombogenic Polymer Brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obstals, Fabian; Vorobii, Mariia; Riedel, Tomáš; de Los Santos Pereira, Andres; Bruns, Michael; Singh, Smriti; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2018-03-01

    Nonthrombogenic modifications of membranes for extracorporeal membrane oxygenators (ECMOs) are of key interest. The absence of hemocompatibility of these membranes and the need of anticoagulation of patients result in severe and potentially life-threatening complications during ECMO treatment. To address the lack of hemocompatibility of the membrane, surface modifications are developed, which act as barriers to protein adsorption on the membrane and, in this way, prevent activation of the coagulation cascade. The modifications are based on nonionic and zwitterionic polymer brushes grafted directly from poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (TPX) membranes via single electron transfer-living radical polymerization. Notably, this work introduces the first example of well-controlled surface-initiated radical polymerization of zwitterionic brushes. The antifouling layers markedly increase the recalcification time (a proxy of initiation of coagulation) compared to bare TPX membranes. Furthermore, platelet and leukocyte adhesion is drastically decreased, rendering the ECMO membranes hemocompatible. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Improved surface property of PVDF membrane with amphiphilic zwitterionic copolymer as membrane additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jianhua, E-mail: jhli_2005@163.com [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350001 (China); Li Mizi; Miao Jing; Wang Jiabin; Shao Xisheng [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350001 (China); Zhang Qiqing, E-mail: zhangqiq@126.com [Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350001 (China) and Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192 (China)

    2012-06-15

    An attempt to improve hydrophilicity and anti-fouling properties of PVDF membranes, a novel amphiphilic zwitterionic copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride)-graft-poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PVDF-g-PSBMA) was firstly synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and used as amphiphilic copolymer additive in the preparation of PVDF membranes. The PVDF-g-PSBMA/PVDF blend membranes were prepared by immersion precipitation process. Fourier transform infrared attenuated reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS) measurements confirmed that PSBMA brushes from amphiphilic additives were preferentially segregated to membrane-coagulant interface during membrane formation. The morphology of membranes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Water contact angle measurements showed that the surface hydrophilicity of PVDF membranes was improved significantly with the increasing of amphiphilic copolymer PVDF-g-PSBMA in cast solution. Protein static adsorption experiment and dynamic fouling resistance experiment revealed that the surface enrichment of PSBMA brush endowed PVDF blend membrane great improvement of surface anti-fouling ability.

  13. Improved surface property of PVDF membrane with amphiphilic zwitterionic copolymer as membrane additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianhua; Li Mizi; Miao Jing; Wang Jiabin; Shao Xisheng; Zhang Qiqing

    2012-01-01

    An attempt to improve hydrophilicity and anti-fouling properties of PVDF membranes, a novel amphiphilic zwitterionic copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride)-graft-poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PVDF-g-PSBMA) was firstly synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and used as amphiphilic copolymer additive in the preparation of PVDF membranes. The PVDF-g-PSBMA/PVDF blend membranes were prepared by immersion precipitation process. Fourier transform infrared attenuated reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS) measurements confirmed that PSBMA brushes from amphiphilic additives were preferentially segregated to membrane-coagulant interface during membrane formation. The morphology of membranes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Water contact angle measurements showed that the surface hydrophilicity of PVDF membranes was improved significantly with the increasing of amphiphilic copolymer PVDF-g-PSBMA in cast solution. Protein static adsorption experiment and dynamic fouling resistance experiment revealed that the surface enrichment of PSBMA brush endowed PVDF blend membrane great improvement of surface anti-fouling ability.

  14. Rat visceral yolk sac cells: viability and expression of cell markers during maternal diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires, M.B. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, J.R.A. [Departamento de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Souza, K.S.; Farias, P.S. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, A.C.V. [Departamento de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Fioretto, E.T. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Maria, D.A. [Laboratório de Bioquímica e Biofísica, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-10

    The function of the visceral yolk sac (VYS) is critical for embryo organogenesis until final fetal development in rats, and can be affected by conditions such as diabetes. In view of the importance of diabetes during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal health, the objective of this study was to assess fetal weight, VYS cell markers, and viability in female Wistar rats (200-250 g) with induced diabetes (alloxan, 37 mg/kg) on the 8th gestational day (gd 8). At gd 15, rats from control (n=5) and diabetic (n=5) groups were anesthetized and laparotomized to remove the uterine horns for weighing of fetuses and collecting the VYS. Flow cytometry was used for characterizing VYS cells, and for determining mitochondrial activity, cell proliferation, DNA ploidy, cell cycle phases, and caspase-3 activity. Fetal weight was reduced in the diabetic group. Expression of the cell markers CD34, VEGFR1, CD115, CD117, CD14, CCR2, CD90, CD44, STRO-1, OCT3/4, and Nanog was detected in VYS cells in both groups. In the diabetic group, significantly decreased expression of CD34 (P<0.05), CCR2 (P<0.001), and OCT3/4 (P<0.01), and significantly increased expression of CD90 (P<0.05), CD117 (P<0.01), and CD14 (P<0.05) were observed. VYS cells with inactive mitochondria, activated caspase-3, and low proliferation were present in the rats with diabetes. Severe hyperglycemia caused by maternal diabetes had negative effects on pregnancy, VYS cell viability, and the expression of cell markers.

  15. Rat visceral yolk sac cells: viability and expression of cell markers during maternal diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aires, M.B.; Santos, J.R.A.; Souza, K.S.; Farias, P.S.; Santos, A.C.V.; Fioretto, E.T.; Maria, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    The function of the visceral yolk sac (VYS) is critical for embryo organogenesis until final fetal development in rats, and can be affected by conditions such as diabetes. In view of the importance of diabetes during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal health, the objective of this study was to assess fetal weight, VYS cell markers, and viability in female Wistar rats (200-250 g) with induced diabetes (alloxan, 37 mg/kg) on the 8th gestational day (gd 8). At gd 15, rats from control (n=5) and diabetic (n=5) groups were anesthetized and laparotomized to remove the uterine horns for weighing of fetuses and collecting the VYS. Flow cytometry was used for characterizing VYS cells, and for determining mitochondrial activity, cell proliferation, DNA ploidy, cell cycle phases, and caspase-3 activity. Fetal weight was reduced in the diabetic group. Expression of the cell markers CD34, VEGFR1, CD115, CD117, CD14, CCR2, CD90, CD44, STRO-1, OCT3/4, and Nanog was detected in VYS cells in both groups. In the diabetic group, significantly decreased expression of CD34 (P<0.05), CCR2 (P<0.001), and OCT3/4 (P<0.01), and significantly increased expression of CD90 (P<0.05), CD117 (P<0.01), and CD14 (P<0.05) were observed. VYS cells with inactive mitochondria, activated caspase-3, and low proliferation were present in the rats with diabetes. Severe hyperglycemia caused by maternal diabetes had negative effects on pregnancy, VYS cell viability, and the expression of cell markers

  16. Attainability and minimum energy of single-stage membrane and membrane/distillation hybrid processes

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali

    2014-12-01

    As an energy-efficient separation method, membrane technology has attracted more and more attentions in many challenging separation processes. The attainability and the energy consumption of a membrane process are the two basic fundamental questions that need to be answered. This report aims to use process simulations to find: (1) at what conditions a single-stage membrane process can meet the separation task that is defined by product purity and recovery ratio and (2) what are the most important parameters that determine the energy consumption. To perform a certain separation task, it was found that both membrane selectivity and pressure ratio exhibit a minimum value that is defined only by product purity and recovery ratio. The membrane/distillation hybrid system was used to study the energy consumption. A shortcut method was developed to calculate the minimum practical separation energy (MPSE) of the membrane process and the distillation process. It was found that the MPSE of the hybrid system is only determined by the membrane selectivity and the applied transmembrane pressure ratio in three stages. At the first stage when selectivity is low, the membrane process is not competitive to the distillation process. Adding a membrane unit to a distillation tower will not help in reducing energy. At the second medium selectivity stage, the membrane/distillation hybrid system can help reduce the energy consumption, and the higher the membrane selectivity, the lower is the energy. The energy conservation is further improved as pressure ratio increases. At the third stage when both selectivity and pressure ratio are high, the hybrid system will change to a single-stage membrane unit and this change will cause significant reduction in energy consumption. The energy at this stage keeps decreasing with selectivity at slow rate, but slightly increases with pressure ratio. Overall, the higher the membrane selectivity, the more the energy is saved. Therefore, the two

  17. The effect of cooling to different subzero temperatures on dog sperm cryosurvival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantar-Rodriguez, A; Medrano, A

    2017-06-01

    The objective was to assess the effect of cooling to different subzero temperatures around ice formation (-5°C) on dog sperm cryosurvival and plasma membrane fluidity. Semen was centrifuged, and sperm were resuspended in a Tris-egg yolk medium (3% glycerol). Diluted sperm were cooled from 22 to 5°C, and then, a Tris-egg yolk medium containing 7% glycerol was added (final concentration of 5% glycerol and 200 × 10 6  cells/ml). Sperm were packaged in 0.5-ml plastic straws, and equilibration was done 16 hr at 5°C before freezing. I. Straws (n = 47) at 5°C were exposed to nitrogen vapours to determine the freezing point. II. Other straws (from different ejaculates) processed as mentioned, were further cooled to -3, -5 or -7°C and immediately rewarmed in a water bath at 37°C. Motility, plasma membrane functionality and acrosome integrity were assessed. III. Other straws (from different ejaculates) processed as mentioned were further cooled to -3 or -5°C, frozen over nitrogen vapours and stored in liquid nitrogen for one month. Straws were thawed in a water bath at 38°C for 30 s. Motility, plasma membrane functionality, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, capacitation status and plasma membrane fluidity were assessed. Ice nucleation temperature was -14.3 ± 2.05°C (mean ± SD); cooling to +5, -3, -5 and -7°C, without freezing, produces no differences on sperm quality between target temperatures; cooling to +5, -3, and -5°C produced no differences on sperm survival and plasma membrane fluidity after freeze-thawing. In conclusion, cooling of dog spermatozoa to different subzero temperatures did not improve sperm cryosurvival and had no effect on plasma membrane fluidity after thawing. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Shuttling of G protein subunits between the plasma membrane and intracellular membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisari, Mariangela; Saini, Deepak Kumar; Kalyanaraman, Vani; Gautam, Narasimhan

    2007-08-17

    Heterotrimeric G proteins (alphabetagamma) mediate the majority of signaling pathways in mammalian cells. It is long held that G protein function is localized to the plasma membrane. Here we examined the spatiotemporal dynamics of G protein localization using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, fluorescence loss in photobleaching, and a photoswitchable fluorescent protein, Dronpa. Unexpectedly, G protein subunits shuttle rapidly (t1/2 plasma membrane and intracellular membranes. We show that consistent with such shuttling, G proteins constitutively reside in endomembranes. Furthermore, we show that shuttling is inhibited by 2-bromopalmitate. Thus, contrary to present thought, G proteins do not reside permanently on the plasma membrane but are constantly testing the cytoplasmic surfaces of the plasma membrane and endomembranes to maintain G protein pools in intracellular membranes to establish direct communication between receptors and endomembranes.

  19. Techno-economical evaluation of membrane based biogas upgrading system: A comparison between polymeric membrane and carbon membrane technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Haider

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A shift to renewable energy sources will reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and secure future energy supplies. In this context, utilization of biogas will play a prominent role. Focus of this work is upgrading of biogas to fuel quality by membrane separation using a carbon hollow fibre (CHF membrane and compare with a commercially available polymeric membrane (polyimide through economical assessment. CHF membrane modules were prepared for pilot plant testing and performance measured using CO2, O2, N2. The CHF membrane was modified through oxidation, chemical vapour deposition (CVD and reduction process thus tailoring pores for separation and increased performance. The post oxidized and reduced carbon hollow fibres (PORCHFs significantly exceeded CHF performance showing higher CO2 permeance (0.021 m3(STP/m2 h bar and CO2/CH4 selectivity of 246 (5 bar feed vs 50 mbar permeate pressure. The highest performance recorded through experiments (CHF and PORCHF was used as simulation basis. A membrane simulation model was used and interfaced to 8.6 V Aspen HYSYS. A 300 Nm3/h mixture of CO2/CH4 containing 30–50% CO2 at feed pressures 6, 8 and 10 bar, was simulated and process designed to recover 99.5% CH4 with 97.5% purity. Net present value (NPV was calculated for base case and optimal pressure (50 bar for CHF and PORCHF. The results indicated that recycle ratio (recycle/feed ranged from 0.2 to 10, specific energy from 0.15 to 0.8 (kW/Nm3feed and specific membrane area from 45 to 4700 (m2/Nm3feed. The high recycle ratio can create problems during start-up, as it would take long to adjust volumetric flow ratio towards 10. The best membrane separation system employs a three-stage system with polyimide at 10 bar, and a two-stage membrane system with PORCHF membranes at 50 bar with recycle. Considering biomethane price of 0.78 $/Nm3 and a lifetime of 15 years, the techno-economic analysis showed that payback time for

  20. Limited and selective transfer of plasma membrane glycoproteins to membrane of secondary lysosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haylett, T.; Thilo, L.

    1986-01-01

    Radioactive galactose, covalently bound to cell surface glycoconjugates on mouse macrophage cells, P388D 1 , was used as a membrane marker to study the composition, and the kinetics of exchange, of plasma membrane-derived constituents in the membrane of secondary lysosomes. Secondary lysosomes were separated from endosomes and plasma membrane by self-forming Percoll density gradients. Horseradish peroxidase, taken up by fluid-phase pinocytosis, served as a vesicle contents marker to monitor transfer of endosomal contents into secondary lysosomes. Concurrently, the fraction of plasma membrane-derived label of secondary lysosomes increased by first order kinetics from 4 PAGE, labeled molecules of M/sub r/ 160-190 kD were depleted and of the M/sub r/ 100-120 kD were enriched in lysosome membrane compared with the relative composition of label on the cell surface. No corresponding selectivity was observed for the degradation of label, with all M/sub r/ classes being affected to the same relative extent. The results indicate that endocytosis-derived transfer of plasma membrane constitutents to secondary lysosomes is a limited and selective process, and that only ∼1% of internalized membrane is recycled via a membrane pool of secondary lysosomes

  1. IgY Technology: Extraction of Chicken Antibodies from Egg Yolk by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Diana; Chacana, Pablo A.; Calzado, Esteban G.; Brembs, Björn; Schade, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    Hens can be immunized by means of i.m. vaccination (Musculus pectoralis, left and right, injection volume 0.5-1.0 ml) or by means of Gene-Gun plasmid-immunization. Dependent on the immunogenicity of the antigen, high antibody-titres (up to 1:100,000 - 1:1,000,000) can be achieved after only one or 3 - 4 boost immunizations. Normally, a hen lays eggs continuously for about 72 weeks, thereafter the laying capacity decreases. This protocol describes the extraction of total IgY from egg yolk by means of a precipitation procedure (PEG. Polson et al. 1980). The method involves two important steps. The first one is the removal of lipids and the second is the precipitation of total IgY from the supernatant of step one. After dialysis against a buffer (normally PBS) the IgY-extract can be stored at -20°C for more than a year. The purity of the extract is around 80 %, the total IgY per egg varies from 40-80 mg, dependent on the age of the laying hen. The total IgY content increases with the age of the hen from around 40 mg/egg up to 80 mg/egg (concerning PEG precipitation). The laying capacity of a hen per year is around 325 eggs. That means a total potential harvest of 20 g total IgY/year based on a mean IgY content of 60 mg total IgY/egg (see Table 1). PMID:21559009

  2. Gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.

  3. Changes of Protein and Lipid Contents, Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Compositions in Eggs and Yolk-Sac Larvae of American Shad ( Alosa sapidissima)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhifeng; Gao, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Jiuxiang; Wang, Yaohui; Guo, Zhenglong; Huang, Bin; Liu, Baoliang; Hong, Lei

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the changes of the biochemical composition of American shad ( Alosa sapidissima) eggs and larvae at embryonic and early larval stages, samples were collected at different development stages from artificial fertilization to the end of yolk absorption including 2 h, 12 h and 30 h after fertilization and newly hatched larvae including 1 and 3 days after hatching. The composition of lipid, fatty acids, protein and amino acids were analyzed. The content of total protein exhibited a decreasing trend during embryogenesis and larval development, and a significant reduction was detected after hatching ( P acids after hatching except for glycine ( P fatty acids remained stable during the period of embryogenesis. But after hatching, a significant decrease was found in the content of C18:2n-6, C18:3n-6, SFA and ratio of EPA/ARA ( P acids.

  4. Impedance study of membrane dehydration and compression in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Canut, Jean-Marc; Latham, Ruth; Merida, Walter; Harrington, David A. [Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

    2009-07-15

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to measure drying and rehydration in proton exchange membrane fuel cells running under load. The hysteresis between forward and backward acquisition of polarization curves is shown to be largely due to changes in the membrane resistance. Drying tests are carried out with hydrogen and simulated reformate (hydrogen and carbon dioxide), and quasi-periodic drying and rehydration conditions are studied. The membrane hydration state is clearly linked to the high-frequency arc in the impedance spectrum, which increases in size for dry conditions indicating an increase in membrane resistance. Changes in impedance spectra as external compression is applied to the cell assembly show that EIS can separate membrane and interfacial effects, and that changes in membrane resistance dominate. Reasons for the presence of a capacitance in parallel with the membrane resistance are discussed. (author)

  5. Cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane: histopathologic evidence for a tympanic membrane origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhoff, H; Linthicum, F H

    2001-07-01

    Several theories have been proposed with respect to the origin and pathogenesis of cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane. The authors describe a case of cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane in a 71-year-old man with a history of tympanic membrane retraction fixed to the incus without evidence of a perforation. The membrane eventually became detached, and remnants of keratinizing squamous epithelium were found on the incus. Mechanisms such as metaplasia, ectopic epidermis rests, or ingrowth of meatal epidermis have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane. These findings, based on temporal bone histopathology, support the role of an acquired epidermal rest. This case report provides evidence that cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane can be established from a resolved retraction of the pars tensa of the tympanic membrane.

  6. Radiolytic preparation of PFA-g-PVBSA membranes as a polymer electrolyte membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei Geng [Department of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Nansanhuan Road 99, Changshu, Jiangsu 215-500 (China); Hwang, Mi-Lim; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Nho, Young Chang [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Junhwa, E-mail: shinj@kaeri.re.kr [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-01

    In this study, a polymer electrolyte membrane, PFA-g-PVBSA was prepared through the radiation-induced graft copolymerization of vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) monomer onto a poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluoropropylvinyl ether) (PFA) film and subsequent sulfonation processes. The IEC values and water uptakes of the prepared membranes increased when increasing the contents of the poly(vinylbenzyl sulfonic acid) (PVBSA) graft polymers in the membranes. Compared with Nafion 212, the degree of grafting (DOG) of membranes of 50% and 70% showed higher proton conductivity with significantly lower methanol permeability. The combination of these properties suggests that the prepared membranes are promising for future application in direct methanol fuel cells.

  7. Pigmentação de gemas de ovos de codornas japonesas alimentadas com rações contendo colorífico Egg yolk colour of japanese quail fed on diets with spice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Tavares Escocard de Oliveira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar, semanalmente, o grau de pigmentação de gemas de ovos de codornas japonesas alimentadas com rações contendo diferentes níveis de colorífico (163,8 mg bixina/100 g, no decorrer de quatro semanas. Utilizaram-se 240 codornas japonesas (Coturnix japonica fêmeas, em delineamento experimental em blocos inteiramente casualizados, com oito tratamentos, cinco repetições e seis codornas por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos, constituídos por oito rações experimentais resultantes da combinação de quatro níveis de colorífico na ração (0; 1,5; 3,0 e 4,5% e duas fontes energéticas (milho e quirera de arroz, foram distribuídos nas parcelas, enquanto que os quatro dias experimentais (7º, 14º, 21º e 28º constituíram as subparcelas. A equação de regressão estimada com o uso do modelo logarítmico explicou 96% da variação dos dados de escore colorimétrico das gemas. No 7º e 14º dia do experimento, os níveis de colorífico estimados que promoveram escores colorimétricos de gemas com padrão caipira (8,5 a 9,0 pontos foram de 1,5%, em rações à base de milho, e 3,0%, em rações à base de quirera de arroz. No 21º e 28º dia experimental, os valores estimados foram de 0,75% (rações com milho e 2,25% (rações com quirera. Em rações com 46,0% de milho ou quirera de arroz, o uso de níveis superiores a 3,0% de colorífico promoveu aumento das perdas de pigmento, pelas excretas, e conseqüente redução da capacidade de deposição de pigmentos nas gemas.One aimed in this work to evaluate , weekly, the egg yolk colour grade of japanese quails fed on diets with different levels of spice (163.8 mg bixin/100 g, in course of four weeks. Two hundred and forty japanese female quails (Coturnix japonica were used in a completely randomized block outline, with eight treatments, five replicates and six quails per experimental unit. The treatments, consisted of eight experimental diets resultant from

  8. Specific ion effects on membrane potential and the permselectivity of ion exchange membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2014-08-26

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. Membrane potential and permselectivity are critical parameters for a variety of electrochemically-driven separation and energy technologies. An electric potential is developed when a membrane separates electrolyte solutions of different concentrations, and a permselective membrane allows specific species to be transported while restricting the passage of other species. Ion exchange membranes are commonly used in applications that require advanced ionic electrolytes and span technologies such as alkaline batteries to ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis, but membranes are often only characterized in sodium chloride solutions. Our goal in this work was to better understand membrane behaviour in aqueous ammonium bicarbonate, which is of interest for closed-loop energy generation processes. Here we characterized the permselectivity of four commercial ion exchange membranes in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and ammonium bicarbonate. This stepwise approach, using four different ions in aqueous solution, was used to better understand how these specific ions affect ion transport in ion exchange membranes. Characterization of cation and anion exchange membrane permselectivity, using these ions, is discussed from the perspective of the difference in the physical chemistry of the hydrated ions, along with an accompanying re-derivation and examination of the basic equations that describe membrane potential. In general, permselectivity was highest in sodium chloride and lowest in ammonium bicarbonate solutions, and the nature of both the counter- and co-ions appeared to influence measured permselectivity. The counter-ion type influences the binding affinity between counter-ions and polymer fixed charge groups, and higher binding affinity between fixed charge sites and counter-ions within the membrane decreases the effective membrane charge density. As a result permselectivity decreases. The

  9. In-situcross-linked PVDF membranes with enhanced mechanical durability for vacuum membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Zuo, Jian; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    A novel and effective one-step method has been demonstrated to fabricate cross-linked polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes with better mechanical properties and flux for seawater desalination via vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). This method involves the addition of two functional nonsolvent additives; namely, water and ethylenediamine (EDA), into the polymer casting solution. The former acts as a pore forming agent, while the latter performs as a cross-linking inducer. The incorporation of water tends to increase membrane flux via increasing porosity and pore size but sacrifices membrane mechanical properties. Conversely, the presence of EDA enhances membrane mechanical properties through in-situ cross-linking reaction. Therefore, by synergistically combining the effects of both functional additives, the resultant PVDF membranes have shown good MD performance and mechanical properties simultaneously. The parameters that affect the cross-link reaction and membrane mechanical properties such as reaction duration and EDA concentration have been systematically studied. The membranes cast from an optimal reaction condition comprising 0.8 wt % EDA and 3-hour reaction not only shows a 40% enhancement in membrane Young's Modulus compared to the one without EDA but also achieves a good VMD flux of 43.6 L/m2-h at 60°C. This study may open up a totally new approach to design next-generation high performance MD membranes. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 62: 4013–4022, 2016

  10. In-situcross-linked PVDF membranes with enhanced mechanical durability for vacuum membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Zuo, Jian

    2016-05-12

    A novel and effective one-step method has been demonstrated to fabricate cross-linked polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes with better mechanical properties and flux for seawater desalination via vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). This method involves the addition of two functional nonsolvent additives; namely, water and ethylenediamine (EDA), into the polymer casting solution. The former acts as a pore forming agent, while the latter performs as a cross-linking inducer. The incorporation of water tends to increase membrane flux via increasing porosity and pore size but sacrifices membrane mechanical properties. Conversely, the presence of EDA enhances membrane mechanical properties through in-situ cross-linking reaction. Therefore, by synergistically combining the effects of both functional additives, the resultant PVDF membranes have shown good MD performance and mechanical properties simultaneously. The parameters that affect the cross-link reaction and membrane mechanical properties such as reaction duration and EDA concentration have been systematically studied. The membranes cast from an optimal reaction condition comprising 0.8 wt % EDA and 3-hour reaction not only shows a 40% enhancement in membrane Young\\'s Modulus compared to the one without EDA but also achieves a good VMD flux of 43.6 L/m2-h at 60°C. This study may open up a totally new approach to design next-generation high performance MD membranes. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 62: 4013–4022, 2016

  11. Fabrication of bioinspired composite nanofiber membranes with robust superhydrophobicity for direct contact membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuan; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G

    2014-06-03

    The practical application of membrane distillation (MD) for water purification is hindered by the absence of desirable membranes that can fulfill the special requirements of the MD process. Compared to the membranes fabricated by other methods, nanofiber membranes produced by electrospinning are of great interest due to their high porosity, low tortuosity, large surface pore size, and high surface hydrophobicity. However, the stable performance of the nanofiber membranes in the MD process is still unsatisfactory. Inspired by the unique structure of the lotus leaf, this study aimed to develop a strategy to construct superhydrophobic composite nanofiber membranes with robust superhydrophobicity and high porosity suitable for use in MD. The newly developed membrane consists of a superhydrophobic silica-PVDF composite selective skin formed on a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) porous nanofiber scaffold via electrospinning. This fabrication method could be easily scaled up due to its simple preparation procedures. The effects of silica diameter and concentration on membrane contact angle, sliding angle, and MD performance were investigated thoroughly. For the first time, the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) tests demonstrate that the newly developed membranes are able to present stable high performance over 50 h of testing time, and the superhydrophobic selective layer exhibits excellent durability in ultrasonic treatment and a continuous DCMD test. It is believed that this novel design strategy has great potential for MD membrane fabrication.

  12. Effect of Plasma Membrane Semipermeability in Making the Membrane Electric Double Layer Capacitances Significant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shayandev; Sachar, Harnoor Singh; Das, Siddhartha

    2018-01-30

    Electric double layers (or EDLs) formed at the membrane-electrolyte interface (MEI) and membrane-cytosol interface (MCI) of a charged lipid bilayer plasma membrane develop finitely large capacitances. However, these EDL capacitances are often much larger than the intrinsic capacitance of the membrane, and all of these capacitances are in series. Consequently, the effect of these EDL capacitances in dictating the overall membrane-EDL effective capacitance C eff becomes negligible. In this paper, we challenge this conventional notion pertaining to the membrane-EDL capacitances. We demonstrate that, on the basis of the system parameters, the EDL capacitance for both the permeable and semipermeable membranes can be small enough to influence C eff . For the semipermeable membranes, however, this lowering of the EDL capacitance can be much larger, ensuring a reduction of C eff by more than 20-25%. Furthermore, for the semipermeable membranes, the reduction in C eff is witnessed over a much larger range of system parameters. We attribute such an occurrence to the highly nonintuitive electrostatic potential distribution associated with the recently discovered phenomena of charge-inversion-like electrostatics and the attainment of a positive zeta potential at the MCI for charged semipermeable membranes. We anticipate that our findings will impact the quantification and the identification of a large number of biophysical phenomena that are probed by measuring the plasma membrane capacitance.

  13. Isolation of plasma membrane-associated membranes from rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suski, Jan M; Lebiedzinska, Magdalena; Wojtala, Aleksandra; Duszynski, Jerzy; Giorgi, Carlotta; Pinton, Paolo; Wieckowski, Mariusz R

    2014-02-01

    Dynamic interplay between intracellular organelles requires a particular functional apposition of membrane structures. The organelles involved come into close contact, but do not fuse, thereby giving rise to notable microdomains; these microdomains allow rapid communication between the organelles. Plasma membrane-associated membranes (PAMs), which are microdomains of the plasma membrane (PM) interacting with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, are dynamic structures that mediate transport of proteins, lipids, ions and metabolites. These structures have gained much interest lately owing to their roles in many crucial cellular processes. Here we provide an optimized protocol for the isolation of PAM, PM and ER fractions from rat liver that is based on a series of differential centrifugations, followed by the fractionation of crude PM on a discontinuous sucrose gradient. The procedure requires ∼8-10 h, and it can be easily modified and adapted to other tissues and cell types.

  14. Diffusion of Integral Membrane Proteins in Protein-Rich Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javanainen, Matti; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Metzler, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    of being protein-poor, native cell membranes are extremely crowded with proteins. On the basis of extensive molecular simulations, we here demonstrate that protein crowding of the membrane at physiological levels leads to deviations from the SD relation and to the emergence of a stronger Stokes......-like dependence D ∝ 1/R. We propose that this 1/R law mainly arises due to geometrical factors: smaller proteins are able to avoid confinement effects much better than their larger counterparts. The results highlight that the lateral dynamics in the crowded setting found in native membranes is radically different......The lateral diffusion of embedded proteins along lipid membranes in protein-poor conditions has been successfully described in terms of the Saffman-Delbrück (SD) model, which predicts that the protein diffusion coefficient D is weakly dependent on its radius R as D ∝ ln(1/R). However, instead...

  15. Utilization effect of cassava (Manihot esculenta and potatoe (Ipomoea batatas on pigmentation, carotenoids pull on egg yolk and performance yield hens Influencia de harinas de yuca y de batata sobre pigmentación, contenido de carotenoides en la yema y desempeño productivo de aves en postura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceballos L Hernán

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Utilization effect of cassava (Manihot esculenta and potatoe (Ipomoea batatas on pigmentation, carotenoids pull on egg yolk and performance yield hens. Eight diets (T1:without pigment, T2: commercial pigment, T3: cassava meal 15%, T4: cassava meal 30%, T5: sweet potato meal 15%, T6: sweet potato meal 30%, T7: cassava and sweet potato meal 15% each, T8: cassava and sweet potato meal 25% each in a randomized design using four replicates of three hens each during seven experimental periods were evaluated. Diets were iso-energetics (2.9 kcal/g and iso-proteis (14.5% CP. Carotenoid concentrations (UV-visible chromatography had differences (P<0.01 among diets. Pigmentation (Fan Roche and carotenoid concentration in egg yoks to come from cassava and sweet potato diets did not show differences (P>0.05 A comparison with egg yolk to come from test diets significant differences (P<0.01 were detected. Diet with commercial pigment showed the highest pigmentation and carotenoid concentration in egg yolk. The other hand, there saw not differences (P>0.05. A comparison with egg yolk to come from test diets significant differences (P<0.01 were detected. Diet with commercial pigment showed the highest pigmentation and carotenoid concentration in egg yolk. The other hand, there saw not differences (P>0.05 between egg yolk to come from diet without pigment and cassava and sweet potato diets. Lutein, -carotene, -carotene, and 9-cis-- carotene were the

  16. Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Technology for Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation: Membrane Fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorhemen, Oliver Terna; Hamza, Rania Ahmed; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2016-06-15

    The membrane bioreactor (MBR) has emerged as an efficient compact technology for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. The major drawback impeding wider application of MBRs is membrane fouling, which significantly reduces membrane performance and lifespan, resulting in a significant increase in maintenance and operating costs. Finding sustainable membrane fouling mitigation strategies in MBRs has been one of the main concerns over the last two decades. This paper provides an overview of membrane fouling and studies conducted to identify mitigating strategies for fouling in MBRs. Classes of foulants, including biofoulants, organic foulants and inorganic foulants, as well as factors influencing membrane fouling are outlined. Recent research attempts on fouling control, including addition of coagulants and adsorbents, combination of aerobic granulation with MBRs, introduction of granular materials with air scouring in the MBR tank, and quorum quenching are presented. The addition of coagulants and adsorbents shows a significant membrane fouling reduction, but further research is needed to establish optimum dosages of the various coagulants/adsorbents. Similarly, the integration of aerobic granulation with MBRs, which targets biofoulants and organic foulants, shows outstanding filtration performance and a significant reduction in fouling rate, as well as excellent nutrients removal. However, further research is needed on the enhancement of long-term granule integrity. Quorum quenching also offers a strong potential for fouling control, but pilot-scale testing is required to explore the feasibility of full-scale application.

  17. A Quaternary Polybenzimidazole Membrane for Intermediate Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, C.; Scott, K.; Li, Qingfeng

    2013-01-01

    at 150 °C with the PA acid loading level of 3.5 PRU (amount of H3PO4 per repeat unit of polymer QPBI). The QPBI membrane was characterized in terms of composition, structure and morphology by NMR, FTIR, SEM, and EDX. The fuel cell performance with the membrane gave peak power densities of 440 and 240 m......A quaternary ammonium polybenzimidazole (QPBI) membrane was synthesized for applications in intermediate temperature (100–200 °C) hydrogen fuel cells. The QPBI membrane was imbibed with phosphoric acid to provide suitable proton conductivity. The proton conductivity of the membrane was 0.051 S cm–1......W cm–2 using oxygen and air, respectively, at 175 °C....

  18. Membrane fusion and exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R; Südhof, T C

    1999-01-01

    Membrane fusion involves the merger of two phospholipid bilayers in an aqueous environment. In artificial lipid bilayers, fusion proceeds by means of defined transition states, including hourglass-shaped intermediates in which the proximal leaflets of the fusing membranes are merged whereas the distal leaflets are separate (fusion stalk), followed by the reversible opening of small aqueous fusion pores. Fusion of biological membranes requires the action of specific fusion proteins. Best understood are the viral fusion proteins that are responsible for merging the viral with the host cell membrane during infection. These proteins undergo spontaneous and dramatic conformational changes upon activation. In the case of the paradigmatic fusion proteins of the influenza virus and of the human immunodeficiency virus, an amphiphilic fusion peptide is inserted into the target membrane. The protein then reorients itself, thus forcing the fusing membranes together and inducing lipid mixing. Fusion of intracellular membranes in eukaryotic cells involves several protein families including SNAREs, Rab proteins, and Sec1/Munc-18 related proteins (SM-proteins). SNAREs form a novel superfamily of small and mostly membrane-anchored proteins that share a common motif of about 60 amino acids (SNARE motif). SNAREs reversibly assemble into tightly packed helical bundles, the core complexes. Assembly is thought to pull the fusing membranes closely together, thus inducing fusion. SM-proteins comprise a family of soluble proteins that bind to certain types of SNAREs and prevent the formation of core complexes. Rab proteins are GTPases that undergo highly regulated GTP-GDP cycles. In their GTP form, they interact with specific proteins, the effector proteins. Recent evidence suggests that Rab proteins function in the initial membrane contact connecting the fusing membranes but are not involved in the fusion reaction itself.

  19. Membrane Compartmentalization Reducing the Mobility of Lipids and Proteins within a Model Plasma Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldsø, Heidi; Reddy, Tyler; Fowler, Philip W; Duncan, Anna L; Sansom, Mark S P

    2016-09-01

    The cytoskeleton underlying cell membranes may influence the dynamic organization of proteins and lipids within the bilayer by immobilizing certain transmembrane (TM) proteins and forming corrals within the membrane. Here, we present coarse-grained resolution simulations of a biologically realistic membrane model of asymmetrically organized lipids and TM proteins. We determine the effects of a model of cytoskeletal immobilization of selected membrane proteins using long time scale coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. By introducing compartments with varying degrees of restraints within the membrane models, we are able to reveal how compartmentalization caused by cytoskeletal immobilization leads to reduced and anomalous diffusional mobility of both proteins and lipids. This in turn results in a reduced rate of protein dimerization within the membrane and of hopping of membrane proteins between compartments. These simulations provide a molecular realization of hierarchical models often invoked to explain single-molecule imaging studies of membrane proteins.

  20. Annexin A4 and A6 induce membrane curvature and constriction during cell membrane repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Theresa Louise; Maeda, Kenji; Pezeshkian, Weria

    2017-01-01

    Efficient cell membrane repair mechanisms are essential for maintaining membrane integrity and thus for cell life. Here we show that the Ca2+- and phospholipid-binding proteins annexin A4 and A6 are involved in plasma membrane repair and needed for rapid closure of micron-size holes. We demonstrate...... that annexin A4 binds to artificial membranes and generates curvature force initiated from free edges, whereas annexin A6 induces constriction force. In cells, plasma membrane injury and Ca2+ influx recruit annexin A4 to the vicinity of membrane wound edges where its homo-trimerization leads to membrane...... that induction of curvature force around wound edges is an early key event in cell membrane repair....

  1. PVDF hollow fiber and nanofiber membranes for fresh water reclamation using membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fiber and nanofibrous membranes are engineered and successfully fabricated using dry-jet wet spinning and electrospinning techniques, respectively. Fabricated membranes are characterized for their morphology, average pore size, pore size distribution, nanofiber diameter distribution, thickness, and water contact angle. Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) performances of the fabricated membranes have been investigated using a locally designed and fabricated, fully automated MD bench scale unit and DCMD module. Electrospun nanofibrous membranes showed a water flux as high as 36 L m-2 h-1 whereas hollow fiber membranes showed a water flux of 31.6 L m-2 h-1, at a feed inlet temperature of 80 °C and at a permeate inlet temperature of 20 °C.

  2. PVDF hollow fiber and nanofiber membranes for fresh water reclamation using membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2013-11-26

    Polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fiber and nanofibrous membranes are engineered and successfully fabricated using dry-jet wet spinning and electrospinning techniques, respectively. Fabricated membranes are characterized for their morphology, average pore size, pore size distribution, nanofiber diameter distribution, thickness, and water contact angle. Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) performances of the fabricated membranes have been investigated using a locally designed and fabricated, fully automated MD bench scale unit and DCMD module. Electrospun nanofibrous membranes showed a water flux as high as 36 L m-2 h-1 whereas hollow fiber membranes showed a water flux of 31.6 L m-2 h-1, at a feed inlet temperature of 80 °C and at a permeate inlet temperature of 20 °C.

  3. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2015-01-22

    The present application offers a solution to the current problems associated with recovery and recycling of precious metals from scrap material, discard articles, and other items comprising one or more precious metals. The solution is premised on a microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  4. Fatty acid profiles from the plasma membrane and detergent resistant membranes of two plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Salazar, Laura; El Hafidi, Mohammed; Gutiérrez-Nájera, Nora; Noyola-Martínez, Liliana; González-Solís, Ariadna; Gavilanes-Ruíz, Marina

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to establish the composition of the plant plasma membrane in order to understand its organization and behavior under continually changing environments. Knowledge of the lipid phase, in particular the fatty acid (FA) complex repertoire, is important since FAs determine many of the physical-chemical membrane properties. FAs are constituents of the membrane glycerolipid and sphingolipid backbones and can also be linked to some sterols. In addition, FAs are components of complex lipids that can constitute membrane micro-domains, and the use of detergent-resistant membranes is a common approach to study their composition. The diversity and cellular allocation of the membrane lipids containing FAs are very diverse and the approaches to analyze them provide only general information. In this work, a detailed FA analysis was performed using highly purified plasma membranes from bean leaves and germinating maize embryos and their respective detergent-resistant membrane preparations. The analyses showed the presence of a significant amount of very long chain FAs (containing 28C, 30C and 32C), in both plasma membrane preparations from bean and maize, that have not been previously reported. Herein is demonstrated that a significant enrichment of very long chain saturated FAs and saturated FAs can occur in detergent-resistant membrane preparations, as compared to the plasma membranes from both plant species. Considering that a thorough analysis of FAs is rarely performed in purified plasma membranes and detergent-resistant membranes, this work provides qualitative and quantitative evidence on the contributions of the length and saturation of FAs to the organization of the plant plasma membrane and detergent-resistant membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamic nuclear polarization methods in solids and solutions to explore membrane proteins and membrane systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Han, Songi

    2013-01-01

    Membrane proteins regulate vital cellular processes, including signaling, ion transport, and vesicular trafficking. Obtaining experimental access to their structures, conformational fluctuations, orientations, locations, and hydration in membrane environments, as well as the lipid membrane properties, is critical to understanding their functions. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of frozen solids can dramatically boost the sensitivity of current solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance tools to enhance access to membrane protein structures in native membrane environments. Overhauser DNP in the solution state can map out the local and site-specific hydration dynamics landscape of membrane proteins and lipid membranes, critically complementing the structural and dynamics information obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Here, we provide an overview of how DNP methods in solids and solutions can significantly increase our understanding of membrane protein structures, dynamics, functions, and hydration in complex biological membrane environments.

  6. Membrane's Eleven: heavy-atom derivatives of membrane-protein crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morth, Jens Preben; Sørensen, Thomas Lykke-Møller; Nissen, Poul

    2006-01-01

    A database has been assembled of heavy-atom derivatives used in the structure determination of membrane proteins. The database can serve as a guide to the design of experiments in the search for heavy-atom derivatives of new membrane-protein crystals. The database pinpoints organomercurials...

  7. Enhancing Membrane Protein Identification Using a Simplified Centrifugation and Detergent-Based Membrane Extraction Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanting; Gao, Jing; Zhu, Hongwen; Xu, Jingjing; He, Han; Gu, Lei; Wang, Hui; Chen, Jie; Ma, Danjun; Zhou, Hu; Zheng, Jing

    2018-02-20

    Membrane proteins may act as transporters, receptors, enzymes, and adhesion-anchors, accounting for nearly 70% of pharmaceutical drug targets. Difficulties in efficient enrichment, extraction, and solubilization still exist because of their relatively low abundance and poor solubility. A simplified membrane protein extraction approach with advantages of user-friendly sample processing procedures, good repeatability and significant effectiveness was developed in the current research for enhancing enrichment and identification of membrane proteins. This approach combining centrifugation and detergent along with LC-MS/MS successfully identified higher proportion of membrane proteins, integral proteins and transmembrane proteins in membrane fraction (76.6%, 48.1%, and 40.6%) than in total cell lysate (41.6%, 16.4%, and 13.5%), respectively. Moreover, our method tended to capture membrane proteins with high degree of hydrophobicity and number of transmembrane domains as 486 out of 2106 (23.0%) had GRAVY > 0 in membrane fraction, 488 out of 2106 (23.1%) had TMs ≥ 2. It also provided for improved identification of membrane proteins as more than 60.6% of the commonly identified membrane proteins in two cell samples were better identified in membrane fraction with higher sequence coverage. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD008456.

  8. Sweep gas membrane distillation in a membrane contactor with metallic hollow fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukla, Sushumna; Benes, Nieck Edwin; Vankelecom, I.F.J.; Mericq, J.P.; Belleville, M.P.; Hengl, N.; Sanchez Marcano, Jose

    2015-01-01

    This work revolves around the use of porous metal hollow fibers in membrane distillation. Various stages are covered, starting from membrane synthesis up to the testing of a pilot scale membrane module. Mechanically stable metal hollow fibers have been synthesized by phase inversion of a stainless

  9. CONTRIBUTION OF TROUT YOLK-SAC FRY (SALMO TRUTTA L. ORIGINATING FROM WILD STOCK TO FISHING IN THE MOSELOTTE RIVER, FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERDEAUX D.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Moselotte River has been severely affected by human activity and in some of its stretches this has impaired reproduction of trout, which has added to an adverse effect on the trout population arising from a high fishing pressure by local anglers. To offset this problem, the local anglers annually release about 50,000 yolk-sac fry that have been derived from wild native breeding stock. It was possible to monitor the fry released in 1999 and 2000 using a method of mass marking by immersion in a fluoromarking agent (Alizarin Red S. The trout enter the fishery at 3 years and about 90% of the trout caught are three or four years old. Fish that had been released represented 25.5% and 36.7% of the catches respectively in 2002 and 2003, two percentages that do not differ significantly. This proportion varied according to the location in the river. The age structure of the marked fish that were caught was similar to that of fish hatched in the wild.

  10. Flavonoid-membrane Interactions: A Protective Role of Flavonoids at the Membrane Surface?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia I. Oteiza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids can exert beneficial health effects through multiple mechanisms. In this paper, we address the important, although not fully understood, capacity of flavonoids to interact with cell membranes. The interactions of polyphenols with bilayers include: (a the partition of the more non-polar compounds in the hydrophobic interior of the membrane, and (b the formation of hydrogen bonds between the polar head groups of lipids and the more hydrophilic flavonoids at the membrane interface. The consequences of these interactions are discussed. The induction of changes in membrane physical properties can affect the rates of membrane lipid and protein oxidation. The partition of certain flavonoids in the hydrophobic core can result in a chain breaking antioxidant activity. We suggest that interactions of polyphenols at the surface of bilayers through hydrogen bonding, can act to reduce the access of deleterious molecules (i.e. oxidants, thus protecting the structure and function of membranes.

  11. Membrane compartment of Can1 (MCC): specialized functional microdomain of the yeast plasma membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Doudová, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    Membrane compartment of Can1 (MCC): specialized functional microdomain of the yeast plasma membrane Yeast plasma membrane is divided into several different compartments. Membrane compartment of Can1 is specific for its protein and lipid composition, furthermore it creates furrow-like invaginations on the plasma membrane. These invaginations are made by multiprotein complexes called eisosomes, which are located in the cytosolic side of MCCs. It was established that this domain plays an importa...

  12. Radio-chemical applications of functionalized membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Ashok K.

    2011-01-01

    Functionalized polymer membranes have many potential applications as they are task specific. We have developed many functionalized membranes like polymer inclusion membranes, pore-filled membranes and nano-membranes. Radiotracers and other methods have been used to understand the diffusional-transport properties of the Nafion-117 membrane as well as home-made membranes. These membranes have been used to develop novel analytical and separation methods for toxic metal ions and radionuclides. In this talk, an overview of our work on functionalized membrane is presented. (author)

  13. A study for the research trends of membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sener, T.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' A single PEM fuel cell is comprised of a membrane electrode assembly, two bipolar plates and two fields. Membrane electrode assembly is the basic component of PEM fuel cell due to its cost and function, and it consists a