Sample records for yokugata gyaku mondai

  1. Method for solving an inverse problem of wing type by using a simple panel method; Kanbenna panel ho ni yoru yokugata gyaku mondai no ichikaiho

    Ando, J.; Matsumoto, D.; Maita, S.; Nakatake, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper describes one method for solving an inverse problem of wing type based on the source and quasi continuous vortex lattice method (SQCM) in designing marine propellers and underwater wings. With the SQCM, vortices and control points are distributed on wing camber according to the QCM, and wing surface is divided into certain number of panels. This is the method to decide vortex intensity and blow-out intensity simultaneously from the condition that vertical speed on the camber and the wing surface is zero, upon having distributed blow-out with certain intensity inside the panel. The method solves the inverse problem with the following process: specific point distribution is so determined that the targeted velocity on the wing surface is satisfied when wing surface pressure distribution and uniform flow velocity are given; and then the panels are so rearranged as in parallel with direction of the flow on the surface of the wing calculated by using these specific points to derive the targeted wing shape. This paper describes the problem solving procedure in great detail. It also introduces examples of numerical calculations. It shows one method for solving the inverse problem in wing type using the SQCM as a simple panel method, whereas its good convergence and stability were verified. Considerations on effects of free surface and expansion of the method into three-dimensional problems will be implemented in the future. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Features of vertical axis wind turbine and development of airfoils sections; Chokusen yokugata suichoku jiku fusha no tokucho to yokugata ni kansuru kenkyu

    Seki, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Yasui, T. [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan); Nakayama, H. [Oriental Kiden Company, Osaka (Japan)


    Features of a straight wing type vertical axis wind turbine (VAW) and its airfoil sections were studied. The wind turbine in which various aerodynamic work components are mounted on the rotation axis normal to the ground surface is named VAW. Like the airfoil section of aircraft, in lift type VAW, wind turbines were driven by lift 70-90 times as large as drag in some cases. Features of the VAW airfoil section which is a straight wing in plan and a fixed pitch wing (with a fixed angle to a blade support arm) in cross section, and those of wind turbines were studied. Some factors affecting the features, work principle and performance of VAW were clarified. On airfoil sections, products of each weight function and each corresponding aerodynamic factor (lift, drag and pitching moment factors) were plotted on an attack angle ({alpha}) axis. From the conditions for increasing the total sum of areas drawn by the products on the {alpha} axis, various characteristics required for airfoil sections were clarified. Such characteristics nearly agreed between an airfoil section for favorable starting characteristics and that for high efficiency. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Paint indusry and environmental problem. Toryo kogyo to kankyo mondai

    Osawa, A. (Nippon Oil and Fats Co., Tokyo (Japan))


    Relating to the paint industry, introduction was made of environmental problem, particularly trend of the hydrocarbonexhaust regulation, and problem against the global warming gas and acid rain. Environmental pollution matter produced by the paint industry and painting industry being mainly hybrocarbon (organic solvent), the worldwide quantity of hydrocabon exhausted in the atmosphere is estimated to be annually 20 million tons, of which 18%, i.e., an annual quantity of 3.5 million tons is exhausted from the field of paint industry. The role to be played by the paint industry is important for the lowering in pollution by the hydrocarbon. Useful paints for the environmental maintenance comprise high solid paint, aqueous paint, slurry paint, powder paint and UV-hardened paint. The automobile coating is being also changed from the metallic coating to the aqueous coating. Low temperature hardening paint is used for the countermeasures against the global warming gas. For those against the acid rain, urethane hardening, hardening by the acid-epoxy group reaction, hardening by the alkoxyl froup reaction and other hardenings are developed to replace the conventional hardening by the melamine resin for heightening in acidproofness of paint film. 5 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Experimental development of a torsion arc blade type horizontal axis windmil; Nejire enko yokugata suihei jiku fusha no kaihatsu

    Kojima, N. [Meiji Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Scince and Technology


    To get more wind energy, longer rotating blades and higher towers of windmills are required. Therefore, the location of windmills is limited and the initial cost gets higher. In this study, a small size windmill which can generate electricity even in a city was developed and tested. A torsion arc blade type horizontal axis windmill was designed and the blade form, number and degree of distortion were investigated. Based on the results, a small windmill was made, rotation and generation tests were carried out and it was confirmed that the windmill could be used as a small scale wind power generation. The windmill is of simple construction having 6 arc blades and no high tower is required. This paper consists of 6 sections, i.e. Introduction, Windmill model, Tested windmill, Test facility and method, Test results and consideration, and Postscript. 2 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Study on torsion arc blade type horizontal axis wind turbine; Nejire enko yokugata suihei jiku fusha ni kansuru kenkyu

    Kojima, N.; Kishimura, K. [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)


    Discussing the rotor blades of the torsion arc blade type (TABT) wind turbine, difference in windmilling characteristics was determined between elliptic blades and rectangular blades by theoretical analysis and model experiment. Experimental generation of power was carried out using a test wind turbine in the natural wind. First, elliptic blades were bent into arcs and fixed to shaft. The action force was determined calculating the blade area and the wind velocity vertical thereto. Furthermore, the force in the direction to turn the rotor was determined with the effect of the part behind the blade taken into account. The rotation-curbing air resistance in the flank direction that a rotor experiences was subtracted to determine the torque generated. A formula was derived for the elliptic blade. Second, a formula was derived in the same way for the case of rectangular blades. In conclusion, in the case of 6-blade wind turbine, the rate of responsibility for wind turbine rotation of the part behind the blade was approximately 50% of the part in front of the blade. Shape coefficients were introduced into the theory, which resulted in values agreeing well with values obtained from experiments. Elliptic blades yielded more power than rectangular blades at the same wind velocity. High in durability, the TABT wind turbine is expected to be put into practical use as a compact auxiliary power generating device. 2 refs., 14 figs.

  6. Problem on environmental hormone (endocrine disturbing chemicals); Kankyo horumon (naibunpi kakuran kagaku busshitsu) mondai ni tsuite

    Tawarada, T. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)


    This paper describes a problem on environmental hormone. Various chemicals discharged into environment act as hormone- like or anti-hormone-like substance. Since many such chemicals act as female hormone-like substance, those are called '(exogenous) endocrine disturbing chemicals' or 'environmental hormone'. Such chemicals include already regulated toxic PCB and dioxin, and a large amount of plastic raw materials, plasticizer and surfactant with no acute toxicity. The action mechanism of endocrine disturbing chemicals is as follows. Those bond with acceptors in place of hormone, and give incorrect directions to genes. Those may cause various disorders such as reproduction anomaly, development anomaly, immune toxicity and neuro-toxicity over several ages. For wild animals, some conceivable effects are being revealed. Since living organisms have various specificities and various experiments possible for animals are impossible for mankind, many obscure points remain unsolved. This paper presents various approaches in Japan. (NEDO)

  7. Challenge of the global warming-JAMA. Chikyu ondanka mondai to jidosha sangyo ni okeru torikumi

    Suzuki, Y. (Japan Automobile Manufactures Association Inc., Tokyo (Japan))


    This paper summarizes the global warming problem challenged by the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. An investigative analysis was carried out on CO2 related data. Its gists are described as follows: The rate of contribution to CO2 emission in the automotive sector is about 17%; fuel consumption improvement has long been discussed, but is in a trend of hitting the ceiling because of the needs of mounting gears for safety improvement and of vehicle upsizing; amount of fuels used is increasing year after year; the rate of the increase correlates with the economy growth; the growth of CO2 emission from automobiles would be smaller than the values given in several reports as a result of the Japanese economic growth lower than the anticipation; effects of the fuel consumption improvement are assumed to reduce CO2 emission by several percentage points in 2000; electric vehicles could reduce CO2 emission by 40% per car if nuclear power generation is partly used; fluorocarbon used in the automobile industry is for foaming, rinsing and air conditioners, with its use in the former two applications being planned to be totally abolished; and the problem thereof exists in air conditioners, for which recovery, leakage measures, and conversion to new coolants are being discussed. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Challenge to issues on global environment. Chikyu kankyo mondai eno torikumi

    Ishida, K.; Nishibori, F. (Kansai Environmental Engineering Center Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))


    This paper summarizes themes on issues on global environment that Kansai Environmental Engineering Center Co., Ltd. has been commissioned for study. The themes may be listed as follows: transportation, fixation, and deposition of CO2 in the north-west Pacific sea area; development of carbon circulation model; effects of oceans on atmospheric CO2 increase; measurement of chemical substances dissolved in sea water; CO2 photosynthesis with algae; proliferation conditions for Haptophyceae algae and calcification capability of CO2; carbon fixing mechanisms and calcification capability of shellfish; and growth acceleration of trees by utilizing mushroom hyphae, and afforestation techniques. The investigation on the mechanism of circulating carbons in ocean has provided the following results: a low-salt sea area exists as a water mass distribution that has 34.2 psu or lower in a depth of 500 m from 45 degrees to 15 degrees north latitude; the CO2 partial pressure in air on sea surface and in sea water is lower in the sea water (CO2 absorption region) than in the air from 45 degrees to 40 degrees north latitude and 8 degrees and lower in south latitude; total carbon distribution is lower in the surface layer, and the higher the deeper; phytoplanktons are distributed densely in areas with nutrient salt at somewhat lower levels; and planktons with sizes of 10 micrometer or smaller and 300 micrometer or larger are prevalent in the equatorial regions. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Dealing with problems on sexual harassment in universities; Sekuhara mondai niokeru daigaku no torikumi

    Michiue, Masanori. [Tottori University, Tottori (Japan)


    Authors carried out the outside evaluation that the education system, equipment from curriculum and results of faculty staff were checked by not only self-inspection and evaluation but also insight people outside the faculty in the engineering faculty in the Tottori University. As one part of this evaluation, a guideline to the sexual harassment was made. After then, a guideline to the sexual harassment in each university was completed after learned from the example of the Tottori University. This kind of regulation was made in offices of each ministry and agency, self governing body and company according to the direction of the National Personal Authority. Until recent time, the regulation related to student discussion on the sexual harassment was set up in whole the Tottori University, an environment to make students study at ease was adjusted. These items had the regulation related to student discussion, protection, guideline, when damage happened, and the student discussion room. These items were listed in the student living guideline on the homepage of the Tottori University. (NEDO)

  10. Plastic packaging materials and environmental problems. Plastic hosozai to kankyo mondai

    Uemura, T. (Sekisui Plastics Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))


    This paper describes the recent trends in the environmental problems created from used plastic packaging materials. The 23 wards of the city of Tokyo produce refuses daily of 12,000 tons (1990), with plastics accounting for 15% by volume. Discussions to deal with plastic refuses that are bulky and standing out began as early as in 1971 when the disposal study meeting was inaugurated. As a result, wastes from polyvinyl chloride sheet for agricultural green houses had 40% recovered and recycled out of 100,000 tons generated annually, and styrofoam wastes at 10% of 150,000 tons. The wastes disposal law and the recycling law were established in 1991 aiming at reducing volume of wastes, promoting re-utilization, and assuring appropriate disposal methods and facilities. The Wastes Re-utilization Association was organized to handle styrofoam wastes that are attracting strong attention recently, the association having begun its activities with a good start. It is expected that styrofoam wastes will be molten thermally and regenerated into the same styrofoam products. Styrofoam could be more energy saving and resource saving material than paper cups. 6 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Problems of adhering organisms in power stations. Hatsudensho ni okeru fuchaku seibutsu no mondai

    Sakaguchi, Isamu (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))


    Much seawater is used in thermal power station in Japan to cool condensers but organisms adhered on the water channel system result many troubles such as increase of flowing resistance, reduction of thermal transfer efficiendy, corrosion or erosion-corrosion of condenser pipes, and cleaning difficulty for periodic inspection. Living organisms range from micro bacteria of 2 mum to oysters and others of about 10cm size. For these reasons, the intake open channel is previously designed to larger size and this margin is called the shellfish allowance. Mussels which adhere most on circulating water channels, are one of Bivalvia, grow to 3-6cm and in maximum case to 9cm in a year. These adhere on the surface base by secreting adhesive disc consisting of byssus. Barnacles are one of Crustacea and their larvas search preferable places as to light, roughness and water flow and can adhere on a place in considerably rapid water flow. Other organisms are bacteria and Hydrozoa. Many problems are caused by these organisms even now. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Environmental problem and geochemistry of rabon. Radon to kankyo mondai (chikyu kagaku ni tsuite)

    Kanai, Y. (Geological Survey of Japan, Tokyo (Japan))


    With Effects of radon (Rn) on human body'' installed as a central theme, a summary is explained on the dealings of Rn with human being, method for measuring Rn, origin of Rn, method for treationg Rn in residential housings, Rn and hot spring, and geochemistry of Rn. The U.S. Environmont Protection Agency announced that Rn has a high possibility of causing lung cancers in the living environment, and that among about 130,000 fatalities annually due to lung cancer, about 5,000 to 20,000 are for Rn. If an effective dose equivalent by Rn is assumed 1, that by the Rn daughter nucleus amount to 50, showing how large the latter {prime}s effect is. The life-time risk increment Rn of a lung cancer due to chronic indoor exposure to {sup 222} Rn daughter nuclei at a constant level of 10{sup 5}Bg.h.m{sup {minus}3} annually is 0.26%, the frequency increment is 36 cases, the life expectancy loss {Delta}L, due to this is 14 days. Rn is, however, not simply hazardous, it can present a benefit as in a radioactive hot spring containing Rn at 51-4909 nC,l. 31 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Survey of impacts of global environmental issues on the utilizations of alternative energies for oil. Chikyu kankyo mondai to kokusaitekina taio no doko. ; Chikyu ondanka mondai wo chushin to shite


    This is a report on the global warming issue made by the Institute of Energy Economics entrusted with the survey by NEDO. Written below are titles of the chapters in the report: 1. Outline of global warming problems and developments of international conferences. 2. Factor analysis of past CO{sub 2} emissions. 3. Measures to limit global warming. 4. Limitation measures for global warming and prospects for CO{sub 2} emissions. Analyses are made by country, by region or globally. For example, in order to establish measures to solve the global warming problem as an international issue, it is most important to establish the target criteria to control emission of greenhouse gases like CO{sub 2}. Namely, most important is to determine the criteria and partial charge of each country. These will exert a large effect on each economic activity. There are big differences among countries in the gas emission up to the present from the past. Effects of the gas emission are also different among countries. Moreover, countries are different in their development stages. All these differences are an important subject in judging international fairness. 91 refs., 91 tabs.

  14. Application of genetic algorithms to service restoration in distribution system. Fuka yuzu mondai eno identeki algorithm no tekiyo

    Fukuyama, Y.; Ueki, Y. (Fuji Electric Co. R and D Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    This paper describes genetic algorithms to decision on power supply feeders for each load in service restoration in a distribution system. Service restoration is a power supply distribution operation that calls for a system switching operation for retransmission when a non-service restoration section has occurred due to feeder failures. The operation determines the on-off condition of switches and decides the power supply feeders. The power supply feeder decision formulates as an objective function that minimization of the total sum of the load amount in load nodes that may cause a power failure under such conditions as radiation-formed loads, power supply capacity restriction, and transport pass restriction, and averaging of the reserve supply power. The genetic algorithm that derives the optimal solution thereof has the advantage that it does not use the gradient of the evaluation function and increase the calculation speed by means of parallel processing. The formulation by means of the genetic algorithm uses a string expression method, which reduces the string length and decaying strings. The method derives solutions by evaluating the set strings and repeating such processes as the crossing (partial replacement of service restoration conditions), the modified operator (modifies the strings to meet the restrictions) and sudden change (change in power supply direction in one load). 19 refs., 12 figs.

  15. Effects of the pre-transformation microstructures on the grain refining of medium-carbon 5Cr-Mo-V steels; Chutanso 5Cr-Mo-V ko no gyaku hentai sairyuka ni oyobosu zenhentai soshiki no eikyo

    Mukauda, Y.; Shibata, T.; Ono, S.; Ishiguro, T. [Nippon Steel Works, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    For the purpose of obtaining refined grains over full cross section for improved ductility in heavy-gage products of a medium carbon 5Cr- Mo-V steel, the effects of pre-transformation microstructures on the grain refining during austenitizing were investigated. Samples were prepared to possess either one of three different microstructures , pearlite, bainite and martensite. These samples were heated slowly to the desired austenitizing temperature followed by rapid cooling, and the formation of new austenite grains was examined. Though austenite grains were not refined in cases of martensite and bainite microstructures, these were remarkably refined in case of pearlite. Portions of pearlite were enriched with carbon, where the transformation temperature into austenite was lower, and this is considered to be the reason that finer austenite grains were formed.Above results show that arranging pearlite microstructure before quenching heat treatment is effective for obtaining refined grains over full cross section in heavy-gage products. (author)

  16. Study on wave power generation of electricity using torsion arc blade type horizontal axis wind turbine; Nejire enko yokugata suihei jiku fusha wo mochiita haryoku hatsuden ni kansuru kenkyu

    Kojima, N.; Kishimura, K. [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)


    Windmilling characteristics of a combination of a torsion arc blade type (TABT) horizontal axis wind turbine and a reverse torsion arc blade type (RTABT) horizontal axis wind turbine were evaluated in a wave activated power generation experiment. The TABT wind turbine had six blades, and the front and rear parts of the blade were twisted in the same direction, which caused the direction of rotor rotation to change as the direction of wind along the shaft changed. The RTABT wind turbine had twelve blades, and the front and rear parts of the blade were twisted reverse to each other, which allowed the direction of rotor rotation to stay constant even in the presence of wind direction reversal. To keep the direction of rotor rotation unchanged in the presence of flow direction reversal along the power generating turbine shaft, a single-stage type RTABT wind turbine and a double-stage type were used, the double-stage type being a series connection of a first-stage RTABT (for blowout and suction) and second-stage TABT (for blowout only). Both single-type and double-type rotated in the same direction irrespective of the direction of air flow. The output of the double type was obtained by adding up the values obtained from the individual turbines. The double type was two to three times higher in efficiency than the single type in turbine revolution and power output. 2 refs., 13 figs.

  17. Solution to non-steady two-dimensional hydrofoil problems by using a simple panel method; Kantanna panel ho ni yoru hiteijo nijigen`yoku mondai no kaiho

    Maita, S.; Ando, J.; Nakatake, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    A simple panel method, the source and quasi continuous vortex lattice method (SQCM) was expanded to two-dimensional non-steady hydrofoil problems. Discussions were given on the results of calculations on two-dimensional hydrofoils making a simple non-steady motion. In calculating hydrofoils which move suddenly from a still state with angle of elevation {alpha} at a velocity U, the following results were obtained: the time differential item in a pressure equation gives a considerably strong effect on lifting power; and the lifting power converges to a steady state with lapse of time, and the lifting power coefficient in that state shows that the lifting power increases as hydrofoil thickness increases. This result agrees with the hydrofoil thickness effect in the two-dimensional steady problem, proving the reasonability of this calculation method. In the calculations of time history of the lifting power acting on hydrofoils passing a sinusoidal gust and hydrofoils in a pitching motion, the calculated values from the SQCM were found to approach analysis solution to thin hydrofoils as the hydrofoil thickness becomes thinner for both cases. This result also proves the result of calculations on non-steady state by using the SQCM reasonable. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Report of the researcher exchange promotion project on the environmental issues in the Asia-Pacific region; Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo mondai kenkyusha koryu sokushin jigyo hokokusho



    Proposals have been made for the establishment of a network (ETERNET-APR) linking those involved in the research and development of environmental technology in the Asia-Pacific region in order to limit the environmental impact of industrial activity. By pursuing active exchanges of information and personnel, researchers in environmental technology in the Asia-Pacific region have been making serious efforts to establish such a network. This fiscal year, the Internet Web site of the ETERNET-APR has been created using the data collected to date. This database includes information on some 350 researchers and 200 research projects from seven countries. The first international symposium was successfully held at Environmental Research Institute of Chulalongkorn University in Thailand (ERIC), hosting 200 environmental researchers from 10 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Tripartite sister laboratories ties among the National Institute for Resources and Environment (NIRE) and three Korean laboratories were forged. The sister laboratory project between ICETT and ERIC is also proving effective. These successes prove that intraregional joint research, the objective of ETERNET-APR, has begun to take shape in this year

  19. Recent trends surrounding global environmental problems (June to September 1994); Chikyu kankyo mondai wo meguru saikin no doko (1994 nen 6 gatsu - 9 gatsu)

    Higashida, R. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)


    This article describes the trends of negotiation for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, trends surrounding carbon tax or environment tax, and trends of global environmental problems in Japan. Tenth Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was held in August, 1994. In EU, an action for introducing the carbon/energy tax has been activated for the First Session of the Conference of the Parties. Cooperation of the USA and Russia on the environmental problems has been also activated. Japan has communicated the action plan of individual countries to UN, which is based on the long-term prediction of energy demand and supply. In the Tenth Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee, the enhancement of CO2 emission control and the standard of joint implementation were mainly discussed. The total CO2 emission of Japan in 2000 is estimated to be 330 million ton, which is larger than the result in 1990 by 10 million ton. However, the amount of emission per person is estimated to about 2.6 ton, which is almost same as in 1990. In Japan, the environment tax has not been discussed, yet. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Genetic algorithm based on virus theory of evolution for traveling salesman problem; Virus shinkaron ni motozuku identeki algorithm no junkai salesman mondai eno oyo

    Kubota, N. [Osaka Inst. of Technology, Osaka (Japan); Fukuda, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)


    This paper deals with virus evolutionary genetic algorithm. The genetic algorithms (GAs) have been demonstrated its effectiveness in optimization problems in these days. In general, the GAs simulate the survival of fittest by natural selection and the heredity of the Darwin`s theory of evolution. However, some types of evolutionary hypotheses such as neutral theory of molecular evolution, Imanishi`s evolutionary theory, serial symbiosis theory, and virus theory of evolution, have been proposed in addition to the Darwinism. Virus theory of evolution is based on the view that the virus transduction is a key mechanism for transporting segments of DNA across species. This paper proposes genetic algorithm based on the virus theory of evolution (VE-GA), which has two types of populations: host population and virus population. The VE-GA is composed of genetic operators and virus operators such as reverse transcription and incorporation. The reverse transcription operator transcribes virus genes on the chromosome of host individual and the incorporation operator creates new genotype of virus from host individual. These operators by virus population make it possible to transmit segment of DNA between individuals in the host population. Therefore, the VE-GA realizes not only vertical but also horizontal propagation of genetic information. Further, the VE-GA is applied to the traveling salesman problem in order to show the effectiveness. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Effect of reversion treatment on strength and ductility of low C, Cr-Ni martensitic stainless steel with high resistance to weld softening. Yosetsu nanka teiko no takai teitanso Cr-Ni maruten saito kei stainless ko no kyodo, ensei ni oyobosu gyaku hentai shori no eikyo

    Igawa, T.; Takemoto, T.; Uematsu, Y. (Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Steel R and D Lab.); Hoshino, K. (Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    Like the stainless steel and the stainless steel belt used in the rolling stock, materials treated by process and weld has a high strength and a good ductility, moreover, was expected that weld softening would not occurred. In this study, formation of the ultra-fine crystal grains based on the M to [gamma] reversion transformation of low C, Cr-Ni martensitic stainless steel and effect of Si on change of mechanical properties were investigated. A high-strength stainless steel with a good ductility and without weld softening was developed. Main results obtained are as follows: After a steel was cold-rolled, the reversion treatment at the region between As and Af temperatures (600 to 640[degree]C) was carried out, a duplex structure with diameter of the ultra-fine grains of about 0.5 micron meter that is composed of [gamma] phase concentrated Ni and sintered M phase was formatted, and excellent mechanical properties with a high strength and a good ductility could be obtained, diameter of reversion [gamma] grains was dependent on reversion temperature. Diameter of [gamma] grains became large, and more homogeneous and uniform at higher reversion temperature. 20 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Measures for global environmental issues using information communication. Results of trial calculation of CO2 reduction reported by the Telecommunication Council; Joho tsushin wo katsuyoshita chikyu kankyo mondai eno taio. Denki tsushin shingikai toshin no CO2 sakugen shisan kekka

    Fujiwara, T. [Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications, Tokyo (Japan)


    Telework is an effective work style using information communication without commutation, and ITS is an integrated traffic system such as advanced navigation. Effects of the CO2 emission reduction by these information communication systems were calculated as a trial. Reduction of CO2 4.06 million ton was obtained, which is equivalent to about 7% of the reduction target 56.5 million ton in Japan by 2010. For the items, were obtained 1.29 million ton (MT) by telework, 1.1 MT by ITS, 0.53 MT by the reduction of paper consumption/rejection using LAN, and 0.5 MT by the alternation of movements for international business using Internet (reduction of overseas official trips). In addition, were obtained 0.36 MT by the energy saving with enhanced efficiency of office environment using advanced information communication such as building management information systems, 0.25 MT by the electronic publication and newspaper for the reduction of paper consumption/rejection using electronic media such as CD-ROM, and 0.03 MT by the remote education and at-home education systems. The trial calculations were conducted only for these seven systems, and only for the direct effects using these systems. Accordingly, the result is only a part of the whole. These systems promote to realize a society with reduced environmental loads. 2 tabs.

  3. Report on fiscal 1995 project to promote an exchange of researchers on environmental problems in the Asia-Pacific region; 1995 nendo itakujigyo (Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo mondai kenkyusha koryu sokushin jigyo hokokusho)



    For the purpose of solving environmental problems caused in association with the increasing industrial activities in the Asia-Pacific region, the construction of a research network is being advanced aiming at promoting exchanges with researchers of other countries and activating information exchanges. Investigators were sent overseas to grasp the present situation, and researchers participated in a symposium on the APEC environmental technology cooperation for mutual understanding and personal interchange. In the overseas survey, visits were paid mainly to national research institutes and universities in India and Thailand. Positive approval was obtained on the construction of the ETERNET APR (Environmental Technology Research Network in the Asia-Pacific Region). In the symposium on the APEC environmental technology cooperation held in Nagoya, researchers participated mostly in the second session and made earnest discussions with researchers from other countries. The necessity and importance of the network was emphasized. Countries which participated the symposium have problems common to each, and it was greatly significant to meet together and discuss together. The environmental problem is on a global scale, and it is necessary to make close exchange/interchange of information/opinion on a long term basis and to tackle it in the whole Asia-Pacific region. 3 tabs.

  4. Politics of water resources and environmental problem. US-Japan comparative policy history on the public district; Mizushigen kaihatsu to kankyo mondai. Public district no Nichibei hikaku seisakushi kenkyu

    Mikuriya, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    With an objective to give some suggestion to the water resources policies for the future Japan, a comparative study was made on the water resources development policies in Japan and the water resources policies in the state of California, U.S.A. The study on Japan has been proceeded empirically based on specific data with regard to the development of electric power policies from the prewar to postwar times when the governmental electric power control was changed to incorporation of the nine electric power companies. The change may be identified from viewpoints of both profit and ideology. Noticing the `public corporations` established one after another for social capitals before and after the establishment of the Liberal Democratic Party, their relation with the water resources development policies was pursued in terms of actual proof and political science. The identity of the public corporations established in and after 1955 stands on the premise of free economy, rather than the controlled economy. This paper positions the water resources development policies in a broader context as the national land plan, and considers the problems that are expanding from flood damages, dam construction, industrial complex construction to environmental problems around the water. Comparative discussions on the Tone river system and the Colorado river system were left as the future assignment.

  5. Let everybody think about energy problems (what to do with energy supply). Electric power storage as a trump to make load flat; Energy mondai wo minnade kangaeyo (energy kyokyu wo dosuruka). Fuka heijunka no kirifuda (denryoku chozo)

    Yamamoto, T. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)


    Difference of electric power load between day and night has been growing due to increase of need for cooling in summer. In the case of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Ltd., the power maximum in a day exceeds 2-fold of the minimum. As a means of making load flat, power storage is a last resort to improve operation efficiency and suppress generation cost. Various technologies for electric power storage are overviewed and a sodium-sulfur (NaS) cell is introduced, whose practical application in near future is expected as a novel technology for power storage. Pumped storage generation has been put into practical use widely, sharing 10% of the overall capacity for generation facilities in Japan. However, since proper sites for its construction have been limited, compensating technologies, using electric cells, air compression, super-conduction and flywheels are in progress of research and development. There are three types of electric cells being under development; NaS, Zinc-bromine, redox flow cells. The NaS cell uses highly active electrodes of Na(+) and S(-), and {beta} alumina as electrolyte, which is neither electron-conductive nor self-discharging. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Application of hopfield-type neural network to switch planning problem of power distribution system. Denryoku keito no fuka yuzu mondai ni okeru hopfield kei neural network no tekiyo

    Fukui, C.; Kawakami, J. (Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    Reserches are actively carried on for neural computing which employs neural network. Hopfield-type neural network is attracting attention as a solution mechanism for combinatorial optimization problems. Most of the reports made on the application of Hopfield-type neural network deal only with equality conditions as the constraints for the optimization problems. Adopting auxiliary variables, a method for the solution, by regular Hopfield-type neural networks, of combinatorial optimization problems including inequality constraints was developed. With the switch planning problem as an example, stability analysis of the energy functions was performed, and conditions for the stabilization were clarified although they are partial. To deal with the inequality constraints, special neurons were introduced which converge to intermediate values between 0 and 1. This method was applied to the switch planning problem of the power distribution system. It was made clear that reasonable solution can be obtained by this method. 10 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Three-dimensional photovisco-elasto-plastic analysis for axi-symmetrical problems by scattered-light method; Sanran koho ni yoru sanjigen jikutaisho mondai no hikari nendan sosei kaisekiho

    Hirano, T.; Hayashi, Y. [Kurume Institute of Technology, Fukuoka (Japan); Imai, Y. [Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    The photo-plastic analysis method is an experimental method which uses transparent polymer material models that show stress and strain behavior similar to the materials to be analyzed, and utilizes their compound refraction effect to analyze stress and strain in the model materials deformed to the plastic region. In using the method, a consideration is required on the effect of strain velocity in order to enhance the analytic accuracy. The consideration was introduced to analyzing stress and strain in three-dimensional axi-symmetrical problems. Three main strain differences in symmetrical cross sections in the case of tension can be calculated from continuous observation on fringe of polarized incident scattered lights from two different directions. Shear strain in a symmetrical cross section in the case of torsion can be derived from the fringe of polarized incident scattered light from the radius direction. A proposal was made on a method capable of estimating shear stress, shear strain, deviatoric stress and strain corresponding to a visco-elasto-plastic model subjected to tension. The method makes the analysis by using measurements on the fringe gradient and the fringe gradient increasing velocity. This analytic method can be applied to the case of torsion. An analysis was performed on the minimum stress distribution in a cross section and the strain distribution by using a cylindrical test piece with a semi-circular notch. As a result, the analytic result was found to agree with that from the finite element analysis, proving its effectiveness. 18 refs., 16 figs.

  8. Research report for fiscal 1998 including researches into global environmental problems. Business report on the promotion of interaction of scientists over environmental problems in the Asia-Pacific region; 1998 nendo Asia/Taiheiyo chiiki kankyo mondai kenkyusha koryu sokushin jigyo hokokusho



    Global environmental problems are growing quite serious in developing countries, yet they are requested to properly deal with them without making light of sustainable development, for which international cooperation and diffusion of technologies for the development of environmental technologies are mandatory. Japan, utilizing what it learned from pollution within in the past and making the best use of its technologies and knowledge for environmental improvement in developing countries in Asia, has been hosting since fiscal 1997 a function of Environmental Technology Research Network in the Asia-Pacific Region function. In fiscal 1998, a fifth international symposium was convened at Science City Center at the foot of Mt. Suzuka on November 26 and 27. The central theme was the development of environmental technologies and international cooperation for developing nations, and the event attracted 180 participants from inside Japan and abroad. A number of concrete themes came out of working groups on water quality, air quality, and energy/waste, which concerned the drafting of propositions for international collaborative researches. As for researches abroad, four typical Malaysian institutes were visited. (NEDO)

  9. To cope with new problems of energy situation (part 2); Understanding the international trend of rapidly developing global environmental problems. Energy josei no atarashii kadai ni ikani taio suruka (Kenkyu hokoku 2); Kyu tenkai wo miseta chikyu kankyo mondai no kokusaiteki nagare wo toraeru

    Tomidate, Takao (The Inst. of Energy Economics, Tokyo, (Japan))


    It is now world-widely recognized that, though there are many unclear points regarding the effects of environmental problems on society and economics, delayed actions for protecting environment will bring unrecoverable disruption which causes disaster to later generations. Especially, global warming is the most difficult problem to elucidate the phenomenon for finding countermeasure, and influences of it and impacts brought by practising the countermeasures are serious. Among the causes, it is said that most important one is emission of carbon dioxide by burning fossil fuel, and most of the countermeasures are focused to that. For the reason, it is understood that effect of the problem on future energy is unconceivably serious. In this report, political aspect of global warming are introduced as ther most important global environmental problems and guidances to the future countermeasures for Japan are explained. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. ANÁLISIS TÉCNICO DE KARATECAS DE NIVEL NACIONAL DURANTE LA COMPETICIÓN DE KUMITE Technical analysis of karate expert during Kumite competition

    Juan Miguel Gómez-Valadés Horrillo


    Full Text Available Diversos estudios han analizado el karate para intentar aumentar el rendimiento de los deportistas implicados, mediante la evaluación del trabajo técnico, tanto en condiciones experimentales, como en situación real. El objetivo de este estudio fue el análisis del rendimiento de los karatecas en situación real de competición, identificando cuáles son las técnicas más eficaces. Se observaron 20 combates de karate de nivel nacional, de la categoría absoluta, donde fueron registradas todas las acciones técnicas realizadas. Los karatecas utilizaban más técnicas de puño que de patadas. La forma que tienen de realizar la mayoría de las técnicas, fue mediante el ataque, siendo la táctica con la que más se puntuaba. La técnica más utilizada en combate fue el gyaku tsuki, aunque la más efectiva fue el kizami tsuki derecho. La técnica de pierna más utilizada fue el mawasi geri. También se observó una falta de eficacia en las técnicas realizadas, ya que un gran porcentaje de técnicas no consiguieron puntuar. Estos resultados pueden ayudar a mejorar el entrenamiento para la competición de karate, sobre todo orientando dicho entrenamiento cada vez más a situaciones reales de competición.    Several studies have analyzed Karate in order to increase the athlete’s performance through assessment of the karate skills in experimental and real situation. The aim of this study was the analysis of karate expert performance in real situation, trying to identify what skills are most effectively. 20 combats of national contest were observed in senior category. All technical and tactical actions were recorded and categorized. Punches skills were more used than kicks skills by karate experts, and the way of carry out techniques was through attack. The most effective strategy was the attack. The most used technique was gyaku tsuki, although most effective one was right kizami tsuki. Leg technique most used was mawasi geri. A lack of


    Widha Srianto


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan model latihan karate kids pada anak usia sekolah dasar (SD kelas atas (10-12 tahun. Penelitian pengembangan ini dilakukan dengan mengadaptasi langkah-langkah penelitian sebagai berikut: (1 pengumpulan informasi di lapangan, (2 melakukan analisis terhadap informasi yang telah dikumpulkan, (3 mengembangkan produk awal, (4 validasi ahli dan revisi, (5 uji coba lapangan skala kecil dan revisi,  (6 uji coba lapangan skala besar dan revisi, dan (7 pembuatan produk final. Uji coba skala kecil dilakukan di klub Forki Kota Yogyakarta berjumlah 7 anak. Uji coba skala besar di klub Inkanas DIY berjumlah 16 anak. Instrumen pengumpulan data yang digunakan yaitu: (1 pedoman wawancara, (2 skala nilai, (3 pedoman observasi model, (4 pedoman observasi keefektifan model, dan (5 kuesioner untuk siswa. Teknik analisis data yang dilakukan yaitu analisis deskriptif kuantitatif dan analisis deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian ini berupa model latihan karate kids pada anak usia SD kelas atas (10-12 tahun yaitu: (1 model latihan maegeri, (2 model latihan gyaku tsuki, (3 model latihan mawashigeri, dan (4 model latihan oi tsuki. Dari hasil analisis data penilaian para ahli materi dan kuesioner anak, dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa model latihan karate kids pada anak usia SD kelas atas (10-12 tahun ini dinilai baik dan efektif. Kata kunci: model latihan, karate kids

  12. Chang Kai-shek's “Humanitarian Bombs” and the Mirage Known as the “Manchurian-Mongolian Problem”: New Japanese-Language Perspectives on the Transnational History of Modern East Asia

    Kyu Hyun Kim


    Full Text Available On May 20, 1938, two American-made Chinese airplanes—Martin B-10 monoplane bombers—took off from Ningbo, Fujian province, in the direction of southwestern Japan. Instead of dropping bombs, they released propaganda materials produced by the Nationalist Party (Guomindang, pleading with the industrial workers, farmers, and petty bourgeois citizens of Japan to stop fighting China and resist their militarist government. This “humanitarian bombardment,” masterminded by Chiang Kai-shek, is little known today—perhaps deservedly so, for it had its embarrassing features. For one, the planes never reached the strategically important areas and merely flew over sparsely populated regions of Kumamoto and Miyazaki prefectures. Further, the propaganda materials were either voluntarily turned over to or confiscated by the Japanese authorities almost as soon as they hit the ground. As far as we can tell, the operation had little impact on the Japanese attitude toward China or on the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945... Iechika Ryōko 家近亮子,Shō Kaiseki no gaikō senryaku to Nitchū sensō 蒋介石の外交戦略と日中戦争[Chiang Kai-shek's diplomatic strategies and the Sino-Japanese War]. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 2012. ISBN: 978-4-00-025865-4. Nakami Tatsuo 中見立夫, 'Manmō mondai' no rekishiteki kōzu 満蒙問題の歴史的構図 [The historical composition of the “Manchurian-Mongolian problem”]. Tokyo: Daigaku Shuppankai, 2013. ISBN: 978-4-86-337131-6.


    Juan Miguel Gómez-Valadés Horrillo


    Full Text Available Diversos estudios han analizado el karate para intentar aumentar el rendimiento de los deportistas implicados, mediante la evaluación del trabajo técnico, tanto en condiciones experimentales, como en situación real. El objetivo de este estudio fue el análisis del rendimiento de los karatecas en situación real de competición, identificando cuáles son las técnicas más eficaces. Se observaron 20 combates de karate de nivel nacional, de la categoría absoluta, donde fueron registradas todas las acciones técnicas realizadas. Los karatecas utilizaban más técnicas de puño que de patadas. La forma que tienen de realizar la mayoría de las técnicas, fue mediante el ataque, siendo la táctica con la que más se puntuaba. La técnica más utilizada en combate fue el gyaku tsuki, aunque la más efectiva fue el kizami tsuki derecho. La técnica de pierna más utilizada fue el mawasi geri. También se observó una falta de eficacia en las técnicas realizadas, ya que un gran porcentaje de técnicas no consiguieron puntuar. Estos resultados pueden ayudar a mejorar el entrenamiento para la competición de karate, sobre todo orientando dicho entrenamiento cada vez más a situaciones reales de competición.   

  14. O orçamento empresarial como ferramentade gestão nas micro e pequenas empresasdo município de Mondaí – SC = The business budget a management tool of micro and small companies of the municipal district of Mondaí–SC

    Ari Söthe


    Full Text Available Constituir uma empresa representa para muitas pessoas um fator de realização pessoal, é este sentimento que norteia a realidade das micro e pequenas empresas brasileiras. As dificuldades na gestão podem advir de diversas direções, desde a falta de recursos financeiros até a ausência de informações adequadas para a gestão. Neste sentido, a utilização de ferramentas como o orçamento, permite aos gestores voltar o seu olhar para o futuro, de modo mais garantido e antecipando as informações dos resultados a serem alcançados pela empresa. O estudo tem como objetivo analisar se as micro e pequenas empresas do município de Mondai - SC estão utilizando o orçamento empresarial como ferramenta de gestão. Foi realizada uma pesquisa descritiva, de levantamento e de abordagem quantitativa. Conclui-se que a grande maioria está utilizando o orçamento como uma ferramenta para a gestão de suas empresas, proporcionando assim uma visão mais clara e objetiva dos futuros resultados que poderão estar alcançando.To constitute a company means for a lot of people a factor of personal accomplishment and it isthis feeling that orientates the reality of the micro and small Brazilian companies. The difficultiesin the administration can come from several directions, from the lack of financial resources tothe absence of appropriate information for the administration. In this sense, the use of toolssuch as the budget, allows the managers to turn their eyes for the future in a safer way advancing the information of the results that would be reached by the company. This way, this study has asits objective to analyze if the micro and small companies of the municipal district of Mondaí - SCare using the business budget as an administrative tool. A descriptive research was accomplished,through a survey and a quantitative approach. It is concluded that the great majority of thecompanies is using the budget as a tool for the administration of their