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Sample records for yoghurt starter cultures

  1. CHOLESTEROL ASSIMILATION BY COMMERCIAL YOGHURT STARTER CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ziarno

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to in vitro cholesterol level reduction in laboratory media has been shown for numerous strains of lactic acid bacteria, but not for all strains of lactic bacteria used in the dairy industry. The aim of this work was the determination of the ability of selected thermophilic lactic acid bacteria to cholesterol assimilation during 24 h culture in MRS broth. Commercial starter cultures showed various ability to cholesterol assimilation from laboratory medium. In case of starter cultures used for production of traditional yoghurt, consisting of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, the quantity of assimilated cholesterol did not exceed 27% of its initial contents (0.7 g in 1 dm3. Starter cultures used for bioyoghurt production, containing also probiotic strains (came from Lactobacillus acidophilus species or Bifidobacterium genus assimilated from almost 18% to over 38% of cholesterol. For one monoculture of Lb. acidophilus, cholesterol assimilation ability of 49-55% was observed, despite that the number of bacterial cells in this culture was not different from number of bacteria in other cultures.

  2. Survival of Brucella abortus in milk fermented with a yoghurt starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga Estrada, Armida; Mota de la Garza, Lydia; Sánchez Mendoza, Miroslava; Santos López, Eva María; Filardo Kerstupp, Santiago; López Merino, Ahidé

    2005-01-01

    In countries such as Mexico, brucellosis is still an important public health problem due to the consumption of non-pasteurized milk and dairy products, contaminated with Brucella spp. The aim of this study was to look into the survival of Brucella abortus during fermentation of milk with a yoghurt starter culture and storage at refrigeration temperature. Sterile skim milk was inoculated with B. abortus at two concentrations, 10(5) and 10(8) CFU/ml simultaneously with a yoghurt starter culture of lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecie bulgaricus). Inoculated flasks were incubated at 42 degrees C, followed by refrigeration at 4 degrees C. Samples were taken during fermentation and during storage and viable count of B. abortus and lactic acid bacteria and pH were determined. Results showed that after 10 days of storage at 4 degrees C, B. abortus was recovered in fermented milk at a level of 10(5) CFU/ml, despite the low pH below 4.0. Therefore B. abortus is able to survive in fermented milk. This finding may imply that non-pasteurized fermented milk contaminated with Brucella abortus could be a means of transmission of these bacteria.

  3. Microstructure and Textural Properties of Yoghurts Produced by Exopolysaccharides- Producing Starter Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lanjun

    Exopolysaccharides (EPS) play a central role in contributing to desired sensory characteristics to yoghurts when they are synthesized in situ by lactic acid bacterial (LAB) during fermentation. The mechanisms of how the EPS affect the textural properties of yoghurts still are not clear. In order......) when these three fluorescent dyes were combined together in a yoghurt sample. Use of phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with CaCl2 and MgCl2 (PBS-Ca-Mg buffer, pH 7.4) preserved the binding affinities of both lectins of ConA and WGA to EPS under acidic conditions. The newly developed method of EPS...... Streptococcus thermophilus (ST) and one strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (LB). Two Lb. bulgaricus strains were used in combination with two S. thermophilus strains. The choice of ST strain was the major determinant for the rheological properties of the yoghurts, since one of the ST strains...

  4. The comparison of the fermentation characteristics of different yoghurt starter cultures%不同酸奶发酵剂的发酵性能比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚玉琳; 孟祥晨

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the industrial potential of 7 yoghurt starter cultures that were mixture strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus,which were obtained on the basis of screening of the single strains with excellent characteristics of fermentation.Therefore,to achieve the objective,on one hand,the acid-producing ability and the post-acidification property of the 7 starter cultures were analyzed,on the other hand,the analysis of physical properties,acetaldehyde and diacetyl synthesis and sensory evaluation of the yogurt fermented by the 7 starter cultures was carried out.The results showed that each of the 7 yogurt starter cultures owned unique fermentation characteristic,which was able to impart special flavor and texture to yogurt,so all these contributed to the belief that the 7 starter cultures had tremendous potential for the production of yoghurt.%前期在单菌株筛选的基础上,获得7种保加利亚乳杆菌与嗜热链球菌组合的酸奶发酵剂。利用这7种发酵剂发酵制备酸奶,评价他们的产酸性能、后酸化能力,并分析所制备酸奶的物性学特性、乙醛和双乙酰产量,最后进行感官评价,以评价这些发酵剂的工业应用潜力。结果表明,7种酸奶发酵剂具有各自独特的发酵性能,可用于不同风味和质地酸奶的生产,具有工业开发潜力。

  5. Simultaneous growth and metabolite production by yoghurt starters and probiotics: a metabolomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settachaimongkon, S.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to investigate the simultaneous growth and metabolite production by yoghurt starters and different probiotic strains, i.e. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12 and Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, during set-yoghurt fermentatio

  6. Influence of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 on post-acidification, metabolite formation and survival of starter bacteria in set-yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settachaimongkon, Sarn; van Valenberg, Hein J F; Gazi, Inge; Nout, M J Robert; van Hooijdonk, Toon C M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Smid, Eddy J

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the growth and survival of the model probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in co-culture with traditional yoghurt starters and to investigate the impact of preculturing on their survival and metabolite formation in set-yoghurt. L. plantarum WCFS1 was precultured under sublethal stress conditions (combinations of elevated NaCl and low pH) in a batch fermentor before inoculation in milk. Adaptive responses of L. plantarum WCFS1 were evaluated by monitoring bacterial population dynamics, milk acidification and changes in volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of set-yoghurt. The results demonstrated that sublethal preculturing did not significantly affect survival of L. plantarum WCFS1. On the other hand, incorporation of sublethally precultured L. plantarum WCFS1 significantly impaired the survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus which consequently reduced the post-acidification of yoghurt during refrigerated storage. A complementary metabolomics approach using headspace SPME-GC/MS and (1)H NMR combined with multivariate statistical analysis revealed substantial impact of sublethally precultured L. plantarum WCFS1 on the metabolite profiles of set-yoghurt. This study provides insight in the technological implications of non-dairy model probiotic strain L. plantarum WCFS1, such as its good stability in fermented milk and the inhibitory effect on post-acidification.

  7. Community dynamics of complex starter cultures for Gouda-type cheeses and its functional consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkus, O.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used as starter and adjunct cultures for the production of artisanal and industrial fermented milk products such as yoghurt and cheese.  Artisanal fermentations is propagated with the transfer of an inoculum from old batch of fermented food to the new batch (back-

  8. Influence of different proteolytic strains of Streptococcus thermophilus in co-culture with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus on the metabolite profile of set-yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settachaimongkon, Sarn; Nout, M J Robert; Antunes Fernandes, Elsa C; Hettinga, Kasper A; Vervoort, Jacques M; van Hooijdonk, Toon C M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Smid, Eddy J; van Valenberg, Hein J F

    2014-05-01

    Proto-cooperation between Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is one of the key factors that determine the fermentation process and final quality of yoghurt. In this study, the interaction between different proteolytic strains of S. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was investigated in terms of microbial growth, acidification and changes in the biochemical composition of milk during set-yoghurt fermentation. A complementary metabolomics approach was applied for global characterization of volatile and non-volatile polar metabolite profiles of yoghurt associated with proteolytic activity of the individual strains in the starter cultures. The results demonstrated that only non-proteolytic S. thermophilus (Prt-) strain performed proto-cooperation with L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The proto-cooperation resulted in significant higher populations of the two species, faster milk acidification, significant abundance of aroma volatiles and non-volatile metabolites desirable for a good organoleptic quality of yoghurt. Headspace SPME-GC/MS and (1)H NMR resulted in the identification of 35 volatiles and 43 non-volatile polar metabolites, respectively. Furthermore, multivariate statistical analysis allows discriminating set-yoghurts fermented by different types of starter cultures according to their metabolite profiles. Our finding underlines that selection of suitable strain combinations in yoghurt starters is important for achieving the best technological performance regarding the quality of product.

  9. Starter Cultures: Uses in the Food Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Egon Bech

    2014-01-01

    Starter cultures are preparations of microorganisms serving as inoculants for the production of fermented foods. The production of cheese, yogurt, fermented milk, wine, sauerkraut, hams, and sausages occurs through the use of starter cultures that are consistent, predictable, and safe. The cultures...... provide the food products with a multitude of properties. Acidification of the food matrix is a primary property in a large number of food fermentations. Acidification activity often will be used to define packaging size and the unit of activity, whereas other characteristics differentiate a culture from...... the range of other available starter cultures. Starter cultures are commercially available in liquid, frozen, or lyophilized form from several companies serving regional or global markets....

  10. Impact of carrier material on fermentative activity of encapsulated yoghurt culture in whey based substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunić Tanja Ž.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper were to study the influence of the carrier material used for encapsulation and of bead size to fermentative activity and viability of the dairy starter culture ‘Lactoferm ABY 6’. Encapsulation of yoghurt culture in beads with diameter of 1mm provides better results than encapsulation in beads with larger diameter. Alginate beads and chitosan coated beads have proved to be a strong barrier for nutrients from substrate, so samples with those beads have lower viable cell count, lower titratable acidity and higher pH value after 5h of fermentation at 42°C, than samples with WPC-alginate beads. Also those beads have significantly (P < 0.05 lower cell leaking, than WPC-alginate beads and lower antioxidant capacity. Encapsulation of yoghurt culture in WPC-alginate carrier with diameter of approximately 1mm provided the best characteristics for fermented product. Samples with these beads have significantly (P < 0.05 higher increase of viable cell number after fermentation, despite of major cell leaking (19.7 %. Moreover, sample with these beads have the highest titratable acidity, the lowest pH value after fermentation (the best fermentative activity and the best antioxidant characteristics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31017 i br. III 46010

  11. Quality of Plain Set Yoghurt as affected by Levels of Ultrafiltration Concentration of Milk and Inoculum of Yoghurt Culture

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    narayana Mudiyanselage Nayana Kumari Narayana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Quality of plain set yoghurt was investigated by varying levels of ultrafiltration concentration of cow skim milk (1-without ultrafiltration, 1.5 and 2 folds and inoculum (2, 2.5 and 3% of yoghurt culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus 1:1. Titratable acidity development and pH reduction were significantly faster during incubation of yoghurt with increasing ultrafiltration concentration level and inoculum level. Increased ultrafiltration concentration level decreased spontaneous whey syneresis, but increased water holding capacity and firmness of the product significantly. Body & texture and overall acceptability scores were significantly better in yoghurts prepared from 1.5 fold concentrated milk irrespective of the inoculum level studied. Inoculum level did not show any significant effect on the quality of yoghurt, but higher inoculum level decreased the incubation period significantly. Optimized product was obtained with 1.5 fold concentrated skim milk standardized to 3.3% fat and incubated with 2% inoculum level in about five and a half hour of incubation. Optimized product had 13.60±0.02% total solids, 3.31±0.01% fat, 5.27±0.04% protein, 4.20±0.03% lactose and 0.82±0.02% ash. Whey syneresis, water holding capacity and firmness in optimized product were nil, 63.49% and 1.89 N, respectively. Thus, high quality plain yoghurt could be prepared by employing ultrafiltration, without addition of stabilizers, which is otherwise widely used commercially for the manufacture of yoghurt to control its wheying off and body.

  12. 一种酸奶发酵剂的实践应用效果%Practical application of yoghurt culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏海涛; 张柏林

    2011-01-01

    The Application of JLB1 starter culture in yoghurt product with weak post-acidification Abstract: A commercial starter culture was used to produce yogurt products. The changes of pHs from yogurt samples, collected fermented yogurt and stored at 6 ℃ or 27 ℃ for 17 days, showed that the stable pH in yogurt products was important in maintaining the good sensory quality of final products due to the weak post-acidifying activity of the starter culture. Starter culture JLB1 was available for producing high quality yogurt stored at ambient temperatures with less loss of viscosity.%通过对来自科汉森发酵剂ILB1在发酵过程中与产品货架期内不同贮存温度下的pH值变化,以及随pH值变化后酸乳的黏度等感官指标评价表明,采用该菌种能显著改善制作酸乳的后酸化过程,可以用来作为生产高品质酸乳的适宜发酵剂.

  13. Mixed culture engineering for steering starter functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spuś, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Undefined mixed complex starter cultures are broadly used in Gouda-type cheese production due to their robustness to phage predation, resilience for changes in environmental conditions and aroma compounds production ability during ripening. These microbial communities of lactic acid bacteria prior t

  14. 保鲜菌种发酵酸乳工艺与品质研究%Study on the Technology and Quality of Yoghurt Including Protective Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解楠; 何卫加; 陈希

    2011-01-01

    应用保鲜菌种(HOLDBACTM—YM-C)生产能够控制霉菌和酵母菌生长的新型生物防腐功能的发酵酸乳。通过研究保鲜菌种接种量、酸乳发酵剂量、发酵温度和蔗糖添加量四因素三水平正交试验,以发酵参数、感官评价、pH值变化、活菌数量、质构特征为产品指标获确定生产工艺为:保鲜菌种接种量10DCU/100L、酸乳发酵剂量7.5DCU/100L、发酵温度37℃和添加8%蔗糖,该酸乳同时具有很好的抑菌作用。%The protective culture (HOLDBACTM - YM - C) was applied in the making of a new yoghurt brand that features inhibitory function for yeast and mould growth control. Using the orthogonal test on the inoculations of protective culture and yoghurt starter culture, fermentation temperature and sugar adding amounts, we have deter- mined the best fermentation condition. The best fermentation parameter combinations, based on the evaluation of fer- mentation parameters, change of pH value, number of viable lactic acid bacteria, and texture characters during the storage, were: protective culture 10DCU/100L, yoghurt starter culture 7. 5DCU/100L, fermentation temperature 37℃ , sugar adding 8% , and yoghurt had very good antimierobial property.

  15. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Culture in the Production of Nunu, a Spontaneously Fermented Milk Product in Ghana

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    Fortune Akabanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nunu, a spontaneously fermented yoghurt-like product, is produced and consumed in parts of West Africa. A total of 373 predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB previously isolated and identified from Nunu product were assessed in vitro for their technological properties (acidification, exopolysaccharides production, lipolysis, proteolysis and antimicrobial activities. Following the determination of technological properties, Lactobacillus fermentum 22-16, Lactobacillus plantarum 8-2, Lactobacillus helveticus 22-7, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides 14-11 were used as single and combined starter cultures for Nunu fermentation. Starter culture fermented Nunu samples were assessed for amino acids profile and rate of acidification and were subsequently evaluated for consumer acceptability. For acidification properties, 82%, 59%, 34%, and 20% of strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and Leu. mesenteriodes, respectively, demonstrated fast acidification properties. High proteolytic activity (>100 to 150 μg/mL was observed for 50% Leu. mesenteroides, 40% L. fermentum, 41% L. helveticus, 27% L. plantarum, and 10% Ent. faecium species. In starter culture fermented Nunu samples, all amino acids determined were detected in Nunu fermented with single starters of L. plantarum and L. helveticus and combined starter of L. fermntum and L. helveticus. Consumer sensory analysis showed varying degrees of acceptability for Nunu fermented with the different starter cultures.

  16. SENSORY EVALUATION AND SURVIVAL OF PROBIOTICS IN MODIFIED BANANA FLOUR YOGHURT DURING STORAGE [Evaluasi Sensori dan Sintasan Probiotik dalam Yoghurt Tepung Pisang Modifikasi selama Penyimpanan

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    Widaningrum3

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modified uli banana flour (MUBF rich in resistant starch as prebiotic source was formulated in yoghurt making to substitute skim milk at various concentrations i.e. 40, 50, 60, and 70%. Yoghurts were prepared using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as the starter cultures. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum MUBF concentration to produce yoghurt with good sensory quality and good number of surviving probiotics (Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus plantarum BSL in non-pasteurized and pasteurized (90ºC, 30 minutes MUBF yoghurt during 4 week of storage at 10ºC. Hedonic rating and ranking test on yoghurt attributes (aroma, taste, consistency, texture, color and overall preference performed by 35 untrained panelists showed that yoghurt produced with 70% MUBF substitution achieved good preferences in all of the attributes ranging from neutral to like. The pH value of the product decreased with increase in MUBF concentration. In addition, titratable acidity (TA, expressed as % lactic acid, increased. Survival of both probiotics in 70% MUBF yoghurt either in the pasteurized synbiotic or non-pasteurized yoghurts were still relatively high at week 4. The yoghurt still contains 108 CFU/ml of lactic acid bacteria, although this was a log decrease from the initial count. Therefore, the MUBF yoghurt was promising as synbiotic yoghurt based on the probiotic counts throughout 4 week of storage, which was higher than the minimum level recommended (106 CFU/ml to provide the beneficial effect.

  17. Physico-chemical properties of probiotic yoghurt produced with transglutaminase

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    Milanović Spasenija D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different concentration of transglutaminase - TG (0.02%, 0.06% and 0.12% on physico-chemical properties of probiotic yoghurt was investigated. Two series of yoghurt were manufactured on a laboratory scale from pasteurised skim milk (0.1 % w/w fat. Series I was produced with TGase activation during a period of 2 h at 40°C, while series II was produced without enzyme activation. Then, the adequate quantities of TGase and probiotic starter culture ABT-4 (Chr. Hansen A/S Denmark were added. Chemical composition, physico-chemical properties (water holding capacity and whey separation and sensory characteristics of yoghurt samples were determined after production and during 5 days of storage. Addition of TGase to milk (direct or after activation for probiotic yoghurt manufacture improved its overall characteristics. Activation of TG in yoghurt production increases water holding capacity as well as decreases syneresis during the storage.

  18. 7 CFR 58.330 - Butter starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter starter cultures. 58.330 Section 58.330... Material § 58.330 Butter starter cultures. Harmless bacterial cultures when used in the development of flavor components in butter and related products shall have a pleasing and desirable flavor and...

  19. Evolutionary engineering to enhance starter culture performance in food fermentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachmann, H.; Pronk, J.T.; Kleerebezem, M.; Teusink, B.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial starter cultures are essential for consistent product quality and functional properties such as flavor, texture, pH or the alcohol content of various fermented foods. Strain improvement programs to achieve desired properties in starter cultures are diverse, but developments in next-generat

  20. IMPACT OF FORTIFICATION WITH HONEY ON SOME PROPERTIES OF BIO-YOGHURT

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    El-Tahra M. A. Ammar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementation with honey on yoghurt quality was studied. Five treatments of yoghurt were made from buffaloe's and cow's milk mixture (1:1. Control yoghurt was made using classic yoghurt culture, whereas the other four treatments were made by ABT culture and milk fortified with 0, 2, 4, and 6% honey. Changes in rheological, chemical, microbial and organoleptic properties of yoghurt were monitored during refrigerated storage (4°C of yoghurt for 15 d. Results showed that addition of honey to milk had no significant effect on ABT starter activity. A curd tension increased, whereas curd syneresis decreased in bio-yoghurt fortified with honey. Acidity, TS, WSN and TVFA contents of yoghurt supplemented with honey were higher than those of control. The contents of fat, ash and TN were similar in both. Addition of honey to yoghurt improved the viability of bifidobacteria. Bifidobacteria counts were similar to accepted threshold (106 cfu g-1 for a probiotic effect. Also, addition of honey improved the body, texture and flavour of the yoghurt.

  1. DRY COMPOSITION OF STARTER CULTURES FORM LACTIC ACID MICROORGANISMS

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    At. Kraevska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to investigate the possibility of producing of lyophilized lactic acid starter Lb. plantarum strain 226/1, designed for a starter culture in the production of pickles. The results of our studies demonstrate achievement of this goal by the specified process parameters.

  2. Effect of using different probiotic cultures on properties of Torba (strained yoghurt

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    Harun Kesenkaş

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The viability of Lactobacillus casei LAFTI® L26, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI® L10, their proteolytic activities and effects on chemical, textural and sensory properties of Torba yoghurts were assessed during 14 days of storage at 4 °C. These probiotic cultures were separately added after the fermentation of milk with yoghurt culture but prior to packaging of the product. Probiotic bacteria reached the recommended level of 6 log cfu/g in Torba yoghurt except B. animalis subsp. lactis B94. The addition of probiotic bacteria resulted in an appreciable proteolytic activity but also textural defects due to the lower total solid content in the final product.

  3. Probiotic Yoghurts From Ultrafiltered Concentrated Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Kozludzhova Siyka; Goranov Bogdan; Boyanova Petya; Yanakieva Velichka; Dushkova Mariya; Dinkov Kolyo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, yoghurts from ultrafiltered concentrated whole milk with a volume reduction ratio 0, 2 and 3 with three different probiotic yoghurt starters were obtained. Their physiological, microbiological and rheological properties were examined. The concentrated probiotic yoghurts had high concentration of viable cells of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (over 1010cfu/cm3). For the preparation of concentrated probiotic yoghurts the most appropriate volume red...

  4. Towards the development of a common starter culture for fufu and usi (edible starch): Screening for potential starters

    OpenAIRE

    Kubrat A. Oyinlola; Onilude, Anthony A.; Oluwaseun E. Garuba

    2016-01-01

    Fermented cassava products like fufu and usi are important staple foods in many African homes. Natural fermentation time is usually long resulting in slower acidification and inconsistent nutritional composition of products which could be overcome with the use of starter culture. However, most available starters are used for single food fermentation and are uneconomical. This necessitates the development of a starter culture for multiple related food products to reduce cost. Hence, this study...

  5. Influence of Spirulina platensis powder on the microflora of yoghurt and acidophilus milk

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    Metin Guldas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to monitor the influence of the powdered Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis addition to plain yoghurt and the yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophiluson survival of the microbiota during the refrigerated storage. The cell viability of yoghurt starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus under refrigeration conditions in yoghurts prepared with (0.5 or 1.0 (w/w % and without the addition of Spirulina powder was investigated. The yoghurts were prepared under hygienic laboratory conditions and their pH and acidity were controlled during the process. The samples of yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and investigated on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30. Viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria were above 6 cfu g-1of all “spirulina powder” added samples whereas control yoghurt samples contained lower lactic acid bacteria count at the end of the storage period. Addition of 1 % Spirulina platensis powder into the yoghurts did not cause significant differences on the viable lactic acid bacteria (p≤0.05. The results showed the positive effect of S. platensis powder on the survival of the lactic acid bacteria during storage of yoghurt (P≤0.05. The sensory analysis was also performed for the yoghurt samples. Sensory scores of 0.5 % spirulina powder added yoghurt samples were better than 1 % spirulina powder added ones. It was determined that spirulina powder added yoghurt is a good medium of lactic acid bacteria during the 30 days of refrigerated storage.

  6. Strain diversity and phage resistance in complex dairy starter cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spus, M.; Alexeeva, S.V.; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Abee, T.; Smid, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    The compositional stability of the complex Gouda cheese starter culture Ur is thought to be influenced by diversity in phage resistance of highly related strains that co-exist together with bacteriophages. To analyze the role of bacteriophages in maintaining culture diversity at the level of genetic

  7. Development of an autochthonous starter culture for spreadable goat cheese

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    Florencia FRAU

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to select strains of LAB autochthonous from Santiago del Estero to formulate a starter culture for making spreadable goat cheese. Four strains were selected: CRL1799 (Lactobacillus fermentum with high acidifying activity, CRL1803 (Lactobacillus fermentum with high proteolytic activity, CRL1808 (Lactobacillus rhamnosus with production of exopolysaccharide and CRL1785 (Enterococcus faecium with diacetyl-acetoin production. The selected strains showed qualities that make them useful as starter culture in the elaboration of spreadable cheese. This starter culture is an alternative that allows obtaining differentiated products. The inclusion of CRL1808 strains seems to improve the rheology and texture, excluding the use of additives.

  8. Use of Protein Hydrolysates in Industrial Starter Culture Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummadi, Madhavi (Soni); Curic-Bawden, Mirjana

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used as starter cultures for fermenting foods long before the importance of microorganisms were recognized. The most important group of LAB are the lactococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, and pediococci. Additionally, bifidobacteria have been included as a probiotic, providing added value to the product. Since the genera involved are so diverse, the nutritional requirements (energy, carbon and nitrogen sources) differ significantly between and within species. Designing an optimum fermentation medium for production of active and vigorous LAB starter cultures and probiotics requires selecting the right raw ingredients, especially protein hydrolysates that can provide adequate nutrients for growth and viability. This chapter attempts to describe the application of various commercial protein hydrolysates used for production of dairy and meat starter cultures, with special emphasis on meeting the nitrogen requirements of industrially important LAB species.

  9. Salame tipo italiano elaborado com culturas starters nativas Fermented italian sausage elaborated with native starter cultures

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    Andréia Cirolini

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo acrescentar culturas starters nativas em salame tipo Italiano e avaliar o desempenho frente a culturas comerciais quanto às características microbiológicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais. As culturas utilizadas foram Staphylococcus xylosus, isolado de salames coloniais, e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, isolado de um produto lácteo e fermentado em meio de cultura de plasma suíno. Elaboraram-se os seguintes tratamentos: T1 - adição de starters comerciais (Staphylococcus xylosus e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis; T2 - mistura de Staphylococcus xylosus isolado mais Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis comercial; T3 - mistura de Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis isolado mais Staphylococcus xylosus comercial; e T4 - Staphylococcus xylosus e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, ambos isolados. Os tratamentos apresentaram uma queda de pH significativa e também uma redução na Aw, garantindo uma segurança microbiológica aos produtos. Em relação à oxidação lipídica, os tratamentos que continham Staphylococcus xylosus isolados de salames artesanais apresentaram valores menores que os outros tratamentos. Os salames elaborados com Staphylococcus xylosus e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, ambos isolados, apresentaram melhores resultados sensoriais quando comparados com salames elaborados com culturas starters comerciais. Portanto, a adição de culturas starters nativas pode ser utilizada na elaboração de salames, proporcionando produtos seguros e com flavor diferenciado.The objective of this paper was to add native starter cultures in fermented Italian sausages and evaluate the performance compared to commercial cultures in terms of microbiological and physicochemical parameters and sensorial characteristics. The cultures used were Staphylococcus xylosus, isolated from colonial sausages, and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis isolated from a dairy product and fermented in pork plasma medium. The following treatments were

  10. 不同混生模式对酸奶发酵剂球秆菌比例的影响%Effect of different mixed growth patterns on the coccusrod ratios between yoghurt starter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艾黎; 霍贵成; 邓凯波

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨了酸奶菌株的混合发酵特性及最佳的混合模式.方法:在2.5L罐中观察不同发酵温度、pH、接种比例和接种时段对德氏乳杆菌保加利亚亚种KLDS 1.9201和唾液链球菌嗜热亚种KLDS 3.021混合培养的影响.结果:不同的混生模式均关系到酸奶菌株之间共生的问题.培养条件为42℃和pH6.2,接种比例为KLDS 1.9201:KLDS3.0201=2:1,或是KLDS 3.0201推迟2h接种,将有利于发酵剂菌株混合培养时的球杆菌比例平衡.结论:不同的混生模式是促进酸奶混合菌株协同生长的重要前提.%Objective:The characteristics of mixed fermentation of yoghurt strains and their optimum mixed growth patterns were studied.Methods: Lactobacillus bulgaricus( KLDS 1.9201) and Streptococcus thermophilus( KLDS 3.0201) grew in 2.5L jar-fermenter with different culture temperature, pH, inoculum composition and incubating time.Results:The results indicated that different culture conditions could affect symbiotic growth of yoghurt strains. It was beneficial for the balance of final coccus-rod ratios between starter bacteria when grew at 42℃ and pH6.2, inoculum composition was KLDS 1.9201: KLDS 3.0201 =2:1 and incubating time of KLDS 3.0201 was put off 2h. Conclusion:Different growth mode was an important prerequisite for the collaboration growth of yogurt mixed strain.

  11. Production and monomer composition of exopolysaccharides by yogurt starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frengova, G I; Simova, E D; Beshkova, D M; Simov, Z I

    2000-12-01

    As components of starter cultures for Bulgarian yogurt, Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus revealed extensive exopolysaccharide (EPS) production activity when cultivated in whole cow's milk. The polymer-forming activity of thermophilic streptococci was lower (230-270 mg EPS/L) than that of the lactobacilli (400-540 mg EPS/L). Mixed cultures stimulated EPS production in yogurt manufacture, and a maximum concentration of 720-860 mg EPS/L was recorded after full coagulation of milk. The monomer structure of the exopolysaccharides formed by the yogurt starter cultures principally consists of galactose and glucose (1:1), with small amounts of xylose, arabinose, and/or mannose.

  12. Evolutionary engineering to enhance starter culture performance in food fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Herwig; Pronk, Jack T; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Teusink, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Microbial starter cultures are essential for consistent product quality and functional properties such as flavor, texture, pH or the alcohol content of various fermented foods. Strain improvement programs to achieve desired properties in starter cultures are diverse, but developments in next-generation sequencing lead to an increased interest in evolutionary engineering of desired phenotypes. We here discuss recent developments of strain selection protocols and how computational approaches can assist such experimental design. Furthermore the analysis of evolved phenotypes and possibilities with complex consortia are highlighted. Studies carried out with mainly yeast and lactic acid bacteria demonstrate the power of evolutionary engineering to deliver strains with novel phenotypes as well as insight into underlying mechanisms.

  13. Functional properties of selected starter cultures for sour maize bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edema, Mojisola O; Sanni, Abiodun I

    2008-06-01

    This paper focuses on the functional properties of maize sour-dough microflora selected and tested for their use as starter cultures for sour maize bread. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolated from spontaneously fermented maize dough were selected based on dominance during fermentation and presence at the end of fermentation. Functional properties examined included acidification, leavening and production of some antimicrobial compounds in the fermenting matrix. The organisms previously identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lb. brevis, Lb. fermentum, Lb. acidophilus, Pediococcus acidilactici, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Leuconostoc dextranicum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used singly and as mixed cultures in the fermentation (fermentation time: 12h at 28+/-2 degrees C) of maize meal (particle size >0.2mm). The pH fell from an initial value of 5.62-3.05 in maize meals fermented with Lb. plantarum; 4.37 in L. dextranicum+S. cerevisiae compared with the value for the control (no starter) of 4.54. Significant differences (P dough were confirmed by their abilities to inhibit the growth of Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus flavus from an initial inoculum concentration of 7 log cfu ml(-1)) for test bacteria and zone of inhibition of up to 1.33 cm for aflatoxigenic A. flavus. The findings of this study form a database for further studies on the development of starter cultures for sour maize bread production as an alternative bread specialty.

  14. Fundamental Elements to Produce Sesame Yoghurt from Sesame Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Afaneh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In previous work sesame milk was developed. The developed milk had slightly acceptable flavor and limited shelf life. Fermentation of sesame milk is one way to overcome these problems. Approach: Sesame yoghurt experiments were carried out using pasteurized sesame milk (75°C for 5 min with 14% initial sesame seed concentration and 2.7% glucose with different dairy products: lactose, Cheese Dried Whey (CDW, Non Fat Dried Milk (NFDM and skim milk. The formulas were fermented using commercial yoghurt starter culture for different times. Results: The texture of all the resulted yoghurt lacked the typical set yoghurt body and was similar to that of drinking yoghurt. The best formula was sesame milk with 2% CDW followed by sesame milk with 2% NFDM and then by sesame milk extended with skim milk in a ratio of 1:1. The optimum fermentation times were 6, 8 and 8 h respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: The addition of dairy products was essential to promote acid and flavor development.

  15. Hybrid Modeling and Optimization of Yogurt Starter Culture Continuous Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya Popova

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents a hybrid model of yogurt starter mixed culture fermentation. The main nonlinearities within a classical structure of continuous process model are replaced by neural networks. The new hybrid model accounts for the dependence of the two microorganisms' kinetics from the on-line measured characteristics of the culture medium - pH. Then the model was used further for calculation of the optimal time profile of pH. The obtained results are with agreement with the experimental once.

  16. Production and Quality Evaluation of Soy-Corn Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olakunle Moses Makanjuola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, research efforts in the developing countries have been geared towards the improvement of protein quality foods using blends of legume and cereal which is considered a nutritionally balanced product. Therefore, this present study is aimed at finding local substitute for milk based product with high protein content of a well balancing amino acid composition and high digestibility; determining the proximate composition, microbial analysis as well as sensory evaluation of soy-corn yoghurt with a view of knowing the consumer acceptability of the product. Yoghurt samples were produced from blends of soymilk and corn milk (yellow maize corn using Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus as starter cultures. Ratio of soy milk to corn milk were 80%:20%; 70%:30% and 100% soymilk as control. The yoghurt samples produced were coded A, B and C representing 100% soy yoghurt, 80%:20% soy corn yoghurt and 70%:30% soy corn yoghurt respectively. Yoghurt samples were subjected to chemical, microbiological and organoleptic assessment. The results of chemical analysis revealed protein contents of 4.30, 4.00 and 3.70% respectively for the samples. Fat contents varied between 2.10 and 2.60%, while ash contents of 0.50, 0.60 and 0.62% were obtained for the samples respectively. Total solids of between 10.98 and 8.80% were obtained with titratable acidity of 0.03, 0.05 and 0.06%, respectively. The carbohydrate contents of the samples ranged from 1.40 to 4.50% while all the samples showed fairly acidic levels. Water contents of between 89.00 and 91.20% were obtained. The microbiological examination revealed a tolerable level for all the samples.

  17. Towards the development of a common starter culture for fufu and usi (edible starch: Screening for potential starters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubrat A. Oyinlola

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented cassava products like fufu and usi are important staple foods in many African homes. Natural fermentation time is usually long resulting in slower acidification and inconsistent nutritional composition of products which could be overcome with the use of starter culture. However, most available starters are used for single food fermentation and are uneconomical. This necessitates the development of a starter culture for multiple related food products to reduce cost. Hence, this study aimed at screening for potential starters in the development of a common starter culture for fufu and usi.Fresh, peeled, chipped and grated cassava tubers were spontaneously fermented and lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the fermenting mash at 24 hour intervals. Ninety eight (98 isolates were randomly picked. Lactobacillus plantarum had highest occurrence (50.0% in both fermentations.All selected isolates did not hydrolyze starch, but produced linamarase and pectinase. Fermenting pH ranged between 6.50 and 3.58 during 72 hours fermentation. Lactic acid concentration ranged from 1.10 g/L to 1.78 g/L at 24 hours, 1.22 g/L to 2.45 g/L at 48 hours and 0.57 g/L to 2.55 g/l at 72 hours. The highest hydrogen peroxide concentration produced was 629 µg/L at 24 hours while the least was 136 µg/L at 72 hours. 1.08 g/L of diacetyl was the least concentration produced at 24 hours while the highest was 2.86 g/L at 48 hours.Five potential starters were identified as Lactobacillus pentosus F2A, L. plantarum subsp. argentolarensis F2B, L. plantarum F2C, L. plantarum U2A and L. paraplantarum U2C.

  18. Effect of starter cultures combinations on lipolytic activity and ripening of dry fermented sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Baris Bingol

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of starter culture combinations on the quality of Turkish type dry fermented sausage (sucuk were evaluated during ripening and storage periods. Sucuk formulations were produced without (control and with three different starter culture combinations; i Staphylococcus carnosus+Pediococcus pentosaceus, ii Staphylococcus carnosus+ Lactobacillus sakei, and iii Staphylococcus carnosus+Pediococcus pentosaceus+Lactobacillus sakei. Analysis of microbiological, physico-chemical and lipase enzyme levels of samples were conducted until the 60th day. Interactions among the presence of lipolytic starter cultures, lipase enzyme levels and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were also evaluated both in ripening and drying periods. There were apparent differences on microbiological and chemical properties between samples prepared with starters and control. It has been concluded that the use of lipolytic starter cultures in suitable combination would have positive effect on the acceleration of ripening and improvement of the quality of dry fermented sausages.

  19. Application of novel starter cultures for sourdough bread production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessas, S; Alexopoulos, A; Mantzourani, I; Koutinas, A; Voidarou, C; Stavropoulou, E; Bezirtzoglou, E

    2011-12-01

    Sourdough application has been extensively increased in the last years due to the consumers demand for food consumption without the addition of chemical preservatives. Several starter cultures have been applied in sourdough bread making targeting the increase of bread self-life and the improvement of sensorial character. More specific, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus sakei as single and mixed cultures were used for sourdough bread making. Various sourdough breads were produced with the addition of sourdough perviously prepared with 10% w/w L. acidophilus, 10% w/w L. sakei and 5% w/w L. acidophilus and 5% w/w L. sakei at the same time. Various chemical parameters were determined such as lactic acid, total titratable acidity and pH. The results revealed that the produced sourdough bread made with sourdough containing the mixed culture was preserved for more days (12 days) than all the other breads produced in the frame of this study, since it contained lactic acid in higher concentrations. The respective total titratable acidity varied between 10.5 and 11 ml NaOH N/10. The same sourdough bread had a firmer texture, better aroma, flavor and overall quality compared to other sourdough breads examined in this study, as shown by sensory evaluation tests and results obtained through SPME GC-MS analysis, which revealed significant differences among the different bread types.

  20. The influence of starter and adjunct lactobacilli culture on the ripening of washed curd cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hynes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten strains of lactobacillus from the CNRZ collection were tested as adjunct culture in miniature washed curd cheeses manufactured under controlled bacteriological conditions with two different starters, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL 416 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM2. Lactobacilli growth seemed to be dependent on the Lactobacillus strain but was not influenced by the starter strain or counts. Lactococci counts were higher in the miniature cheeses with AM2 starter and added lactobacilli than in the control cheeses without lactobacilli. Gross composition and hydrolysis of s1 casein were similar for miniature cheeses with and without lactobacilli. In the miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 starter, the lactobacilli adjunct slightly increased the soluble nitrogen content, but that was not verified in the AM2 miniature cheeses. Phosphotungstic acid nitrogen content increased in miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 when Lactobacillus plantarum 1572 and 1310 adjunct cultures were added. That was also verified for several Lactobacillus strains, specially Lactobacillus casei 1227, for miniature cheeses manufactured with AM2 starter. Free fatty acid content increased in miniature cheeses made with lactobacilli adjuncts 1310, 1308 and 1219 with IL416 starter, and with strains 1218, 1244 and 1308 for miniature cheeses with AM2 starter. These results indicate that production of soluble nitrogen compounds as well as free fatty acid content could be influenced by the lactobacilli adjunct, depending on the starter strain.

  1. Thermally-dried immobilized kefir on casein as starter culture in dried whey cheese production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrellou, D; Kourkoutas, Y; Koutinas, A A; Kanellaki, M

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of thermally-dried immobilized kefir on casein as a starter culture for protein-enriched dried whey cheese. For comparison reasons, dried whey cheese with thermally-dried free kefir culture and with no starter culture were also produced. The effect of the nature of the culture, the ripening temperature and the ripening process on quality characteristics of the whey cheese was studied. The association of microbial groups during cheese maturation suggested repression of spoilage and protection from pathogens due to the thermally-dried kefir, as counts of coliforms, enterobacteria and staphylococci were significantly reduced in cheeses produced using thermally-dried kefir starter cultures. The effect of the starter culture on production of volatile compounds responsible for cheese flavor was also studied using the SPME GC/MS technique. Thermally-dried immobilized kefir starter culture resulted in an improved profile of aroma-related compounds. The preliminary sensory evaluation ascertained the soft, fine taste and the overall improved quality of cheese produced with the thermally-dried immobilized kefir. The potential of protein-based thermally-dried starter cultures in dairy products is finally highlighted and assessed.

  2. Control of biogenic amines in fermented sausages: role of starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariluz eLatorre-Moratalla

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several works show the ability of some starters to render biogenic amine-free sausages. In this paper, the effect of different starter culture is reviewed and the factors determining their performance discussed.

  3. Control of biogenic amines in fermented sausages: role of starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Bover-Cid, Sara; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several works show the ability of some starters to render biogenic amine-free sausages. In this paper, the effect of different starter culture is reviewed and the factors determining their performance discussed.

  4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a starter culture in Mycella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, T K; Tempel, T V; Cantor, M D; Jakobsen, M

    2001-09-19

    The potential use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae FB7 as an additional starter culture for the production of Mycella, a Danish Gorgonzola type cheese, was investigated. Two dairy productions of Mycella, each containing batches of experimental cheeses with S. cerevisiae added and reference cheeses without yeast added were carried out. For both experimental and reference cheeses, chemical analysis (pH, a(w), NaCl, water and fat content) were carried out during the ripening period, but no significant differences were found. The evolution of lactic acid bacteria was almost identical in both the experimental and reference cheeses and similar results were found for the number of yeast. S. cerevisiae FB7 was found to be predominant in the core of the experimental cheeses throughout the ripening period, while Debaryomyces hansenii dominated in the reference cheese and on the surface of the experimental cheeses. In the cheeses with S. cerevisiae FB7, an earlier sporulation and an improved growth of Penicillium roqueforti was observed compared to the reference cheeses. Furthermore, in the experimental cheese, synergistic interactions were also found in the aroma analysis, the degradation of casein and by the sensory analysis. The observed differences indicate a positive contribution to the overall quality of Mycella by S. cerevisiae FB7.

  5. Development of starter culture for improved processing of Lafun, an African fermented cassava food product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padonou, S.W.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Akissoe, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To select appropriate micro-organisms to be used as starter culture for reliable and reproducible fermentation of Lafun. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 22 cultures consisting of yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bacillus cereus strains predominant in traditionally fermented cassava...... during Lafun processing were tested as potential starter cultures. In an initial screening, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22, Lactobacillus fermentum 2L48P21, Lactobacillus plantarum 1L48P35 and B. cereus 2B24P31 were found to be the most promising of the cultures and were subsequently tested...

  6. The effect of starter culture and annatto on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R E; Miracle, R E; Drake, M A

    2011-03-01

    The flavor of whey protein can carry over into ingredient applications and negatively influence consumer acceptance. Understanding sources of flavors in whey protein is crucial to minimize flavor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of annatto color and starter culture on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate (WPC). Cheddar cheese whey with and without annatto (15 mL of annatto/454 kg of milk, annatto with 3% wt/vol norbixin content) was manufactured using a mesophilic lactic starter culture or by addition of lactic acid and rennet (rennet set). Pasteurized fat-separated whey was then ultrafiltered and spray dried into WPC. The experiment was replicated 4 times. Flavor of liquid wheys and WPC were evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile analyses. In addition to flavor evaluations on WPC, color analysis (Hunter Lab and norbixin extraction) and functionality tests (solubility and heat stability) also were performed. Both main effects (annatto, starter) and interactions were investigated. No differences in sensory properties or functionality were observed among WPC. Lipid oxidation compounds were higher in WPC manufactured from whey with starter culture compared with WPC from rennet-set whey. The WPC with annatto had higher concentrations of p-xylene, diacetyl, pentanal, and decanal compared with WPC without annatto. Interactions were observed between starter and annatto for hexanal, suggesting that annatto may have an antioxidant effect when present in whey made with starter culture. Results suggest that annatto has a no effect on whey protein flavor, but that the starter culture has a large influence on the oxidative stability of whey.

  7. Effects of inoculation of commercial starter cultures on the quality and histamine accumulation in fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhui; Ren, Hongyang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yin; Bai, Ting; Li, Junxia; Zhu, Wenyou

    2015-02-01

    To meet the requirements of high-quality safe products, starter cultures are used to produce fermented sausages. The effects of 3 commercial starter cultures, namely SM-194, T-SPX, and SM-181, on histamine accumulation and quality parameters including microbial quality, pH, water activity, and total volatile base nitrogen, as well as the color and texture properties, were evaluated during the fermentation and ripening of fermented sausages. Although initial counts of Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonas were similar in the 4 batches, the growth of these microorganisms was significantly inhibited (P fermentation and ripening period. The counts of E. coli, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonas increased to maximum levels of 3.89, 4.41, and 5.15 log10 colony forming units/g in the control sausages, respectively. At the end of ripening, the levels of histamine were 8.85, 0.32, 7.82, and 3.18 mg/kg for batches C, SM-194, T-SPX, and SM-181, respectively. The results revealed that commercial starter cultures, particularly starter cultures SM-194 and SM-181, made a great contribution to histamine reduction. In addition, batches inoculated with starter cultures showed a stronger acidification and lower level of total volatile base nitrogen than the control sample during production (P fermented sausages.

  8. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Ângela Maria; Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Sant’Anna, Ernani S.

    2009-01-01

    Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages. PMID:24031331

  9. Reduction of Biogenic Amines during Miso Fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum as a Starter Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Chen; Kung, Hsien-Feng; Huang, Ya-Ling; Wu, Chien-Hui; Huang, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang

    2016-09-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum D-103 isolated from a miso product that possesses amine-degrading activity was used as a starter culture in miso fermentation (25°C for 120 days) in this study. The salt content in control samples (without starter culture) and inoculated samples (inoculated with L. plantarum D-103) remained constant at 10.4% of the original salt concentration throughout fermentation, whereas the pH value decreased from 6.2 to 4.6 during fermentation. The inoculated samples had significantly lower (P culture with amine-degrading activity in miso products was effective in reducing the accumulation of biogenic amines.

  10. Functional implications of the microbial community structure of undefined mesophilic starter cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, E.J.; Erkus, O.; Spus, M.; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M.; Alexeeva, S.V.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the recent advances made in the studies of the microbial community of complex and undefined cheese starter cultures. We report on work related to the composition of the cultures at the level of genetic lineages, on the presence and activity of bacteriophages and on the populati

  11. Effect of Egg White Utilization on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Attributes of Protein-rich Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian A Gogo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE High protein yoghurt was made from whole milk, fortified with egg white (30% v/v and skim milk powder at 12% (w/v. Different yoghurt mixes, with albumin content of 15%, 30% and 45% (v/v, were prepared. The control was made from whole milk, fortified with skim milk powder at 12% (w/v. The blended premixes were pasteurized at 74ºC for 4 seconds, cooled and then inoculated with 3% (w/v Direct Vat Set yoghurt starter culture at 45ºC. After fermentation for 3 hours in a water bath maintained at 46+-1C, product was cooled to 5ºC and then stored for 24 hours. The effect of the fortification on physico-chemical and sensory properties was investigated. Protein content increased to 8.50% at 45% egg white utilization. Susceptibility to wheying was reduced in egg-white fortified samples, without signicant difference in sensory attributes of the test samples compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that yoghurt fortified with 45% egg white was organoleptically acceptable. The yoghurt was rated as having better sensory appeal as compared to the control.

  12. Tuning Chocolate Flavor through Development of Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Starter Cultures with Increased Acetate Ester Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Struyf, Nore; Paulus, Tinneke; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Allegaert, Leen; Vrancken, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Microbial starter cultures have extensively been used to enhance the consistency and efficiency of industrial fermentations. Despite the advantages of such controlled fermentations, the fermentation involved in the production of chocolate is still a spontaneous process that relies on the natural microbiota at cocoa farms. However, recent studies indicate that certain thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures can be used as starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentation. In this study, we investigate the potential of specifically developed starter cultures to modulate chocolate aroma. Specifically, we developed several new S. cerevisiae hybrids that combine thermotolerance and efficient cocoa pulp fermentation with a high production of volatile flavor-active esters. In addition, we investigated the potential of two strains of two non-Saccharomyces species that produce very large amounts of fruity esters (Pichia kluyveri and Cyberlindnera fabianii) to modulate chocolate aroma. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the cocoa liquor revealed an increased concentration of various flavor-active esters and a decrease in spoilage-related off-flavors in batches inoculated with S. cerevisiae starter cultures and, to a lesser extent, in batches inoculated with P. kluyveri and Cyb. fabianii. Additionally, GC-MS analysis of chocolate samples revealed that while most short-chain esters evaporated during conching, longer and more-fat-soluble ethyl and acetate esters, such as ethyl octanoate, phenylethyl acetate, ethyl phenylacetate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate, remained almost unaffected. Sensory analysis by an expert panel confirmed significant differences in the aromas of chocolates produced with different starter cultures. Together, these results show that the selection of different yeast cultures opens novel avenues for modulating chocolate flavor. PMID:26590272

  13. Tuning Chocolate Flavor through Development of Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Starter Cultures with Increased Acetate Ester Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Struyf, Nore; Paulus, Tinneke; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Allegaert, Leen; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-11-20

    Microbial starter cultures have extensively been used to enhance the consistency and efficiency of industrial fermentations. Despite the advantages of such controlled fermentations, the fermentation involved in the production of chocolate is still a spontaneous process that relies on the natural microbiota at cocoa farms. However, recent studies indicate that certain thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures can be used as starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentation. In this study, we investigate the potential of specifically developed starter cultures to modulate chocolate aroma. Specifically, we developed several new S. cerevisiae hybrids that combine thermotolerance and efficient cocoa pulp fermentation with a high production of volatile flavor-active esters. In addition, we investigated the potential of two strains of two non-Saccharomyces species that produce very large amounts of fruity esters (Pichia kluyveri and Cyberlindnera fabianii) to modulate chocolate aroma. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the cocoa liquor revealed an increased concentration of various flavor-active esters and a decrease in spoilage-related off-flavors in batches inoculated with S. cerevisiae starter cultures and, to a lesser extent, in batches inoculated with P. kluyveri and Cyb. fabianii. Additionally, GC-MS analysis of chocolate samples revealed that while most short-chain esters evaporated during conching, longer and more-fat-soluble ethyl and acetate esters, such as ethyl octanoate, phenylethyl acetate, ethyl phenylacetate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate, remained almost unaffected. Sensory analysis by an expert panel confirmed significant differences in the aromas of chocolates produced with different starter cultures. Together, these results show that the selection of different yeast cultures opens novel avenues for modulating chocolate flavor.

  14. The eff ect of addition of selected vegetables on the microbiological, textural and fl avour profi le properties of yoghurts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Najgebauer-Lejko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vegetables, apart from having high nutritional value, also contain considerable amounts of dietary fi bre and other components, which may affect physico-chemical properties of fermented milks, e.g. viscosity, texture, susceptibility to syneresis, fl avour profi le etc. The present work was established to study the effect of selected vegetables addition on the rheological, textural, microbiological and fl avour profi le parameters of yoghurts. Material and methods. The vegetable preparations (carrot, pumpkin, broccoli and red sweet pepper were added (10% w/w to the processed cow’s milk fermented with DVS yoghurt culture. Texture profi le analysis, determination of viscosity, susceptibility to syneresis and descriptive fl avour evaluation were conducted at the 1st, 7th and 14th day after production. Additionally, microbiological studies were performed for 28 days, at 7-day intervals. Results. The highest apparent viscosity and adhesiveness were obtained for the carrot yoghurt, whereas yoghurt with pumpkin was the least susceptible to syneresis. The other texture parameters were not affected by the addition of vegetables. Broccoli and red sweet pepper fl avours were dominating in the fermented milks fortifi ed with these vegetables, whereas carrot and pumpkin fl avours were less distinctive. Yoghurt supplemented with red sweet pepper got the highest sensoric acceptability. The number of starter bacteria was not infl uenced by the vegetable additives, except for pumpkin yoghurt, which contained lower population of lactobacilli. Conclusions. Among all tested vegetables, carrot additive had the greatest potential to improve yoghurt structure, whereas red sweet pepper imparted the most acceptable fl avour.

  15. Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits fermentation in Zimbabwe: from black-box to starter culture development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, L.K.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis reports on studies of microbiological and biochemical properties of masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit fermentation and the development of starter cultures for the production of masau beverages. A survey to document the traditional processing techniques was conducted using a questionnair

  16. The production of glucans via glucansucrases from Lactobacillus satsumensis isolated from a fermented beverage starter culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several starter cultures used in the production of fermented beverages were screened for lactic acid bacteria that produced water-insoluble polysaccharides from sucrose. The strain producing the greatest amount was identified as Lactobacillus satsumensis by its 16S RNA sequence. This strain produc...

  17. Acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar: phenotypic traits relevant for starter cultures selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Maria; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-06-30

    This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar process. Although several studies are available on acetic acid bacteria ecology, metabolism and nutritional requirements, their activity as well as their technological traits in homemade vinegars as traditional balsamic vinegar is not well known. The basic technology to oxidise cooked grape must to produce traditional balsamic vinegar is performed by the so called "seed-vinegar" that is a microbiologically undefined starter culture obtained from spontaneous acetification of previous raw material. Selected starter cultures are the main technological improvement in order to innovate traditional balsamic vinegar production but until now they are rarely applied. To develop acetic acid bacteria starter cultures, selection criteria have to take in account composition of raw material, acetic acid bacteria metabolic activities, applied technology and desired characteristics of the final product. For traditional balsamic vinegar, significative phenotypical traits of acetic acid bacteria have been highlighted. Basic traits are: ethanol preferred and efficient oxidation, fast rate of acetic acid production, tolerance to high concentration of acetic acid, no overoxidation and low pH resistance. Specific traits are tolerance to high sugar concentration and to a wide temperature range. Gluconacetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter malorum strains can be evaluated to develop selected starter cultures since they show one or more suitable characters.

  18. Production of Pastırma with Different Curing Methods and Using Starter Culture

    OpenAIRE

    AKSU, Muhammet İrfan; Kaya, Mükerrem

    2002-01-01

    The effects of starter culture (Staphylococcus carnosus + Lactobacillus pentosus) on some physical, chemical and microbiological properties of pastırma produced with brine and dry curing methods were investigated. The curing method significantly affected the contents of salt, nitrite, nitrite/nitrate rate at the level of P

  19. Lipolytic Changes in Fermented Sausages Produced with Turkey Meat: Effects of Starter Culture and Heat Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Karsloğlu, Betül; Çiçek, Ümran Ensoy; KOLSARICI, Nuray; Candoğan, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of two different commercial starter culture mixes and processing methodologies (traditional and heat process) on the lipolytic changes of fermented sausages manufactured with turkey meat were evaluated during processing stages and storage. Free fatty acid (FFA) value increased with fermentation and during storage over 120 d in all fermented sausage groups produced with both processing methodologies (p

  20. Preparation of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture for cucumber fermentations that can meet kosher guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method is described for growth of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture in jars of commercially available pasteurized fresh-pack kosher dill cucumbers so that jars can be used to inoculate commercial scale cucumber fermentation tanks. A procedure is also described to transfer lactic acid bacte...

  1. Effects of selected factors on rheological and textural properties of probiotic yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Glušac

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of inulin (1 %, combination of inulin (1 % and acacia honey (4 %, heat treatment of milk, and storage time on the rheological and textural properties of probiotic yoghurt. Rheological properties were assessed trough viscosity, syneresis and texture (firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity. Yoghurt was prepared from milk (1,5 % fat with added inulin (1% before heat treatment at 85 °C for 20 min or 95 °C for 10 min. After cooling to 55 °C honey (4 % was added. Samples were inoculated using probiotic starter culture (70 % w/w Streptococcus thermophilus, 10 % w/w Lactobacillus bulgaricus, 10 % w/w Lactobacillus acidophilus, 10 % w/w Bifidobacterium ssp.. Yoghurt samples were held on +5 °C during 21 days. Measurements of pH value, lactic acid, viscosity, syneresis, and textural properties were done after 1, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage. The results of this study show that honey addition significantly decreased fermentation time compared to fermentation time of control samples or samples containing inulin. Furthermore, addition of honey and inulin to milk caused significant lower syneresis (p<0,05 during storage time, while there was no significant influence on viscosity and texture of final product. The applied heat treatment of milk had no significant influence on rheological properties of probiotic yoghurt.

  2. Effects of yogurt starter cultures on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Elizabeth W; Yeung, Marie; Tong, Phillip S

    2011-01-31

    Recognized to confer health benefits to consumers, probiotics such as Lactobacillus acidophilus are commonly incorporated into fermented dairy products worldwide; among which yogurt is a popular delivery vehicle. To materialize most of the putative health benefits associated with probiotics, an adequate amount of viable cells must be delivered at the time of consumption. However, the loss in their viabilities during refrigerated storage has been demonstrated previously. This study focused on the effects of yogurt starter cultures on the survival of five strains of L. acidophilus, with emphases on low pH and acid production. Differential survival behavior between L. acidophilus strains was further analyzed. To this end, viable cell counts of L. acidophilus were determined weekly during 4°C storage in various types of yogurts made with Streptococcus thermophilus alone, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus alone, both species of the starter cultures, or glucono-delta-lactone (GDL). All yogurt types, except for pasteurized yogurts, were co-fermented with L. acidophilus. Yogurt filtrate was analyzed for the presence of any inhibitory substance and for the amount of hydrogen peroxide. Multiplication of L. acidophilus was not affected by the starter cultures as all strains reached high level on day 0 of the storage period. Throughout the 28-day storage period, cell counts of L. acidophilus PIM703 and SBT2062 remained steady (~6 × 10(7)CFU/g) in yogurts made with both starter cultures, whereas those of ATCC 700396 and NCFM were reduced by a maximum of 3 and 4.6 logs, respectively. When starter cultures were replaced by GDL, all strains survived well, suggesting that a low pH was not a critical factor dictating their survival. In addition, the filtrate collected from yogurts made with starter cultures appeared to have higher inhibitory activities against L. acidophilus than that made with GDL. The presence of viable starter cultures was necessary to adversely affect the

  3. Flow cytometric viability assessment of lactic acid bacteria starter cultures produced by fluidized bed drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, Gerald; Rüger, Marc; Wassermann, Magdalena; Weinholz, Susann; Reichl, Udo; Cordes, Christiana

    2014-06-01

    For starter culture production, fluidized bed drying is an efficient and cost-effective alternative to the most frequently used freeze drying method. However, fluidized bed drying also poses damaging or lethal stress to bacteria. Therefore, investigation of impact of process variables and conditions on viability of starter cultures produced by fluidized bed drying is of major interest. Viability of bacteria is most frequently assessed by plate counting. While reproductive growth of cells can be characterized by the number of colony-forming units, it cannot provide the number of viable-but-nonculturable cells. However, in starter cultures, these cells still contribute to the fermentation during food production. In this study, flow cytometry was applied to assess viability of Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures by membrane integrity analysis using SYBR®Green I and propidium iodide staining. The enumeration method established allowed for rapid, precise and sensitive determination of viable cell concentration, and was used to investigate effects of fluidized bed drying and storage on viability of L. plantarum. Drying caused substantial membrane damage on cells, most likely due to dehydration and oxidative stress. Nevertheless, high bacterial survival rates were obtained, and granulates contained in the average 2.7 × 10(9) viable cells/g. Furthermore, increased temperatures reduced viability of bacteria during storage. Differences in results of flow cytometry and plate counting suggested an occurrence of viable-but-nonculturable cells during storage. Overall, flow cytometric viability assessment is highly feasible for rapid routine in-process control in production of L. plantarum starter cultures, produced by fluidized bed drying.

  4. Safety improvement and preservation of typical sensory qualities of traditional dry fermented sausages using autochthonous starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talon, Régine; Leroy, Sabine; Lebert, Isabelle; Giammarinaro, Philippe; Chacornac, Jean-Paul; Latorre-Moratalla, Mariluz; Vidal-Carou, Carmen; Zanardi, Emanuela; Conter, Mauro; Lebecque, Annick

    2008-08-15

    Traditional dry fermented sausages are manufactured without addition of starter cultures in small-scale processing units, their fermentation relying on indigenous microflora. Characterisation and control of these specific bacteria are essential for the sensory quality and the safety of the sausages. The aim of this study was to develop an autochthonous starter culture that improves safety while preserving the typical sensory characteristics of traditional sausages. An autochthonous starter composed of Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus equorum and Staphylococcus succinus isolated from a traditional fermented sausage was developed. These strains were tested for their susceptibility to antibiotics and their production of biogenic amines. This starter was evaluated in situ at the French traditional processing unit where the strains had been isolated. Effects of the autochthonous starter were assessed by analysing the microbial, physico-chemical, biochemical and sensory characteristics of the sausages. Inoculation with the chosen species was confirmed using known species-specific PCR assays for L. sakei and S. equorum and a species-specific PCR assay developed in this study for S. succinus. Strains were monitored by pulse-field gel electrophoresis typing. Addition of autochthonous microbial starter cultures improved safety compared with the traditional natural fermentation of sausages, by inhibiting the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, decreasing the level of biogenic amines and by limiting fatty acid and cholesterol oxidation. Moreover, autochthonous starter did not affect the typical sensory quality of the traditional sausages. This is the first time to our knowledge that selection, development and validation in situ of autochthonous starter cultures have been carried out, and also the first time that S. equorum together with S. succinus have been used as starter cultures for meat fermentation. Use of autochthonous starter cultures is an effective tool for limiting

  5. Archaeological culture, please meet yoghurt culture: towards a relational archaeology of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrij Mlekuž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking milk as a point of departure, we set out on a journey to explore the ‘mutual becomings’ of different bodies, species, and things. We argue that milk should be understood as a component in an assemblage that connects animals, humans, hormones, enzymes, bacteria, food, genes, technologies and material culture. These complex entanglements produced new, unexpected results and effects. Since they form part of this assemblage, all its components are profoundly changed. Focusing on this diversity of relations between humans, other creatures, things and substances is a key to an archaeology that does not radically separate humans and nonhumans.

  6. The impact of selected strains of probiotic bacteria on metabolite formation in set yoghurt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settachaimongkon, S.; Nout, M.J.R.; Antunes Fernandes, E.C.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Smid, E.J.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12 in cofermentation with traditional starters on metabolite formation in set yoghurt was evaluated. Microbial activity during fermentation and refrigerated storage was investigated by monitoring bacterial popul

  7. Effect of rate of addition of starter culture on textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Kanawjia, S K; Kumar, Suryamani; Khatkar, Sunil

    2014-04-01

    The effect of rate of addition of starter culture on textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese was investigated during ripening period up to two months. The textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese in terms of hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness were analyzed by using textural profile analyzer. The maximum hardness was found with cheese made using 1% culture, while the minimum was found with 2% culture. The cohesiveness and springiness decreased as the level of addition of starter culture increased. The chewiness of cheese also decreased, as the rate of addition of starter culture increased for cheese making. In addition to this, yield, moisture, fat, FDM, protein, salt and S/M of fresh buffalo milk Feta type cheese increased with the increase in rate of addition of starter culture; however, TS of experimental cheeses decreased.

  8. Effect of sublethal preculturing on the survival of probiotics and metabolite formation in set-yoghurt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settachaimongkon, S.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Winata, V.; Wang, X.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Smid, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of preculturing of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12 under sublethal stress conditions on their survival and metabolite formation in set-yoghurt. Prior to co-cultivation with yoghurt starters in milk,

  9. Selection of starter cultures for idli batter fermentation and their effect on quality of idlis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridevi, J; Halami, Prakash M; Vijayendra, S V N

    2010-10-01

    Idli batter samples were prepared using lactic starter cultures like Pediococcus pentosaceus (Pp), Enterococcus faecium MTCC 5153 (Ef), Ent. faecium (IB2 Ef-IB2), individually, along with the yeast culture, Candida versatilis (Cv). Idli batter prepared using Ef and Ef-IB2 cultures gave better results, when evaluated for the rise in batter volume (80 ml), level of CO2 production (23.8%), titratable acidity 2.4-3.5% (lactic acid) and pH 4.3-4.4. Storage stability of batter made with selected starter cultures was determined by analyzing the idlis prepared using the batter stored for 1 and 5 days for texture, nutrient composition and sensory quality. Slight variations in the results were seen among the idlis of different combination of cultures, whereas these results are better than that of the idlis made using naturally fermented idli batter. Sensory profile of idlis prepared using starter cultures had a higher score (3.9-4.4) compared to the control (3.6) for overall acceptability.

  10. Impact of functional mix and starter cultures on the sensory properties of permanent sausages produced in industrial conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzelov, Aco; Naseva, Dijana; Taskov, Nako; Saneva, Dusica; Spasova, Dragica; Andronikov, Darko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of their search is the impact little bit of functional mixed (composed of glukono delta lactate, ascorbic acid and vitamin C) and starter culture (commercial preparation F - SC111 Bactoferm product company Chr Hansen DK). This product contains a mixed culture composed of Lactobacilus sakei and Staphyococus Camosus frozen in dry form. In three varieties of tea and sausage: I - added a simple sugar sucrose which serve as a control sample, II - with the addition of starter culture, III -...

  11. Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Zheng, Y.; Han, B.; Zwietering, M.H.; Samson, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen-Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and culture

  12. Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.W.; Yan, Z.; Han, B.Z.; Zwietering, M.H.; Samson, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen- Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and cultur

  13. Effect of autochthonous starter cultures on the biogenic amine content of ewe's milk cheese throughout ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renes, E; Diezhandino, I; Fernández, D; Ferrazza, R E; Tornadijo, M E; Fresno, J M

    2014-12-01

    Cheese is among the most commonly implicated foods associated with biogenic amines poisoning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the type of autochthonous starter culture and ripening time on the concentration of biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, β-phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine) in cheeses made from pasteurized ewe's milk. 4 cheese batches were made, in duplicate, and ripened for 7 months. The biogenic amines of 40 cheeses were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. The predominant biogenic amines determined at the end of the ripening time were phenylethylamine, spermine and tryptamine. Together, these accounted for 81% of the total of biogenic amines studied. The type of starter culture used to make the ewe's cheese had a significant effect (p culture made up entirely of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris or of the same in combination with Lactobacillus plantarum.

  14. Identification of potential probiotic starter cultures for Scandinavian-type fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg, Trine Danø; Axelsson, Lars; Naterstad, Kristine; Elsser, Dieter; Budde, Birgitte Bjørn

    2005-12-15

    Potential probiotic cultures suitable as starter cultures for the Scandinavian-type fermented sausages were identified among strains well-adapted to fermented meats as well as strains originating from a culture collection. From 15 different fermented meat products, 22 strains were isolated as dominant non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB). The isolates were identified by RAPD, API and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and showed to be five strains of Lactobacillus sakei, five strains of Lactobacillus farciminis, five strains belonging to the group of Lactobacillus plantarum/pentosus, four strains of Lactobacillus alimentarius, two strains of Lactobacillus brevis and one strain of Lactobacillus versmoldensis. Heterofermentative strains as well as strains not growing at 37 degrees C and not lowering pH below 5.1 in a meat model were excluded leaving 9 strains for further studies. These strains together with 19 strains from a culture collection were evaluated by in vitro methods including survival upon exposure to pH 2.5 or 0.3% oxgall and adhesion to the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2 as well as antimicrobial activity against potential pathogens. Strains that fulfilled all the probiotic criteria and showed to be fast acid producers in a meat model included three strains belonging to the group of Lb. plantarum/pentosus (MF1291, MF1298, MF1300) which originated from the dominant NSLAB of fermented meat products. MF1291 and MF 1298 were further identified as Lb. plantarum and MF1300 as Lb. pentosus. The three strains were all successfully applied as starter cultures for the production of fermented sausage. The viable count at the end of the processing period reached high cell numbers (4.7x10(7)-2.9x10(8) cfu/g) and pH of the sausages decreased to pH 4.8-4.9 without any flavour deviation compared to sausage fermented by a commercial meat starter culture.

  15. Effect of Fortifying Camel’s Milk with Skim Milk Powder on the Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Characteristics of Set Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortada Mohammed Salih

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the milk processing unit at college of animal production Science and Technology, Sudan University of Science and Technology during January-May 2012. The effect of fortification with skim milk powder (0, 5 and 7% to the camel’s milk on the quality of yoghurt during storage was investigated. Fresh camel’s milk was purchased from Alaas farm at Khartoum North. Nine litres of raw camel’s milk were divided into three portions. The first treatment was used as control. To the other two treatments 5 and 7% of skim milk powder was added to the camels milk respectively, then the milk in each treatment was heated in a water bath at 85°C for 30 min. Milk samples were cooled to 43°C and 2% of commercial yoghurt starter culture was added and packed into plastic cups (200 g capacity in triplicates. The plastic containers were incubated at 39°C until coagulation occurred (16 h thereafter samples from different treatments were stored at 4°C for 0, 5and 10 days. Yoghurt Samples were taken for chemical, microbiological and sensory analysis.The results indicated that yoghurt treated with 7% skim milk powder had the highest viscosity value (p≤0.01 during storage period. The control yoghurt had the highest pH value (p≤0.01 during storage period in comparison with other treatments. In this study no significant differences in chemical composition of the yoghurt from different treatments during storage were observed. The yoghurt sample treated with 7% skim milk powder was significantly higher (p≤0.05 in total bacterial count (7.70×106 cfu/mL than the control yoghurt (5.29×106 cfu/mL. No variations were observed in lactic acid bacteria count. Coliforms and E.coli bacteria were not detected in tested samples. The results indicated that yoghurt treated with 7% skim milk powder had the highest (p≤0.01 flavour. Also there was significant difference (p≤0.05 in overall acceptability in tested treatments. It is concluded

  16. Dynamics of Cocoa Bean Pulp Degradation during Cocoa Bean Fermentation: Effects of Yeast Starter Culture Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laras Cempaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is a crucial step in the post-harvest processing of cocoa beans. This process comprises mixed culture microbial activities on the cocoa bean pulp, producing metabolites that act as important precursors for cocoa flavour development. Variations in the microbial population dynamics during the fermentation process may induce changes in the overall process. Thus, the introduction of a specific microbial starter culture may improve the quality of the fermentation. This article discusses the effects ofthe addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae var. Chevalieri starter culture on cocoa bean fermentation. The dynamics in the yeast concentration, sugary pulp compounds and metabolic products were measured during fermentation. The alterations in the dynamic metabolite profile were significant, although only a slight difference was observed in the yeast population. A higher fermentation index was measured for the cocoa bean fermentation with yeast starter culture, 1.13 compared to 0.84. In conclusion, this method can potentially be applied to shorten the cocoa bean fermentation time.

  17. Aminogenesis control in fermented sausages manufactured with pressurized meat batter and starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Bover-Cid, S; Aymerich, T; Marcos, B; Vidal-Carou, M C; Garriga, M

    2007-03-01

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (200MPa) to meat batter just before sausage fermentation and the inoculation of starter culture were studied to improve the safety and quality of traditional Spanish fermented sausages (fuet and chorizo). Higher amounts of biogenic amines were formed in chorizo than in fuet. Without interfering with the ripening performance in terms of acidification, drying and proteolysis, hydrostatic pressure prevented enterobacteria growth but did not affect Gram-positive bacteria significantly. Subsequently, a strong inhibition of diamine (putrescine and cadaverine) accumulation was observed, but that of tyramine was not affected. The inoculated decarboxylase-negative strains, selected from indigenous bacteria of traditional sausages, were resistant to the HHP treatment, being able to lead the fermentation process, prevent enterococci development and significantly reduce enterobacteria counts. In sausages manufactured with either non-pressurized or pressurized meat batter, starter culture was the most protective measure against the accumulation of tyramine and both diamines.

  18. Correlation between volatile profiles of Italian fermented sausages and their size and starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Chiara; Bargossi, Eleonora; Gardini, Aldo; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Magnani, Rudy; Gardini, Fausto; Tabanelli, Giulia

    2016-02-01

    The aroma profiles of 10 traditional Italian fermented sausages were evaluated. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) obtained by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). PCA allowed an acceptable separation but some sausage typologies were not well separated. On the other hand, the supervised approach of LDA allowed a clear grouping of the samples in relation to sausage size and starter culture. In spite of the extreme variability of the volatile profiles of the sausage typologies, this work showed the influence of diameter on VOC profile. The differences observed can be related to the effects that some fundamental physicochemical characteristics (such as water loss kinetics and oxygen availability) have on the results of ripening processes. Differences in VOC profiles were also observed due to the lactic acid bacteria used as starter cultures, with differences mainly attributable to compounds deriving from pyruvate metabolism.

  19. Generation of flavour compounds in fermented sausages-the influence of curing ingredients, Staphylococcus starter culture and ripening time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2004-01-01

    The volatile profiles of fermented sausages made with either Staphylococcus xylosus or Staphylococcus carnosus starter cultures were studied with regard to the influence of salt concentration, ripening time and three different combinations of curing ingredients-nitrate, nitrite or nitrite...... observed depending on whether S. xylosus or S. carnosus were used as starter culture. In particular the effects of nitrate was much more predominant in the sausages made with S. carnosus than S. xylosus....

  20. Low molecular weight peptides derived from sarcoplasmic proteins produced by an autochthonous starter culture in a beaker sausage model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza M. López

    2015-06-01

    Significance: The selection of a specific autochthonous starter culture guarantees the hygiene and typicity of fermented sausages. The identification of new peptides as well as new target proteins by means of peptidomics represents a significant step toward the elucidation of the role of microorganisms in meat proteolysis. Moreover, these peptides may be further used as biomarkers capable to certify the use of the applied autochthonous starter culture described here.

  1. Application of starter cultures to table olive fermentation: an overview on the experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo eCorsetti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and they are considered an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid and phenolic compounds that may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentation results from the competitive activities among indigenous, contaminating microorganisms, the microbial balance depending on several intrinsic (pH, water activity, diffusion of nutrients from the drupe and level of anti-microbial compounds and extrinsic (temperature, oxygen availability and salt concentration factors. At present, to reduce the risk of spoilage and to achieve a more predictable process there is an increasing interest in developing starter cultures for table olives fermentation. Anyway, the application of starter cultures in the field of table olives is quite far from reaching the diffusion it has in other sectors of food industry (e.g., dairy products and alcoholic beverages. This review focuses on experimental researches devoted to studying starter cultures for possible application to table olive fermentation both at artisan and industrial level.

  2. Application of starter cultures to table olive fermentation: an overview on the experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsetti, Aldo; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and are considered as an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid) and phenolic compounds may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentation results from the competitive activities among indigenous, contaminating microorganisms, the microbial balance depending on several intrinsic (pH, water activity, diffusion of nutrients from the drupe, and level of anti-microbial compounds) and extrinsic (temperature, oxygen availability, and salt concentration) factors. At present, to reduce the risk of spoilage and to achieve a more predictable process there is an increasing interest in developing starter cultures for table olives fermentation. Anyway, the application of starter cultures in the field of table olives is quite far from reaching the diffusion as it has in other sectors of food industry (e.g., dairy products and alcoholic beverages). This review focuses on experimental researches devoted to studying starter cultures for possible application to table olive fermentation both at artisan and industrial level.

  3. Yoghurt fermented by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus H+ -ATPase-defective mutants exhibits enhanced viability of Bifidobacterium breve during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongol, Martin Patrick; Sawatari, Yuki; Ebina, Yoshiko; Sone, Teruo; Tanaka, Michiko; Tomita, Fusao; Yokota, Atsushi; Asano, Kozo

    2007-05-30

    Persistent acid production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus during refrigerated storage is a major cause of reduced viability of probiotic strains such as Bifidobacterium breve in yoghurt. It was established that H+ -ATPase-defective mutants of lactic acid bacteria have reduced growth and metabolism in low pH environments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate inhibition of post-acidification and maintenance of B. breve viability in yoghurt fermented by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus mutants with reduced membrane-bound H+ -ATPase activity during refrigerated storage. Spontaneous neomycin mutants of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus that had a significantly (P bulgaricus SBT0164 No. 55-1 (mutant) starter culture had markedly reduced post-acidification and maintained viability (> or = 10(8) CFU/ml) of both Bifidobacteruim breve JCM 1192(T) and Bifidobacteruim breve JCM 7017 during storage at 10 degrees C for 21 days. These results clearly showed that yoghurt fermented by mutants of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus with reduced membrane-bound H+ -ATPase activity has reduced post-acidification that prolongs viability of B. breve in yoghurt during refrigerated storage.

  4. Appropriate starter culture technologies for small-scale fermentation in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, W H

    2002-05-25

    Modern food biotechnology has moved a long way since ancient times of empirical food fermentations. Preservation and safeguarding of food are, however, still major objectives of fermentation. In addition, other aspects, such as wholesomeness, acceptability and overall quality, have become increasingly important and valued features to consumers even in developing countries where old traditions and cultural particularities in food fermentations are generally well maintained. Due to limitations in infrastructure and existing low technologies, rural areas in most developing countries have not been able to keep abreast of global developments toward industrialisation. At the same time, fermented foods play a major role in the diet of numerous regions in Africa and Asia. In many traditional approaches, the advantages of some form of inoculation of a new batch, e.g. by back-slopping or the repeated use of the same container (e.g. a calabash) is appreciated and generally practised. Still, the benefits of small-scale starter culture application as a means of improved hygiene, safety and quality control, in support of HACCP approaches, are not yet realised in small-scale fermentation operations. Approaches and considerations for the selection of pure cultures for small-scale, low-tech applications may differ in some respects from the large-scale industrial approaches practised since 100 years. Selection criteria should take account of the substrate, technical properties of the strain, food safety requirements and quality expectations. Lack of experience in the application of starter cultures in small-scale operations and under rural conditions presents a major obstacle but also an exciting challenge to food microbiologist and technologist. Culture preservation, maintenance and distribution demand special logistic and economic considerations. Quality, safety and acceptability of traditional fermented foods may be significantly improved through the use of starter cultures

  5. Additives in yoghurt production

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    Milna Tudor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

  6. Thermally-dried free and immobilized kefir cells as starter culture in hard-type cheese production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katechaki, Eleftheria; Panas, Panayiotis; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Koliopoulos, Dionisis; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2009-07-01

    In an attempt to seek for suitable dried cultures, thermally-dried kefir was employed as starter in hard-type cheese production and tested in cheeses ripened at 5, 18 and 22 degrees C. Both free and immobilised on casein kefir cells were used and compared to cheese made without starter culture. Cheese products made with free cells of kefir culture were characterized by longer preservation time, improved aroma, taste, texture characteristics and increased degree of openness. Volatile profiles obtained by GC/MS analysis revealed a 216% increase in total concentration of esters, organic acids, alcohols and carbonyl compounds between cheeses prepared with and without kefir culture.

  7. Genomic Characterization of Dairy Associated Leuconostoc Species and Diversity of Leuconostocs in Undefined Mixed Mesophilic Starter Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzen, Cyril A.; Kot, Witold; Pedersen, Thomas B.; Ardö, Ylva M.; Broadbent, Jeff R.; Neve, Horst; Hansen, Lars H.; Dal Bello, Fabio; Østlie, Hilde M.; Kleppen, Hans P.; Vogensen, Finn K.; Holo, Helge

    2017-01-01

    Undefined mesophilic mixed (DL-type) starter cultures are composed of predominantly Lactococcus lactis subspecies and 1–10% Leuconostoc spp. The composition of the Leuconostoc population in the starter culture ultimately affects the characteristics and the quality of the final product. The scientific basis for the taxonomy of dairy relevant leuconostocs can be traced back 50 years, and no documentation on the genomic diversity of leuconostocs in starter cultures exists. We present data on the Leuconostoc population in five DL-type starter cultures commonly used by the dairy industry. The analyses were performed using traditional cultivation methods, and further augmented by next-generation DNA sequencing methods. Bacterial counts for starter cultures cultivated on two different media, MRS and MPCA, revealed large differences in the relative abundance of leuconostocs. Most of the leuconostocs in two of the starter cultures were unable to grow on MRS, emphasizing the limitations of culture-based methods and the importance of careful media selection or use of culture independent methods. Pan-genomic analysis of 59 Leuconostoc genomes enabled differentiation into twelve robust lineages. The genomic analyses show that the dairy-associated leuconostocs are highly adapted to their environment, characterized by the acquisition of genotype traits, such as the ability to metabolize citrate. In particular, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris display telltale signs of a degenerative evolution, likely resulting from a long period of growth in milk in association with lactococci. Great differences in the metabolic potential between Leuconostoc species and subspecies were revealed. Using targeted amplicon sequencing, the composition of the Leuconostoc population in the five commercial starter cultures was shown to be significantly different. Three of the cultures were dominated by Ln. mesenteroides subspecies cremoris. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides dominated in two of

  8. Effect of Preservative on the Shelf Life of Yoghurt Produced from Soya Beans Milk

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    Uduak G. AKPAN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrated on the effects of preservatives on shelf life of yoghurt produced from Soya beans milk. The yoghurt was produced by heating Soya beans milk slurry, cooled and incubated with starter culture. After the required yoghurt has been formed, sugar, flavour and preservatives were added. Study of the effect of preservatives revealed that Sodium benzoate preservative used at 20mg/ml give the best (optimum preservation on both shelf and refrigeration storage for 15 and 21 days respectively. This is because the inhibitive ability of Sodium benzoate at lower temperature is higher than that of Potassium metabisulphate preservative. The study also revealed that 40mg/ml concentration of the combined preservatives gives the best (optimum concentration level for both shelf and refrigeration storage with pH values of 3.92 and 4.01 respectively after 14 days fermentation. The preservatives concentration added are within the threshold values specified by Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON and National Agency for Food Administration and Control (NAFDAC.

  9. Evaluation of Fermented Sausages Manufactured with Reduced-fat and Functional Starter Cultures on Physicochemical, Functional and Flavor Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Joo; Park, Sung Yong; Lee, Hong Cheol; Yoo, Seung Seok; Oh, Se Jong; Kim, Hyeong Sang; Chin, Koo Bok

    2014-01-01

    Fermented foods with probiotics having functional properties may provide beneficial effects on health. These effects are varied, depending on the type of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Different probiotic LAB might have different functional properties. Thus, this study was performed to evaluate the quality of fermented sausages manufactured with functional starter cultures (Lactobacillus plantarum 115 and 167, and Pediococcus damnosus L12) and different fat levels, and to determine the optimum condition for the manufacture of these products. Medium-fat (~15%) fermented sausages reduced the drying time and cholesterol contents, as compared to regular-fat counterparts. In proximate analysis, the contents of moisture and protein of regular-fat products were lower than medium-fat with reduced fat content. The regular-fat products also had a lighter color and less redness, due to reduced fat content. Approximately 35 volatile compounds were identified in functional fermented sausages, and hexanal, trans-caryophyllene, and tetradecanal were the major volatile compounds. Selected mixed starter culture showed the potential possibility of replacing the commercial starter culture (LK30 plus) in flavor profiles. However, medium-fat fermented sausage containing selected mixed starter culture tended to be less acceptable than their high-fat counterparts, due to excess dry ring developed in the surface. These results indicate that the use of combinations of L. plantarum 115 and 167, and P. damnosus L12 as a starter culture, will prove useful for manufacturing the fermented sausage.

  10. Growth and activity of Bulgarian yogurt starter culture in iron-fortified milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simova, Emilina; Ivanov, Galin; Simov, Zhelyazko

    2008-10-01

    Bulgarian yogurts were manufactured and fortified with 8, 15 and 27 mg of iron kg(-1) of yogurt. The growth and acidifying activity of the starter culture bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus 13a and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11 were monitored during milk fermentation and over 15 days of yogurt storage at 4 degrees C. Fortifying milk with iron did not affect significantly the growth of the starter culture during manufacture and storage of yogurt. Counts of yogurt bacteria at the end of fermentation of iron-fortified milks were between 2.1 x 10(10) and 4.6 x 10(10) CFU ml(-1), which were not significantly different from numbers in unfortified yogurts. In all batches of yogurt, the viable cell counts of S. thermophilus 13a were approximately three times higher than those of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11. Greater decrease in viable cell count over 15 days of storage was observed for S. thermophilus 13a compared to L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11. Intensive accumulation of lactic acid was observed during incubation of milk and all batches reached pH 4.5 +/- 0.1 after 3.0 h. At the end of fermentation process, lactic acid concentrations in iron-fortified yogurts were between 6.9 +/- 0.4 and 7.3 +/- 0.5 g l(-1). The acidifying activity of starter culture bacteria in the control and iron-fortified milks was similar. There was no increase in oxidized, metallic and bitter off-flavors in iron-fortified yogurts compared to the control. Iron-fortified yogurts did not differ significantly in their sensorial, chemical and microbiological characteristics with unfortified yogurt, suggesting that yogurt is a suitable vehicle for iron fortification and that the ferrous lactate is an appropriate iron source for yogurt fortification.

  11. Coculture-inducible bacteriocin biosynthesis of different probiotic strains by dairy starter culture Lactococcus lactis

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    Blaženka Kos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by probiotic strains effectively contribute to colonization ability of probiotic strains and facilitate their establishment in the competitive gut environment and also protect the gut from gastrointestinal pathogens. Moreover, bacteriocins have received considerable attention due to their potential application as biopreservatives, especially in dairy industry. Hence, the objective of this research was to investigate antimicrobial activity of probiotic strains Lactobacillus helveticus M92, Lactobacillus plantarum L4 and Enterococcus faecium L3, with special focus on their bacteriocinogenic activity directed towards representatives of the same or related bacterial species, and towards distant microorganisms including potential food contaminants or causative agents of gut infections. In order to induce bacteriocin production, probiotic cells were cocultivated with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LMG 9450, one of the most important starter cultures in cheese production. The presence of bacteriocin coding genes was investigated by PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers for helveticin and was confirmed for probiotic strain L. helveticus M92. All examined probiotic strains have shown bacteriocinogenic activity against Staphylococcus aureus 3048, Staphylococcus aureus K-144, Escherichia coli 3014, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium FP1, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus TM2, which is an important functional treat of probiotic strains significant in competitive exclusion mechanism which provides selective advantage of probiotic strains against undesirable microorganisms in gastrointestinal tract of the host. According to obtained results, living cells of starter culture Lc. lactis subsp. lactis LMG 9450 induced bacteriocin production by examined probiotic strains but starter culture itself was not sensitive to bacteriocin activity.

  12. Indigenous strains of Lactobacillus isolated from the Istrian cheese as potential starter cultures

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    Nataša Hulak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Istrian ewe’s milk cheese is an autochthonous product that is manufactured for generations on small family farms in the Croatian peninsula Istria. Traditional Istrian cheese is made from unpasteurized ewe’s milk, without the addition of starter cultures. Consequently, the specific flavour and texture of the Istrian cheese is owed to metabolic processes of indigenous microflora of which Lactobacillus species play pivotal role. Characterisation and selection of indigenous lactobacilli may result in the potential use of selected strains as starter, bioprotective or even probiotic cultures. This study focuses on potential use of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei isolated from traditional Istrian cheese as starter cultures, by using methods that determine their proteolytic, lipolytic, antimicrobial and haemolytic potential, as well as their ability of acidification, autoaggregation and survival in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Our results indicated that from 12 representative strains most revealed a low or moderate proteolytic activity as well as absence of lipolytic and haemolytic activities. From 12 strains, 5 of them showed a medium to strong acidification ability and lowered the pH of milk below 5.00 after 24 hours of incubation. Furthermore, almost all isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against Serratia marcescens, and lowest number of isolates showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria innocua. The studied Lactobacillus strains revealed high survival rate in a simulated oral cavity and duodenum conditions, while the survival ability in a simulated gastric conditions was much lower. Ability to aggregate was low for all tested strains, after 3 hours and after 5 hours of incubation.

  13. Influence of starter culture on total free aminoacids concentration during ripening of Krk cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana Radeljević; Nataša Mikulec; Neven Antunac; Zvonimir Prpić; Mirjana Maletić; Jasmina Havranek

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of microbial (commercial starter) culture on concentration of total free amino groups (amino acids) in cheeses in different ripening stages. Free amino groups were determined by reaction with ninhydrin with cadmium (Cd) in the water soluble cheese extract, and were expressed as the concentration of leucine in cheese dry matter. Changes in concentration of total free amino acids during cheese ripening (0th, 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th day) we...

  14. Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir

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    Flávia Daiana Montanuci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial viability during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis were more pronounced in the formulations fermented with grains than those fermented with the starter culture. The addition of inulin did not influence acidity or viability of lactic acid bacteria, but in general, its effect on the survival of acetic acid bacteria, Lactococcus and yeasts, firmness, and syneresis depended on the type of milk and starter culture used. Generally, the yeast, acetic acid bacteria, and Leuconostoc counts increased or remained unchanged, while the total population of lactic acid bacteria and Lactococcus were either reduced by 1 to 2 logs or remained unchanged during storage.

  15. Utilization of indigenously isolated single strain starter cultures for the production of sourdough bread

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    Muhammad Saeed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sourdoughs were prepared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (T0 and indigenously isolated starter cultures i.e Lactobacillus brevis (T1, Lactobacillus fermentum (T2 and Lactobacillus plantarum (T3. Breads were prepared from all sourdoughs samples in triplicate and analyzed for pH, Total Titratable Acidity (TTA, loaf volume, microbial characteristics (total plate count and fungal count and sensory profile (internal and external in triplicate. The breads prepared from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (T0 exhibited the highest pH with the lowest TTA while T1 showed the lowest pH with the highest TTA. The T0 breads got the highest values for loaf volume followed by T1. The breads produced with the addition of hetero-fermentative starter cultures (T1 and T2 showed resistance against the growth of the contaminating microorganisms. In the sensory evaluation, the breads produced with T1 ranked the best for color (crust and crumb, taste, aroma, texture and overall acceptability by the panelists. 

  16. Caciotta della Garfagnana cheese: selection and evaluation of autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures

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    Domenico Cerri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and select, with respect to acidification and proteolytic activities, the autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB present in milk and Caciotta della Garfagnana, a cheese produced either with raw or thermised cow’s milk in small dairies and family plants of Garfagnana (Tuscany, to obtain LAB strains with attributes suitable to be employed as starter cultures in this type of cheese, particularly when thermised milk is used to control spoilage microflora. Samples of raw milk, curd and cheese were collected from three representative farmers of the production area and used to isolate autochthonous LAB. Phenotypic and genotypic (species-specific PCR assay identification of isolated LAB was done. Twenty-eight strains of LAB isolated from milk, curd and cheese were screened for acidifying and proteolytic activities. LAB strains with the better attributes were used as mesophilic starter cultures in technological trials: experimental cheeses manufactured with the addition of autochthonous LAB and control cheeses were compared for LAB and pH evolution. Experimental cheeses presented a significant increase in the mesophilic lactic acid microflora up to 14 days of ripening and significantly lower pH values up to seven days of ripening. The use of wild selected mesophilic lactic acid bacteria, together with thermisation of milk, for the Caciotta della Garfagnana looks very promising and could help to both standardise the production and improve quality and traditional characteristics of this type of cheese.

  17. Caciotta della Garfagnana cheese: selection and evaluation of autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures

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    Barbara Turchi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available he aim of this study was to isolate, identify and select, with respect to acidification and proteolytic activities, the autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB present in milk and Caciotta della Garfagnana, a cheese produced either with raw or thermised cow’s milk in small dairies and family plants of Garfagnana (Tuscany, to obtain LAB strains with attributes suitable to be employed as starter cultures in this type of cheese, particularly when thermised milk is used to control spoilage microflora. Samples of raw milk, curd and cheese were collected from three representative farmers of the production area and used to isolate autochthonous LAB. Phenotypic and genotypic (species-specific PCR assay identification of isolated LAB was done. Twenty-eight strains of LAB isolated from milk, curd and cheese were screened for acidifying and proteolytic activities. LAB strains with the better attributes were used as mesophilic starter cultures in technological trials: experimental cheeses manufactured with the addition of autochthonous LAB and control cheeses were compared for LAB and pH evolution. Experimental cheeses presented a significant increase in the mesophilic lactic acid microflora up to 14 days of ripening and significantly lower pH values up to seven days of ripening. The use of wild selected mesophilic lactic acid bacteria, together with thermisation of milk, for the Caciotta della Garfagnana looks very promising and could help to both standardise the production and improve quality and traditional characteristics of this type of cheese.

  18. Rapid detection of bacteriophages in starter culture using water-in-oil-in-water emulsion microdroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min S; Nitin, Nitin

    2014-10-01

    Bacteriophage contamination of starter culture and raw material poses a major problem in the fermentation industry. In this study, a rapid detection of lytic phage contamination in starter culture using water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion microdroplets was described. A model bacteria with varying concentrations of lytic phages were encapsulated in W/O/W emulsion microdroplets using a simple needle-in-tube setup. The detection of lytic phage contamination was accomplished in 1 h using the propidium iodide labeling of the phage-infected bacteria inside the W/O/W emulsion microdroplets. Using this approach, a detection limit of 10(2) PFU/mL of phages was achieved quantitatively, while 10(4) PFU/mL of phages could be detected qualitatively based on visual comparison of the fluorescence images. Given the simplicity and sensitivity of this approach, it is anticipated that this method can be adapted to any strains of bacteria and lytic phages that are commonly used for fermentation, and has potential for a rapid detection of lytic phage contamination in the fermentation industry.

  19. Patagonian red wines: selection of Lactobacillus plantarum isolates as potential starter cultures for malolactic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Ferrada, Bárbara Mercedes; Hollmann, Axel; Delfederico, Lucrecia; Valdés La Hens, Danay; Caballero, Adriana; Semorile, Liliana

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fifty-three Lactobacillus plantarum isolates obtained from a Patagonian red wine, molecularly identified and typified using RAPD analysis, in order to select starter cultures for malolactic fermentation (MLF). The results obtained suggest a considerable genetic diversity, taking into account that all L. plantarum isolates were obtained from one cellar and one vintage. Based on the capacity to tolerate a concentration of 14 % ethanol in MRS broth for 2 days, eight isolates were selected for the subsequent analysis. The incidence of various wine stress factors (ethanol, acid pH, lysozyme and sulfur dioxide) on isolates growth was studied. Besides, glucosidase and tannase activities were evaluated, and the presence of genes involved in the synthesis of biogenic amines was examined by PCR. A previously characterized indigenous Oenococcus oeni strain was included with comparative purposes. Differences in technologically relevant characteristics were observed among the eight L. plantarum selected isolates, revealing an isolate-dependent behavior. Detectable glucosidase and tannase activities were found in all isolates. The presence of genes encoding histidine and tyrosine descarboxylases and putrescine carbamoyltransferase was not detected. The ability of L. plantarum isolates to grow and consume L-malic acid in simulated laboratory-scale vinifications revealed that two of them could be considered as possible MLF starter cultures for Patagonian red wines. These isolates will be subjected to further analysis, for a final winery technological characterization.

  20. Lipolytic Changes in Fermented Sausages Produced with Turkey Meat: Effects of Starter Culture and Heat Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsloğlu, Betül; Çiçek, Ümran Ensoy; Kolsarici, Nuray; Candoğan, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of two different commercial starter culture mixes and processing methodologies (traditional and heat process) on the lipolytic changes of fermented sausages manufactured with turkey meat were evaluated during processing stages and storage. Free fatty acid (FFA) value increased with fermentation and during storage over 120 d in all fermented sausage groups produced with both processing methodologies (pfermented sausages were between 10.54-13.01% and 6.56-8.49%, respectively. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of traditionally processed fermented sausages were between 0.220-0.450 mg·kg(-1), and TBA values of heat processed fermented sausages were in a range of 0.405-0.795 mg·kg(-1). Oleic and linoleic acids were predominant fatty acids in all fermented sausages. It was seen that fermented sausage groups produced with starter culture had lower TBA and FFA values in comparison with the control groups, and heat application inhibited the lipase enzyme activity and had an improving effect on lipid oxidation. As a result of these effects, heat processed fermented sausages had lower FFA and higher TBA values than the traditionally processed groups.

  1. Viability and Acidification by Promising Yeasts Intended as Potential Starter Cultures for Rice-based Beverages

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    Antonio Bevilacqua

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, some innovative cereal-based beverages were designed using beneficial lactic acid bacteria; however, few data are available on the potential role of yeasts. The main topic of this research was to investigate the suitability of four promising yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, Kluyveromyces lactis, Saccharomyces pastorianus and Kazachstania exigua as potential starter cultures for rice-based beverages. This aim was achieved through some intermediate scientific aims, i.e., by assessing cell viability and acidification in different cereal substrates (malt extract, soft wheat, rice and kamut flours; thereafter by studying acidification and persistence in an organic rice drink during a prolonged storage at 25 and 4°C. Rice flour provided appropriate growth for all the strains. K. exigua and S. pastorianus experienced a relatively fast acidification within 24 h. After 40 d the yeasts showed similar cell counts (ca. 7 log cfu/mL and acidification (experienced a relatively fast acidification within 24 h. After 40 d the yeasts showed similar cell counts (ca. 7 log cfu/mL and acidification (ΔpH of ca. 2.7 at 25°C and ca. 1.2-1.4 at 4°C in the organic rice drink. The evaluation of viability and acidification by promising candidates should be a simple procedure to screen yeast strains for potential use as starter cultures to design new rice-fermented functional beverages.

  2. Starter cultures and cattle feed manipulation enhance conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, M S; Anand, S; Kalscheur, K F; Hassan, A N; Hippen, A R

    2013-04-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a fatty acid (FA) that provides several health benefits to humans. The feeding of fish oil-supplemented diets to dairy cows has been extensively studied as a means to improve the CLA content in milk. Several studies have also been conducted on the ability of many microorganisms to produce CLA by utilizing substrates containing linoleic acid. In the present study, the dietary manipulated milk was used in combination with the CLA-producing culture to manufacture Cheddar cheese. The two diets fed to cattle were control and treatment diets to obtain control and treatment milk, respectively. The treatment diet containing fish oil (0.75% of dry matter) was fed to 32 dairy cows grouped in a pen for 18 d to increase the total CLA content in milk. Treatment milk had a CLA content of 1.60 g/100g of FA compared with 0.58 g/100g of FA in control milk obtained by feeding the control diet. A 2 × 2 factorial design with 3 replicates was used to test the combined effect of the CLA-producing starter culture of Lactococcus lactis (CI4b) versus a commercial CLA nonproducing cheese starter as the control culture, and type of milk (control vs. treatment milk) on CLA content in Cheddar cheese. Chemical composition (moisture, salt, fat, and protein) was not affected by the type of culture used. However, the age of the cheese affected the sensory properties and microbiological counts in the different treatments. Ripening with the CI4b culture was found to be effective in further enhancing the CLA content. The CI4b cheeses made from control milk and treatment milk contained 1.09 and 2.41 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 1 mo of ripening, which increased to 1.44 and 2.61 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 6 mo of ripening, respectively. The use of treatment milk resulted in an increase in the CLA isomers (trans-7,cis-9+cis-9,trans-11, trans-9,cis-11+cis-10,trans-12, trans-10,cis-12, cis-9,cis-11, trans-11,cis-13, cis-11,cis-13, trans-11,trans

  3. Scale-up of thermally dried kefir production as starter culture for hard-type cheese making: an economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Athanasios A; Bekatorou, Argyro; Katechaki, Eleftheria; Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Papapostolou, Harris; Panas, Panayiotis; Sideris, Kostas; Kallis, Mihalis; Bosnea, Loulouda A; Koliopoulos, Dionisis; Sotiropoulos, Panayiotis; Panteli, Ageliki; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Kanellaki, Maria; Soupioni, Magdalini

    2010-03-01

    This paper concerns the effect of thermal-drying methodology on the investment cost for dried kefir cells production in order to be used as starter culture in cheese manufacturing. Kefir cells were produced at pilot plant scale using a 250-L bioreactor and whey as the main substrate. Kefir cells were subsequently dried in a thermal dryer at 38 degrees C and used as a starter culture in industrial-scale production of hard-type cheeses. The use of thermally dried kefir as starter culture accelerated ripening of cheeses by increasing both lipolysis and fermentation rate as indicated by the ethanol, lactic acid, and glycerol formation. Additionally, it reduced coliforms and enterobacteria as ripening proceeded. This constituted the basis of developing an economic study in which industrial-scale production of thermally dried kefir starter culture is discussed. The industrial design involved a three-step process using three bioreactors of 100, 3,000, and 30,000 L for a plant capacity of 300 kg of thermally dried kefir culture per day. The cost of investment was estimated at 238,000 euro, which is the 46% of the corresponding cost using freeze-drying methodology. Production cost was estimated at 4.9 euro/kg of kefir biomass for a 300-kg/day plant capacity, which is the same as with the corresponding cost of freeze-dried cells. However, the estimated added value is up to 10.8 x 10(9) euro within the European Union.

  4. Use of starter cultures isolated from native microbiota of artisanal sausage in the production of Italian sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Roberto Dalla Santa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most promising microorganisms for use as starter cultures are those isolated from the native microbiota of traditional fermented products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of lactic acid bacteria selected from the native microbiota of sausages produced by spontaneous fermentation as starter cultures for the production of sausage. Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum 503 and 341 have the potential for use as starter cultures in the manufacture of Italian sausage type. The population of lactic acid bacteria in sausages was >8 log CFU.g-1 during fermentation, which caused the pH to decrease to <4.5. This decrease in pH and the water activity of < 0.90 of sausages ensures the safety and preservation of this product. Sausages produced with these lactic cultures fulfill the requirements for microbiological quality and composition of Italian sausage type. Our results suggest the possibility of using these starter cultures for the production of sausages with peculiar characteristics that contribute to the identity of the product.

  5. Starter culture development for improving safety and quality of Domiati cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, Eman H E

    2009-08-01

    Eleven lactococci strains (sp. lactis and cremoris) were collected according to specific or selected characteristics for development of defined strain starter (DSS) to improve safety and nutritional quality of traditional and low salt Domiati cheese. Thirteen DSS; nisin-producing system or/and folate-producing strains were prepared. The behaviour of the strains in DSS was studied in milk and in two series of Domiati cheese; the first one made with 5% NaCl and salt tolerant strains, the second made with 3% NaCl and the control cheeses were made without starters. The population dynamics of strains and sensory evaluation of cheese corroborated the results in milk. All strains can grow well together and appeared to produce pleasant flavours, normal (typical) body and texture Domiati cheese. There was no apparent difference in cheese composition between cheeses in each series; the levels were within margins for composition of Domiati cheese. The levels of nisin (IU g(-1)) ranged from 204 to 324 IU g(-1) in 3-months' cheeses. Folate concentration increased in cheeses made with DSS cultures than control and the level ranged from 5.5 to 11.1 microg 100 g(-1) in cheeses after 3 months. All results revealed that selected DSS can be used for improving Domiati cheese.

  6. Fate of Lactococcus lactis starter cultures during late ripening in cheese models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggirello, Marianna; Cocolin, Luca; Dolci, Paola

    2016-10-01

    The presence of Lactococcus lactis, commonly employed as starter culture, was, recently, highlighted and investigated during late cheese ripening. Thus, the main goal of the present study was to assess the persistence and viability of this microorganism throughout manufacturing and ripening of model cheeses. Eight commercial starters, constituted of L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, were inoculated in pasteurized milk in order to manufacture miniature cheeses, ripened for six months. Samples were analysed at different steps (milk after inoculum, curd after cutting, curd after pressing and draining, cheese immediately after salting and cheese at 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days of ripening) and submitted to both culture-dependent (traditional plating on M17) and -independent analysis (reverse transcription-quantitative PCR). On the basis of direct RNA analysis, L. lactis populations were detected in all miniature cheeses up to the sixth month of ripening, confirming the presence of viable cells during the whole ripening process, including late stages. Noteworthy, L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR in cheese samples also when traditional plating failed to indicate its presence. This discrepancy could be explain with the fact that lactococci, during ripening process, enter in a stressed physiological state (viable not culturable, VNC), which might cause their inability to grow on synthetic medium despite their viability in cheese matrix. Preliminary results obtained by "resuscitation" assays corroborated this hypothesis and 2.5% glucose enrichment was effective to recover L. lactis cells in VNC state. The capability of L. lactis to persist in late ripening, and the presence of VNC cells which are known to shift their catabolism to peptides and amino acids consumption, suggests a possible technological role of this microorganism in cheese ripening with a possible impact on flavour formation.

  7. Effect of rate of addition of starter culture on textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese during ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Kanawjia, S. K.; Kumar, Suryamani; Khatkar, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    The effect of rate of addition of starter culture on textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese was investigated during ripening period up to two months. The textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese in terms of hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness were analyzed by using textural profile analyzer. The maximum hardness was found with cheese made using 1% culture, while the minimum was found with 2% culture. The cohesiveness and springiness...

  8. Utilization of Lactobacillus fermentum andSaccharomyces cerevisiae as starter cultures in the production of ‘dolo'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glover, R.L.K.; Sawadogo-Lingani, H.; Diawara, B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective:  The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of representative strains ofpredominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast as starter cultures in the production of dolo (a type of sorghum beer) of comparable consistency and organoleptic quality to the commercial product......H, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. Dolo produced from starter combinations of one strain of L. fermentum and both S....... cerevisiae strains had taste and aroma that did not differ significantly from the commercial product, while single isolate combinations gave better mouth feel. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of representative strains ofpredominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast as starter...

  9. A high-throughput cheese manufacturing model for effective cheese starter culture screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, H; Kruijswijk, Z; Molenaar, D; Kleerebezem, M; van Hylckama Vlieg, J E T

    2009-12-01

    Cheese making is a process in which enzymatic coagulation of milk is followed by protein separation, carbohydrate removal, and an extended bacterial fermentation. The number of variables in this complex process that influence cheese quality is so large that the developments of new manufacturing protocols are cumbersome. To reduce screening costs, several models have been developed to miniaturize the cheese manufacturing process. However, these models are not able to accommodate the throughputs required for systematic screening programs. Here, we describe a protocol that allows the parallel manufacturing of approximately 600 cheeses in individual cheese vats each with individual process specifications. Protocols for the production of miniaturized Gouda- and Cheddar-type cheeses have been developed. Starting with as little as 1.7 mL of milk, miniature cheeses of about 170 mg can be produced and they closely resemble conventionally produced cheese in terms of acidification profiles, moisture and salt contents, proteolysis, flavor profiles, and microstructure. Flavor profiling of miniature cheeses manufactured with and without mixed-strain adjunct starter cultures allowed the distinguishing of the different cheeses. Moreover, single-strain adjunct starter cultures engineered to overexpress important flavor-related enzymes revealed effects similar to those described in industrial cheese. Benchmarking against industrial cheese produced from the same raw materials established a good correlation between their proteolytic degradation products and their flavor profiles. These miniature cheeses, referred to as microcheeses, open new possibilities to study many aspects of cheese production, which will not only accelerate product development but also allow a more systematic approach to investigate the complex biochemistry and microbiology of cheese making.

  10. Benzoic Acid Production with Respect to Starter Culture and Incubation Temperature during Yogurt Fermentation using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Jeon, Hye-Lin; Eom, Su Jin; Yoo, Mi-Young; Lim, Sang-Dong; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Benzoic acid is occasionally used as a raw material supplement in food products and is sometimes generated during the fermentation process. In this study, the production of naturally occurring yogurt preservatives was investigated for various starter cultures and incubation temperatures, and considered food regulations. Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve were used as yogurt starter cultures in commercial starters. Among these strains, L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei showed the highest production of benzoic acid. Therefore, the use of L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, S. thermophilus, and different incubation temperatures were examined to optimize benzoic acid production. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design was performed for various incubation temperatures (35-44℃) and starter culture inoculum ratios (0-0.04%) in a commercial range of dairy fermentation processes. The optimum conditions were 0.04% L. rhamnosus, 0.01% L. paracasei, 0.02% S. thermophilus, and 38.12℃, and the predicted and estimated concentrations of benzoic acid were 13.31 and 13.94 mg/kg, respectively. These conditions maximized naturally occurring benzoic acid production during the yogurt fermentation process, and the observed production levels satisfied regulatory guidelines for benzoic acid in dairy products.

  11. Benzoic Acid Production with Respect to Starter Culture and Incubation Temperature during Yogurt Fermentation using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Mi-Young; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Benzoic acid is occasionally used as a raw material supplement in food products and is sometimes generated during the fermentation process. In this study, the production of naturally occurring yogurt preservatives was investigated for various starter cultures and incubation temperatures, and considered food regulations. Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve were used as yogurt starter cultures in commercial starters. Among these strains, L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei showed the highest production of benzoic acid. Therefore, the use of L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, S. thermophilus, and different incubation temperatures were examined to optimize benzoic acid production. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design was performed for various incubation temperatures (35-44℃) and starter culture inoculum ratios (0-0.04%) in a commercial range of dairy fermentation processes. The optimum conditions were 0.04% L. rhamnosus, 0.01% L. paracasei, 0.02% S. thermophilus, and 38.12℃, and the predicted and estimated concentrations of benzoic acid were 13.31 and 13.94 mg/kg, respectively. These conditions maximized naturally occurring benzoic acid production during the yogurt fermentation process, and the observed production levels satisfied regulatory guidelines for benzoic acid in dairy products. PMID:27433115

  12. Microbial diversity of a Camembert-type cheese using freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture as starter culture by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Mei

    Full Text Available The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through ripening. In further studies, kefir grains were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM methods. A total of 147 bacteria and 129 yeasts were obtained from the cheese during ripening. Lactobacillus paracasei represents the most commonly identified lactic acid bacteria isolates, with 59 of a total of 147 isolates, followed by Lactococcus lactis (29 isolates. Meanwhile, Kazachstania servazzii (51 isolates represented the mainly identified yeast isolate, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (40 isolates. However, some lactic acid bacteria detected by sequence analysis of DGGE bands were not recovered by plating. The yeast S. cerevisiae and K. servazzii are described for the first time with kefir starter culture. SEM showed that the microbiota were dominated by a variety of lactobacilli (long and curved cells growing in close association with a few yeasts in the inner portion of the grain and the short lactobacilli were observed along with yeast cells on the exterior portion. Results indicated that conventional culture method and PCR-DGGE should be combined to describe in maximal detail the microbiological composition in the cheese during ripening. The data could help in the selection of appropriate commercial starters for Camembert-type cheese.

  13. Microbial diversity of a Camembert-type cheese using freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture as starter culture by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jun; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

    2014-01-01

    The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through ripening. In further studies, kefir grains were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. A total of 147 bacteria and 129 yeasts were obtained from the cheese during ripening. Lactobacillus paracasei represents the most commonly identified lactic acid bacteria isolates, with 59 of a total of 147 isolates, followed by Lactococcus lactis (29 isolates). Meanwhile, Kazachstania servazzii (51 isolates) represented the mainly identified yeast isolate, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (40 isolates). However, some lactic acid bacteria detected by sequence analysis of DGGE bands were not recovered by plating. The yeast S. cerevisiae and K. servazzii are described for the first time with kefir starter culture. SEM showed that the microbiota were dominated by a variety of lactobacilli (long and curved) cells growing in close association with a few yeasts in the inner portion of the grain and the short lactobacilli were observed along with yeast cells on the exterior portion. Results indicated that conventional culture method and PCR-DGGE should be combined to describe in maximal detail the microbiological composition in the cheese during ripening. The data could help in the selection of appropriate commercial starters for Camembert-type cheese.

  14. BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA AND PREPARATION OF CAMEL MILK CHEESE BY USING STARTER CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ahmed and R. Kanwal

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from camel milk by culturing the milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub-culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram’s staining and identified by different biochemical tests. Camel milk contained lactic acid producing bacteria like Streptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus. L. acidophilus grew more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth was supported by camel milk. Ability of each strain was tested to convert lactose of milk into lactic acid. It was observed that 66% lactose was converted by S. lactis 20, whereas S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23 converted 56 and 74% lactose into lactic acid, respectively. Effect of freeze-drying was also recorded and the results showed that in all cases there was a slight decrease in the cell count before and after the freeze-drying. The decrease was approximately 0.47, 0.078 and 0.86% for S. lactis 20, S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23, respectively. Starter culture was prepared from strains isolated from camel milk. Camel and buffalo milk cheese was prepared by using starter culture. The strains isolated from camel milk were best for acid production and coagulated the milk in less time. It is concluded that cheese can be prepared successfully from camel milk and better results can be obtained by coagulating milk with starter culture.

  15. Bacterial species associated with traditional starter cultures used for fermented bamboo shoot production in Manipur state of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaram, K; Romi, W; Singh, Th Anand; Devi, A Ranjita; Devi, S Soni

    2010-09-30

    Soidon is a non-salted acidic fermented food prepared from the succulent bamboo shoot tip of Schizostachyum capitatum Munro by using a traditional liquid starter called "soidon mahi" in Manipur state of India. In this study, 163 bacterial isolates associated with this starter samples were identified and their population distribution was investigated by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), 16S rDNA sequencing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This acidic starter (pH 4.5+/-0.15) was dominated by a characteristic association of Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) together. The population distribution of dominant species were Bacillus subtilis 29.3%, Bacillus cereus 35.7%, Bacillus pumilus 2.6%, Lactobacillus brevis 9.6%, Lactobacillus plantarum 5.1%, Carnobacterium sp. 11.9%, Enterococcus faecium 1.2% and Pseudomonas fluorescens 4.6%. Alarming population load (10(6)-10(7)cfu/ml) of B. cereus in 87% of starter samples studied should raise concern regarding biosafety of soidon consumption. PCR amplification of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and ITS-RFLP profiles revealed a high diversity with eight subgroups in B. subtilis, five subgroups in B. cereus and three subgroups in L. brevis isolates. The most abundant B. subtilis subgroup IB.1 distributed in most of the samples showed very less clonal variability during RAPD analysis. The molecular methods used in this study identified the dominant strains of Bacillus and LAB distributed in most of the starter samples. These dominant strains of B. subtilis, L. brevis and L. plantarum would allow for developing a defined starter culture for the production of quality soidon.

  16. Screening and Characterization of Potential Bacillus Starter Cultures for Fermenting Low-Salt Soybean Paste (Doenjang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hye Hee; Jung, Ji Young; Chun, Byung-Hee; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Baek, Seong Yeol; Moon, Ji Young; Yeo, Soo-Hwan; Jeon, Che Ok

    2016-04-28

    The bacterial strains were screened as potential starters for fermenting low-salt doenjang (a Korean traditional fermented soybean paste) using Korean doenjang based on proteolytic and antipathogenic activities under 6.5-7.5% NaCl conditions. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that they all belonged to the genus Bacillus. Proteolytic and antipathogenic activities against Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Aspergillus flavus, as well as fibrinolytic, amylase, and cellulase activities of the 10 strains were quantitatively evaluated. Of these, strains D2-2, JJ-D34, and D12-5 were selected, based on their activities. The functional, phenotypic, and safety-related characteristics of these three strains were additionally investigated and strains D2-2 and D12-5, which lacked antibiotic resistance, were finally selected. Strains D2-2 and D12-5 produced poly-γ-glutamic acid and showed various enzyme activities, including α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase. Growth properties of strains D2-2 and D12-5 included wide temperature and pH ranges, growth in up to 16% NaCl, and weak anaerobic growth, suggesting that they facilitate low-salt doenjang fermentation. Strains D2-2 and D12-5 were not hemolytic, carried no toxin genes, and did not produce biogenic amines. These results suggest that strains D2-2 and D12-5 can serve as appropriate starter cultures for fermenting low-salt doenjang with high quality and safety.

  17. Evaluation of a potential starter culture for enhance quality of coffee fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Vilela, Danielle Marques; de Souza Cordeiro, Cecília; Duarte, Whasley Ferreira; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-02-01

    The coffee fermentation is characterized by the presence of different microorganisms belonging to the groups of bacteria, fungi and yeast. The objectives of this work were to select pectinolytic microorganisms isolated from coffee fermentations and evaluate their performance on coffee pulp culture medium. The yeasts and bacteria isolates were evaluated for their activity of polygalacturonase (PG), pectin lyase (PL) and pectin methylesterase (PME) and metabolites production. Among 127 yeasts isolates and 189 bacterial isolates, 15 were pre-selected based on their ability to produce PL and organic compounds. These isolates were strains identified as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Candida parapsilosis, Pichia caribbica, Pichia guilliermondii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When cultivated in Coffee peel and pulp media in single culture or two by two mixed inocula, different behavior concerning to PME, PL and PG were found. The two principal components PC1 and PC2 accounted for 45.27 and 32.02 % of the total variance. UFLA CN727 and UFLA CN731 strains were grouped in the positive part of PC1 being characterized by 1,2-propanediol, hexanoic acid, decanoic acid, nonanoic acid and ethyl acetate. The UFLA CN448 and UFLA CN724 strains were grouped in the negative part of PC1 and were mainly characterized by guaiacol, butyric acid and citronellol. S. cerevisiae UFLACN727, P. guilliermondii UFLACN731 and C. parapsilosis UFLACN448 isolates are promising candidates to be tested in future studies as coffee starter cultures.

  18. Indigenous Starter Cultures to Improve Quality of Artisanal Dry Fermented Sausages from Chaco (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavecino Prpich, Noelia Z; Castro, Marcela P; Cayré, María E; Garro, Oscar A; Vignolo, Graciela M

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coagulase negative cocci (CNC) were isolated from artisanal dry sausages sampled from the northeastern region of Chaco, Argentina. In order to evaluate their performance in situ and considering technological features of the isolated strains, two mixed selected autochthonous starter cultures (SAS) were designed: (i) SAS-1 (Lactobacillus sakei 487 + Staphylococcus vitulinus C2) and (ii) SAS-2 (L. sakei 442 + S. xylosus C8). Cultures were introduced into dry sausage manufacturing process at a local small-scale facility. Microbiological and physicochemical parameters were monitored throughout fermentation and ripening periods, while sensory attributes of the final products were evaluated by a trained panel. Lactic acid bacteria revealed their ability to colonize and adapt properly to the meat matrix, inhibiting the growth of spontaneous microflora and enhancing safety and hygienic profile of the products. Both SAS showed a beneficial effect on lipid oxidation and texture of the final products. Staphylococcus vitulinus C2, from SAS-1, promoted a better redness of the final product. Sensory profile revealed that SAS addition preserved typical sensory attributes. Introduction of these cultures could provide an additional tool to standardize manufacturing processes aiming to enhance safety and quality while keeping typical sensory attributes of regional dry fermented sausages.

  19. Indigenous Starter Cultures to Improve Quality of Artisanal Dry Fermented Sausages from Chaco (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Z. Palavecino Prpich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB and coagulase negative cocci (CNC were isolated from artisanal dry sausages sampled from the northeastern region of Chaco, Argentina. In order to evaluate their performance in situ and considering technological features of the isolated strains, two mixed selected autochthonous starter cultures (SAS were designed: (i SAS-1 (Lactobacillus sakei 487 + Staphylococcus vitulinus C2 and (ii SAS-2 (L. sakei 442 + S. xylosus C8. Cultures were introduced into dry sausage manufacturing process at a local small-scale facility. Microbiological and physicochemical parameters were monitored throughout fermentation and ripening periods, while sensory attributes of the final products were evaluated by a trained panel. Lactic acid bacteria revealed their ability to colonize and adapt properly to the meat matrix, inhibiting the growth of spontaneous microflora and enhancing safety and hygienic profile of the products. Both SAS showed a beneficial effect on lipid oxidation and texture of the final products. Staphylococcus vitulinus C2, from SAS-1, promoted a better redness of the final product. Sensory profile revealed that SAS addition preserved typical sensory attributes. Introduction of these cultures could provide an additional tool to standardize manufacturing processes aiming to enhance safety and quality while keeping typical sensory attributes of regional dry fermented sausages.

  20. Effects of pure starter cultures on physico-chemical and sensory quality of dry fermented Chinese-style sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Krishna P; Zhang, Chunhui; Xia, Wen Shui

    2010-03-01

    Dry fermented Chinese-style sausages prepared in laboratory inoculating with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei-1.001, Pediococcus pentosaceus-ATCC 33316, Staphylococcus xylosus-12 and without starter culture randomly sampled at 0, 3, 10, and 24 days of ripening were analyzed for physico-chemical and sensory qualities. A significant (psausage during ripening was observed, whereas other major chemical parameters remained unchanged. The microbial fermentation resulted in decreased pH and nitrite but increased non protein nitrogen and total volatile basic nitrogen in the products. Starter cultures except P. Pentosaceous-ATCC 33316, used in the sausage failed to suppress rancidity in ripened product as indicated by a significant (psausages decreased with ripening time, meanwhile the redness (a) increased significantly (psausages inoculated with cultures L. casei subsp. casei-1.001 and S. xylosus-12. The texture profile of sausages was almost similar except for P. Pentosaceous-ATCC 33316, which showed significantly (psausage of high quality.

  1. Genome Sequences of Two Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides Strains Isolated from Danish Dairy Starter Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T.B.; Kot, Witold; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg;

    2014-01-01

    The lactic acid bacterium Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides can be found in mesophilic cheese starters, where it produces aromatic compounds from, e.g., citrate. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two L. pseudomesenteroides strains isolated from traditional Danish cheese starters....

  2. Genome Sequences of Two Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides Strains Isolated from Danish Dairy Starter Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, W. P.; Hansen, L. H.; Sørensen, S. J.; Broadbent, J. R.; Vogensen, F. K.; Ardö, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The lactic acid bacterium Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides can be found in mesophilic cheese starters, where it produces aromatic compounds from, e.g., citrate. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two L. pseudomesenteroides strains isolated from traditional Danish cheese starters. PMID:24903866

  3. Development of defined mixed-culture fungal fermentation starter granulate for controlled production of rice wine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2005-01-01

    As a first step in the development of defined fungal starter granules for controlled winemaking from purple glutinous rice, the interaction of moulds and yeasts isolated from Vietnamese rice wine starters and the effect of some representative oriental herbs on the growth of moulds and yeasts were ex

  4. Genome sequences of two Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides strains isolated from Danish dairy starter cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bæk; Kot, Witold Piotr; Hansen, L.H.;

    2014-01-01

    The lactic acid bacterium Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides can be found in mesophilic cheese starters, where it produces aromatic compounds from, e.g., citrate. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two L. pseudomesenteroides strains isolated from traditional Danish cheese starters....

  5. Strain-specific differentiation of lactococci in mixed starter culture populations using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-derived probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, K; Batt, C A

    1997-07-01

    A hydrophobic grid membrane filtration (HGMF) colony hybridization assay was developed that allows strain-specific differentiation of defined bacterial populations. The randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting technique was used to identify potential signature nucleic acid sequences unique to each member of a commercial cheese starter culture blend. The blend consisted of two closely related Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains, 160 and 331, and one L. lactis subsp. lactis strain, 210. Three RAPD primers (OPX 1, OPX 12, and OPX 15) generated a total of 32 products from these isolates, 20 of which were potential strain-specific markers. Southern hybridization analyses revealed, that the RAPD-generated signature sequences OPX15-0.95 and a 0.36-kb HaeIII fragment of OPX1-1.0b were specific for strains 331 and 210, respectively, within the context of the test starter culture blend. These strain-specific probes were used in a HGMF colony hybridization assay. Colony lysis, hybridization, and nonradioactive detection parameters were optimized to allow specific differentiation and quantitation of the target strains in the mixed starter culture population. When the 210 and 331 probes were tested at their optimal hybridization temperatures against single cultures, they detected 100% of the target strain CFUs, without cross-reactivity to the other strains. The probes for strains 210 and 331 also successfully detected their targets in blended cultures even with a high background of the other two strains.

  6. Growth inhibition of selected microorganisms by an association of dairy starter cultures and probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beniamino T. Cenci-Goga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several growth curves for selected pathogens and hygiene indicators alone and vs selected dairy starter cultures (LAB and commercial probiotics have been performed. All strains for LAB and commercial probiotics were inoculated as pure cultures into skim milk to get an initial cocci:bacilli:enterocci ratio of 2:1:1 and a concentration of approximately 107 cfu mL–1 until challenge vs selected pathogens and hygiene indicators. Selected pathogens came from the collection of the Laboratorio di Ispezione degli Alimenti di O.A. or were reference strains (Escherichia coli, CSH26 K12, Staphylococcus aureus 27R, Salmonella Derby 27, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525, Listeria innocua ATCC 33090. Each strain was inoculated into skim milk to get an initial concentration of approximately 106 cfu mL–1. Growth curves in skim milk for the following challenges were studied: i sterility control; ii association LAB; iii association of LAB vs each selected pathogen or hygiene indicator; iv selected pathogen or hygiene indicator alone. The challenges were carried out in BHI broth and in skim milk at 37°C. The highest reduction was observed in milk but in general the association of LAB and the probiotic was able to limit the growth of pathogens and hygiene indicators.

  7. Antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity of autochthonous starter cultures as safety parameters for fresh cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Bučan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity, as food safety parameters important for application of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB, that previously satisfied technological criteria for functional starter cultures in fresh cheese production were examined. Soluble whole cell protein patterns of autochthonous LAB strains from fresh cheese, obtained by SDS-PAGE, revealed the presence of two predominant strains, which were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum A8 and Enterococcus faecium A7. These strains were not resistant and shown susceptibility to antibiotics: ampicillin, bacitracin, penicillin G, azithromycin, chloramphenicol, clarithromycin, clindamycin, spiramycin, tetracycline, streptomycin, neomycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, rifampicin and novobiocin. Lb. fermentum A8 strain displayed phenotypic resistance to vancomycin, but this resistance is intrinsic, not transferable and it is acceptable from the safety aspect. The capacity of Lb. fermentum A8 and Ec. faecium A7 to inhibit growth of test-microorganisms Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 11911, Escherichia coli 3014, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium FP1 and Staphylococcus aureus 3048, was also analysed. According to obtained results, Lb. fermentum A8 and Ec. faecium A7 are safe from the aspect of spreading antibiotic resistance and could be useful as bioprotective cultures that inhibit common bacterial food contaminants, including L. monocytogenes.

  8. Influence of starter culture on total free aminoacids concentration during ripening of Krk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Radeljević

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of microbial (commercial starter culture on concentration of total free amino groups (amino acids in cheeses in different ripening stages. Free amino groups were determined by reaction with ninhydrin with cadmium (Cd in the water soluble cheese extract, and were expressed as the concentration of leucine in cheese dry matter. Changes in concentration of total free amino acids during cheese ripening (0th, 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th day were monitored. In water soluble extracts of cheese, the presence of free NH2 groups in all ripening stages was detected, which means smaller peptides and amino acids, whose concentration significantly (P<0.01 increased during ripening. Cheeses produced with and without microbial culture resulted in statistically significant differences (P<0.01 in content amino acids free on the 90th and 120th day of ripening. Cd - ninhydrin method was found to be suitable for cheese ripening monitoring, as well as for determination of the differences in mature characteristics of cheeses, depending on the production process.

  9. Effect of selected starter cultures on physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics and biogenic amine content in Protected Geographical Indication Ciauscolo salami

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    David Ranucci

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the biogenic amine (BA content of Ciauscolo salami made with and without the use of a selected started culture. Two batches of salami were made following the guidelines of the Protected Geographical Indications: with and without adding a commercial starter culture made of Lactobacillus plantarum and Staphylococcus xylosus. Six samples of salami per batch were collected at different ripening times (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days for physical, chemical and microbiological analyses and for the determination of BA content. No differences were recorded for physical, chemical and microbiological analyses except for Staphylococcus spp. count at the time of casing (T0 and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN from 30 days (T2 to the end of the ripening time (60 days, T4. After 60 days of ripening, the use of selected starter culture significantly affected the amount of putrescine (195.15 vs 164.43 mg/100 g in salami without and with starters, respectively, cadaverine (96.95 vs 104.40 mg/100 g in salami without and with starters, respectively, histamine (81.94 vs 69.89 mg/100 g in salami without and with starters, respectively, and spermine (36.88 vs 33.57 mg/100 g in salami without and with starters, respectively. Despite significantly higher values of TVBN, the use of selected starter culture determined no significant effects on the BA content of the products.

  10. Effect of Selected Starter Cultures on Physical, Chemical and Microbiological Characteristics and Biogenic Amine Content in Protected Geographical Indication Ciauscolo Salami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranucci, David; Loschi, Anna Rita; Miraglia, Dino; Stocchi, Roberta; Branciari, Raffaella; Rea, Stefano

    2016-01-18

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the biogenic amine (BA) content of Ciauscolo salami made with and without the use of a selected started culture. Two batches of salami were made following the guidelines of the Protected Geographical Indications: with and without adding a commercial starter culture made of Lactobacillus plantarum and Staphylococcus xylosus. Six samples of salami per batch were collected at different ripening times (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days) for physical, chemical and microbiological analyses and for the determination of BA content. No differences were recorded for physical, chemical and microbiological analyses except for Staphylococcus spp. count at the time of casing (T0) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) from 30 days (T2) to the end of the ripening time (60 days, T4). After 60 days of ripening, the use of selected starter culture significantly affected the amount of putrescine (195.15 vs 164.43 mg/100 g in salami without and with starters, respectively), cadaverine (96.95 vs 104.40 mg/100 g in salami without and with starters, respectively), histamine (81.94 vs 69.89 mg/100 g in salami without and with starters, respectively), and spermine (36.88 vs 33.57 mg/100 g in salami without and with starters, respectively). Despite significantly higher values of TVBN, the use of selected starter culture determined no significant effects on the BA content of the products.

  11. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in liquid broth medium and during processing of fermented sausage using autochthonous starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragalaki, T; Bloukas, J G; Kotzekidou, P

    2013-11-01

    The antimicrobial effect of two autochthonous starter cultures of Lactobacillus sakei was evaluated in vitro (in liquid broth medium) and in situ assays. The inactivation of foodborne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes (serotype 4ab No 10) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43888 was investigated during the production of fermented sausage according to a typical Greek recipe using L. sakei strains as starter cultures. The inactivation kinetics were modeled using GInaFiT, a freeware tool to assess microbial survival curves. By the end of the ripening period, the inhibition of L. monocytogenes was significant in treatments with L. sakei 8416 and L. sakei 4413 compared to the control treatment. A 2.2-log reduction of the population of E. coli O157:H7 resulted from the autochthonous starter culture L. sakei 4413 during sausage processing. The use of the autochthonous starter cultures constitutes an additional improvement to the microbial safety by reducing foodborne pathogens.

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTHY VALUES OF YOGHURT BY FORTIFICATION WITH RUTUB DATE

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    Magdy M. Ismail

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As is well known, the date fruits are good sources of many nutrients. Also, yoghurt especially bio-yoghurt has a lot of nutritional and healthy benefits. The aim of this study was to combine the benefits of date and bio-yoghurt in one product which can be made by simple manner. Six treatments of yoghurt were made from cow's milk fortified with 10 and 15% rutub date and using classic or ABT-5 cultures. Changes in rheological, chemical, microbial and organoleptic properties of yoghurt were monitored during refrigerated storage (4°C of yoghurt for 15 d. Results showed that fortification with date accelerates the rates of fermentation and lowered coagulation time. For rheological analyses, curd tension, viscosity and water holding capacity values increased whereas curd syneresis values decreased in bio-yoghurt fortified with date. Redox potential values were lower in date yoghurt as compared with control. Acidity, carbohydrate, total solids, dietary fiber and ash contents of yoghurt supplemented with date were higher than those of control. Supplementation of date increased mineral contents (K, Ca, P, Mg, Na and Fe, total nitrogen, water soluble nitrogen, total phenols and total volatile fatty acids of yoghurt. The addition of date improved the viability of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. The bifidobacteria counts were sufficient to yield numbers of beneficial organisms that were higher than the accepted threshold (106cfu.g-1 for a probiotic effect. Also, date adding improved the body, texture and flavor of the yoghurt.

  13. Determination of The Effects of Different Amino Acids, Sodium Formate and Their Combinations on Some Growth Characteristics of Mixed and Single Cell Cultures of Yoghurt Bacteria

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    B. Kaptan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, different amino acids, sodium formate and their combinations were added into the milk for determining their stimulatory or inhibitory effects on some growth characteristics of mixed and single cell cultures of yoghurt bacteria. Among the added individual amino acids (each of them 100 ppm, cystein was the most stimulant agent for mixed and single cell cultures of the S. salivarius subsp. thermophilus for their acetaldehyde and volatile fatty acid contents. Histidine and glutamic acid were also stimulatory for mentioned parameters. But for the samples, inoculated with single cell culture of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, glutamic acid, cysteine and methionine were to be the most stimulatory for volatile fatty acid contents. Sodium formate added into the milk (500 ppm, as a growth factor aspecially for L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, showed more stimulant effect on the growth characteristics of this single culture of this bacteria. According to different compounds and culture groups added into the milk, statistically important (p<0.01 differences were determined among the investigated parameters.

  14. Volatiles and sensory evaluation of goat milk cheese Gokceada as affected by goat breeds (Gokceada and Turkish Saanen) and starter culture systems during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaloglu, A A; Tolu, C; Yasar, K; Sahingil, D

    2013-05-01

    The effect of goat breed and starter culture on volatile composition and sensory scores in goat milk cheese was studied during 90d of ripening. Milk from 2 goat breeds (Gokceada and Turkish Saanen) and different starter culture systems (no starter, mesophilic and thermophilic starters) were used in the manufacture of goat milk cheeses (called Gokceada goat cheese). Volatile composition was determined by a solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method. Sixty compounds including esters (13), carboxylic acids (7), aldehydes (6), ketones (8), alcohols (14), and miscellaneous compounds (12) were identified. Esters, alcohols, and carboxylic acids were the main classes of volatile components in the cheeses. Both qualitatively and quantitatively, the use of different starter cultures and goat breeds significantly influenced the volatile fraction of goat milk cheese. Decanoic, hexanoic, and octanoic (commonly named capric, caproic, and caprylic) acids were indicator compounds to distinguish the goat breeds. Principal component analysis grouped the cheeses based on the use of starter culture and goat breed. Starter-free cheeses were separately located on the plot and age-related changes were present in all samples. Sensory evaluation of 90-d-old cheeses showed that the cheeses from the Gokceada breed received higher odor, flavor, and quality scores than those from the Turkish Saanen breed, and cheeses made using mesophilic starters resulted in the most satisfactory scores for flavor and quality attributes. In conclusion, goat milk cheeses made using milk from Gokceada goats and mesophilic starter culture had the best quality in terms of volatile composition and sensory attributes.

  15. Application' and validation of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria starter cultures for controlled leek fermentations and their influence on the antioxidant properties of leek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, D; Bernaert, N; Anno, N; Van Droogenbroeck, B; De Loose, M; Van Bockstaele, E; De Vuyst, L

    2013-07-15

    Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) is one of Belgium's most important outdoor vegetables, mainly cultivated for its white shaft. Fermentation of leek offers opportunities in view of biomass valorization and product diversification. This study deals with the implementation and validation of starter cultures to perform controlled leek fermentations and to ensure a high quality of the end-products. Therefore, a thorough study of the fermentation microbiology and the influence of three starter culture strains (Lactobacillus plantarum IMDO 788, Lactobacillus sakei IMDO 1358, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides IMDO 1347) on the metabolite kinetics of leek fermentation and antioxidant properties of leek was performed. Overall, the application of lactic acid bacteria starter cultures resulted in a fast prevalence of the species involved, coupled to an accelerated acidification. Of the three starter cultures tested, the mixed starter culture of L. plantarum IMDO 788 and L. mesenteroides IMDO 1347 was most promising, as its application resulted in fermented leek of good microbiological quality and in a more extensive carbohydrate consumption, whereby diverse end-metabolites were produced. However, high residual fructose concentrations allowed yeast outgrowth, resulting in increased ethanol and glycerol concentrations, and indicated the lack of a prevailing strictly heterofermentative LAB species. The antioxidant capacity of fermented leek samples, as measured with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, increased when starter cultures were used, whereas with regard to 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, only leek fermented with L. sakei IMDO 1358 scored higher than spontaneously fermented leek. The total phenolic content was not influenced by the use of starter cultures, while the S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides content decreased strongly. A preliminary sensory analysis revealed that the spontaneously fermented leek and the one obtained

  16. Effect of Pasteurization Temperature, Starter Culture, and Incubation Temperature on the Physicochemical Properties, Yield, Rheology, and Sensory Characteristics of Spreadable Goat Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Florencia Frau; Graciela Font de Valdez; Nora Pece

    2014-01-01

    The local cheese factories currently use bovine commercial starter cultures, and the spreadable cheese process is not standardized. A detailed understanding of the effect of pasteurization temperature, starter culture, and incubation temperature must allow producers to optimize the process, increase cheese yield, and improve the quality of the final product. The main objective of the study was to describe the preparation method of spreadable goat cheese and investigate the effects of specific...

  17. Evaluation of Fermented Sausages Manufactured with Reduced-fat and Functional Starter Cultures on Physicochemical, Functional and Flavor Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Joo; Park,Sung Yong; Lee, Hong Cheol; Yoo, Seung Seok; Oh, Se Jong; Kim, Hyeong Sang; Chin, Koo Bok

    2014-01-01

    Fermented foods with probiotics having functional properties may provide beneficial effects on health. These effects are varied, depending on the type of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Different probiotic LAB might have different functional properties. Thus, this study was performed to evaluate the quality of fermented sausages manufactured with functional starter cultures (Lactobacillus plantarum 115 and 167, and Pediococcus damnosus L12) and different fat levels, and to determine the optimum c...

  18. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Mengue Feniman Moritz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination, upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus.

  19. EFFECT OF SELECTED DAIRY STARTER CULTURES ON MICROBIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF VENISON (Dama dama NITRITE-FREE DRY-CURED SAUSAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parmegiani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of the use of selected lactic acid bacteria starter culture of dairy origin in the production of nitrite-free low-acid fermented venison (Dama dama sausage (Salame di daino produced in a small-scale plant in Umbria (Italy, and their effect on microbiological, physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the products. Salame di daino was obtained with two different processes: with and without the addition of selected LAB starter cultures. Microbial counts of safety indicators were lower in salami made with the addition of starter cultures. Pathogens after the first week of ripening were only detected from salami made without the addition of starter cultures. Control salami were paler and harder, whereas those made with the addition of starter cultures slightly saltier, juicier and in general more acceptable. Selected dairy-origin starter (SDS cultures did prevent the growth of safety indicators, greatly reduced the rate of isolation of pathogens and increased the acceptability of full-ripened salami.

  20. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from infant faeces as potential probiotic starter cultures for fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Raquel; Jofré, Anna; Martín, Belén; Aymerich, Teresa; Garriga, Margarita

    2014-04-01

    A total of 109 lactic acid bacteria isolated from infant faeces were identified by partial 16S rRNA, cpn60 and/or pheS sequencing. Lactobacillus was the most prevalent genus, representing 48% of the isolates followed by Enterococcus (38%). Lactobacillus gasseri (21%) and Enterococcus faecalis (38%) were the main species detected. A further selection of potential probiotic starter cultures for fermented sausages focused on Lactobacillus as the most technologically relevant genus in this type of product. Lactobacilli strains were evaluated for their ability to grow in vitro in the processing conditions of fermented sausages and for their functional and safety properties, including antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens, survival from gastrointestinal tract conditions (acidity, bile and pancreatin), tyramine production, antibiotic susceptibility and aggregation capacity. The best strains according to the results obtained were Lactobacillus casei/paracasei CTC1677, L. casei/paracasei CTC1678, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, L. gasseri CTC1700, L. gasseri CTC1704, Lactobacillus fermentum CTC1693. Those strains were further assayed as starter cultures in model sausages. L. casei/paracasei CTC1677, L. casei/paracasei CTC1678 and L. rhamnosus CTC1679 were able to lead the fermentation and dominate (levels ca. 10(8) CFU/g) the endogenous lactic acid bacteria, confirming their suitability as probiotic starter cultures.

  1. Potential antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of autochthonous starter cultures and protease EPg222 in dry-fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Margarita; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Benito, María José; Martín, Alberto; Hernández, Alejandro; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2016-05-18

    This work studied the presence of nitrogen compounds with bioactive properties in Iberian pork sausages that were manufactured using different autochthonous starter cultures (Pediococcus acidilactici MS200 and Staphylococcus vitulus RS34) and protease EPg222. Nitrogen compounds were extracted and evaluated for their antimicrobial effect against spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, such as Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, and antiproliferative activity on the HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cell line. Dry-fermented sausages elaborated with starter cultures P200S34 and protease EPg222 generate extracts that cause inhibition of the growth of pathogens reaching 25% inhibition of Bacillus cereus, making this a promising tool for biocontrol in the meat industry. On the other hand, the inoculation of well-adapted starter cultures with high proteolytic activity also increased the antiproliferative activity of these extracts, around 45% inhibition at 72 h, mainly due to an increase in free amino acids, such as Lys and Pro, but also small peptides.

  2. Characterization of certain bacterial strains for potential use as starter or probiotic cultures in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo-Mera, A; Caro, I; Rodríguez-Aparicio, L B; Rúa, J; Ferrero, M A; García-Armesto, M R

    2011-08-01

    The present work was aimed at characterizing 12 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to obtain improved potential starter or probiotic cultures that could be used for making dairy products from ewe's milk and cow's milk. Eight strains with antimicrobial properties, isolated from ewe's milk and from cheese made from ewe's and/or cow's milk, were studied. They were identified as Enterococcus faecalis (five strains), Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (one strain of each species). Additionally, four strains were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection: Lactobacillus casei 393 (isolated from cheese), L. lactis subsp. lactis 11454 (origin nonspecified and a producer of nisin), and two strains isolated from human feces (L. paracasei subsp. paracasei 27092 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus 53103, antibacterial agent producer). All E. faecalis strains showed at least one virulence factor (either hemolysin or gelatinase), which emphasizes the importance of these studies in this species. Both L. lactis strains and most Lactobacillus spp. were good acidifiers in ewe's milk and cow's milk at 30°C. High β-galactosidase activity, as well as aminopeptidase activities that favor the development of desirable flavors in cheese, were detected in all Lactobacillus spp. strains. Furthermore, L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 showed α-fucosidase activity (thought to help colonization of the intestine) and lack of α-glucosidase activity (a trait considered positive for diabetic and obese humans). This last enzymatic activity was also lacking in L. lactis ATCC 11454. L. mesenteroides was the only strain D(2)-lactic acid producer. The selection of any particular strain for probiotic or dairy cultures should be performed according to the technological and/or functional abilities needed.

  3. The use of Lactobacillus species as starter cultures for enhancing the quality of sugar cane silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, C L S; Carvalho, B F; Pinto, J C; Duarte, W F; Schwan, R F

    2014-02-01

    Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) is a forage crop widely used in animal feed because of its high dry matter (DM) production (25 to 40 t/ha) and high energy concentration. The ensiling of sugar cane often incurs problems with the growth of yeasts, which leads to high losses of DM throughout the fermentative process. The selection of specific inoculants for sugar cane silage can improve the quality of the silage. The present study aimed to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from sugar cane silage and to assess their effects when used as additives on the same type of silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into sugar cane broth to evaluate their production of metabolites. The selected strains produced higher concentrations of acetic and propionic acids and resulted in better silage characteristics, such as low yeast population, lower ethanol content, and lesser DM loss. These data confirmed that facultative heterofermentative strains are not good candidates for sugar cane silage inoculation and may even worsen the quality of the silage fermentation by increasing DM losses throughout the process. Lactobacillus hilgardii strains UFLA SIL51 and UFLA SIL52 resulted in silage with the best characteristics in relation to DM loss, low ethanol content, higher LAB population, and low butyric acid content. Strains UFLA SIL51 and SIL52 are recommended as starter cultures for sugar cane silage.

  4. Phenolic trend and hygienic quality of green table olives fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, Cinzia; Muccilli, Serena; Amenta, Margherita; Perri, Enzo; Romeo, Flora V

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, four different olive cultivars from Southern Italy, Carolea, Cassanese, Nocellara del Belice, Nocellara Messinese table olives, produced according to traditional fermentation processes, were evaluated with the aim of assessing the effect of selected starter cultures on growth of bacterial population and on olive phenols during fermentation. Only Cassanese and Nocellara del Belice inoculated samples reached a safe pH value under 4.6 after 90 days while maintaining it until the end of storage. The most representative phenols in brine samples analysed by HPLC-MS/MS were hydroxytyrosol and verbascoside. Among the analysed phenols, only hydroxytyrosol, caffeic acid and ferulic acid always increased during fermentation, while the others increased up to 90-120 days and then decreased. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) performed on pH and phenol values highlighted three clusters of olive cultivars. Throughout the brining period, lactic acid bacteria were always present while staphylococci and coliform bacteria disappeared after 30 and 90 days, respectively.

  5. Evaluation of an autochthonous starter culture on the production of a traditional dry fermented sausage from Chaco (Argentina) at a small-scale facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavecino Prpich, Noelia Z; Garro, Oscar A; Romero, Mara; Judis, María A; Cayré, María E; Castro, Marcela P

    2016-05-01

    The performance of a mixed starter culture, SAS-1, comprised of the autochthonous strains Lactobacillus sakei ACU-2 and Staphylococcus vitulinus ACU-10, was evaluated into the production process of a traditional dry sausage. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory analyses were carried out to accomplish this goal. Results showed an improvement in performance through the introduction of SAS-1; adding mixed starter culture rapidly decreased pH, inhibited the growth of contaminant microorganisms and enhanced the beneficial ones, diminished TBARS, and highlighted color and aroma attributes. However, most influential organoleptic descriptors among consumer acceptance were not affected by the addition of the starter. This starter culture would represent a valuable tool to improve the homogeneity of artisanal manufacture of this traditional food.

  6. Research on Tomato Juice Yoghurt%番茄发酵酸奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 林奇

    2011-01-01

    本实验以番茄和全脂乳为原料,利用保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌发酵番茄汁酸奶,通过一系列单因素和正交试验确定制作番茄汁酸扔的最佳发酵条件.结果表明:在50%全脂奶乳液中添加等童的番茄汁,9%白砂糖,接种6%发酵剂(保加利亚乳杆菌:嗜热链球菌=1:1),控制发酵起始pH=6.0,发酵温度40-C,4h发酵,即可获得优质的酸奶制品.%In present study, the yoghurt was fermented using tomato juice, full cream milk powder, Bulgarian lactobacillus and Streptococcus thermopiles. The purpose of this study is to explore the best fermentation condition of the yoghurt with tomato juice. The result expresses that join equal tomato juice , 9% sugar and 6% starter culture into the 50% full cream milk ,control the outset pH as 6.0, the temperature as 40℃, the fermentation time as 4h, then , we can immediately get a superior quality of tomato juice.

  7. Textural properties of low-fat set-type yoghurt depending on mTG addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Darnay

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to determine how 0.5-2 U/g non-inactivated mTG affects the pH development and apparent viscosity during fermentation. Furthermore we wished to examine how the enzyme addition could change protein structure, gel strength and sensory characteristics by healthy low-fat set-type yoghurt product. Therefore commercial mTG enzyme preparation was added in different concentrations (0.5-2.0 U/g, in 0.5 U/g steps to 1.5 % bovine milk simultaneously with DVS starter culture. Our study revealed that enzyme dosage (0.5-2 U/g protein had no impact on pH development and apparent viscosity during fermentation when manufacturing low-fat (1.5 % set-type yoghurt. The addition of mTG contributed to 38 % more whey retention with incorporation of β-casein, and caused 44 % higher gel strength up to a level of 1 U/g protein.

  8. Role in Cheese Flavour Formation of Heterofermentative Lactic Acid Bacteria from Mesophilic Starter Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bæk

    Undefined mesophilic cheese starters are complex ecosystems that contain both homofermentative and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, with the Lactococcus genera representing the former and Lceuonostoc and sometimes Lactobacillus the latter. These starters originate from old butter starters...... aminopeptidase activity compared to Lactobacillus danicus and especially Le. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris had a low and narrow activity. Aminotransferase activity was high on aromatic amino acids for Lb. danicus, and the Leuconostoc species had an activity similar to Lb. danicus only after growth in CBM...... with plant isolates, the ability to ferment citrate and lacked several genes involved in the fermentation of complex carbohydrates. The presented research in this thesis has gained insight in to the role of heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria in cheese flavour formation. The traditional DL...

  9. Effect of Pasteurization Temperature, Starter Culture, and Incubation Temperature on the Physicochemical Properties, Yield, Rheology, and Sensory Characteristics of Spreadable Goat Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Frau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The local cheese factories currently use bovine commercial starter cultures, and the spreadable cheese process is not standardized. A detailed understanding of the effect of pasteurization temperature, starter culture, and incubation temperature must allow producers to optimize the process, increase cheese yield, and improve the quality of the final product. The main objective of the study was to describe the preparation method of spreadable goat cheese and investigate the effects of specific processing conditions (pasteurization temperature, starter culture, and incubation temperature on the composition, yield, rheology, and sensory characteristics of the final product. Results showed the impact of pasteurization temperature, starter culture, and incubation temperature on spreadable goat cheese. The results indicated that it is possible to improve cheese yield, rheological properties, and sensory analysis when milk is pasteurized at 75°C for 30 minutes; cheese yield can also be improved by lowering incubation temperature to 37°C. Cheeses made with autochthonous starter culture showed better sensory characteristics and higher pH compared to the cheeses made with commercial culture.

  10. Reduction of histamine and biogenic amines during salted fish fermentation by Bacillus polymyxa as a starter culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chen Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus polymyxa D05-1, isolated from salted fish product and possessing amine degrading activity, was used as a starter culture in salted fish fermentation in this study. Fermentation was held at 35°C for 120 days. The water activity in control samples (without starter culture and inoculated samples (inoculated with B. polymyxa D05-1 remained constant throughout fermentation, whereas the pH value rose slightly during fermentation. Salt contents in both samples were constant in the range of 17.5–17.8% during the first 60 days of fermentation and thereafter increased slowly. The inoculated samples had considerably lower levels of total volatile basic nitrogen (p < 0.05 than control samples at each sampling time during 120 days of fermentation. Aerobic bacterial counts in inoculated samples were retarded during the first 60 days of fermentation and thereafter increased slowly, whereas those of control samples increased rapidly with increased fermentation time. However, the aerobic bacterial counts of control samples were significantly higher (p < 0.05 than those of inoculated samples after 40 days of fermentation. In general, overall biogenic amine contents (including histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine in the control samples were markedly higher (p < 0.05 than those of the inoculated samples throughout fermentation. After 120 days of fermentation, the histamine and overall biogenic amine contents in the inoculated samples were reduced by 34.0% and 30.0%, respectively, compared to control samples. These results emphasize that the application of starter culture with amines degrading activity in salted fish products was effective in reducing biogenic amine accumulation.

  11. Selection of Yeasts as Starter Cultures for Table Olives: a Step-by-Step Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eBevilacqua

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past yeasts were traditionally regarded as the spoiling microorganisms for table olives; however, their role and impact for product quality and for the correct course of fermentation has been revised and nowadays many authors suggest a controlled inoculum of yeasts both in alkali-treated and untreated olives.The selection of a starter is a complex process, involving different steps. After strain isolation from raw material, the first step is the identification through phenotyping and genotypic methods; then, isolates should be characterized to assess their GRAS (generally recognized as safe status and technological properties (growth with salt added, at various temperatures and pHs, pectolytic and xylanolytic activity, lipolytic activity, resistance to some preservatives, functional impact.After studying these properties, the results can be submitted to data analysis (many times a statistical multivariate approach and strain selection. The number of strains to be selected depends on several factors, above all on the main goal: obtaining a single or a multiple-strain starter.After this step, starter should be used for a pilot fermentation on a lab scale, highlighting its performances, limits and benefits, as well as all the issues related to its production, storage and stability throughout the time. Finally, starter optimization conducted on a lab scale should be verified on real conditions.

  12. Brettanomyces as a starter culture in rice-steamed sponge cake: a traditional fermented food in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Xu, Xiaoyun; Xu, Yongxia; Chen, Qingchan; Pan, Siyi

    2011-11-01

    The potential use of Brettanomyces anomalus PSY-001 as an additional starter culture for the production of Rice-steamed sponge cake (RSSC), a traditional fermented food in China, was investigated. Two productions of RSSC, each containing batches of experimental cakes with Brettanomyces added and reference cakes with the leavened liquid added were carried out. For both experimental and reference cakes, chemical analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out during the fermentation period. The results showed that experimental cakes had desirable aroma and taste. The observed differences indicate a positive contribution to the overall quality of RSSC by B. anomalus PSY-001.

  13. Killer phenotype of indigenous yeasts isolated from Argentinian wine cellars and their potential starter cultures for winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ullivarri, Miguel Fernández; Mendoza, Lucía M; Raya, Raúl R; Farías, Marta E

    2011-11-01

    Of 31 yeasts, from different surfaces of two cellars from the northwest region of Argentina, 11 expressed killer activity against the sensitive strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae P351. Five of these killer yeasts were identified as S. cerevisiae by phenotypic tests and PCR-RFLP analysis. Two S. cerevisiae killer strains, Cf5 and Cf8, were selected based on their excellent kinetic and enological properties as potential autochthonous mixed starter cultures to be used during wine fermentation. They could dominate the natural microbiota in fermentation vats and keep the typical sensorial characteristics of the wine of this region.

  14. Effect of autochthonous starter cultures isolated from Siahmazgi cheese on physicochemical, microbiological and volatile compound profiles and sensorial attributes of sucuk, a Turkish dry-fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargozari, Mina; Moini, Sohrab; Akhondzadeh Basti, Afshin; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Gandomi, Hassan; Revilla Martin, Isabel; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A

    2014-05-01

    The effect of adding autochthonous starter cultures isolated from Siahmazgi cheese, on the physicochemical parameters and microbial counts of sucuk was investigated during the ripening period. SPME-GC/MS was used in volatile compound analysis and a trained group of panelists carried out sensory analysis of the final product. After preliminary screening, three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, which possess desirable technological properties, were used to prepare three starter cultures: LBP7, LBP10 and LBP14. The addition of LBP7 and LBP14 starter cultures had a significant effect (Pactivity during the ripening of sausages was not affected by the various starters. The texture profiles of all sausages were similar except for LBP10, which showed lower hardness and gumminess during ripening. Under the conditions of the study, volatile compounds were mainly from spices, and no marked differences were found among inoculated sausages. However, sensory evaluation revealed that most of the sensory attributes were scored higher for inoculated sausages than for the control ones. Therefore, LBP7 and LBP14 could be promising candidates for inclusion as starter cultures for the manufacture of sucuk.

  15. Genotypic identification of some lactic acid bacteria by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and investigation of their potential usage as starter culture combinations in Beyaz cheese manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, A G; Başyiğit Kiliç, G; Kart, A; Sanlidere Aloğlu, H; Oner, Z; Aydemir, S; Erkuş, O; Harsa, S

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 2 different starter culture combinations were prepared for cheesemaking. Starter culture combinations were formed from 8 strains of lactic acid bacteria. They were identified as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (2 strains), Lactobacillus plantarum (5 strains), and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (1 strain) by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. The effects of these combinations on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of Beyaz cheeses were investigated. These cheeses were compared with Beyaz cheeses that were produced with a commercial starter culture containing Lc. lactis ssp. lactis and Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris as control. All cheeses were ripened in brine at 4 degrees C for 90 d. Dry matter, fat in dry matter, titratable acidity, pH, salt in dry matter, total N, water-soluble N, and ripening index were determined. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE patterns of cheeses showed that alpha(S)-casein and beta-casein degraded slightly during the ripening period. Lactic acid bacteria, total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeast, molds, and coliforms were also counted. All analyses were repeated twice during d 7, 30, 60, and 90. The starter culture combinations were found to be significantly different from the control group in pH, salt content, and lactobacilli, lactococci, and total mesophilic aerobic bacteria counts, whereas the cheeses were similar in fat, dry matter content, and coliform, yeast, and mold counts. The sensory analysis of cheeses indicated that textural properties of control cheeses presented somewhat lower scores than those of the test groups. The panelists preferred the tastes of treatment cheeses, whereas cheeses with starter culture combinations and control cheeses had similar scores for appearance and flavor. These results indicated that both starter culture combinations are suitable for Beyaz cheese production.

  16. Two efficient nitrite-reducing Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional fermented pork (Nanx Wudl) as competitive starter cultures for Chinese fermented dry sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Li, Jiapeng; Zhou, Tong; Li, Jinchun; Yang, Junna; Chen, Wenhua; Xiong, Youling L

    2016-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Dong pork product (Nanx Wudl) were investigated for their potential as starter cultures for Chinese fermented dry sausages. Based on preliminary screening, Lactobacillus plantarum CMRC6 and Lactobacillus sakei CMRC15, both showing excellent nitrite-reducing capacity, were used as single-strain starter cultures. For comparison, a commercial composite starter was also tested. In CMRC6 and CMRC15-inoculated sausages, lactic acid bacteria dominated the microflora and improved the microbiological safety by suppression of Enterobacteriaceae growth. Nitrite content of all inoculated sausages declined rapidly during ripening compared to non-inoculated. Texture profiles analysis showed inoculated sausages had more pronounced textural development during ripening. Sensory evaluation indicated CMRC6 and CMRC15-fermented sausages had comparable or more desirable organoleptic characteristics than sausage made with commercial starters. Therefore, CMRC6 and CMRC15 are promising candidates as multi-functional starter cultures for microbiological safety and residual nitrite control in gourmet Chinese dry sausage production.

  17. Screening of the starter cultures with high viscosity and weak post-acidification in yoghourt fermentation%高黏度低后酸酸奶发酵剂的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄润; 安颖; 高鹏飞; 陈世贤; 范贵生

    2011-01-01

    对分离到的12株优良乳酸菌,进行了单发酵试验和复配发酵实验.在单发酵实验中分析嗜热链球菌的产粘特性和保加利亚乳杆菌的产酸特性,在复配发酵实验中测定在贮藏期内(21 d)酸度、pH值、黏度、脱水收缩性及对其进行感官鉴评.结果表明,组合PZST4-PZLB5在储存期间保持了良好的风味和流变学特性,并且后酸化程度较小、产黏高,因而适合作为优良的酸奶发酵剂.%The single fermentation and co-fermentation were detected using the total 12 Lactic acid bacterias witch were isolated. The viscosity characteristics of the fermented yoghurt by Streptococcus thermophilus and the acid production characteristics of Lactobacillus bulgaricus were determined in the single fermentation test and several other characteristics of the fermented yoghourt were also tested such as the acidity,pH value,viscosity and the syneresis characteristic all of which were detected during the storage periods as well. And the results showed that the sample fermented by PZST4-PZLB5 displayed good flavor,rheological properties,higher viscosity and weak post-acidification which showed that the combination of PZST4 and PZLB5 were suitable to be starter culture.

  18. Characterization of Active Dry Wine Yeast During Starter Culture (Pied de Cuve) Preparation for Sparkling Wine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benucci, Ilaria; Liburdi, Katia; Cerreti, Martina; Esti, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The preparation of yeast starter culture (Pied de Cuve) for producing sparkling wine with the traditional method is a key factor for manufacturing a good Prise de mousse. In this paper, the evolution of total yeast population, its viability during Pied de Cuve preparation, and the pressure profile during the 2nd fermentation in 2 different base wines made from Bombino bianco and Chardonnay grapes were investigated using 4 different commercial active dried yeasts. The study proves that despite the initial differences observed throughout the acclimatization phase, all the tested strains showed similar results on either the total population (from 8.2 × 10(7) cells/mL to 1.3 × 10(8) cells/mL) or cellular viability (from 70% to 84%). Independently from the base wine tested, the kinetic of sugar consumption was faster during the gradual acclimatization to the alcoholic medium (phase II) and slower during the preparation of starter culture in active growth phase (phase III). During both of these phases Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus Vitilevure DV10(®) (Station œnotechnique de Champagne) proved to have a higher sugar consumption rate than the other strains. During the Prise de mousse, S. cerevisiae bayanus Lalvin EC-1118(®) (Lallemand) reached the maximum pressure increase within time in both base wines.

  19. Influence of Chitosan Coating on Mechanical Stability of Biopolymer Carriers with Probiotic Starter Culture in Fermented Whey Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša S. Obradović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve the mechanical stability of biopolymer carriers and cell viability with addition of chitosan coating during fermentation process and product storage. Dairy starter culture (1% (w/v was diluted in whey and mixed with sodium alginate solution and the beads were made using extrusion technique. The mechanical stability of coated and uncoated beads, the release behavior, and the viability of encapsulated probiotic dairy starter culture in fermented whey beverages were analyzed. The mechanical properties of the beads were determined according to force-displacement and engineering stress-strain curves obtained after compression testing. It was observed that addition of chitosan as a coating on the beads as well as the fermentation process increased the elastic modulus of the calcium alginate-whey beads and cell survival. The current study revealed that the coating did not significantly improve the viability of probiotics during the fermentation but had an important influence on preservation of the strength of the carrier during storage. Our results indicate that whey-based substrate has positive effect on the mechanical stability of biopolymer beads with encapsulated probiotics.

  20. The substitution of a traditional starter culture in mutton fermented sausages by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, I; Hrabě, J; Šalaková, A; Rada, V

    2013-07-01

    Common starter cultures used in fermented mutton sausages were substituted by probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus CCDM 476 and Bifidobacterium animalis 241a. Technological properties of the traditional and the probiotic sausages were compared. The potential probiotic effect was evaluated by enumeration of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in stool samples of 15 volunteers before and after a 14-day consumption period. The numbers of lactobacilli (10(7) cfu/g) and bifidobacteria (10(3) cfu/g) in the final product did not affect the technological properties. The use of L. acidophilus as a starter culture was found more beneficial than the use of B. animalis. Even after 60 days of storage, high counts of L. acidophilus (10(6) cfu/g) were detected; on the other hand, the counts of B. animalis were under the detection limit. Regarding sensory properties, the probiotic products showed better texture, and, curiously, a reduction of the typical smell of mutton. The numbers of lactobacilli in stool samples increased significantly after the consumption of the probiotic sausages.

  1. Selective and differential enumerations of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium spp. in yoghurt--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Rabia; Shah, Nagendra P

    2011-10-03

    Yoghurt is increasingly being used as a carrier of probiotic bacteria for their potential health benefits. To meet with a recommended level of ≥10(6) viable cells/g of a product, assessment of viability of probiotic bacteria in market preparations is crucial. This requires a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in yoghurt such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus, Lb. casei and Bifidobacterium. This chapter presents an overview of media that could be used for differential and selective enumerations of yoghurt bacteria. De Man Rogosa Sharpe agar containing fructose (MRSF), MRS agar pH 5.2 (MRS 5.2), reinforced clostridial prussian blue agar at pH 5.0 (RCPB 5.0) or reinforced clostridial agar at pH 5.3 (RCA 5.3) are suitable for enumeration of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus when the incubation is carried out at 45°C for 72h. S. thermophilus (ST) agar and M17 are recommended for selective enumeration of S. thermophilus. Selective enumeration of Lb. acidophilus in mixed culture could be made in Rogosa agar added with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (X-Glu) or MRS containing maltose (MRSM) and incubation in a 20% CO2 atmosphere. Lb. casei could be selectively enumerated on specially formulated Lb. casei (LC) agar from products containing yoghurt starter bacteria (S. thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), Lb. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lb. casei. Bifidobacterium could be enumerated on MRS agar supplemented with nalidixic acid, paromomycin, neomycin sulphate and lithium chloride (MRS-NPNL) under anaerobic incubation at 37°C for 72h.

  2. Selection of lactic acid bacteria from Brazilian kefir grains for potential use as starter or probiotic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanirati, Débora Ferreira; Abatemarco, Mário; Sandes, Sávio Henrique de Cicco; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Nunes, Álvaro Cantini; Neumann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Brazilian kefir is a homemade fermented beverage that is obtained by incubating milk or a brown sugar solution with kefir grains that contribute their different microbiological compositions. It is highly important to isolate and characterize microorganisms from Brazilian kefir grains to obtain starter cultures for the industrial production of a standardized commercial kefir. Thus, the present study aimed to isolate lactic acid bacteria from eight kefir grains that were propagated in milk or sugar solutions from five different locations in Brazil and to select Lactobacillus isolates based on desirable in vitro probiotic properties. One hundred eight isolates from both substrates were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were determined to belong to the following 11 species from the genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus (L.), and Oenococcus. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus kefiri, and Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens were isolated only from milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus perolens, Lactobacillus parafarraginis, Lactobacillus diolivorans, and Oenococcus oeni were isolated exclusively from sugar water grains. When the microbial compositions of four kefir grains were evaluated with culture-independent analyses, L. kefiranofaciens was observed to predominant in milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus hilgardii was most abundant in sugar water kefir. Unfortunately, L. hilgardii was not isolated from any grain, although this bacteria was detected with a culture-independent methodology. Fifty-two isolated Lactobacilli were tested for gastric juice and bile salt tolerance, antagonism against pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and surface hydrophobicity. Three Lactobacillus strains (L. kefiranofaciens 8U, L. diolivorans 1Z, and Lactobacillus casei 17U) could be classified as potential probiotics. In conclusion, several lactic acid bacteria that could be used in combination with yeasts as starter

  3. Processing of Ginseng-wolfberry Yoghurt%人参枸杞酸乳的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王轶飞; 吴艳秋; 郭艳玲; 刘艳霞

    2015-01-01

    The optimal fermentation conditions of Ginseng-wolfberry yoghurt were determined by single factors and orthogonal tests. The results indicated that 2%β-orbicular dextrin could cover the bitter of ginseng better. And the optimal fermentation conditions were as follow:the fresh milk, with 0.2%CMC-Na,0.05%Ginseng, 8%wolfberry juice, 3%starter culture and 6%sugar, was fermented at 42℃. The yoghurt got pleased taste and flavor.%通过单因素试验和正交试验研究了人参枸杞酸乳的最佳发酵工艺。试验结果表明,2%的β-环状糊精可较好的包埋人参苦味。人参枸杞酸乳的最佳发酵条件为:在鲜乳中添加0.2%的CMC-Na、0.05%的人参粉、8%的枸杞汁、3%的发酵剂和6%的蔗糖,于42℃发酵可得品质风味俱佳的酸奶。

  4. Monitoring the ecology of Bacillus during Daqu incubation, a fermentation starter, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Y.; Zheng, X.; Han, B.Z.; Han, J.S.; Nout, M.J.R.; Chen, J.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Daqu, a traditional fermentation starter, has been used to produce attractively flavored foods such as vinegar and Chinese liquor for thousands of years. Although Bacillus spp. are one of the dominant microorganisms in Daqu, more precise information is needed to reveal why and how Bacillus became do

  5. Influence of different proteolytic strains of Streptococcus thermophilus in co-culture with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus on the metabolite profile of set-yoghurt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settachaimongkon, S.; Nout, M.J.R.; Antunes Fernandes, E.C.; Hettinga, K.A.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Smid, E.J.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Proto-cooperation between Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is one of the key factors that determine the fermentation process and final quality of yoghurt. In this study, the interaction between different proteolytic strains of S. thermophilus and L. delbruec

  6. STUDI PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN BIFIDOBAKTERIA TERHADAP FLAVOR YOUGHURT [Study on the Effect of the Use of Bifidobacteria on Flavor of Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Apriyantono4

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effect of bifidobacteria on flavor of yoghurt. Parameters measured in the experiment were acidity, pH, viscosity, volatile composition, sensory acceptance and intensity of yoghurt sensory attributes.Results of the experiment indicated that the use of bifidobacteria in mixture of yoghurt culture was able to increase the levels of acidity and viscosity of yoghurt. The highest acidity and viscosity was found in yoghurt prepared by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and bifidobacteria mixture, and also by Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus and bifidobacteria mixture cultures. The major classes of volatile component identified were acids, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. The major component identified were octanoic acid, acetoin and octadecanal. It was found that there was no significant difference in sensory acceptance of the panelist for colour, aroma and taste of yoghurt prepared by the various combination of cultures. However, consistency of yoghurt prepared by S. thermophilus with or without addition of bifidobacteria, was less compared to that of others. Yoghurt prepared by single culture of S. thermophilus showed higher intensity of bitter and syneresis. The use of bifidobacteria in the cultures mixture decrease the intensity of bitter and syneresis of the yoghurt.

  7. Development of quantitative PCR and metagenomics-based approaches for strain quantification of a defined mixed-strain starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Pernille; Vindeløv, Jannik; Arneborg, Nils; Brockmann, Elke

    2014-05-01

    Although the strain composition of mixed cultures may hugely affect production of various fermented foods, such as e.g. cheese, tools for investigating it have so far been limited. In this study, two new approaches for quantification of seven Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains (S1-S7) in a defined mixed-strain starter culture were developed and verified. By mapping NGS reads from 47 sequenced L. lactis strains to de novo assembly contigs of the seven strains, two strain-specific sequence regions (SEQ1 and SEQ2) were identified for each strain for qPCR primer design (A1 and A2). The qPCR assays amplified their strain-specific sequence region target efficiently. Additionally, high reproducibility was obtained in a validation sample containing equal amounts of the seven strains, and assay-to-assay coefficients of variance (CVs) for six (i.e. S1, S2, S4-S7) of the seven strains correlated to the inter-plate CVs. Hence, at least for six strains, the qPCR assay design approach was successful. The metagenomics-based approach quantified the seven strains based on average coverage of SEQ1 and SEQ2 by mapping sequencing reads from the validation sample to the strain-specific sequence regions. Average coverages of the SEQ1 and SEQ2 in the metagenomics data showed CVs of ≤17.3% for six strains (i.e. S1-S4, S6, S7). Thus, the metagenomics-based quantification approach was considered successful for six strains, regardless of the strain-specific sequence region used. When comparing qPCR- and metagenomics-based quantifications of the validation sample, the identified strain-specific sequence regions were considered suitable and applicable for quantification at a strain level of defined mixed-strain starter cultures.

  8. Effect of dissolved oxygen on redox potential and milk acidification by lactic acid bacteria isolated from a DL-starter culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nadja; Werner, Birgit Brøsted; Vogensen, Finn Kvist

    2015-01-01

    was to investigate the effect of dissolved oxygen on acidification kinetics and redox potential during milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Fermentations were conducted by single strains isolated from mixed DL-starter culture, including Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris...

  9. Effect of the inoculation of a starter culture and vacuum packaging during the resting stage on sensory traits of dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Molinero, F; Arnau, J

    2008-12-01

    The effects of the inoculation of a mixed starter culture and vacuum packaging (during resting stage) on odour, appearance, texture and flavour of dry-cured ham were studied. After salting, half of the 36 processed hams were inoculated with a commercial starter culture containing lactic-acid bacteria, Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci and yeasts. Nine hams per group (inoculated and non-inoculated) remained vacuum-packaged during resting. External odour during the process, as well as appearance of the cut surface, texture and flavour on semimembranosus and biceps femoris of the final product were assessed. Vacuum packaging during resting caused an increase in white film and feedstuff flavour, as well as a decrease in aged flavour, hardness, fibrousness and overall liking. The use of the starter culture brought about an increase in feedstuff flavour, a decrease in sweetness, aged flavour, nutty flavour and overall liking and, only in vacuum-packaged hams, the development of a floral flavour, but had no significant effect on texture descriptors. The starter culture studied is considered inappropriate for the production of traditional Spanish dry-cured ham regardless of the type of resting used.

  10. Use of a genetically enhanced, pediocin-producing starter culture, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MM217, to control Listeria monocytogenes in cheddar cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buyong, N; Kok, J; Luchansky, JB

    1998-01-01

    Cheddar cheese was prepared with Lactococcus lactis subsp, lactis MM217, a starter culture which contains pMC117 coding for pediocin PA-1, About 75 liters of pasteurized milk (containing ca, 3.6% fat) was inoculated with strain MM217 (ca, 10(6) CFU per ml) and a mixture of three Listeria monocytogen

  11. Effect of starter culture, spice mix and storage time and temperature on biogenic amine content of dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komprda, T; Smělá, D; Pechová, P; Kalhotka, L; Stencl, J; Klejdus, B

    2004-08-01

    Two types of dry fermented sausage differing in spicing mixture and the diameter (low content of red pepper+diameter 80 mm, H-sausage; high content of red pepper+diameter 55 mm, P-sausage, respectively) were produced in parallel with two different starter cultures (Pediococcus pentosaceus+Staphylococcus carnosus, B-samples and S. carnosus+Staphylococcus xylosus+Lactobacillus farciminis, F-samples, respectively). The sausages were ripened 21 days and subsequently stored 91 days at the room temperature. Concentration of both most abundant amines, putrescine and tyramine (y; mg/kg DM) increased significantly (P<0.01) in HB-sausage during ripening (x; days): y=2.5+18.13x-0.3144x(2) (R(2)=0.99) and y=0.7+8.17x-0.1130x(2) (R(2)=0.99), and also during storage: y=127.3+5.123x (R(2)=0.79) and y=26.0+3.211x (R(2)=0.74), respectively. At the end of ripening, putrescine (247 mg/kg DM) and tyramine (123 mg/kg DM) content in the HB-sausage was higher (P<0.05) than in the PB-sausage (12 and 9 mg/kg DM, respectively), concentration of either of these amines was negligible (1 mg/kg DM) in either type of F-inoculated sausage. Both starter culture and sausage type influenced significantly (P<0.001) both putrescine and tyramine content in the sausage; starter accounted for 57% and 55% of total variability in putrescine and tyramine content, respectively. Due to the significant (P<0.05) increase of total aerobic counts in the HB-sausage between the end of ripening and the 7th day of storage, followed by the significant (P<0.01) increase of the sum of total biogenic amines between the end of ripening (425 mg/kg DM) and the end of storage (1029 mg/kg DM), the storage of the dry fermented sausages at the room temperature should not be recommended.

  12. Selection of aroma compounds for the differentiation of wines obtained by fermenting musts with starter cultures of commercial yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vararu, Florin; Moreno-García, Jaime; Zamfir, Cătălin-Ioan; Cotea, Valeriu V; Moreno, Juan

    2016-04-15

    Nine wines obtained by fermenting Aligoté musts with individual starter cultures of eight Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains and with the indigenous microbiota were compared in terms of their composition in minor volatile aroma compounds. An easy handle methodology Stir-Bar-Sorptive-Adsorption, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry based, permits the identification of 49 aroma compounds. The rearrangement of these aroma compounds in six chemical families permits the establishment of a finger printing for each wine. Eighteen aroma compounds that exhibit a high differentiation power (p⩽0.05) were selected for chemometric analysis. The Principal Component Analysis carried out with these aroma compounds reveal that the first two principal components explain 53.8% and 17.2% of the total variance, respectively, allowing the establishment of nine different groups, in accordance with the wine types obtained. These results reveal analytical differences among the wines that are not recognized by sensorial analysis.

  13. Whey - raw material for the production of baker starter-cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Mrvčić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of production Lactic acid bacteria (LAB, which are suitable for breadmaking on whey was researched and compared to the results achieved in modified MRS medium. The growth and fermentation activities of Leuconostoc meseteroides L-3, Lactobacillus brevis L-62 and Lactobacillus plantarum L-73 were examined by monitoring lactic and acetic acid production in fermentation broth and in sourdough. Presented results show that deproteinized whey is suitable for LAB production. The best biomass yield (1,7 g/L and lactic acid production (9,15 mg/mL was achieved with L. plantarum L-73. Better flavour, elasticity and shelf life of bread made with whey-based starters compared to the classical yeast-monoculture based bread were determined by sensory analysis (DLG method.

  14. Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae

    2014-01-01

    The sensory quality of chocolate is widely determined by the qualitative and quantitative composition of volatile compounds resulting from microbial metabolism during fermentation, and Maillard reactions taking place during drying, roasting and conching. The influence of applying mixed starter...... in roasted cocoa liquors and finished chocolates. 19 of the 56 volatile compounds identified in the chocolates were found in significantly higher amounts in the tray fermented sample, whilst significantly higher amounts of 2-methoxyphenol was measured in the two inoculated chocolates. The P. kluyveri...... inoculated chocolate was characterized by a significantly higher concentration of phenylacetaldehyde and the K. marxianus inoculated chocolate by significantly higher amounts of benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol, benzyl acetate and phenethyl acetate compared to a spontaneously fermented control. Sensory...

  15. Modeling Lactic Fermentation of Gowé Using Lactobacillus Starter Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettencourt de J. C. Munanga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A global model of the lactic fermentation step of gowé was developed by assembling blocks hosting models for bacterial growth, lactic acid production, and the drop of pH during fermentation. Commercial strains of Lactobacillus brevis and of Lactobacillus plantarum were used; their growth was modeled using Rosso’s primary model and the gamma concept as a secondary model. The optimum values of pH and temperature were 8.3 ± 0.3, 44.6 ± 1.2 °C and 8.3 ± 0.3, 3.2 ± 37.1 °C with μmax values of 1.8 ± 0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.1 for L. brevis and L. plantarum respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration of undissociated lactic acid was 23.7 mM and 35.6 mM for L. brevis and L. plantarum, respectively. The yield of lactic acid was five times higher for L. plantarum than for L. brevis, with a yield of glucose conversion to lactic acid close to 2.0 for the former and 0.8 for the latter. A model was developed to predict the pH drop during gowé fermentation. The global model was partially validated during manufacturing of gowé. The global model could be a tool to aid in the choice of suitable starters and to determine the conditions for the use of the starter.

  16. Nondairy beverage produced by controlled fermentation with potential probiotic starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Ana Luiza; Ramos, Cintia Lacerda; da Costa Souza, Patrícia Nirlane; Cardoso, Mauro Guilherme Barros; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2017-02-21

    This work aimed to develop a nondairy fermented beverage from a blend of cassava and rice based on Brazilian indigenous beverage cauim using probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast. The indigenous strains Lactobacillus plantarum CCMA 0743 (from cauim) and Torulaspora delbrueckii CCMA 0235 (from tarubá), and the commercial probiotic, L. acidophilus LAC-04, were used as starter cultures in single and co-cultivations. The bacteria populations were around 8.0 log (CFU/mL) at the end of all fermentations as recommended for probiotic products. Higher residual starch contents were noted in the single LAB cultures (10.6% [w/w]) than in co-cultures (1.6g/L) and ethanol was lower than 0.5% (w/v) consisting in a non-alcoholic beverage. The assays containing yeast showed the highest antioxidant activity (around 10% by DPPH and ABTS methods). Therefore, a nondairy fermented beverage was successfully obtained, and the co-culture of LAB and T. delbrueckii could increase the product's functional properties.

  17. In vitro fermentation studies for selection and evaluation of Bacillus strains as starter cultures for the production of okpehe, a traditional African fermented condiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A; Sanni, Abiodun I; Franz, Charles M A P; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2007-01-25

    Selected Bacillus and Enterococcus strains, isolated from traditional okpehe fermentations, were studied for their suitability as starter cultures in laboratory-scale fermentations of Prosopis africana seeds for the production of okpehe, a traditional fermented vegetable product of Nigeria. The strains were selected on the basis of highest proteolytic activity, as determined with the APIZYM (BioMerieux) test. The choice of starter strains was narrowed to Bacillus subtilis strains BFE 5301 and BFE 5372. These were determined as the best starter combination because of rapid growth, high amylolytic and proteolytic activities, high levels of polyglutamic acid production by strain BFE 5372, as well as bacteriocin production by strain BFE 5301. Other mixed culture fermentations did not yield sensorically acceptable products. Although a monoculture fermentation, using only B. subtilis strain BFE 5372, produced okpehe with very good sensory characteristics, the growth of B. cereus could be detected after 48 h fermentation, indicating that this starter did not sufficiently contribute to product safety. Mixed culture fermentation with the combination of bacteriocin-producing starter B. subtilis BFE 5301 and the non-bacteriocin-producing B. subtilis BFE 5372, produced a product with good sensory characteristics, in which growth of B. cereus was delayed. The bacteriocin produced by B. subtilis strain BFE 5301 was identified as subtilisin, using subtilisin-specific primers and PCR amplification of the subtilisin gene. The bacteriocin was heat-stable at 100 degrees C for 10 min and exhibited highest activity at pH values lower or equal to pH 6.0. The bacteriocin was sensitive to the proteolytic enzymes trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin at concentrations of 10 mg/ml.

  18. Genome sequences of two Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides strains isolated from Danish dairy starter cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bæk; Kot, Witold Piotr; Hansen, L.H.;

    2014-01-01

    The lactic acid bacterium Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides can be found in mesophilic cheese starters, where it produces aromatic compounds from, e.g., citrate. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two L. pseudomesenteroides strains isolated from traditional Danish cheese starters....

  19. A ready-to-use antifungal starter culture improves the shelf life of packaged bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerez, C L; Torino, M I; Obregozo, M D; Font de Valdez, G

    2010-04-01

    Fungal spoilage is the main cause of economic loss in the baking industry. In this study, we developed a ready-to-use biopreserver (slurry [SL]) for nonsliced packed bread by using selected antifungal lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and low-cost ingredients that are compatible with the food matrix. Four LAB strains (Lactobacillus brevis CRL 772, L. brevis CRL 796, L. plantarum CRL 778, and L. reuteri CRL 1100) tested in bread preservation were able to inhibit Penicillium sp. growth and lengthen shelf life twofold with respect to breads prepared using only Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2 days shelf life). The best biopreservation effect (5 days shelf life) was obtained with 40% antifungal slurry SL778 containing L. plantarum CRL 778; this was as effective as 0.2% calcium propionate (PCa). The antifungal effect of SL778 was related to the synthesis of acetic and phenyllactic acid as well as lactic acid, which was produced at a high concentration (31.2 mmol/kg) and lowered the pH of the dough, favoring the undissociated fraction of the organic acids. The combination of the starter SL778 with 0.4% PCa extended the shelf life of packaged bread to 24 days, 2.6-fold longer than breads prepared with only 0.4% PCa.

  20. Effect of starter cultures and packaging methods on amino acid profile and eating quality characteristics of pork ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Protiva; Borpuzari, R N; Borpuzari, T; Hazarika, R A; Bora, J R

    2015-08-01

    Wet cured pork hams were inoculated with a mixed starter cultures comprising of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Micrococcus varians M483 at the dose level of 106 cfu/g and the un inoculated hams served as controls. The amino acid profile of hams of the treated and the control groups stored at 4oC under MAP and VP and evaluated on 60th day of storage revealed that treated hams liberated higher concentration of free amino acids except for proline and methionine which were found in higher concentration (P < 0.01) in the MAP control samples. The MAP control samples liberated glutamic acid (85.65 ± 1.40 ppm), cystine (21.56 ± 1.14 ppm) and tyrosine (16.63 ± 1.94 ppm) whereas, the treated samples did not release these amino acids. The VP control samples too liberated cystine (6.98 ± 1.36 ppm) and arginine (42.70 ± 2.78 ppm) but the treated ham of the VP did not liberate these amino acids. The VP hams had higher concentration (P < 0.01) of free proline, glycine, alanine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, lysine and histidine than the MAP samples. Colour analysis of ham using CIE Lab colour system revealed that the treated samples had significantly higher concentrations of L*, a* and b* components. The L* and a* values were higher in the MAP than under VP systems while the b* values were higher in the VP samples than the MAP samples. Neither the bacterial cultures nor the packaging system influenced the textural property of ham. Starter cultures inoculated hams were rated superior (P < 0.05) in terms of their sensory properties. Hams packaged under MAP were rated superior (P < 0.05) than those packaged under VP in terms of appearance, colour, taste, tenderness, flavour, juiciness and overall acceptability.

  1. Enhancement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in Nham (Thai fermented pork sausage) using starter cultures of Lactobacillus namurensis NH2 and Pediococcus pentosaceus HN8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanaburee, Anussara; Kantachote, Duangporn; Charernjiratrakul, Wilawan; Sukhoom, Ampaitip

    2013-10-15

    The aim was to produce Nham that was enriched with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA); therefore two GABA producing lactic acid bacteria (Pediococcus pentosaceus HN8 and Lactobacillus namurensis NH2) were used as starter cultures. By using the central composite design (CCD) we showed that addition of 0.5% monosodium glutamate (MSG) together with an inoculum size of roughly 6logCFU/g of each of the two strains produced a maximal amounts of GABA (4051 mg/kg) in the 'GABA Nham' product. This was higher than any current popular commercial Nham product by roughly 8 times. 'GABA Nham' with the additions of both starters and MSG (TSM) supported maximum populations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with a minimum of yeasts and no staphylococci or molds when compared to the controls that had no addition of any starters or MSG (TNN), or only the addition of MSG (TNM), or with only the starter (TSN). Based on proximate analysis among the Nham sets, 'GABA Nham' was low in fat, carbohydrate and energy although its texture and color were slightly different from the control (TNN). However, sensory evaluations of 'GABA Nham' were more acceptable than the controls and commercial Nham products for all tested parameters. Hence, a unique novel 'GABA Nham' fermented pork sausage was successfully developed.

  2. Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 16366 starter added to brine as freeze-dried and as culture in the nutritive media for Spanish style green olive production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peres, Cidália

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 16366, a strain originally isolated from olive fermentation, was used as a starter culture for "Azeiteira" the preparation of Spanish style green olives. Inoculum was added to the fermentors as a freezedried starter culture or as a culture in the nutritive media. Lactic acid fermentation induction produced a more rapid acidification of brines and reduced the survival period of Enterobacteriaceae compared with the uninoculated process. The best results were obtained using the nutritive media as a culture carrier rather than the freeze-dried starter.En este trabajo se empleo el inóculo Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 16366 liofilizado y en caldo nutritivo para preparación de aceitunas "Azeiteira" tipo verde, estilo sevillano. En las salmueras inoculadas se observó una acidificación más rápida y reducción del periodo de supervivencia de las Enterobacteriaceae, especialmente cuando se aplicó el inóculo en caldo nutritivo.

  3. The effect of a commercial starter culture addition on the ripening of an artisanal goat's cheese (Cameros cheese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarte, C; Sanz, S; Gonzalez-Fandos, E; Torre, P

    2000-03-01

    The evolution of physicochemical parameters, and the most important microbial groups, were determined for the following three batches of 'Cameros' goat's milk cheese during ripening: Batch R elaborated with raw milk, Batch RS elaborated with raw milk and with the addition of a starter culture, and Batch PS elaborated with pasteurized milk and with the addition of the same culture. No differences in total solids (TS) or in the content of NaCl, fat and total nitrogen (expressed as percentages of TS) were found during the ripening. The pH, fat acidity and non-protein nitrogen (NPN, expressed as a percentage of TN) showed significant differences between the batches. The inoculated batches showed the fastest drop in pH at the beginning of the ripening period, but the cheeses of Batch R showed a higher degree of lipolysis and proteolysis. The addition of a starter influenced the microbiological quality of the cheeses. Differences in the counts of Enterobacteriaceae and faecal coliforms were found between Batches R and RS after 15 days. Staphylococcus aureus increased in number during the early period of ripening and attained a population above 6 log cfu g-1 in Batch R in the period from 5 to 10 days. However, enterotoxins were not detected in this Batch. Batch R showed lower values of lactic acid bacteria at the beginning of the ripening period, but no significant differences were found between batches in the period from 5 to 15 days of ripening. At the beginning of the ripening, Lactococcus was the main lactic acid bacteria, with L. lactis lactis being predominant. After 15 days, the lactic acid bacteria counts decreased in the three batches, especially in the cheeses of Batch PS (only 2.2 log cfu g-1 was found at 60 days), as lactococci (the only lactic acid bacteria present in Batch PS) are incapable of growing under the conditions found in cheeses at the end of their ripening period. At this time, Lactobacillus was the predominant genus in Batches R and RS, with L

  4. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Cultures during the Processing of Fermented Cereal-based Foods in West Africa: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soro-Yao, Amenan Anastasie; Brou, Kouakou; Amani, Georges; Thonart, Philippe; Djè, Koffi Marcelin

    2014-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the primary microorganisms used to ferment maize-, sorghum- or millet-based foods that are processed in West Africa. Fermentation contributes to desirable changes in taste, flavour, acidity, digestibility and texture in gruels (ogi, baca, dalaki), doughs (agidi, banku, komé) or steam-cooked granulated products (arraw, ciacry, dégué). Similar to other fermented cereal foods that are available in Africa, these products suffer from inconsistent quality. The use of LAB starter cultures during cereal dough fermentation is a subject of increasing interest in efforts to standardise this step and guaranty product uniformity. However, their use by small-scale processing units or small agro-food industrial enterprises is still limited. This review aims to illustrate and discuss major issues that influence the use of LAB starter cultures during the processing of fermented cereal foods in West Africa.

  5. Development and Diversity of Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc Bacteriophages in Dairies Using Undefined Mesophilic DL-Starter Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhammed, Musemma Kedir

    Bacteriophages (phages) attacking strains of Lactococcus (Lc.) lactis and Leuconostoc species, used as starter cultures in mesophilic dairy productions, produce huge problems through waste of ingredients, increased processing time, reduced product quality, consistency and safety, and occasionally...... samples from a dairy using a traditional mother-bulk-cheese vat system showed the presence of 936 and P335 phages already in the mother culture stage and, consequently, in the bulk starter and in the cheese vats but not in the cheese milk. We further dealt with temperate phages associated with undefined...... binding protein-encoding gene (rbp) analysis, several of the 936-phage groups were predicted to be able to attack strains of Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris. An overpressure in the processing room and curd pressing rooms resulted in an increase in the instability of subgroups of 936 phages during the first...

  6. Effect of the inoculation of a starter culture and vacuum packaging (during resting stage) on the appearance and some microbiological and physicochemical parameters of dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Molinero, F; Arnau, J

    2008-05-01

    The effect of the inoculation of a starter culture and vacuum packaging (during the resting stage) on dry-cured ham appearance, microbiological and physicochemical parameters was studied. Half of the 36 processed hams were inoculated, after salting, with a commercial starter culture containing lactic-acid bacteria, Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci and yeasts. 18 hams per group (inoculated and non-inoculated) remained vacuum packaged during resting. Microbiological analyses were carried out on the lean surface during processing, on subcutaneous fat tissue at the drying stage and on lean tissue in the finished product. Appearance was evaluated during processing. Physicochemical analyses (NaCl, H(2)O, proteolysis index, a(w)) were done on Semimembranosus and Biceps femoris in the final product. Inoculation caused a reduction of mould growth and oil drip. Vacuum packaging induced increased proteolysis and increases in all microbial counts and a reduction of oil drip, mould growth and weight loss during processing.

  7. Determination of free amino acids in whole-fat Turkish White Brined Cheese produced by animal and microbial milk-clotting enzymes with and without the addition of starter culture

    OpenAIRE

    Ufuk Eren-Vapur; Tulay Ozcan

    2012-01-01

    Coagulating enzymes are essential ingredients for the production of different cheese varieties. The objective of this research was to summarize the effect of rennet type (calf rennet and microbial rennet from Rhizomucor miehei) and starter culture on the sensory properties and free amino acids (FAA) release during the ripening of Turkish White brined cheese. The concentrations of FAA and sensory properties were similar for cheeses made with both types of coagulant and starter culture. Aminoac...

  8. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viabilidade de Staphylococcus xylosus isoladas de embutidos artesanais para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em produtos cárneos

    OpenAIRE

    Ângela Maria Fiorentini; Maristela Cortez Sawitzki; Teresinha Marisa Bertol; Ernani S. Sant'Anna

    2009-01-01

    Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for st...

  9. Evaluation of Two Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Cultures for the Fermentation of Natural Black Table Olives (Olea europaea L cv Kalamon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadelli, Marina; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Georgalaki, Marina; Anastasiou, Rania; Manolopoulou, Eugenia; Lytra, Ioanna; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2015-01-01

    The production of Greek-style natural black table olives remains an empirical process relying on spontaneous fermentation despite its economic significance. For this reason producers often resort to increased NaCl concentration of the brine to secure quality of the product. In this study we employ two lactic acid bacteria Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides Lm139 and Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 16366 as starters in separate laboratory low salinity fermentations of "Kalamon" cultivar olives, processed according to the Greek-style method. L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides Lm139 was previously isolated from Kalamon olives laboratory spontaneous fermentations, while L. pentosus DSM 16366 was isolated from fermenting green olives prepared according to the Spanish-style method. Spontaneous olives fermentation was also performed as a control. Microbiological and physicochemical analyses of the brines revealed that the use of the starters had a significant effect on the olives fermentation, leading to a faster acidification due to the more efficient consumption of soluble sugars in the brines. The final pH value reached by each starter culture used indicates a successful lactic fermentation. The production of lactic acid by the starters and the concomitant drop of the pH value proved to inhibit enterobacteria in a shorter period of time compared to the spontaneous fermentation. Concluding, the use of either of the two lactic acid bacteria as starters in Greek-style Kalamon olives fermentation could lead to a more controllable fermentation at lower salinities. The resulting product could be of higher quality with extended shelf-life while being at the same time safer for the consumer.

  10. Effect of varying the salt and fat content in Cheddar cheese on aspects of the performance of a commercial starter culture preparation during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanachkina, Palina; McCarthy, Catherine; Guinee, Tim; Wilkinson, Martin

    2016-05-02

    Production of healthier reduced-fat and reduced-salt cheeses requires careful selection of starter bacteria, as any substantial alterations to cheese composition may prompt changes in the overall performance of starters during cheese ripening. Therefore, it is important to assess the effect of compositional alterations on the individual strain response during cheese ripening for each optimised cheese matrix. In the current study, the effect of varying fat and salt levels in Cheddar cheese on the performance of a commercial Lactococcus lactis culture preparation, containing one L. lactis subsp. lactis strain and one L. lactis subsp. cremoris strain was investigated. Compositional variations in fat or salt levels did not affect overall starter viability, yet reduction of fat by 50% significantly delayed non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) populations at the initial ripening period. In comparison to starter viability, starter autolysis, as measured by release of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or post-proline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (Pep X) into cheese juices, decreased significantly with lower salt addition levels in full-fat Cheddar. Conversely, reducing fat content of cheese resulted in a significantly higher release of intracellular Pep X, and to a lesser extent intracellular LDH, into juices over ripening. Flow cytometry (FCM) indicated that the permeabilised and dead cell sub-populations were generally lower in juices from cheeses with reduced salt content, however no significant differences were observed between different salt and fat treatments. Interestingly, fat reductions by 30 and 50% in cheeses with reduced or half added salt contents appeared to balance out the effect of salt, and enhanced cell permeabilisation, cell death, and also cell autolysis in these variants. Overall, this study has highlighted that alterations in both salt and fat levels in cheese influence certain aspects of starter performance during ripening, including

  11. Use of MRSD medium and the hydrophobic grid membrane filter technique to differentiate between pediococci and lactobacilli in fermented meat and starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, R A; Millard, G E

    1988-10-01

    Modifications of MRS medium were made by incorporation of 0.1 M L-arginine-HCl, 0.0025% phenol red, 100 IU polymyxin B sulfate, by deletion of meat extract, use of only 1.2% (w/v) glucose and increase of Mn2+ to 1000 ppm. In addition, adoption of the hydrophobic grid membrane filter (HGMF) system with 0.025% Fast Green FCF dye and adjustment of the agar medium to pH 5.5 gave MRSD (differential) medium. Incubation at 25 degrees C anaerobically under N2 or CO2 followed by a post-growth staining procedure involving use of 0.4% (w/v) bromocresol purple yielded conditions under which pediococci colonies were blue whereas homo- and heterofermentative lactobacilli were green in color. Under these conditions, 7 pediococci, 16 lactobacilli, and 18 commercial meat starter cultures were successfully analyzed by plate count to yield a differential assessment of the lactobacilli and pediococci present without interference from the 9 other genera tested. Streptococcus lactis and Leuconostoc spp. produced blue and green colonies, respectively, at 25 degrees C which might interference but these organisms are not present in significant numbers in fermented meats. Pediococcus parvulus and Streptococcus faecalis produced green and blue colonies, respectively, but their very poor growth at 25 degrees C prevented their interference. Use of the developed MRSD medium was described for enumeration of both pediococci and lactobacilli in starter cultures and in fermenting dry sausages to enable documentation of starter culture performance.

  12. Inoculated fermentation of green olives with potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures isolated from industrially fermented olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blana, Vasiliki A; Grounta, Athena; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2014-04-01

    The performance of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282, previously isolated from industrially fermented table olives and screened in vitro for probiotic potential, was investigated as starter cultures in Spanish style fermentation of cv. Halkidiki green olives. Fermentation was undertaken at room temperature in two different initial salt concentrations (8% and 10%, w/v, NaCl) in the brines. The strains were inoculated as single and combined cultures and the dynamics of their population on the surface of olives was monitored for a period of 114 days. The survival of inoculated strains on olives was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Both probiotic strains successfully colonized the olive surface at populations ranged from 6.0 to 7.0 log CFU/g throughout fermentation. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 presented higher colonization in both salt levels at the end of fermentation (81.2% and 93.3% in 8% and 10% NaCl brines, respectively). For L. plantarum B282 a high survival rate (83.3%) was observed in 8% NaCl brines, but in 10% NaCl the strain could not colonize the surface of olives. L. pentosus B281 also dominated over L. plantarum B282 in inoculated fermentations when the two strains were used as combined culture. The biochemical profile (pH, organic acids, volatile compounds) attained during fermentation and the sensory analysis of the final product indicated a typical lactic acid fermentation process of green olives.

  13. Diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of autochthonous dairy enterococci isolates: Are they safe candidates for autochthonous starter cultures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarela eTerzić-Vidojević

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci represent the most controversial group of dairy bacteria. They are found to be the main constituent of many traditional Mediterranean dairy products and contribute to their characteristic taste and flavor. On the other hand, during the last 50 years antibiotic-resistant enterococci have emerged as leading causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity, technological properties, antibiotic susceptibility and virulence traits of 636 enterococci previously isolated from 55 artisan dairy products from 12 locations in the Western Balkan countries of Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. All strains were identified both by microbiological and molecular methods. The predominant species was Enterococcus durans, followed by E. faecalis and E. faecium. Over 44% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, while 26.2% of the isolates were multi-resistant to three or more antibiotics belonging to different families. 185 isolates (29.1% were susceptible to all 13 of the antibiotics tested. The antibiotic-susceptible isolates were further tested for possible virulence genes and the production of biogenic amines. Finally, five enterococci isolates were found to be antibiotic susceptible with good technological characteristics and without virulence traits or the ability to produce biogenic amines, making them possible candidates for biotechnological application as starter cultures in the dairy industry.

  14. 益生菌发酵剂发酵特性研究%Fermentation Property of Probiotics Microbial Culture Starters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路守栋; 刘玺; 马瑞芬

    2012-01-01

    Three strains(Lactobacillu casei,Lactobacillus bulgaricus,Lactobacillus acdophilus) of common probiotics bacteria were selected,and fermentation property of probiotics microbial culture starters were studied.The three strains performed stronger resistant capabilities of NaNO2,stronger resistant capabilities of NaCl,and lacked in the abilities of lipolysis and proteolysis.They had strong acid—producing capability and could effectively inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria.They were suitable for fermented meat products.%选择干酪乳杆菌(Lactobacillu casei,Lc),嗜酸乳杆菌(Lactobacillus acdophilus,La),保加利亚乳杆菌(Lactobacillus bulgaricus,Lb)三种益生菌作为发酵肉发酵剂,对其发酵特性进行研究。结果表明:三种菌均有较强的耐亚硝酸盐、食盐能力,能够耐受150 mg/kg亚硝酸盐和6%食盐。所选菌种无蛋白和脂肪分解能力,能够有效降低pH,抑制致病菌的生长,适合发酵肉制品的生产。

  15. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

    2014-10-01

    Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acid and the interaction between these environmental factors. Growth models were developed by combining new and existing cardinal parameter values. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameters (μref at 25°C) were fitted to a total of 52 growth rates from cottage cheese to improve model performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese. The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias- and accuracy factors and with the concept of acceptable simulation zone. Evaluation of predicted growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing resulted in bias-factors (Bf) of 1.07-1.10 with corresponding accuracy factor (Af) values of 1.11 to 1.22. Lactic acid bacteria from added starter culture were on average predicted to grow 16% faster than observed (Bf of 1.16 and Af of 1.32) and growth of the diacetyl producing aroma culture was on average predicted 9% slower than observed (Bf of 0.91 and Af of 1.17). The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new models to successfully predict maximum population density of L. monocytogenes when growing together with lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. 11 of 13 simulations of L

  16. Streptococcus thermophilus APC151 strain is suitable for the manufacture of naturally GABA-enriched bioactive yoghurt

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    Daniel M. Linares

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Consumer interest in health-promoting food products is a major driving force for the increasing global demand of functional (probiotic dairy foods. Yoghurt is considered the ideal medium for delivery of beneficial functional ingredients. Gamma-amino-butyric acid has potential as a bioactive ingredient in functional foods due to its health-promoting properties as an anti-stress, anti-hypertensive and anti-diabetic agent. Here we report the use of a novel Streptococcus thermophilus strain, isolated from the digestive tract of fish, for production of yoghurt naturally enriched with 2 mg/ml of gamma-amino-butyric acid (250 mg in a standard yoghurt volume of 125 ml, a dose in the same range as that provided by some commercially available gamma-amino-butyric acid supplements. The biotechnological suitability of this strain for industrial production of yoghurt was demonstrated by comparison with the reference yoghurt inoculated with the commercial CH1 starter (Chr. Hansen widely used in the dairy industry. Both yoghurts showed comparable pH curves ΔpH/Δt = 0.31-0.33 h−1, viscosity 0.49 Pa.s, water holding capacity 72-73%, and chemical composition moisture (87-88 %, protein (5.05-5.65 %, fat (0.12-0.15 %, lactose (4.8-5.8 % and ash (0.74-1.2 %. Gamma-amino-butyric acid was not detected in the control yoghurt. In conclusion, the S. thermophilus APC151 strain reported here provides a natural means for fortification of yoghurt with gamma-amino-butyric acid.

  17. Suitability of a probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain as a starter culture in olive fermentation and development of the innovative patented product probiotic table olives

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    Angelo eSisto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria are generally available for consumers as concentrated preparations or incorporated in milk-based foods. Due to an increased interest of the market for probiotic foods as well as to meet a demand of industry for innovation, a new kind of probiotic food has been developed using table olives as a carrier. Green table olives, produced according to the Spanish-style, are obtained by a fermentation which can be carried out by spontaneous microflora, even if the use of starter cultures is desirable to obtain a more controlled process. In this regard, the selected strain Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC 2.1 of human origin was used in the dual role of starter and probiotic culture, and here we describe the different aspects which have been evaluated and solved to utilize that strain for the development of a new table olive-based probiotic food. These aspects include selection of the strain on the basis of its probiotic properties, molecular characterization, compatibility with the carrier food and efficacy as starter. The final product meets commercial and functional requirements throughout its shelf-life.

  18. Influence of Freeze-Dried Yeast Starter Cultures on Volatile Compounds of Tchapalo, a Traditional Sorghum Beer from Côte d’Ivoire

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    Wahauwouélé Hermann Coulibaly

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of the Ivorian sorghum beer known as tchapalo remains more or less an empirical process. The use of starter cultures was therefore suggested as the appropriate approach to alleviate the problems of variations in organoleptic quality and microbiological stability. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of S. cerevisiae and C. tropicalis to produce sorghum beer as freeze-dried starter in mixed or pure cultures. Beers produced with mixed freeze-dried cultures of S. cerevisiae F12-7 and C. tropicalis C0-7 showed residual sugars and ethanol contents similar to beers obtained with S. cerevisiae F12-7 pure culture, but the total sum of organic acids analyzed was the highest with the mixed culture (15.71 g/L. Higher alcohols were quantitatively the largest group of volatile compounds detected in beers. Among these compounds, 2-phenyl ethanol, a higher alcohol that  plays an important role in beer flavor, was highly produced with the mixed culture (10,174.8 µg/L than with the pure culture (8749.9 µg/L.

  19. Starter culture development for improving the flavour of Proosdij-type cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayad, E.H.E.; Verheul, A.; Bruinenberg, P.; Wouters, J.T.M.; Smit, G.

    2003-01-01

    The use of the additional mesophilic strain B851, which has specific flavour forming abilities, was tested for improving the flavour development of a Proosdij-type cheese made with a combination of an acidifying mesophilic and an adjunct thermophilic culture. This strain was selected because of its

  20. Proteolytic and ACE-inhibitory activities of probiotic yogurt containing non-viable bacteria as affected by different levels of fat, inulin and starter culture

    OpenAIRE

    Shakerian, Mansour; Razavi,Seyed Hadi; Ziai, Seyed Ali; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid; Moayedi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effects of fat (0.5 %, 3.2 % and 5.0 %), inulin (0.0 and 1.0 %) and starter culture (0.0 %, 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 1.5 %) on the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of probiotic yogurt containing non-viable bacteria were assessed. Proteolytic activities of bacteria were also investigated. Yogurts were prepared either using a sole yogurt commercial culture including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subs. bulgaricus or bifidobacterium ani...

  1. CELL-SURFACE BINDING OF DEOXYNIVALENOL TO Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans ISOLATED FROM SOURDOUGH STARTER CULTURE

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    Yousef I. Hassan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisin B1 (FB1 are two contaminant-mycotoxins frequently found in food commodities produced under poor conditions. Several methods have been suggested for the detoxification of such mycotoxins. Among the proposed methods, biological detoxification seems to be the most promising and cost-efficient. This study explores the capability of one strain of lactic acid bacteria, identified as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans, to bind both DON and FB1 in liquid cultures. Here we report the ability of heat-inactivated cells to significantly reduce concentrations of DON in liquid cultures. Further mechanistic investigation showed that the detoxification process is a result of the physical binding of such mycotoxins to the cell wall of this bacterium.

  2. Use of Lactobacillus plantarum LPCO10, a Bacteriocin Producer, as a Starter Culture in Spanish-Style Green Olive Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Barba, J. L.; Cathcart, D. P.; Warner, P. J.; Jiménez-Díaz, R.

    1994-01-01

    Bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus plantarum LPCO10 and its non-bacteriocin-producing, bacteriocinimmune derivative, L. plantarum 55-1, were evaluated separately for growth and persistence in natural Spanish-style green olive fermentations. Both strains were genetically marked and selectively enumerated using antibiotic-containing media. Plasmid profile and bacteriocin production (bac+) were used as additional markers. When olive brines were inoculated at 105 CFU/ml, the parent strain, LPCO10, proliferated to dominate the epiphytic microflora, sharing high population levels with other spontaneously occurring lactobacilli and persisting throughout the fermentation (12 weeks). In contrast, the derivative strain could not be isolated after 7 weeks. Stability of both plasmid profile and bac+ (LPCO10 strain) or bac- (55-1 strain) phenotype was shown by L. plantarum LPCO10 and L. plantarum 55-1 isolated throughout the fermentation. Bacteriocin activity could be found in the L. plantarum LPCO10-inoculated brines only after ammonium sulfate precipitation and concentration (20 times) of the final brine. Spontaneously occurring lactobacilli and lactic coccus populations, which were isolated from each of the fermenting brines studied during this investigation, were shown to be sensitive to the bacteriocins produced by L. plantarum LPCO10 when tested by the drop diffusion test. The declines in both pH and glucose levels throughout the fermentative process were similar in L. plantarum LPCO10- and in L. plantarum 55-1-inoculated brines and were comparable to the declines in the uninoculated brines. However, the final concentration of lactic acid in L. plantarum LPCO10-inoculated brines was higher than in the L. plantarum 55-1-inoculated brines and uninoculated brines. These results indicated that L. plantarum LPCO10 may be useful as a starter culture to control the lactic acid fermentation of Spanish-style green olives. PMID:16349291

  3. Influencing cocoa flavour using Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus in a defined mixed starter culture for cocoa fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crafack, Michael; Mikkelsen, Morten B; Saerens, Sofie; Knudsen, Morten; Blennow, Andreas; Lowor, Samuel; Takrama, Jemmy; Swiegers, Jan H; Petersen, Gert B; Heimdal, Hanne; Nielsen, Dennis S

    2013-10-01

    The potential impact of aromatic and pectinolytic yeasts on cocoa flavour was investigated using two defined mixed starter cultures encompassing strains of Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus for inoculating cocoa beans in small scale tray fermentations. Samples for microbial and metabolite analysis were collected at 12-24 hour intervals during 120 h of fermentation. Yeast isolates were grouped by (GTG)5-based rep-PCR fingerprinting and identified by sequencing of the D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene and the actin gene. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was conducted on isolates belonging to the species P. kluyveri and K. marxianus to verify strain level identity with the inoculated strains. Furthermore, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was performed to follow yeast and bacterial dynamics over time including the presence of the bacterial inoculum consisting of Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. Yeast cell counts peaked after 12 h of fermentation with the predominant species being identified as Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora thailandica. P. kluyveri and K. marxianus were found to compose 9.3% and 13.5% of the yeast population, respectively, after 12 h of fermentation whilst PFGE showed that ~88% of all P. kluyveri isolates and 100% of all K. marxianus isolates were identical to the inoculated strains. Despite never being the dominant yeast species at any stage of fermentation, the un-conched chocolates produced from the two inoculated fermentations were judged by sensory analysis to differ in flavour profile compared to the spontaneously fermented control. This could indicate that yeasts have a greater impact on the sensory qualities of cocoa than previously assumed.

  4. Bacteriocin production by strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus BB18 during continuous prefermentation of yogurt starter culture and subsequent batch coagulation of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simova, E D; Beshkova, D M; Angelov, M P; Dimitrov, Zh P

    2008-06-01

    By screening for bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria of 1,428 strains isolated from authentic Bulgarian dairy products, Lb. bulgaricus BB18 strain obtained from kefir grain was selected. Out of 11 yogurt starters containing Lb. bulgaricus BB18 and S. thermophilus strains resistant to bacteriocin secreted by Lb. bulgaricus BB18 a yogurt culture (S. thermophilus 11A+Lb. bulgaricus BB18) with high growth and bacteriocinogenic activity in milk was selected. Continuous (pH-stat 5.7) prefermentation processes were carried out in milk at 37 degrees C in a 2l MBR bioreactor (MBR AG, Zurich, Switzerland) with an IMCS controller for agitation speed, temperature, dissolved oxygen, CO2 and pH. Prefermented milk with pH 5.7 coagulated in a thermostat at 37 degrees C until pH 4.8-4.9. S. thermophilus 11A and Lb. bulgaricus BB18 grew independently in a continuous mode at similar and sufficiently high-dilution rates (D=1.83 h(-1)-S. thermophilus 11A; D=1.80 h(-1)-Lb. bulgaricus BB18). The yogurt cultures developed in a stream at a high-dilution rate (D=2.03-2.28 h(-1)). The progress of both processes (growth and bacteriocin production) depended on the initial ratio between the two microorganisms. The continuous prefermentation process promoted conditions for efficient fermentation and bacteriocinogenesis of the starter culture during the batch process: strong reduction of the times for bacteriocin production and coagulation of milk (to 4.5-5.0 h); high cell productivity (lactobacilli-4x10(12) CFU ml(-1), streptococci-6x10(12) CFU ml(-1)); high productivity of bacteriocins (4,500 BU ml(-1))-1.7 times higher than the bacteriocinogenic activity of the batch starter culture.

  5. Effect of sublethal preculturing on the survival of probiotics and metabolite formation in set-yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settachaimongkon, Sarn; van Valenberg, Hein J F; Winata, Vera; Wang, Xiaoxi; Nout, M J Robert; van Hooijdonk, Toon C M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Smid, Eddy J

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of preculturing of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12 under sublethal stress conditions on their survival and metabolite formation in set-yoghurt. Prior to co-cultivation with yoghurt starters in milk, the two probiotic strains were precultured under sublethal stress conditions (combinations of elevated NaCl and low pH) in a batch fermentor. The activity of sublethally precultured probiotics was evaluated during fermentation and refrigerated storage by monitoring bacterial population dynamics, milk acidification and changes in volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of set-yoghurt. The results demonstrated adaptive stress responses of the two probiotic strains resulting in their viability improvement without adverse influence on milk acidification. A complementary metabolomic approach using SPME-GC/MS and (1)H-NMR resulted in the identification of 35 volatiles and 43 non-volatile polar metabolites, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed substantial impact of the activity of sublethally precultured probiotics on metabolite formation demonstrated by distinctive volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of set-yoghurt. Changes in relative abundance of various aroma compounds suggest that incorporation of stress-adapted probiotics considerably influences the organoleptic quality of product. This study provides new information on the application of stress-adapted probiotics in an actual food-carrier environment.

  6. Proteolytic and ACE-inhibitory activities of probiotic yogurt containing non-viable bacteria as affected by different levels of fat, inulin and starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerian, Mansour; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Ziai, Seyed Ali; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid; Moayedi, Ali

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the effects of fat (0.5 %, 3.2 % and 5.0 %), inulin (0.0 and 1.0 %) and starter culture (0.0 %, 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 1.5 %) on the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of probiotic yogurt containing non-viable bacteria were assessed. Proteolytic activities of bacteria were also investigated. Yogurts were prepared either using a sole yogurt commercial culture including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subs. bulgaricus or bifidobacterium animalis BB-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 in addition to yogurt culture. Relative degrees of proteolysis were found to be considerably higher in yogurt samples than UHT milk as the control. Both regular and probiotic yogurts showed considerable ACE-inhibitory activities. Results showed that degree of proteolysis was not influenced by different fat contents, while was increased by high concentration of starter culture (1.5 % w/w) and reduced by inulin (1 % w/w). ACE-inhibitory activities of yogurt were also negatively affected by the presence of inulin and high levels of fat (5 % w/w). Moreover, yogurt containing probiotic bacteria showed higher inhibitory against ACE in comparison to the yogurt prepared with non-probiotic strains.

  7. Beta-carotene-rich carotenoid-protein preparation and exopolysaccharide production by Rhodotorula rubra GED8 grown with a yogurt starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frengova, Ginka I; Simova, Emilina D; Beshkova, Dora M

    2006-01-01

    The underlying method for obtaining a beta-carotene-rich carotenoid-protein preparation and exopolysaccharides is the associated cultivation of the carotenoid-synthesizing lactose-negative yeast strain Rhodotorula rubra GED8 with the yogurt starter culture (Lactobacillus bulgaricus 2-11 + Streptococcus thermophilus 15HA) in whey ultrafiltrate (45 g lactose/l) with a maximum carotenoid yield of 13.37 mg/l culture fluid on the 4.5th day. The chemical composition of the carotenoid-protein preparation has been identified. The respective carotenoid and protein content is 497.4 microg/g dry cells and 50.3% per dry weight, respectively. An important characteristic of the carotenoid composition is the high percentage (51.1%) of beta-carotene (a carotenoid pigment with the highest provitamin A activity) as compared to 12.9% and 33.7%, respectively, for the other two individual pigments--torulene and torularhodin. Exopolysaccharides (12.8 g/l) synthesized by the yeast and lactic acid cultures, identified as acid biopolymers containing 7.2% glucuronic acid, were isolated in the cell-free supernatant. Mannose, produced exclusively by the yeast, predominated in the neutral carbohydrate biopolymer component (76%). The mixed cultivation of R. rubra GED8 with the yogurt starter (L. bulgaricus 2-11 + S. thermophilus 15HA) in ultrafiltrate under conditions of intracellular production of maximum amount of carotenoids and exopolysaccharides synthesis enables combined utilization of the culture fluid from the fermentation process.

  8. Doenjang prepared with mixed starter cultures attenuates azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Kang Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Doenjang is traditional Korean fermented soybean paste and widely known for its various health benefits including anticancer effect. In this study, we manufactured doenjang with the grain-type meju using probiotic mixed starter cultures of Aspegillus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis-SKm, and Lactococcus lactis-GAm to improve the qualities and beneficial properties of doenjang. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory effects of the doenjang prepared with the grain-type meju using mixed starter cultures were investigated in azoxymethane (AOM and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis mice model. AOM and DSS colon carcinogenesis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice, and doenjang was orally administered for 4 weeks. Body weight, colon length, and colon weight of mice were determined, and colonic tissues were histologically evaluated. The serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines as well as the expression of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in colonic tissue were also analyzed. Results: Administration of the doenjang using probiotic mixed starter cultures ameliorated the symptoms of colon cancer, and reduced the incidence of neoplasia, and reduced the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cycloooxygenase-2 expression levels in colonic tissue. In addition, it increased Bax and reduced Bcl-2 expression levels and increased p21 and p53 expression in the colonic tissues. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the doenjang attenuated colon carcinogenesis induced by AOM and DSS by ameliorating the symptoms of colon cancer, reducing the occurrence of neoplasia, regulating proinflammatory cytokine levels, and controlling the expressions of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in the colonic tissue.

  9. Comparative inhibitory effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and mesophilic starter co-culture in cheese-mimicking models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Rayssa Julliane; de Souza, Geanny Targino; Honório, Vanessa Gonçalves; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; Maganani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil (TVEO) on Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic bacteria frequently associated with fresh or low-ripened cheeses (e.g., Brazilian coalho cheese), and on a starter co-culture comprising Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, which are commonly used for the production of different cheeses. To measure these effects, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and assessed bacterial cell viability over time in (coalho) cheese-based broth and in a semi-solid (coalho) cheese model at 10 °C. The MIC for TVEO was 2.5 μL/mL against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, while the MIC was 1.25 μL/mL against the starter co-culture. The TVEO (5 and 2.5 μL/mL) sharply reduced the viable counts of all assayed bacteria in cheese broth over 24 h; although, at 5 μL/mL, TVEO more severely affected the viability of the starter co-culture compared with pathogenic bacteria. The addition of 1.25 μL/g of TVEO in the semi-solid cheese model did not reduce the viable counts of all assayed bacteria. At 2.5 μL/g, TVEO slightly decreased the viable counts of S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and Lactococcus spp. in the semi-solid cheese model over 72 h. The final counts of Lactococcus spp. in a semi-solid cheese model containing 2.5 μL/mL TVEO were lower than those of pathogenic bacteria under the same conditions. These results suggest that the doses of TVEO used to control pathogenic bacteria in fermented dairy products, especially in low-ripened cheeses, should be cautiously considered for potential negative effects on the growth and survival of starter cultures.

  10. Addition of formic acid or starter cultures to liquid feed. Effect on pH, microflora composition, organic acid concentration and ammonia concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canibe, N; Miquel, N; Miettinen, H; Jensen, B B

    2001-01-01

    Some of the charateristics of good quality fermented liquid feed (FLF) are low pH, high numbers of lactic acid bacteria, and low numbers of enterobacteria. In order to test strategies to avoid a proliferation of enterobacteria during the initial phase of FLF elaboration, two in vitro studies were carried out. Addition of various doses of formic acid or two different starter cultures were tested. Adding 0.1% formic acid or L. plantarum VTT E-78076 to the liquid feed seemed to be addecuate ways of inhibiting the growth of enterobacteria, without depleting the growth of lactic acid bacteria.

  11. Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, I: Technological Applicability, Shelf-Life and Sensorial Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefarth, Caroline; Tran, Thi Bich Thao; Mittermaier, Peter; Pfeiffer, Thomas; Buettner, Andrea

    2014-05-15

    This first part of a two-part study focuses on the technical feasibility of applying radio frequency (RF) heating at different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C) to a stirred yoghurt gel after culturing. For comparison, a convectional (CV) heating process was also applied. The aim was to increase the yoghurt shelf-life, by preventing post-acidification and the growth of yeasts and molds. At the same time, the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was investigated in view of existing legal regulations for yoghurts. Additionally, the yoghurt color, aroma and taste profiles were evaluated. It was found that the application of RF heating was effective for the rapid attainment of homogenous temperatures of 58 and 65 °C, respectively. For RF heating at 72 °C, it was not possible to establish a stable heating regime, since in some cases, there was significant overheating followed by strong contraction of the yoghurt curd and whey separation. Hence, it was decided not to continue with the RF heating series at 72 °C. In the case of CV heating, heat transfer limitations were observed, and prolonged heating was required. Nevertheless, we showed that yeasts and molds survived neither the RF nor CV heat treatment. LAB were found not to survive the CV treatment, but these beneficial microorganisms were still present in reduced numbers after RF heating to 58 and 65 °C. This important observation is most likely related to the mildness of RF treatment. While post-acidification was not observed on yoghurt storage, slight color changes occurred after heat treatment. The flavor and taste profiles were shown to be similar to the reference product. Furthermore, a trained sensory panel was not able to distinguish between, for example, the reference yoghurt and the RF 65 °C sample by triangular testing (α = 5%), showing the potential of novel strategies for further improvements of heat-treated yoghurt.

  12. Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, I: Technological Applicability, Shelf-Life and Sensorial Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Siefarth

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This first part of a two-part study focuses on the technical feasibility of applying radio frequency (RF heating at different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C to a stirred yoghurt gel after culturing. For comparison, a convectional (CV heating process was also applied. The aim was to increase the yoghurt shelf-life, by preventing post-acidification and the growth of yeasts and molds. At the same time, the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB was investigated in view of existing legal regulations for yoghurts. Additionally, the yoghurt color, aroma and taste profiles were evaluated. It was found that the application of RF heating was effective for the rapid attainment of homogenous temperatures of 58 and 65 °C, respectively. For RF heating at 72 °C, it was not possible to establish a stable heating regime, since in some cases, there was significant overheating followed by strong contraction of the yoghurt curd and whey separation. Hence, it was decided not to continue with the RF heating series at 72 °C. In the case of CV heating, heat transfer limitations were observed, and prolonged heating was required. Nevertheless, we showed that yeasts and molds survived neither the RF nor CV heat treatment. LAB were found not to survive the CV treatment, but these beneficial microorganisms were still present in reduced numbers after RF heating to 58 and 65 °C. This important observation is most likely related to the mildness of RF treatment. While post-acidification was not observed on yoghurt storage, slight color changes occurred after heat treatment. The flavor and taste profiles were shown to be similar to the reference product. Furthermore, a trained sensory panel was not able to distinguish between, for example, the reference yoghurt and the RF 65 °C sample by triangular testing (α = 5%, showing the potential of novel strategies for further improvements of heat-treated yoghurt.

  13. Yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables: acidity, antioxidant properties and sensory quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Najgebauer-Lejko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Yoghurt is a fermented milk of unique sensory, nutritive and dietetic value offered in a variety of types and in different fl avours. Vegetables belong to the group of food products rich in antioxidant substances (e.g., vitamin C, carotenoids, tocopherols, polyphenols which regular consumption lowers the risk of many diseases including cancers and cardiovascular disorders. The aim of the present work was to manufacture and assess the acidity, sensory quality and antioxidant capacity of yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables during 2-week refrigerated storage. Material and methods. The vegetable preparations (carrot, pumpkin, broccoli and red sweet pepper were added to the cow’s milk fermented using DVS type yoghurt culture after initial cooling to 15-20°C in the amount of 10% (w/w. The following analyses were performed: determination of pH, titratable acidity, antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method as well as sensory evaluation and were conducted after 1, 7 and 14 days of cold storage. Results. The yoghurt supplementation with selected vegetables had no signifi cant effect on the pH and titratable acidity level. The highest ability to scavenge DPPH radicals was stated for yoghurts with broccoli and red sweet pepper. The latter treatment gained the highest notes in sensory evaluation. All vegetable yoghurts were characterised by higher than the natural yoghurt FRAP values measured directly after production. However, the level of this parameter signifi cantly decreased after storage. Conclusions. The red sweet pepper additive was the most benefi cial regarding antioxidant properties and organoleptic acceptance of the studied yoghurts.

  14. The influence of douchi starter cultures on the composition of extractive components, microbiological activity, and sensory properties of fermented fish pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasankala, Ladislaus M; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that douchi cultures could serve as a potential starter for enhancing the quality attributes of fermented silver carp meat. In experiment 1, an active, prefermented douchi culture was incorporated into a fish paste to aid in the fish fermentation (30 d) and facilitate biochemical production of extractive flavor components (PRF). In experiment 2, a fully fermented (30 d) douchi was added to a fish paste and the mixture was fermented for 30 d (PSF). In experiment 3, a fish paste without the douchi culture was fermented for 30 d (CF). Total extracted free amino acids increased by 68.0, 68.6, and 78.8% (P 100 mg/mL). The concentrations of both formaldehyde-reactive nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen extractives increased significantly (P PSF > CF. Low amounts of biogenic amines (ingredient commonly used in China, Japan, and other Asian countries. It is also used in many Chinese cuisines in the United States. On the other hand, fermented seafood made from freshwater fish such as silver carp is known to contain bioactive components believed to promote health. The findings from the present study indicated that douchi as a novel starter can be used to produce fermented silver carp fish pastes with excellent flavor and consumer acceptability. The results may be applicable to other fish species to produce similar fermentation products.

  15. Evaluation of Leuconostoc citreum HO12 and Weissella koreensis HO20 isolated from kimchi as a starter culture for whole wheat sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyejung; Kim, Yeo-Won; Hwang, Inyoung; Kim, Jeongho; Yoon, Sun

    2012-10-15

    Leuconostoc citreum HO12 and Weissella koreensis HO20 isolated from kimchi were evaluated as starter cultures in the making of whole wheat sourdough bread. After 24h of fermentation at 25 °C, both lactobacilli grew to the final cell numbers of ca. 10(9)cfu/g dough, and both doughs had similar pHs and total titratable acidities. In addition, the fermentation quotient of the dough with Lc. citreum HO12 was slightly lower than that of the dough with W. koreensis HO20 (1.6 versus 2.8). Sourdoughs and bread with 50% sourdough produced with the starter cultures exhibited consistent ability to retard the growth of bread spoilage fungi (Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus niger) and rope-forming bacterium (Bacillus subtilis). Sourdough breads underwent a significant reduction in bread firming during storage. It seems that both lactobacilli have the potential to improve the shelf-life of wheat bread. The results indicate that the selected lactobacilli have unique fermentation characteristics and produce sourdough breads with overall satisfactory quality.

  16. Effect of starter culture addition on fatty acid profile, oxidative and sensory stability of traditional fermented sausage (Petrovská klobása

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šojić Branislav V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the oxidative stability and sensory characteristics of traditional fermented sausage Petrovská klobása, produced with the addition of commercial starter culture (SC. Fatty acids profile, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS values and sensory properties of odor and taste have been determined at the end of drying and after 2 and 5 months of storage. The sum of saturated, unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids was not significantly different (P>0.05 in SC and control sausage at the end of storage. After 5 months of storage TBARS value of SC sausage amounted to 0.57 mg MDA/kg, and it was significantly lower (P<0.05 compared to control (0.84 mg MDA/kg. Also, sensory properties of odor and taste of SC sausage (3.66 were better in comparison to control (3.55. This study demonstrated that the addition of starter culture can hinder lipid oxidation and contribute to the preservation of desirable sensory characteristics of fermented sausages during a long storage period. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31032

  17. Determination of free amino acids in whole-fat Turkish White Brined Cheese produced by animal and microbial milk-clotting enzymes with and without the addition of starter culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Eren-Vapur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coagulating enzymes are essential ingredients for the production of different cheese varieties. The objective of this research was to summarize the effect of rennet type (calf rennet and microbial rennet from Rhizomucor miehei and starter culture on the sensory properties and free amino acids (FAA release during the ripening of Turkish White brined cheese. The concentrations of FAA and sensory properties were similar for cheeses made with both types of coagulant and starter culture. Aminoacids Phe, Leu - Ile, Gln, Val, Pro and Ala were the principal FAAs in the White brined cheeses at all stages of ripening.

  18. Lactobacillus casei Zhang和Bifidobacterium lactis V9在益生菌酸乳中的应用%Application of Lactobacillus casei Zhang and Bifidobacterium lactis V9 in the probiotic yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彪; 张和平

    2012-01-01

    益生菌在酸乳中的应用已非常普遍,将Lactobacillus casei Zhang单独(样品A)以及与Bifidobacterium lactis V9复合(样品B),同酸乳发酵剂(G027)共同发酵益生菌酸乳,于4℃贮藏21 d.结果表明,整个贮藏期间2组样品间的黏度和持水性差异不显著;贮藏期间2组样品间L.casei Zhang的活菌数没有差异,且L.casei Zhang和B.lactis V9的活菌数不随贮藏时间而降低;L.casei Zhang和B.lactis V9复合益生菌酸奶感官评价优于单独添加L.casei Zhang酸乳.L.casei Zhang和B.lactis V9复合添加,更适合于益生菌酸乳的生产.%Now it is common for adding probiotics in fermented yoghurt. Yoghurt was fermented by Lactobadllus casei Zhang (A) or combined with Bifidobacterium lactis V9 (B) plus with starter culture (G027) and followed with a 21 d storage at 4 t. The results showed that there was no significance between A and B concerning viscosity and syneresis. It also observed no significant difference existed in counts of L. casei 7ian% between A and B during storage and counts of two probiotics had no change as the storage passed by. However, Fermented milk by combined L. casei Zhang with B. lactis V9 possess markedly higher favorable sensory scores than L. casei Zhang fermented milk, suggesting that it is more suitable for probiotic yoghurt manufacture.

  19. Species diversity and metabolic impact of the microbiota are low in spontaneously acidified Belgian sausages with an added starter culture of Staphylococcus carnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, M; Myter, N; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

    2012-04-01

    Quality of fermented sausages is affected by acidifying lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and colour- and flavour-promoting coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), whether or not used as starter culture. Artisan fermented sausages are often perceived as superior to industrial variants, partially because of the specific microbiota due to spontaneous acidification, which may be considered as an artisan characteristic. Therefore, two kinds of spontaneously acidified Belgian sausages were prepared (Belgian-type salami and Boulogne sausage), but with addition of a Staphylococcus carnosus culture. The Belgian-type salami was made from pork and beef, whereas the Boulogne sausage contained pork and horse meat. In all cases, Lactobacillus sakei was the dominant LAB species present on the raw materials and during fermentation, whereas enterococci remained present in the background. Enterobacteriaceae vanished after fermentation. The CNS species diversity on the raw materials was large and differed between the pork, beef, and horse meat. Nevertheless, this species diversity was annihilated during fermentation by the added S. carnosus culture. The volatiles fraction was mainly composed of aldehydes that originated from lipid oxidation and spices-derived compounds. Aromatic compounds that are typically associated to CNS activity, such as end-products from the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids, were not present in the Belgian-type salami and only marginally present in the Boulogne sausage. In conclusion, spontaneous acidification of Belgian-type fermented sausages leads to dominance of L. sakei and is no guarantee for bacterial contribution to the aroma profile when S. carnosus is added as a starter culture.

  20. Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir Efeito do tipo de cultura starter e da adição de inulina na viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de Kefir de leite integral ou desnatado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Daiana Montanuci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial viability during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis were more pronounced in the formulations fermented with grains than those fermented with the starter culture. The addition of inulin did not influence acidity or viability of lactic acid bacteria, but in general, its effect on the survival of acetic acid bacteria, Lactococcus and yeasts, firmness, and syneresis depended on the type of milk and starter culture used. Generally, the yeast, acetic acid bacteria, and Leuconostoc counts increased or remained unchanged, while the total population of lactic acid bacteria and Lactococcus were either reduced by 1 to 2 logs or remained unchanged during storage.O efeito da adição de inulina e do tipo de iniciador (grãos de Kefir ou cultura starter comercial da fermentação sobre a viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de bebidas Kefir, formuladas com leite integral ou desnatado, foi avaliado durante o armazenamento refrigerado. O tipo de iniciador não teve influência sobre a viabilidade microbiana ao longo da estocagem das bebidas, mas as alterações químicas e de textura (redução do pH, teores de lactose e inulina e aumento da acidez, firmeza e sinérese foram mais acentuadas nas formulações fermentadas com grãos do que com cultura starter. A adição de inulina não influenciou a acidez ou a viabilidade de bactérias ácido-láticas, mas, em geral, seu efeito sobre a sobrevivência das bactérias ácido-acéticas, Lactococcus e leveduras, firmeza e sinérese foi dependente do tipo de leite e da

  1. Lactic acid microbiota identification in water, raw milk, endogenous starter culture, and fresh Minas artisanal cheese from the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil during the dry and rainy seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R D; Oliveira, L G; Sant'Anna, F M; Luiz, L M P; Sandes, S H C; Silva, C I F; Silva, A M; Nunes, A C; Penna, C F A M; Souza, M R

    2016-08-01

    Minas artisanal cheese, produced in the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil, is made from raw milk and endogenous starter cultures. Although this cheese is of great historical and socioeconomic importance, little information is available about its microbiological and physical-chemical qualities, or about its beneficial microbiota. This work was aimed at evaluating the qualities of the cheese and the components used for its production, comparing samples collected during the dry and rainy seasons. We also conducted molecular identification and isolated 50 samples of lactic acid bacteria from cheese (n=21), water (n=3), raw milk (n=9), and endogenous starter culture (n=17). The microbiological quality of the cheese, water, raw milk, and endogenous starter culture was lower during the rainy period, given the higher counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and total and thermotolerant coliforms. Enterococcus faecalis was the lactic acid bacteria isolated most frequently (42.86%) in cheese samples, followed by Lactococcus lactis (28.57%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (14.29%). Lactobacillus brevis (5.88%), Enterococcus pseudoavium (5.88%), Enterococcus durans (5.88%), and Aerococcus viridans (5.88%) were isolated from endogenous starter cultures and are described for the first time in the literature. The lactic acid bacteria identified in the analyzed cheeses may inhibit undesirable microbiota and contribute to the safety and flavor of the cheese, but this needs to be evaluated in future research.

  2. Biogenic amine content in dry fermented sausages as influenced by a producer, spice mix, starter culture, sausage diameter and time of ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komprda, T; Sládková, P; Dohnal, V

    2009-11-01

    Sixteen types of dry fermented sausages were commercially produced as combinations of two producers (designated K and R), two starter cultures (Pediococcus pentosaceus, C; Lactobacillus curvatus+Staphylococcus carnosus, F), two spicing mixtures (H; P) and two casing diameters (4.5cm, T; 7cm, W), and were sampled at days zero, 14, 28 (end of ripening), 49, 70, 91 and 112 (samples were stored at 15°C and relative humidity of 70% between days 28 and 112). Tyramine and putrescine content (Y, mgkg(-1)) increased (Psausages as compared to the W, H and F counterparts, respectively; content of both amines was lower (Psausages than in the R-sausages. Tyramine content in the sausages at the time interval 28days of ripening+21days of storage was in the range from 170 (KHCU sausage combination) to 382 (RHFS) mgkg(-1).

  3. Kinetic analysis of strains of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in cocoa pulp simulation media toward development of a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2010-12-01

    The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes.

  4. Effect of Novel Starter Culture on Reduction of Biogenic Amines, Quality Improvement, and Sensory Properties of Doenjang, a Traditional Korean Soybean Fermented Sauce Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shruti; Lee, Jong Suk; Park, Hae-Kyong; Yoo, Jung-Ah; Hong, Sung-Yong; Kim, Jong-Kyu; Kim, Myunghee

    2015-08-01

    To select appropriate microorganisms as starter cultures for the reliable and reproducible fermentation of soybean fermented products of Korean Doenjang, various ratios of fungi (Aspergillus oryzae J, Mucor racemosus 15, M. racemosus 42) combined with Bacillus subtilis TKSP 24 were selected as either single, double, or multiple Meju strains for commercial mass production of Doenjang, followed by analysis of sensory characteristics. In the sensory evaluation, Doenjang BAM15-1 and BAM42-1, which were fermented with multiple strains (1:1:1), showed the highest sensory scores as compared to control. Based on sensory characteristics, 6 Doenjang samples were subjected to quantitative determination of amino acids, free sugars, and organic acids (volatile and nonvolatile) contents, followed by determination of biogenic amines. Total sweet taste amino acid contents were highest in BAM15-1 and BAM42-1 samples (333.7 and 295.8 mg/100 g, respectively) and similar that of control (391.1 mg/100 g). Samples BAM15-1 and BAM42-1 showed the relatively high volatile and nonvolatile organic acid contents (154.24, 192.26, and 71.31, 82.42 mg/100 g, respectively). In addition, BAM15-1 and BAM42-1 showed negligible biogenic amine formation, ranging from 0.00 to 1.02 and 0.00 to 3.92 mg/100 g, respectively. These findings indicate that determination of food components along with sensory and quality attributes using multiple microbial Meju strains as a starter culture may provide substantial results on improved quality fermented Doenjang products.

  5. Comparing the Protective Effect of the Conventional Pasteurized and Lactobacillus Acidophilus-fortified Pasteurized Yoghurts on Candida Albicans

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    Ebrahimi H.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problems: Candida species are the most common fungal pathogen in human’s body. Therefore an accurate and immediate treatment seems to be necessary. Nowadays, alternative treatments, such as probiotics, are considered because of the adverse side effects of chemical medications. Probiotics are alive organisms which can be used for medical purposes and are added to different kinds of diary such as yoghurt. Lactobacill Acidophilus (LA was detected form human’s recourses many years ago and nowadays can be found in special kinds of milk, yoghurt, juice and food complementories. Purpose: In this study we are to compare the effect of conventional pasteurized and lactobacillus acidophilus- fortified pasteurized yoghurt on Candida Albicans in vitro.Materials and Method: Candida Albicans was isolated from 30 oral candidasis patients, cultured and prepared as standard suspension. Probiotic powder of LA in MRS Media after 24hrs led to 5×109 lactobacillus. LA- fortified yoghurt was prepared via adding lactobacills into 250 ml of pasteurized boiled milk after 8hrs in 37oc. We prepared 3 tubes and added standard suspension of Candida in each of them. Adding sterile yoghourt, conventional pasteurized yoghurt and LA-fortified yoghurt to the tubes respectively, we put them in 35oc incubator for 48 hrs. We added the content of each tube in Sabouraud agar media and incubated in 25oc for 72 hrs and then counted the colonies.Results: There was a significant difference between the mean of colonies in each group during 5 days ( p = 0, df = 4 and also on each day ( p = 0, df = 2.Conclusion: L.A. can inhibit colonization of Candida in vitro. In this study the most of Candida colonies were in the sterile yoghurt and the least of them were in LA fortified yoghurt.

  6. Genotyping of starter cultures of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus for fermentation of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) to produce Soumbala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouoba, Labia Irène Ivette; Diawara, Bréhima; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom kofi; Traoré, Alfred Sababénedyo; Møller, Peter Lange

    2004-01-15

    Bacillus spp. are the predominant microorganisms in fermented African locust bean called Soumbala in Burkina Faso. Ten strains selected as potential starter cultures were characterised by PCR amplification of the16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS-PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism of the ITS-PCR (ITS-PCR RFLP), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequencing of the 968-1401 region of the 16S rDNA. In previous studies, the isolates were identified by phenotyping as Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus. The phenotyping was repeated as a reference in the present study. The ITS-PCR and ITS-PCR RLFP allowed a typing at species level. The PFGE was more discriminative and allowed a typing at strain level. Full agreement with the phenotyping was observed in all cases. The sequencing of the 16S rDNA allowed the identification at species level with an identity from 97% to 100% comparing the sequences to those from the GenBank databases. The desired cultures of B. subtilis and B. pumilus from African locust bean fermentation were distinguished by ITS-PCR and ITS-PCR RLFP from Bacillus cereus and Bacillus sphaericus which sometimes occur in the beginning of the fermentation.

  7. BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA AND PREPARATION OF CAMEL MILK CHEESE BY USING STARTER CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    T. Ahmed and R. Kanwal

    2004-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from camel milk by culturing the milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub-culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram’s staining and identified by different biochemical tests. Camel milk contained lactic acid producing bacteria like Streptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus. L. acidophilus grew more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth was supported by camel milk...

  8. Study on DVS Yogurt Starter Cultures in Processing of Yogurt%直投式酸奶发酵剂在酸奶制作中应用的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙灵霞; 张秋会; 李红; 李真真

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce the amount of DVS yogurt starter cultures and the production cost, the activation times and inoculum concentration were studied. The results showed that the best activation times of 518 and 350 DVS yogurt starter culture was once, and the best inoculum concentration was 0.06g/250mL.%为了减少直投式酸奶发酵剂的用量和降低生产成本,对直投式酸奶发酵剂的活化次数和最小接种量进行了研究.结果表明:518、350直投式酸奶发酵剂的最佳活化次数均为一次,最佳接种量均为0.06g/250mL.

  9. Expecting yoghurt drinks to taste sweet or pleasant increases liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzel, Johanna; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; El Deredy, Wael; Blanchette, Isabelle; Thomas, Anna

    2011-02-01

    This experiment studied the effect of cues on liking of yoghurt drinks. We examined how hedonic (degrees of like/dislike) and sensory (level of sweetness/saltiness) cues affected liking ratings. In the learning phase, thirty-nine participants learned to associate cues with yoghurt drinks. Cues were learned for mildly and highly salty and sweet yoghurts. Sweet yoghurts were used as liked, salty yoghurts as disliked stimuli. Half the participants associated the cues with yoghurt liking (i.e. hedonic cues), the other half with the sweetness or saltiness of the yoghurt drink (i.e. sensory cues). In the test phase a cue was presented to participants subliminally (20 ms) or supraliminally (500 ms) before they tasted and rated liking of one of three yoghurt drinks in each category. The three yoghurt drinks consisted of the trained samples and a new third drink situated approximately half-way in between. The cue-drink combination was either congruent (the cued drink was given) or incongruent (two degrees of incongruence). For sweet yoghurt drinks cue-following assimilation effects were found for the supraliminal but not the subliminal cue presentations. For salty yoghurts, no effects of cue were found. This indicates that the nature of the drinks itself plays a critical role in modulating assimilation.

  10. Oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Debnath, D.; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    The oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt as well as the antioxidative effect of citric acid ester, vitamin K and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were investigated by measuring peroxide value and volatile secondary oxidation products and by sensory analysis....... No oxidation was observed in yoghurt stored at 2 [degree sign]C for up to 19 days, with or without addition of citric acid ester. Fish oil enriched yoghurt was also very stable even when compared to yoghurt with added rapeseed oil or a mixture of rapeseed oil and fish oil stored for up to 29 days. The addition...... of 50 [mu]m iron to yoghurt did not promote oxidation. The results obtained may indicate an antioxidative effect of EDTA and pro-oxidative effect of vitamin K. All yoghurts had similar viscosity and droplet size. In summary, fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt is very stable towards oxidation....

  11. Determinação da compatibilidade de desenvolvimento de culturas bacteriocinogênicas e fermento láctico Determination of the growth compatibility between bacteriocinogenic and starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela da Silva do Nascimento

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Além da utilização como bioconservantes de alimentos, algumas culturas bacteriocinogênicas estão sendo empregadas para acelerar a maturação de queijos. Porém a compatibilidade de desenvolvimento destas culturas com o fermento láctico é essencial para a obtenção de produtos característicos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a compatibilidade de desenvolvimento de Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, Lactobacillus plantarum ALC 01 e Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 com duas marcas comerciais de fermentos lácticos. Inicialmente, foi determinada a sensibilidade in vitro dos fermentos às culturas bacteriocinogênicas, somente Lc. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 foi capaz de promover a inibição de ambos os fermentos. Durante desenvolvimento associativo em leite a 35 ºC, as culturas bacteriocinogênicas não afetaram significativamente a produção de ácido láctico pelos fermentos. Estes, por sua vez proporcionaram aumento significativo da atividade de pediocina AcH e enterocina FAIR-E 198 e supressão da atividade da nisina. Dentre todas as culturas lácticas, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 apresentou a maior atividade de aminopeptidases (0,226 a 0,390. Portanto, baseado nos resultados em questão, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 e E. faecium FAIR-E 198 apresentam características de compatibilidade de desenvolvimento com o fermento mesofílico tipo O para serem empregadas como adjuntas no processamento de queijos.In addition to being used as food bioconservants, some bacteriocinogenic cultures have been employed to accelerate cheese ripening. However, the compatibility between their growth and starter cultures is essential to obtain the characteristic products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth compatibility between Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, Lactobacillus plantarum ALC 01, and Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 and two commercial starter cultures. Initially, the sensibility in vitro of the starter to

  12. Effects of fructooligosaccharide and whey protein concentrate on the viability of starter culture in reduced-fat probiotic yogurt during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akalin, A S; Gönç, S; Unal, G; Fenderya, S

    2007-09-01

    Viability of yogurt starter cultures and Bifidobacterium animalis was assessed during 28 d storage in reduced-fat yogurts containing 1.5% milk fat supplemented with 1.5% fructooligosaccharide or whey protein concentrate. These properties were examined in comparison with control yogurts containing 1.5% and 3% milk fat and no supplement. Although fructooligosaccharide improved the viability of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subs. bulgaricus, and Bifidobacterium animalis, the highest growth was obtained when milk was supplemented with whey protein concentrate in reduced-fat yogurt (P yogurt increased the viable counts of S. thermophilus, L. delbrueckii subs. bulgaricus, and B. animalis by 1 log cycle in the 1st week of storage when compared to control sample. Similar improvement in the growth of both yogurt bacteria and B. animalis was also obtained in the full-fat yogurt containing 3% milk fat and no supplement. Addition of whey protein concentrate also resulted in the highest content of lactic and acetic acids (P < 0.05). A gradual increase was obtained in organic acid contents during the storage.

  13. The kinetics of the arginine deiminase pathway in the meat starter culture Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494 are pH-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimaux, T; Vrancken, G; Pothakos, V; Maes, D; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

    2011-05-01

    Lactobacillus sakei is frequently present as the dominant lactic acid bacterium in spontaneously fermented meat products, demonstrating its competitiveness in and adaptation to the meat environment. Since meat is generally low in carbohydrate content, the ability to utilize other energy sources to generate ATP, such as arginine via the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway, represents a competitive benefit. In this study, the kinetics of growth and arginine conversion capabilities of Lb. sakei CTC 494 were analyzed, and a model was set up to describe the influence of pH on growth and arginine conversion. A series of in vitro batch fermentations using reconstituted MRS medium at different constant pH values (pH 4.50-pH 7.75) was performed. Arginine conversion through the ADI pathway, which was activated from the stationary growth phase on, resulted in the production of both citrulline and ornithine for all pH conditions tested. However, the pattern and the ratio of the end-products of the ADI pathway were influenced by pH. For certain pH values (between pH 5.0 and 6.5), a further conversion of citrulline into ornithine was found when all arginine was depleted. Characterization of responses of the ADI pathway in Lb. sakei CTC 494 to environmental conditions will allow a better understanding and control of this important starter culture in meat fermentations.

  14. Impact of NaCl reduction in Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses on development and autolysis of DL-starter cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lise; Ryssel, Mia; Svendsen, Carina

    2015-01-01

    of two commercial DL-starter cultures (C1 and C2) used in the production of Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses were affected by reduced NaCl levels. Cheeses containing reduced-salt) and 3.4% (normal-salted) (w/v) NaCl in moisture were produced and analyzed during 12weeks of ripening.......e. 22% and 21%), whereas no significant difference was found between the reduced-salt (i.e. 31% and 35%) and normal-salted cheeses. At the later stages of ripening (i.e. 7 and 11weeks) NaCl had no significant influence. For cheeses produced with C2, a significant influence of NaCl was only found...... in cheeses ripened for 7weeks, where the unsalted and reduced-salt cheeses had retained a significantly higher number of the initial LAB counts (cfu/g) (i.e. 39% and 38%), compared to the normal-salted cheeses (i.e. 21%). In the Samsoe cheeses, bacteria were organized as single cells, in groups of 2-3 cells...

  15. The potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679 survives the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and its use as starter culture results in safe nutritionally enhanced fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Raquel; Martín, Belén; Aymerich, Teresa; Garriga, Margarita

    2014-09-01

    The human-derived potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679 was used as a starter culture in reduced fat and sodium low-acid fermented sausages (fuets) to assess its ability to survive through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in a human intervention study consisting of 5 healthy volunteers who consumed 25 g fuet a day for 21 days. Faecal samples were analysed during and after consumption. L. rhamnosus CTC1679 produced a transient colonisation of the human GIT and persisted during the ingestion period of fuet containing L. rhamnosus CTC1679 at levels ca. 8log CFU/g. After 3 days of non-consumption, the strain was still recovered in the faeces of all the volunteers. To evaluate the safety of the nutritionally enhanced manufactured fuets, a challenge test was designed in a separately manufactured batch. L. rhamnosus CTC1679 was able to grow, survive and dominate (levels ca. 10(8) CFU/g) the endogenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB), prevented the growth of Listeria monocytogenes throughout the whole ripening process of the fuets and eliminated Salmonella. After 35 days of storage at 4 °C, L. monocytogenes was not detected, achieving absence in 25 g of the product. The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (600 MPa for 5 min) at the end of ripening (day 14) produced an immediate reduction of L. monocytogenes to levels fermented sausages.

  16. Effect of starter culture and fermentation temperature on water mobility and distribution in fermented sausages and correlation to microbial safety studied by nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Sandie M; Gunvig, Annemarie; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2010-10-01

    Water mobility and distribution in fermented sausages produced with differences in pH development as a result of the use of three different starter cultures (T-SPX, F-1, or F-SC-111) and two fermentation temperatures (24 degrees C, or 32 degrees C) were studied using low-field proton NMR relaxometry. Changes in the distribution and mobility of water in fermented sausages upon fermentation and drying were detectable by NMR T(2) relaxation, and the progress in the drying process could be followed as a shift towards faster relaxation times. In addition, the distribution of water in the sausages was significantly affected by the pH decline. The sausages were spiked with Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli VTEC, and partial least squares regressions revealed that 90% of the variation in reduction of Salmonella and VTEC could be explained by the NMR T(2) relaxation decay. Consequently, the study demonstrated that NMR relaxometry is a promising technique for elucidating process parameters and microbial safety in the production of fermented meat products.

  17. The relationships between consumer liking, sensory and chemical attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines elaborated with different Oenococcus oeni starter cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malherbe, Sulette; Menichelli, Elena; du Toit, Maret

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundMalolactic fermentation (MLF) mediated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been shown to modulate chemical and sensory attributes of wine. This study investigated the relation between consumer liking, chemical and sensory attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines that were made o...... attributes can influence consumer liking. Selection of an MLF starter culture can thus potentially be used to develop specific wine styles. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry......BackgroundMalolactic fermentation (MLF) mediated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been shown to modulate chemical and sensory attributes of wine. This study investigated the relation between consumer liking, chemical and sensory attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines that were made....... These effects on the wines were not the same for the two vintages tested. Preference mapping results showed that the sensory attributes influenced the average consumer liking. The main chemical and sensory correlations found for MLF-treated wines were related to 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) with the buttery...

  18. Screening the good set-style yogurt combined starter culture%优良“老酸奶”发酵剂组合的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿茹罕; 李春; 刘宁

    2012-01-01

    为了筛选出优良的酸奶发酵剂,根据菌株的稳定性、发酵活力、凝乳时间等指标对23菌株(其中有13株球菌与10株杆菌)进行初步筛选,获得13株具有优良发酵特性的菌株(其中有7株球菌与6株杆菌).根据单菌株发酵实验结果,按菌种性能互补原则将各球菌与杆菌复配,进行28个组合发酵实验,测定发酵速度、质构、乳清析出以及后酸化等指标.最终筛选出球菌S1、S4与杆菌L2,此组合与目前商业化直投发酵剂比具有发酵前期产酸速度快、发酵时间短的优点,而且具有天然的发酵香气,乳清析出量很少,适用于直投式发酵剂的生产.%To screen starter cultures for set-style yogurt production, the fermentation characteristics of 23 lactic acid bacteria strains (13 streptococci and 10 lactobacilli) were studied. By comparing the stability, activity and curd time of the 23 strains, 13 strains (7 streptococci and 6 lactobacilh) were screened out preliminary. According to the bacteria prepotent compensate principle, different strains were combined each other, and combined strains were evaluated according to the characteristics of fermented milk such as lactic acid productivity, texture profile analysis, quantity of whey and the acidification of the fermented milk during storage etc. The best combination strains were Si, S4 and L2. This combination produces acid quickly at the beginning of fermentation and has little whey, good flavor which has the potential to be used as the direct vet starter.

  19. SPSS for starters

    CERN Document Server

    Cleophas, Ton J

    2010-01-01

    This book contains all statistical tests relevant for starters on SPSS. Each test is explained using a data example from clinical practice along with the main tables of results with an accompanying text with interpretations of the results and hints.

  20. Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, II: Microstructure and Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Siefarth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency (RF heating was applied to stirred yoghurt after culturing in order to enhance the shelf-life and thereby meet industrial demands in countries where the distribution cold chain cannot be implicitly guaranteed. In parallel, a convectional (CV heating process was also tested. In order to meet consumers’ expectations with regard to texture and sensory properties, the yoghurts were heated to different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C. This second part of our feasibility study focused on the changes in microstructure and texture caused by post-fermentative heat treatment. It was shown that there were always microstructural changes with additional heat treatment. Compared to the dense and compact casein network in the stirred reference yoghurt, network contractions and further protein aggregation were observed after heat treatment, while at the same time larger pore geometries were detected. The changes in microstructure as well as other physical and sensorial texture properties (syneresis, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, apparent viscosity, G’, G’’, homogeneity were in good agreement with the temperature and time of the heat treatment (thermal stress. The RF heated products were found to be very similar to the stirred reference yoghurt, showing potential for further industrial development such as novel heating strategies to obtain products with prolonged shelf-life.

  1. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

    2014-01-01

    Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with freshor cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature...... cheese to improvemodel performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese....... The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias...

  2. Physical properties of yoghurt powder produced by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Banu; Sakin-Yılmazer, Melike; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen; Balkır, Pınar

    2014-07-01

    The study is an extension of an optimization study, which was planned to determine the optimum spray drying conditions (the feed, outlet and inlet air temperatures) for producing yoghurt powder. The resulting yoghurt powder at each condition was subjected to the measurement of physical properties, moisture content, and reconstitution properties. All the reconstitution properties of yoghurt powders produced under 20 different spray drying conditions according to CCRD experimental design were affected by the drying outlet temperature only. Furthermore, the bulk (bulk and tapped densities, porosity, flowability, hygroscopicity and degree of caking) and particle properties (particle size distribution, particle density and morphology) of yoghurt powder obtained from optimum spray drying conditions were also determined. The bulk, tapped and particle densities of yoghurt powder were 538, 746 and 1177 kg/m(3), respectively. The mean diameter (D4.3) and the span value of yoghurt powder were 3.053 and 2.487 μm, respectively.

  3. Influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis lafti® b94, inulin and transglutaminase on the properties of set- style yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Benković

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase on quality and sensory properties of set-style yoghurt. Fresh, homogenized milk with 3,3% of milk fat was used for yoghurt production, with addition of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase activated during 1h 30 min at 55 °C. Enzyme inactivation was carried out by pasteurization of milk during 15 minutes at 85 °C. Control samples were prepared without addition of probiotic culture, inulin and transglutaminase. Physico-chemical parameters and sensory properties of produced set-style yoghurt have been determined. For reliable identification of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, isolated from the produced yoghurt, SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins and PCR with species specific primers for Bifidobacterium were carried out. It has been shown that produced set-style yoghurt with probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase had higher firmness, less syneresis and better sensory properties than control yoghurt samples. After 28 days of storage the viable count of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94 was higher in samples containing inulin as prebiotic. Fermentation of yoghurt samples containing inulin and transglutaminase lasted shorter than fermentation of samples without inulin and transglutaminase. The presence of high number of probiotic culture (more than 106 cells/mL in produced set yoghurts was confirmed by SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins and PCR with species specific primers for Bifidobacterium

  4. Fermentation Technology for Purple Sweet Potato Juice Soybean Yoghurt%发酵型紫薯大豆酸奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新惠; 白婷; 张崟; 王国燕; 李俊霞; 邓晓燕; 罗静; 张庆

    2015-01-01

    以紫薯和黄豆为主要原料,选用嗜热链球菌(Streptococcus thermophiles 6038)和德氏乳酸杆菌保加利亚亚种(Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus),以1∶1混合作为发酵剂进行发酵,以感官评价为参考指标,确定紫薯大豆酸奶工艺参数。结果表明,紫薯大豆酸奶最佳工艺参数为:紫薯浆添加量8%、蔗糖添加量9%、接种量3%、发酵温度38℃、发酵时间8 h。在此条件下发酵的紫薯大豆酸奶,色泽呈均匀香芋色,口感细腻,酸奶特殊香气及紫薯味浓郁,酸甜适中,可溶性固形物≥10%,蛋白质含量≥2.9%,pH 4.6,酸度59°T,菌落总数3.1×107 cfu/mL,乳酸菌数2.8×107 cfu/mL,未检测出大肠杆菌和致病菌,其质量达到GB19302-2010《食品安全国家标准发酵乳》对酸奶的指标要求。%A new fermentation technology for solidification fermented soy milk prepared with purple sweet potato juice was investigated. The purple potatoes and soy milk were considered as raw materials and the mixture of Streptococcus thermophiles 6038 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus (1 ∶ 1) was selected as culture starters for preparation new flavor soybean yoghurt. The sensory evaluation was used as the index and the optimal fermentation technology of purple sweet potato juice soybean yoghurt was determined. The results showed that the best purple sweet potato soybean yogurt fermentation process parameters were as purple sweet potato juice addition 8 %, sugar addition 9 %, inoculation 3 %, fermentation temperature 38 ℃ and fermentation time 8 h. The healthcare yoghurt obtained was featured by uniform color , nice texture and smooth taste. Furthermore, the results showed that the quality of soybean yoghurt was as soluble solids≥10%, protein content≥2.9%, pH 4.6, the acidity of 59 °T, total number of colonies 3.1×107 cfu/mL and number of lactic acid bacteria 2.8×107 cfu/mL without E.coli and pathogenic

  5. Instant Prezi starter

    CERN Document Server

    Ladores, Minerva M

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starter guide to learning how to create presentations with Prezi.Instant Prezi Starter takes you through the first steps of learning how to use this amazing web-based tool! If you are tired of your same old presentation tools and are looking to wow your audience, then this book is for you! If you surf the Internet, you're all set. If you have created a website, wiki, or blog, then you're in even better shape! Enjoy!

  6. Instant Apache Maven starter

    CERN Document Server

    Turatti, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book follows a starter approach for using Maven to create and build a new Java application or Web project from scratch.Instant Apache Maven Starter is great for Java developers new to Apache Maven, but also for experts looking for immediate information. Moreover, only 20% of the necessary information about Maven is used in 80% of the activities. This book aims to focus on the most important information, those pragmatic parts you actually use

  7. Instant Sinatra starter

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, Instant Sinatra Starter will help you create a simple web app in no time at all. Instant Sinatra Starter is great if you are looking to get started with Sinatra for web development. Some previous experience with Ruby would be beneficial though not necessary for this step-by-step exploration of Sinatra and the world of web development.

  8. Instant Sublime Text starter

    CERN Document Server

    Haughee, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A starter which teaches the basic tasks to be performed with Sublime Text with the necessary practical examples and screenshots. This book requires only basic knowledge of the Internet and basic familiarity with any one of the three major operating systems, Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. However, as Sublime Text 2 is primarily a text editor for writing software, many of the topics discussed will be specifically relevant to software development. That being said, the Sublime Text 2 Starter is also suitable for someone without a programming background who may be looking to learn one of the tools of

  9. Research on development of Bifidobacterium adolescentis-containing solidified yoghurt and selective medium for strains%青春双歧杆菌凝固型酸奶研制及选择性培养基比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘韩; 关宏; 杨文钦; 张琪; 韩明宇; 刘吉成

    2011-01-01

    以鲜牛奶、白砂糖为主要原料,以青春双歧杆菌、保加利亚乳杆菌、嗜热链球菌为发酵剂,制成营养保健的青春双歧杆菌凝固型酸奶.通过试验确定了青春双歧杆菌凝固型酸奶最佳工艺为:白砂糖8%,接种量3%,保加利亚乳杆菌:嗜热链球菌:青春双歧杆菌=1:1:4,发酵4h.结合MRS培养基和LM-MRS培养基可以对青春双歧杆菌凝固型酸奶中三种乳酸分别计数.青春双歧杆凝固型酸奶中保加利亚乳杆菌活菌数为8.0x108 cfu.mL-1,嗜热链球菌活茵数为8.5x108cfu·mL-1,青春双歧杆菌活茵数为2.0x106 cfu·mL-1.%The nutritional and healthy solidified yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium adolescentic has been made, using fresh milk and sugar as the main raw materials and using Bifidobacterium adolescentic, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as starter cultures. The optimum technological condition of solidified yoghurt of Bifidobacterium adolescentic was determined: they are respectively 8% of sugar, 3% of inoculum and three lactic acid bacteria which are Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium adoles centic and the percentage of these three lactic acid bacteria is 1:1:4, the time of fermentation is 4 h. The number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium adolescentic could be counted in solidified Bifidobacterium adolescentic. Solidified yoghurt contain the number of viable Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is 8.0 × 108 cfu· mL-1, the number of viable Streptococcus thermophilus is 8.5× 108 cfu· mL-1, the number of viable Bifidobacterium adolescentic is 2.0×106 cfu·mL-1.

  10. Influence of starter culture and a protease on the generation of ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant bioactive nitrogen compounds in Iberian dry-fermented sausage “salchichón”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Fernández

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the addition of an autochthonous starter culture and the protease EPg222 on the generation of angiotensin-I–converting enzyme (ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant compounds by the dry-fermented sausage “salchichón” was investigated. Sausages were prepared with purified EPg222 and Pediococcus acidilactici MS200 and Staphylococcus vitulus RS34 as the starter culture (P200S34, separately and together, ripened for 90 days, and compared to a control batch. Among the ripening time points (20, 35, 65, 90 days studied, batches inoculated with EPg222 had higher nitrogen compound concentrations at 63 days of ripening. ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities were also highest in both batches with EPg222 at 63 days of ripening, and these activities were stable in most cases after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion. These activities were correlated with the most relevant compounds detected by HLPC-ESI-MS. The principal components analysis (PCA linked the P200S34 + EPg222 batch with the major compounds identified. The antioxidant activity was higher at 63 days of ripening, especially in highly proteolytic batches, such as P200S34 + EPg222. The ACE-inhibitory activity was not associated with any of the major compounds. The use of the enzyme EPg222 in association with the starter culture P200S34 in the preparation of dry-cured meat products could be of great importance due to their demonstrated ability to produce compounds with high biological activity, such as ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activity.

  11. Influence of starter culture and a protease on the generation of ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant bioactive nitrogen compounds in Iberian dry-fermented sausage "salchichón".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Margarita; Benito, María J; Martín, Alberto; Casquete, Rocío; Córdoba, Juan J; Córdoba, María G

    2016-03-01

    The effect of the addition of an autochthonous starter culture and the protease EPg222 on the generation of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory and antioxidant compounds by the dry-fermented sausage "salchichón" was investigated. Sausages were prepared with purified EPg222 and Pediococcus acidilactici MS200 and Staphylococcus vitulus RS34 as the starter culture (P200S34), separately and together, ripened for 90 days, and compared to a control batch. Among the ripening time points (20, 35, 65, 90 days) studied, batches inoculated with EPg222 had higher nitrogen compound concentrations at 63 days of ripening. ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities were also highest in both batches with EPg222 at 63 days of ripening, and these activities were stable in most cases after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion. These activities were correlated with the most relevant compounds detected by HLPC-ESI-MS. The principal components analysis (PCA) linked the P200S34 + EPg222 batch with the major compounds identified. The antioxidant activity was higher at 63 days of ripening, especially in highly proteolytic batches, such as P200S34 + EPg222. The ACE-inhibitory activity was not associated with any of the major compounds. The use of the enzyme EPg222 in association with the starter culture P200S34 in the preparation of dry-cured meat products could be of great importance due to their demonstrated ability to produce compounds with high biological activity, such as ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activity.

  12. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum 19L3, a Strain Proposed as a Starter Culture for Slovenská Bryndza Ovine Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    D'Auria, Giuseppe; Džunková, Mária; Moya, Andrés; Tomáška, Martin; Kološta, Miroslav; Kmet, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from ovine cheese is presented here. This bacterium is proposed as a starter strain, named 19L3, for Slovenská bryndza cheese, a traditional Slovak cheese fulfilling European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) requirements.

  13. On-line monitoring of important organoleptic methyl-branched aldehydes during batch fermentation of starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus reveal new insight into their production in a model fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vos Petersen, Christian; Beck, Hans Christian; Lauritsen, Frants R

    2004-01-01

    of a longer aerobic growth period. Growing S. xylosus under conditions resembling those in a fermented sausage revealed that NaCl (5%) increased aldehyde production considerably, whereas KNO(3) (0.03%) or NaNO(2) (0.03%) had little effect. A lowering of pH from 7.2 to 6.0 reduced cell density, but had a minor......A small fermentor (55 mL) was directly interfaced to a membrane inlet mass spectrometer for continuous on-line monitoring of oxygen and volatile metabolites during batch fermentations of the starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus. Using this technique, we were able to correlate production...

  14. Instant OSGi starter

    CERN Document Server

    Goodyear, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Using a practical approach with explanation where needed, the book will take an in depth look at what OSGi is and what it offers to Java programmers and development standards. ""OSGi Starter"" is intended for the senior Java programmer whom will be joining OSGi based projects, or for Architects looking to broaden their exposure to OSGi as a beneficial framework and runtime software system.

  15. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viabilidade de Staphylococcus xylosus isoladas de embutidos artesanais para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em produtos cárneos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Maria Fiorentini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages.Investigamos a viabilidade de cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5 isoladas de embutidos com fermentação natural, para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em embutidos fermentados produzidos na Região Sul do Brasil. O estudo demonstrou que cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5 apresentaram crescimento significativo durante a fermentação, estabilidade no processo de liofilização e conservação, ausência de produção de enterotoxinas e viabilidade para aplicação como cultivo iniciador simples ou associado com bactérias lácticas na elaboração de embutidos fermentados.

  16. Quality Characteristics of Stirred Yoghurt Added with Fermented Red Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mi-Sang; Kim, Jeong-Mee; Lee, Chi-Ho; Son, Yoon-Jeong; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Pungency of hot pepper has limited its usage even though it shows various health beneficial effects. This study was conducted to develop the novel yoghurt containing hot pepper with diminishing pungency and aimed to examine the quality characteristics of yoghurt prepared with fermented red pepper. Hot pepper was first fermented with Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 to reduce the pungency of capsaicin. We then examined the quality, sensory characteristics, and antioxidant activity of yoghurt containing the fermented red pepper. The titratable acidity of this yoghurt increased whereas the viscosity decreased with increasing amounts of added red pepper. The total polyphenol content increased in proportion to the amount of added red pepper. The antioxidant activity significantly increased with the addition of red pepper (p<0.05). Color evaluation showed that the L value decreased whereas the a and b values increased significantly with the amount of red pepper added (p<0.05). In the sensory evaluation, yoghurt prepared with higher amounts of fermented red pepper received lower scores. However, yoghurt containing fermented red pepper at a concentration of 0.05% received higher scores for taste, flavor, and overall acceptability than yoghurt prepared with non-fermented pepper. Therefore, it can be concluded that the application of red pepper fermented by Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 gives beneficial feature to the preparation of yoghurt.

  17. FERMENTABILITY AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LACTOPEROXIDASE ACTIVATED BUFFALO MILK YOGHURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz H. Soomro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study was planned to produce and evaluate the coagulum from buffalo milk preserved with the activation of its lactoperoxidase system (LPO-system. A total of 10 trials were conducted and in each trial milk base was equally divided into three parts, two of which were treated with 20 mg/L (A and 30 mg/L (B solution of Sodium thiocyanate + Hydrogen peroxide and third part was kept as control (C. All the samples were analyzed for fermentability trend, pH, acidity, viscosity, specific gravity, syneresis and organoleptic properties. The decreasing trend in pH during fermentation period was comparatively slow in LPO-system activated milk A and B (4h and 5h as compared to control yoghurt (3h. The titratable acidity (% lactic acid of A, B and C yoghurt was 0.86±0.022, 0.85±0.025 and 0.89±0.024, respectively. The viscosity and specific gravity of control yoghurt was significantly (P0.05 were observed in the total solids, fat, ash, lactose and protein contents among the control, A and B yoghurt. Two week stored samples of control yoghurt received lower sensory score for appearance, flavor, body/texture and overall acceptability as compared to fresh control yoghurt. Simultaneously, LPO-system treated A and B yoghurt received high score during storage period than the control yoghurt.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF SET AND DRINKING SESAME YOGHURT FROM DECORTICATED SESAME SEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abdullah Afaneh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sesame yoghurt developed from sesame seed fortified with different fortifiers resulted in yoghurt that lacks the typical yogurt texture. This study aimed to develop set and drinking yoghurt from sesame milk. Gums were used to develop sesame set yoghurt and sesame yoghurt drink. The best set yoghurt was produced from the sesame milk fortified with 2% Cheese Dried Whey (CDW plus 0.6% pectin and 0.2% CMC. The best yoghurt drink was produced from sesame milk fortified with dried whey plus 0.2% guar gum and pasteurized at 75°C for 5 min.

  19. Starter bacteria are the prime agents of lipolysis in cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Dara K; Kilcawley, Kieran N; Beresford, Tom P; Wilkinson, Martin G

    2006-10-18

    To assess the contribution of starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to lipolysis in Cheddar cheese, the evolution of free fatty acids (FFAs) was monitored in Cheddar cheeses manufactured from pasteurized milks with or without starter. Starter-free cheeses were acidified by a combination of lactic acid and glucono-delta-lactone. Starter cultures were found to actively produce FFAs in the cheese vat, and mean levels of FFAs were significantly higher in starter cheeses over ripening. The contribution of nonstarter LAB toward lipolysis appears minimal, especially in starter-acidified cheeses. It is postulated that the moderate increases in FFAs in Cheddar cheese are primarily due to lack of access of esterase of LAB to suitable lipid substrate. The results of this study indicate that starter esterases are the primary contributors to lipolysis in Cheddar cheese made from good quality pasteurized milk.

  20. Profiles of non-essential trace elements in ewe and goat milk and their yoghurt, Torba yoghurt and whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, Hasan; Güler, Zehra; Park, Young W

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the profiles of non-essential trace elements in ewes' and goats' milk and manufactured products, such as yoghurt, torba yoghurt and whey, as well as changes in trace element content during Torba yoghurt-making processes. Concentrations of non-essential trace elements in ewe (Awassi) and goat (Damascus) milk and their yoghurt, torba yoghurt and whey were quantitatively determined by simultaneous inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), after microwave digestion. Aluminium, antimony, arsenic, boron, beryllium, cadmium, nickel, lead, silver, titanium, thallium and vanadium were determined for both types of milk and their products. Barium was not detected in goats' milk or their products. Among all trace elements, boron was the most abundant and beryllium was least present in milk and the manufactured products. The results showed that goats' and ewes' milk and their manufactured products may be a source of 13 non-essential trace elements.

  1. Effect of yoghurt or yoghurt serum on microbial quality of cig kofte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Mahmut; Cankurt, Hasan; Toker, Omer Said; Yetim, Hasan; Sagdic, Osman

    2014-07-01

    Cig kofte, raw meatball is a traditionally produced meat product in Turkey and some other Middle East countries. It is prepared from mixtures of finely minced raw beef, bulgur, onions, various spices and tap water. Cig kofte is an uncooked product and popularly consumed with lettuce and lemon juice. In this study, yoghurt or yoghurt serum (YS) were added to the mixtures of cig kofte instead of tap water to reduce microbial risks of the raw meatball. Additionally, the effects of yoghurt and YS on some physicochemical characteristics of cig kofte were investigated. Cig kofte is generally consumed within a few hours after the preparation because of its raw nature. Also, it is generally sold under unhygienic conditions in restaurants and restaurant-like places. For this purpose, reducing of the microbial load of cig kofte is important. In the results, Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected in any samples. While lactic acid bacteria count increased by addition of yoghurt and YS, the number of other microorganisms except for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) were decreased. The aw values and% moisture contents of the samples were varied between 0.88-0.94 and 46.25-49.72, respectively. The pH values of the samples were slightly changed during the storage of 24 h while no changes detected in the control samples during the storage. In conclusion, it can be suggested that using the yoghurt or YS instead of tap water in the preparation of cig kofte might ensure the microbial safety, increase the nutritional value and its flavour or aroma.

  2. Instant Google Drive starter

    CERN Document Server

    Procopio, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This book is a Starter which teaches you how to use Google Drive practically. This book is perfect for people of all skill levels who want to enjoy the benefits of using Google Drive to safely store their files online and in the cloud. It's also great for anyone looking to learn more about cloud computing in general. Readers are expected to have an Internet connection and basic knowledge of using the internet.

  3. Suitability of a probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain as a starter culture in olive fermentation and development of the innovative patented product “probiotic table olives”

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo eSisto; Paola eLavermicocca

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria are generally available for consumers as concentrated preparations or incorporated in milk-based foods. Due to an increased interest of the market for probiotic foods as well as to meet a demand of industry for innovation, a new kind of probiotic food has been developed using table olives as a carrier. Green table olives, produced according to the Spanish-style, are obtained by a fermentation which can be carried out by spontaneous microflora, even if the use of starter cul...

  4. Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages and their technological properties for application as starter cultures Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de salames artesanais naturalmente fermentados e suas propriedades tecnológicas como culturas iniciadoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Cortez Sawitzki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, technological properties of L. plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages manufactured in the South region of Brazil were investigated in order to obtain a starter culture. The technological properties evaluated were the following: ability to growth at different pH values, at different temperatures, in different salt concentrations and in the presence of commercial curing salt, fast production of acid, determination of D - and L - lactic acid; nitrate reductase activity; antagonistic activity and stability of the isolated cultures after fermentation, concentration, and freeze-drying process. The isolated strains showed effectiveness to improve technological properties as starter cultures.No presente estudo foram investigadas as propriedades tecnológicas de culturas de L. plantarum, isoladas de salames artesanais, naturalmente fermentados, manufaturados na região Sul do Brasil, a fim de obter um cultivo iniciador. As propriedades tecnológicas investigadas foram as seguintes: habilidade das culturas para crescer em diferentes valores de pH, em diferentes concentrações de sal e na presença de sal de cura comercial; rápida produção de ácido, produção do isômero D - ou L - ácido láctico, atividade nitrato redutase, atividade antagonística e estabilidade das culturas após processo de fermentação, concentração e liofilização. Todas as culturas apresentaram eficiência quanto às propriedades tecnológicas investigadas.

  5. Instant Spring security starter

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  6. Munin plugin starter

    CERN Document Server

    Brinke, Bart ten

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This hands-on Starter guide will get you up and running with Munin and Munin plugins, giving you the power to monitor, fix, and optimize your networks.This book is great for system administrators who want to improve the monitoring level of their systems. It's assumed that you have some experience with Linux-based systems and know your way around them.

  7. Instant Metasploit starter

    CERN Document Server

    Ranganath, Karthik

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Metasploit Starter is a fast-paced introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start as a smart ethical hacker, and defend your world from attacks instantly.This book is designed for security enthusiasts who are more interested in getting hands-on experience rather than reading just theory. It is also for anyone who is aware of the Metasploit framework and wishes to understand it better and start using it inst

  8. Rice- Coconut Yoghurt: Preparation, Nutritional and Sensory Qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belewu, Moshood Adewale

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of using rice milk and coconut milk in the preparation of yoghurt was evaluated in a completely randomized design model. Commercial yoghurt was the control Treatment (A while other Treatments were B (25% rice milk plus 75% coconut milk, C (50% rice milk plus 50% coconut milk and D (75% rice milk plus 25% coconut milk .The various yoghurt samples were analyzed for their proximate composition and sensory value. Higher crude protein content and solids not fat were recorded for Treatment C. The overall acceptability was greatest for Treatment C, greater for Treatment B, great for Treatment D and least for Treatment A (control. This type of yoghurt is recommended for weight watcher and lactose intolerance persons.

  9. Development of Set Raspberry Soya-yoghurt%凝固型覆盆子酸豆奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐民民; 颜繁龙; 李岩

    2012-01-01

      Set Raspberry Soya-yoghurt was made by using soy, raw milk and raspberry. In this paper, the opti⁃mum content of the soya-milk was obtained, while the optimization of technologic parameters for Set Raspber⁃ry Soya-yoghurt production were investigated by orthogonal test. Determined parameters for the production process were:fermentation temperature of 42℃, the starter inoculum of 3%and the addition quantity of Rasp⁃berry fruit of 5%. The Set Raspberry Soya-yoghurt tastes delicious and thus has extensive application pros⁃pects.%  以大豆、牛乳、覆盆子为主要原料研制凝固型酸豆奶,确定了豆乳替代牛乳的最佳添加量;同时以发酵温度(A)、果汁添加量(B)、菌种接种量(C)为三因素,对凝固型覆盆子酸豆奶的工艺参数进行了优化。试验结果表明,最优工艺优化参数:发酵温度为42℃,接种量为3%,覆盆子果汁添加量为5%。采用本工艺生产的凝固型酸豆奶不但口感细腻爽口,酸甜适宜,而且有浓郁的覆盆子香味,发展前景十分广阔。

  10. 山药桂圆保健酸奶的研制%Development of Aam-longan Yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏秋红

    2014-01-01

    山药桂圆酸奶是以山药、桂圆和鲜牛奶为主要原料,利用保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌以1∶1混合作为发酵剂进行发酵,研制出的一种集山药、桂圆和酸奶的营养保健功能于一体的新型乳品。通过单因素和正交试验确定了山药桂圆酸奶的最佳配方,即在鲜牛奶中添加30%山药浆,3%桂圆汁和6.5%蔗糖,3%乳酸菌。在此工艺条件下制得的山药桂圆酸奶营养丰富、感官品质好。%The yam-longan yoghurt is a new functional drink made from yam,longan and milk as the main materials by lactic acid fermentation with 1 ∶ 1 of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as mixed starter.The formula of materials and technical conditions of fermentation of yam-longan yoghurt were obtained by single and orthogonal experiments.It was proved that the optimum formula of yam-longan yoghurt was yam juice 30%, longan vine 3%,sugar 6.5%and the lactic acid bacteria 3%in fresh milk. The product was proved to be very nutritional and good on sensory quality.

  11. 发酵剂对熏马肠成熟过程中蛋白质降解的影响%Effect of starter culture on proteolytic changes during the ripening of smoked horse sausages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩鲜娜; 卢士玲; 李开雄

    2013-01-01

    对熏马肠发酵成熟过程中蛋白质的降解变化进行了研究.结果表明,非蛋白氮含量在加工过程中持续增加,并且发酵剂组的非蛋白氮值上升较快;通过SDS-PAGE图谱分析,肌浆蛋白和肌原纤维蛋白均发生了降解,发酵剂组的蛋白降解程度明显高于空白组,尤其是肌浆蛋白,分子质量在14.4 ku、27 ~35 ku、66~90 ku附近的蛋白条带均降解消失;通过对组织蛋白酶B和L活力测定,得出空白组的酶活力高于发酵剂组.%In this study, the changes of proteolysis during processing of Smoked horse sausages were studied. The results showed that the concentration of the non-protein nitrogen ( NPN) were increasing during the processing, and increased quickly in the batch inoculated with the starter culture. The results of SDS-PAGE showed that both of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins were degradated and proteolysis levels were higher in the inoculated batch, especially sarcoplasmic proteins, whose bands with molecular weight from 14.4kDa, from 27 to 35kDa and from 66 to 90kDa disappeared. Based on the measurement of proteolytic activities ( Cathepsin B and L) , higher levels of cathep-sins B, L activities were recorded in the non-inoculated batch than those in the batch inoculated with the starter culture.

  12. Examining the possibilities of applying high pressure to preserve yoghurt supplemented with probiotic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Agnieszka; Grześkiewicz, Aleksandra; Wiśniewska, Krystyna; Reps, Arnold

    2012-09-01

    Natural yoghurt was subject to pressures of 200 and 250 MPa/4 and 18°C/15 min, after which milk-activated inocula of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. were added. The yoghurts were stored for 4 weeks at refrigeration temperature. After preparation and each week of storage, the count of bacteria, acidity, antibacterial property and an organoleptic assessment was determined. The highest survival rate was demonstrated by the bacteria of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. in the yoghurt pressurised 200 MPa/15min at 4°C. Acidity increases in the control yoghurts were higher than in the pressurised ones. Pressurised yoghurts demonstrated weaker antibacterial effect in comparison to control yoghurts. Slight changes in the smell and taste were observed after pressurisation. Yoghurts pressurised at 18°C were characterised by more favourable organoleptic properties. Better conciseness of the curd and lower whey seep out were observed in pressurised yoghurt.

  13. Multilingual school starters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia

    of globalisation. Furthermore, this perception of literacy entails that the student’s possible insights into other ways of adding signs to language than those we know from a specific version of the Latin alphabet, fall outside the interests of research and teaching. From this perspective and with a social semiotic......Multilingual school starters: social semiotics perspectives on second language and literacy learning in education Helle Pia Laursen The starting point for this paper is the still increasing role of literacy in educational settings. Often primary education is seen as almost being synonymous...... with learning to read and write and activities that include literacy play a pivotal role. At the same time, in the Nordic countries, there seems to be a growing tendency to use literacy skills to regulate education through outcome metrics and international comparisons of test scores. This implies...

  14. Cow feeding system versus milk utility for yoghurt manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Jasińska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. A cow feeding system had a significant effect on the basic parameters characterising milk technological usability. Milk from the Polish Black-and-White variety of the Holstein-Friesland cows kept in the Total Mixed Ration (TMR feeding system or on the traditional feeding regime was compared in terms of its utility for yoghurt manufacture. Material and methods. Milk samples, collected six times a year at about 2-month intervals, were assayed for density, acidity, and contents of fat, protein, and lactose. Dry matter and solid-not-fat (SNF contents were determined, as was the protein/fat ratio. Thermal stability of the milk was assessed with alcohol tests. The yoghurts manufactured (test yoghurts were assayed for acidity, acetaldehyde content, and hardness. The yoghurts were also subjected to sensory evaluation. Results. The cow feeding regime was found to have distinctly affected the composition and physico-chemical parameters of milk. Milk samples collected from cows fed in the traditional system contained more fat and dry matter than the milk yielded by the TMR-fed cattle. The latter produced milk that usually showed higher crude protein and casein contents, as well as higher SNF contents; in addition, the density of that milk was higher. Conclusions. The feeding regime did not affect, in any clear-cut way, the sensory characteristics of the test yoghurts. However, those yoghurts manufactured from the TMR-fed cow milk contained more acetaldehyde and, in most cases, showed higher hardness, compared to the yoghurts made from milk produced by the cows kept on the traditional feeding regime.

  15. 发酵剂与凝乳酶对Mozzarella干酪品质的影响研究%Studies on Effects of Culture Starters and Coagulants on the Quality of Mozzarella Cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪梅; 张轶

    2014-01-01

    The paper studied the effect of culture starters and coagulants on the quality of Mozzarel a cheese which was suitable for domestic consumption. In view of the high acid production, production of viscous and diacetyl content, as wel as the soluble nitrogen is medium when the pH value is 4.6, the starter of CHOOZIT MA14 was chosen for the actual production. In consideration of the state and time of curd , cheese yield and texture and sensory evaluation, the cheese rennet which additives for 0.025 g/L was more suitable for the actual production of Mozzarel a cheese.%为生产出适合在国内消费的Mozzarella干酪,本文研究了发酵剂和凝乳酶对Mozzarella干酪品质的影响。结果表明:以产酸较快、产粘性较高、双乙酰含量较高、pH值为4.6时可溶性氮适中为原则,结合干酪的感官评价结果,选择CHOOZIT MA14发酵剂作为Mozzarella干酪实际生产用发酵剂;综合考虑凝乳的状态、凝乳时间及干酪产率和感官评价结果,添加量为0.025 g/L的奶酪凝乳酶更适用于Mozzarel a干酪的实际生产。

  16. Study on high cell density culture conditions of DVS yogurt starter cultures%直投式酸奶发酵剂高密度培养工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古绍彬; 吴影; 李爱江; 李荣春; 姬丹阳; 邓衍庆; 王强

    2009-01-01

    Lactobacillus bulgaricus L.b-23 and Streptococcus thermophilus S.t-14, which had been isolated and identified in our laboratory,were used for the production of DVS yogurt starter cultures.The optimum fermentation condition was studied.For strains L.b-23 :S.t-14 of 1:1, pH varied from 6.6~6.8,shakers rotating speed 85~100r/min, 42℃ for 18h,the cell population was up to 1.27×10~9 cfu/mL.The cryoprotectants consisting of trehalose (1.8%), glycerin (0.25%), glutamate- Na (5.5%) and Tween 80 (0.5%) was added to the suspension. Owing to the cryoprotectants produced a very positive effect on promoting the viability of the paired strains Lb-23-S.t-14,the cells of the production were 3.35 × 10~(11) cfu/g after freeze-drying treatment.%以实验室筛选获得的适于发酵生产用的直投式酸奶发酵剂菌株组合保加利亚乳杆菌Lb-23和嗜热链球菌S.t-14为材料,对其高密度培养工艺进行了研究.结果发现,按球菌:杆菌=1:1的混合培养比例,pH 6.6~6.8,转速85~100r/min,42℃培养18h后,活菌数达到1.27×10~9cfu/mL;菌悬液经1.8%海藻糖、0.25%甘油、5.5%谷氨酸钠和0.5%吐温80保护剂处理,冷冻干燥后获得的发酵剂活菌数达到3.35×10~(11)cfu/g.

  17. Liquid Culture of Monascus Seed & Deep-ventilation Red starter-making%红曲霉液体种子的培养及深层通风制曲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹成杰; 李清龙

    2012-01-01

    建立了红曲霉种子的液体培养方法,实现了红曲的深层通风制曲。通过测定红曲霉的酯化力和色价并实践运用,结果表明,该液体培养法比传统固体帘子法获得的红曲霉质量更好,产量更高,且降低了杂菌的感染率和劳动强度,实现了规模化生产。%Liquid culture of Monascus seed and deep-ventilation red starter-making were carried out in the experiments.Through the measurement of the esterifying power and the color value of the produced Monascus and the evaluation on its practical use,it was found that liquid culture method,compared with traditional solid curtain method,could produce more Monascus of better quality,reduce the risk of mixed bacteria infection and labor intensity,and realize large-scale production.

  18. 乳酸菌直投制备金针菇泡菜的风味物质分析%Analysis of flavor compounds in Flammulina velutiper fermented by lactobacillus starter culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈聪; 董英; 程新; 肖香; 史腊妮

    2015-01-01

    将2株Lactobacillus plantarum(植物乳杆菌)1∶1复配,直投制备金针菇泡菜,并以自然发酵为对照,比较发酵前后金针菇泡菜的感官指标及主要风味物质的变化.结果表明,直投发酵制备的金针菇泡菜呈乳白色,酸度适宜,感官指标优于自然发酵金针菇;直投发酵制备的金针菇泡菜所产生的挥发性风味物质中芳香族化合物、酚类、杂环化合物、醛类、酮类、醚类和酯类化合物的含量均明显高于自然发酵,且主要挥发性成分(相对含量在1%以上)如1-辛醇(1.53%)、乙醛(1.18%)、乙偶姻(1.14%)等含量均高于自然发酵.直投发酵所产生的总氨基酸(547.59 μg/mL)、鲜甜味氨基酸(315.93μg/mL)、必需氨基酸(76.46μg/mL)以及多种有机酸的含量也明显高于自然发酵.与自然发酵相比,乳酸菌直投发酵可以加快金针菇泡菜成熟速度,改善产品风味,适用于金针菇泡菜的生产.%Flammulina velutiper was fermented from two Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures with ratio of 1∶ 1.The natural fermentation was used as control.The organoleptic investigation was carried out and the main flavor compounds were compared.The results showed that,the color of Flammulina velutiper fermented from starter culture was white and its acidity was appropriate,which was better than that from natural fermentation.The contents of aromatic compound,phenols,heterocyclic compound,aldehyde,ketone,ether and esters in Flammulina velutiper from direct fermentation were higher than those from natural fermentation.The contents of some kinds of main flavor compounds (above 1%) in the former were higher,including 1-Octanol (1.53%),aldehyde (1.18%),acetoin (1.14%),and so on.The contents of total amino acid (547.59 μg/mL),amino acid (315.93 μg/mL) with sweet and palatable taste,essential amino acid (76.46 μg/mL) and many kinds of organic acid in the former were higher.Compared with natural fermentation

  19. Creep and fracture of a model yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manneville, Sebastien; Leocmach, Mathieu; Perge, Christophe; Divoux, Thibaut

    2014-11-01

    Biomaterials such as protein or polysaccharide gels are known to behave qualitatively as soft solids and to rupture under an external load. Combining optical and ultrasonic imaging to shear rheology we show that the failure scenario of a model yoghurt, namely a casein gel, is reminiscent of brittle solids: after a primary creep regime characterized by a macroscopically homogeneous deformation and a power-law behavior which exponent is fully accounted for by linear viscoelasticity, fractures nucleate and grow logarithmically perpendicularly to shear, up to the sudden rupture of the gel. A single equation accounting for those two successive processes nicely captures the full rheological response. The failure time follows a decreasing power-law with the applied shear stress, similar to the Basquin law of fatigue for solids. These results are in excellent agreement with recent fiber-bundle models that include damage accumulation on elastic fibers and exemplify protein gels as model, brittle-like soft solids. Work funded by the European Research Council under Grant Agreement No. 258803.

  20. The effect of high pressures on the yoghurt from milk with the stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reps, A; Jankowska, A; Wisniewska, K [Chair of Food Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury, Heweliusza str 1., 10-724 Olsztyn (Poland)], E-mail: arnold.reps@uwm.edu.pl

    2008-07-15

    The effect of high pressures on the microbiological and physio-chemical properties of yoghurt was investigated. The best results were obtained when the yoghurt was manufactured from milk with the addition of MYO 752 stabilizer (starch, gelatin, pectin) selected from 10 stabilizers. Yoghurt manufactured with the addition of 0, 6% MYO 752 stabilizer was processed at the pressure of 400-600 MPa/15 min. in the range of 50 MPa. Pressurization caused a total reduction of number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and reduced the number of Streptococcus thermophilus by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Pressurized and non-pressurized yoghurts characterized of a homogenous consistency and typical plain yoghurt taste. The decrease of the number of living bacteria was observed in yoghurts during the storage. The acidity of pressurized yoghurts remained on the some level at the temperature of 4{sup 0}C and 20{sup 0}C. The more intensive antibacterial activity of microflora was observed in yoghurts storaged at 20{sup 0}C in comparison with yoghurts storaged at 4{sup 0}C. Disadvantageous changes of the pressurized yoghurts consistency were not found. The taste and aroma of yoghurts remained without any changes.

  1. Production of wheat bread without preservatives using sourdough starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkova, Rositsa; Ilieva, Svetla; Denkova, Zapryana; Georgieva, Ljubka; Yordanova, Mariya; Nikolova, Dilyana; Evstatieva, Yana

    2014-09-03

    In order for the beneficial effects of sourdough application in breadmaking to take place a proper selection of lactic acid bacteria species and strains, an appropriate technology and effective control of the purity and activity of the selected cultures. Four symbiotic starters for sourdough for the production of bread were developed and probated in a production laboratory using the selected strains Lactobacillus brevis LBRZ7, L. buchneri LBRZ6, L. plantarum X2, L. paracasei RN5, L. sanfranciscensis R and L. fermentum LBRH10 and the probiotic strain Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii NBIMCC 327. The starter sourdoughs that include Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii NBIMCC 327 had greater antimicrobial activity against saprophytic microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, B. mesentericus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp., but none of them inhibited the growth of bakery yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was established that in order to prevent bacterial spoilage 10% of the selected starter sourdoughs had to be added in the breadmaking process, while for prevention of mold spoilage the necessary amount of starter sourdough had to be between 15% and 20%.The application of the developed starters for the production of wheat bread guarantees longer shelf life and no adverse alterations in the features of the final bread.

  2. PRESERVATIVE POTENTIAL OF PURIFIED BACTERIOCIN PRODUCED FROM BREVIBACILLUS BORSTELENSIS AG1 ISOLATED FROM MARCHA – A TRADITIONAL WINE STARTER CULTURE CAKE IN TOMATO PASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Gupta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purified bacteriocin produced from Brevibacillus borstelensis AG1 isolated from Marcha a local wine starter herbal cake, was used to enhance the shelf life of tomato paste. Preservative effect of purified bacteriocin was studied for nine days in tomato paste inoculated with food borne pathogens and was compared to commercial biopreservative – nisin and chemical preservative – sodium benzoate. The indicator strains i.e. Listeria monocytogenes MTCC839, Bacillus subtilis CRI and Clostridium perfringens MTCC1739 were used at the amount 8.16, 8.13 and 8.18 log CFU/ml. Viable cells were counted periodically and a consistent reduction in number of viable cells of each tested pathogen was observed. It was found antagonistic against L. monocytogenes MTCC839, B. subtilis CRI and C. perfringes MTCC1739 which are the most challengeable and food borne pathogens found in processed vegetables products. Purified bacteriocin was found active over a wide pH range i.e. 3.0 to 11.0 and was able to withstand temperature up to 100oC. It showed a better preservative potential by reducing pathogenic load of the tested strains (by 2.02, 2.05 and 2.02 log cycles (CFU/ml of L. monocytogenes MTCC839, B. subtilis CRI and C. perfringes MTCC1739, respectively in tomato paste as compared to control (without bacteriocin. This proves efficiency of bacteriocin produced by B. borstelensis AG1 as biopreservative to enhance the safety and shelf life of acidic foods.

  3. Biodiversity of Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages isolated from cheese whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Miriam; Bonvini, Barbara; Rossetti, Lia; Meucci, Aurora; Giraffa, Giorgio; Carminati, Domenico

    2015-05-01

    Twenty-one Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages, 18 isolated from different cheese whey starters and three from CNRZ collection, were phenotypically and genetically characterised. A biodiversity between phages was evidenced both by host range and molecular (RAPD-PCR) typing. A more detailed characterisation of six phages showed similar structural protein profiles and a relevant genetic biodiversity, as shown by restriction enzyme analysis of total DNA. Latent period, burst time and burst size data evidenced that phages were active and virulent. Overall, data highlighted the biodiversity of Lb. helveticus phages isolated from cheese whey starters, which were confirmed to be one of the most common phage contamination source in dairy factories. More research is required to further unravel the ecological role of Lb. helveticus phages and to evaluate their impact on the dairy fermentation processes where whey starter cultures are used.

  4. USO DE CULTURAS INICIADORAS PARA A ELABORAÇÃO DE UM EMBUTIDO À BASE DE CARNE DE PATO (Cairina moschata USE OF STARTER CULTURES TO PRODUCE FERMENTED SAUSAGE FROM DUCK MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Oliveira CARIONI

    2001-12-01

    industry, being directly related to the final product flavor, texture, colour and shelf life. The use of starter cultures to produce fermented sausages with a base of duck meat from the boning of thighs and real thighs was evaluated in this research. A mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum BN and Kokuria varians CCT 4492 starter cultures was used to inoculate the meat mixture. The sausages were smoked in a smoking chamber at 23±1°C for approximately 19 hours and were cured for 25 days. The initial counting of viable cells in the sausage mixture was 6.08Log10 CFU/g and 6.04Log10 CFU/g for lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcacea, respectively. Acid lactic bacteria displayed a growth of 0.79 logarithm cycles after the second day of processing, and an increase of 2.58 logarithm cycles at the 11th day. The final product acidity average value in lactic acid was 0,39%, and the pH value, 5.11. The physico-chemical analyses rested within Brazilian Legal Standards. The final product presented a sensorial profile within acceptable quality standards.

  5. Phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR of promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented sausages Caracterização fenotípica e por PCR espécie-específica de cepas promissoras como cultivos iniciadores de Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de embutidos cárneos fermentados naturalmente

    OpenAIRE

    Maristela Cortez Sawitzki; Ângela Maria Fiorentini; Fábio Cristiano Angonesi Brod; Caroline Tagliari; Teresinha Marisa Bertol; Ana Carolina Maisonnave Arisi; Ernani Sebastião Sant'Anna

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to characterize promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented artisanal sausage manufactured in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. From 127 isolates of homofermentative, Gram-positive and catalase-negative lactic acid bacteria, ten isolates were randomly selected and the phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR were performed. Genomic DNA from each isolated strain and from...

  6. 益生菌豆乳发酵剂的筛选%Screening of probiotic strain of soymilk fermentation starter culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包艳; 苏芳; 董喜梅; 姚国强; 王水泉; 张和平

    2011-01-01

    To produce fermented soy milk with favorable taste and sensory properties, L. Plantarum IMAU10156 and L. Plantarum IMAU60042 was repectively combined with L. Acidophilum S21-1, S. Thermophilus S21-2, B. Animalis L01-1 for soy milk fermnetation. The initial inoculation were lxl07 cfu/mL and then subjected to fermentation at 42 'C followed with a 4 °C storage for evaluation of viable counts, pH value, TA, viscosity, syneresis and sensory assessment (Id storage). The results showed that fermented soy milk in the L. Plantarum IMAU10156 and S. Thermophilus S21-2, L. Plantarum IMAU60042 and S. Thermophilus S21-2 group was of better fermented characteristic and pleasing aroma of beans, moderate sweet and great appearance plus with 6h short fermentation time, indicating that it is a promising potential starter cuture for probiotic soy milk fermentation.%为生产出具有良好风味和感官特性的发酵豆乳,选用Lacobacillus plantarum IMAU10156和L.IMAU60042分别与Lacbobacillus acidophilum S21-1,Streptococcus thermophilus S21-2,Bifidobacterium animalis L01-1复合发酵豆乳,接种量分别为1×107 mL-1,于42 °C发酵和4℃贮藏期间测定菌落总数、pH值、滴定酸度、黏度及脱水收缩性指标,并在贮藏1d进行感官鉴评.结果表明,L.plantarum IMAU10156与S.thermophilus S21-2,L.plantarum IMAU60042与S.thermophilus S21-2复合具有良好的发酵特性,在6h即可到达发酵终点,发酵豆乳产品具有纯正的豆乳发酵香味、酸甜适口、组织状态良好等特点,是两组具有开发价值的益生菌豆乳发酵剂.

  7. Study on processing highly effective Acidophilic bacteria starter culture and Acidophilic bacteria milk powder with new technology%新工艺制备高效嗜酸菌发酵剂和嗜酸菌奶粉的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方景泉; 徐欣

    2013-01-01

    Two different strains of acidophilic bacteria were incubated by different methods and through a series contrast tests,we found the best method for incubating.Then concentrated the bacteria with high sPeed centrifuge and put it in 10% skim milk solution with protective agent D,after vacuum freeze drying the viable count of Lactobacillus acidophilus exist in the starter culture were 8.3 ×1010g-1and its survival rate could be 68.8%.We can process Acidophilic bacteria milk powder when mixed it together with milk powder.%分别使两株嗜酸菌在脱脂乳水解液培养基和脱脂乳培养基中生长,通过一系列的对比实验,以及使菌体浓缩,浓菌体悬浮在添加保护剂D质量分数为10%脱脂乳中,经冷冻干燥后,所得高效嗜酸菌发酵剂中的细胞数达8.3×1010 g-1.其在真空冷冻干燥后的存活率最高可达68.8%.将此高效发酵剂与奶粉混合即可制得嗜酸菌奶粉.

  8. Effect of starter culture on volatile flavor compounds in Smoked Horse Sausages%发酵剂对熏马肠挥发性风味化合物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩鲜娜; 卢士玲; 李开雄; 李宝坤; 王庆玲

    2013-01-01

    Headspace solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSSPME-GC-MS) was used to analyze the volatiles in Smoked horse sausages.106 volatile flavor compounds were detected from 5 different samples,which could be clustered in the following chemical families:hydrocarbons,alcohols,esters,acids,aldehydes,ketones,hydroxybenzenes,furans compounds,nitrogen-containing compounds.The main volatile flavor components include hydrocarbons,alcohols,acids,ketones,hydroxybenzenes.Differences of kinds and content of volatile flavor component existed between control sausages and starter culture sausages.%通过顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱联用技术(HS-SPME-GC-MS)测定熏马肠中的挥发性风味物质.从5个不同样品中共鉴定出106种风味物质,包括烃类、醇类、酯类、酸类、醛类、酮类、酚类、呋喃类、含氮类等化合物.其中烃类、醇类、酸类、酮类、酚类化合物含量较高,空白组和发酵剂组熏马肠中挥发性风味化合物的种类和含量都存在着一定的差别.

  9. 不同发酵剂对发酵香肠挥发性风味物质的影响%Analysis of aroma components in fermented sausage with different starter cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恺; 慕妮; 李亮; 周光宏

    2013-01-01

    Fermented sausages were processed by using lactobacillus plantarum NM177-2 and lactobacillus curvatus GX24-2 as starter cultures.The changes and volume of volatile aroma components in fermented sausages were analyzed by solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS).Results showed that aldehydes,alcohols,esters,acids,phenols and ketones were intended to be the mainly flavor substances.Also,mixed fermentation was more useful in processing favorable aroma components.%以植物乳杆菌NM177-2与弯曲乳杆菌GX24-2作为发酵剂,通过固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱联用(SPME-GC-MS)分析技术,研究在不同菌种组合的发酵剂作用下,发酵香肠中挥发性风味物质的构成与变化.确定了发酵过程中产生的主体风味物质为醇类、酸类、酯类、醛酮酚类物质.同时证明了植物乳杆菌与弯曲乳杆菌混合接种发酵更加有利于良好风味物质的形成.

  10. Application of spray drying on Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 starter culture%植物乳杆菌NCU116菌剂的喷雾干燥制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊涛; 廖良坤; 黄涛; 邓耀军

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the application of spray drying on L.plantarum NCU116 starter culture,it was found that the best formulation of protective agent was 5% (w/w) skim milk,5% (w/w) trehalose and 3% (w/w) monosodium glutamate through orthogonal experiment.Meanwhile,the response surface methodology was used to optimize the spray drying process.The recommended optimum spray drying conditions were inlet temperature of 125 ℃,material flow of 320 mL/h and microbial contents of,10.25 lg CFU/mL.Under this condition,the survival rate of NCU116 was 89.95 % and the viable counts were 10.96 lg CFU/g.The impact of protective agent on the membrane integrity was investigated using flow cytometry.Cells spray drying with protective agent significantly reduced membrane damage and 49.75 % cells were intact after addition of protective agent,which was only 1.12 % before it.All microcapsules showed a spherical shape with concavities and free of fissures and particle sizes between 10 and 18 μm through scanning electron microscope.The glass translation temperature of this starter culture was 79.50 ℃ as determined by differential scanning calorimetry.The storage stability of dried powder showed significant difference at different storage temperature.Storage of starter culture at-20 ℃ led to slightly viability loss after 60 d,while storage at 25 ℃ for 60 d led to 2.31 Log loss of viable cells.The outcome of this study provided a basis for production of starter culture using spray drying.%研究了通过喷雾干燥制备植物乳杆菌NCU116发酵剂.通过正交试验确定,以质量分数为5%的脱脂乳,5%的海藻糖,3%的谷氨酸钠作为喷雾干燥复配保护剂时保护效果最佳,利用响应面分析得到最佳喷雾条件:进风温度125℃,物料流量320 mL/h,菌含量为10.25 lgCFU/mL,此时NCU116存活率为89.95%,活菌数达到10.96 lgCFU/g.通过流式细胞术检测喷雾干燥后菌剂的细胞膜完整性,未添加保护剂时仅有1.12%

  11. Yoghurt enrichment with natural bee farming products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lomova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bee pollen is a unique and unparalleled natural bioactive substances source. Using it in conjunction with the popular functional fermented milk product -yogurt will expand its product range and increase the biological value. Materials and Methods. Dried bee pollen’s moisture determination was made by gravimetry methods, based on the sample weight loss due to desiccation, until constant weight was reached.Test and control yogurt samples were studied by applying standard techniques for milk and milk products set forth in the regulations of Ukraine. Results and discussion. It is found that bee pollen pellet drying to a moisture content of 2 -4%, increases the flow rate of powder almost by 90%. The sample having moisture content of 2% will have a bulk density exceeding 12.5% compared to the sample having moisture content of 10%. Raw output will also increase by 3.7%. By contrast, apparent density and weight fraction of losses decreases, which has a positive impact on pollen efficiency of use and distribution in bulk yogurt. Moreover, the weight fraction of losses decreases by fourfold (4.6% vs. 1%. It was experimentally determined that pollen can deteriorate microbiological characteristics of yogurt. It was proved that treatment of crushed bee pollen pellet sample with ultraviolet allows improving yogurt microbiological safety indicators. Namely, to reduce the presence of coli-forms to 0, mould –to 10 CFU/cm³. Conclusions. The proposed bee pollen pellet treatment method will improve the technological and microbiological characteristics of pollen powder. This provides for yoghurt production biotechnology using bee farming products.

  12. Instant Spring for Android starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dahanne, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  13. Instant PrimeFaces starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hlavats, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),

  14. Instant CloudFlare starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dickey, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, CloudFlare Starter will show you all you need to know in order to effectively improve your online presence in a multitude of different ways. ""Instant CloudFlare Starter"" is a practical yet accessible guide for website owners looking to optimize their site for optimum security and maximum performance.

  15. Instant OpenNMS starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hachey, Ghislain

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starters' guide to learning OpenNMS with ease, with a focus on immediate results.Instant OpenNMS Starter is for network administrators of any level with a slight focus on the novice that would enjoy a swift glance at what OpenNMS has to offer. It assumes the reader will have knowledge of basic network operations and protocols such as the Internet Protocol Suite.

  16. Monitoring of Leuconostoc mesenteroides DRC starter in fermented vegetable by random integration of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hyun-Ju; Park, Joong Min; Seo, Min Jae; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Han, Nam Soo

    2008-09-01

    In 2004, Leuconostoc mesenteroides DRC was first used as a starter culture for achieving higher organoleptic effects in Korean kimchi manufacture. For a better understanding of starter growth in a mixed culture system, and for predicting starter predominance in kimchi, a monitoring system for the starter was established. The chloramphenicol resistance marker gene (cat) was randomly integrated into chromosomal DNA of L. mesenteroides DRC using a viral transposon and transposase. The DRC mutant, tDRC2, had a similar growth pattern to the host strain, with no major alteration in phenotypic characteristics. The mutant strain was inoculated into real kimchi, and monitoring of the starter population was successfully achieved. The overall predominance of Leuconostoc in kimchi inoculated with DRC followed the general growth pattern of this genus during kimchi fermentation. Our results also demonstrate the competitive ability of the DRC starter against Leuconostoc from natural flora, maintaining its predominance above 88% during the whole fermentation period. Based on this experiment, the random gene integration method using a transposon was shown to be of utility in transferring any commercial starter into a selectable and monitorable strain for simulation purposes.

  17. Evaluation of Freeze-Dried Kefir Coculture as Starter in Feta-Type Cheese Production

    OpenAIRE

    Kourkoutas, Y.; Kandylis, P.; Panas, P.; Dooley, J. S. G.; P. Nigam; Koutinas, A. A.

    2006-01-01

    The use of freeze-dried kefir coculture as a starter in the production of feta-type cheese was investigated. Maturation of the produced cheese at 4°C was monitored for up to 70 days, and the effects of the starter culture, the salting method, and the ripening process on quality characteristics were studied. The use of kefir coculture as a starter led to increased lactic acid concentrations and decreased pH values in the final product associated with significantly higher conversion rates compa...

  18. 饮用型覆盆子酸奶的工艺参数优化%Optimization of Technologic Parameters for Drinking Raspberry Yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀梅; 唐民民

    2015-01-01

    覆盆子果汁营养丰富,具有一定保健功效。本文以牛乳、覆盆子为主要原料研制饮用型酸奶,以发酵温度(A)、果汁添加量(B)、发酵剂添加量(C)为三因素,对饮用型覆盆子酸奶的工艺参数进行了优化。试验结果表明,最优工艺优化参数为:培养温度42℃,覆盆子果汁添加量8%,发酵剂添加量3%。采用本工艺生产的饮用型覆盆子酸奶不但口感细腻爽口,酸甜适宜,而且有浓郁的覆盆子香味,发展前景十分广阔。%Raspberry has rich nutrition and health function. In this paper, drinking raspberry yoghurt was made by using raw milk and raspberry. At the same time, the optimization of technologic parameters for drinking raspberry yoghurt investigated by orthogonal test. Determined parameters of the production process showed that fermentation temperature was 42 ℃ , the added content of raspberry fruit was 8% and starter inoculums’ was 3%. The drinking raspberry yoghurt taste delicious and has wide development prospects.

  19. Preparation of New Stirring-type Citrus Juice Yoghurt%新型搅拌型柑橘酸奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐华丽; 肖国生; 黄建; 冯晓娇

    2013-01-01

    The new stirring-type citrus juice yoghurt was prepared by mixing of fresh milk, sugar, citrus juice and inoculation starter. The optimal conditions were obtained by single factor experiments and orthogonal experiments as following: citrus juice 12 %, sugar 9 %, inoculation 4 % and fermentation time 4 h. The chemical compositions, microbiology and sensory quality of stirring-type yoghurt were consistent with national standard under the optimal conditions. Results showed that the debittering effects ofβ-cyclodextrin were better than active carbon powder. The qualities of yoghurt were improved by stirring method of eggbeater.%  以鲜牛乳为主要原料,适当添加柑橘汁、砂糖及柑橘果粒等混合调配,经混合乳酸菌发酵制备新型搅拌型柑橘酸奶,应用正交试验设计筛选出该酸奶的工艺及配方。实验结果表明:以新鲜优质牛奶为原料,加入12%的柑橘汁、9%的砂糖、4%的乳酸菌,经4h发酵即可制作出品质优良、各项指标符合国家标准的柑橘酸奶;实验还比较了两种脱苦剂对柑橘果汁的脱苦效果,结果表明β-环状糊精的脱苦效果优于活性炭;采用打蛋器搅拌破乳能提高产品的品质。

  20. Screening and Appliance of the Starter Cultures of Weak Postacidification in Yogurt%弱后酸化酸奶发酵剂的筛选及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕; 乔成亚; 龚广予; 刘振民; 梅芳; 李向东; 孙卓

    2012-01-01

    选取3种酸奶发酵剂09D-B、YT-A和YT-B,制成酸奶,测定不同温度条件下3种酸奶样品在发酵过程和保质期内的酸度、黏度、pH值和乳酸菌活菌数的变化趋势,研究不同发酵剂对酸奶产品品质的影响。结果表明,发酵剂YT-A的后酸化能量最弱,在4℃冷藏20 d后,酸度仅上升了9°T,产品黏度较高,在冷藏条件下乳酸菌活菌数为4.6×107个/mL,在4℃冷藏和20℃常温贮存过程中,产品的感官状态和组织状态均优于发酵剂09D-B和YT-B。%Yogurt with cultures 09D-B,YT-A and YT-B were selected to analysed the acidity,viscocity,pH,viable cells of lactic acid bacteria,mold and yeast at 4℃ and 20℃,detected the different cultures have different effecfs on the quality of the yogurt.The results indicaded that YT-A was the weak postacidification culture,acidity rose only 9 °T after 20 days at 4℃,viscocity was better than other samples,viable cells of lactic acid bacteria was 4.6×10~7/mL,the sense and texture of the yogurt with culture YT-A was batter than culture 09D-B and YT-B.

  1. 胡萝卜菠萝酸奶的研制%Development of Yoghurt with Carrot and Pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继成

    2012-01-01

    以鲜牛乳和胡萝卜、菠萝为主要原料,以保加利亚乳杆菌、嗜热链球菌和双歧杆菌作为发酵剂,采用感官品质评价和正交试验方法,研究胡萝卜菠萝酸奶的加工工艺.结果表明,胡萝卜菠萝酸奶加工制作的最佳配方及工艺条件为:在鲜牛乳中添加10%的胡萝卜和菠萝汁(胡萝卜汁∶菠萝汁=1∶2),8%的白砂糖,菌种添加量为4%(保加利亚乳杆菌∶嗜热链球菌∶双歧杆菌=1∶2∶1),在42 ℃下发酵4h,经冷却后熟后,制得的胡萝卜菠萝酸奶具有均匀的橙红色和独特的胡萝卜菠萝风味,其凝块均匀一致,表面细腻光滑,硬度、黏度适中,酸甜可口,清爽润喉,无异味,无或有少量的乳清析出,符合酸奶标准.%Using fresh milk, carrots and pineapples as the main raw materials, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bacillus bifidus as the starter, the processing technology of carrot pineapple yoghurt was studied, through sensory evaluation and orthogonal test method. The results showed that, the optimum formula and processing technology of carrot pineapple yoghurt were as follows: added 10% carrot and pineapple juice (carrot juice :pineapple juice = 1 -2) to fresh milk, 8% white sugar and 4% bacteria (Lactobacillus bulgaricus 'Streptococcus thermophilus: Bacillus bifidus = 1:2:1), fermented for 4 hours at 42 ℃ and then cooled down. The obtained carrot pineapple yoghurt had a uniform orange red color and clot, unique flavor of carrot and pineapple, smooth appearance, moderate hardness and viscosity, suitable acid and sweet flavor, no off-flavor, and no or a little of whey separtion, and was in line with the yogurt standard.

  2. Stability Comparison of Free and Encapsulated Lactobacilus casei ATCC 393 in Yoghurt for Long Time Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Lelia POP; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Ramona SUHAROSCHI; Socaciu, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    An innovative method of L. casei ATCC 393 encapsulation has been reported in the present study using pectin combined with alginate. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of encapsulation on the survival of L. casei ATCC 393 in yoghurt during long time storage, free or encapsulated in alginate and alginate pectin microspheres, and influence over yoghurt properties, particularly acidification. Over 35 days of storage in yoghurt, the encapsulated probiotic cells proved a higher via...

  3. Nutritional and sensory quality of stirred soursop (Annona muricata L.) yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutchmedial, Maria; Ramlal, Reshma; Badrie, Neela; Chang-Yen, Ivan

    2004-08-01

    Soursops (Annona muricata L.) are highly aromatic fruits with white juicy flesh and are native to tropical North and South America. The ripe fruits are highly perishable, as they become soft and easily bruised. The objectives of the study were to incorporate soursop nectar at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% in stirred yoghurts and to analyse the products for chemical and sensory quality. A focus group evaluated the initial yoghurts for process modifications. Yoghurts were evaluated on sensory attributes of appearance and colour, body and texture, flavour and aroma, and overall quality. Yoghurts with 10% and 15% soursop nectar had the highest (P<0.05) overall quality scores (12.60/20 and 12.75/20, respectively) but differed (P<0.05) in flavour and aroma from plain yoghurt and 5% soursop yoghurt. Most panelists would consider purchase of 10% and 15% soursop yoghurts over 0% and 5% soursop yoghurts. These yoghurts provided high percentage daily values of zinc, phosphorus and calcium and a good level of protein.

  4. Functional Starters for Functional Yogurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Mattia P.; Caggianiello, Graziano; Russo, Pasquale; Albenzio, Marzia; Massa, Salvatore; Fiocco, Daniela; Capozzi, Vittorio; Spano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the multifunctionality (microbial starters and probiotics) of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 and Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 8328 strains used as microbial starters for the production of yogurt in combination with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The ability of the probiotic strains to survive oro-gastrointestinal stresses was monitored by an in vitro assay simulating the human digestive tract. The transcriptional level of several genes involved in the immune response suggested that the probiotic strains may have a favorable influence on immunomodulation. Overall, this study revealed that the tested Lactobacilli exhibited suitable technological features for yogurt production and might be used to formulate novel food with immunomodulating effects.

  5. Functional Starters for Functional Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia P. Arena

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the multifunctionality (microbial starters and probiotics of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 and Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 8328 strains used as microbial starters for the production of yogurt in combination with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The ability of the probiotic strains to survive oro-gastrointestinal stresses was monitored by an in vitro assay simulating the human digestive tract. The transcriptional level of several genes involved in the immune response suggested that the probiotic strains may have a favorable influence on immunomodulation. Overall, this study revealed that the tested Lactobacilli exhibited suitable technological features for yogurt production and might be used to formulate novel food with immunomodulating effects.

  6. Functional Starters for Functional Yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Mattia P; Caggianiello, Graziano; Russo, Pasquale; Albenzio, Marzia; Massa, Salvatore; Fiocco, Daniela; Capozzi, Vittorio; Spano, Giuseppe

    2015-02-05

    In this study, we investigated the multifunctionality (microbial starters and probiotics) of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 and Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 8328 strains used as microbial starters for the production of yogurt in combination with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The ability of the probiotic strains to survive oro-gastrointestinal stresses was monitored by an in vitro assay simulating the human digestive tract. The transcriptional level of several genes involved in the immune response suggested that the probiotic strains may have a favorable influence on immunomodulation. Overall, this study revealed that the tested Lactobacilli exhibited suitable technological features for yogurt production and might be used to formulate novel food with immunomodulating effects.

  7. Instant MinGW starter

    CERN Document Server

    Shpigor, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    This is a Starter guide designed to enable the reader to start using MinGW to develop Microsoft Windows applications as quickly, and as efficiently, as possible. This book is for C and C++ developers who are looking for new and effective instruments to use in application development for Microsoft Windows. No experience of MinGW is needed: this book will guide you through the essentials to get you using the software like a pro in a matter of hours.

  8. Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, W.C.

    1987-02-01

    The Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit was designed to help engineering educators develop and teach energy management courses. Montana State University and Oklahoma State University courses are embodied in the model curriculum given. The curricula offered at many other universities throughout the United States are also presented. The kit was designed specifically to train engineering students to be good energy managers. Courses at both the undergraduate and postgraduate level are presented.

  9. Taurine in milk and yoghurt marketed in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Pamela; Pizzoferrato, Laura

    2013-02-01

    Taurine, a free amino acid, was studied as natural compound of different typologies of milk: pasteurized, ultra-high temperature (UHT), microfiltered whole and semi-skimmed cow's milk; pasteurized and UHT goat's whole milk and raw buffalo's whole milk. Moreover, taurine contents in yoghurt from cow and goat's milk were evaluated. The data obtained in this research showed that no significant variations of taurine occurred in cow's milk subjected to different technological processes and between whole and semi-skimmed milk. The amount of taurine was less (p taurine occurred between goat and buffalo's samples. The amounts of taurine in yoghurt reflected, substantially, the content of this molecule in the milk of the relevant animal species. These results are noteworthy because data available in the literature on this molecule in commercial dairy products are old or few.

  10. YOGHURT STRUCTURE MODIFICATION WITH AMARANTH EXTRACT AND TRANGLUTAMINASE ADDITION

    OpenAIRE

    A. G. Shleikin; N. P. Danilov; A. E. Argymbaeva; S. V. Rykov

    2015-01-01

    To obtain functional dairy products is an important issue to improve the diet of the population. This article is devoted to development of yoghurt with transglutaminase enzyme. Transglutaminase (EC 2.3.2.13) performs cross-linking of proteins, strengthening the structure of the product. The concentration of transglutaminase used was 4 U/g of protein (0.1 %). Amaranth extract prepared from amaranth flour weighed in 5 % concentration per fermented samples volume was used as a vegetable additive...

  11. Fluorescent bioassays for toxic metals in milk and yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiki Mohammad Shohel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From a human health viewpoint, contaminated milk and its products could be a source of long-term exposure to toxic metals. Simple, inexpensive, and on-site assays would enable constant monitoring of their contents. Bioassays that can measure toxic metals in milk or yoghurt might reduce the risk. For this purpose, the green fluorescent protein (GFP-tagged trans factors, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, together with their cis elements were used to develop such bioassays. Results ArsR-GFP or CadC-GFP, which binds either toxic metal or DNA fragment including cis element, was directly mixed with cow’s milk or yoghurt within a neutral pH range. The fluorescence of GFP, which is reflected by the association/dissociation ratio between cis element and trans factor, significantly changed with increasing externally added As (III or Cd (II whereas smaller responses to externally added Pb (II and Zn (II were found. Preparation and dilution of whey fraction at low pH were essential to intrinsic zinc quantification using CadC-GFP. Using the extraction procedure and bioassay, intrinsic Zn (II concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/l for milk brands and from 1.2 to 2.9 mg/kg for yoghurt brands were determined, which correlated to those determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Conclusions GFP-tagged bacterial trans factors and cis elements can work in the neutralized whole composition and diluted whey fraction of milk and yoghurt. The feature of regulatory elements is advantageous for establishment of simple and rapid assays of toxic metals in dairy products.

  12. Probiotic and cultural characteristic of strain Lactobacillus gasseri 4/13 of human origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltova, Kalinka; Dimitrov, Zhechko

    2014-11-02

    Lactobacillus gasseri within the Lactobacillus acidophilus group is a major species in the human microflora. The potential probiotic properties of a L. gasseri strain of human origin were evaluated. Out of 17 studied L. gasseri strains, L. gasseri 4/13 showed the highest immunomodulatory effect (induction of interferon gamma measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in Balb/c mouse splenocytes in vitro and the highest rate of adhesion to Caco-2 human epithelial cells. The strain also reduced the concentration of cholesterol in the growth medium by 65% as compared with the initial concentration (measured spectrophotometrically). These probiotic properties indicate that L. gasseri 4/13 could prove an attractive concentrated adjunct monoculture in the production of new functional foods. To obtain a freeze-dried bacterial concentrate from L. gasseri 4/13, the influence of different culture media, temperatures and pH values on the accumulation of cell biomass was studied. Yoghurt samples were produced using a classical fermentation technology. Freeze-dried concentrated monoculture of L. gasseri 4/13 with over 1 × 10(10) CFU/g viable cells was added as an adjunct culture together with a starter. The viable L. gasseri 4/13 cells remained above the critical value of 10(6) CFU/g during storage at 5 °C for the entire 20-day period. Organoleptic tests did not reveal any adverse change in the product taste and aroma of yoghurt samples at the 20th day. In conclusion, L. gasseri 4/13 was selected as having suitable probiotic and cultural characteristics for production of fermented milk products with high nutritional and biological value.

  13. Aroma Profile of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Wine Fermented by Single and Co-culture Starters of Autochthonous Saccharomyces and Non-saccharomyces Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Di Gianvito, Paola; Pizzoni, Daniel; Arfelli, Giuseppe; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Montepulciano d'Abruzzo is a native grape variety of Vitis vinifera L., grown in central Italy and used for production of high quality red wines. Limited studies have been carried out to improve its enological characteristics through the use of indigenous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main objective of the present work was to test two indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae (SRS1, RT73), a strain of Starmerella bacillaris (STS12), one of Hanseniaspora uvarum (STS45) and a co-culture of S. cerevisiae (SRS1) and S. bacillaris (STS12), in an experimental cellar to evaluate their role in the sensory characteristic of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine. A S. cerevisiae commercial strain was used. Fermentations were conducted under routine Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine production, in which the main variables were the yeast strains used for fermentation. Basic winemaking parameters, some key chemical analysis and aroma compounds were considered. S. cerevisiae strain dynamics during fermentation were determined by molecular methods. The musts inoculated with the co-culture were characterized by a faster fermentation start and a higher content of glycerol after 3 days of fermentation, as well as the musts added with strains S. bacillaris (STS12) and H. uvarum (STS45). At the end of fermentation the parameters studied were quite similar in all the wines. Total biogenic amines (BA) content of all the wines was low. Ethanolamine was the predominant BA, with a concentration ranging from 21 to 24 mg/l. Wines were characterized by esters and alcohols. In particular, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methylbut-1-yl methanoate, and ethyl ethanoate were the major aroma volatile compounds in all wines. Statistical analysis highlighted the different role played by aroma compounds in the differentiation of wines, even if it was impossible to select a single class of compounds as the most important for a specific yeast. The present study represents a further step toward the use of tailored

  14. Antioxidant activity of yoghurt peptides: Part 1-in vitro assays and evaluation in omega-3 enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Baron, Caroline; Nina Skall, Nielsen;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate important factors contributing to the high oxidative stability of fish-oil-enriched yoghurt, with particular emphasis on the possible antioxidative effects of peptides released during yoghurt fermentation. Yoghurt samples were stripped from sugars a...

  15. Effect of modified yam (Dioscorea esculenta) flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, M. N.; Cakrawati, D.; Handayani, S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study were to know characteristics of yam modified flour; to know the effect of modified yam flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt and to determine the concentration level of modified yam flour to produce symbiotic yoghurt preferred by panelists. The reasearch was conducted using one factor complete randomized design. Modified yam flour was added to yoghurt at concentration of 2%, 4%, 6%. The effect of physical modification were investigated. Proximate analysis showed modified yam flour consist of 7.66% moisture content, 1.42% ash content, 10.16%, dietary fiber, 7.49% inulin, and 71.78% total starch content. Result obtained that modified yam flour has yield of 10.54%, the modified yam flour showed solubility and water absopsion of 77,63% and 136,65 respectively. The addition of modified yam flour on yoghurt resulted significantly difference effect on texture, but did not have significantly difference on colour, flavour and aroma. Modified yam flour added yoghurt thickness because it was gelatinized when added to yoghurt at 40°C. Sensory analysis conducted with hedonic test showed synbiotic yoghurt added with 2% of modified yam flour most preferred by panellists. Synbiotic yoghurt with 2% of modified yam flour has pH number of 4, 8 and total acid tirated of 1, 7%.

  16. Inulins improve sensoric and textural properties of low-fat yoghurts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kip, P.; Meyer, D.; Jellema, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we investigated in detail the effects of the addition of inulins to the sensoric properties of low-fat yoghurts. Yoghurts were prepared from skimmed milk and with different concentrations of inulin (0-4%). Two types of inulin with different chain length of the polymer were used. Attrib

  17. Is consuming yoghurt associated with weight management outcomes? Results from a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eales, J.; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I.; King, S.; Wood, H.; Kok, F.J.; Shamir, R.; Prentice, A.; Edwards, M.; Glanville, J.; Atkinson, R.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background:Yoghurt is part of the diet of many people worldwide and is commonly recognised as a 'health food'. Epidemiological studies suggest that yoghurt may be useful as part of weight management programs. In the absence of comprehensive systematic reviews, this systematic review investigated

  18. Effect of ingredients on oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched drinking yoghurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Klein, Anna; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    , pectin, citric acid or gluconodelta- lactone did not affect the oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched yoghurt emulsions. Furthermore, the fruit preparation and added sugar did not lead to increased antioxidative activity. It is concluded that yoghurt as the dairy component in the fish oil...

  19. Compositional characteristics of commercial yoghurt based on quantitative determination of viable lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niketić Gordana B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt quality is particularly difficult to standardize because of the many forms, varieties, manufacturing methods, ingredients and consumer preferences that exist. Since these factors will always play an important role, it is unlikely that a uniform yoghurt quality concept will ever emerge, such as has been developed for other dairy products. There are a number of common denominators, however that have bearing on yoghurt quality. Since a number of producers are recognized within the broad category entitled yoghurt. This situation makes yoghurt an interesting, challenging, but also a confusing area to work in. The present investigation was undertaken to isolate from commercial yoghurt the strains involved in its manufacture and determine the characteristics of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus. This study is concerned with the lactic acid bacteria (L.delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus growth in yoghurt from involving different procedures and with the determination of the number of lactic acid bacteria in dependence of the temperature and acidity in the period of storage. Predominant samples of yoghurt were with 11-107/ml lactic acid lactococci (44.28%.

  20. Antioxidant activity of yoghurt peptides: Part 2 – Characterisationof peptide fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Baron, Caroline; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate previous findings showing that peptide fractions isolated from yoghurt had antioxidant effects. Therefore, peptides and free amino acids released during fermentation of milk were characterised. Yoghurt samples were stripped from sugars and lactic acid...... antioxidant activity in these fractions.......The aim of the present study was to elucidate previous findings showing that peptide fractions isolated from yoghurt had antioxidant effects. Therefore, peptides and free amino acids released during fermentation of milk were characterised. Yoghurt samples were stripped from sugars and lactic acid...... the peptides identified contained at least one proline residue. Some of the identified peptides included the hydrophobic amino acid residues Val or Leu at the N-terminus and Pro, His or Tyr in the amino acid sequence, which is characteristic of antioxidant peptides. In addition, the yoghurt contained...

  1. Development of an alternative culture medium for the selective enumeration of Lactobacillus casei in fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Monique; de Oliveira, Aline Evelyn Zimmermann; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring the populations of probiotic strains of the species Lactobacillus casei in food is required by food industries in order to assure that a minimum concentration of these organisms will be ingested by consumers. In this context, Petrifilm™ AC plates can be used along with selective culture media to allow the enumeration of specific groups of lactic acid bacteria. The present study aimed to assess chemical substances as selective agents for Lb. casei in order to propose a selective culture medium to be used with Petrifilm™ AC plates as an alternative protocol for the enumeration of probiotic strains of this species in fermented milk. Twenty-six probiotic and starter cultures (including six strains of Lb. casei) were plated on de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar with distinct concentrations of nalidixic acid, bile, lithium chloride, metronidazole, sodium propionate, and vancomycin. Vancomycin at 10 mg/L demonstrated selective activity for Lb. casei. In addition, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chlorine was identified as a compound that did not inhibit Lb. casei, and Petrifilm™ AC plates used with MRS and vancomycin at 10 mg/L (MRS-V) demonstrated more colonies of this organism when incubated under anaerobic conditions than aerobic conditions. Acidophilus milk and yoghurt were prepared, added to Lb. casei strains, and stored at 4 °C. Lb. casei populations were monitored using MRS-V and MRTLV by conventional plating and associated with Petrifilm™ AC plates. All correlation indices between counts obtained by conventional plating and Petrifilm™ AC were significant (p enumeration of Lb. casei strains in fermented milk. However, the selective potential of this culture medium must be evaluated considering the specific strains of Lb. casei and the starter cultures inoculated in the fermented milk that requires monitoring.

  2. Review article: health benefits of some physiologically active ingredients and their suitability as yoghurt fortifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, A E

    2015-05-01

    The article is concerned with health benefits of two main physiologically active ingredients namely, Isoflavones and γ-Aminobutyric acid, with emphasis on their fitness for fortification of yoghurt to be consumed as a functional food. Isoflavones (ISO) are part of the diphenol compounds, called "phytoestrogens," which are structurally and functionally similar to estradiol, the human estrogen, but much less potent. Because of this similarity, ISO were suggested to have preventive effects for many kinds of hormone-dependent diseases. In nature, ISO usually occur as glycosides and, once deconjugated by the intestinal microflora, the ISO can be absorbed into the blood. At present, it seems convincing their possible protective actions against various cancers, osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms and high levels of blood cholesterol as well as the epidemiological evidence. Γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), it is an amino acid that has long been reported to lower blood pressure by intravenous administration in experimental animals and in human subjects. GABA is present in many vegetables and fruits but not in dairy products. GABA was reported to lower blood pressure in people with mild hypertension. It was suggested that low-dose oral GABA has a hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive. Yoghurt beyond its ability to be probiotic food via its culturing with the gut strains, it could further carry more healthy benefits when it was fortified with physiological active ingredients, especially GABA versus ISO preferring, whether, bacteriologically or biochemically, a fortification level of 50 mg ISO/kg or 200 mg GABA/kg.

  3. Instant Adobe Edge Inspect starter

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy-to-understand Starter guide will get you up to speed with Adobe Edge Inspect quickly and with little effort.This book is for frontend web developers and designers who are developing and testing web applications targeted for mobile browsers. It's assumed that you have a basic understanding of creating web applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as well as being familiar with running web pages from local HTTP servers. Readers are a

  4. SPSS for Starters, Part 2

    CERN Document Server

    Cleophas, Ton J

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this title contained all statistical tests that are relevant for starters on SPSS, and included standard parametric and non-parametric tests for continuous and binary variables, regression methods, trend tests, and reliability and validity assessments of diagnostic tests. The current part 2 of this title reviews multistep methods, multivariate models, assessments of missing data, performance of diagnostic tests, meta-regression, Poisson regression, confounding and interaction, and survival analyses using log tests and segmented time-dependent Cox regression. Methods for asses

  5. Instant forgedUI starter

    CERN Document Server

    Luiz, Joseandro

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book is a Starter guide to learning ForgedUI. This book will start by unfolding the installation and creating a simple application using Titanium and ForgedUI, followed by taking you through the features to model an engaging UI and generate multi-platform code with Titanium, while covering the best design practice for Apple and Android application development. Last but not least, you will also come across the available resources where you can

  6. Indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts as a source of biodiversity for the selection of starters for specific fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capece Angela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-time studies on wine yeasts have determined a wide diffusion of inoculated fermentations by commercial starters, mainly of Saccharomyces. Although the use of starter cultures has improved the reproducibility of wine quality, the main drawback to this practice is the lack of the typical traits of wines produced by spontaneous fermentation. These findings have stimulated wine-researchers and wine-makers towards the selection of autochthonous strains as starter cultures. The objective of this study was to investigate the biodiversity of 167 S. cerevisiae yeasts, isolated from spontaneous fermentation of grapes. The genetic variability of isolates was evaluated by PCR amplification of inter-δ region with primer pair δ2/δ12. The same isolates were investigated for characteristics of oenological interest, such as resistance to sulphur dioxide, ethanol and copper and hydrogen sulphide production. On the basis of technological and molecular results, 20 strains were chosen and tested into inoculated fermentations at laboratory scale. The experimental wines were analyzed for the content of some by-products correlated to wine aroma, such as higher alcohols, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and acetic acid. One selected strain was used as starter culture to perform fermentation at cellar level. The selection program followed during this research project represents an optimal combination between two different trends in modern winemaking: the use of S. cerevisiae as starter cultures and the starter culture selection for specific fermentations.

  7. Crankshaft position sensing with combined starter alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Larry Raymond; Miller, John Michael

    2000-06-13

    A crankshaft position sensing apparatus for use with an engine (16) having a combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The crankshaft position sensing apparatus includes a tone ring (38) with a sensor (36) and bandpass filter (46), having a cylinder identification input from a camshaft sensor (48), and a gain limiter (54). The sensing apparatus mounts near the rotor (30) of the combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The filtered crankshaft position signal can then be input into a vehicle system controller (58) and an inner loop controller (60). The starter/alternator assembly (18) in combination with an internal combustion engine is particularly useful for a hybrid electric vehicle system.

  8. Stability Comparison of Free and Encapsulated Lactobacilus casei ATCC 393 in Yoghurt for Long Time Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Lelia POP

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An innovative method of L. casei ATCC 393 encapsulation has been reported in the present study using pectin combined with alginate. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of encapsulation on the survival of L. casei ATCC 393 in yoghurt during long time storage, free or encapsulated in alginate and alginate pectin microspheres, and influence over yoghurt properties, particularly acidification. Over 35 days of storage in yoghurt, the encapsulated probiotic cells proved a higher viability compared with free probiotic cells. An even higher viability and stability was observed for the samples where pectin was used. Pectin acts as prebiotic during encapsulation of L. casei ATCC 393.

  9. Podcasting the Ultimate Starter Kit

    CERN Document Server

    Shipside, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Podcasting doesn't require an iPod; anyone with a computer, an MP3 player, or in some cases even a phone or a pair of shades can play podcasts. It requires very little technological know-how to set up, listen to, or even make your own programmes. Podcasting: The ultimate starter kit takes a light-hearted, friendly and refreshingly jargon-free look at eveything you need to know to get started, and with its free start-up CD it couldn't be easier. With the help of Podcasting, you can find out how to set up your software and record podcasts, where to go to find programmes on anything from religion

  10. 不同发酵剂对羊肉发酵香肠理化特性的影响%The Effect of Different Culture Starters on the Physicochemical Properties of Fermented Mutton Sausages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    通力嘎; 段艳; 靳志敏; 贾雪晖; 靳烨

    2012-01-01

    The pH value, Aw values, moisture content, TBA value, and color of fermented mutton sausages supplied with different culture starters during processing and storage were determined. Group 1 without additive agent was control group, group 2 was Lactobacillus plantarum group, group 3 supplied with Lactobacillus plantarum and Staphy-lococcus xylosus by the ratio of 1:2 was mixed group. The results showed that the pH values of fermented sausages in all groups were decreased during fermentation, especially the Lactobacillus plantarum group and the mixed group. Then the pH value increased during the process of dry, mature and storage. Among them, the pH value of control group increased quickly, and that of lactobacillus plantarum group and mixed group increased slowly. Aw values of each group falling rapidly in processing stage, especially the Lactobacillus plantarum group and the following mixed group. Moisture content in the fermented stage changes slightly, but it was significantly decreased during the dry and mature phase, and it was still declined during the storage. TB A value during process of fermentation, dry, mature and 2 weeks after storage showed uptrend. Four weeks after storage, TB A value significantly increased. The redness ( a) of Lactobacillus plantarum group and mixed group were 16. 91 and 17. 17, which were higher than that of the control group, and their Yellowness (b) and lightness (L) were significantly lower than that of control group (P < 0. 05 ) , and that of mixed group was slightly lower than that of Lactobacillus plantarum group.%通过测定添加不同发酵剂羊肉发酵香肠加工和贮藏过程中的pH值,Aw值,水分含量,TBARS值和色泽的变化,研究菌种对羊肉发酵香肠理化特性的影响.第1组为未添加菌种的对照组,第2组为添加植物乳杆菌组,第3组为按1:2添加植物乳杆菌和木糖葡萄球菌的混合组.结果表明:发酵过程中,3组发酵香肠pH值均有所下降,但添加植物乳杆

  11. Effect of rice fat mimics on texture and microstructure of low-fat yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dan; KONG Baohua; LIU Huaiwei

    2007-01-01

    This paper made a research on a new kind of rice fat mimics, which was obtained from rice powder hydrolyzed by a -amylase. Through the comparison between the yoghurt added with diverse proportions of above mentioned rice fat mimics and the reduced-fat yoghurt without any fat mimics as well as full-fat ones, the effect of the rice fat mimics in different proportions was examined upon the composition, the microstructure, the texture and the sensory evaluation of reduced-fat yoghurt. The results showed that the yoghurts added with rice fat mimics exhibited similar organoleptic attribute, textual characteristics and acceptability compared to those of full-fat controls(P>0.05), but with lower fat content and looser microstructures.

  12. 混合发酵剂对川味香肠发酵成熟过程中生物胺含量变化的影响%Effect of mixed starter cultures on the changes of biogenic amines contents during fermentation and ripening of Sichuan-style sausage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙霞; 杨勇; 巩洋; 杨敏; 卿丹丹; 李跃文; 张雯; 李诚; 胡滨

    2015-01-01

    The Sichuan-style sausage was processed by being inoculated Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediocossus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus as starter cultures (A group).Changes of biogenic amines contents in Sichuan-style sausages during fermentation and ripening were determined by high performance liquid chromatography.The results showed that the contents of biogenic amines including tryptamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine and spermidine in group A were significantly lower than those in group B (natural fermentation) at the end of ripening, except the content of phenylethylamine (P < 0.01) , which indicated that the mixed starter culture could significantly inhibit the formation of biogenic amines in Sichuan-style sausages during fermentation and ripening (P < 0.01).The contents of biogenic amines were less than 100 mg/kg in group A during fermentation and ripening, except the tyramine content up to 103.05 mg/kg, meanwhile, the content of putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were more than 100 mg/kg in group B, which indicated the mixed starter culture could ensure the safety of Sichuan-style sausage.%以植物乳杆菌、戊糖片球菌和葡萄球菌作为发酵剂接种至川味香肠,采用高效液相色谱法测定川味香肠发酵成熟过程中生物胺含量的变化.结果表明:成熟结束时,除苯乙胺外,A组(接种组)中的色胺、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、酪胺和亚精胺的含量显著低于B组(自然发酵组)(P<0.01),说明混合发酵剂能显著抑制川味香肠发酵成熟过程中生物胺的形成(P<0.01).A组香肠在发酵成熟过程中除酪胺含量最高达到103.05 mg/kg外,其余生物胺含量均低于100 mg/kg;B组香肠在发酵成熟过程中腐胺、尸胺、组胺和酪胺含量超过100 mg/kg,因此接种混合发酵剂可以更好地保障川味香肠的安全性.

  13. Yoghurt Sinbiotik Berbasis Probiotik Lokal Dapat Mencegah Diare dan Mengubah Status Hematologi Tikus (SYNBIOTIC YOGHURT BASED ON INDIGENOUS PROBIOTIC: IT’S EFFECT ON DIARRHEA AND HEMATOLOGICAL STATUS IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Astawan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to observe the effect of functional synbiotics yoghurt (made ofindigenous probiotic + oligofructosaccharides in rats that were infected with Enteropathogenic Escherichiacoli (EPEC, and to detect its effect on hematological status. A total of 25 male Sprague Dawley rats wereused in this study and divided into five treatment groups: (i negative-control; (ii positive-control; (iiisynbiotic yoghurt; (iv synbiotic yoghurt + EPEC; and (v conventional prebiotic yoghurt. Yoghurt (109 cfu/mL lactic acid bacteria was given orally using feeding tube at day one until day 4. At day 8 – day 14animals were infected with EPEC (107 cfu/mL orally using feeding tube; at day 22 blood samples werecollected for hematology analysis (erythrocytes, hematocrit (Hct, hemoglobulin (Hb, platelets, andleucocytes. Post infection with the EPEC diarrhea was developed in rats both in the control positivegroups and in the synbiotic yoghurt + EPEC group. Animals in the positive-control group had a significantlyhigher thrombocytes and leucocytes counts and Hct compared to that in animals in the other groups(P<0.01. Whereas there were no significant effect on the erythrocytes counts and Hb (P>0.05. The treatmentwith synbiotic yoghurt, in both synbiotic yoghurt only and synbiotic yoghurt + EPEC groups significantlyreduced the platelets and leucocytes counts and Hct of rats

  14. Influence of sweetener stevia on the quality of strawberry flavoured fresh yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Lisak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stevia is a natural, non energetic sweetener, 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose, and is obtained by leaves extraction of the Stevia rebaudiana. According to the low energy value of stevia to sweeten food products, it is a great possibility of its use in the dairy industry. This study examined the differences in the sweetness of the strawberry flavoured yoghurt with the addition of sucrose, stevia and equal portions of sucrose and stevia; each combination was used at three different concentrations (3, 4.5 and 6 % / 100 g yoghurt. Stevia was diluted in a concentration which, according to the literature, matches the sweetness profile of sucrose. Viscosity of the yoghurts was determined by the rheometer, and sensory profiling of the products was evaluated by a panel using the ranking test and weighted factors methods. The level of sweetness of all yoghurt samples (using sucrose, stevia and mixture of sucrose and stevia was judged by a test panel, and products were rated in the terms of degree of sweetness as sucrose > sucrose + stevia > stevia. The recommended level by panelists of any type or combination of sweeteners for strawberry yoghurt was 4.5 g sweetner/100 g. The apparent viscosity was lower in sucrose yoghurts compared to products made with stevia or stevia + sucrose which was also reflected in the sensory scores.

  15. Penurunan jumlah Streptococcus mutans pada saliva anak dengan ortodonti cekat setelah konsumsi yoghurt (Reduction of salivary Mutans Streptococci in children with fixed orthodontic appliance after yoghurt consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Anggreani Bibi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orthodontic treatment using fixed appliances in children increases with the case of malocclusion in Indonesia. The patients with fixed orthodontics have higher risks of caries. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the influences short term daily consumption fruit-flavored yoghurt on salivary mutans Streptococci in pediatric patients during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Methods: This was an experimental laboratory study with a double-blind randomized crossover design. The subjects were 26 children in range of age 11 to 15 years old who were under orthodontic treatment using fixed appliances. Subjects were divided into 2 (two groups which consist of 13 children each. Group A were asked to consumed a 150 ml of yoghurt Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus once a day for 2 weeks, while group B were asked to consumed milk once a day for the same period of time. After “washout” period for 2 weeks, the subjects of group A and B crossed over the drink, group A was asked to consumed milk and group B was asked to consumed yoghurt for another 2 weeks. Before and after consuming yoghurt or milk, the subject’s saliva samples were taken and the colonies of mutans Streptococci were counted on TYC media. Results: Statistical analysis showed that on subjects who consumed yoghurt the colony number of mutans Streptococci reduced significantly (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Short-term daily consumption of the probiotic yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium bifidum bacteria and Lactobacillus acidophilus could reduce the number of salivary mutans streptococci in pediatric patient during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances.Latar belakang: Kebutuhan perawatan ortodonti menggunakan alat cekat pada anak-anak meningkat seiring bertambahnya jumlah kasus maloklusi di Indonesia. Namun faktanya penggunaan piranti ortodonti cekat berisiko terjadinya karies disekitar bracket. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan meneliti pengaruh

  16. Screening of a micro-ecological fodder starter culture lactic acid bacterial strain and optimization of culture conditions%一株用于微生态饲料发酵剂的乳酸菌筛选及培养条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 张一; 陈宇飞

    2016-01-01

    A micro-ecological fodder starter culture lactic acid bacterial strain was screened and the culture conditions were optimized in this article. The acid production rate of three kinds of lactic acid bacteria was determined, and the antibacterial test for e.coli was carried out. Meanwhile the excellent strains were identified by using French bacteria identification system. The result shows that the acid production rate of type A lactic acid bacteria was fast, with good antibacterial effect. And the type A lactic acid bacteria was identified as Pediococcus pentosus. By studying the effect of each culture con⁃dition on biomass of lactic acid bacteria, we reached that the culture temperature was 30 ℃, stilling culture, inoculum size was 1%, choosing peptone as nitrogen source with the concentration of 8%~10%, the initial pH was 6.5. Under this condition, the biomass of lactic acid bacteria was the highest. These provided a theoretical reference for development and application of micro-ecological fodder start⁃er culture strains.%对用于微生态饲料发酵剂的乳酸菌进行筛选和培养条件优化。测定了3种乳酸菌的产酸速度,进行了大肠杆菌的抑菌效果试验,并利用梅里埃细菌鉴定系统对优良菌种进行鉴定,得出A型乳酸菌的产酸速度快、抑菌效果好,并鉴定该菌为戊糖片球菌;通过研究培养条件诸因素对乳酸菌生物量的影响,研究得出:培养温度30℃、静置培养、接种量1%、氮源选择蛋白胨、碳源浓度为8%~10%、初始pH值为6.5,该条件下乳酸菌的生物量最大。为微生物饲料发酵剂菌种的开发与应用提供理论参考。

  17. Daqu : a traditional fermentation starter in China: microbial ecology and functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Fermented products have high nutritional value and constitute an important part of the Chinese dietary profile; they are also gaining popularity throughout the world. Daqu is a traditional natural fermentation starter culture that has a

  18. 保鲜乳酸菌在搅拌型酸乳中的应用研究%Application of Preservative Lactic Acid Bacteria in Stirred Yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆鹏飞; 俞兰秀

    2012-01-01

    Six preservative lactic acid bacteria were tested for their influence on acid-producing ability of the starter in yoghurt fermentatioa Effects of preservative lactic acid bacteria on sensory quality of stirred yoghurt at 4 °C after 24 h storage, thorner in storage process and inhibition of yeasts and moulds were investigated. The results showed that the selection of six test preservative lactic acid bacteria (RP80, RP81, RP82, YM-C, GP100 and GP101) did not affect the acid yield ability of the starter. Preservative bacteria RP82 showed the highest score in sensory evaluation. In addition, the thorner change trend of RP82 was consistent with control group in storage process. The yogurt added with RP82 showed no bad taste. All the tested preservative lactic acid bacteria exhibited inhibitory effect on yeasts and molds under the experiment conditions. Compared with other strains, RP80 exhibited better inhibitory effect on yeasts and YM-C exhibited better inhibitory effect on molds under the experiment conditions.%对6组保鲜乳酸茵(RP80、RP81、RP82、YM-C、GP100、GP101)进行了以下几个方面的研究:在搅拌型酸乳发酵过程中对发酵剂产酸能力的影响、终止发酵后,4℃后熟24h对酸乳感官品质的影响、贮藏过程中对酸乳后酸的影响以及对酵母菌和霉菌的抑制作用.结果表明:这6组保鲜乳酸茵均对发酵剂的产酸能力没有影响;接入保鲜茵RP82的酸乳4℃后熟24 h的感官评分最高,后酸变化趋势与对照组保持一致,无不良后味;6组保鲜茵在试验接种量下均对酵母菌和霉菌有抑制作用,其中RP80对酵母茵的抑制效果较好,YM-C对霉菌的抑制效果较好.

  19. [The microflora of sour dough. IV. Communication: bacterial composition of sourdough starters genus Lactobacillus beijerinck (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicher, G; Schröder, R

    1978-11-28

    The bacterial composition of three so called pure culture sourdough starters of varying origin was investigated. 245 isolates were obtained all belonging to the genus Beijerinck. According to their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics they were classified into the subgroups: Thermobacterium (L. acidophilus), Streptobacterium (L. casei, L. plantarum, L. farciminis, L. alimentarius) and Betabacterium (L. brevis, L. brevis var. lindneri, L buchneri, L. fermentum, L. fructi vorans). In the three sourdough starters the identified lactic organisms varied in number and proportion. In starter preparation "A" only the varieties L. fructi vorans and L. fermentum were present. Preparation "B" contained a great variety of microorganisms with L. brevis and L. brevis L. lindneri predominating. In starter "C" L. brevis, L. plantarum and L. alimentarius predominated.

  20. Fermentation and storage of probiotic yoghurt from goat’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajka Božanić

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Cow’s and goat’s milk supplemented with inulin were fermented withABT4 culture. The population growth of Streptococcus thermophilus,Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium ssp. in plain and inulinsupplemented goat’s milk during fermentation was evaluated. The survival of strains during 28 d of storage was followed in comparison with that of cow’s milk. The time required to reach the desired pH of 4.6 during fermentation was 6 h for both types of milk. At that time the proportion of viable cells of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium ssp. in all fermented samples was comparable 40 : 33 : 27, respectively. During the storage viable count of streptococci and bifidobacteria have not decreased. In supplemented samples viable counts of bifidobacteria were increased and during 28th day of storage were higher for 0.6 logarithms compared to the non supplemented samples. Surviving of lactobacilli was poorer in fermented goat's milk than in fermented cow's milk during storage. The addition of inulin improved the firmness of fermented goat’s and cow’s milks products. Inulin addition partly masked the goat’s flavour of produced yoghurt. During storage the fermented goat's samples were scored better in comparison with cow's samples. Goat’s milk fermented with probiotic bacteria and fortified with inulin complies with the requirements of functional food.

  1. Microbial Analysis of Traditional Starter Culture (Jiaotou) and Its Influence on the Quality of Chinese Steamed Bread%传统起子(酵头)的微生物分析及其对馒头品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁长河; 戚光册; 张建华; 陈复生; 李里特

    2007-01-01

    馒头是一种中国主要的发酵食品.传统方法制作馒头是用酵头发酵的,酵头也叫起子、面肥.本文主要研究酵头的微生物组成以及对馒头品质的影响.采用平板划线法对12个酵头进行乳酸菌、酵母菌计数和分离.分离得到的菌种用生物梅里埃的Vitek-32系统进行自动鉴定.通过感官评价和(TPA)质地剖面分析分析来比较酵头发酵馒头和工厂化生产馒头的品质差别.12个酵头的乳酸菌计数的均数为8.1 lg CFU/g,酵母菌计数的均数为7.7 lg CFU/g.干燥的酵头的酵母菌计数(8.2 lg CFU/g)显著高于湿酵头(7.2 lg CFU/g,p<0.05).分离得到的3株酵母都为Saccharomyces cerevisiae(啤酒酵母),3株细菌分别为Bacillus cereus(蜡样芽胞杆菌),Acinetobacter lwoffii(鲁氏不动杆菌),Brevibacillus brevis(短小芽胞杆菌).在酵头发酵馒头面团过程中,随时间延长pH降低,酵母菌和乳酸菌计数增加.与工厂化生产的馒头比较,酵头发酵馒头有较好的内部结构,相对较差的气味,而在感官评价的总分上与工厂化生产的馒头没有显著的差别.TPA分析的结果表明酵头发酵馒头在以下几个指标上显著高于其中一种工厂化生产的馒头(p<0.05):硬度、胶性,咀嚼性,凝聚性,粘附性.总的来说,TPA分析结果表明酵头发酵馒头有着较好的食用品质.%Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is a kind of Chinese traditional fermented staple food. It is traditionally fermented by Jiaotou, which is the starter culture of CSB. This study was to determine the microbial characteristics of Jiaotou and its influence on CSB quality. In this paper, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts counts in 12 Jiaotou samples were enumerated and separated by plate method. The isolated strains were identified by BioMerieu Vitek-32 system. The qualities of Jiaotou fermented CSB and that of commercially produced ones were compared by sensory analysis and texture profile analysis (TPA). The

  2. Feasibility study for the development of a pyro starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, M.; Welland, W.; Bouquet, F.; Lee, S.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Pyro starters can play a role as turbopump starter in liquid propellant propulsion systems by supplying pressurized gas to power turbines for engine start up. For such a purpose, the pyro starters supply a flow of combustion gases with a relatively low flame temperature to the turbines. A feasibilit

  3. Characterization of new exopolysaccharides produced by coculturing of L. kefiranofaciens with yoghurt strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zaheer; Wang, Yanping; Anjum, Nomana; Ahmad, Hajra; Ahmad, Asif; Raza, Mohsin

    2013-08-01

    This project was designed to study the coculturing affect of exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing strains Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens (L.k) ZW3, with non EPS producing strains L. bulgaricus (L.b) and Streptococcus thermophilus (S.t) in three different combinations: L.k+L.b, L.k+S.t, and L.k+L.b+S.t. FTIR analysis revealed presence of strong stretch in regions of 3400, 2900 and 1647cm(-1) which is characteristic of a typical polysaccharide. Co-cultured EPSs were composed of glucose, galactose, arabinose and xylose; and their sugar compositions were different from ZW3 polysaccharide that was mainly composed of gluco-galactan. Peak temperature for L.k+L.b, L.k+S.t, L.k+S.t+L.b and ZW3 polymers were 90.59, 87.61, 95.18 and 97.38°C, respectively. Thermal analysis revealed degradation temperature of 326.44, 294.6, 296.7 and 299.62°C for L.k+L.b, L.k+S.t, L.k+S.t+L.b and ZW3 polymers, respectively. SEM and AFM analysis divulged that three cocultured EPSs had different surface morphology than ZW3 polymer. Since co-cultured polymers have different structure than the polymer produced exclusively by EPS producing strain, it can be safely concluded from the study that co-culturing can be one way to change the structure of polymers. Coculturing of L. kefiranofaciens with non-EPS producing strains resulted in yoghurt with increased viscosity and delayed syneresis.

  4. Free and attached cells of Bacillus subtilis as starters for production of a soup flavouring (“ogiri egusi”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter-Ikechukwu, A. I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This Bacillus subtilis has been identified to be the main fermenting bacterium during indigenous production of “ogiri egusi”; a traditional soup flavouring rich in protein. Evaluation of the use of starter and broth cultures of this bacterium in the production of ‘ogiri egusi’ was therefore undertaken with the view to improve the fermentation process and quality of product. Methodology and Results: Cowpea granules in association with Bacillus subtilis cells were developed as starter cultures for the fermentation. Results obtained showed that the starter cultures resulted in an increase in the aminonitrogen from 1.67±0.02 to 19.96±0.05 mg N/100 g dry matter in 48 h while the broth cultures increased the aminonitrogen from 1.63±0.03 to 16.54±0.05 mg N/100 g dry matter in 72 h. There was also a corresponding increase in the protease activity of the fermentation conducted with the starter cultures from 2.69±0.03 to 54.98±0.04 mg N/min in 48 h. The broth cultures produced an increase from 2.65±0.02 to 47.61±0.06 mg N/min in 72 h. Changes in these parameters for the natural process were gradual and reached their peaks at 120 h with values of 9.89±0.13 mg N/100g dry matter and 31.92±0.03 mg N/min respectively. Peroxide values for the fermentation processes increased throughout the period; however the starter cultures produced the lowest value (10.20±0.10 meq/kg showing that rancidity may not occur in the product fermented by the starter culture. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The starter cultures significantly reduced fermentation time from 96 – 120 h in the natural process to 48 h. Thus use of starter cultures optimized the process of fermentation and will eliminate chances of contamination of product with pathogens and spoilage organisms. This ultimately will improve product quality.

  5. Development of a novel yoghurt based on date liquid sugar: physicochemical and sensory characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerinasab, Asal; Labbafi, Mohsen; Mousavi, Mohammad; Khodaiyan, Faramarz

    2015-10-01

    The addition effect of date liquid sugar (DLS, 1-9 % v/v) to yoghurt milk on the physical (colour, firmness and syneresis), chemical (pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity), rheological (viscosity and flow behaviour), and sensory attributes was scrutinized. Results showed that the pH value decreased by increasing DLS concentration from 1 to 6 %, while the TTA decreased with an increase in DLS from 6 to 9 % (p syneresis, firmness and viscosity values were considerably influenced by the DLS content and acidity of the yoghurts (p syneresis and the highest firmness among the different samples. Moreover, a pseudoplastic rheological behaviour was detected for all the produced yoghurts. An increase in DLS concentration of manufactured yoghurts led to an increase in a, b and total colour difference (TCD) values and a decrease in L value (p < 0.05). The sensory evaluation revealed that there was no significant different in the colour scores. However, the used panelists determined the yoghurt supplemented with 6 % DLS had the highest scores for other investigated attributes.

  6. Invited review: Microbial evolution in raw-milk, long-ripened cheeses produced using undefined natural whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Monica; Bottari, Benedetta; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Mucchetti, Germano

    2014-02-01

    The robustness of the starter culture during cheese fermentation is enhanced by the presence of a rich consortium of microbes. Natural starters are consortia of microbes undoubtedly richer than selected starters. Among natural starters, natural whey starters (NWS) are the most common cultures currently used to produce different varieties of cheeses. Undefined NWS are typically used for Italian cooked, long-ripened, extra-hard, raw milk cheeses, such as Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano. Together with raw milk microbiota, NWS are responsible for most cheese characteristics. The microbial ecology of these 2 cheese varieties is based on a complex interaction among starter lactic acid bacteria (SLAB) and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), which are characterized by their different abilities to grow in a changing substrate. This review aims to summarize the latest findings on Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano to better understand the dynamics of SLAB, which mainly arise from NWS, and NSLAB, which mainly arise from raw milk, and their possible role in determining the characteristics of these cheeses. The review is presented in 4 main sections. The first summarizes the main microbiological and chemical properties of the ripened cheese as determined by cheese-making process variables, as these variables may affect microbial growth. The second describes the microbiota of raw milk as affected by specific milk treatments, from milking to the filling of the cheese milk vat. The third describes the microbiota of NWS, and the fourth reviews the knowledge available on microbial dynamics from curd to ripened cheese. As the dynamics and functionality of complex undefined NWS is one of the most important areas of focus in current food microbiology research, this review may serve as a good starting point for implementing future studies on microbial diversity and functionality of undefined cheese starter cultures.

  7. 白梨魔芋搅拌型酸奶的工艺研究%Study on technology of stirred yoghurt with pear and konjac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雨露; 毕海燕; 惠丽娟; 宋立; 吕长鑫

    2012-01-01

    With fresh milk and pear juice as the main raw material,konjac as stabilizing agent,the processing technology of stirred yoghurt was studied. Through single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment,the optimal formula and fermented technology were confirmed as follows : konjac 0.08%, pear juice 10%,sugar 6.5% ,starter 4% ,fermentation temperature 42℃ ,fermentation time 4h. Under the optimum conditions,the yoghourt quality was best with the score of 91 and with water retention rate of 38.5%.%研究了以鲜乳、白梨汁为主要原料,魔芋粉为稳定剂,生产搅拌型酸奶的工艺。通过单因素实验和正交实验确定了白梨魔芋搅拌型酸奶最佳配方和发酵工艺。结果表明,魔芋粉添加量0.08%,白梨汁添加量10%,白砂糖添加量6.5%,发酵剂4%,在42%条件下发酵4h,制得的酸奶品质最好,感官评分91分,持水率为38.5%。

  8. Instant Microsoft Forefront UAG mobile configuration starter

    CERN Document Server

    Volpe, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    A no-nonsense Starter guide, designed to give you maximum guidance with minimum fuss. This book is written for system administrators, I.T. professionals, unified communication technicians, and decision makers, in general. No knowledge of UAG is required to understand the book and start setting up UAG immediately.

  9. Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Rezaei Tabrizi, M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Han, B.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the world's oldest distilled alcoholic beverages, and it is typically obtained with the use of Daqufermentation starters. Daqu is a saccharifying and fermenting agent, having a significant impact on the flavour of the product. Daqucan be categorized according to maximum incu

  10. Discussion Starters. Technical Note No. 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Ibrahim; Dilts, Russ

    Discussion starters, the result of collaboration between the Indonesian Directorate General of Nonformal Education, Youth, and Sports, and World Education, Inc., are simple learning tools used to generate discussion among community groups involved in nonformal education. Appropriate in and adaptable to a variety of settings, content areas, and…

  11. Acceleration of yoghurt fermentation time by yeast extract and partial characterisation of the active components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Esti-Andrine; Myburgh, Jacobus; Osthoff, Gernot; de Wit, Maryna

    2014-11-01

    Water soluble autolysate of yeast, usually utilised for microbial growth support, was used as additive in yoghurt fermentation. The yeast extract (YE) resulted in a decrease of fermentation time by 21% to reach a pH of 4·6. However, the YE resulted in unacceptable flavour and taste. By size exclusion chromatography, a fraction of the YE was obtained that could account for the observed 21% decrease in fermentation time. The fraction contained molecules of low molecular weight, consisting of minerals, free amino acids and peptides. The acceleration of the yoghurt fermentation was ascribed to the short peptides in the fraction. It is proposed that the application of this extract in industrial yoghurt manufacture would result in savings for both the industry and the consumer.

  12. Hypocholesterolaemic effect of yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 or Bifidobacterium longum BB536.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sheraji, Sadeq Hasan; Ismail, Amin; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yusof, Rokiah Mohd; Hassan, Fouad Abdulrahman

    2012-11-15

    The effect of a yoghurt supplement containing Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 or Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on plasma lipids, lipid peroxidation and the faecal excretion of bile acids was examined in rats fed a cholesterol-enriched diet. After 8 weeks, the rats in the positive control (PC) group who were fed the cholesterol-enriched diet showed significant increases in plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and malondialdehyde (MDA). However, groups fed a cholesterol-enriched diet supplemented with yoghurt containing B. pseudocatenulatum G4 or B. longum BB536 had significantly lower plasma TC, LDL-C, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, and MDA than had the PC group after 8 weeks of treatment. In addition, faecal excretion of bile acids was markedly increased in the rats fed the yoghurt containing B. pseudocatenulatum G4 or B. longum BB536 as compared to the PC and NC groups.

  13. Marketing research in positioning and launching of yoghurt with a balanced chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mardar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Annotation. This article presents the analysis of marketing environment of the enterprises that produce yogurt products in Ukraine. In order to carry out a deeper analysis of the marketing environment of the new yoghurt drinks with a balanced composition of the major nutrients in food and increased probiotic properties, PEST and SWOT-analyses were conducted, they identified environmental factors that have favorable and adverse effects as well as internal strengths and weaknesses of the new product. Based on the results of marketing research of consumer preferences, the core audience of new yoghurt drink with a balanced chemical composition and the elevated concentration of Bifidobacteria were defined. The received results led to justification of the expediency of elaboration of new yoghurt drinks with probiotic properties and balanced composition of basic food nutrients as well as to formulation of a strategy of new product promotion on the consumer market of Ukraine.

  14. Ketahanan dan viabilitas probiotik bakteri asam laktat selama proses pembuatan kultur kering dengan metode freeze dan spray drying [Survival and Viability of Lactid Acid Bacteria Probiotic during production of Dried Culture Using Freeze and Spray Drying Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erni Harmayani 1

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Selection on 36 lactid aid bacteria isolate from various source (dadih, sausage, infant faces, gato, chinese leaf pickle, growol and yoghurt has been carried out based on their potency to reduce choresterol. Based on their ability to assimilate choresterol, conjugate bile solt, restency on bile salt and low pH, three isolates i.e. Lactobacillus sp. Dad 13, L. asidophillus D2 and L. plantarum Mut 7 have been chosen for further study. Viability of selected cultures during biomass production using coconut water with addition of 0.5% yeast extract, and during production of dried starter culture using freeze and spray dried were investigated. The results show that the growth patern of the three isolates selected were almost similar i.e. reaching maximum amount after 16 hours fermentation at 37°C. biomass production using coconut water produced 109 cfu/ml after 16-18 hours incubation at 37°C. decrease on viability after drying using freeze drier ranged between 0.5-2 log cycles, while that of storage of freeze dried culture during 4 weeks at -20°C caused descreasing in viability of 26-56%.

  15. Cell-wall proteinases PrtS and PrtB have a different role in Streptococcus thermophilus/Lactobacillus bulgaricus mixed cultures in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtin, P; Monnet, V; Rul, F

    2002-11-01

    The manufacture of yoghurt relies on the simultaneous utilization of two starters: Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Lb. bulgaricus). A protocooperation usually takes place between the two species, which often results in enhanced milk acidification and aroma formation compared to pure cultures. Cell-wall proteinases of Lactococcus lactis and lactobacilli have been shown to be essential to growth in milk in pure cultures. In this study, the role of proteinases PrtS from S. thermophilus and PrtB from Lb. bulgaricus in bacterial growth in milk was evaluated; a negative mutant for the prtS gene of S. thermophilus CNRZ 385 was constructed for this purpose. Pure cultures of S. thermophilus CNRZ 385 and its PrtS-negative mutant were made in milk as well as mixed cultures of S. thermophilus and Lb. bulgaricus: S. thermophilus CNRZ 385 or its PrtS-negative mutant was associated with several strains of Lb. bulgaricus, including a PrtB-negative strain. The pH and growth of bacterial populations of the resulting mixed cultures were followed, and the Lactobacillus strain was found to influence both the extent of the benefit of Lb. bulgaricus/S. thermophilus association on milk acidification and the magnitude of S. thermophilus population dominance at the end of fermentation. In all mixed cultures, the sequential growth of S. thermophilus then of Lb. bulgarius and finally of both bacteria was observed. Although proteinase PrtS was essential to S. thermophilus growth in milk in pure culture, it had no effect on bacterial growth and thus on the final pH of mixed cultures in the presence of PrtB. In contrast, proteinase PrtB was necessary for the growth of S. thermophilus, and its absence resulted in a higher final pH. From these results, a model of growth of both bacteria in mixed cultures in milk is proposed.

  16. [Iron concentration and acceptation of yoghurt prepared in casting iron pots (iron migration and acceptation of yogurt)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintaes, Késia Diego; Almeyda Haj-Isa, Niurka M; Morgano, Marcelo Antônio

    2005-12-01

    Food fortification is an interesting strategy to treat and prevent iron anemia. This study aims to quantify the iron in yoghurt, with gelatin and sugar and without, prepared in iron and glass containers. Sensorial test was use to evaluate the acceptance and preference of the both products. The yoghurt was prepared in containers of iron and glass with UHT milk, powder milk and natural industrialized yoghurt. After fermentation, half of the product received addition of sugar and strawberry flavor gelatin. The collected samples get the total iron quantified by ICP OES. Sensorial analysis involving 105 consumers was use to determine the acceptance and preference of the products. 0,018 and 0,882mg of iron per 100g added in the natural yoghurt prepared in the glass and in the iron pots, respectively. The yoghurt with gelatin presented 0,037 and 1,302mg of iron per 100g when prepared in the glass and in the iron pots, respectively. The preference was low for the yoghurt prepared in the iron pot (29,5%), but when added strawberry gelatin it was about 51,5%. The yoghurt prepared in iron pots, is easily home made and adds important amount of iron. Add gelatin and sugar can favored its consumption.

  17. Patagonian wines: the selection of an indigenous yeast starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Christian A; Rodríguez, María E; Sangorrín, Marcela; Querol, Amparo; Caballero, Adriana C

    2007-08-01

    The use of selected yeasts for winemaking has clear advantages over the traditional spontaneous fermentation. The aim of this study was to select an indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast isolate in order to develop a regional North Patagonian red wine starter culture. A two-step selection protocol developed according to physiological, technological and ecological criteria based on killer interactions was used. Following this methodology, S. cerevisiae isolate MMf9 was selected among 32 indigenous yeasts previously characterized as belonging to different strains according to molecular patterns and killer biotype. This isolate showed interesting technological and qualitative features including high fermentative power and low volatile acidity production, low foam and low sulphide production, as well as relevant ecological characteristics such as resistance to all indigenous and commercial S. cerevisiae killer strains assayed. Red wines with differential volatile profiles and interesting enological features were obtained at laboratory scale by using this selected indigenous strain.

  18. Yoghurt from short supply chain: preliminary study of microbiological and physicochemical characteristics during shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Giangolini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt is one of very popular flavorful and healthful dairy product obtained by fermentation of lactic acid bacteria including Lactobacillus delbrueckii bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Its production and consumption is growing continuously due to its therapeutic properties beside its high nutritive value. Thirty samples of yoghurt from short supply chain produced in 2 factory localized in Lazio region were analyzed with the aim of determining how certain microbiological and physicochemical characteristics change during their shelf life. Different types of yoghurt were studied: plain (12, fruit (14 and cereal yoghurt (4 produced with cow (8 and goat milk (22.The obtained results show: no presence of Enterobacteria, occasional presence of moulds and a considerable presence of yeasts. On the other hand, all the products analyzed have shown an almost constant amount of lactic acid bacteria during their shelf life. Lactic acid bacteria were identified by a biochemical and polymerase chain reaction assay. The presence of undesired microorganisms like yeasts was found. However, the quality of products was satisfying for the concentration of lactic acid bacteria detected in their shelf life.

  19. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurts made from goat and cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Roberto Germano; Beltrão Filho, Edvaldo Mesquita; de Sousa, Solange; da Cruz, George Rodrigo Beltrão; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto; da Cruz, Eliel Nunes

    2016-05-01

    Substituting goats' milk for cows' milk could improve the quality of dairy products, because it adds new sensorial characteristics. The aim of this study was to develop a type of yoghurt using goats' milk (25, 50, 75 and 100%) in place of cows' milk and to compare their characteristics. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics were evaluated using a nine-point hedonic scale and purchase intention test. The data obtained in the physicochemical analysis were submitted to regression analysis and the sensory results were evaluated through analysis of variance. Among the physicochemical characteristics of the yoghurts, variation (P < 0.05) of ash, acidity and lactose was observed. Tasters in the sensory analysis indicated that yoghurts up to 50% of goats' milk received favorable averages; with lower scores for higher goats' milk concentrations (75% and 100%). No difference was reported in acidity. Replacing cows' milk with goats' milk in yoghurt preparation promotes variations in the physicochemical characteristics for ash, acidity and lactose. However, it does not cause alterations in the sensory attributes (50% goat milk) and therefore could be considered as an alternative for the production of dairy products. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Development of a multiplex real time PCR to detect thermophilic lactic acid bacteria in natural whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Benedetta; Agrimonti, Caterina; Gatti, Monica; Neviani, Erasmo; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    A multiplex real time PCR (mRealT-PCR) useful to rapidly screen microbial composition of thermophilic starter cultures for hard cooked cheeses and to compare samples with potentially different technological properties was developed. Novel primers directed toward pheS gene were designed and optimized for multiple detection of Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum. The assay was based on SYBR Green chemistry followed by melting curves analysis. The method was then evaluated for applications in the specific detection of the 4 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in 29 different natural whey starters for Parmigiano Reggiano cheese production. The results obtained by mRealT-PCR were also compared with those obtained on the same samples by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) and Length-Heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR). The mRealT-PCR developed in this study, was found to be effective for analyzing species present in the samples with an average sensitivity down to less than 600 copies of DNA and therefore sensitive enough to detect even minor LAB community members of thermophilic starter cultures. The assay was able to describe the microbial population of all the different natural whey starter samples analyzed, despite their natural variability. A higher number of whey starter samples with S. thermophilus and L. fermentum present in their microbial community were revealed, suggesting that these species could be more frequent in Parmigiano Reggiano natural whey starter samples than previously shown. The method was more effective than LH-PCR and FISH and, considering that these two techniques have to be used in combination to detect the less abundant species, the mRealT-PCR was also faster. Providing a single step sensitive detection of L. helveticus, L. delbrueckii, S. thermophilus and L. fermentum, the developed mRealT-PCR could be used for screening thermophilic starter cultures and to follow the presence of

  1. Curcumin-supplemented yoghurt improves physiological and biochemical markers of experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierres, Vânia O; Pinheiro, Clara M; Assis, Renata P; Vendramini, Regina C; Pepato, Maria T; Brunetti, Iguatemy L

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the effects of prolonged treatment of diabetic rats with curcumin-supplemented yoghurt on the physiological and biochemical changes associated with diabetes mellitus. An established metabolic cage model was used to assess these changes in three groups of streptozotocin-diabetic rats which had been administered, by gavage, curcumin blended into yoghurt in the doses of 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg body weight (BW) per d (groups DC30, DC60, DC90) for 31 d. One group of non-diabetic rats was also treated with 90 mg/kg BW per d curcumin (NDC90). Three control groups of diabetic animals received water (DW), yoghurt (DY) and insulin at 27·78 μmol/d by subcutaneous injection (DI). Also, two groups of non-diabetic animals received water (NDW) and yoghurt (NDY). Groups DI and DC90 exhibited significant falls, relative to DW and DY, in food and water intake, urine volume, glycaemia, urinary urea and glucose, proteinuria, serum TAG and activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, and higher hepatic glycogen and BW. These improvements were greater in DI than in DC90. No difference was observed in the serum levels of total cholesterol or HDL-cholesterol, or in the masses of adipose and muscular tissues, between DC90 and DW or DY. Moreover, the improvements in curcumin-treated rats, relative to DW and DY, were significant and dose-dependent. The NDC90 group also showed no difference from the NDW or NDY groups, in any of the markers for diabetes. In conclusion, curcumin mixed into yoghurt at the highest dose tested exhibited anti-diabetic activity, improving significantly most of the markers assessed in this study.

  2. Lipid oxidation in milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing enriched with neat fish oil or pre-emulsified fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This study compared the oxidative stabilities of fish-oil-enriched milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing and investigated the effects on oxidation of adding either neat fish oil or a fish-oil-in-water emulsion to these products. Milk emulsions had higher levels of a fishy off......-flavor and oxidized faster, as determined by the peroxide value and volatile oxidation products, than fish-oil-enriched yoghurt and dressing, despite the fact that dressings had a higher fish oil content and were stored at room temperature. Additionally, fish-oil-enriched yoghurt generally had higher oxidative...... stability than fish-oil-enriched dressings, irrespective of the mode of fish oil addition. Yoghurt thus seemed to be a good delivery system of lipids containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Different effects of adding fish oil either as neat fish oil or as a fish-oil-in-water emulsion were observed...

  3. Sensorless soft starters for loaded induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrisanov, V.I.; Konovalov, Y.N. [Power Plearonics Department, State University of Telecommunication, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The paper is devoted to the research and design of sensorless thyristor soft starters for loaded induction motors (IM) with short circuited squirrel case rotors. It is shown that the applied direct converter topology depends on the output power and consists of a small number of thyristors with special algorithm of switching to realize voltage - frequency control of IM drive systems at low speeds of starting. Sensorless control is realized from the both sides when neither direct converter nor drive system consists of any additional transducers for soft starting operation. (orig.) 4 refs.

  4. Lysine nutritional requirements of broilers reared in clean and dirty environments during the pre-starter and starter phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santana Toledo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 3,760 Ross male broiler chicks were used in two trials, one in the pre-starter (1-11 days phase and the other in the starter (12-22 days phase. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a factorial arrangement of 5 digestible lysine levels × 2 environments (clean and dirty environment, with eight replicates per treatment. The following dietary digestible lysine levels used were: 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24 and 1.30% in the pre-starter phase, and 1.00, 1.06, 1.12, 1.18 and 1.24% in the starter phase. Minimal relation of digestible lysine:digestible methionine + cystine, threonine, tryptophan and arginine (72, 67, 19 and 108%, respectively were maintained, as well as 2.088 and 2.002% of glycine+serine in the pre-starter and starter diets, respectively. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were evaluated. In all phases, dietary digestible lysine levels significantly influenced broiler performance, and broilers reared in the clean environment presented better performance than those reared in the dirty environment. The recommended digestible lysine levels during the pre-starter and starter phases are 1.30 and 1.24% when broilers are reared in the clean enviroment and 1.26 and 1.165% in the dirty enviroment, respectively.

  5. The influence of selected prebiotics on the growth of lactic acid bacteria for bio-yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gustaw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Prebiotics are a category of nutritional com­pounds grouped together, not necessarily by structural similarities, but by ability to promote the growth of spe­cific beneficial (probiotic gut bacteria. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS and inulin are among the most famous prebiotic compounds. In order to improve viability of probiotic bacteria during storage, fermented food should be supplemented with prebiotics. Material and methods. Yoghurts were produced from skimmed milk powder and prebiotics (FOS, inulin or resistant starch, which were added at concentrations of 1%, 2% and 3%. Yoghurts were stored in +4°C for three weeks. Every week each kind of fermented drink was examined in order to check the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Apparent viscosity and texture of bio-yoghurt were determinated during refrigerated storage. Results. The FOS and inulin addition to yoghurt caused an increase in the numbers of all bacteria in comparison to control yoghurt obtained without addition of prebiotics. The viable counts of Str. thermophilus, Lb. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. when 1% of FOS was added to yoghurt were about 9 log cfu/g, 7.8 log cfu/g and 7.7 log cfu/g, respectively. In the presence of 1% of inulin, streptococci and bifidobacteria reached the growth at the level 8.8 log cfu/g and 7.5 respectively. Hardness and adhesiveness of yoghurt obtained with addition resistant starch increased systematically during 21 days of refrigerated storage. Conclusions. The numbers of lactic acid bacteria in obtained bio-yoghurts were sufficient in 97% of samples (106-109 cfu/g according to FAO/WHO protocols. Generally, viability of bacteria was sufficient for 14 days and then their numbers decreased but usually not below 106 cfu/g. Prebiotics as FOS and inulin added to bio-yoghurt exhibited stimulatory effect on growth Lb. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. Addition of prebiotics caused an increase in apparent viscosity and hardness (in case of

  6. Isolation of Bifidobacterium from Direct Yoghurt Fermenter%直投式酸奶发酵剂中双歧杆菌的分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰; 孙翠焕; 吴英春; 陈丽媛; 冯华; 徐冲

    2011-01-01

    An easy, simple, and feasible method to isolate Bifidobacterium from direct yoghurt fennenter is introduced. After the fennenter was cultured and activated in liquid medium, it was separated on different media with scratch method. Bifidobacterium confirmed according to its colony and cell form, then to carry out the initial characterization.%介绍一种简便可行的从直投式酸奶发酵剂中分离双歧杆菌的方法.发酵剂在液体培养基中活化后,在不同选择培养基上划线分离,根据菌落及菌体形态确定双歧杆菌.然后进行初步鉴定.

  7. Commercial ripening starter microorganisms inoculated into cheese milk do not successfully establish themselves in the resident microbial ripening consortia of a South german red smear cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerges, Stefanie; Mounier, Jérôme; Rea, Mary C; Gelsomino, Roberto; Heise, Valeska; Beduhn, Rüdiger; Cogan, Timothy M; Vancanneyt, Marc; Scherer, Siegfried

    2008-04-01

    Production of smear-ripened cheese critically depends on the surface growth of multispecies microbial consortia comprising bacteria and yeasts. These microorganisms often originate from the cheese-making facility and, over many years, have developed into rather stable, dairy-specific associations. While commercial smear starters are frequently used, it is unclear to what degree these are able to establish successfully within the resident microbial consortia. Thus, the fate of the smear starters of a German Limburger cheese subjected to the "old-young" smearing technique was investigated during ripening. The cheese milk was supplemented with a commercial smear starter culture containing Debaryomyces hansenii, Galactomyces geotrichum, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, and Brevibacterium aurantiacum. Additionally, the cheese surface was inoculated with an extremely stable in-house microbial consortium. A total of 1,114 yeast and 1,201 bacterial isolates were identified and differentiated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, repetitive PCR, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis analyses were used to type selected isolates below the species level. The D. hansenii starter strain was primarily found early in the ripening process. The G. geotrichum starter strain in particular established itself after relocation to a new ripening room. Otherwise, it occurred at low frequencies. The bacterial smear starters could not be reisolated from the cheese surface at all. It is concluded that none of the smear starter strains were able to compete significantly and in a stable fashion against the resident microbial consortia, a result which might have been linked to the method of application. This finding raises the issue of whether addition of starter microorganisms during production of this type of cheese is actually necessary.

  8. Properties and stability of butter oil obtained from milk and yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, A

    2000-04-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics and thermal stability of butter oil produced from cow's milk by two different methods were studied. Butter oil samples from cow's milk were made (i) directly from milk and (ii) from yoghurt. Samples were autoxidized at 60, 70 and 80 degrees C in the dark and the reaction monitored by peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid values. Peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values increased as the temperature increased. The increase of the acid value was not significant. The thermal stability was highest in butter oil produced from yoghurt. Oxidative changes compared to hydrolytic changes are of greater significance in the thermal stability of butter oil samples. Arrhenius parameters and activation energies were calculated for the peroxide value data. The percent loss of linolenic acid was about 3 times faster than that of linoleic acid.

  9. Evaluation of Bacillus spp. as dough starters for Adhirasam - A traditional rice based fermented food of Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvar Hussain Noorul Anisha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAdhirasam is a cereal based, doughnut shaped, deep fried dessert consumed in the southern regions of India. The dough used to prepare adhirasam is fermented and contains rice flour and jaggery. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cultivable bacteria associated with this fermented dough and to identify a suitable starter culture for the production of quality adhirasam. In total, one hundred and seventy bacterial isolates were recovered from de Man Rogosa Sharp (MRS agar, nutrient agar, lysogeny agar and tryptic soy agar media. Out of the 170 bacterial isolates, sixteen isolates were selected based on their ability to tolerate glucose and sucrose. All the bacterial isolates tolerated 15% glucose and 30% sucrose. Analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequences of the bacterial isolates showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria were members of the genus Bacillus. These strains were further used as starters and tested for their ability to ferment rice flour with jaggery to produce adhirasam dough. Organoleptic evaluation was carried out to choose the best starter strain. Adhirasam prepared from Bacillus subtilis isolates S4-P11, S2-G2-A1 and S1-G15, Bacillus tequilensis isolates S2-H16, S3-P9, S3-G10 and Bacillus siamensis isolate S2-G13 were highly acceptable to consumers. Adhirasam prepared using these starter cultures had superior product characteristics such as softness in texture, flavor and enhanced aroma and sweet taste.

  10. Evaluation of Bacillus spp. as dough starters for Adhirasam - A traditional rice based fermented food of Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisha, Anvar Hussain Noorul; Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon Woo; Gandhi, Pandiyan Indira; Gopal, Nellaiappan Olaganathan

    2015-01-01

    Adhirasam is a cereal based, doughnut shaped, deep fried dessert consumed in the southern regions of India. The dough used to prepare adhirasam is fermented and contains rice flour and jaggery. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cultivable bacteria associated with this fermented dough and to identify a suitable starter culture for the production of quality adhirasam. In total, one hundred and seventy bacterial isolates were recovered from de Man Rogosa Sharp (MRS) agar, nutrient agar, lysogeny agar and tryptic soy agar media. Out of the 170 bacterial isolates, sixteen isolates were selected based on their ability to tolerate glucose and sucrose. All the bacterial isolates tolerated 15% glucose and 30% sucrose. Analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequences of the bacterial isolates showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria were members of the genus Bacillus. These strains were further used as starters and tested for their ability to ferment rice flour with jaggery to produce adhirasam dough. Organoleptic evaluation was carried out to choose the best starter strain. Adhirasam prepared from Bacillus subtilis isolates S4-P11, S2-G2-A1 and S1-G15, Bacillus tequilensis isolates S2-H16, S3-P9, S3-G10 and Bacillus siamensis isolate S2-G13 were highly acceptable to consumers. Adhirasam prepared using these starter cultures had superior product characteristics such as softness in texture, flavor and enhanced aroma and sweet taste.

  11. Phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR of promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented sausages Caracterização fenotípica e por PCR espécie-específica de cepas promissoras como cultivos iniciadores de Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de embutidos cárneos fermentados naturalmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Cortez Sawitzki

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to characterize promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented artisanal sausage manufactured in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. From 127 isolates of homofermentative, Gram-positive and catalase-negative lactic acid bacteria, ten isolates were randomly selected and the phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR were performed. Genomic DNA from each isolated strain and from the reference strains L. plantarum ATCC 8014 and L. pentosus ATCC 8041 were amplified using two pairs of L. plantarum species-specific primers (16/Lpl and LbP11/LbP12. The results of the phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR indicated that five out of ten isolates were Lactobacillus plantarum.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar cepas promissoras como cultivos iniciadores de Lactobacillus plantarum isoladas de embutidos cárneos fermentados naturalmente produzidos na região noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Das 127 bactérias ácido láctica homofermentativas, Gram-positivo e catalase-negativo isoladas, dez foram aleatoriamente selecionadas e a caracterização fenotípica e a PCR espécie-específica foram realizadas. DNA genômico das cepas isoladas e das cepas de referência L. plantarum ATCC 8014 e L. pentosus ATCC 8041 foram amplificadas utilizando-se dois pares de iniciadores espécie-específicos para L. plantarum (16/Lpl e LbP11/LbP12. Os resultados da caracterização fenotípica e da PCR espécie-específica permitiram a identificação como Lactobacillus plantarum de cinco cepas das dez selecionadas.

  12. Influence of sweetener stevia on the quality of strawberry flavoured fresh yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Lisak; Irena Jeličić; Ljubica Tratnik; Rajka Božanić

    2011-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non energetic sweetener, 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose, and is obtained by leaves extraction of the Stevia rebaudiana. According to the low energy value of stevia to sweeten food products, it is a great possibility of its use in the dairy industry. This study examined the differences in the sweetness of the strawberry flavoured yoghurt with the addition of sucrose, stevia and equal portions of sucrose and stevia; each combination was used at three different concentra...

  13. Review article: health benefits of some physiologically active ingredients and their suitability as yoghurt fortifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Fayed, A. E

    2014-01-01

    The article is concerned with health benefits of two main physiologically active ingredients namely, Isoflavones and γ-Aminobutyric acid, with emphasis on their fitness for fortification of yoghurt to be consumed as a functional food. Isoflavones (ISO) are part of the diphenol compounds, called “phytoestrogens,” which are structurally and functionally similar to estradiol, the human estrogen, but much less potent. Because of this similarity, ISO were suggested to have preventive effects for m...

  14. STUDY REGARDING SOME PHYSICAL - CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE YOGHURT WITH RED BEETROOT JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Prodaniuc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents some physical - chemical characteristics of the beetroot juice yoghurt. The following determinations were carried out: the determination of the acidity by titration with sodium hydroxide ( NaOH N/10, the determination of the fat content by the acid-butirometric method and the determination of the dry substance using the drying oven with a 102 °C temperature.

  15. [Acceptance of yoghurt with different functional ingredients among consumers in supermarkets in southern Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Shene, Carolina; Rubilar, Mónica; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Lobos, Germán

    2010-12-01

    In view of the interest in the role of foodstuffs in improving wellbeing and health, the object of this study is to distinguish consumer typologies in Temuco, La Araucanía Region, Chile, according to their preferences for different functional ingredients, flavouring, colouring and price in yoghurt. A semi-structured survey was applied to 400 supermarket customers. The respondents ordered eight alternative yoghurts according to their preferences, with different functional ingredients (fibre, antioxidants), flavourings (sugar, sweetener), colouring (natural, artificial) and three price options, for a conjoint analysis with fractional factorial design. Variables affecting knowledge of "functional food" were evaluated using a binomial logit model. It was determined by conjoint analysis that in general a preference existed for yoghurt containing fibre, sweetener, natural colouring, and at the lowest price. Three typologies were distinguished by analysis of hierarchical conglomerates: the majority segment (48.8%) displayed a greater preference for fibre; the second (41.7%) also preferred fibre, but gave first priority to artificial colouring and preferred a higher price. The minority (9.5%) was the only segment to prefer antioxidants. The typologies differed significantly in satisfaction with their food-related life, knowledge of the function of fibre and presence of cancer and obesity in some member of the respondent's family. The binomial logit model was significant (P sweetener.

  16. Fatty Acid Content of Bovine Milkfat From Raw Milk to Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Santos Junior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The present study aimed to study the evolution of fatty acid content, focusing on rumenic acid content, from raw milk to yoghurt processed from this milk. Approach: Milk samples were collected in a dairy plant in the northwest of Parana State weekly in January 2011 (Brazilian summer. It processed one truck load of 26,000 L of refrigerated type-C (whole standardized milk with a minimum of 3% fat milk per day, mostly from the city of Lobato, Parana, produced mainly by Gir (Bos indicus cattle raised on stargrass (Cynodon nlenfuensis var. nlenfuensis pasture. Results: Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA were the most abundant, particularly palmitic (16:0, stearic (18:0 and myristic (14:0. Among the Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA and trans fatty acid, oleic acid (18:1n-9, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, elaidic acid (t9-18:1 and c9, t11-18:2 (rumenic acid predominated. It was detected significant differences (p-1 of lipids, decreasing to 6.22±0.20 after pasteurization and to 5.41±0.18 mg g-1 in yoghurt. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is demonstrated that pasteurization and yoghurt making affect the CLA contents.

  17. Effects of yeast, carboxymethylcellulose, yoghurt, transglutaminase and cyclodextrinase on mixing properties of oat dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitcheu Ngemakwe, Patrick Hermaan; Le Roes-Hill, Marilize; Jideani, Victoria

    2015-10-01

    The effects of yeast, carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC), plain yoghurt (YG), transglutaminase (TG) and cyclodextrinase (CG) on the mixing properties of oat dough were investigated through the use of DoughLab. A 2(5-2)fractional factorial design resolution III with yeast (1.25, 3.25 %), CMC (1, 2 %), YG (10.75, 33.75 %), TG (0.5, 1.5 %) and CG (10, 40 μl) as independent variables was implemented. The parameters measured were water absorption, arrival time, stability, energy at peak, peak resistance, development time, departure time, softening and bandwith at peak. CMC significantly (p dough during mixing. Principal component analysis indicated that 85.5 % of the variation in the data could be explained by two components. Component 1 explaining 52.3 % of the variation loaded highly on dough strength (stability and departure time). Component 2 contributing 33.2 % of the variation loaded on dough resistance (water absorption and peak resistance). CMC significantly increased dough strength while yoghurt reduced it significantly. TG significantly (p dough to mixing while CMC and yoghurt reduced it significantly (p dough mixing properties.

  18. Indução da fermentação maloláctica em vinho tinto com a cultura láctica viniflora oenos Induction of malolactic fermentation in red wine with the starter culture viniflora oenos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Dias de Avila

    1997-06-01

    comportamento dos ácidos málico, acético, láctico, pirúvico e tartárico foi demonstrado.Malolactic fermentation is responsible for the reduction of the total acidity, which usually is too high in young red wines. This fermentation provides a higher biological stability and higher complexity of aroma and flavor. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul, malolactic fermentation becomes a necessity because frequently grapes have high acidity and the induction by bacterial inoculation has not been a common practice. This work had as a main aim to evaluate the lactic culture behavior in the induction of malolactic fermentation in relation to the wild bacteria. A must of Cabernet Sauvignon Vitis vinífera was fermented and inoculated with the commercial culture of Leuconostoc oenos, Viniflora Oenos in several residual sugar levels: 34.1 - 13.8 - 1.7 and 1.5g/l. The inoculations, in duplicate, were compared with spontaneous malolactic fermentation (control. Degradation of malic acid was monitored through paper chromatography. Organic acids were determinated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Reducing sugars (RS, °Brix, pH, total acidity and alcohol were also analysed. The inoculated wine in the 34.1g/l RS stage fermented in 14 days, while the control took 28.5 days in average. In the 13.8 and 1.7g/l RS stages, Viniflora Oenos completed the malic acid degradation around 13 and 11 days, while the controls took 20.5 and 16.5 days, respectively. In the 1.5g/l RS stage, the inoculated wines and the controls did not demonstrate significative difference and fermented between 8 and 10 days. Viniflora Oenos completed the malolactic fermentation in less time. This demonstrates that the inoculation can be made before the end of alcoholic fermentation with good results. In the majority of the treatments there was not significative difference in the acetic acid production between the culture and the control. The behavior of the malic, acetic, lactic, piruvic and tartaric acids were

  19. The effect of microbial starter composition on cassava chips fermentation for the production of fermented cassava flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Listianingrum, Zaenudin, Ahmad; Trihatmoko, Kharisrama

    2015-12-01

    The processing of cassava into fermented cassava flour (fercaf) or the widely known as modified cassava flour (mocaf) presents an alternative solution to improve the competitiveness of local foods and to support national food security. However, the mass production of fercaf is being limited by several problems, among which is the availability of starter cultures. This paper presents the mapping of the effect of microbial starter compositions on the nutritional content of fercaf in order to obtain the suitable nutritional composition. Based on their enzymatic activities, the combination of Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus oryzae were tested during the study. In addition, commercial starter was also tested. During the fermentation, the dynamics in microbial population were measured as well as changes in cyanogenic glucoside content. The microbial starter composition was observed to affect the dynamics in microbial populationcynaogenic glucoside content of the produced fercaf. In general, steady state microbial population was reached within 12 hours of fermentation. Cyanogenic glucoside was observed to decrease along the fermentation.

  20. The effect of kefir starter on Thai fermented sausage product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Jatupornpipat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml was significantly higher (P0.05. It is concluded that the addition of kefir starter (7 ml could be useful to improve the final quality of Thai fermented sausages. The addition of kefir starter that initiates rapid acidification of the raw meat and that leads to a desirable sensory quality of the end-product are used for the production of fermented sausages, and represents a way of improving and optimizing the sausage fermentation process and achieving tastier, safer, and healthier products.

  1. Application of a Cholesterol-Lowering Strain of Bifidobacterium animalis in Fat-Free Yoghurt%降胆固醇双歧杆菌B菌在零脂酸奶生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅强; 周星浩; 高兴华; 欧凯; 王银娟; 刘小杰

    2012-01-01

    Bifidobacterium animalis strain B, a strain that is capable of lowering cholesterol levels in the body, was screened out and used in combination with the conventional fermentation starter (composed of L.bulgaricus and S.thermophilus) for the mixed-strain fermentation of fat-free yoghurt at 43 °C. The end point of the fermentation was reached after 5.5 - 6 hours. The total numbers of viable Bifidobacterium animalis and lactic acid bacteria reached an average of 4.8 X 106 CFU/g and 7.4 X 107 CFU/g respectively during 28 days of storage at 4 °C.The yoghurt obtained showed a protein content of 2.8 g/100 g, a fat content of 0.2 g/100 g, and an acidity value of 80 °T. All of these three indexes met the requirements of the National Food Safety Standard GB 19302--2010: Fermented Milk. Meanwhile, according to the Ministry of Health's Regulation for Food Nutrition Labeling, the yoghurt product could be labeled as fat-free fermented milk. The results of sensory evaluations revealed that it had a very gentle flavor and a strong taste of fresh cream with a smooth and exquisite texture and a good consumer acceptance. Therefore, the yoghurt developed in this study has promising commercial prospects.%研究降胆固醇益生菌在酸奶中的应用。筛选一株具有降低人体胆固醇水平的双歧杆菌B菌,采用此双歧杆菌B菌(Bifidobacterium animalis)和常规酸奶菌种A菌(L.bulgaricus和S.thermophilus)在43℃混合发酵,发酵5.5~6h可达到发酵终点,该酸奶产品在4℃、28d冷藏保质期内,功效双歧杆菌数和乳酸菌总数平均值分别达到4.8×106CFU/g和7.4×107CFU/g,成品理化指标检测为蛋白质含量2.8g/100g、脂肪含量0.2g/100g和酸度80°T,均符合食品安全国家标准GB 19302—2010《发酵乳:风味发酵乳》的要求,根据卫生部食品营养标签管理规范,本产品可标示为零脂风味发酵乳,从感官评价结果来看,此风味发酵乳具有非常柔和的风味及有较

  2. Thermal drying of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and its efficient use as starter for whey fermentation and unsalted cheese making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katechaki, Eleftheria; Solomonidis, Theodoros; Bekatorou, Argyro; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2010-11-01

    Lactobacillus bulgaricus grown on whey was dried by a simple thermal drying method at the range 35-55 degrees C and its efficiency for lactic acid fermentation of whey was evaluated. Drying of cells in whey suspension in the examined temperature range did not affect significantly their viability (82-87% survival), indicating a protective effect of whey as both growth and drying medium. The kinetics of fermentation of whey and mixtures of whey/molasses using the dried culture were comparable to those of non-dried cells, and only low pH had a detrimental effect on the fermentation ability of the dried cells. Furthermore, dried L. bulgaricus, free or immobilized on casein coagulates, was used as starter for the production of unsalted hard-type cheese. The effects of the amount of starter culture and the immobilization technique, the evolution of microbial counts, and the sensory properties of the produced cheeses were evaluated during ripening at various temperatures.

  3. Non-starter lactic acid bacteria used to improve cheese quality and provide health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settanni, Luca; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2010-09-01

    Non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) dominate cheese microbiota during ripening. They tolerate the hostile environment well and strongly influence the biochemistry of curd maturation, contributing to the development of the final characteristics of cheese. Several NSLAB are selected on the basis of their health benefits (enhancement of intestinal probiosis, production of bioactive peptides, generation of gamma-aminobutyric acid and inactivation of antigenotoxins) and are employed in cheese-making. This review describes the ecology of NSLAB, and focuses on their application as adjunct cultures, in order to drive the ripening process and promote health advantages. The scopes of future directions of research are summarised.

  4. Compromised Lactobacillus helveticus starter activity in the presence of facultative heterofermentative Lactobacillus casei DPC6987 results in atypical eye formation in Swiss-type cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Daniel J; McSweeney, Paul L H; Cotter, Paul D; Giblin, Linda; Sheehan, Jeremiah J

    2016-04-01

    Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria are commonly implicated in undesirable gas formation in several varieties, including Cheddar, Dutch-, and Swiss-type cheeses, primarily due to their ability to ferment a wide variety of substrates. This effect can be magnified due to factors that detrimentally affect the composition or activity of starter bacteria, resulting in the presence of greater than normal amounts of fermentable carbohydrates and citrate. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for a facultatively heterofermentative Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus casei DPC6987) isolated from a cheese plant environment to promote gas defects in the event of compromised starter activity. A Swiss-type cheese was manufactured, at pilot scale and in triplicate, containing a typical starter culture (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus) together with propionic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus helveticus populations were omitted in certain vats to mimic starter failure. Lactobacillus casei DPC6987 was added to each experimental vat at 4 log cfu/g. Cheese compositional analysis and X-ray computed tomography revealed that the failure of starter bacteria, in this case L. helveticus, coupled with the presence of a faculatively heterofermentative Lactobacillus (L. casei) led to excessive eye formation during ripening. The availability of excess amounts of lactose, galactose, and citrate during the initial ripening stages likely provided the heterofermentative L. casei with sufficient substrates for gas formation. The accrual of these fermentable substrates was notable in cheeses lacking the L. helveticus starter population. The results of this study are commercially relevant, as they demonstrate the importance of viability of starter populations and the control of specific nonstarter lactic acid bacteria to ensure appropriate eye formation in Swiss-type cheese.

  5. 复合发酵剂和黑胡椒对羊肉发酵干香肠挥发性风味成分的影响%Effect of combinations of starter cultures and black pepper on the volatile flavor compounds of dry fermented mutton sausages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽华; 靳烨; 马长伟; 张美枝; 李艳梅

    2011-01-01

    The dry fermented mutton sausages were manufactured with mutton and tail fat,and with various combinations of starter cultures and black pepper.The volatile flavor compounds were extracted and identified by dynamic headspace sampling(DHS)and purge-trap(P T)methods and GC/MS system during ripening.52 volatile flavor compounds were detected with capillary column HP-5,which could be clustered in the following chemical families:alkanes,alcohols,aldehydes,ketones,aromatic hydrocarbons,acids,esters,nitrogen-containing compounds,furans compounds and terpenoids.These showed different changing rules,especially alkanes(10)were the most in all kinds,whose proportions were 19.23%,and terpenoids took second place.At the same time,pentanal,3-methyl-butanal,3-hydroxy-2-butanone and 3-Carene,D-Limonene and so on were detected,which were originated from lipid degradation and oxidation,amino acid Strecker reaction,the carbohydrate catabolism and black pepper,which contributed to dry fermented mutton sausages odor together.%以内蒙古羊肉和羊尾脂肪为原料,接种复合发酵剂和黑胡椒生产羊肉发酵干香肠,利用动态顶空制样(DHS)/吹扫捕集(P&T)技术结合气-质联机(GC-MS),分析鉴定了羊肉发酵干香肠在成熟后挥发性风味成分的变化情况,结果检出了52种挥发性风味成分,主要由醛类、酮类、酸类、醇类、萜类、烷烃类、酯类、芳烃类、呋喃类和含氮化合物等十类化合物组成,种类数最多的是烷烃类(10种),占总种类数的19.23%,其次是萜类(9种)。同时检出了来源于脂肪水解氧化和氨基酸的Strecker降解以及碳水化合物代谢产生的戊醛、3-甲基

  6. Diversity and evolution of the microbial populations during manufacture and ripening of Casín, a traditional Spanish, starter-free cheese made from cow's milk

    OpenAIRE

    Alegría, Ángel; Álvarez Martín, Pablo; Sacristán, Noelia; Fernández, Elena; Delgado, Susana; Mayo Pérez, Baltasar

    2009-01-01

    Classical culturing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques have been used for studying the microbial diversity and dynamics of the traditional Spanish Casín cheese during manufacturing and ripening. As with other starter-free cheeses made from raw milk, the microbial diversity of Casín was shown to be high by both culturing and DGGE analyses. The culture technique showed that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species constituted the majority of the microbial populations. Of th...

  7. Preparation of Solidified Walnut Yoghurt%凝固型核桃酸奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振东

    2016-01-01

    Objective] To prepare the solidified walnut yoghurt with nice and good flavor.[Method] With walnut, milk and white sugar as the main raw materials, a yogurt product with good flavor and abundant nutrition was prepared through blending, homogenizing, sterilization, fermentation and so on.[Result] Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were mixed together according to the ratio of 1∶1, which was used as the leavening agent for lactic acid fermentation.The inoculum size was 3%, white sugar content was 6%, milk content was 7%, and walnut content was 7%.Thus, solidified walnut yoghurt was obtained with abundant nutrition and high quality.[ Conclusion] This research provides references for the preparation of solidified walnut yoghurt.%[目的]研制口感、风味良好的凝固型核桃酸奶。[方法]以核桃、牛奶、白砂糖为主要原料,通过调配、均质、杀菌、发酵等制成一种风味优良、营养丰富的酸奶制品。[结果]将保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌以1∶1混合作为发酵剂进行乳酸发酵,即接种量为3%、白砂糖添加量6%、奶粉添加量7%、核桃浆含量7%,制得的凝固型核桃酸奶营养丰富,品质优良。[结论]为新型凝固型核桃酸奶的研制提供参考。

  8. Microbial evolution of traditional mountain cheese and characterization of early fermentation cocci for selection of autochtonous dairy starter strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carafa, Ilaria; Clementi, Francesca; Tuohy, Kieran; Franciosi, Elena

    2016-02-01

    The microbial population of Traditional Mountain (TM) cheese was investigated and characterized for the selection of cocci suitable for developing new starter cultures. Samples of milk, curd and cheese at different ripening times were enumerated in selective culture media and 640 colonies were isolated from curd and cheese after 24 h of ripening. The Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from M17 were clustered into 231 biotypes by RAPD-PCR analysis and identified as Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus faecalis. Forty percent of enterococci showed the in vitro ability to inhibit raw milk resident coliforms, but they were excluded as possible starters due to the presence of associated risk factors. All lactococci and streptococci were tested for their technological properties; 4 Lc. lactis subsp. lactis and 2 Sc. thermophilus which were fast acidifiers and did not produce unpleasant flavours were subjected to the freeze-drying stability test. Lc. lactis subsp. lactis biotype 68 and Sc. thermophilus biotype 93 showed the best technological properties and may be appropriate for cheese production. This work gave evidence of the high biodiversity of TM-cheese autochthonous biotypes which could be used as starter cultures for the improvement of TM-cheese technology.

  9. Physico-Chemical And Microbiological Quality Of Some Consumer Preferred Plain Set Yoghurts Sold In Matara Municipal Area Of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K.G.U Hemamali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As yoghurt is a health food assessment of quality of commercialized yoghurt during storage period in refrigerator is needed. Lack of data on quality parameters of yoghurt brands in Sri Lanka is impediment to consumer health. This study is an attempt to fill that gap by providing data on evaluation of the changes of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of some plain set yoghurt sold in Matara municipal area of Sri Lanka. Five different brands of plain set yoghurt samples were collected on the basis of consumer preference for the present study. From each brand fifteen samples were analyzed by means of their physico-chemical syneresis effect pH titratable acidity total protein content and microbiological composition total plate count total yeast and mould count by using three replicates of each sample at 4 7 14 21 and 28 days intervals from production date under refrigerated condition 4 amp61616C and compared against local and international standards. All microbiological parameters and total protein content of all plain set yoghurt brands were not within the permissible range for local and international standards. Titratable acidity was only in the permissible range of local standards. All the physico-chemical parameters and microbiological parameters of collected samples were significantly affected by storage period. Good quality yoghurt of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters with hygiene conditions during processing and storage should be encouraged for consumption.

  10. Impact of selected coagulants and starters on primary proteolysis and amino acid release related to bitterness and structure of reduced-fat Cheddar cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Mette Winther; Qvist, Karsten Bruun; Rasmussen, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    Despite substantial research, it is still difficult to produce high quality reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. The objective of this study was to investigate how two coagulants, bovine chymosin (BC) and camel chymosin (CC) having different proteolytic activities and two starter cultures, an O-culture (O......) and a thermophilic strain of Lactobacillus plus O-culture (OLb) having different abilities to release amino acids, contribute to the structure and flavour development in reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. Cheeses manufactured using the four combinations of coagulants and cultures were analysed during a 28-week ripening...... cheeses with BC had a higher amount of peptides released by chymosin, e. g. the bitter peptide beta-casein (f193-209) or by starter proteases from the chymosin-produced peptide alpha(s1)-CN (f1-23). BC cheeses were also judged to be softer by the sensory panel. Cheeses containing the OLb-culture had...

  11. Yoghurt production from camel (Camelus dramedarius milk fortified with samphire molasses and different colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Kavas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, yoghurt was produced from camel (Camelus dramedarius milk with whey protein isolate (3 % w/v and fortified with 3 % (w/v traditional samphire molasses (TSM (YTSM, 3 % (w/v TSM+0.1% (w/v κ-carrageenan (YTSMC or 3 % (w/v TSM+0.05 % (w/v xanthan gum (YTSMX. In yoghurt samples, physical-chemical properties, texture, color and sensory analysis were determined on the 1st, 5th, 10th and 14th days of storage, while total phenolics (TF levels were determined on the 14th, 24th, 32nd, 48th, 72nd, 120th, 240th and 336th hours of storage. In all samples during storage, hardness and viscosity increased along with the acidity increase, although the increases in YTSM and YTSMC were lower than in YTSMX. In YTSMX, in spite of the increase in acidity after the 1st day, serum separation was very low while viscosity and hardness values were higher compared to the other samples. YTSMX was found to be superior to the other samples in terms of physicochemical, textural, microbiological and sensory properties. Total phenolic contents and L*a*b* levels increased in all samples throughout storage, the highest values of which were in YTSMX. After the 5th day of the storage, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus became the dominant microbial flora. After the 5th day of storage, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus levels were highest in YTSMX.

  12. 30 CFR 75.819 - Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and...-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.819 Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks. Compartment separation and cover interlock switches for motor-starter enclosures must be maintained...

  13. Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek eHeperkan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is one of the oldest methods for preserving of olives applied worldwide for thousands of years. However, olive processing is a speculative area where whether olives are fermented products or pickled products produced by organic acids and salt. Although lactobacilli and yeasts play a major role in the process, literature survey indicates that lactobacilli are less relevant at least in some types of natural green olives during fermentation. There have been significant advances recently in understanding the process to produce olives, especially the role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB and yeasts including biofilm formation on olive surfaces by these organisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments regarding the microbiota of olives on the basis of olive types, their role on the fermentation process, the interaction between both group of microorganisms and the olive surface, the possibility to use starter cultures and the criteria to select appropriate cultures.

  14. Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heperkan, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the oldest methods for preserving of olives applied worldwide for thousands of years. However, olive processing is a speculative area where whether olives are fermented products or pickled products produced by organic acids and salt. Although lactobacilli and yeasts play a major role in the process, literature survey indicates that lactobacilli are less relevant at least in some types of natural green olives during fermentation. There have been significant advances recently in understanding the process to produce olives, especially the role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts including biofilm formation on olive surfaces by these organisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments regarding the microbiota of olives on the basis of olive types, their role on the fermentation process, the interaction between both group of microorganisms and the olive surface, the possibility to use starter cultures and the criteria to select appropriate cultures.

  15. Whey starter for Grana Padano cheese: effect of technological parameters on viability and composition of the microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, M; Gatti, M; Lazzi, C; Bernini, V; Zapparoli, G A; Neviani, E

    2008-03-01

    This work aimed to investigate the effects of thermal treatments and yeast extract addition on the composition of the microbial community of natural whey starters for Grana Padano cheese. Different natural whey starter samples were held at 4 degrees C for 24 h (cooling treatment), or at -20 degrees C for 24 h (freezing treatment) to evaluate the possibility of conservation, or at 54 degrees C for 1 h (heat treatment) to evaluate the effect of the temperature commonly used during curd cooking. Separately, another set of samples was enriched with 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0% (wt/vol) of yeast extract to study its effect on the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the starter. The new approach in this study is the use of 2 culture-independent methods: length heterogeneity (LH)-reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and fluorescence microscopy. These techniques allowed us to easily, quickly, and reproducibly assess metabolically active LAB in the control and treated samples. The LH-RT-PCR technique distinguished microorganisms based on natural variations in the length of 16S rRNA amplified by RT-PCR, as analyzed by using an automatic gene sequencer. Fluorescence microscopy counts were performed by using a Live/Dead BacLight bacterial viability kit. The repeatability of LH-RT-PCR showed that this technique has great potential to reveal changes in the microbial community of natural whey starters for Grana Padano cheese. All species showed low sensitivity to cold (4 degrees C). However, after the freezing (-20 degrees C) and heating (54 degrees C) treatments, different behaviors of the species were reported, with significant changes in their viability and relative composition. Heating treatment during curd cooking profoundly affected the viability and composition of the community that remained in the cheese and that consequently modified the microbial population. At the same time, this treatment produced the selection of LAB in whey and could be considered as the first step in natural

  16. Effect of yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® on faecal excretion of secretory immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin 2 in healthy adult volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabeerdoss Jayakanthan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotics are used to provide health benefits. The present study tested the effect of a probiotic yoghurt on faecal output of beta-defensin and immunoglobulin A in a group of young healthy women eating a defined diet. Findings 26 women aged 18-21 (median 19 years residing in a hostel were given 200 ml normal yoghurt every day for a week, followed by probiotic yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® (109 in 200 ml for three weeks, followed again by normal yoghurt for four weeks. Stool samples were collected at 0, 4 and 8 weeks and assayed for immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin-2 by ELISA. All participants tolerated both normal and probiotic yoghurt well. Human beta-defensin-2 levels in faeces were not altered during the course of the study. On the other hand, compared to the basal sample, faecal IgA increased during probiotic feeding (P = 0.0184 and returned to normal after cessation of probiotic yoghurt intake. Conclusions Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® increased secretory IgA output in faeces. This property may explain the ability of probiotics to prevent gastrointestinal and lower respiratory tract infections.

  17. Synergistic effect of fermented rice extracts on the probiotic and laxative properties of yoghurt in rats with loperamide-induced constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Kim, Joo Wan; Kim, Ki-Young; Lee, Jong-Kwang; Sohn, Jae Hak; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The objective was to evaluate the synergistic effects of fermented rice extracts (FRe) on the laxative and probiotic properties of yoghurt in rats with loperamide-induced constipation. Methods. After constipation induction, yoghurt containing FRe (BFRe; 0.05%, 0.1%, or 1%) was administered orally once per day for 6 days. Results. Loperamide treatment caused marked decreases in fecal pellet numbers and water content discharged, as well as in the surface mucosal thickness of the colonic lumen, intestinal charcoal transit ratio, thickness, and number of mucous-producing goblet cells in the colonic mucosa, whereas it increased the remnant fecal pellet number and the mean diameter of the colonic lumen. However, this loperamide-induced constipation was ameliorated by treatment with FRe, yoghurt single formula, or 0.05%, 0.1%, or 1% BFRe (10 mL/kg). Additionally, the viable numbers of Lactobacillus in the cecal contents and feces were markedly higher than those in constipated rats. Moreover, greater probiotic and laxative effects were detected in BFRe-treated rats than in rats treated with equivalent doses of yoghurt or FRe single formula. Conclusion. The results suggest that addition of FRe to liquid yoghurt will enhance the probiotic and beneficial laxative effects of yoghurt in the digestive tract, without causing side effects.

  18. Synergistic Effect of Fermented Rice Extracts on the Probiotic and Laxative Properties of Yoghurt in Rats with Loperamide-Induced Constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Suk Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The objective was to evaluate the synergistic effects of fermented rice extracts (FRe on the laxative and probiotic properties of yoghurt in rats with loperamide-induced constipation. Methods. After constipation induction, yoghurt containing FRe (BFRe; 0.05%, 0.1%, or 1% was administered orally once per day for 6 days. Results. Loperamide treatment caused marked decreases in fecal pellet numbers and water content discharged, as well as in the surface mucosal thickness of the colonic lumen, intestinal charcoal transit ratio, thickness, and number of mucous-producing goblet cells in the colonic mucosa, whereas it increased the remnant fecal pellet number and the mean diameter of the colonic lumen. However, this loperamide-induced constipation was ameliorated by treatment with FRe, yoghurt single formula, or 0.05%, 0.1%, or 1% BFRe (10 mL/kg. Additionally, the viable numbers of Lactobacillus in the cecal contents and feces were markedly higher than those in constipated rats. Moreover, greater probiotic and laxative effects were detected in BFRe-treated rats than in rats treated with equivalent doses of yoghurt or FRe single formula. Conclusion. The results suggest that addition of FRe to liquid yoghurt will enhance the probiotic and beneficial laxative effects of yoghurt in the digestive tract, without causing side effects.

  19. Sodium reduction in starter-free Queso Fresco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creating lower sodium Queso Fresco (QF) for health conscious consumers is a challenge when this high-moisture, higher pH, starter-free cheese relies on high salt levels to control the microflora and to obtain its signature salty taste. In phase 1, QF made from pasteurized, homogenized bovine milk wi...

  20. On One Possibility to Improve Reliability of Magnetic Starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anishchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes and considers a possibility to improve an operational reliability of reversing magnetic starters by reservation of main and auxiliary contacts in accordance with majority-logic voter «two out of three».

  1. Fluorescent method for monitoring cheese starter permeabilization and lysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunthof, C.J.; Schalkwijk, van S.; Meijer, W.; Abee, T.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2001-01-01

    A fluorescence method to monitor lysis of cheese starter bacteria using dual staining with the LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit is described. This kit combines membrane-permeant green fluorescent nucleic acid dye SYTO 9 and membrane-impermeant red fluorescent nucleic acid dye propidium iod

  2. A Novel Open-winding Permanent Magnetic Starter-generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to overcome the difficulties of voltage regulation, narrow speed range and low power factor of the traditional permanent magnetic generator applied in the vehicles, a novel open-winding permanent magnetic starter-generator (see Fig.l) is used to widen the speed range and improve the efficiency in the generation mode.

  3. Removal of aflatoxin M1 from artificially contaminated yoghurt by using of new synthesized dehydroacetic acid analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frane Delaš

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroacetic acid (DHA and its new synthesized analogues, 4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl-6-(ptolyl-2H-pyrane-2-one (DHT and 5-Bromo-4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl-6-(p-tolyl-2H-pyrane-2-one (BrDHT were tested for removal of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 from artificially contaminated yoghurt with known concentrations of this toxin to determine the possible use of these chemicals as a means of controlling AFM1 accumulation. Yoghurt from cow’s milk was artificially contaminated with AFM1 at levels of 0.01 to 0.5 μg/L. Yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and 7 °C, respectively, for up to 28 days. Analysis of AFM1 in yoghurt was carried out using two dimensional thin-layer chromatography (TLC - visual estimation. The limit of detection was 0.15 ng/L. The recoveries of AFM1 from the samples spiked at levels of 10, 50, 100, and 500 ng/L were between 80.6 and 107.8 %, respectively. Concentrations of DHA and DHT of 0.01 and 0.03 μmol/L had non or little effect on AFM1 content in experimentally contaminated yoghurt, whereas concentrations higher than 0.05 μmol/L, partially inhibited AFM1 content. The percentage loss of the initial AFM1 amount in yoghurt was estimated by about 15 and 25 %, and 22 to 45 % by the end of storage, respectively. In experiments with 0.01 and 0.05 μmol/L of BrDHT or higher, the concentration of AFM1 was reduced after 28 days by 20 to 95 % or completely, respectively, depending on the time and temperature of deposit. Detection of toxicity of investigated analogues was evaluated by using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina larvae as a screening system for the determination of their sensitivity to some chemicals

  4. Microbiology of Cheddar cheese made with different fat contents using a Lactococcus lactis single-strain starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, J R; Brighton, C; McMahon, D J; Farkye, N Y; Johnson, M E; Steele, J L

    2013-07-01

    Flavor development in low-fat Cheddar cheese is typified by delayed or muted evolution of desirable flavor and aroma, and a propensity to acquire undesirable meaty-brothy or burnt-brothy off-flavor notes early in ripening. The biochemical basis for these flavor deficiencies is unclear, but flavor production in bacterial-ripened cheese is known to rely on microorganisms and enzymes present in the cheese matrix. Lipid removal fundamentally alters cheese composition, which can modify the cheese microenvironment in ways that may affect growth and enzymatic activity of starter or nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB). Additionally, manufacture of low-fat cheeses often involves changes to processing protocols that may substantially alter cheese redox potential, salt-in-moisture content, acid content, water activity, or pH. However, the consequences of these changes on microbial ecology and metabolism remain obscure. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of fat content on population dynamics of starter bacteria and NSLAB over 9 mo of aging. Duplicate vats of full fat, 50% reduced-fat, and low-fat (containing cheeses were manufactured at 3 different locations with a single-strain Lactococcus lactis starter culture using standardized procedures. Cheeses were ripened at 8°C and sampled periodically for microbiological attributes. Microbiological counts indicated that initial populations of nonstarter bacteria were much lower in full-fat compared with low-fat cheeses made at all 3 sites, and starter viability also declined at a more rapid rate during ripening in full-fat compared with 50% reduced-fat and low-fat cheeses. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of cheese bacteria showed that the NSLAB fraction of all cheeses was dominated by Lactobacillus curvatus, but a few other species of bacteria were sporadically detected. Thus, changes in fat level were correlated with populations of different bacteria, but did not appear to alter the

  5. Pengaruh Jenis Susu dan Persentase Starter yang Berbeda terhadap Kualitas Kefir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusdar Zakaria

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different milk and starter percentage on kefir quality ABSTRACT. The objective of this study is to study the quality of kefir with different amount of starter added and different kind of milk. The quality of kefir was evaluated by measuring lactic acid level, syneresis, crude protein, crude fat and amount of active microorganism. The result showed that the different percentage of starter and kind of milk has a high significant on syneresis and Lactic Acid level (P < 0,01. The best interaction was resulted from the combination of 10% starter and UHT milk. The result also indicated that the different percentage of starter and kind of milk has no effect on crude protein, crude fat and the amount of active microorganism. The combination of 10% Starter and UHT milk, produces the best quality of kefir

  6. Yoghurt kedelai hitam (black soyghurt dapat menurunkan kadar LDL tikus hiperkolesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Riyanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Hypercholesterolemia is a main risk factor of cardiovascular disease that remains the higher cause of deaths in the world. Black soy bean containing protein, fiber, vitamin, isoflavon, and flavonoid can decrease serum cholesterol level. Yoghurt contains lactic acid bacteria that decrease total and LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and increase the HDL cholesterol. Processing of black soy bean into black soyghurt can increase its isoflavon’s activity by forming aglicone, which has higher activity to decrease cholesterol.Objectives: To know the effect of black soyghurt feeding to LDL, HDL, and HDL ratio of hypercholesterolemic rats.Methods: This research was true-experimental using post test only with control group design. Subjects were 20 male Sprague dawley rats, 2 months old, inducted hypercholesterolemia, given black soyghurt diet using 2 mL, 3 mL, and 4 mL dosage for 21 days. Serum lipid profile were measured by CHOD-PAPand GPO-PAP methods respectively. Normality of the data were tested by Shapiro Wilks test. Data were analyzed by paired t test and Anova continued by LSD test using computer program.Results: The study revealed that black soyghurt 4 mL/day decreased LDL (p=0.02 at the most significant level. The other doses did not significantly influence the levels of LDL (p>0.05 . There was also no effect of black soyghurt feeding on serum HDL cholesterol levels (p=0.11 and the ratio of LDL /HDL (p=0.087.Conclusions: The feeding of black soyghurt at the dosage of 4 mL/day to hypercholesterolemic rats could decrease the serum LDL, but could decrease the ratio of LDL / HDL significantly.KEYWORDS: black soyghurt, LDL/HDL ratio, hypercholesterolemicABSTRAKLatar belakang: Hiperkolesterolemia merupakan faktor risiko penyakit kardiovaskuler yang menjadi penyebab kematian utama di dunia. Kedelai hitam mengandung protein, vitamin, serat, isoflavon, dan flavonoid yang mampu menurunkan kadar kolesterol. Yoghurt

  7. Effects of the Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare L. on Survival of Pathogenic Bacteria and Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria in Semihard Cheese Broth and Slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Geany Targino; de Carvalho, Rayssa Julliane; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Schaffner, Donald; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Magnani, Marciane

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the inhibitory effects of the essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. (OVEO) on Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and a mesophilic starter coculture composed of lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris) in Brazilian coalho cheese systems. The MIC of OVEO was 2.5 μl/ml against both S. aureus and L. monocytogenes and 0.6 μl/ml against the tested starter coculture. In cheese broth containing OVEO at 0.6 μl/ml, no decrease in viable cell counts (VCC) of both pathogenic bacteria was observed, whereas the initial VCC of the starter coculture decreased approximately 1.0 log CFU/ml after 24 h of exposure at 10°C. OVEO at 1.25 and 2.5 μl/ml caused reductions of up to 2.0 and 2.5 log CFU/ml in S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, respectively, after 24 h of exposure in cheese broth. At these same concentrations, OVEO caused a greater decrease of initial VCC of the starter coculture following 4 h of exposure. Higher concentrations of OVEO were required to decrease the VCC of all target bacteria in semisolid coalho cheese slurry compared with cheese broth. The VCC of Lactococcus spp. in coalho cheese slurry containing OVEO were always lower than those of pathogenic bacteria under the same conditions. These results suggest that the concentrations of OVEO used to control pathogenic bacteria in semihard cheese should be carefully evaluated because of its inhibitory effects on the growth of starter lactic acid cultures used during the production of the product.

  8. 菊粉保健酸奶的研制%Development of Inulin Fortified Health Yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于伟

    2012-01-01

    Inulin is a widespread polyfructan in plants,made up of linear chains of β-2,1-linked fructose residues attached to a terminal glucose molecule.Inulin can improve fat metabolism and promote mineral absorption in the human body.In the present study,inulin and xylitol as a sweetener were added to raw milk and fermented to develop a functional yoghurt.By using one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design methods,the optimal fermentation conditions were determined as 6% of inulin,8% of xylitol,2.0% of inoculum size,and 2 h of fermentation time.%菊粉是由D-呋喃果糖以β-2,1-糖苷键连接的多聚果糖,具有改善人体的脂肪代谢,提高矿物质吸收等生理活性。本实验以菊粉为原料,以木糖醇为甜味剂,通过单因素试验和正交试验对菊粉功能性酸奶进行研制。得到的最佳配方为菊粉6%、甜味剂8%、发酵剂2.0%、发酵时间2h。

  9. Fortification of dahi (Indian yoghurt) with omega-3 fatty acids using microencapsulated flaxseed oil microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ankit; Sharma, Vivek; Sihag, Manvesh Kumar; Singh, A K; Arora, Sumit; Sabikhi, Latha

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study was to develop and characterize omega-3 dahi (Indian yoghurt) through fortification of microencapsulated flaxseed oil powder (MFOP). Four different formulations of MFOP were fortified in dahi @ 1, 2 and 3 % levels and the level of addition was optimized on the basis of sensory scores. Dahi fortified at 2 % level was observed comparable to control, which was further studied for titratable acidity, syneresis, firmness, stickiness, oxidative stability (peroxide value), α-linolenic acid (ALA, ω-3) content and sensory attributes during 15d of storage. MFOP fortified dahi showed significantly (p syneresis after 12d of storage. However, peroxide value remained well below (~0.41) to the maximum permissible limit (5 meq peroxides/kg oil) prescribed by Codex Alimentarius Commission (1999). Gas-liquid chromatography profile showed ~21 % decrease in ALA content in fortified dahi after 15d of storage. Overall, it can be concluded that flaxseed oil microcapsules could be successfully incorporated in dahi; which could serve as a potential delivery system of omega-3 fatty acids.

  10. Yoghurt and probiotic bacteria in dietary guidelines of the member states of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smug, L N; Salminen, S; Sanders, M E; Ebner, S

    2014-03-01

    Beneficial microbes enter the food supply primarily through fermented foods (largely milks) and addition of probiotics. Fermented milks are a significant component of the diet of some geographical regions, including Europe. The fermentation process serves to preserve safety, nutritional quality and palatability of milk. In addition, the microbes associated with fermented milks and probiotics are associated with human health benefits. However, in the area of health claims only one claim for beneficial microbes has been approved in the European Union, that is for yoghurt to improve lactose tolerance. We searched for health messages that include probiotics or fermented milks in nutrition guidelines and recommendations in thirteen countries of the EU plus Switzerland. Such messages are allowed when they are made by non-commercial government bodies. Our analysis revealed that five EU member states have national nutrition guidelines or recommendations that include either probiotics or fermented milks with live bacteria. This supports that some EU member states recognise health benefits associated with consumption of live microbes, even if commercial marketing claims are not authorised. Harmonisation between recommendations and approved health-claims would benefit consumers and public health.

  11. Effect of probiotic yoghurt on animal-based diet-induced change in gut microbiota: an open, randomised, parallel-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odamaki, T; Kato, K; Sugahara, H; Xiao, J Z; Abe, F; Benno, Y

    2016-09-01

    Diet has a significant influence on the intestinal environment. In this study, we assessed changes in the faecal microbiota induced by an animal-based diet and the effect of the ingestion of yoghurt supplemented with a probiotic strain on these changes. In total, 33 subjects were enrolled in an open, randomised, parallel-group study. After a seven-day pre-observation period, the subjects were allocated into three groups (11 subjects in each group). All of the subjects were provided with an animal-based diet for five days, followed by a balanced diet for 14 days. Subjects in the first group ingested dairy in the form of 200 g of yoghurt supplemented with Bifidobacterium longum during both the animal-based and balanced diet periods (YAB group). Subjects in the second group ingested yoghurt only during the balanced diet period (YB group). Subjects who did not ingest yoghurt throughout the intervention were used as the control (CTR) group. Faecal samples were collected before and after the animal-based diet was provided and after the balanced diet was provided, followed by analysis by high-throughput sequencing of amplicons derived from the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. In the YB and CTR groups, the animal-based diet caused a significant increase in the relative abundance of Bilophila, Odoribacter, Dorea and Ruminococcus (belonging to Lachnospiraceae) and a significant decrease in the level of Bifidobacterium after five days of intake. With the exception of Ruminococcus, these changes were not observed in the YAB group. No significant effect was induced by yoghurt supplementation following an animal-based diet (YB group vs CTR group). These results suggest that the intake of yoghurt supplemented with bifidobacteria played a role in maintaining a normal microbiota composition during the ingestion of a meat-based diet. This study protocol was registered in the University Hospital Medical Information Network: UMIN000014164.

  12. Molecular Detection of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains and Evaluation of Their Performance as Starter Adjuncts in Yogurt Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Saxami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A molecular method for efficient and accurate detection and identification of two potential probiotic lactobacilli strains isolated from fermented olives, namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lb. plantarum B282, was developed in the present study. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was performed, and strain specific primers were designed and applied in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. The specificity of the assay was tested and successfully confirmed in 27 and 22 lactobacilli strains for Lb. pentosus B281 and Lb. plantarum B282, respectively. Moreover, the two strains were used as starter cultures in yogurt production. Cell enumeration followed by multiplex PCR analysis demonstrated that the two strains were present in yogurt samples at levels ≥6 log CFU/g even after 35 days of storage at 4 °C. Microbiological analysis showed that lactobacilli and streptococci were present within usual levels, whereas enterobacteriaceae and yeast/mold counts were not detected as expected. Although the pH values of the novel products were slightly lower than the control ones, the yogurt containing the probiotic cultures scored similar values compared to the control in a series of sensory tests. Overall, these results demonstrated the possible use of the two strains as starter adjuncts in the production of yogurt with potential probiotic properties.

  13. Molecular Detection of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains and Evaluation of Their Performance as Starter Adjuncts in Yogurt Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxami, Georgia; Papadopoulou, Olga S; Chorianopoulos, Nikos; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Galanis, Alex

    2016-05-04

    A molecular method for efficient and accurate detection and identification of two potential probiotic lactobacilli strains isolated from fermented olives, namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lb. plantarum B282, was developed in the present study. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed, and strain specific primers were designed and applied in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The specificity of the assay was tested and successfully confirmed in 27 and 22 lactobacilli strains for Lb. pentosus B281 and Lb. plantarum B282, respectively. Moreover, the two strains were used as starter cultures in yogurt production. Cell enumeration followed by multiplex PCR analysis demonstrated that the two strains were present in yogurt samples at levels ≥6 log CFU/g even after 35 days of storage at 4 °C. Microbiological analysis showed that lactobacilli and streptococci were present within usual levels, whereas enterobacteriaceae and yeast/mold counts were not detected as expected. Although the pH values of the novel products were slightly lower than the control ones, the yogurt containing the probiotic cultures scored similar values compared to the control in a series of sensory tests. Overall, these results demonstrated the possible use of the two strains as starter adjuncts in the production of yogurt with potential probiotic properties.

  14. Bacteriocins produced by wild Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from traditional, starter-free cheeses made of raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría, Angel; Delgado, Susana; Roces, Clara; López, Belén; Mayo, Baltasar

    2010-09-30

    Sixty bacterial strains were encountered by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) typing in a series of 306 Lactococcus lactis isolates collected during the manufacturing and ripening stages of five traditional, starter-free cheeses made from raw milk. Among the 60 strains, 17 were shown to produce bacteriocin-like compounds in both solid and liquid media. At a genotypic level, 16 of the strains were identified by molecular methods as belonging to L. lactis subsp. lactis and one to L. lactis subsp. cremoris. Among the L. lactis subsp. lactis strains, phenotypic and genetic data determined that eleven produced either nisin A (nine strains) or nisin Z (two strains), and that five produced lactococcin 972. Variable levels of the two bacteriocins were produced by different strains. In addition, nisin was shown to be produced in inexpensive, dairy- and meat-based media, which will allow the practical application of its producing strains in industrial processes. Specific PCR and nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence analysis identified the inhibitor produced by the single L. lactis subsp. cremoris isolate as a lactococcin G-like bacteriocin. Beyond the use of bacteriocins as functional ingredients for the biopreservation of foods, the newly identified bacteriocin-producing L. lactis strains from traditional cheeses may also be useful for designing starter cultures with protective properties and/or adjunct cultures for accelerating cheese ripening.

  15. Exploitation of Two-Microbe-Starter for Fermented Rice Cake%米发糕的双菌发酵剂工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉芳; 刘小翠; 鲍方芳; 熊善柏; 赵思明

    2012-01-01

    以早籼米为原料,利用酵母茵和乳酸茵复配制成米发糕的专用发酵剂,研究两种茵的培养及比例对米发糕品质的影响,确定适宜的工艺配方.结果表明:采用马铃薯培养基对酵母茵进行培养和增茵;采用麦芽浸汁粉培养基对乳杆菌进行培养和增茵;将茵悬液按数量比为酵母菌∶乳酸菌=107∶107进行混合后浓缩至6.5%,加入8.5%米粉,0.3%白糖和0.15%单甘酯,混匀于32℃下热风干燥至含水量为13%.发酵剂贮藏一段时间后制作的米发糕品质略有下降.%A special starter culture containing yeast and latic acid bacteria was prepared for the production of fermented rice cake. The effects of growth medium, proportion of yeast and latic acid bacteria and the storage of starter culture on the growth rate of viable cells and the quality of fermented rice cake were investigated. The potato medium and malt juice powder leaching medium were employed for the cultivation of yeast and latic acid bacteria, respectively. The optimum ratio of yeast and latic acid bacteria was 107: 107 ( cfu/mL: cfu/mL). And then a starter culture composed with yeast and latic acid bacteria,8. 5% rice powder,0. 3% sugar and 0. 15% monoglyceride was dried by hot - air at 32 ℃ until its water content reduced to 13%. Incubation of the early indica rice with the starter culture could produce fermented rice cake with high quality. The quality of fermented rice cake was declined slightly when the starter cultures storaged for some days.

  16. Instant Django 1.5 application development starter

    CERN Document Server

    Rocco, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is written in a practical Starter style with lots of helpful screenshots and step-by-step tutorials which will guide you gently into the world of Django.This book is for Python developers who want to jump into the world of Django. If you want to create awesome Python web applications without sacrificing speed then this book is for you. This book will also appeal to people learning Python who wish to hit the ground running and develop P

  17. Influence of microflora on texture and contents of amino acids, organic acids, and volatiles in semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionibacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehn, Lina Ulrika Ingeborg; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Persson, S.-E.;

    2011-01-01

    for the cheese variety Grevé was obtained by using a PAB culture in combination with different DL-starters and making the cheeses at 2 dairy plants with different time and temperature profiles during ripening. Propionic acid bacteria dominated the microflora during ripening after a warm room period at levels......The microflora of semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionic acid bacteria (PAB) is quite complex, and we investigated the influence of its variation on texture and contents of organic acids, free amino acids, and volatile compounds. Variation in the microflora within the normal range......, propionate, total content of free amino acids, 2-propanol, and ethyl propionate in the ripened cheeses were related to the number of PAB. A decrease in the relative content of Asp and Lys and increase of Phe over the ripening time were different from what is observed in semi-hard cheese without PAB...

  18. Selection of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for Nero d'Avola wine and evaluation of selected starter implantation in pilot fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, Angela; Romaniello, Rossana; Siesto, Gabriella; Pietrafesa, Rocchina; Massari, Carmela; Poeta, Cinzia; Romano, Patrizia

    2010-11-15

    The present research studied Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts isolated from Nero d'Avola grapes, collected in different areas of the Sicily region. RAPD-PCR analysis with M13 primer was used for preliminary discrimination among 341 S. cerevisiae isolates. Inoculated fermentations with S. cerevisiae strains, exhibiting different RAPD-PCR fingerprinting, revealed the impact of selected strains on volatile compound concentration. Two selected strains were used in fermentation at cellar level and the restriction analysis of mtDNA on yeast colonies isolated during fermentation was used to control strain implantation. This study represents an important step to establish a collection of indigenous S. cerevisiae strains isolated from a unique environment, such as Nero d'Avola vineyards. Different starter implantation throughout inoculated fermentation represents an additional character, which might be considered during the selection program for wine starter cultures.

  19. Effects of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on inflammatory factors in pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemi, Zatollah; Jazayeri, Shima; Najafi, Mohammad; Samimi, Mansoreh; Mofid, Vahid; Shidfar, Farzad; Foroushani, Abbas Rahim; Shahaboddin, Mohamad Esmaiel

    2011-04-15

    Previous studies have shown that inflammatory factors increases in pregnancy and is associated with several complications of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess effects of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on inflammatory factors in pregnant women. In a randomized clinical trial, seventy primigravid (the first pregnancy) and singleton pregnant women aged 18-30 years were assigned to two groups. Subjects consumed daily 200 g probiotic yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium animalis BB12 (10(7) CFU g(-1) for each) or 200 g conventional yoghurt for 9 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline (28 weeks of gestation) and after intervention (37 weeks of gestation). Inflammatory factors, hs-CRP and TNF-alpha, were measured by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Independent t-test was used to compare the two groups after intervention and paired-sample t-test compared variables before and after treatment. The results showed that the probiotic yogurt brought about a decrease in the serum hs-CRP level, from 10.44 +/- 1.56 to 7.44 +/- 1.03 microg mL(-1) (p = 0.041). There was no significant change in the conventional yogurt group in the serum hs-CRP level (12.55 +/- 1.57 to 14.51 +/- 1.62 microg mL(-1), p = 0.202). The probiotic yogurt had no effect on TNF-alpha (from 73.75 +/- 6.59 to 77.91 +/- 5.61 pg mL(-1), p = 0.633). Serum TNF-alpha did not change in the conventional yogurt group (p = 0.134). In conclusion probiotic yogurt significantly decreased hs-CRP in pregnant women but had no effect on TNF-alpha.

  20. Fate of Bacillus anthracis during production of laboratory-scale cream cheese and homemade-style yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Katja; Schneider, Oda; Schmoock, Gernot; Melzer, Falk; Elschner, Mandy C

    2015-04-01

    The viability of Bacillus anthracis during production and storage of cream cheese and yoghurt was evaluated. Experimental cheeses were manufactured from whole milk inoculated with a suspension of B. anthracis vegetative cells and spores at a final concentration of 10(4) cfu/ml. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and lab ferment were used to induce milk ripening and milk coagulation. The pH-value of the contaminated milk dropped below 4.5 within the first 6 h and the amount of LAB increased by approximately 2-logs. During cheese production and storage at 5-9 °C for 24 days no growth of B. anthracis was observed. The amount of vegetative cells and spores fluctuated by 1-log. Inoculation of whole milk with heat-treated spores at 10(4) cfu/ml resulted in a slight increase of vegetative cell counts during the first 6 h. This indicated that germination occurred, but replication of vegetative cells was still inhibited in the produced cheese. Incubation of cheeses at room temperature or heating after milk coagulation strongly reduced the amount of LAB but had no effect on the growth behaviour of B. anthracis. The vegetative cell and spore content remained steady at 10(4) cfu/100 mg. During yoghurt production the pH-value decreased within 5 h below 5 and growth of B. anthracis was inhibited throughout storage. A pH-value of 5 or less is likely a critical factor to control the growth of B. anthracis. However, spores remained viable in experimental cream cheeses and yoghurts and are a potential risk of infection.

  1. The role of developmental networks in career starters' meaning of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.; Alberts, M.; Vuuren, van Mark

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how career starters (age: 26-33 years) experience work meaning and how their developmental network influences this sense of work meaning. Accordingly, we interviewed 16 career starters about how they sense purpose, values, self-efficacy, and positive self-worth in their work. Mor

  2. 荞麦酸奶的加工工艺研究%The Research on Buckwheat Yoghurt Processing Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐学万; 李华钧; 杨坚

    2001-01-01

    A fermented yoghurt which is rich in balanced nutrients and has an agreeable flavor of buckwheat is developed and produced from buckwheat as the main material. The optimum technical conditions is determined by orthogonal test.The composition of the stabilizer and the materials is analyzed in detail.%以荞麦为主要原料,研制出一种营养丰富、均衡、有荞麦风味的发酵酸奶,并对其发酵工艺条件、物料及稳定剂的配比进行了分析探讨。

  3. Study on the processing technology of strawberry yoghurt%草莓果肉酸奶工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严佩峰; 豆成林; 魏宗烽

    2012-01-01

    研究了草莓果肉酸奶的生产工艺.结果表明,将嗜热链球菌和保加利亚杆菌以2∶3配比接种于脱脂乳后,再加入预先低温杀菌好的草莓果肉,经发酵制作的酸奶质量及风味较好.其最优工艺条件为:发酵温度为37℃,果肉添加量为1%,接种量为2%,加糖量为7%.%This paper studied the production technology of strawberry yoghurt. The results showed that: Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus for 2:3 ratio of vaccination in skim milk, then add in the low-temperature sterilized strawberry pulp , and the strawberry yoghurt produced by fermentation has good quality and flavor. The optimal technological conditions are: fermentation temperature 37℃: pulp 1%, inoculation size 2%, sugar 7%.

  4. Preparation of the Sugar Free Chickpea Yoghurt%无糖鹰嘴豆酸奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅樱花

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to prepare the sugar free chickpea yoghurt.The results showed that the product of sugar free chickpea yoghurt was good in color,smell and flavor under the conditions of the inoculation size dose 7%,the fermentation time 10 h at 42 ℃ and the addition 0.05% aspartame.%以鹰嘴豆、复原乳为主要原料,将保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌作为发酵剂,按质量分数为7%进行接种,在发酵时间为10 h、发酵温度为42℃的条件下,添加不同水平的甜味剂进行无糖鹰嘴豆酸奶发酵研究。结果表明:阿斯巴甜在甜味和口感上较柔和,适合作为无糖鹰嘴豆酸奶的甜味剂使用,按质量分数0.05%水平进行添加得到的酸奶口感及风味较好。

  5. Effect of Dual-Enzymatic Casein Hydrolysate on DVS Starter Growth and Yogurt Quality%酪蛋白双酶水解物对直投式乳酸菌生长及发酵酸乳的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳佳; 胡志和

    2012-01-01

    An enzymatic casein hydrolysate rich in ACE inhibitory peptides was prepared through sequential hydrolysis with pepsin and trypsin and ultrafitrated to collect peptides less than 6000 u in molecular weight with ACE inhibitory activity.The effects of different concentrations of the casein hydrolysate and the peptides on the growth of DVS(Direct Vat Set) yogurt starter were explored.Their application in yoghurt was explored by investigating their effects on text properties such as acidity,hardness and viscosity and sensory quality.The casein hydrolysate when added at 4 g/100 mL and the peptides when added at 0.3 g/100 mL had a stimulating effect on the growth of lactic acid bacteria but did not have an obvious effect on the sensory quality of yoghurt.Inhibitory effects on the growth of lactic acid bacteria were observed when the hydrolysate was added at concentrations equaling or exceeding 5 g/100 mL or the peptides were added at concentrations equaling or exceeding 0.35 g/100 mL.%以直投式乳酸菌为实验菌,研究富含ACE抑制活性肽的酪蛋白双酶水解物及其超滤物对乳酸菌的生长及发酵酸乳的影响。添加不同质量浓度的水解物和超滤物培养乳酸菌,检测对乳酸菌生长的影响,确定对乳酸菌生长无抑制作用的添加量,并将其应用于酸乳发酵。检测对酸乳的酸度、硬度、黏性、弹性等指标的的影响,结合感官评价,确定对酸乳的影响。结果表明:水解物的添加量为4g/100mL,分子质量在6000u以下的超滤物添加量为0.3g/100mL对乳酸菌的生长有促进作用,并且对发酵酸乳的感官质量无显著影响。水解物质量浓度≥5g/100mL、超滤物质量浓度≥0.35g/100mL对乳酸菌的生长起到抑制作用。

  6. Isolation of Penicillium nalgiovense strains impaired in penicillin production by disruption of the pcbAB gene and application as starters on cured meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laich, Federico; Fierro, Francisco; Martin, Juan F

    2003-06-01

    The presence of some fungi on a variety of food products, like cheeses or cured meat products, is beneficial for the ripening of the product and for the development of specific flavour features. The utilization of these fungi as starters, which are inoculated normally as asexual spores on the food products at the beginning of the ripening process, is becoming a usual procedure in the food industry. The starter culture also prevents undesirable fungi or bacteria from growing on the product. Penicillium nalgiovense is the most frequently used starter for cured and fermented meat products, but the fact that this fungus can secrete penicillin to the meat product makes it important to get strains unable to synthesize this antibiotic. In this work we report that P. nalgiovense strains impaired in penicillin production can be obtained by disruption of the pcbAB gene (the first gene of the penicillin biosynthetic pathway). When applied as starter on cecina (a salted, smoke-cured beef meat product from the region of León, Spain), the pcbAB-disrupted strain showed no differences with respect to the parental penicillin-producing strain in its ability to colonize the meat pieces and to control their normal mycoflora. Both strains exerted a similar control on the presence of bacteria in cecina. A similar proportion of penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant bacteria were isolated from pieces inoculated with the penicillin-producing or the non-producing P. nalgiovense strains. The decrease of the bacterial population on the surface of cecina seems to be due to the higher competition for nutrients as a consequence of the inoculation and development of the P. nalgiovense mycelium and not due to the production of penicillin by this fungus. Penicillin production was less affected than growth in a solid medium with high NaCl concentrations; this suggests that the high salt concentration present in cecina is not a limiting factor for penicillin production by P. nalgiovense.

  7. 螺旋藻酸奶的研制%Preparation of spirulina yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小芳; 程丽丽; 赵亚许; 曹艳华

    2013-01-01

      对螺旋藻的脱腥工艺进行了探讨,通过比较萃取法和遮蔽法的脱腥效果,确定了螺旋藻脱腥的最佳工艺为萃取法,萃取剂为体积浓度95%的乙醇。以螺旋藻的添加量、菌种添加量、发酵温度、发酵时间为参数,采用单因素试验和正交试验对螺旋藻酸乳的加工制作工艺进行了研究。确定了其原料的配比与工艺条件为:全脂乳粉10.2 g/100g、白砂糖8 g/100g、菌种添加量5 g/100g、螺旋藻添加量0.2 g/100g、发酵温度38℃、发酵时间6 h。在此条件下得到的产品呈浅绿色,且色泽均匀,凝乳状态完全,无乳清析出,口感细腻,品质较好。%The deodorization process of spirulina was discussed, through the comparison of extraction and screening of deodorization, determined the optimum process for spirulina deodorization for: extraction. The extraction solvent was 95% ethanol. In addition, spirulina strains addition, fermentation temperature, fermentation time as parameters, the processing of spirulina yoghurt was studied by single factor test and orthogonal test. The proportion of the raw materials and process conditions are determined: whole milk powder 10.2 g/100g, sugar 8 g/100g, strain 5 g/100g, spirulina 0.2 g/100g, fermentation temperature 38℃, fermentation time 6 h. The product obtained under these conditions had light green color, curd uniformity, without precipitating whey, delicate taste, and good quality.

  8. Short communication: Change of naturally occurring benzoic acid during skim milk fermentation by commercial cheese starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Noori; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Sun-Young; Yoo, Mi-Young; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to investigate the change of naturally occurring benzoic acid (BA) during skim milk fermentation by 4 kinds of commercial cheese starters used in domestic cheese. The culture was incubated at 3-h intervals for 24h at 30, 35, and 40°C. The BA content during fermentation by Streptococcus thermophilus STB-01 was detected after 12h at all temperatures, sharply increasing at 30°C. In Lactobacillus paracasei LC431, BA was detected after 9h at all temperatures, sharply increasing until 18h and decreasing after 18h at 30 and 35°C. In the case of R707 (consisting of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris), BA increased from 6h to 15h and decreased after 15h at 40°C. The BA during STB-01 and CHN-11 (1:1; mixture of S. thermophilus, Lc. lactis ssp. lactis, Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris, Lc. lactis ssp. diacetylactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris) fermentation was detected after 3h at 35 and 40°C, sharply increasing up to 12h and decreasing after 15h at 35°C, and after 6h, increasing up to 9h at 30°C. After 3h, it steadily decreased at 40°C. The highest amount of BA was found during the fermentation by R707 at 30°C; 15h with 12.46mg/kg.

  9. Flywheel starter ring gear failures and hardness variation reduction in surface hardening process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Can Yücel

    2015-10-01

    This technical paper summarizes the case study conducted for truck flywheel starter ring gears with diameter of 470 mm in order to reduce hardness variation by optimization of induction hardening and tempering processes.

  10. Fermente Sucuklarda Starter Kültürlerin Kullanımı

    OpenAIRE

    Apaydın, Zerrin

    2014-01-01

    Ürünün, organoleptik niteliklerini geliştirmek amacı ile sucuklarda starter kültürler kullanılmaktadır. Starter kültür olarak, laktik asit bakterileri (L. plantarum, L. sake, L. curvatus, P. pentosaceus, P. acidilactici), Micrococceae (S. carnosus, S. xylosus, M. Varians), mayalar (D. hansenii), Streptomyzeten (S. griseus) ve küf mantarları (P. nalgiovense) sucuklarda kullanılmaktadır.

  11. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  12. Effect of Skimmed-Milk and Starter Addition on Lactic Acid Formation in Soyghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanna Syamsuddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on Effect of Skimmed-Milk and Starter Addition on Lactic Acid Formation in Soyghurt has been done. Soyghurt is a probiotic drinking product made from soy-milk produced by fermentation process using lactic acid bacteria. The bacteria used as starter was Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of skimmed-milk and starter addition on the formation of lactic acid. Variables used in this research was skimmed-milk concentration of 5, 10, and 15% and starter concentration of 3, 5, and 7%, based on volume of soy-milk used as raw material. The soy-milk used was analyzed for its carbohydrate and protein content, and the soyghurt produced was analyzed for its lactic acid, pH and syneresis. The result showed that carbohydrate and protein content in soy-milk was 122.39 mg/L and 2.75%, respectively. The best condition of this process was the addition of 15% skimmed-milk and 5% starter, which yielded the highest lactic acid of 15% with pH of 4.23 and syneresis of 15%. It can be concluded that increasing skimmed-milk concentration cause the increase in lactic acid formation and decrease pH and syneresis. While effect of starter concentration on product analysis was influenced by the amount of nutrition contain in soy-milk.

  13. Application of autochthonous mixed starter for controlled Kedong sufu fermentation in pilot plant tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhen; Xu, Miao; Zhai, Shuang; Chen, Hong; Li, Ai-li; Lv, Xin-tong; Deng, Hong-ling

    2015-01-01

    Traditional sufu is fermented by back-slopping and back-slopping has many defects. The objective of this study was to apply autochthonous mixed starter to control Kedong sufu fermentation. Sufu was manufactured using back-slopping (batch A) and autochthonous mixed starter (batch B) with Kocuria kristinae F7, Micrococcus luteus KDF1, and Staphylococcus carnosus KDFR1676. Considering physicochemical properties of sufu, 150-day sufu samples from batch A and 90-day sufu samples from batch B met the standard requirements, respectively. Considering sensory characteristics of sufu, 150-day sufu samples from batch A and 90-day sufu samples from batch B showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). The maturation period of sufu was shortened by 60 d. Profiles of free amino acids and peptides partly revealed the mechanism of typical sensory quality and shorter ripening time of sufu manufactured by autochthonous mixed starter. In final products, content of total biogenic amines was reduced by 48%. Autochthonous mixed starter performed better than back-slopping. Fermentation had a positive influence on the quality, safety, and sensory properties of sufu. The application of autochthonous mixed starter does not change the sensory characteristics of traditional fermented sufu. In addition, it reduces maturation period and improves their homogeneity and safety. It is possible to substitute autochthonous mixed starter for back-slopping in the manufacture of sufu.

  14. The effects of marketing activities on fast moving consumer good purchases: the case of yoghurt Italian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Brasini

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether sales promotions effectiveness depends upon the consumer’s brand loyalty and her buying behaviour and whether consumer’s behavioural characteristics in term of purchase frequency and level affect the response to promotional activities and moderate the effect of brand loyalty during the consumer choice process. Different specifications for the utility function, exploiting information on selling price, promotional activities such as displays usage, ad features in the store, 3x2 and discount, and differently brand loyalty measures have been estimated into a discrete choice framework, that is into the rational brand choice paradigm, paying attention to their effects on individuals’ probabilities to choose the specific brand during each purchase occasion. The application is run on a ACNielsen dataset of Italian households consumer panel, observed to buy at least two yoghurt packages during a year, matched to store panel data with respect to quantities, prices and promotions.

  15. The effect of homogenization pressure and stages on the amounts of Lactic and Acetic acids of probiotic yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Massoud

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the use of probiotic products especially yogurt, due to having wonderful and health properties, has become popular in the world. In this study, the effect of homogenization pressure (100, 150 and 200 bars and stage (single and two on the amount of lactic and acetic acids was investigated. Yoghurts were manufactured from low-fat milk treated using high pressure homogenization at 100,150 and 200 bar and at 60°C. The amount of lactic and acetic acids was determined after the days 1, 7, 14 and 21 of storage at 4ºC. The experiments were set up using a completely randomized design. With the increase of pressure and stage of homogenization, the amount of both acids was increased (p<0.01. The greatest amount of lactic and acetic acids during the storage period was observed in the sample homogenized at a pressure of 200 bars and two stages.

  16. Role of probiotics and functional foods in health: gut immune stimulation by two probiotic strains and a potential probiotic yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado Galdeano, Carolina; Novotny Nuñez, Ivanna; Carmuega, Esteban; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Perdigón, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    There are numerous reports that show the benefits on the health attributed to the probiotic consumptions. Most of the studies were performed using animal models and only some of them were validated in controlled human trials. The present review is divided in two sections. In the first section we describe how the probiotic microorganisms can interact with the intestinal epithelial cells that are the first line of cell in the mucosal site, focusing in the studies of two probiotic strains: Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 (actually Lactobacillus paracasei CNCMI-1518) and Lactobacillus casei CRL 431. Then we describe same beneficial effects attributed to probiotic administration and the administration of fermented milks containing these microorganisms or potential probiotic yoghurt, principally on the immune system and on the intestinal barrier in different experimental mouse models like enteropathogenic infection, malnutrition, cancer and intestinal inflammation.

  17. Perceived and actual key success factors: A study of the yoghurt market in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Sørensen, Elin

    /high degree of innovativeness, extensive marketing activities, (abundant) financial resources, s production, good logistics management, good product portfolio management, non-complex organisation, low retail prices, good relations with trade, extensive market knowledge. 4. According to managers' perceptions......Executive summary 1. We define a key success factor as a skill or resource that a business can invest in, which, on the market the business is operating on, explains a major part of the observable differences in perceived value and/or relative costs. The key success factors as perceived by managers...... need not be identical with the actual key success factors in a market. 2. Depth interviews with managers in yoghurt-producing companies in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom showed considerable variation in both substance and degree of detail in their perceptions of the determinants of success...

  18. Study on probiotic yoghurt%植物乳杆菌C88在酸奶中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于志会; 张雪; 李盛钰; 侯聚敏; 王辑; 李达; 杨贞耐

    2013-01-01

    In this experiment,we test the application of probiotics L.plantarum C88 and YO-MIX in yoghurt.The results proved that Yogurt produced with L.plantarum C88 exhibited no effect to the yogurt pH,titratable acidity,gel strength as well as water holding capacity(P>0.05).The strain not only increases the viscosity of yogurt but also promotes the sensory index of yogurt (P>0.05).Moreover,the sensory evaluation results showed that,compared with that of the ordinary yogurt,the C88 yogurt taste is more delicate,soft smooth,thick and uniform.C88 yoghurt very fit for Chinese people and has a good potential market.%将植物乳杆菌C88及YO-MIX发酵剂应用于益生菌酸奶生产中,并对酸奶的理化指标、感官进行了测定、评价.结果显示:L.plantarum C88对酸奶样品的商业菌种活菌数、pH值、滴定酸度、凝胶强度、持水力等均无不良影响(P>0.05);在乳中存活能力较好;可提高酸奶样品的黏度、凝胶强度(P>0.05);感官评定结果也表明,C88菌株发酵的酸奶口感更加细腻、绵滑、黏稠、均匀,香气更加浓郁,更加符合国人的口味习惯,具有良好的生产开发前景.

  19. Probiotic yoghurt with inulin-type fructans of different degrees of polymerization: physicochemical and microbiological characteristics and storage stabilityIogurte probiótico com frutanos tipo inulina de diferentes graus de polimerização: características físico-químicas e microbiológicas e estabilidade ao armazenamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Helena Prudencio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the addition of inulin-type fructans of different degrees of polymerization (DP on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics and storage stability (4°C for 28 days of nonfat probiotic yoghurt was investigated. The yoghurts were prepared using traditional lactic culture (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei as probiotic. The formulations contained inulin- type fructans of DP: low (P95 oligofructose, DP 5, medium (ST inulin, DP 10 or high (HP inulin, DP 23 in a concentration of 2g 100g of milk-1, meeting the current Brazilian legislation and, thus their claim of functional properties could be utilized; and were compared to a Normal formulation (without inulin-type fructans addition. The addition of inulin-type fructans with different DP did not alter the L*, a* and b* color parameters, the syneresis and the viability of the probiotic culture in yoghurts. Yoghurts with inulin-type fructans of low DP were more acidic (lower pH values and higher values of acidity. The high DP inulin caused a reduction in the firmness of yoghurt. The products contained Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei at concentrations higher than that recommended to consider them as probiotic foods throughout the storage period. The refrigerated storage resulted in decreased pH and viability of the probiotic culture and increased acidity and syneresis of yoghurt, regardless of the use of inulin-type fructans. It can be concluded that the addition of inulin-type fructans of different DP does not adversely affect the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of yoghurts and their stability to storage, thus, the selection of the type to be used depend on the purpose of the manufacturer and the intended use.Investigou-se o efeito da adição de frutanos tipo inulina de diferentes graus de polimerização (DP nas características físico-químicas e microbiol

  20. Daya Tahan dan Uji Organoleptik Terhadap Dadih dan Yoghurt dari Susu Kerbau Murrah di Kecamatan Siborongborong Kabupaten Tapanuli Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Nababan, Marta sofia k.

    2015-01-01

    Curd milk or buttermilk is milk products obtained from the process of curdling milk with rennet or acids such as pineapple juice or vinegar and then eliminating the liquid (whey). Yogurt is milk acidified by fermentation using Lactobacillus bacteria starter. The processed Murrah buffalo milk can allows consume to people who suffer from lactose intolerance. The study was conducted to determine the ratio between buttermilk and yogurt thr...

  1. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product--natural preservatives in yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt.

  2. Controlling An Electric Car Starter System Through Voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Muhammad Firdaus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract These days automotive has turned into a stand out amongst the most well-known modes of transportation on the grounds that a large number of Malaysians could bear to have an auto. There are numerous decisions of innovations in auto that have in the market. One of the engineering is voice controlled framework. Voice Recognition is the procedure of consequently perceiving a certain statement talked by a specific speaker focused around individual data included in discourse waves. This paper is to make an car controlled by voice of human. An essential pre-processing venture in Voice Recognition systems is to recognize the vicinity of noise. Sensitivity to speech variability lacking recognition precision and helplessness to mimic are among the principle specialized obstacles that keep the far reaching selection of speech-based recognition systems. Voice recognition systems work sensibly well with a quiet conditions however inadequately under loud conditions or in twisted channels. The key focus of the project is to control an electric car starter system.

  3. Starter protein concentration and weaning of buffalo calf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Campanile

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors described the harmonic growth in terms of biological efficiency of growth (BEG, live weight, body weight gain and morphological measuraments of 16 buffalo female calves (age in days: 49.0 ±1.3 divided in two groups of feeding. The T group recieved a concentrate with 28.5 % of crude protein on the dry matter basis, while the C group recieved a concentrate with 21.0 % of crude protein on dry matter basis; moreover the concentrate of the T group presented an high quantity of non proteic nitrogen (NPN (33% of crude protein. Blood samples for haematological parameters were collected. No differences in terms of growth, BEG, live weight, body weight gain and morphological measuraments were found. Only the nitrogen blood values in the T group resulted significatively higher then C group (8.53 mmol/L vs. 4.66 mmol/L, respectively. This study confirms the importance of protein source for the formulation of the starter concentrate.

  4. Interaction between the physical form of the starter feed and straw provision on growth performance of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terré, M; Castells, Ll; Khan, M A; Bach, A

    2015-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of physical form of a starter feed with or without straw supplementation on growth performance of Holstein calves. In experiment 1, a total of 32 calves were randomly assigned at 7 d of age to texturized starter feed (containing rolled barley, corn, and oats) without straw, texturized starter feed with chopped straw, and pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. All calves were offered 4 L of pasteurized whole milk twice daily from 7 to 35 d of age, 2 L of milk twice daily from 36 to 42 d of age, and 2 L of milk from 43 to 49 d of age. Animals were weaned at 50 d of age, and the study finished when calves were 63 d old. In experiment 2, a total of 60 calves (8 d of age) were randomly assigned to texturized starter feed (containing whole corn) without straw, pelleted starter feed without straw, and pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. All calves were offered the same milk replacer (MR; 23% crude protein and 19.5 fat) at 11% dry matter concentration, 4 L/d of MR until 14 d of age, 6 L/d of MR from 14 to 37 d, 3 L/d of MR from 38 to 44 d, and 1.5 L/d of MR from 45 to 52 d of age. The experiment finished when calves were 58 d old (1 wk after weaning). Rumen liquid pH was measured after weaning. In both studies, calves were individually housed in pens on sawdust bedding and starter feed and chopped straw were offered free choice in separate buckets. In experiment 1, starter feed and straw intake and growth did not differ among treatments. However, calves receiving straw showed a greater rumen pH compared with those not receiving straw. In experiment 2, pelleted started feed supplemented with straw fostered an increase in solid feed intake (as percentage of body weight) compared with a pelleted or texturized starter feed without straw supplementation. However, calves that received the texturized starter feed containing whole corn had rumen pH similar to those fed a pelleted starter feed with straw. Feeding a

  5. Influence of feeding Mediterranean food industry by-products and forages to Awassi sheep on physicochemical properties of milk, yoghurt and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbeddou, Souheila; Rischkowsky, Barbara; Hilali, Muhi El-Dine; Hess, Hans Dieter; Kreuzer, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Feeding agro-industrial by-products and unconventional forages, rich in potentially anti-nutritional factors, may influence the quality of the raw milk and the dairy products prepared therefrom. The aim of the present study was to determine side-effects on physicochemical properties of milk, yoghurt and cheese of feeding diets where one third were feeds either rich in lipids (tomato pomace and olive cake) or phenols (olive leaves and lentil straw) or electrolytes (Atriplex leaves). The diets, including a control diet, were designed to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. They were fed in amounts of 25 kg dry matter/day per head during 50 days to 6×10 multiparous fat-tailed Awassi ewes. Milk samples were analysed for various physicochemical traits and fatty acid composition on days 0, 24, 36 and 48. Three times, milk pooled by group was processed to yoghurt and non-aged farmer-type cheese, which were analysed for their gross and fatty acid composition and texture, and were subjected to sensory evaluation. Feeding olive cake and tomato pomace reduced milk casein, but increased proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids. There were some variations in minerals among test diets but, contrary to expectations, Atriplex did not increase milk sodium. The nutritional composition of yoghurt and cheese was not varied much by the test feeds, except for some changes in fatty acid profile similar to the milk. Yoghurt firmness declined with all test diets, but texture score tended to be lower only for olive cake and leaf diets relative to control. Cheese firmness was increased by feeding the Atriplex leaf and olive cake diets which was also reflected in the texture scores. No off-flavours were reported. Possible reasons for effects on the dairy products are discussed. In conclusion, the feeds investigated had certain effects on the physicochemical properties of dairy products, but these were neither very systematic nor large thus not prohibiting their use in Mediterranean sheep

  6. Anti-Listeria starters: in vitro selection and production plant evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Stefano; Popovic, Mina; Amaretti, Alberto; Di Gioia, Diana; Rossi, Maddalena

    2014-05-01

    Anti-Listeria bacterial starters are highly demanded by the meat industry. Novel bioprotective anti-Listeria starters were searched among Lactobacillus species strains isolated from artisanal sausages. The screening confirmed that anti-Listeria activity is a strain-specific property and yielded only 1 strain (of 36) exhibiting a satisfactory level of inhibition, L. delbrueckii WC0286. This strain was compared with two commercial bioprotective starters, SafePro B-SF-43 and SafePro B-LC-20, in a model simulating in vitro the first step of the fermentation process. The presence of the bioprotective starters did not modify the pH in such a way that could affect the safety or organoleptic properties of the product. Both SafePro B-SF-43 and SafePro B-LC-20 effected an important reduction of Listeria counts (0.56 and 0.72 log CFU g(-1), respectively, in 72 h), while the anti-Listeria effect of L. delbrueckii WC0286 was minor (0.15 log CFU g(-1)). These results discouraged the utilization of L. delbrueckii WC0286 for a challenge test in a pilot salami production, in favor of the best-performing bioprotective starter, SafePro B-LC-20. The test confirmed that SafePro B-LC-20 did not alter the acidification trend of sausages and was capable of inhibiting Listeria, which decreased by 1.21 log CFU g(-1). This information is relevant to address research activity toward the development of new bioprotective starters. The data herein presented demonstrate that the efficacy in Listeria control of potentially bioprotective bacterial starters requires further validation in real meat matrixes, possibly by using in vitro meat fermentation experiments to narrow down the list of candidates before pilot scale challenge tests.

  7. 酸奶发酵对绿茶粉功效成分和抗氧化性的影响%Effect of fermentation of yoghurt on functional compounds and antioxidant activity of green tea powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙卉子; 朱科学; 朱跃进; 王彬

    2011-01-01

    Green tea powder yoghurt was developed to improve tea consumption and get a new kind of yoghurt.The yoghurt had all-sided nutrition and new flavor.To study the effect of fermentation of yoghurt on the green tea powder,functional compounds and antioxidative activity of the yoghurt were studied.Results showed that after fermentation in yoghurt system catechin remained 93.64%,tea polyphenols was 79.71%;chlorophyll A showed a decrease by 46.83%,chlorop-hyll B by 87.02%,total chlorophyll by 63.94%;antioxidative activity increased by 9.37%.According to these findings,addition of green tea powder to yoghurt can be recommended to take advantage of their beneficial properties on human health attributed to their functional compounds and antioxidant activity.%为促进茶叶消费,生产营养全面、风味独特的新型酸奶,研制了绿茶粉酸奶。通过测定绿茶粉酸奶的功效成分及其抗氧化性,以研究酸奶发酵过程对绿茶粉的影响。数据表明,主要的儿茶素含量剩余93.64%;茶多酚79.71%;叶绿素a减少46.83%,叶绿素b减少87.02%,叶绿素总量下降63.94%;而抗氧化性提高了9.37%。根据以上的测定结果,将绿茶粉添加到酸奶中发酵可以引入其功效成分和抗氧化性,因此产品的开发有效可行。

  8. 山竹枸杞酸乳的研制与开发%Study on the Processing of Mangosteen Medlar Yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟丽丽

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the unique flavor yoghurt, mangosteen juice and medlar juice mixed with milk to produce mangosteen medlar yoghurt.The optimum production of the product parameters determined by orthogonal test, namely the optimal conditions for the stabilizer (Carrageenan, xanthan gum and acid CMC 4∶1∶3) 0.2%, mangosteen juice 35%,medlar juice 5%,sucrose 7%, the inoculation amount 5%, fermentation temperature 42℃,fermentation time 5 h. Mangosteen medlar yoghurt was pure flavor, soft tasty, sweet sour.%为了研究具有独特风味的酸乳,将山竹汁、枸杞浆与牛乳混合,通过单因素实验、正交试验确定了最佳的工艺条件:稳定剂(卡拉胶∶黄原胶∶耐酸CMC质量比=4∶1∶3)添加量0.2%,山竹汁添加量35%,枸杞浆添加量5%,蔗糖添加量7%,接种量5%,发酵温度42℃,发酵时间5 h。生产出的山竹枸杞酸乳风味纯正,口感细腻柔和,酸甜适口。

  9. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG by Transglutaminase Cross-Linked Soy Protein Isolate to Improve Survival in Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions and Yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Wang, Chun-Ling; Sun, Yu; Li, Ai-Li; Liu, Fei; Meng, Xiang-Chen

    2016-07-01

    Microencapsulation is an effective way to improve the survival of probiotics in simulated gastrointestinal (GI) conditions and yoghurt. In this study, microencapsulation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) was prepared by first cross-linking of soy protein isolate (SPI) using transglutaminase (TGase), followed by embedding the bacteria in cross-linked SPI, and then freeze-drying. The survival of microencapsulated LGG was evaluated in simulated GI conditions and yoghurt. The results showed that a high microencapsulation yield of 67.4% was obtained. The diameter of the microencapsulated LGG was in the range of 52.83 to 275.16 μm. Water activity did not differ between free and microencapsulated LGG after freeze-drying. The survival of microencapsulated LGG under simulated gastric juice (pH 2.5 and 3.6), intestinal juice (0.3% and 2% bile salt) and storage at 4 °C were significantly higher than that of free cells. The survival of LGG in TGase cross-linked SPI microcapsules was also improved to 14.5 ± 0.5% during storage in yoghurt. The microencapsulation of probiotics by TGase-treated SPI can be a suitable alternative to polysaccharide gelation technologies.

  10. 高蛋白无脂肪酸奶的研制%Development of yoghurt with high protein and zero fat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫序东; 王彩云; 云战友; 秦文林

    2012-01-01

    Complex ingredients containing high gel whey protein concentrate 80, microparticulate whey protein and starch-based fat substitute as fat replacer in non-fat yoghurt was studied, the ratio of the three ingredients was optimized ,and the fat replacer could successfully simulate the function of milk fat in yoghurt. A type of healthy yoghurt with high protein content but without fat was developed.%以凝胶型乳清浓缩蛋白80、微粒化乳清蛋白和淀粉脂肪替代物的组合作为脂肪替代品用于替代酸奶中的脂肪,得到了3种配料的最优比例,从而从质构、口感、风味角度成功模拟了酸奶中脂肪的作用,成功开发出一款高蛋白、零脂肪的健康酸奶.

  11. 弱后酸化酸奶发酵剂菌株洲的筛选及复配%Screening and studying the strains of weak postacidification in yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁宁; 郭红敏; 崔文静; 葛春美

    2012-01-01

    以典型的酸奶发酵剂菌株:德氏乳杆菌保加利亚亚种和嗜热链球菌为实验材料,进行了单菌株产酸特性的测定,并研究了后酸程度不同的球杆菌按照不同比例混合后产酸特性。结果显示:筛选到2株后酸化弱的菌株,当这两株菌的复配比例为100:1时,后酸程度较弱,在42℃放置24h酸度仅上升了10°T,与科汉森的酸奶发酵剂YF—L822相比后酸更弱。%In this paper, the typical yogurt starter strains: Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were experimental materials. The characteristics of acid producing of single strain and mixing according to different ratio were determined. Results indicated that two trains with weak postacidification were obtained. When the mixing ratio of the two strains was 100:1, its acidity rose only 10 °T after 24 h at 42 ℃. Compared to YF-L822 starter culture from Hansen Corporation, it produced a little postacidification.

  12. Diversity and evolution of the microbial populations during manufacture and ripening of Casín, a traditional Spanish, starter-free cheese made from cow's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría, Angel; Alvarez-Martín, Pablo; Sacristán, Noelia; Fernández, Elena; Delgado, Susana; Mayo, Baltasar

    2009-11-30

    Classical culturing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques have been used for studying the microbial diversity and dynamics of the traditional Spanish Casín cheese during manufacturing and ripening. As with other starter-free cheeses made from raw milk, the microbial diversity of Casín was shown to be high by both culturing and DGGE analyses. The culture technique showed that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species constituted the majority of the microbial populations. Of the 14 bacterial species identified, Lactococcus garvieae was predominant in the three-day-old cheese sample, although it was replaced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis at day 30. As expected, the DGGE profiles obtained were complex, consisting, depending on the sample, in five to ten different amplification bands. Among these, a band corresponding to Streptococcus thermophilus was observed throughout the whole manufacturing process. This species had never been identified from traditional Spanish cheeses previously. Culturing and molecular methods showed high populations of undesirable microorganisms, arguing for a required improvement in the hygiene of Casín manufacture. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling suggested that the L. garvieae and L. lactis populations were composed of one and five strains, respectively. In addition, only a single L. lactis RAPD pattern was stably maintained from day three to day 30, indicating high succession of strains along ripening. After a thoroughly characterisation, strains of the two Lactococcus species could be used in designing specific starter cultures for Casín. Additional species (such as Lactobacillus plantarum and Corynebacterium variabile) might be included as adjunct cultures.

  13. Soybean Oil and Beef Tallow in Starter Broiler Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VB Fascina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the energy values of soybean oil (SBO and tallow (T combined in different ratios, and to evaluate their effects on the performance, body composition, and serum lipid levels of starter broilers. In experiment I, a digestibility trial was performed to determine the energy value of the SOB and T mixtures using 100 12 - to 21 -day-old broilers. In experiment II, 930 one-day-old broilers were used. Treatments consisted of the inclusion of 4% SBO and T inclusions at the following ratios: 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, 100:0. Each treatment included six replicates. In experiment I, AME and AMEn linearly increased (P<0.01, as SBO participation in the mixture increased. In experiment II, the different lipid ratios quadratically influenced (P<0.01 body weight and weight gain at 21 days of age, increasing up to the ratio of 65.87:34.13. Serum lipids linearly decreased (P<0.05 as SOB inclusion in the diet increased. It was concluded that AME and AMEn of SBO and T at ratios of 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0 were 7.882 and 7.542, 8.384 and 8.076, 8.701 and 8.385, 8.801 and 8.727, and 9.478 and 9.271 kcal/kg, respectively. The best performance with no detrimental effect on carcass yield was obtained with the mixture of 75% SBO with 25% T. The highest dietary soybean oil level reduced serum lipid levels of 21-day-old broilers.

  14. Cheese production using kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kanellaki, Maria

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of kefir culture entrapped in casein and in whey protein as starter cultures for the production of Feta-type cheese. Microbiological analysis showed that counts of enterobacteria, coliforms, and staphylococci were significantly reduced due to kefir culture. In addition, the effect of kefir culture on the formation of volatile compounds, such as esters, organic acids, alcohols, carbonyl compounds, and lactones, was also investigated using the SPME GC/MS technique. Cheese samples produced with kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins presented improved profile of aroma-related compounds. Principal component analysis of the results indicated that the volatile composition of the different cheese types was dependent on the nature of the starter culture. Finally, the sensory evaluation showed that the products produced with kefir culture had a soft, fine taste, and were of improved quality.

  15. 使用ASP.NET2。0改进ASP.NET Starter Kit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jayesh; Patel; Bryan; Acker; Robert; McGovern

    2005-01-01

    简介 ASP.NET Starter Kit包括5个示例应用程序,告诉Web开发人员如何利用ASP.NET1.x的功能。Starter Kit包括一些重要功能的参考实现,如交互式HTML报表、更换皮肤和主题、身份验证和授权、移动Web浏览器支持等等。花费1小时研究Starter Kit的源代码,可以省下大量编程与调试的时间。

  16. Die Starter: A New System to Manage Early Feasibility in Sheet Metal Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narainen, Rodrigue; Porzner, Harald

    2016-08-01

    Die Starter, a new system developed by ESI Group, allows the user to drastically reduce the number of iterations during the early tool process feasibility. This innovative system automatically designs the first quick die face, generating binder and addendum surfaces (NURBS surfaces) by taking account the full die process. Die Starter also improves the initial die face based on feasibility criteria (avoiding splits, wrinkles) by automatically generating the geometrical modifications of the binder and addendum and the bead restraining forces with minimal material usage. This paper presents a description of the new system and the methodology of Die Starter. Some industrial examples are presented from the part geometry to final die face including automatic developed flanges, part on binder and inner binder.

  17. Microbial diversity of traditional Vietnamese alcohol fermentation starters (banh men) as determined by PCR-mediated DGGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Vu Nguyen; Mai, Le Thuy; Tuan, Duong Anh

    2008-12-10

    The diversity of fungi and bacteria associated with traditional Vietnamese alcohol fermentation starters (banh men) was investigated by PCR-mediated DGGE. From 52 starter samples, 13 species of fungi (including yeasts) and 23 species of bacteria were identified. The fungal composition of the starters was consistent with little variation among samples. It consisted of amylase producers (Rhizopus oryzae, R. microsporus, Absidia corymbifera, Amylomyces sp., Saccharomycopsis fibuligera), ethanol producers (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia sp., Pichia anomala, Candida tropicalis, P. ranongensis, Clavispora lusitaniae), and (opportunistic) contaminants (Xeromyces bisporus, Botryobasidium subcoronatum). The bacterial microflora of starters was highly variable in species composition and dominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The most frequent LAB were Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Weissella confusa, and W. paramesenteroides. Species of amylase-producing Bacillus (Bacillus subtilis, B. circulans, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. sporothermodurans), acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter orientalis, A. pasteurianus), and plant pathogens/environment contaminants (Burkholderia ubonensis, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pelomonas puraquae) were also detected. Fungal DGGE was found to be useful for evaluating starter type and starter quality. Moreover, in view of the high biological diversity of these substrates, bacterial DGGE may be useful in determining the identity of a starter. The constant occurrence of opportunistic contaminants highlights the need for careful examination of the role of individual components in starters.

  18. Learning Opportunities And Learning Behaviours Of Small Business Starters: Relations With Goal Achievement, Skill Development, And Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Gelderen (Marco); L. van der Sluis; P. Jansen (Paul)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractLearning is a vital issue for small business starters, contributing to short term and long term business performance, as well as to personal development. This study investigates when and how small business starters learn. It specifies the situations that offer learning opportunities, as

  19. Does adding water to dry calf starter improve performance during summer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Khani, M; Omidian, S; Ariana, M; Rezvani, R; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether addition of water to starter would improve performance, rumen fermentation parameters, blood metabolites, and behavior in dairy calves. For this purpose, 30 Holstein male calves (3 d of age; 42.0 ± 4.2 kg of body weight) were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 starter diets differing in moisture content: (1) 90% dry matter (DM), (2) 75% DM, and (3) 50% DM. Weaning and final body weight values were found to increase linearly with increasing dietary water. Moreover, starter intake increased linearly during the preweaning and overall periods. Average daily gain also increased linearly in calves receiving the 75% and 50% DM diets compared with those receiving the 90% DM diet. However, treatments had no effects on gain-to-feed ratio. Adding water to a starter with 50% DM led to linear increases in both total volatile fatty acids and molar proportions of acetate and propionate in the rumen but it had no effect on the molar proportions of butyrate, isovalerate, or valerate, nor did it have any effect on acetate-to-propionate ratio. Similarly, times spent on eating, ruminating, standing, lying, and nonnutritive oral behavior exhibited no differences across treatments. Finally, addition of water to the starter diet led to no significant changes in the concentrations of selected blood metabolites, respiration rate, or rectal temperature. Results indicate that calves readily accept wetter feeds with a DM content of 50% and that adding water to starter diets improves calf performance during the hot months of summer.

  20. Experimental Study and Comparative Analysis of Transients of Induction Motor with Soft Starter Startup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA, G. N.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of the parameters of the machine and of the soft starter on the dynamics of the induction machine start. In order to evaluate the effects of this variation we have used a design of experiments (DOE. The situations may reproduce actual situations occurred in practice, for example the variation of initial voltage Ui , modification of the start time and load value. In the present paper we have investigated the relation between the inrush current, voltage dip at the startup of one industrial soft starter. Using an already predefined fire angle characteristic the influence of the initial voltage was also evaluated.

  1. Simulation and Determination of the Laws Control of the SRM for the Integrated Starter Generator Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boudouda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design of an integrated starter generator system for a car flywheel based on the Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM technology. First, we discuss about the starter generator problematic following the results of our bibliography research. Secondly, we briefly remained generalities about the SRM and the determination of the laws control. In addition, we designed the converter associated to the machine using (Matlab/Simulink software in order to identify the laws control and to adapt the operating modes (motor, generator, booster, brake. Finally, simulations of the open and closed loop model were performed on the converter with the (SRM

  2. Effect of sodium butyrate supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P;

    2009-01-01

    Rumen development is an important factor determining early solid feed intake and performance in cattle. A popular trend towards early weaning of newborn dairy calves necessitated looking for ways of accelerating the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development. The present study aimed to determine...... the effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in rearing calves. Fourteen bull calves (5-day-old) were randomly allocated to two groups: Control (C) and NaB. The later received 0.3 % NaB in milk replacer and starter diet. Animals were in experiment...

  3. Performance and Metabolism of Calves Fed Starter Feed Containing Sugarcane Molasses or Glucose Syrup as a Replacement for Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltramari, C E; Nápoles, G G O; De Paula, M R; Silva, J T; Gallo, M P C; Pasetti, M H O; Bittar, C M M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn grain for sugar cane molasses (MO) or glucose syrup (GS) in the starter concentrate on performance and metabolism of dairy calves. Thirty-six individually housed Holstein male calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth and assigned to one of the starter feed treatments, during an 8 week study: i) starter containing 65% corn with no MO or GS (0MO); ii) starter containing 60% corn and 5% MO (5MO); iii) starter containing 55% corn and 10% MO (10MO); and iv) starter containing 60% corn and 5% GS (5GS). Animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily (20 crude protein, 16 ether extract, 12.5% solids), divided in two meals (0700 and 1700 h). Starter and water were provided ad libitum. Starter intake and fecal score were monitored daily until animals were eight weeks old. Body weight and measurements (withers height, hip width and heart girth) were measured weekly before the morning feeding. From the second week of age, blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after the morning feeding, for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate determination. Ruminal fluid was collected at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age using an oro-ruminal probe and a suction pump for determination of pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). At the end of the eighth week, animals were harvested to evaluate development of the proximal digestive tract. The composition of the starter did not affect (p>0.05) concentrate intake, weight gain, fecal score, blood parameters, and rumen development. However, treatment 5MO showed higher (p0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of corn by 5% or 10% sugar cane molasses or 5% GS on starter concentrate did not impact performance, however it has some positive effects on rumen fermentation which may be beneficial for calves with a developing rumen.

  4. Production of Synbiotic Yogurt-Like Using Indigenous Lactic Acid Bacteria as Functional Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Astawan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt is a product of fermented milk using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as culture starter. Indigenous probiotic lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum 2C12 or Lactobacillus acidophilus 2B4, were applied in the making of functional synbiotic yoghurt-like with 5% of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS as a prebiotic source. The aim of this study was to determine the best formula of functional synbiotic yoghurt-like among four formulas: F1 (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophilus, F2 (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophilus + L. plantarum 2C12, F3 (L. bulgaricus+ S. thermophilus + L. acidophilus 2B4, and F4 (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophilus + L. plantarum 2C12 + L. acidophilus 2B4 to be choosen and followed detection of it’s flavor to improve the product quality and consumer acceptance. The results showed that the F3 synbiotic yogurt made from mixed culture L. bulgaricus, S. thermophilus, and L. acidophilus 2B4 had the highest antibacterial effect against Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC. Addition of 1.75% natural corn starch as a stabilizer produced optimum improvement in yoghurt consistency and minimize whey separation. Result of sensory evaluation indicated that the yoghurt with addition of 1% strawberry flavor and 0.1% vanilla flavor were ranked at first and second. Yoghurts were still good to be consumed after 15 d storage period at the refrigeration temperature (10 oC.

  5. Study on Processing Condition of Glutinous Maize Yoghurt%糯玉米酸奶加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾顺德; 赵国华; 尹旭敏; 张超; 章道明

    2011-01-01

    Maize yoghurt was developped by taking waxy com puree of milk stage and skimmed milk powder as fermentation substrate. The results showed that the optium process conditions were 40 % waxy com puree of milk stage, 5 % sugar, 5 % skimmed milk powder, 7 % bacteria ferment, 0.12 % agar, 42 X fermentation for 6 -8 h and 4 ℃ cold storage for 12 h.%以乳熟期糯玉米原浆和脱脂奶粉为发酵基质,研制糯玉米酸奶.结果显示,糯玉米酸奶的最佳工艺条件为糯玉米原浆40%,蔗糖5%,脱脂奶粉5%,菌种发酵剂7%,琼脂0.12%;在42℃下发酵6~8h,在4℃下冷藏12 h,可得到品质较优的糯玉米酸奶.

  6. Characterization of volatile compounds in Fen-Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van-Diep, L.; Zheng, X.; Chen, J.Y.; Han, B.Z.

    2012-01-01

    Fen-Daqu is a saccharifying agent and fermentation starter for the production of Chinese liquor Fen (alcoholic spirit) and Fen traditional vinegar. The volatile compounds produced at seven incubation steps were analysed by HS-SPME-GC-MS. A total of 83 major volatile compounds were identified, includ

  7. Story Starters on the Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas. A Creative Writing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Steve; Henrich, Jean

    Designed to supplement an established language arts and social studies program, this books deals with the Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas of Latin America. All of the "Story Starter" books are intended to give a variety of vocabulary and story ideas to help with the writing process. Each of the books is divided into four main sections: (1) an…

  8. Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris Strain T26, Isolated from Mesophilic Undefined Cheese Starter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, W. P.; Hansen, L. H.; Sørensen, S. J.; Broadbent, J. R.; Vogensen, F. K.; Ardö, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Leuconostoc is the main group of heterofermentative bacteria found in mesophilic dairy starters. They grow in close symbiosis with the Lactococcus population and are able to degrade citrate. Here we present a draft genome sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris strain T26. PMID:24903867

  9. Inrush Current Limitation in Wind Generators by SCR Based Soft-starter during grid connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mishra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available High Inrush current & harmonics is a generic problem wind generators during grid connection.The designed SCR based soft-starter successfully limits the high inrush current during the connection of the wind-turbine system to the grid. The proposed SCR based soft starter using will be simulating in PSCAD on a three-phase induction generator. Expected results will show a significant reduction in high inrush current and smooth connection of the three phase induction generator to the grid with small impact on the power quality. A small-scale wind turbine coupled three phase induction generator is an attractive choice for an isolated grid hybrid power system in remote areas because of its low cost, compactness, ruggedness, high reliability, low inertia and ease in control. In this work, a SCR based soft starter for limiting the high inrush current during the connection of the small-scale wind turbine coupled three phase induction generator to an isolated weak grid has been proposed. Soft-starter is designed to reduce inrush current or surge in current while achieving a proper synchronism between the generator and the grid.

  10. Diagnostics of D.C. Starter Generators While Using Fuzzy Logic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodology for sparking control in generator brush contact has been developed on the basis of the proposed fuzzy diagnostic model for ad.c.starter-generator and complex processing of diagnostic data. The paper provides investigation results, namely: dependence of voltage parameters  in an external generator circuit on collector sparking intensity.

  11. Digestible Threonine Levels in the Starter Diet of Broilers Derived from Breeders of Different Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CBGS Tanure

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of digestible threonine supplementation in the starter diet on the performance, intestinal parameters, and nutrient metabolism of broilers derived from breeders of different ages. In total, 480 one-day-old Cobb chicks, derived from 38-or 49-week-oldbreeders, were housed in experimental battery cages until 21 days of age and fed four different threonine levels (800, 900, 1,000, or 1,100 mg/kg in the starter feed. A completely randomized experimental design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement (breeder age x threonine levels was applied, totaling eight treatments with five replicates of 12 birds each. Broilers from older breeders fed 800 mg digestible threonine/kg of diet presented higher weight gain, with a positive linear effect. There was also an interaction between breeder age and threonine levels for the weight gain of 21-d-old broilers supplemented at maximum level of 1,003 mg Thr/kg diet during the starter phase. There was no effect of breeder age or threonine levels on nutrient metabolism during the period of 17-21 days. There was no influence of breeder age or threonine levels in the starter diet on intestinal morphometric measurements, absorption area, or percentage of goblet cells.

  12. Digestive development in neonatal dairy calves with either whole or ground oats in the calf starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Heinrichs, A J; Jones, C M; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D

    2015-05-01

    A series of 3 trials was conducted to determine effects of whole or ground oats in starter grain on reticulorumen fermentation and digestive system development of preweaned calves. Male Holstein calves (43.1±2.3kg at birth; n=8, 9, and 7 for trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively) were housed in individual pens in a heated facility; bedding was covered with landscape fabric to prevent consumption of bedding by the calves. In trials 1 and 2 only, calves were fitted with rumen cannulas by wk 2 of life. In all trials, a fixed amount of starter (containing 25% oats either ground and in the pellet or whole) was offered daily; orts were fed through the cannula in trials 1 and 2. Calves were randomly assigned to an all-pelleted starter or pellets plus whole oats. Rumen contents (trials 1 and 2) were sampled weekly at -8, -4, 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after grain feeding for determination of pH and volatile fatty acids. Calves were killed 3 wk (trial 1) or 4 wk (trials 2 and 3) after grain was offered; organs were harvested, emptied, rinsed, and weighed to gauge digestive organ development. Starter intake was not different between treatments. Weekly measurements of rumen digesta pH did not change and only subtle changes were observed in molar proportions of individual volatile fatty acids. Molar proportion of butyrate and pH linearly decreased with age, whereas acetate proportion increased. Reticulorumen weight and papillae length tended to be greater for calves fed pelleted starter, whereas abomasum weight was greater for calves fed pellets plus whole oats. Fecal particle size and starch content were greater for calves fed pellets plus whole oats. Under the conditions of this study, physical form of oats in starter grain did not affect rumen fermentation measurements; greater rumen weight and papillae length in calves fed pelleted starter may be the result of greater nutrient availability of ground oats. Under the conditions of this study with young calves on treatments for

  13. 苦瓜枸杞低糖酸奶的研制%Production and research on low-sugar yoghurt with balsam pear and Lycium barbarum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋立; 李雨露; 马勇; 吕长鑫; 励建荣

    2011-01-01

    The optimum formula and technique of yoghurt were studied by using aspartame and acesulfame potassium as substitutes of sucrose with milk,balsam pear,Lycium barbarum and de-fatted milk powder as material. The results showed that 3% of mixed bacteria with lactobacillus l. d. Bulgaricus and Str. Thermophilus as proportion 1∶ 1 was inoculated after milk,the sweetener 0. 010%(aspartame:acesulfame potassium=1∶ 1),balsam pear juice 1. 5%,Lycium barbarum juice 3% and 2% de-fatted milk powder were mixed,homogenized and sterilized. The low- sugar yoghurt with balsam pear and Lycium barbarum was produced through fermentation under 42℃ for 4h. The low-sugar yoghurt was uniform in color,fine in texture and smooth organizing,delicious taste in sour and sweet with coordinated flavour.%研究了以牛奶、苦瓜、枸杞、脱脂奶粉为主要原料,并以阿斯巴甜和安赛蜜替代蔗糖来生产酸奶的最佳配方及工艺。结果表明,牛奶与0.010%的甜味剂(阿斯巴甜∶安赛蜜=1∶1)、1.5%的苦瓜汁、3%的枸杞汁、2%的脱脂奶粉混合、均质、杀菌后,接入保加利亚乳杆菌与嗜热链球菌比例为1∶1的混合菌种3%,在42℃条件下发酵4h,制得颜色均一、组织细腻、酸甜爽口、香味协调的苦瓜枸杞低糖酸奶。

  14. 固定化乳酸菌发酵草莓酸奶工艺研究%STUDY ON THE TECHNOLOGY OF STRAWBERRY YOGHURT FERMENTED BY IMMOBILIZED LACTOBACILLUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘进杰; 任玉娜; 屈慧鸽; 张玉香

    2009-01-01

    The technology of strawberry yoghurt fermented by Lactobacillus which were immobilized by sodium alginate were studied. Results showed that the optimum technology condition to ferment strawberry yoghurt by immobilized Lactobacillus is 1.5 % sodium alginate concentration, 6 mL skim milk containing strains/100 mL sodium alginate solution, 100 mL sodium alginate solution/100 mL mixture of strawberry and milk, 2 mm~3 mm bead diameter, incubation temperature 40 ℃, 10 % sugar and 15 % strawberry. And the results of continuous fermentation showed that Lactobacillus immobilized by sodium alginate can be used to ferment strawberry yoghurt for 10 times.%研究用海藻酸钠包埋乳酸菌发酵草莓酸奶工艺.研究结果表明固定化乳酸菌发酵草莓酸奶的最佳工艺条件为:海藻酸钠溶液浓度为1.5%,含菌种脱脂乳用量为6mL/100mL海藻酸钠溶液,胶珠的添加量为100mL海藻酸钠溶液/100 mL草莓奶液,胶珠直径为2 mm~3 mm,培养温度为40℃,白砂糖添加量为10%,草莓浆添加量15%.连续发酵结果表明固定化乳酸菌发酵草莓酸奶可连续使用10次.

  15. Time-dependent correlation of the microbial community and the metabolomics of traditional barley nuruk starter fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Kannan; Lee, Sarah; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2013-01-01

    The microbial community and the metabolites of barley nuruk were studied to determine the time-dependent correlation between the fermentation of microbes and metabolites. Samples were analyzed by a polyphasic approach based on culture-dependent, culture-independent (PCR-DGGE and qPCR analysis), and metabolite analysis using GC-MS. Barley nuruk consists of varying amounts of bacteria, yeasts, and molds. The PCR-DGGE results showed that only one phylotype, Aspergillus oryzae, was predominant throughout fermentation, reaching a maximum on day 9. The bacterial load was higher on day 6 of fermentation, and then gradually decreased because of increased fungal activity. The shift in fungal and bacterial diversity observed by DGGE was further confirmed by qPCR analysis. In addition, microbes closely related to Pantoea agglomerans and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera appeared to play key roles in the fermentation of barley nuruk. GC-MS analysis combined with multivariate analysis, including PCA, PLS-DA, and OPLS-DA, showed fermentation time-dependent metabolite patterns. A total of 21 metabolites, including organic acids, amino acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols, were identified. In particular, glycerol, malic acid, fructose, glucose, sucrose, and maltose were produced at the early fermentation stages (0-6 d), whereas glutamine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, mannitol, and xylitol were produced during the latter stages of fermentation (9-18 d). Mixed culture fermentation was found throughout the natural fermentation of barley nuruk starter. Most likely, A. oryzae had a major role in saccharification, along with other mixed cultures.

  16. Efisiensi dan Kecernaan Ransum Domba yang Diberi Silase Ransum Komplit Eceng Gondok Ditambahkan Starter Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Ekawati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available (Efficiency and digestibility feed of sheep given silage complete feed water hyacinth added starter lactobacillus plantarum ABSTRACT. This study aims to determine the effect of a complete ration of silage made from water hyacinth on feed efficiency and digestibility. This study uses fifteen rams (12 months old with an average body weight of 19 ± 3.98 kg. The experimental was designed completely random. The sheeps were randomly divided into 3 treatments, and 4 replications. The sheeps wereted concentrate and fresh elephant grass (T0, silage-based rations complete without the addition of starter hyacinth L. plantarum (T1, and a complete ration silage made from water hyacinth by the addition of L. plantarum starter (T2. Feed structured treatment isoenergi and isoprotein (PK 13% and 65% TDN. Feed treatment was given for 12 weeks with a 2-week adaptation period. The results showed that feed intake, ADG, feed conversion, and feed efficiency were not significantly different (P> 0.05, but it can improve feed digestibility (P <0.05 between treatments. Feed intake data, digestibility, ADG, feed conversion and feed efficiency at T0, T1 and T2 as follows: 678.27, 811.43, 701.21 g / day; 70.51, 71.74, 69.82%; 94.09, 106.34, 97.28 g / day; 7.22, 7.66, and 7.18; 14.09, 13.23 and 14.02% use a complete ration silage with L. plantarum starter better than the control treatment in the form of concentrates with elephant grass but not better than silage without a starter.

  17. 烧酒曲中扣囊复膜酵母的分离及鉴定%Isolation and identification of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera isolated from rice wine starter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应玲云; 伍时华; 赵东玲; 何启刚; 刘光鹏; 黄翠姬; 易弋

    2013-01-01

    Yeast strain YW12 with amylolytic activity was isolated from rice wine solid starter diluted and spread on starch-degrading plate ( YPS agar) to make pure culture starter for rice wine. Based on morphological, cultural and physiological tests and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, YW12 was identified as Saccharomycopsis fibuligera. Detected with the modified Yoo method, amylase activity of crude enzyme solution from YW12 in YPS broth for 4 days at 28 ℃ was 49. 8 U/mL. The strain YW12 cultured in saccharification mash with 170 g/L glucose from glutinous rice for 3 days at 28 ℃ gave 5. 63 % ( v/v) of ethanol content. Because of its ability of starch-degrading and ethanol fermentation, the strain YW12 maybe have a potential to be used in making defined fungal starter for glutinous rice wine.%为了筛选1株可用于纯菌种酿造糯米酒的酵母菌,将烧酒曲稀释涂布在淀粉培养基(YPS)平板上培养,得到1株产淀粉酶酵母菌(YWI2).通过形态学、生理生化特征和18S rDNA、ITS区序列分析鉴定,YW12为扣囊复膜酵母(Saccharomycopsis fibuligera).YW12在YPS液体培养基中28℃培养4d,用Yoo改良法测其粗酶液的淀粉酶活力为49.8 U/mL.YW12在糯米糖化液(含175 g/L葡萄糖)中28℃发酵3d的酒精度为5.63%(v/v).YW12既能同化淀粉又能发酵产生酒精,具有用于纯菌种酿造糯米酒的潜力.

  18. Development of soybean dregs dietary fiber yoghurt%豆渣膳食纤维酸奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白婕; 沈银梅; 余庆斌

    2012-01-01

    By taking soybean dregs as the raw materials which were the remains of squeezing soybean milk, the soybean dregs dietary fiber yoghurt has been developed. Whole milk powder were used as materials, soybean dregs dietary fiber was extracted by ultrasonic auxiliary chemical method, and then modified by ultra micro smashing technology. The soybean dregs dietary fiber, xylo-oligosaccharides and other auxiliary materials were mixed with whole milk. The optimum process parameters were determined by orthogonal experiments for lactic acid fermentation. And the quality of the products was evaluated. It was proved that the optimum formula were as follows: 10% whole milk powder, 10% soybean dregs dietary fiber, 0.4% xylo-oligosaccharides, 5% sugar, with composite stabilizer of 0.3% sodium alginate and 0.3% agar. The optimal fermentation conditions were as follows; fermented at 42"C for 7 hour. 3% lactic acid bacteria, the ratio of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus and Str.thermophilus was 1 : 1.5. This product contained living bacteria more than 5.0× 106 cfu/mL. Meanwhile, it had milky color, soft milk aroma, and compact texture and was rich in dietary fiber. It was a nutritious and healthy new type of yoghurt.%以压榨豆浆后得到的豆渣为原料,用超声波辅助化学法提取豆渣膳食纤维.超微粉碎改性后与低聚木糖等辅料一并添加至全脂乳中发酵,制成一种膳食纤维保健酸奶.其最佳配方为:全脂乳粉添加量10%,豆渣膳食纤维添加量10%,低聚木糖添加量0.4%,白砂糖添加量5%,海藻酸钠添加量0.3%,琼脂添加量0.3%.豆渣膳食纤维酸奶的最佳发酵工艺条件为:发酵温度42℃,发酵时间7h,菌种接种量3%,德氏乳杆菌保加利亚亚种与嗜热链球菌比例为1∶1.5.制成的豆渣膳食纤维酸奶活菌数达5.0×106 cfu/mL以上,色泽乳黄,凝乳质地致密,具有柔和的乳香.

  19. Comparison of Complex Starter and Wheat Starter in Mechanized Production of Yellow Rice Wine%黄酒曲和麦曲在机械化黄酒酿造中的应用比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 陈国飞; 李峰齐; 傅勤峰; 蒋启海

    2016-01-01

    从清酒口感、出酒率、成本等方面对比采用黄酒曲和麦曲作为糖化剂机械化酿造黄酒。同等条件下,采用黄酒曲出酒率高9%,清酒口感较醇和。黄酒曲具有安全卫生、质量稳定、工艺简单、劳动强度低、设备利用率高等优点。生产同样产量的基酒,采用黄酒曲的总成本比麦曲低至少6%。黄酒曲基酒氨基酸态氮和非糖固形物含量偏低,更符合清爽型黄酒基酒和料酒基酒的要求。%Complex starter and wheat starter were used respectively as saccharifying agent in mechanized production of yellow rice wine. The products were compared in wine taste, wine yield and production cost. Under the same conditions, wine yield by complex starter was 9%high-er with pure taste. Besides, the use of complex starter had the advantages including safety and hygiene, stable wine quality, simple operation, low labor intensity and high utilization rate of facilities etc. The total production cost with the use of complex starter was at least 6%lower than that with wheat starter for producing the same amount of base wine. The content of amino acids and non-sugar solids in base wine by the use of complex starter was lower and complex starter was more suitable for light-type base wine and seasoning base wine.

  20. The effect of lactic acid bacterial starter culture and chemical additives on wilted rice straw silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Su; Shi, Wei; Huang, Lin-Ting; Ding, Cheng-Long; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are suitable for rice straw silage fermentation, but have been studied rarely, and rice straw as raw material for ensiling is difficult because of its disadvantages, such as low nutrition for microbial activities and low abundances of natural populations of LAB. So we investigated the effect of application of LAB and chemical additives on the fermentation quality and microbial community of wilted rice straw silage. Treatment with chemical additives increased the concentrations of crude protein (CP), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), acetic acid and lactic acid, reduced the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), but did not effectively inhibit the growth of spoilage organisms. Inoculation with LABs did not improve the nutritional value of the silage because of poor growth of LABs in wilted rice straw. Inoculation with LAB and addition of chemical materials improved the quality of silage similar to the effects of addition of chemical materials alone. Growth of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria was inhibited by this mixed treatment and the LAB gradually dominated the microbial community. In summary, the fermentation quality of wilted rice straw silage had improved by addition of LAB and chemical materials.

  1. Selection of Lactobacillus plantarum strains for their use as starter cultures in Algerian olive fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhbi, Abdelouahab

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate some technological traits of L. plantarum strains previously isolated from fermented olives. For this purpose, 11 strains were tested for their in vitro antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to low pH values, acidifying activity, proteolytic activity, haemolytic activity, lactic acid and exopolysaccharide production and resistance to freeze-drying .Collectively, the strains were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested and showed survival at pH 2. Most strains showed high (1.035 ± 0.29 to 0.912 ± 0.21 mmol/l ± sd of lactic acid or medium (0.556 ± 0.29 to 0.692 ± 0.18 mmol/l ±sd acidification activity with good proteolytic activity (1.49 ± 0.25 to 5.25 ± 0.11 mg L-1 tyrosine. None of the strains produced exopolysaccharides or haemolysis in sheep's blood.El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar algunos aspectos tecnológicos de cepas de L. plantarum previamente aisladas de aceitunas fermentadas. Para este propósito, 11 cepas fueron usadas para estudiar su susceptibilidad a antibióticos in vitro, resistencia a valores de pH bajos, actividad acidificante, proteolítica, y hemolítica, producción de ácido láctico y exopolisacáridos, y resistencia a la liofilización. En general, las cepas fueron susceptibles a la mayoría de los antibióticos ensayados y mostraron supervivencia a pH 2. La mayoría de las cepas mostraron una actividad de acidificación alta (1.035 ± 0.29 a 0.912 ± 0.21 mmol/l de ácido láctico o media (0.556 ± 0.29 a 0.692 ± 0.18 mmol/l con una buena actividad proteolítica (1.49 ± 0.25 a 5.25 ± 0.11 mg L-1 tirosina. Ninguna de las cepas produjo exopolisacáridos o hemolisis en sangre de oveja.

  2. A high-throughput cheese manufacturing model for effective cheese starter culture screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachmann, H.; Kruijswijk, Z.; Molenaar, D.; Kleerebezem, M.; Hylckama Vlieg, van J.E.T.

    2009-01-01

    Cheese making is a process in which enzymatic coagulation of milk is followed by protein separation, carbohydrate removal, and an extended bacterial fermentation. The number of variables in this complex process that influence cheese quality is so large that the developments of new manufacturing prot

  3. Application of wild starter cultures for flavour development in pilot plant cheese making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayad, E.H.E.; Verheul, A.; Wouters, J.T.M.; Smit, G.

    2000-01-01

    A number of wild lactococci of dairy and non-dairy origin which have the ability to produce unusual new flavours in model systems were studied with regard to various characteristics important for cheese making. All strains were found to be non-lysogenic and resistant to phages affecting strains pres

  4. Importance in dairy technology of bacteriocins produced by dairy starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedia Şimşek

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by Lactic acid bacteria (LAB and propionic acid bacteria (PAB are heterogeneous group of peptide inhibitors which include lantibiotics (class I, e. g. nisin, small heat-stable peptides (class II, e. g. pediocin PA-1 and large heat-labile proteins (class III, e. g. helveticin J. Many bacteriocins belonging to the first two groups can be successfully used to inhibit undesirable microorganisms in foods, but only nisin is produced industrially and is used as a food preservative. LAB and PAB develops easily in milk and milk products. LAB and PAB growth in dairy products can cause microbial interference to spoilage and pathogenic bacteria through several metabolits, specially bacteriocins. The review deals with the description of milk-borne bacteriocins and their application in milk and milk products either to extend the shelf life or to inhibit milk pathogens.

  5. Selection of yeast starter culture strains for the production of marula fruit wines and distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fundira, M; Blom, M; Pretorius, I S; van Rensburg, P

    2002-03-13

    Juice of the Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra (marula) fruit was fermented by indigenous microflora and different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains at different temperatures, namely, 15 and 30 degrees C. Volatile acids, esters, and higher alcohols were quantified in the wine and distillates, and the results were interpreted using a multivariate analysis of variance and an average linkage cluster analysis. Significant differences between 15 and 30 degrees C and also among yeasts with respect to volatile compounds were observed. Yeast strains VIN7 and FC consistently produced wines and final distillates significantly different from the other strains. A panel of tasters and marula and brandy producers was asked to select wines and distillates that had an acceptable and typical marula "nose". They were also asked to detect the differences among wines and distillates fermented with the same yeast strain at different temperatures.

  6. CELL-SURFACE BINDING OF DEOXYNIVALENOL TO Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans ISOLATED FROM SOURDOUGH STARTER CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Yousef I.; Lloyd B. Bullerman

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are two contaminant-mycotoxins frequently found in food commodities produced under poor conditions. Several methods have been suggested for the detoxification of such mycotoxins. Among the proposed methods, biological detoxification seems to be the most promising and cost-efficient. This study explores the capability of one strain of lactic acid bacteria, identified as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans, to bind both DON and FB1 in liquid cultu...

  7. Utilización del suero de queso en polvo y la harina de soya, como fuentes de sólidos en la elaboración de yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña Aurora

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de incrementar los sólidos no grasos en el yoghurt, se utilizaron materias primas no tradicionales, con ventajas nutritivas y económicas, como el suero de queso en polvo y la harina de soya semidesengrasada, en niveles independientes o en mezclas entre el 1 y 2%. El nivel del 2% de suero de queso en polvo, presentó características físico-químicas y organolépticas favorables, que lo acreditan como posible sustitutivo de la leche en polvo descremada, reduciendo en 6% el costo por litro de yoghurt.The purpose was to increase non fatty solids in the yoghurt, using non traditional raw materials, with nourishing and economic advantages as the dried cheese whey and semidefatted soybean flour, in mixtures of 1 and 2% independent levels. The level of replacement with 2% of dried cheese whey, showed favorable organoleptic and physical and chemical conditions that merit as a dried skim milk possible substitute, reducing 6% cost per litre of yoghurt.

  8. Effect of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: a single blind randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Til, van A.J.; Naumann, E.; Cox-Claessens, I.J.H.M.; Kremer, S.; Boelsma, E.; Schueren, van der D.E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults. Design A single blind randomised controlled trial. Setting Rehabilitation centre. Part

  9. Saccharification of cassava starch by Saccharomycopsis fibuligera YCY1 isolated from Loog-Pang (rice cake starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aran H-Kittikun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were to select amylolytic yeasts from Loog-Pang, a traditional starter culture for production of alcoholic foods and drinks in southern Thailand, and to optimize the saccharification of cassava starch to reducing sugar by the selected yeast isolate. Seventy-four yeast isolates were obtained from ten samples of Loog-Pang. The isolates were tested for amylolytic activity on Yeast-Peptone Cassava medium (YPC contained 30 g/l of cassava starch.Only three isolates showed amylolytic activity which produced clear zone on the YPC agar. The best amylolytic strain with clear zone of 8 mm was identified by 26s rDNA as Saccharomycopsis fibuligera. The optimum medium for saccharification by Saccharomycopsis fibuligera. YCY1 was only 50 g/l of cassava starch in distilled water without nitrogen sources added and pH adjustment. The optimal saccharification conditions were 200 ml cassava starch (50 g/l in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask, shaking at 100 rpm and 37oC. Under these conditions, the highest reducing sugar was obtained 46±0.53 g/l after 120 h cultivation (84% of the theoretical yield.

  10. Straw particle size in calf starters: Effects on digestive system development and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Heinrichs, A J; Jones, C M; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D

    2016-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine effects of straw particle size in calf starter on rumen fermentation and development in calves. Holstein calves (n=17 in trial 1; n=25 in trial 2) were housed in individual pens; bedding (wood shavings) was covered with landscape fabric to completely avoid consumption of bedding. Milk replacer was fed at 12% of birth body weight per day and water offered free choice. Calves were randomly assigned to 4 treatments differing in geometric mean particle length (Xgm) of straw comprising 5% of starter dry matter. Straw was provided within the pellet at manufacture (PS; 0.82 mm Xgm) or mixed with the pellet at time of feeding at Xgm of 3.04 (SS), 7.10 (MS), or 12.7 (LS) mm. Calves (n=12; 3/treatment) in trial 1 were fitted with a rumen cannula by wk 2 of age. A fixed amount of starter that was adjusted with age and orts were fed through the cannula in cannulated calves. Calves were euthanized 6 wk after starter was offered (9 and 7 wk of age for trials 1 and 2, respectively). Rumen digesta pH linearly decreased with age, whereas volatile fatty acid concentration increased with age. Overall pH had a cubic trend with SS lower than that of PS and MS. Molar proportion of acetate decreased with age whereas propionate proportion increased. Overall molar proportions of volatile fatty acids were not affected by diet. Fecal Xgm was not different in spite of changes in diet particle size and rumen digesta of PS being greater than SS, MS, and LS at slaughter. Fecal pH and starch concentration were not affected by diet; however, pH decreased whereas starch content increased with age. Weight of stomach compartments, rumen papillae length and width, and rumen wall thickness did not differ between diets. Omasum weight as a percentage of body weight at harvest linearly decreased as straw particle size increased. Under the conditions of this study, modifying straw particle length in starter grain resulted in minimal rumen fermentation parameter

  11. Characteristic of cow milk dadih using starter of probiotic of lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Usmiati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dadih is an original dairy product from West Sumatera processed traditionally. It is a spontaneous fermentation of buffalo milk at room temperature for 48 hours in a bamboo tube, has no standard of processing and quality. Dadih is potentially to be develop into probiotic products (functional food that can be enjoyed by the public widely. Development of cow's milk dadih is necessary since buffalo milk is available only in certain area. Product and characteristic information of cow milk dadih using probiotic of lactic acid bacteria starter has not been known. The research objective was to determine the characteristics of cow milk dadih that used starter of probiotic lactic acid bacteria during storage at room temperature (27oC and cold temperature (4oC. The study was designed using a factorial randomized block design pattern 12x3 at room temperature and 12X4 at cold temperatures, with the number of repeatation of 3 times. Treatment consisted of: (i starter formula (A using a single bacterium or a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum, and (ii storage time (B. Observed parameters included pH value, titrable acidity, the total plate count, and in-vitro probiotic testing (bacterial resistance to bile salts and low pH of cow milk dadih. The results showed that L. acidophilus early exponential phase was at the hour 3rd, L. casei at the hour 4th and B. longum on the 3rd of which is used as the optimum time of mixing two or more bacteria in the manufacture of cow milk dadih. The volume of starter used was 3% with time fermentation of 48 hours at room temperature (27-30oC. Cow milk dadih that was stored for 7 days at room temperature (27-30oC and for 21 days at cold temperatures (4-10oC was able to maintain viability of bacteria to bile salts and low pH at 1010-1012 cfu/ml with percentage resistance varied. The cow milk dadih using a combination starter of B. longum with other probiotics on the

  12. Evaluation of uncertainty for lactic acid bacteria determination in yoghurt%酸乳乳酸菌数检验中不确定度的评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莎; 谭震

    2012-01-01

    目的:对酸乳中乳酸菌数不确定度的来源进行分析.方法:采用合并样品标准差的方法来评定乳酸菌数的不确定度.结果:评定结果表明酸乳中乳酸菌数检验的不确定度是测量结果对数值±0.039.结论:该批样品乳酸菌数的置信区间范围为6.2 ×107≤X≤7.5×107 cfu/g.%Objective:The source of measurement uncertainty of lactic acid bacteria in yoghurt was analyzed. Methods: Pooled sample standard deviation was applied to determine the uncertainty of lactic acid bacteria. Re-sults : The log value of uncertainty of lactic acid bacteria examination in yoghurt beverage was log value of measuring result ±0. 039.Conclusion: Confidence interval of the measurement result was; 6. 2 × 107 ~7. 5 × 107 cfu/g.

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Sodium Benzoate Potassium Sor­bate and Natamycin Content in Iranian Yoghurt Drink (Doogh and the Associated Risk of Their Intake through Doogh Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Esfandiari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regarding the public health concerns over the use of food preservatives in yoghurt drink “Doogh", the aim of this study was the determination of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamycin in Doogh. Based on Iranian national standard, none of these preservatives are permitted to be used in Doogh.Methods: A total of 39 Doogh samples were analyzed through RP- HPLC in order to quantify sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamaycin simultaneously. Exposure to each preservative is estimated by mean and maximum concentrations as the residue levels. The per capita Doogh consumption was calculated by the published data from official reports for Doogh annual production in Iran.Results: All samples were shown to contain sodium benzoate while natamaycin was detected in 10.25% of the samples and potassium sorbate was not detected in any of them. Sodium benzoate concentration extremely varied among the investigated samples ranged from 0.94 to 9.77 mg/l. Due to the result of the exposure estimation, no serious public health concern would exist regarding the mentioned preservatives.Conclusions: The detection of sodium benzoate in all Doogh samples could indicate the natural production of benzoic acid in yoghurt. Sodium benzoate may be formed through the interaction of the added food grade salt to the Doogh formula which contains benzoic acid. The results of exposure estimation show the lack of health risk within the usage of preservatives in spite of the national regulatory agencies does not permit the preservative use.

  14. Preparation and processing conditions optimization of Tibetan mushroom yoghurt%藏灵菇酸奶的制作及工艺条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炎; 甘伯中; 米兰; 张卫兵; 何林; 赵小元; 杭洁

    2012-01-01

    以藏灵菇为发酵剂,考察了发酵温度、时间和接种量对藏灵菇酸奶感官品质的影响,通过Box-Benhnken实验设计优化了发酵条件,得到藏灵菇酸奶的最佳发酵条件为:接种量为2%(w/v),发酵温度为20℃,发酵时间为18h。所制产品为乳白色,组织细腻、均匀,稍黏稠,味道独特的营养食品,实验结果可为藏灵菇酸奶的工业化生产提供理论依据。%Quality of Tibetan mushroom yoghurt was effected by fermentation temperature,time and inoculum. Close analysis of sensory evaluation of the yoghurt indicated that the optimum processing conditions was inoculation amount 2%(w/v),temperature 20℃,time 18h. The product with nutrition and unique taste was white with slightly viscous produced in experimental tests carried out according to optimum processing conditions. The result provided the basic theory for industrial production of Tibetan mushroom yogurt.

  15. Growth promoting effects of prebiotic yeast cell wall products in starter broilers under an immune stress and Clostridium perfringens challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to investigate the growth promoting effects of supplementing different sources and concentrations of prebiotic yeast cell wall (YCW) products containing mannanoligosaccharides in starter broilers under an immune stress and Clostridium perfringens challenge. Through a series ...

  16. Differentiation of Enterococcus faecium from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains by PCR and dot-blot hybridisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langa, S; Fernández, A; Martín, R; Reviriego, C; Marín, M L; Fernández, L; Rodríguez, J M

    2003-12-01

    Variations in length and sequence of the 16S/23S spacer region of Enterococcus faecium provided the basis for development of simple PCR and dot-blot hybridisation assays that enabled the differentiation of potentially probiotic Enterococcus faecium strains from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Such assays may be useful for differentiation of yoghurt starter cultures and enterococcal strains when they are simultaneously present in probiotic food products.

  17. Comparison of PMAC Machines for Starter-Generator Application in a Series Hybrid-Electric Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Sinisa Jurkovic; Strangas, Elias G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of outer rotor PMAC machine candidates for starter-generator application in hybrid bus with series power train configuration. PMAC machines with interior and surface mount permanent magnets are considered and compared, although a complete analysis is only carried out for the SPM. Different design aspects such as concentrated versus distributed windings as well as interior and exterior rotor structures are evaluated. Different slot numbers per p...

  18. Zero Rare-Earth Magnet Integrated Starter-Generator Development for Military Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    2013 3 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Introduction Consider and evaluate machine topologies for application to a 3- phase, brushless , integrated starter...high rotor thickness. 14 August 2013 12 IPM Spoke IPM AFPM TFPM SPM UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Non-PM Topologies • Brushless , do not require...Designs generated using 2D and 3D FEA and preliminary thermal modeling . 15 14 August 2013 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Comparative Down

  19. Potential benefits of the application of yeast starters in table olive processing

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Noé eArroyo López; Veronica eRomero Gil; Joaquin eBautista Gallego; Francisco eRodriguez Gomez; Rufino eJimenez Diaz; Pedro eGarcía García; Amparo eQuerol Simon; Antonio eGarrido Fernandez

    2012-01-01

    Yeasts play an important role in the food and beverage industry, especially in products such as bread, wine, and beer, among many others. However, their use as a starter in table olive processing has not yet been studied in detail. The candidate yeast strains should be able to dominate fermentation, together with lactic acid bacteria, but should also provide a number of beneficial advantages. Technologically, yeasts should resist low pH and high salt concentrations, produce desirable aromas, ...

  20. Exogenous enzymes in pre-starter broiler diets based on corn and soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RB Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A fibrolytic enzyme complex was added to the pre-starter diet. Broiler chicks were randomly distributed into five treatments, consisting of a diet with no enzyme addition and four test diets supplemented with 100, 200, 300 and 400g/T of an enzyme complex. The dietary inclusion of the enzyme complex increased weight gain, and the dose of 300g/T improved weight gain and worsened feed conversion ratio.