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Sample records for yoghurt starter cultures

  1. CHOLESTEROL ASSIMILATION BY COMMERCIAL YOGHURT STARTER CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ziarno

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to in vitro cholesterol level reduction in laboratory media has been shown for numerous strains of lactic acid bacteria, but not for all strains of lactic bacteria used in the dairy industry. The aim of this work was the determination of the ability of selected thermophilic lactic acid bacteria to cholesterol assimilation during 24 h culture in MRS broth. Commercial starter cultures showed various ability to cholesterol assimilation from laboratory medium. In case of starter cultures used for production of traditional yoghurt, consisting of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, the quantity of assimilated cholesterol did not exceed 27% of its initial contents (0.7 g in 1 dm3. Starter cultures used for bioyoghurt production, containing also probiotic strains (came from Lactobacillus acidophilus species or Bifidobacterium genus assimilated from almost 18% to over 38% of cholesterol. For one monoculture of Lb. acidophilus, cholesterol assimilation ability of 49-55% was observed, despite that the number of bacterial cells in this culture was not different from number of bacteria in other cultures.

  2. Microstructure and Textural Properties of Yoghurts Produced by Exopolysaccharides- Producing Starter Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lanjun

    ) when these three fluorescent dyes were combined together in a yoghurt sample. Use of phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with CaCl2 and MgCl2 (PBS-Ca-Mg buffer, pH 7.4) preserved the binding affinities of both lectins of ConA and WGA to EPS under acidic conditions. The newly developed method of EPS...

  3. Performance evaluation of bulk freeze dried starter cultures of dahi and yoghurt along with probiotic strains in standardized milk of cow and buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayendra, S. V. N.; Gupta, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Performance of bulk freeze dried (BFD) cultures of dahi (D) and yoghurt (Y) either with or without probiotic cultures (AB -Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum) in standardized milk of cow and buffalo was evaluated. In buffalo milk, significantly (p 

  4. Simultaneous growth and metabolite production by yoghurt starters and probiotics: a metabolomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settachaimongkon, S.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to investigate the simultaneous growth and metabolite production by yoghurt starters and different probiotic strains, i.e. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12 and Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1, during set-yoghurt fermentatio

  5. Influence of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 on post-acidification, metabolite formation and survival of starter bacteria in set-yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settachaimongkon, Sarn; van Valenberg, Hein J F; Gazi, Inge; Nout, M J Robert; van Hooijdonk, Toon C M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Smid, Eddy J

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the growth and survival of the model probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in co-culture with traditional yoghurt starters and to investigate the impact of preculturing on their survival and metabolite formation in set-yoghurt. L. plantarum WCFS1 was precultured under sublethal stress conditions (combinations of elevated NaCl and low pH) in a batch fermentor before inoculation in milk. Adaptive responses of L. plantarum WCFS1 were evaluated by monitoring bacterial population dynamics, milk acidification and changes in volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of set-yoghurt. The results demonstrated that sublethal preculturing did not significantly affect survival of L. plantarum WCFS1. On the other hand, incorporation of sublethally precultured L. plantarum WCFS1 significantly impaired the survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus which consequently reduced the post-acidification of yoghurt during refrigerated storage. A complementary metabolomics approach using headspace SPME-GC/MS and (1)H NMR combined with multivariate statistical analysis revealed substantial impact of sublethally precultured L. plantarum WCFS1 on the metabolite profiles of set-yoghurt. This study provides insight in the technological implications of non-dairy model probiotic strain L. plantarum WCFS1, such as its good stability in fermented milk and the inhibitory effect on post-acidification. PMID:27375240

  6. Community dynamics of complex starter cultures for Gouda-type cheeses and its functional consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkus, O.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used as starter and adjunct cultures for the production of artisanal and industrial fermented milk products such as yoghurt and cheese.  Artisanal fermentations is propagated with the transfer of an inoculum from old batch of fermented food to the new batch (back-

  7. Influence of different proteolytic strains of Streptococcus thermophilus in co-culture with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus on the metabolite profile of set-yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settachaimongkon, Sarn; Nout, M J Robert; Antunes Fernandes, Elsa C; Hettinga, Kasper A; Vervoort, Jacques M; van Hooijdonk, Toon C M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Smid, Eddy J; van Valenberg, Hein J F

    2014-05-01

    Proto-cooperation between Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is one of the key factors that determine the fermentation process and final quality of yoghurt. In this study, the interaction between different proteolytic strains of S. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was investigated in terms of microbial growth, acidification and changes in the biochemical composition of milk during set-yoghurt fermentation. A complementary metabolomics approach was applied for global characterization of volatile and non-volatile polar metabolite profiles of yoghurt associated with proteolytic activity of the individual strains in the starter cultures. The results demonstrated that only non-proteolytic S. thermophilus (Prt-) strain performed proto-cooperation with L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The proto-cooperation resulted in significant higher populations of the two species, faster milk acidification, significant abundance of aroma volatiles and non-volatile metabolites desirable for a good organoleptic quality of yoghurt. Headspace SPME-GC/MS and (1)H NMR resulted in the identification of 35 volatiles and 43 non-volatile polar metabolites, respectively. Furthermore, multivariate statistical analysis allows discriminating set-yoghurts fermented by different types of starter cultures according to their metabolite profiles. Our finding underlines that selection of suitable strain combinations in yoghurt starters is important for achieving the best technological performance regarding the quality of product.

  8. Starter Cultures: Uses in the Food Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Egon Bech

    2014-01-01

    Starter cultures are preparations of microorganisms serving as inoculants for the production of fermented foods. The production of cheese, yogurt, fermented milk, wine, sauerkraut, hams, and sausages occurs through the use of starter cultures that are consistent, predictable, and safe. The cultures...

  9. Community dynamics of complex starter cultures for Gouda-type cheeses and its functional consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Erkus, O.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used as starter and adjunct cultures for the production of artisanal and industrial fermented milk products such as yoghurt and cheese.  Artisanal fermentations is propagated with the transfer of an inoculum from old batch of fermented food to the new batch (back-slopping) to initiate the fermentation with the activity of the indigenous microbiota present in the inoculum. In industrial production, these inocula with indigenous microbiota are replaced with t...

  10. Quality of Plain Set Yoghurt as affected by Levels of Ultrafiltration Concentration of Milk and Inoculum of Yoghurt Culture

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    narayana Mudiyanselage Nayana Kumari Narayana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Quality of plain set yoghurt was investigated by varying levels of ultrafiltration concentration of cow skim milk (1-without ultrafiltration, 1.5 and 2 folds and inoculum (2, 2.5 and 3% of yoghurt culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus 1:1. Titratable acidity development and pH reduction were significantly faster during incubation of yoghurt with increasing ultrafiltration concentration level and inoculum level. Increased ultrafiltration concentration level decreased spontaneous whey syneresis, but increased water holding capacity and firmness of the product significantly. Body & texture and overall acceptability scores were significantly better in yoghurts prepared from 1.5 fold concentrated milk irrespective of the inoculum level studied. Inoculum level did not show any significant effect on the quality of yoghurt, but higher inoculum level decreased the incubation period significantly. Optimized product was obtained with 1.5 fold concentrated skim milk standardized to 3.3% fat and incubated with 2% inoculum level in about five and a half hour of incubation. Optimized product had 13.60±0.02% total solids, 3.31±0.01% fat, 5.27±0.04% protein, 4.20±0.03% lactose and 0.82±0.02% ash. Whey syneresis, water holding capacity and firmness in optimized product were nil, 63.49% and 1.89 N, respectively. Thus, high quality plain yoghurt could be prepared by employing ultrafiltration, without addition of stabilizers, which is otherwise widely used commercially for the manufacture of yoghurt to control its wheying off and body.

  11. 一种酸奶发酵剂的实践应用效果%Practical application of yoghurt culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏海涛; 张柏林

    2011-01-01

    The Application of JLB1 starter culture in yoghurt product with weak post-acidification Abstract: A commercial starter culture was used to produce yogurt products. The changes of pHs from yogurt samples, collected fermented yogurt and stored at 6 ℃ or 27 ℃ for 17 days, showed that the stable pH in yogurt products was important in maintaining the good sensory quality of final products due to the weak post-acidifying activity of the starter culture. Starter culture JLB1 was available for producing high quality yogurt stored at ambient temperatures with less loss of viscosity.%通过对来自科汉森发酵剂ILB1在发酵过程中与产品货架期内不同贮存温度下的pH值变化,以及随pH值变化后酸乳的黏度等感官指标评价表明,采用该菌种能显著改善制作酸乳的后酸化过程,可以用来作为生产高品质酸乳的适宜发酵剂.

  12. Thermophilic starter cultures: another set of problems

    OpenAIRE

    Oberg, C. J.; Broadbent, Jeffery R.

    1993-01-01

    Increased consumer demand for yogurt and Italian cheeses, particularly Mozzarella, over the past decade has intensified production demands on thermophilic starter cultures. Dramatically elevated production rates within existing facilities have created problems analogous to those experienced years ago by the dairy industry for mesophilic lactococci when Cheddar cheese production increased dramatically. In contrast to mesophilic lactococci, however, diversity among lactic genera that contain th...

  13. Mixed culture engineering for steering starter functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spuś, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Undefined mixed complex starter cultures are broadly used in Gouda-type cheese production due to their robustness to phage predation, resilience for changes in environmental conditions and aroma compounds production ability during ripening. These microbial communities of lactic acid bacteria prior t

  14. PEMBUATAN LARU YOUGHURT DENGAN METODE FOAM-MAT: DRYING KAJIAN PENAMBAHANN BUSA TELUR PUTIH TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA [Production of Dried Yoghurt Starter Using Foam-Mat Drying Method: Effect of Egg White Foam Addition on Physical and Chemical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elok Zubaedah1

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt starter is usually prepared, preserved, and sold in liquid form which required special treatment. Drying is an alternative process to provide starter culture. Problem in using drying method is longer time so that the viability cell culture is low. In this experiment foam-mat drying method was used to produce dried starter culture. Addition of egg white to the starter media is expected to shorten the drying time, so and improve the viability of cell culture. This research used of randomised bock design and using addition of egg white foam as a treatment. The treatment consisted of 6 level with concentration of white egg of 0,510,15,20 and 25% and vacuum dried at 50C. The result showed that the best treatment was yoghurt starter prepared with addition of 15 % egg white foam, based on the parameters as follow : Total Lactic Acid Bacteria : 1,5 105 cfu/g, Total Lactobacillus 1,5. 104 cfu/g, total yeast and mold : 1.6 104 cfu/g, drying time 3,16 hr, pH 4,5 total acidity 0,82%.

  15. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Culture in the Production of Nunu, a Spontaneously Fermented Milk Product in Ghana

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    Fortune Akabanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nunu, a spontaneously fermented yoghurt-like product, is produced and consumed in parts of West Africa. A total of 373 predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB previously isolated and identified from Nunu product were assessed in vitro for their technological properties (acidification, exopolysaccharides production, lipolysis, proteolysis and antimicrobial activities. Following the determination of technological properties, Lactobacillus fermentum 22-16, Lactobacillus plantarum 8-2, Lactobacillus helveticus 22-7, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides 14-11 were used as single and combined starter cultures for Nunu fermentation. Starter culture fermented Nunu samples were assessed for amino acids profile and rate of acidification and were subsequently evaluated for consumer acceptability. For acidification properties, 82%, 59%, 34%, and 20% of strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and Leu. mesenteriodes, respectively, demonstrated fast acidification properties. High proteolytic activity (>100 to 150 μg/mL was observed for 50% Leu. mesenteroides, 40% L. fermentum, 41% L. helveticus, 27% L. plantarum, and 10% Ent. faecium species. In starter culture fermented Nunu samples, all amino acids determined were detected in Nunu fermented with single starters of L. plantarum and L. helveticus and combined starter of L. fermntum and L. helveticus. Consumer sensory analysis showed varying degrees of acceptability for Nunu fermented with the different starter cultures.

  16. Effect of Lactococcin BZ and Enterocin KP on the Activity of Yoghurt Cultures

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    Nilgün Öncül

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of lactococcin BZ from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis BZ and enterocin KP from Enterococcus faecalis KP (1600 AU/mL on the activities of three different yoghurt cultures (Y1 and Y2: CHR Hansen, Denmark; Y3: Sacco, Italy were investigated. Lactic acid bacteria counts and pH values of the samples were determined during the incubation period (at 42°C for 24 h. It was found that lactococcin BZ had bactericidal effect against only one yoghurt culture whereas enterocin KP was effective against two yoghurt cultures. When lactococcin BZ and enterosin KP were used in combination (1:1, they showed bactericidal effect against two yoghurt cultures.

  17. Effect of bacteria proportion on the fermentation of goat yoghurt with probiotic culture

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    Guowei Shu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Goat milk production in Shaanxi province is dominant in China, but the product is mainly in- fant formula and adult milk powder; product homogeneity is serious and has no goat yoghurt with probiotic culture. Methods. The effect of bacteria proportion (1:3:1, 1:2:1, 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1 on pH, acidity, and viable counts and sensory evaluation of goat milk fermented by probiotics including L. acidophilus, B. bifidum  or L. casei besides, S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus for developing AB-goat yoghurt and BC-goat yoghurt was investigated. Results. The optimum bacteria proportion of L. acidophilus : B. bifidum : S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus for AB-goat yoghurt and B. bifidum : L. casei : S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus for BC-goat yoghurt were both 2:1:1. The pH, acidity, the viable counts of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum, the total viable counts were respectively 4.60, 7.73 (g/L, 3.50×107 cfu/mL, 3.40×107 cfu/mL and 2.30×109 cfu/mL in AB-goat yoghurt. The pH, acidity, the viable counts of B. bifidum and L. casei, the total viable counts were respectively  4.61, 8.16 (g/L, 7.60×107 cfu/mL, 5.60×107 cfu/mL and 2.04×109 cfu/mL in BC-goat yoghurt. Conclusion. The bacteria proportion had a significant effect on fermentation of AB- and BC-goat yoghurt, the results are beneficial for developing AB-goat yoghurt and BC-goat yoghurt.

  18. 7 CFR 58.330 - Butter starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter starter cultures. 58.330 Section 58.330... Material § 58.330 Butter starter cultures. Harmless bacterial cultures when used in the development of flavor components in butter and related products shall have a pleasing and desirable flavor and...

  19. SENSORY EVALUATION AND SURVIVAL OF PROBIOTICS IN MODIFIED BANANA FLOUR YOGHURT DURING STORAGE [Evaluasi Sensori dan Sintasan Probiotik dalam Yoghurt Tepung Pisang Modifikasi selama Penyimpanan

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    Widaningrum3

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modified uli banana flour (MUBF rich in resistant starch as prebiotic source was formulated in yoghurt making to substitute skim milk at various concentrations i.e. 40, 50, 60, and 70%. Yoghurts were prepared using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as the starter cultures. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum MUBF concentration to produce yoghurt with good sensory quality and good number of surviving probiotics (Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus plantarum BSL in non-pasteurized and pasteurized (90ºC, 30 minutes MUBF yoghurt during 4 week of storage at 10ºC. Hedonic rating and ranking test on yoghurt attributes (aroma, taste, consistency, texture, color and overall preference performed by 35 untrained panelists showed that yoghurt produced with 70% MUBF substitution achieved good preferences in all of the attributes ranging from neutral to like. The pH value of the product decreased with increase in MUBF concentration. In addition, titratable acidity (TA, expressed as % lactic acid, increased. Survival of both probiotics in 70% MUBF yoghurt either in the pasteurized synbiotic or non-pasteurized yoghurts were still relatively high at week 4. The yoghurt still contains 108 CFU/ml of lactic acid bacteria, although this was a log decrease from the initial count. Therefore, the MUBF yoghurt was promising as synbiotic yoghurt based on the probiotic counts throughout 4 week of storage, which was higher than the minimum level recommended (106 CFU/ml to provide the beneficial effect.

  20. Physico-chemical properties of probiotic yoghurt produced with transglutaminase

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    Milanović Spasenija D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different concentration of transglutaminase - TG (0.02%, 0.06% and 0.12% on physico-chemical properties of probiotic yoghurt was investigated. Two series of yoghurt were manufactured on a laboratory scale from pasteurised skim milk (0.1 % w/w fat. Series I was produced with TGase activation during a period of 2 h at 40°C, while series II was produced without enzyme activation. Then, the adequate quantities of TGase and probiotic starter culture ABT-4 (Chr. Hansen A/S Denmark were added. Chemical composition, physico-chemical properties (water holding capacity and whey separation and sensory characteristics of yoghurt samples were determined after production and during 5 days of storage. Addition of TGase to milk (direct or after activation for probiotic yoghurt manufacture improved its overall characteristics. Activation of TG in yoghurt production increases water holding capacity as well as decreases syneresis during the storage.

  1. IMPACT OF FORTIFICATION WITH HONEY ON SOME PROPERTIES OF BIO-YOGHURT

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    El-Tahra M. A. Ammar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementation with honey on yoghurt quality was studied. Five treatments of yoghurt were made from buffaloe's and cow's milk mixture (1:1. Control yoghurt was made using classic yoghurt culture, whereas the other four treatments were made by ABT culture and milk fortified with 0, 2, 4, and 6% honey. Changes in rheological, chemical, microbial and organoleptic properties of yoghurt were monitored during refrigerated storage (4°C of yoghurt for 15 d. Results showed that addition of honey to milk had no significant effect on ABT starter activity. A curd tension increased, whereas curd syneresis decreased in bio-yoghurt fortified with honey. Acidity, TS, WSN and TVFA contents of yoghurt supplemented with honey were higher than those of control. The contents of fat, ash and TN were similar in both. Addition of honey to yoghurt improved the viability of bifidobacteria. Bifidobacteria counts were similar to accepted threshold (106 cfu g-1 for a probiotic effect. Also, addition of honey improved the body, texture and flavour of the yoghurt.

  2. Effect of using different probiotic cultures on properties of Torba (strained yoghurt

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    Harun Kesenkaş

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The viability of Lactobacillus casei LAFTI® L26, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI® L10, their proteolytic activities and effects on chemical, textural and sensory properties of Torba yoghurts were assessed during 14 days of storage at 4 °C. These probiotic cultures were separately added after the fermentation of milk with yoghurt culture but prior to packaging of the product. Probiotic bacteria reached the recommended level of 6 log cfu/g in Torba yoghurt except B. animalis subsp. lactis B94. The addition of probiotic bacteria resulted in an appreciable proteolytic activity but also textural defects due to the lower total solid content in the final product.

  3. Strain diversity and phage resistance in complex dairy starter cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spus, M.; Alexeeva, S.V.; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Abee, T.; Smid, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    The compositional stability of the complex Gouda cheese starter culture Ur is thought to be influenced by diversity in phage resistance of highly related strains that co-exist together with bacteriophages. To analyze the role of bacteriophages in maintaining culture diversity at the level of genetic

  4. Use of Protein Hydrolysates in Industrial Starter Culture Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummadi, Madhavi (Soni); Curic-Bawden, Mirjana

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used as starter cultures for fermenting foods long before the importance of microorganisms were recognized. The most important group of LAB are the lactococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, and pediococci. Additionally, bifidobacteria have been included as a probiotic, providing added value to the product. Since the genera involved are so diverse, the nutritional requirements (energy, carbon and nitrogen sources) differ significantly between and within species. Designing an optimum fermentation medium for production of active and vigorous LAB starter cultures and probiotics requires selecting the right raw ingredients, especially protein hydrolysates that can provide adequate nutrients for growth and viability. This chapter attempts to describe the application of various commercial protein hydrolysates used for production of dairy and meat starter cultures, with special emphasis on meeting the nitrogen requirements of industrially important LAB species.

  5. Development of Corn Milk Yoghurt Using Mixed Culture of Lactobacillus delbruekii, Streptococcus salivarus, and Lactobacillus casei

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    Sedarnawati Yasni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to diversify the utilization of corn as commercial commodity by a corn-based new product development in the form of yoghurt. The first step was carried out to make corn yoghurt with the addition of fresh milk into heated corn extract using mixture starter of Lactobacillus delbruekii, Streptococcus salivarus, and Lactobacillus casei and the best formulation was determined through hedonic evaluation along with weighing method. The selected formulation from this step was corn extract with the addition of 50% fresh milk. The corn extract was produced from corn kernels that were blended and mixed with water in ratio of 3:1, the mixture was further heated and concentrated until the total volume remained 2/3. Afterwards, this selected formulation was added with sugar and full cream milk powder. The hedonic evaluation results showed that the mixture with 10% sugar and 5% full cream milk powder addition possessed the highest score. Lastly, the selected formulation was observed for physical, microbiological, and chemical assay during 4 weeks period. The ultimate observation concluded that the product could be classified as probiotics with total lactic acid bacteria reached 1.5 x 109 CFU/ml with medium fat content (1.8%.

  6. Influence of Spirulina platensis powder on the microflora of yoghurt and acidophilus milk

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    Metin Guldas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to monitor the influence of the powdered Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis addition to plain yoghurt and the yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophiluson survival of the microbiota during the refrigerated storage. The cell viability of yoghurt starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus under refrigeration conditions in yoghurts prepared with (0.5 or 1.0 (w/w % and without the addition of Spirulina powder was investigated. The yoghurts were prepared under hygienic laboratory conditions and their pH and acidity were controlled during the process. The samples of yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and investigated on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30. Viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria were above 6 cfu g-1of all “spirulina powder” added samples whereas control yoghurt samples contained lower lactic acid bacteria count at the end of the storage period. Addition of 1 % Spirulina platensis powder into the yoghurts did not cause significant differences on the viable lactic acid bacteria (p≤0.05. The results showed the positive effect of S. platensis powder on the survival of the lactic acid bacteria during storage of yoghurt (P≤0.05. The sensory analysis was also performed for the yoghurt samples. Sensory scores of 0.5 % spirulina powder added yoghurt samples were better than 1 % spirulina powder added ones. It was determined that spirulina powder added yoghurt is a good medium of lactic acid bacteria during the 30 days of refrigerated storage.

  7. 不同混生模式对酸奶发酵剂球秆菌比例的影响%Effect of different mixed growth patterns on the coccusrod ratios between yoghurt starter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艾黎; 霍贵成; 邓凯波

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨了酸奶菌株的混合发酵特性及最佳的混合模式.方法:在2.5L罐中观察不同发酵温度、pH、接种比例和接种时段对德氏乳杆菌保加利亚亚种KLDS 1.9201和唾液链球菌嗜热亚种KLDS 3.021混合培养的影响.结果:不同的混生模式均关系到酸奶菌株之间共生的问题.培养条件为42℃和pH6.2,接种比例为KLDS 1.9201:KLDS3.0201=2:1,或是KLDS 3.0201推迟2h接种,将有利于发酵剂菌株混合培养时的球杆菌比例平衡.结论:不同的混生模式是促进酸奶混合菌株协同生长的重要前提.%Objective:The characteristics of mixed fermentation of yoghurt strains and their optimum mixed growth patterns were studied.Methods: Lactobacillus bulgaricus( KLDS 1.9201) and Streptococcus thermophilus( KLDS 3.0201) grew in 2.5L jar-fermenter with different culture temperature, pH, inoculum composition and incubating time.Results:The results indicated that different culture conditions could affect symbiotic growth of yoghurt strains. It was beneficial for the balance of final coccus-rod ratios between starter bacteria when grew at 42℃ and pH6.2, inoculum composition was KLDS 1.9201: KLDS 3.0201 =2:1 and incubating time of KLDS 3.0201 was put off 2h. Conclusion:Different growth mode was an important prerequisite for the collaboration growth of yogurt mixed strain.

  8. Evolutionary engineering to enhance starter culture performance in food fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Herwig; Pronk, Jack T; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Teusink, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Microbial starter cultures are essential for consistent product quality and functional properties such as flavor, texture, pH or the alcohol content of various fermented foods. Strain improvement programs to achieve desired properties in starter cultures are diverse, but developments in next-generation sequencing lead to an increased interest in evolutionary engineering of desired phenotypes. We here discuss recent developments of strain selection protocols and how computational approaches can assist such experimental design. Furthermore the analysis of evolved phenotypes and possibilities with complex consortia are highlighted. Studies carried out with mainly yeast and lactic acid bacteria demonstrate the power of evolutionary engineering to deliver strains with novel phenotypes as well as insight into underlying mechanisms.

  9. Fundamental Elements to Produce Sesame Yoghurt from Sesame Milk

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    Ibrahim Afaneh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In previous work sesame milk was developed. The developed milk had slightly acceptable flavor and limited shelf life. Fermentation of sesame milk is one way to overcome these problems. Approach: Sesame yoghurt experiments were carried out using pasteurized sesame milk (75°C for 5 min with 14% initial sesame seed concentration and 2.7% glucose with different dairy products: lactose, Cheese Dried Whey (CDW, Non Fat Dried Milk (NFDM and skim milk. The formulas were fermented using commercial yoghurt starter culture for different times. Results: The texture of all the resulted yoghurt lacked the typical set yoghurt body and was similar to that of drinking yoghurt. The best formula was sesame milk with 2% CDW followed by sesame milk with 2% NFDM and then by sesame milk extended with skim milk in a ratio of 1:1. The optimum fermentation times were 6, 8 and 8 h respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: The addition of dairy products was essential to promote acid and flavor development.

  10. Viscosity changes of probiotic yoghurt with transglutaminase during storage

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    Iličić Mirela D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the quantity of transglutaminase as well as conditions of its application (direct, or after activation by milk heating for 2 h at 40°C and for 1 min at 80°C, on yoghurt viscosity manufactured from two kinds of low fat milk (0.1 % w/w fat and 0.5% w/w fat during 10 days of storage. The fermentation in both series started after the adequate amounts of probiotic starter culture ABT-4 (Chr. Hansen A/S Denmark were added to the milk at 43°C. After milk fermentation at pH 4.5, probiotic yoghurt samples were cooled to 8°C, gently homogenized and packed in plastic containers and stored for 10 days, at +4oC. Viscosity of all samples was measured at 5°C on a Haake Rheostress 600 viscosimeter. On the basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that yoghurt samples produced with low level of transglutaminase activated prior to fermentation have significantly better rheological properties than the samples produced without activation and yoghurt control. Generally, the application of low level transglutaminase in low - fat yoghurt production improves overall rheological properties of the final product.

  11. Effect of starter cultures combinations on lipolytic activity and ripening of dry fermented sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Baris Bingol

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of starter culture combinations on the quality of Turkish type dry fermented sausage (sucuk were evaluated during ripening and storage periods. Sucuk formulations were produced without (control and with three different starter culture combinations; i Staphylococcus carnosus+Pediococcus pentosaceus, ii Staphylococcus carnosus+ Lactobacillus sakei, and iii Staphylococcus carnosus+Pediococcus pentosaceus+Lactobacillus sakei. Analysis of microbiological, physico-chemical and lipase enzyme levels of samples were conducted until the 60th day. Interactions among the presence of lipolytic starter cultures, lipase enzyme levels and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were also evaluated both in ripening and drying periods. There were apparent differences on microbiological and chemical properties between samples prepared with starters and control. It has been concluded that the use of lipolytic starter cultures in suitable combination would have positive effect on the acceleration of ripening and improvement of the quality of dry fermented sausages.

  12. Microbial community dynamics in thermophilic undefined milk starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Eugenio; Guidone, Angela; Matera, Attilio; De Filippis, Francesca; Mauriello, Gianluigi; Ricciardi, Annamaria

    2016-01-18

    Model undefined thermophilic starter cultures were produced from raw milk of nine pasta-filata cheesemaking plants using a selective procedure based on pasteurization and incubation at high temperature with the objective of studying the microbial community dynamics and the variability in performances under repeated (7-13) reproduction cycles with backslopping. The traditional culture-dependent approach, based on random isolation and molecular characterization of isolates was coupled to the determination of pH and the evaluation of the ability to produce acid and fermentation metabolites. Moreover, a culture-independent approach based on amplicon-targeted next-generation sequencing was employed. The microbial diversity was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (V1-V3 regions), while the microdiversity of Streptococcus thermophilus populations was explored by using novel approach based on sequencing of partial amplicons of the phosphoserine phosphatase gene (serB). In addition, the occurrence of bacteriophages was evaluated by qPCR and by multiplex PCR. Although it was relatively easy to select for a community dominated by thermophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) within a single reproduction cycle, final pH, LAB populations and acid production activity fluctuated over reproduction cycles. Both culture-dependent and -independent methods showed that the cultures were dominated by either S. thermophilus or Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis or by both species. Nevertheless, subdominant mesophilic species, including lactococci and spoilage organisms, persisted at low levels. A limited number of serB sequence types (ST) were present in S. thermophilus populations. L. delbrueckii and Lactococcus lactis bacteriophages were below the detection limit of the method used and high titres of cos type S. thermophilus bacteriophages were detected in only two cases. In one case a high titre of bacteriophages was concurrent with a S. thermophilus biotype shift in the culture

  13. PRODUKSI YOGHURT SHITAKE (YOSHITAKE SEBAGAI PANGAN KESEHATAN BERBASIS SUSU [Production of Yoghurt Shiitake (Yoshitake as a Dairy-Based Nutraceutical Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indratininingsih1

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project was to produce shiitake-containing yoghurts as nutraceutical food. Preliminary analysis was conducted to measure nutrient contents of shiitake followed by evaluation of shiitake’s addition on the growth of yoghurt bacteria and probiotics. Yoghurt fermentation was conducted at 420C until pH reached 4.5. Culture starter used were Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus casei with proportion of 1:1:1. During fermentation, acidification rate, pH, titratable acidity, total of yoghurt bacteria, total of probiotics, and concentration of lentinan in the products were measured. The result showed that shiitake powder contains crude protein (22.35%, starch (16,66%, fat (11,56%, ash (7.73%, dry matter (87.57%, dietary fibre (33.35% and unsoluble dietary fibre (5.45%. The result also showed that supplementation of 4% shiitake powder support the growth of probiotics L. casei and resulting in growth optimum at 1.26 x 109 cells/ml and 2.86 x 109 cells/ml after incubation of 6 and 10 hours respectively. Time needed to reach pH 4.5 of yoghurt supplemented with 4% shiitake powder was achieved after 7 hours of incubation as compared to 8 hours for the unsupplemented one. Total number of probiotics after fermentation of yoghurt with 4% shiitake was higher (7.16 x 109 cells/ml as compared to the control at 5.3 x 109 cells/ml. Lentinan analysis in yoghurt showed that supplementation 4% of shiitake powder resulted in the highest lentinan accumulation at 22.8% compared with 2.3% for control and 2.9% for 2% shiitake supplementation. It can be concluded that yoghurt shiitake could be applied as nutrient food due to its high nutritious and lentinan content in the product.

  14. Application of novel starter cultures for sourdough bread production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessas, S; Alexopoulos, A; Mantzourani, I; Koutinas, A; Voidarou, C; Stavropoulou, E; Bezirtzoglou, E

    2011-12-01

    Sourdough application has been extensively increased in the last years due to the consumers demand for food consumption without the addition of chemical preservatives. Several starter cultures have been applied in sourdough bread making targeting the increase of bread self-life and the improvement of sensorial character. More specific, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus sakei as single and mixed cultures were used for sourdough bread making. Various sourdough breads were produced with the addition of sourdough perviously prepared with 10% w/w L. acidophilus, 10% w/w L. sakei and 5% w/w L. acidophilus and 5% w/w L. sakei at the same time. Various chemical parameters were determined such as lactic acid, total titratable acidity and pH. The results revealed that the produced sourdough bread made with sourdough containing the mixed culture was preserved for more days (12 days) than all the other breads produced in the frame of this study, since it contained lactic acid in higher concentrations. The respective total titratable acidity varied between 10.5 and 11 ml NaOH N/10. The same sourdough bread had a firmer texture, better aroma, flavor and overall quality compared to other sourdough breads examined in this study, as shown by sensory evaluation tests and results obtained through SPME GC-MS analysis, which revealed significant differences among the different bread types.

  15. The influence of starter and adjunct lactobacilli culture on the ripening of washed curd cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hynes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten strains of lactobacillus from the CNRZ collection were tested as adjunct culture in miniature washed curd cheeses manufactured under controlled bacteriological conditions with two different starters, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL 416 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM2. Lactobacilli growth seemed to be dependent on the Lactobacillus strain but was not influenced by the starter strain or counts. Lactococci counts were higher in the miniature cheeses with AM2 starter and added lactobacilli than in the control cheeses without lactobacilli. Gross composition and hydrolysis of s1 casein were similar for miniature cheeses with and without lactobacilli. In the miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 starter, the lactobacilli adjunct slightly increased the soluble nitrogen content, but that was not verified in the AM2 miniature cheeses. Phosphotungstic acid nitrogen content increased in miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 when Lactobacillus plantarum 1572 and 1310 adjunct cultures were added. That was also verified for several Lactobacillus strains, specially Lactobacillus casei 1227, for miniature cheeses manufactured with AM2 starter. Free fatty acid content increased in miniature cheeses made with lactobacilli adjuncts 1310, 1308 and 1219 with IL416 starter, and with strains 1218, 1244 and 1308 for miniature cheeses with AM2 starter. These results indicate that production of soluble nitrogen compounds as well as free fatty acid content could be influenced by the lactobacilli adjunct, depending on the starter strain.

  16. Viscosity changes of probiotic yoghurt with transglutaminase during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Iličić Mirela D.; Carić Marijana Đ.; Milanović Spasenija D.; Dokić Ljubica P.; Đurić Mirjana S.; Bošnjak Goran S.; Duraković Katarina G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the quantity of transglutaminase as well as conditions of its application (direct, or after activation by milk heating for 2 h at 40°C and for 1 min at 80°C), on yoghurt viscosity manufactured from two kinds of low fat milk (0.1 % w/w fat and 0.5% w/w fat) during 10 days of storage. The fermentation in both series started after the adequate amounts of probiotic starter culture ABT-4 (Chr. Hansen A/S Denmark) were added to the milk at 43°C. ...

  17. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Ângela Maria; Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Sant’Anna, Ernani S.

    2009-01-01

    Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages. PMID:24031331

  18. Sensory quality of Camembert-type cheese: Relationship between starter cultures and ripening molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Bruno Domingues; Martin, José Guilherme Prado; da Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira; Porto, Ernani; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    2016-10-01

    Starter cultures and ripening molds used in the manufacture of moldy cheese aimed at obtaining characteristic flavors and textures considerably differ among dairy industries. Thus, the study of variables inherent to the process and their influence on sensory patterns in cheese can improve the standardization and control of the production process. The aim of this work was to study the influence of three different variables on the sensory quality of Camembert-type cheese: type of lactic bacteria, type of ripener molds and inoculation method. Batches of Camembert-type cheese were produced using O or DL-type mesophilic starter culture, ripened with Penicillium camemberti or Penicillium candidum and mold inoculation was made directly into the milk or by spraying. All batches were sensorially evaluated using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) with panelists trained for various attributes. Among the combinations analyzed, those resulting in more typical Camembert-type cheese were those using O-type mesophilic starter culture and P. candidum maturation mold directly applied into the milk or sprayed and those using DL-type mesophilic starter and P. camemberti ripener mold applied by surface spraying. These results demonstrate, therefore, that the combination of different ripener molds, inoculation methods and starter cultures directly influences the sensory quality of Camembert-type cheese, modifying significantly its texture, appearance, aroma and taste. PMID:27382958

  19. The production of glucans via glucansucrases from Lactobacillus satsumensis isolated from a fermented beverage starter culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several starter cultures used in the production of fermented beverages were screened for lactic acid bacteria that produced water-insoluble polysaccharides from sucrose. The strain producing the greatest amount was identified as Lactobacillus satsumensis by its 16S RNA sequence. This strain produc...

  20. Acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar: phenotypic traits relevant for starter cultures selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Maria; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-06-30

    This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar process. Although several studies are available on acetic acid bacteria ecology, metabolism and nutritional requirements, their activity as well as their technological traits in homemade vinegars as traditional balsamic vinegar is not well known. The basic technology to oxidise cooked grape must to produce traditional balsamic vinegar is performed by the so called "seed-vinegar" that is a microbiologically undefined starter culture obtained from spontaneous acetification of previous raw material. Selected starter cultures are the main technological improvement in order to innovate traditional balsamic vinegar production but until now they are rarely applied. To develop acetic acid bacteria starter cultures, selection criteria have to take in account composition of raw material, acetic acid bacteria metabolic activities, applied technology and desired characteristics of the final product. For traditional balsamic vinegar, significative phenotypical traits of acetic acid bacteria have been highlighted. Basic traits are: ethanol preferred and efficient oxidation, fast rate of acetic acid production, tolerance to high concentration of acetic acid, no overoxidation and low pH resistance. Specific traits are tolerance to high sugar concentration and to a wide temperature range. Gluconacetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter malorum strains can be evaluated to develop selected starter cultures since they show one or more suitable characters. PMID:18177968

  1. Preparation of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture for cucumber fermentations that can meet kosher guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method is described for growth of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture in jars of commercially available pasteurized fresh-pack kosher dill cucumbers so that jars can be used to inoculate commercial scale cucumber fermentation tanks. A procedure is also described to transfer lactic acid bacte...

  2. Effects of yogurt starter cultures on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Elizabeth W; Yeung, Marie; Tong, Phillip S

    2011-01-31

    Recognized to confer health benefits to consumers, probiotics such as Lactobacillus acidophilus are commonly incorporated into fermented dairy products worldwide; among which yogurt is a popular delivery vehicle. To materialize most of the putative health benefits associated with probiotics, an adequate amount of viable cells must be delivered at the time of consumption. However, the loss in their viabilities during refrigerated storage has been demonstrated previously. This study focused on the effects of yogurt starter cultures on the survival of five strains of L. acidophilus, with emphases on low pH and acid production. Differential survival behavior between L. acidophilus strains was further analyzed. To this end, viable cell counts of L. acidophilus were determined weekly during 4°C storage in various types of yogurts made with Streptococcus thermophilus alone, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus alone, both species of the starter cultures, or glucono-delta-lactone (GDL). All yogurt types, except for pasteurized yogurts, were co-fermented with L. acidophilus. Yogurt filtrate was analyzed for the presence of any inhibitory substance and for the amount of hydrogen peroxide. Multiplication of L. acidophilus was not affected by the starter cultures as all strains reached high level on day 0 of the storage period. Throughout the 28-day storage period, cell counts of L. acidophilus PIM703 and SBT2062 remained steady (~6 × 10(7)CFU/g) in yogurts made with both starter cultures, whereas those of ATCC 700396 and NCFM were reduced by a maximum of 3 and 4.6 logs, respectively. When starter cultures were replaced by GDL, all strains survived well, suggesting that a low pH was not a critical factor dictating their survival. In addition, the filtrate collected from yogurts made with starter cultures appeared to have higher inhibitory activities against L. acidophilus than that made with GDL. The presence of viable starter cultures was necessary to adversely affect the

  3. Flow cytometric viability assessment of lactic acid bacteria starter cultures produced by fluidized bed drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, Gerald; Rüger, Marc; Wassermann, Magdalena; Weinholz, Susann; Reichl, Udo; Cordes, Christiana

    2014-06-01

    For starter culture production, fluidized bed drying is an efficient and cost-effective alternative to the most frequently used freeze drying method. However, fluidized bed drying also poses damaging or lethal stress to bacteria. Therefore, investigation of impact of process variables and conditions on viability of starter cultures produced by fluidized bed drying is of major interest. Viability of bacteria is most frequently assessed by plate counting. While reproductive growth of cells can be characterized by the number of colony-forming units, it cannot provide the number of viable-but-nonculturable cells. However, in starter cultures, these cells still contribute to the fermentation during food production. In this study, flow cytometry was applied to assess viability of Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures by membrane integrity analysis using SYBR®Green I and propidium iodide staining. The enumeration method established allowed for rapid, precise and sensitive determination of viable cell concentration, and was used to investigate effects of fluidized bed drying and storage on viability of L. plantarum. Drying caused substantial membrane damage on cells, most likely due to dehydration and oxidative stress. Nevertheless, high bacterial survival rates were obtained, and granulates contained in the average 2.7 × 10(9) viable cells/g. Furthermore, increased temperatures reduced viability of bacteria during storage. Differences in results of flow cytometry and plate counting suggested an occurrence of viable-but-nonculturable cells during storage. Overall, flow cytometric viability assessment is highly feasible for rapid routine in-process control in production of L. plantarum starter cultures, produced by fluidized bed drying.

  4. Effect of Egg White Utilization on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Attributes of Protein-rich Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian A Gogo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE High protein yoghurt was made from whole milk, fortified with egg white (30% v/v and skim milk powder at 12% (w/v. Different yoghurt mixes, with albumin content of 15%, 30% and 45% (v/v, were prepared. The control was made from whole milk, fortified with skim milk powder at 12% (w/v. The blended premixes were pasteurized at 74ºC for 4 seconds, cooled and then inoculated with 3% (w/v Direct Vat Set yoghurt starter culture at 45ºC. After fermentation for 3 hours in a water bath maintained at 46+-1C, product was cooled to 5ºC and then stored for 24 hours. The effect of the fortification on physico-chemical and sensory properties was investigated. Protein content increased to 8.50% at 45% egg white utilization. Susceptibility to wheying was reduced in egg-white fortified samples, without signicant difference in sensory attributes of the test samples compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that yoghurt fortified with 45% egg white was organoleptically acceptable. The yoghurt was rated as having better sensory appeal as compared to the control.

  5. The eff ect of addition of selected vegetables on the microbiological, textural and fl avour profi le properties of yoghurts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Najgebauer-Lejko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vegetables, apart from having high nutritional value, also contain considerable amounts of dietary fi bre and other components, which may affect physico-chemical properties of fermented milks, e.g. viscosity, texture, susceptibility to syneresis, fl avour profi le etc. The present work was established to study the effect of selected vegetables addition on the rheological, textural, microbiological and fl avour profi le parameters of yoghurts. Material and methods. The vegetable preparations (carrot, pumpkin, broccoli and red sweet pepper were added (10% w/w to the processed cow’s milk fermented with DVS yoghurt culture. Texture profi le analysis, determination of viscosity, susceptibility to syneresis and descriptive fl avour evaluation were conducted at the 1st, 7th and 14th day after production. Additionally, microbiological studies were performed for 28 days, at 7-day intervals. Results. The highest apparent viscosity and adhesiveness were obtained for the carrot yoghurt, whereas yoghurt with pumpkin was the least susceptible to syneresis. The other texture parameters were not affected by the addition of vegetables. Broccoli and red sweet pepper fl avours were dominating in the fermented milks fortifi ed with these vegetables, whereas carrot and pumpkin fl avours were less distinctive. Yoghurt supplemented with red sweet pepper got the highest sensoric acceptability. The number of starter bacteria was not infl uenced by the vegetable additives, except for pumpkin yoghurt, which contained lower population of lactobacilli. Conclusions. Among all tested vegetables, carrot additive had the greatest potential to improve yoghurt structure, whereas red sweet pepper imparted the most acceptable fl avour.

  6. Effects of selected factors on rheological and textural properties of probiotic yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Glušac

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of inulin (1 %, combination of inulin (1 % and acacia honey (4 %, heat treatment of milk, and storage time on the rheological and textural properties of probiotic yoghurt. Rheological properties were assessed trough viscosity, syneresis and texture (firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity. Yoghurt was prepared from milk (1,5 % fat with added inulin (1% before heat treatment at 85 °C for 20 min or 95 °C for 10 min. After cooling to 55 °C honey (4 % was added. Samples were inoculated using probiotic starter culture (70 % w/w Streptococcus thermophilus, 10 % w/w Lactobacillus bulgaricus, 10 % w/w Lactobacillus acidophilus, 10 % w/w Bifidobacterium ssp.. Yoghurt samples were held on +5 °C during 21 days. Measurements of pH value, lactic acid, viscosity, syneresis, and textural properties were done after 1, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage. The results of this study show that honey addition significantly decreased fermentation time compared to fermentation time of control samples or samples containing inulin. Furthermore, addition of honey and inulin to milk caused significant lower syneresis (p<0,05 during storage time, while there was no significant influence on viscosity and texture of final product. The applied heat treatment of milk had no significant influence on rheological properties of probiotic yoghurt.

  7. Selection of starter cultures for idli batter fermentation and their effect on quality of idlis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridevi, J; Halami, Prakash M; Vijayendra, S V N

    2010-10-01

    Idli batter samples were prepared using lactic starter cultures like Pediococcus pentosaceus (Pp), Enterococcus faecium MTCC 5153 (Ef), Ent. faecium (IB2 Ef-IB2), individually, along with the yeast culture, Candida versatilis (Cv). Idli batter prepared using Ef and Ef-IB2 cultures gave better results, when evaluated for the rise in batter volume (80 ml), level of CO2 production (23.8%), titratable acidity 2.4-3.5% (lactic acid) and pH 4.3-4.4. Storage stability of batter made with selected starter cultures was determined by analyzing the idlis prepared using the batter stored for 1 and 5 days for texture, nutrient composition and sensory quality. Slight variations in the results were seen among the idlis of different combination of cultures, whereas these results are better than that of the idlis made using naturally fermented idli batter. Sensory profile of idlis prepared using starter cultures had a higher score (3.9-4.4) compared to the control (3.6) for overall acceptability. PMID:23572685

  8. Selection of starter cultures for idli batter fermentation and their effect on quality of idlis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridevi, J; Halami, Prakash M; Vijayendra, S V N

    2010-10-01

    Idli batter samples were prepared using lactic starter cultures like Pediococcus pentosaceus (Pp), Enterococcus faecium MTCC 5153 (Ef), Ent. faecium (IB2 Ef-IB2), individually, along with the yeast culture, Candida versatilis (Cv). Idli batter prepared using Ef and Ef-IB2 cultures gave better results, when evaluated for the rise in batter volume (80 ml), level of CO2 production (23.8%), titratable acidity 2.4-3.5% (lactic acid) and pH 4.3-4.4. Storage stability of batter made with selected starter cultures was determined by analyzing the idlis prepared using the batter stored for 1 and 5 days for texture, nutrient composition and sensory quality. Slight variations in the results were seen among the idlis of different combination of cultures, whereas these results are better than that of the idlis made using naturally fermented idli batter. Sensory profile of idlis prepared using starter cultures had a higher score (3.9-4.4) compared to the control (3.6) for overall acceptability.

  9. Archaeological culture, please meet yoghurt culture: towards a relational archaeology of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrij Mlekuž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking milk as a point of departure, we set out on a journey to explore the ‘mutual becomings’ of different bodies, species, and things. We argue that milk should be understood as a component in an assemblage that connects animals, humans, hormones, enzymes, bacteria, food, genes, technologies and material culture. These complex entanglements produced new, unexpected results and effects. Since they form part of this assemblage, all its components are profoundly changed. Focusing on this diversity of relations between humans, other creatures, things and substances is a key to an archaeology that does not radically separate humans and nonhumans.

  10. Development of starter culture for improved processing of Lafun, an African fermented cassava food product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padonou, S.W.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Akissoe, N.H.;

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To select appropriate micro-organisms to be used as starter culture for reliable and reproducible fermentation of Lafun. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 22 cultures consisting of yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bacillus cereus strains predominant in traditionally fermented cassava...... in different combinations as mixed starter cultures to ferment submerged cassava roots. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inoculated singly or combined with B. cereus, gave the softest cassava root after 48 h of fermentation according to determination of compression profile and stress at fracture. Overall, sensory...... quality testing showed that Lafun obtained from S. cerevisiae-fermented cassava gave the most preferred stiff porridge. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22 showed pectinase production in a model system. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that S. cerevisiae 2Y48P22 is the most efficient organism for cassava...

  11. Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Zheng, Y.; Han, B.; Zwietering, M.H.; Samson, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen-Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and culture

  12. Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.W.; Yan, Z.; Han, B.Z.; Zwietering, M.H.; Samson, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen- Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and cultur

  13. The impact of selected strains of probiotic bacteria on metabolite formation in set yoghurt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settachaimongkon, S.; Nout, M.J.R.; Antunes Fernandes, E.C.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Smid, E.J.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12 in cofermentation with traditional starters on metabolite formation in set yoghurt was evaluated. Microbial activity during fermentation and refrigerated storage was investigated by monitoring bacterial popul

  14. Aminogenesis control in fermented sausages manufactured with pressurized meat batter and starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Bover-Cid, S; Aymerich, T; Marcos, B; Vidal-Carou, M C; Garriga, M

    2007-03-01

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (200MPa) to meat batter just before sausage fermentation and the inoculation of starter culture were studied to improve the safety and quality of traditional Spanish fermented sausages (fuet and chorizo). Higher amounts of biogenic amines were formed in chorizo than in fuet. Without interfering with the ripening performance in terms of acidification, drying and proteolysis, hydrostatic pressure prevented enterobacteria growth but did not affect Gram-positive bacteria significantly. Subsequently, a strong inhibition of diamine (putrescine and cadaverine) accumulation was observed, but that of tyramine was not affected. The inoculated decarboxylase-negative strains, selected from indigenous bacteria of traditional sausages, were resistant to the HHP treatment, being able to lead the fermentation process, prevent enterococci development and significantly reduce enterobacteria counts. In sausages manufactured with either non-pressurized or pressurized meat batter, starter culture was the most protective measure against the accumulation of tyramine and both diamines.

  15. Generation of flavour compounds in fermented sausages-the influence of curing ingredients, Staphylococcus starter culture and ripening time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2004-01-01

    The volatile profiles of fermented sausages made with either Staphylococcus xylosus or Staphylococcus carnosus starter cultures were studied with regard to the influence of salt concentration, ripening time and three different combinations of curing ingredients-nitrate, nitrite or nitrite...... observed depending on whether S. xylosus or S. carnosus were used as starter culture. In particular the effects of nitrate was much more predominant in the sausages made with S. carnosus than S. xylosus....

  16. Low molecular weight peptides derived from sarcoplasmic proteins produced by an autochthonous starter culture in a beaker sausage model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza M. López

    2015-06-01

    Significance: The selection of a specific autochthonous starter culture guarantees the hygiene and typicity of fermented sausages. The identification of new peptides as well as new target proteins by means of peptidomics represents a significant step toward the elucidation of the role of microorganisms in meat proteolysis. Moreover, these peptides may be further used as biomarkers capable to certify the use of the applied autochthonous starter culture described here.

  17. Control of biogenic amines in fermented sausages: role of starter cultures

    OpenAIRE

    MariluzLatorre-Moratalla; SaraBover-Cid

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several ...

  18. Control of Biogenic Amines in Fermented Sausages: Role of Starter Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre-Moratalla, M.L.; Bover-Cid, Sara; Veciana-Nogués, M.T.; Vidal-Carou, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several ...

  19. Application of starter cultures to table olive fermentation: an overview on the experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo eCorsetti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and they are considered an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid and phenolic compounds that may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentation results from the competitive activities among indigenous, contaminating microorganisms, the microbial balance depending on several intrinsic (pH, water activity, diffusion of nutrients from the drupe and level of anti-microbial compounds and extrinsic (temperature, oxygen availability and salt concentration factors. At present, to reduce the risk of spoilage and to achieve a more predictable process there is an increasing interest in developing starter cultures for table olives fermentation. Anyway, the application of starter cultures in the field of table olives is quite far from reaching the diffusion it has in other sectors of food industry (e.g., dairy products and alcoholic beverages. This review focuses on experimental researches devoted to studying starter cultures for possible application to table olive fermentation both at artisan and industrial level.

  20. Evaluation of Mixed Probiotic Starter Cultures Isolated from Kimchi on Physicochemical and Functional Properties, and Volatile Compounds of Fermented Hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Joo; Park, Sung Yong; Lee, Hong Chul; Yoo, Seung Seok; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Chin, Koo Bok

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mixed starter cultures isolated from kimchi on physicochemical properties, functionality and flavors of fermented ham. Physicochemical properties, microbial counts, shear force, cholesterol contents and volatile compounds of fermented ham were investigated during processing (curing and ripening time). Curing process for 7 d increased saltiness, however, decreased hunter color values (L, a, and b values). Ripening process for 21 d increased most parameters, such as saltiness, color values, weight loss, shear force and cholesterol content due to the drying process. The mixed starter culture had higher lactic acid bacteria than the commercial one. While eight volatile compounds were identified from fermented hams during curing process, total fiftyeight volatile compounds were identified from fermented hams during ripening process. The main volatile compounds were alcohols, esters and furans. However, no differences in volatile compounds were observed between two batches. Fermented hams (batch B) manufactured with probiotic starter culture (LPP) had higher sensory score in texture, color and overall acceptability than counterparts (batch A), while the opposite trend was observed in flavor. Therefore, mixed probiotic starter culture isolated from kimchi might be used as a starter culture to be able to replace with commercial starter culture (LK-30 plus) for the manufacture of fermented ham. PMID:27499673

  1. Selection of starter cultures for idli batter fermentation and their effect on quality of idlis

    OpenAIRE

    J Sridevi; Halami, Prakash M; Vijayendra, S.V.N

    2010-01-01

    Idli batter samples were prepared using lactic starter cultures like Pediococcus pentosaceus (Pp), Enterococcus faecium MTCC 5153 (Ef), Ent. faecium (IB2 Ef-IB2), individually, along with the yeast culture, Candida versatilis (Cv). Idli batter prepared using Ef and Ef-IB2 cultures gave better results, when evaluated for the rise in batter volume (80 ml), level of CO2 production (23.8%), titratable acidity 2.4–3.5% (lactic acid) and pH 4.3–4.4. Storage stability of batter made with selected st...

  2. Effect of Fortifying Camel’s Milk with Skim Milk Powder on the Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Characteristics of Set Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortada Mohammed Salih

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the milk processing unit at college of animal production Science and Technology, Sudan University of Science and Technology during January-May 2012. The effect of fortification with skim milk powder (0, 5 and 7% to the camel’s milk on the quality of yoghurt during storage was investigated. Fresh camel’s milk was purchased from Alaas farm at Khartoum North. Nine litres of raw camel’s milk were divided into three portions. The first treatment was used as control. To the other two treatments 5 and 7% of skim milk powder was added to the camels milk respectively, then the milk in each treatment was heated in a water bath at 85°C for 30 min. Milk samples were cooled to 43°C and 2% of commercial yoghurt starter culture was added and packed into plastic cups (200 g capacity in triplicates. The plastic containers were incubated at 39°C until coagulation occurred (16 h thereafter samples from different treatments were stored at 4°C for 0, 5and 10 days. Yoghurt Samples were taken for chemical, microbiological and sensory analysis.The results indicated that yoghurt treated with 7% skim milk powder had the highest viscosity value (p≤0.01 during storage period. The control yoghurt had the highest pH value (p≤0.01 during storage period in comparison with other treatments. In this study no significant differences in chemical composition of the yoghurt from different treatments during storage were observed. The yoghurt sample treated with 7% skim milk powder was significantly higher (p≤0.05 in total bacterial count (7.70×106 cfu/mL than the control yoghurt (5.29×106 cfu/mL. No variations were observed in lactic acid bacteria count. Coliforms and E.coli bacteria were not detected in tested samples. The results indicated that yoghurt treated with 7% skim milk powder had the highest (p≤0.01 flavour. Also there was significant difference (p≤0.05 in overall acceptability in tested treatments. It is concluded

  3. Additives in yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milna Tudor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

  4. Yoghurt fermented by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus H+ -ATPase-defective mutants exhibits enhanced viability of Bifidobacterium breve during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongol, Martin Patrick; Sawatari, Yuki; Ebina, Yoshiko; Sone, Teruo; Tanaka, Michiko; Tomita, Fusao; Yokota, Atsushi; Asano, Kozo

    2007-05-30

    Persistent acid production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus during refrigerated storage is a major cause of reduced viability of probiotic strains such as Bifidobacterium breve in yoghurt. It was established that H+ -ATPase-defective mutants of lactic acid bacteria have reduced growth and metabolism in low pH environments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate inhibition of post-acidification and maintenance of B. breve viability in yoghurt fermented by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus mutants with reduced membrane-bound H+ -ATPase activity during refrigerated storage. Spontaneous neomycin mutants of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus that had a significantly (P bulgaricus SBT0164 No. 55-1 (mutant) starter culture had markedly reduced post-acidification and maintained viability (> or = 10(8) CFU/ml) of both Bifidobacteruim breve JCM 1192(T) and Bifidobacteruim breve JCM 7017 during storage at 10 degrees C for 21 days. These results clearly showed that yoghurt fermented by mutants of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus with reduced membrane-bound H+ -ATPase activity has reduced post-acidification that prolongs viability of B. breve in yoghurt during refrigerated storage.

  5. Improvement of the fermentative activity of lactic acid bacteria starter culture by the addition of Mn²⁺.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xin; Dong, Ying; Su, Ping; Xiao, Xiang

    2014-11-01

    Production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter with raw material has received much scientific investigation, but little information is available on the influences of some trace elements on the growth and fermentative activity of LAB. Based on this fact, this paper aimed to investigate the effects of Mn(2+) on the performance of Lactobacillus plantarum CX-15 starter with Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as the main medium substrate. The results showed that Mn(2+) addition had a significant beneficial affect on the fermentative activity of L. plantarum CX-15 starter. In contrast, the lack of Mn(2+) would cause the subsequent fermentation significantly slower, whether the cell density in starter culture was higher or lower. The possible mechanism of these phenomenons was further elucidated by the time course analysis of the specific activities of metabolism key enzymes during the culture processes of L. plantarum CX-15 starter. Compared to the fermentation processes without Mn(2+) addition, it was found that Mn(2+) addition would enhance the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity but reduce the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and ATPase activity. Therefore, it could be concluded that the improvement of L. plantarum starter fermentative activity was probably a consequence of Mn(2+) acting as "metabolic switch," which regulated the metabolic flux from pyruvic acid to lactic acid and other metabolism pathway. PMID:25146195

  6. Coculture-inducible bacteriocin biosynthesis of different probiotic strains by dairy starter culture Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Kos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by probiotic strains effectively contribute to colonization ability of probiotic strains and facilitate their establishment in the competitive gut environment and also protect the gut from gastrointestinal pathogens. Moreover, bacteriocins have received considerable attention due to their potential application as biopreservatives, especially in dairy industry. Hence, the objective of this research was to investigate antimicrobial activity of probiotic strains Lactobacillus helveticus M92, Lactobacillus plantarum L4 and Enterococcus faecium L3, with special focus on their bacteriocinogenic activity directed towards representatives of the same or related bacterial species, and towards distant microorganisms including potential food contaminants or causative agents of gut infections. In order to induce bacteriocin production, probiotic cells were cocultivated with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LMG 9450, one of the most important starter cultures in cheese production. The presence of bacteriocin coding genes was investigated by PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers for helveticin and was confirmed for probiotic strain L. helveticus M92. All examined probiotic strains have shown bacteriocinogenic activity against Staphylococcus aureus 3048, Staphylococcus aureus K-144, Escherichia coli 3014, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium FP1, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus TM2, which is an important functional treat of probiotic strains significant in competitive exclusion mechanism which provides selective advantage of probiotic strains against undesirable microorganisms in gastrointestinal tract of the host. According to obtained results, living cells of starter culture Lc. lactis subsp. lactis LMG 9450 induced bacteriocin production by examined probiotic strains but starter culture itself was not sensitive to bacteriocin activity.

  7. Fermentation profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis as starter cultures on barley malt medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloue-Boraud, Wazé Aimée Mireille; N'Guessan, Kouadio Florent; Djeni, N'Dédé Théodore; Hiligsmann, Serge; Djè, Koffi Marcellin; Delvigne, Franck

    2015-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae C8-5 and Candida tropicalis F0-5 isolated from traditional sorghum beer were tested for kinetic parameters on barley malt extract, YPD (863 medium) and for alcohol production. The results showed that C. tropicalis has the highest maximum growth rate and the lowest doubling time. Values were 0.22 and 0.32 h(-1) for maximum growth rate, 3 h 09 min and 2 h 09 min for doubling time respectively on barley malt extract and YPD. On contrary, glucose consumption was the fastest with S. cerevisiae (-0.36 and -0.722 g/l/h respectively on barley malt extract and YPD). When these two yeasts were used as starters in pure culture and co-culture at proportion of 1:1 and 2:1 (cell/cell) for barley malt extract fermentation, we noticed that maltose content increased first from 12.12 g/l to 13.62-16.46 g/l and then decreased. The highest increase was obtained with starter C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1. On contrary, glucose content decreased throughout all the fermentation process. For all the starters used, the major part of the ethanol was produced at 16 h of fermentation. Values obtained in the final beers were 11.4, 11.6, 10.4 and 10.9 g/l for fermentation conducted with S. cerevisiae, C. tropicalis, C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 1:1 and C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1. Cell viability measurement during the fermentation by using flow cytometry revealed that the lowest mean channel fluorescence for FL3 (yeast rate of death) was obtained with C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1 after 48 h of fermentation. PMID:26243947

  8. Utilization of Lactobacillus fermentum andSaccharomyces cerevisiae as starter cultures in the production of ‘dolo'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glover, R.L.K.; Sawadogo-Lingani, H.; Diawara, B.;

    2009-01-01

    Objective:  The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of representative strains ofpredominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast as starter cultures in the production of dolo (a type of sorghum beer) of comparable consistency and organoleptic quality to the commercial product...... cultures in the production of (a type of sorghum beer) of comparable consistency and organoleptic quality to the commercial product in Burkina Faso. Two strains each of and from previous studies (Sawadogo- Lingani 2007; Glover ., 2005) were used as starter cultures in producing both under laboratory......H, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. Dolo produced from starter combinations of one strain of L. fermentum and both S...

  9. Effect of Preservative on the Shelf Life of Yoghurt Produced from Soya Beans Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak G. AKPAN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrated on the effects of preservatives on shelf life of yoghurt produced from Soya beans milk. The yoghurt was produced by heating Soya beans milk slurry, cooled and incubated with starter culture. After the required yoghurt has been formed, sugar, flavour and preservatives were added. Study of the effect of preservatives revealed that Sodium benzoate preservative used at 20mg/ml give the best (optimum preservation on both shelf and refrigeration storage for 15 and 21 days respectively. This is because the inhibitive ability of Sodium benzoate at lower temperature is higher than that of Potassium metabisulphate preservative. The study also revealed that 40mg/ml concentration of the combined preservatives gives the best (optimum concentration level for both shelf and refrigeration storage with pH values of 3.92 and 4.01 respectively after 14 days fermentation. The preservatives concentration added are within the threshold values specified by Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON and National Agency for Food Administration and Control (NAFDAC.

  10. Rapid detection of bacteriophages in starter culture using water-in-oil-in-water emulsion microdroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min S; Nitin, Nitin

    2014-10-01

    Bacteriophage contamination of starter culture and raw material poses a major problem in the fermentation industry. In this study, a rapid detection of lytic phage contamination in starter culture using water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion microdroplets was described. A model bacteria with varying concentrations of lytic phages were encapsulated in W/O/W emulsion microdroplets using a simple needle-in-tube setup. The detection of lytic phage contamination was accomplished in 1 h using the propidium iodide labeling of the phage-infected bacteria inside the W/O/W emulsion microdroplets. Using this approach, a detection limit of 10(2) PFU/mL of phages was achieved quantitatively, while 10(4) PFU/mL of phages could be detected qualitatively based on visual comparison of the fluorescence images. Given the simplicity and sensitivity of this approach, it is anticipated that this method can be adapted to any strains of bacteria and lytic phages that are commonly used for fermentation, and has potential for a rapid detection of lytic phage contamination in the fermentation industry.

  11. Utilization of indigenously isolated single strain starter cultures for the production of sourdough bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saeed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sourdoughs were prepared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (T0 and indigenously isolated starter cultures i.e Lactobacillus brevis (T1, Lactobacillus fermentum (T2 and Lactobacillus plantarum (T3. Breads were prepared from all sourdoughs samples in triplicate and analyzed for pH, Total Titratable Acidity (TTA, loaf volume, microbial characteristics (total plate count and fungal count and sensory profile (internal and external in triplicate. The breads prepared from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (T0 exhibited the highest pH with the lowest TTA while T1 showed the lowest pH with the highest TTA. The T0 breads got the highest values for loaf volume followed by T1. The breads produced with the addition of hetero-fermentative starter cultures (T1 and T2 showed resistance against the growth of the contaminating microorganisms. In the sensory evaluation, the breads produced with T1 ranked the best for color (crust and crumb, taste, aroma, texture and overall acceptability by the panelists. 

  12. Viability and Acidification by Promising Yeasts Intended as Potential Starter Cultures for Rice-based Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bevilacqua

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, some innovative cereal-based beverages were designed using beneficial lactic acid bacteria; however, few data are available on the potential role of yeasts. The main topic of this research was to investigate the suitability of four promising yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, Kluyveromyces lactis, Saccharomyces pastorianus and Kazachstania exigua as potential starter cultures for rice-based beverages. This aim was achieved through some intermediate scientific aims, i.e., by assessing cell viability and acidification in different cereal substrates (malt extract, soft wheat, rice and kamut flours; thereafter by studying acidification and persistence in an organic rice drink during a prolonged storage at 25 and 4°C. Rice flour provided appropriate growth for all the strains. K. exigua and S. pastorianus experienced a relatively fast acidification within 24 h. After 40 d the yeasts showed similar cell counts (ca. 7 log cfu/mL and acidification (experienced a relatively fast acidification within 24 h. After 40 d the yeasts showed similar cell counts (ca. 7 log cfu/mL and acidification (ΔpH of ca. 2.7 at 25°C and ca. 1.2-1.4 at 4°C in the organic rice drink. The evaluation of viability and acidification by promising candidates should be a simple procedure to screen yeast strains for potential use as starter cultures to design new rice-fermented functional beverages.

  13. Patagonian red wines: selection of Lactobacillus plantarum isolates as potential starter cultures for malolactic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Ferrada, Bárbara Mercedes; Hollmann, Axel; Delfederico, Lucrecia; Valdés La Hens, Danay; Caballero, Adriana; Semorile, Liliana

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fifty-three Lactobacillus plantarum isolates obtained from a Patagonian red wine, molecularly identified and typified using RAPD analysis, in order to select starter cultures for malolactic fermentation (MLF). The results obtained suggest a considerable genetic diversity, taking into account that all L. plantarum isolates were obtained from one cellar and one vintage. Based on the capacity to tolerate a concentration of 14 % ethanol in MRS broth for 2 days, eight isolates were selected for the subsequent analysis. The incidence of various wine stress factors (ethanol, acid pH, lysozyme and sulfur dioxide) on isolates growth was studied. Besides, glucosidase and tannase activities were evaluated, and the presence of genes involved in the synthesis of biogenic amines was examined by PCR. A previously characterized indigenous Oenococcus oeni strain was included with comparative purposes. Differences in technologically relevant characteristics were observed among the eight L. plantarum selected isolates, revealing an isolate-dependent behavior. Detectable glucosidase and tannase activities were found in all isolates. The presence of genes encoding histidine and tyrosine descarboxylases and putrescine carbamoyltransferase was not detected. The ability of L. plantarum isolates to grow and consume L-malic acid in simulated laboratory-scale vinifications revealed that two of them could be considered as possible MLF starter cultures for Patagonian red wines. These isolates will be subjected to further analysis, for a final winery technological characterization.

  14. Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Daiana Montanuci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial viability during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis were more pronounced in the formulations fermented with grains than those fermented with the starter culture. The addition of inulin did not influence acidity or viability of lactic acid bacteria, but in general, its effect on the survival of acetic acid bacteria, Lactococcus and yeasts, firmness, and syneresis depended on the type of milk and starter culture used. Generally, the yeast, acetic acid bacteria, and Leuconostoc counts increased or remained unchanged, while the total population of lactic acid bacteria and Lactococcus were either reduced by 1 to 2 logs or remained unchanged during storage.

  15. Starter cultures and cattle feed manipulation enhance conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, M S; Anand, S; Kalscheur, K F; Hassan, A N; Hippen, A R

    2013-04-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a fatty acid (FA) that provides several health benefits to humans. The feeding of fish oil-supplemented diets to dairy cows has been extensively studied as a means to improve the CLA content in milk. Several studies have also been conducted on the ability of many microorganisms to produce CLA by utilizing substrates containing linoleic acid. In the present study, the dietary manipulated milk was used in combination with the CLA-producing culture to manufacture Cheddar cheese. The two diets fed to cattle were control and treatment diets to obtain control and treatment milk, respectively. The treatment diet containing fish oil (0.75% of dry matter) was fed to 32 dairy cows grouped in a pen for 18 d to increase the total CLA content in milk. Treatment milk had a CLA content of 1.60 g/100g of FA compared with 0.58 g/100g of FA in control milk obtained by feeding the control diet. A 2 × 2 factorial design with 3 replicates was used to test the combined effect of the CLA-producing starter culture of Lactococcus lactis (CI4b) versus a commercial CLA nonproducing cheese starter as the control culture, and type of milk (control vs. treatment milk) on CLA content in Cheddar cheese. Chemical composition (moisture, salt, fat, and protein) was not affected by the type of culture used. However, the age of the cheese affected the sensory properties and microbiological counts in the different treatments. Ripening with the CI4b culture was found to be effective in further enhancing the CLA content. The CI4b cheeses made from control milk and treatment milk contained 1.09 and 2.41 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 1 mo of ripening, which increased to 1.44 and 2.61 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 6 mo of ripening, respectively. The use of treatment milk resulted in an increase in the CLA isomers (trans-7,cis-9+cis-9,trans-11, trans-9,cis-11+cis-10,trans-12, trans-10,cis-12, cis-9,cis-11, trans-11,cis-13, cis-11,cis-13, trans-11,trans

  16. Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae;

    2014-01-01

    cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, and compared to commercially......The sensory quality of chocolate is widely determined by the qualitative and quantitative composition of volatile compounds resulting from microbial metabolism during fermentation, and Maillard reactions taking place during drying, roasting and conching. The influence of applying mixed starter...... in roasted cocoa liquors and finished chocolates. 19 of the 56 volatile compounds identified in the chocolates were found in significantly higher amounts in the tray fermented sample, whilst significantly higher amounts of 2-methoxyphenol was measured in the two inoculated chocolates. The P. kluyveri...

  17. Scale-up of thermally dried kefir production as starter culture for hard-type cheese making: an economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Athanasios A; Bekatorou, Argyro; Katechaki, Eleftheria; Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Papapostolou, Harris; Panas, Panayiotis; Sideris, Kostas; Kallis, Mihalis; Bosnea, Loulouda A; Koliopoulos, Dionisis; Sotiropoulos, Panayiotis; Panteli, Ageliki; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Kanellaki, Maria; Soupioni, Magdalini

    2010-03-01

    This paper concerns the effect of thermal-drying methodology on the investment cost for dried kefir cells production in order to be used as starter culture in cheese manufacturing. Kefir cells were produced at pilot plant scale using a 250-L bioreactor and whey as the main substrate. Kefir cells were subsequently dried in a thermal dryer at 38 degrees C and used as a starter culture in industrial-scale production of hard-type cheeses. The use of thermally dried kefir as starter culture accelerated ripening of cheeses by increasing both lipolysis and fermentation rate as indicated by the ethanol, lactic acid, and glycerol formation. Additionally, it reduced coliforms and enterobacteria as ripening proceeded. This constituted the basis of developing an economic study in which industrial-scale production of thermally dried kefir starter culture is discussed. The industrial design involved a three-step process using three bioreactors of 100, 3,000, and 30,000 L for a plant capacity of 300 kg of thermally dried kefir culture per day. The cost of investment was estimated at 238,000 euro, which is the 46% of the corresponding cost using freeze-drying methodology. Production cost was estimated at 4.9 euro/kg of kefir biomass for a 300-kg/day plant capacity, which is the same as with the corresponding cost of freeze-dried cells. However, the estimated added value is up to 10.8 x 10(9) euro within the European Union.

  18. Fate of Lactococcus lactis starter cultures during late ripening in cheese models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggirello, Marianna; Cocolin, Luca; Dolci, Paola

    2016-10-01

    The presence of Lactococcus lactis, commonly employed as starter culture, was, recently, highlighted and investigated during late cheese ripening. Thus, the main goal of the present study was to assess the persistence and viability of this microorganism throughout manufacturing and ripening of model cheeses. Eight commercial starters, constituted of L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, were inoculated in pasteurized milk in order to manufacture miniature cheeses, ripened for six months. Samples were analysed at different steps (milk after inoculum, curd after cutting, curd after pressing and draining, cheese immediately after salting and cheese at 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days of ripening) and submitted to both culture-dependent (traditional plating on M17) and -independent analysis (reverse transcription-quantitative PCR). On the basis of direct RNA analysis, L. lactis populations were detected in all miniature cheeses up to the sixth month of ripening, confirming the presence of viable cells during the whole ripening process, including late stages. Noteworthy, L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR in cheese samples also when traditional plating failed to indicate its presence. This discrepancy could be explain with the fact that lactococci, during ripening process, enter in a stressed physiological state (viable not culturable, VNC), which might cause their inability to grow on synthetic medium despite their viability in cheese matrix. Preliminary results obtained by "resuscitation" assays corroborated this hypothesis and 2.5% glucose enrichment was effective to recover L. lactis cells in VNC state. The capability of L. lactis to persist in late ripening, and the presence of VNC cells which are known to shift their catabolism to peptides and amino acids consumption, suggests a possible technological role of this microorganism in cheese ripening with a possible impact on flavour formation. PMID:27375251

  19. Starter cultures used in probiotic dairy product preparation and popular probiotic dairy drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Yerlikaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products that contain probiotic bacteria are those that are produced with various fermentation methods, especially lactic acid fermentation, by using starter cultures and those that have various textures and aromas. Fermented dairy products are popular due to their differences in taste and their favourable physiological effects. Today, fermented dairy beverages in general are produced locally by using traditional methods. Recently, due to the increased demand for natural nutrients and probiotic products, fermented dairy beverages have reached a different position and are considered to have an important impact on human health and nutrition. In this article, probiotic bacteria and functional dairy products that are produced by using probiotic bacteria are discussed.

  20. Acceleration of Thai fish sauce fermentation using proteinases and bacterial starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongsawatdigul, J; Rodtong, S; Raksakulthai, N

    2007-11-01

    A means to accelerate fish sauce fermentation without adversely affecting fish sauce quality was investigated. Starter cultures prepared from Virgibacillus sp. SK33, Virgibacillus sp. SK37, and Staphylococcus sp. SK1-1-5 were added separately to anchovy that was hydrolyzed by 0.25% Alcalase at 60 degrees C for 2 h followed by 0.5% Flavourzyme at 50 degrees C for 4 h. The mixtures were then adjusted to contain 25% solar salt and incubated at 35 degrees C for 4 mo. alpha-Amino contents of all inoculated samples were higher than the control (without the addition of starter culture) during the course of fermentation. After 4-mo fermentation, the samples inoculated with Staphylococcus sp. SK1-1-5 contained the highest alpha-amino content of 733.37 +/- 13.89 mM while that of the control was 682.67 +/- 3.33 mM. Amino acid profiles of inoculated samples showed similar patterns to that of commercial product fermented for 12 mo, with glutamic, aspartic, and lysine being predominant amino acids. Virgibacillus sp. SK33 appeared to decrease histamine content of fish sauce by 50% when compared to the control. Volatile compounds analyzed by GC-MS of all inoculated samples fermented for 4 mo exhibited a similar pattern to those of the 12-mo-old commercial product. Samples inoculated with Staphylococcus sp. SK1-1-5 produced higher levels of volatile fatty acids and showed similar sensory characteristics to the commercial fish sauce fermented for 12 mo. Staphylococcus sp. SK1-1-5 is a potential strain that can be applied to produce fish sauce with overall sensory characteristics of traditional fish sauce in shorter time. PMID:18034732

  1. Effect of added proteinases and level of starter culture on the formation of biogenic amines in raw milk Manchego cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, E; Tomillo, J; Núñez, M

    1999-11-15

    The influence of two proteinases (Bacillus subtilis neutral proteinase and Micrococcus sp. cysteine proteinase) and two starter culture levels (0.1% and 1%) on biogenic amine formation has been studied in raw ewes' milk Manchego cheese. Amino acid decarboxylating micro-organisms were determined on tyrosine enriched selective media. Biogenic amines were analysed by capillary electrophoresis in citrate buffer at pH 3.6. Addition of proteinases and level of starter culture did not influence the population of micro-organisms with amino acid decarboxylating activity, which represented on average 1% of the bacterial population in 30-day-old cheeses. Tyramine and histamine were detected in all batches of cheese from day 30. Concentrations of tyramine and histamine were higher in cheeses made from milk with neutral proteinase (up to 356 and 284 mg kg(-1), respectively, after 90 days) than in cheeses made from milk with cysteine proteinase (up to 269 and 189 mg kg(-1), respectively) or with no proteinase added (up to 305 and 226 mg kg(-1), respectively). Formation of tyramine and histamine was also favoured in cheeses made with 1% starter culture with respect to cheeses made with only 0.1% starter culture, probably due to the higher pH values of the former cheeses. After 90 days of ripening, concentrations of 10-20 mg kg(-1) phenylethylamine were observed in 9 of the 12 batches, and levels < 10 mg kg(-1) tryptamine were only detected in 3 batches, with no significant relationship between the concentration of these amines and proteinase addition or level of starter culture. PMID:10733250

  2. Benzoic Acid Production with Respect to Starter Culture and Incubation Temperature during Yogurt Fermentation using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Mi-Young; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Benzoic acid is occasionally used as a raw material supplement in food products and is sometimes generated during the fermentation process. In this study, the production of naturally occurring yogurt preservatives was investigated for various starter cultures and incubation temperatures, and considered food regulations. Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve were used as yogurt starter cultures in commercial starters. Among these strains, L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei showed the highest production of benzoic acid. Therefore, the use of L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, S. thermophilus, and different incubation temperatures were examined to optimize benzoic acid production. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design was performed for various incubation temperatures (35-44℃) and starter culture inoculum ratios (0-0.04%) in a commercial range of dairy fermentation processes. The optimum conditions were 0.04% L. rhamnosus, 0.01% L. paracasei, 0.02% S. thermophilus, and 38.12℃, and the predicted and estimated concentrations of benzoic acid were 13.31 and 13.94 mg/kg, respectively. These conditions maximized naturally occurring benzoic acid production during the yogurt fermentation process, and the observed production levels satisfied regulatory guidelines for benzoic acid in dairy products. PMID:27433115

  3. Benzoic Acid Production with Respect to Starter Culture and Incubation Temperature during Yogurt Fermentation using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Jeon, Hye-Lin; Eom, Su Jin; Yoo, Mi-Young; Lim, Sang-Dong; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Benzoic acid is occasionally used as a raw material supplement in food products and is sometimes generated during the fermentation process. In this study, the production of naturally occurring yogurt preservatives was investigated for various starter cultures and incubation temperatures, and considered food regulations. Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve were used as yogurt starter cultures in commercial starters. Among these strains, L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei showed the highest production of benzoic acid. Therefore, the use of L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, S. thermophilus, and different incubation temperatures were examined to optimize benzoic acid production. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design was performed for various incubation temperatures (35-44℃) and starter culture inoculum ratios (0-0.04%) in a commercial range of dairy fermentation processes. The optimum conditions were 0.04% L. rhamnosus, 0.01% L. paracasei, 0.02% S. thermophilus, and 38.12℃, and the predicted and estimated concentrations of benzoic acid were 13.31 and 13.94 mg/kg, respectively. These conditions maximized naturally occurring benzoic acid production during the yogurt fermentation process, and the observed production levels satisfied regulatory guidelines for benzoic acid in dairy products. PMID:27433115

  4. BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA AND PREPARATION OF CAMEL MILK CHEESE BY USING STARTER CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ahmed and R. Kanwal

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from camel milk by culturing the milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub-culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram’s staining and identified by different biochemical tests. Camel milk contained lactic acid producing bacteria like Streptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus. L. acidophilus grew more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth was supported by camel milk. Ability of each strain was tested to convert lactose of milk into lactic acid. It was observed that 66% lactose was converted by S. lactis 20, whereas S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23 converted 56 and 74% lactose into lactic acid, respectively. Effect of freeze-drying was also recorded and the results showed that in all cases there was a slight decrease in the cell count before and after the freeze-drying. The decrease was approximately 0.47, 0.078 and 0.86% for S. lactis 20, S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23, respectively. Starter culture was prepared from strains isolated from camel milk. Camel and buffalo milk cheese was prepared by using starter culture. The strains isolated from camel milk were best for acid production and coagulated the milk in less time. It is concluded that cheese can be prepared successfully from camel milk and better results can be obtained by coagulating milk with starter culture.

  5. Microbial diversity of a Camembert-type cheese using freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture as starter culture by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Mei

    Full Text Available The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through ripening. In further studies, kefir grains were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM methods. A total of 147 bacteria and 129 yeasts were obtained from the cheese during ripening. Lactobacillus paracasei represents the most commonly identified lactic acid bacteria isolates, with 59 of a total of 147 isolates, followed by Lactococcus lactis (29 isolates. Meanwhile, Kazachstania servazzii (51 isolates represented the mainly identified yeast isolate, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (40 isolates. However, some lactic acid bacteria detected by sequence analysis of DGGE bands were not recovered by plating. The yeast S. cerevisiae and K. servazzii are described for the first time with kefir starter culture. SEM showed that the microbiota were dominated by a variety of lactobacilli (long and curved cells growing in close association with a few yeasts in the inner portion of the grain and the short lactobacilli were observed along with yeast cells on the exterior portion. Results indicated that conventional culture method and PCR-DGGE should be combined to describe in maximal detail the microbiological composition in the cheese during ripening. The data could help in the selection of appropriate commercial starters for Camembert-type cheese.

  6. Screening and Characterization of Potential Bacillus Starter Cultures for Fermenting Low-Salt Soybean Paste (Doenjang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hye Hee; Jung, Ji Young; Chun, Byung-Hee; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Baek, Seong Yeol; Moon, Ji Young; Yeo, Soo-Hwan; Jeon, Che Ok

    2016-04-28

    The bacterial strains were screened as potential starters for fermenting low-salt doenjang (a Korean traditional fermented soybean paste) using Korean doenjang based on proteolytic and antipathogenic activities under 6.5-7.5% NaCl conditions. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that they all belonged to the genus Bacillus. Proteolytic and antipathogenic activities against Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Aspergillus flavus, as well as fibrinolytic, amylase, and cellulase activities of the 10 strains were quantitatively evaluated. Of these, strains D2-2, JJ-D34, and D12-5 were selected, based on their activities. The functional, phenotypic, and safety-related characteristics of these three strains were additionally investigated and strains D2-2 and D12-5, which lacked antibiotic resistance, were finally selected. Strains D2-2 and D12-5 produced poly-γ-glutamic acid and showed various enzyme activities, including α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase. Growth properties of strains D2-2 and D12-5 included wide temperature and pH ranges, growth in up to 16% NaCl, and weak anaerobic growth, suggesting that they facilitate low-salt doenjang fermentation. Strains D2-2 and D12-5 were not hemolytic, carried no toxin genes, and did not produce biogenic amines. These results suggest that strains D2-2 and D12-5 can serve as appropriate starter cultures for fermenting low-salt doenjang with high quality and safety. PMID:26718466

  7. Evaluation of a potential starter culture for enhance quality of coffee fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Vilela, Danielle Marques; de Souza Cordeiro, Cecília; Duarte, Whasley Ferreira; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-02-01

    The coffee fermentation is characterized by the presence of different microorganisms belonging to the groups of bacteria, fungi and yeast. The objectives of this work were to select pectinolytic microorganisms isolated from coffee fermentations and evaluate their performance on coffee pulp culture medium. The yeasts and bacteria isolates were evaluated for their activity of polygalacturonase (PG), pectin lyase (PL) and pectin methylesterase (PME) and metabolites production. Among 127 yeasts isolates and 189 bacterial isolates, 15 were pre-selected based on their ability to produce PL and organic compounds. These isolates were strains identified as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Candida parapsilosis, Pichia caribbica, Pichia guilliermondii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When cultivated in Coffee peel and pulp media in single culture or two by two mixed inocula, different behavior concerning to PME, PL and PG were found. The two principal components PC1 and PC2 accounted for 45.27 and 32.02 % of the total variance. UFLA CN727 and UFLA CN731 strains were grouped in the positive part of PC1 being characterized by 1,2-propanediol, hexanoic acid, decanoic acid, nonanoic acid and ethyl acetate. The UFLA CN448 and UFLA CN724 strains were grouped in the negative part of PC1 and were mainly characterized by guaiacol, butyric acid and citronellol. S. cerevisiae UFLACN727, P. guilliermondii UFLACN731 and C. parapsilosis UFLACN448 isolates are promising candidates to be tested in future studies as coffee starter cultures.

  8. Effects of pure starter cultures on physico-chemical and sensory quality of dry fermented Chinese-style sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Krishna P; Zhang, Chunhui; Xia, Wen Shui

    2010-03-01

    Dry fermented Chinese-style sausages prepared in laboratory inoculating with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei-1.001, Pediococcus pentosaceus-ATCC 33316, Staphylococcus xylosus-12 and without starter culture randomly sampled at 0, 3, 10, and 24 days of ripening were analyzed for physico-chemical and sensory qualities. A significant (psausage during ripening was observed, whereas other major chemical parameters remained unchanged. The microbial fermentation resulted in decreased pH and nitrite but increased non protein nitrogen and total volatile basic nitrogen in the products. Starter cultures except P. Pentosaceous-ATCC 33316, used in the sausage failed to suppress rancidity in ripened product as indicated by a significant (psausages decreased with ripening time, meanwhile the redness (a) increased significantly (psausages inoculated with cultures L. casei subsp. casei-1.001 and S. xylosus-12. The texture profile of sausages was almost similar except for P. Pentosaceous-ATCC 33316, which showed significantly (psausage of high quality.

  9. Antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity of autochthonous starter cultures as safety parameters for fresh cheese production

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    Dora Bučan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity, as food safety parameters important for application of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB, that previously satisfied technological criteria for functional starter cultures in fresh cheese production were examined. Soluble whole cell protein patterns of autochthonous LAB strains from fresh cheese, obtained by SDS-PAGE, revealed the presence of two predominant strains, which were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum A8 and Enterococcus faecium A7. These strains were not resistant and shown susceptibility to antibiotics: ampicillin, bacitracin, penicillin G, azithromycin, chloramphenicol, clarithromycin, clindamycin, spiramycin, tetracycline, streptomycin, neomycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, rifampicin and novobiocin. Lb. fermentum A8 strain displayed phenotypic resistance to vancomycin, but this resistance is intrinsic, not transferable and it is acceptable from the safety aspect. The capacity of Lb. fermentum A8 and Ec. faecium A7 to inhibit growth of test-microorganisms Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 11911, Escherichia coli 3014, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium FP1 and Staphylococcus aureus 3048, was also analysed. According to obtained results, Lb. fermentum A8 and Ec. faecium A7 are safe from the aspect of spreading antibiotic resistance and could be useful as bioprotective cultures that inhibit common bacterial food contaminants, including L. monocytogenes.

  10. Growth inhibition of selected microorganisms by an association of dairy starter cultures and probiotics

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    Beniamino T. Cenci-Goga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several growth curves for selected pathogens and hygiene indicators alone and vs selected dairy starter cultures (LAB and commercial probiotics have been performed. All strains for LAB and commercial probiotics were inoculated as pure cultures into skim milk to get an initial cocci:bacilli:enterocci ratio of 2:1:1 and a concentration of approximately 107 cfu mL–1 until challenge vs selected pathogens and hygiene indicators. Selected pathogens came from the collection of the Laboratorio di Ispezione degli Alimenti di O.A. or were reference strains (Escherichia coli, CSH26 K12, Staphylococcus aureus 27R, Salmonella Derby 27, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525, Listeria innocua ATCC 33090. Each strain was inoculated into skim milk to get an initial concentration of approximately 106 cfu mL–1. Growth curves in skim milk for the following challenges were studied: i sterility control; ii association LAB; iii association of LAB vs each selected pathogen or hygiene indicator; iv selected pathogen or hygiene indicator alone. The challenges were carried out in BHI broth and in skim milk at 37°C. The highest reduction was observed in milk but in general the association of LAB and the probiotic was able to limit the growth of pathogens and hygiene indicators.

  11. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in liquid broth medium and during processing of fermented sausage using autochthonous starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragalaki, T; Bloukas, J G; Kotzekidou, P

    2013-11-01

    The antimicrobial effect of two autochthonous starter cultures of Lactobacillus sakei was evaluated in vitro (in liquid broth medium) and in situ assays. The inactivation of foodborne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes (serotype 4ab No 10) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43888 was investigated during the production of fermented sausage according to a typical Greek recipe using L. sakei strains as starter cultures. The inactivation kinetics were modeled using GInaFiT, a freeware tool to assess microbial survival curves. By the end of the ripening period, the inhibition of L. monocytogenes was significant in treatments with L. sakei 8416 and L. sakei 4413 compared to the control treatment. A 2.2-log reduction of the population of E. coli O157:H7 resulted from the autochthonous starter culture L. sakei 4413 during sausage processing. The use of the autochthonous starter cultures constitutes an additional improvement to the microbial safety by reducing foodborne pathogens.

  12. Application' and validation of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria starter cultures for controlled leek fermentations and their influence on the antioxidant properties of leek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, D; Bernaert, N; Anno, N; Van Droogenbroeck, B; De Loose, M; Van Bockstaele, E; De Vuyst, L

    2013-07-15

    Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) is one of Belgium's most important outdoor vegetables, mainly cultivated for its white shaft. Fermentation of leek offers opportunities in view of biomass valorization and product diversification. This study deals with the implementation and validation of starter cultures to perform controlled leek fermentations and to ensure a high quality of the end-products. Therefore, a thorough study of the fermentation microbiology and the influence of three starter culture strains (Lactobacillus plantarum IMDO 788, Lactobacillus sakei IMDO 1358, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides IMDO 1347) on the metabolite kinetics of leek fermentation and antioxidant properties of leek was performed. Overall, the application of lactic acid bacteria starter cultures resulted in a fast prevalence of the species involved, coupled to an accelerated acidification. Of the three starter cultures tested, the mixed starter culture of L. plantarum IMDO 788 and L. mesenteroides IMDO 1347 was most promising, as its application resulted in fermented leek of good microbiological quality and in a more extensive carbohydrate consumption, whereby diverse end-metabolites were produced. However, high residual fructose concentrations allowed yeast outgrowth, resulting in increased ethanol and glycerol concentrations, and indicated the lack of a prevailing strictly heterofermentative LAB species. The antioxidant capacity of fermented leek samples, as measured with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, increased when starter cultures were used, whereas with regard to 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, only leek fermented with L. sakei IMDO 1358 scored higher than spontaneously fermented leek. The total phenolic content was not influenced by the use of starter cultures, while the S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides content decreased strongly. A preliminary sensory analysis revealed that the spontaneously fermented leek and the one obtained

  13. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period

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    Cristiane Mengue Feniman Moritz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination, upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus.

  14. Use of Tetragenococcus halophilus as a starter culture for flavor improvement in fish sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsil, Natteewan; Rodtong, Sureelak; Choi, Yeung Joon; Hua, Yanglin; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2011-08-10

    The potential of Tetragenococcus halophilus as a starter culture for flavor improvement in fish sauce fermentation was elucidated. Four strains of T. halophilus isolated from fish sauce mashes were inoculated to anchovy mixed with 25% NaCl with an approximate cell count of 10(6) CFU/mL. The α-amino content of 6-month-old fish sauce samples inoculated with T. halophilus was 780-784 mM. The addition of T. halophilus MRC10-1-3 and T. halophilus MCD10-5-10 resulted in a reduction of histamine (P halophilus showed high contents of total amino acids with predominantly high glutamic acid. Major volatile compounds in fish sauce were 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, and benzaldehyde. T. halophilus-inoculated fish sauce samples demonstrated the ability to reduce dimethyl disulfide, a compound contributing to a fecal note. The use of T. halophilus for fish sauce fermentation improves amino acid profiles and volatile compounds as well as reduces biogenic amine content of a fish sauce product. PMID:21710980

  15. Role in Cheese Flavour Formation of Heterofermentative Lactic Acid Bacteria from Mesophilic Starter Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bæk

    Undefined mesophilic cheese starters are complex ecosystems that contain both homofermentative and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, with the Lactococcus genera representing the former and Lceuonostoc and sometimes Lactobacillus the latter. These starters originate from old butter starters....... A cheese trial was performed with selected strains to investigate how the heterofermentative strains influenced the ripening in semi-hard cheese. The cheeses were made using a Lactococcus starter including citrate positive Lactoccus and with the addition of one strain of heterofermentative bacteria...... at the time. Differences were seen in the establishment of the heterofermentative bacteria in the cheese matrix, Le. pseudomesenteroides and Lb. danicus grew to a higher number and survived longer than Le. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris. More secondary alcohols and less acetoin were found in cheeses where...

  16. Evaluation of an autochthonous starter culture on the production of a traditional dry fermented sausage from Chaco (Argentina) at a small-scale facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavecino Prpich, Noelia Z; Garro, Oscar A; Romero, Mara; Judis, María A; Cayré, María E; Castro, Marcela P

    2016-05-01

    The performance of a mixed starter culture, SAS-1, comprised of the autochthonous strains Lactobacillus sakei ACU-2 and Staphylococcus vitulinus ACU-10, was evaluated into the production process of a traditional dry sausage. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory analyses were carried out to accomplish this goal. Results showed an improvement in performance through the introduction of SAS-1; adding mixed starter culture rapidly decreased pH, inhibited the growth of contaminant microorganisms and enhanced the beneficial ones, diminished TBARS, and highlighted color and aroma attributes. However, most influential organoleptic descriptors among consumer acceptance were not affected by the addition of the starter. This starter culture would represent a valuable tool to improve the homogeneity of artisanal manufacture of this traditional food.

  17. IMPROVEMENT OF NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTHY VALUES OF YOGHURT BY FORTIFICATION WITH RUTUB DATE

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    Magdy M. Ismail

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As is well known, the date fruits are good sources of many nutrients. Also, yoghurt especially bio-yoghurt has a lot of nutritional and healthy benefits. The aim of this study was to combine the benefits of date and bio-yoghurt in one product which can be made by simple manner. Six treatments of yoghurt were made from cow's milk fortified with 10 and 15% rutub date and using classic or ABT-5 cultures. Changes in rheological, chemical, microbial and organoleptic properties of yoghurt were monitored during refrigerated storage (4°C of yoghurt for 15 d. Results showed that fortification with date accelerates the rates of fermentation and lowered coagulation time. For rheological analyses, curd tension, viscosity and water holding capacity values increased whereas curd syneresis values decreased in bio-yoghurt fortified with date. Redox potential values were lower in date yoghurt as compared with control. Acidity, carbohydrate, total solids, dietary fiber and ash contents of yoghurt supplemented with date were higher than those of control. Supplementation of date increased mineral contents (K, Ca, P, Mg, Na and Fe, total nitrogen, water soluble nitrogen, total phenols and total volatile fatty acids of yoghurt. The addition of date improved the viability of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. The bifidobacteria counts were sufficient to yield numbers of beneficial organisms that were higher than the accepted threshold (106cfu.g-1 for a probiotic effect. Also, date adding improved the body, texture and flavor of the yoghurt.

  18. Efeito do uso da cepa starter de Penicillium nalgiovense na qualidade de salames Effect of Penicillium nalgiovense starter culture on salami quality

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    Luís César CASTRO

    2000-04-01

    these fungi can cause problems related to discolouration and off-flavour, as well as damage on the casings. In addition, some fungi are associated to health hazards due to toxin production. This work aimed to study the ability of the starter culture Penicillium nalgiovense (PN-2R to control natural contaminants during ripening under factory conditions, the operation of the process and the general effect on organoleptical parameters as compared to the product obtained by the traditional process. The salami were produced in industrial scale, ripened for 30 days at 18°C and 80-60% ERH. Moisture, pH, free fatty acids (FFA, non-protein nitrogen (NPN, taste, texture and aroma were the ripening parameters studied. It was observed that at the end of ripening, samples from inoculated batches had an increase of 2,93% in FFA mean value as compared to the uninoculated control. This difference was significant at 5% level. The moisture loss occurred slowly and progressively, and no significant differences were observed among inoculated and non-inoculated batches at the end of the ripening period. Statistical difference was not observed among the batches related to pH, NPN and on the organoleptical attributes and acceptability. Microbiological analysis did not detect the presence of filamentous fungi other than the starter, and an almost complete cover by PN-2 culture was observed on the surface of the salami.

  19. Effect of Pasteurization Temperature, Starter Culture, and Incubation Temperature on the Physicochemical Properties, Yield, Rheology, and Sensory Characteristics of Spreadable Goat Cheese

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    Florencia Frau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The local cheese factories currently use bovine commercial starter cultures, and the spreadable cheese process is not standardized. A detailed understanding of the effect of pasteurization temperature, starter culture, and incubation temperature must allow producers to optimize the process, increase cheese yield, and improve the quality of the final product. The main objective of the study was to describe the preparation method of spreadable goat cheese and investigate the effects of specific processing conditions (pasteurization temperature, starter culture, and incubation temperature on the composition, yield, rheology, and sensory characteristics of the final product. Results showed the impact of pasteurization temperature, starter culture, and incubation temperature on spreadable goat cheese. The results indicated that it is possible to improve cheese yield, rheological properties, and sensory analysis when milk is pasteurized at 75°C for 30 minutes; cheese yield can also be improved by lowering incubation temperature to 37°C. Cheeses made with autochthonous starter culture showed better sensory characteristics and higher pH compared to the cheeses made with commercial culture.

  20. Free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on whey protein as starter cultures for probiotic Feta-type cheese production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Sidira, Marianthi; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2014-01-01

    The use of free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on whey protein as starter culture in probiotic Feta-type cheese production was evaluated. The probiotic cultures resulted in significantly higher acidity; lower pH; reduced counts of coliforms, enterobacteria, and staphylococci; and improved quality characteristics compared with cheese with no culture. Microbiological and strain-specific multiplex PCR analysis showed that both free and immobilized L. casei ATCC 393 were detected in the novel products at levels required for conferring a probiotic effect at the end of the ripening. The effect of starter culture on production of volatile compounds was investigated by the solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis technique. The immobilized cells resulted in an improved profile of aroma-related compounds and the overall high quality of the novel products was ascertained by the preliminary sensory test. Finally, the high added value produced by exploitation of whey, which is an extremely polluting industrial waste, was highlighted and assessed. PMID:24931523

  1. STUDY OF THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF ARABINOGALACTAN AND LACTULOSE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE STARTER CULTURES FOR YOGHURT Исследование совместного влияния арабиногалактана и лактулозы на развитие закваски для йогурта

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavezenova I. V.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present the results of the research of influence of polysaccharides and prebiotics on physical, chemical, rheological, microbiological and organoleptic indicators of a sour-milk product on the basis of ferment starting cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The optimum dose of polysaccharides and prebiotics adding into a sour-milk product is proved

  2. Selection of Yeasts as Starter Cultures for Table Olives: A Step-by-Step Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2012-01-01

    The selection of yeasts intended as starters for table olives is a complex process, including a characterization step at laboratory level and a validation at lab level and factory-scale. The characterization at lab level deals with the assessment of some technological traits (growth under different temperatures and at alkaline pHs, effect of salt, and for probiotic strains the resistance to preservatives), enzymatic activities, and some new functional properties (probiotic traits, production ...

  3. Characterization of Active Dry Wine Yeast During Starter Culture (Pied de Cuve) Preparation for Sparkling Wine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benucci, Ilaria; Liburdi, Katia; Cerreti, Martina; Esti, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The preparation of yeast starter culture (Pied de Cuve) for producing sparkling wine with the traditional method is a key factor for manufacturing a good Prise de mousse. In this paper, the evolution of total yeast population, its viability during Pied de Cuve preparation, and the pressure profile during the 2nd fermentation in 2 different base wines made from Bombino bianco and Chardonnay grapes were investigated using 4 different commercial active dried yeasts. The study proves that despite the initial differences observed throughout the acclimatization phase, all the tested strains showed similar results on either the total population (from 8.2 × 10(7) cells/mL to 1.3 × 10(8) cells/mL) or cellular viability (from 70% to 84%). Independently from the base wine tested, the kinetic of sugar consumption was faster during the gradual acclimatization to the alcoholic medium (phase II) and slower during the preparation of starter culture in active growth phase (phase III). During both of these phases Saccharomyces cerevisiae bayanus Vitilevure DV10(®) (Station œnotechnique de Champagne) proved to have a higher sugar consumption rate than the other strains. During the Prise de mousse, S. cerevisiae bayanus Lalvin EC-1118(®) (Lallemand) reached the maximum pressure increase within time in both base wines.

  4. The substitution of a traditional starter culture in mutton fermented sausages by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, I; Hrabě, J; Šalaková, A; Rada, V

    2013-07-01

    Common starter cultures used in fermented mutton sausages were substituted by probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus CCDM 476 and Bifidobacterium animalis 241a. Technological properties of the traditional and the probiotic sausages were compared. The potential probiotic effect was evaluated by enumeration of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in stool samples of 15 volunteers before and after a 14-day consumption period. The numbers of lactobacilli (10(7) cfu/g) and bifidobacteria (10(3) cfu/g) in the final product did not affect the technological properties. The use of L. acidophilus as a starter culture was found more beneficial than the use of B. animalis. Even after 60 days of storage, high counts of L. acidophilus (10(6) cfu/g) were detected; on the other hand, the counts of B. animalis were under the detection limit. Regarding sensory properties, the probiotic products showed better texture, and, curiously, a reduction of the typical smell of mutton. The numbers of lactobacilli in stool samples increased significantly after the consumption of the probiotic sausages. PMID:23567124

  5. Influence of Chitosan Coating on Mechanical Stability of Biopolymer Carriers with Probiotic Starter Culture in Fermented Whey Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša S. Obradović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve the mechanical stability of biopolymer carriers and cell viability with addition of chitosan coating during fermentation process and product storage. Dairy starter culture (1% (w/v was diluted in whey and mixed with sodium alginate solution and the beads were made using extrusion technique. The mechanical stability of coated and uncoated beads, the release behavior, and the viability of encapsulated probiotic dairy starter culture in fermented whey beverages were analyzed. The mechanical properties of the beads were determined according to force-displacement and engineering stress-strain curves obtained after compression testing. It was observed that addition of chitosan as a coating on the beads as well as the fermentation process increased the elastic modulus of the calcium alginate-whey beads and cell survival. The current study revealed that the coating did not significantly improve the viability of probiotics during the fermentation but had an important influence on preservation of the strength of the carrier during storage. Our results indicate that whey-based substrate has positive effect on the mechanical stability of biopolymer beads with encapsulated probiotics.

  6. Two efficient nitrite-reducing Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional fermented pork (Nanx Wudl) as competitive starter cultures for Chinese fermented dry sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Li, Jiapeng; Zhou, Tong; Li, Jinchun; Yang, Junna; Chen, Wenhua; Xiong, Youling L

    2016-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Dong pork product (Nanx Wudl) were investigated for their potential as starter cultures for Chinese fermented dry sausages. Based on preliminary screening, Lactobacillus plantarum CMRC6 and Lactobacillus sakei CMRC15, both showing excellent nitrite-reducing capacity, were used as single-strain starter cultures. For comparison, a commercial composite starter was also tested. In CMRC6 and CMRC15-inoculated sausages, lactic acid bacteria dominated the microflora and improved the microbiological safety by suppression of Enterobacteriaceae growth. Nitrite content of all inoculated sausages declined rapidly during ripening compared to non-inoculated. Texture profiles analysis showed inoculated sausages had more pronounced textural development during ripening. Sensory evaluation indicated CMRC6 and CMRC15-fermented sausages had comparable or more desirable organoleptic characteristics than sausage made with commercial starters. Therefore, CMRC6 and CMRC15 are promising candidates as multi-functional starter cultures for microbiological safety and residual nitrite control in gourmet Chinese dry sausage production. PMID:27395823

  7. Two efficient nitrite-reducing Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional fermented pork (Nanx Wudl) as competitive starter cultures for Chinese fermented dry sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Li, Jiapeng; Zhou, Tong; Li, Jinchun; Yang, Junna; Chen, Wenhua; Xiong, Youling L

    2016-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Dong pork product (Nanx Wudl) were investigated for their potential as starter cultures for Chinese fermented dry sausages. Based on preliminary screening, Lactobacillus plantarum CMRC6 and Lactobacillus sakei CMRC15, both showing excellent nitrite-reducing capacity, were used as single-strain starter cultures. For comparison, a commercial composite starter was also tested. In CMRC6 and CMRC15-inoculated sausages, lactic acid bacteria dominated the microflora and improved the microbiological safety by suppression of Enterobacteriaceae growth. Nitrite content of all inoculated sausages declined rapidly during ripening compared to non-inoculated. Texture profiles analysis showed inoculated sausages had more pronounced textural development during ripening. Sensory evaluation indicated CMRC6 and CMRC15-fermented sausages had comparable or more desirable organoleptic characteristics than sausage made with commercial starters. Therefore, CMRC6 and CMRC15 are promising candidates as multi-functional starter cultures for microbiological safety and residual nitrite control in gourmet Chinese dry sausage production.

  8. Screening of the starter cultures with high viscosity and weak post-acidification in yoghourt fermentation%高黏度低后酸酸奶发酵剂的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄润; 安颖; 高鹏飞; 陈世贤; 范贵生

    2011-01-01

    对分离到的12株优良乳酸菌,进行了单发酵试验和复配发酵实验.在单发酵实验中分析嗜热链球菌的产粘特性和保加利亚乳杆菌的产酸特性,在复配发酵实验中测定在贮藏期内(21 d)酸度、pH值、黏度、脱水收缩性及对其进行感官鉴评.结果表明,组合PZST4-PZLB5在储存期间保持了良好的风味和流变学特性,并且后酸化程度较小、产黏高,因而适合作为优良的酸奶发酵剂.%The single fermentation and co-fermentation were detected using the total 12 Lactic acid bacterias witch were isolated. The viscosity characteristics of the fermented yoghurt by Streptococcus thermophilus and the acid production characteristics of Lactobacillus bulgaricus were determined in the single fermentation test and several other characteristics of the fermented yoghourt were also tested such as the acidity,pH value,viscosity and the syneresis characteristic all of which were detected during the storage periods as well. And the results showed that the sample fermented by PZST4-PZLB5 displayed good flavor,rheological properties,higher viscosity and weak post-acidification which showed that the combination of PZST4 and PZLB5 were suitable to be starter culture.

  9. Selection of lactic acid bacteria from Brazilian kefir grains for potential use as starter or probiotic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanirati, Débora Ferreira; Abatemarco, Mário; Sandes, Sávio Henrique de Cicco; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Nunes, Álvaro Cantini; Neumann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Brazilian kefir is a homemade fermented beverage that is obtained by incubating milk or a brown sugar solution with kefir grains that contribute their different microbiological compositions. It is highly important to isolate and characterize microorganisms from Brazilian kefir grains to obtain starter cultures for the industrial production of a standardized commercial kefir. Thus, the present study aimed to isolate lactic acid bacteria from eight kefir grains that were propagated in milk or sugar solutions from five different locations in Brazil and to select Lactobacillus isolates based on desirable in vitro probiotic properties. One hundred eight isolates from both substrates were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were determined to belong to the following 11 species from the genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus (L.), and Oenococcus. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus kefiri, and Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens were isolated only from milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus perolens, Lactobacillus parafarraginis, Lactobacillus diolivorans, and Oenococcus oeni were isolated exclusively from sugar water grains. When the microbial compositions of four kefir grains were evaluated with culture-independent analyses, L. kefiranofaciens was observed to predominant in milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus hilgardii was most abundant in sugar water kefir. Unfortunately, L. hilgardii was not isolated from any grain, although this bacteria was detected with a culture-independent methodology. Fifty-two isolated Lactobacilli were tested for gastric juice and bile salt tolerance, antagonism against pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and surface hydrophobicity. Three Lactobacillus strains (L. kefiranofaciens 8U, L. diolivorans 1Z, and Lactobacillus casei 17U) could be classified as potential probiotics. In conclusion, several lactic acid bacteria that could be used in combination with yeasts as starter

  10. Monitoring the ecology of Bacillus during Daqu incubation, a fermentation starter, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Y.; Zheng, X.; Han, B.Z.; Han, J.S.; Nout, M.J.R.; Chen, J.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Daqu, a traditional fermentation starter, has been used to produce attractively flavored foods such as vinegar and Chinese liquor for thousands of years. Although Bacillus spp. are one of the dominant microorganisms in Daqu, more precise information is needed to reveal why and how Bacillus became do

  11. Dried Yoghurts: Kurut and Kashk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Say

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The removal of water from the foods by the drying process is a known method since ancient times. Among drying methods, drying under sun is a method that cheap, quite easily implemented, needing less labour and equipment. Drying yoghurt (Kurut is a form of dried yoghurt or buttermilk. Kurut is made with plenty of milk in summer seasons and consumed in winter in eastern and southeastern region of our country. Dried yoghurt is consumed with pasting after softened thoroughly by into hot water or granulating. Drying yoghurt (Kashk is manufactured traditionally in dried form and produced industrially in liquid form in Iran and it is used flavoring agents as a food ingredient in the preparation of various food. According to Institute of Standard and Industrial Researches of Iran, dried kashk is obtained by heating of homemade yoghurt, yoghurt drink or the remaining buttermilk. Traditional liquid kashk is produced by milling of dried kashk and industrial liquid kashk is also produced by industrially produced yoghurt. Kurut and dried kashk as dried milk products are high in protein and mineral contents, but their fat and water content are low level. With this study it was summarized some characteristics of these products with the production methods of dried yoghurt produced in Turkey and Iran.

  12. Development of quantitative PCR and metagenomics-based approaches for strain quantification of a defined mixed-strain starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Pernille; Vindeløv, Jannik; Arneborg, Nils; Brockmann, Elke

    2014-05-01

    Although the strain composition of mixed cultures may hugely affect production of various fermented foods, such as e.g. cheese, tools for investigating it have so far been limited. In this study, two new approaches for quantification of seven Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains (S1-S7) in a defined mixed-strain starter culture were developed and verified. By mapping NGS reads from 47 sequenced L. lactis strains to de novo assembly contigs of the seven strains, two strain-specific sequence regions (SEQ1 and SEQ2) were identified for each strain for qPCR primer design (A1 and A2). The qPCR assays amplified their strain-specific sequence region target efficiently. Additionally, high reproducibility was obtained in a validation sample containing equal amounts of the seven strains, and assay-to-assay coefficients of variance (CVs) for six (i.e. S1, S2, S4-S7) of the seven strains correlated to the inter-plate CVs. Hence, at least for six strains, the qPCR assay design approach was successful. The metagenomics-based approach quantified the seven strains based on average coverage of SEQ1 and SEQ2 by mapping sequencing reads from the validation sample to the strain-specific sequence regions. Average coverages of the SEQ1 and SEQ2 in the metagenomics data showed CVs of ≤17.3% for six strains (i.e. S1-S4, S6, S7). Thus, the metagenomics-based quantification approach was considered successful for six strains, regardless of the strain-specific sequence region used. When comparing qPCR- and metagenomics-based quantifications of the validation sample, the identified strain-specific sequence regions were considered suitable and applicable for quantification at a strain level of defined mixed-strain starter cultures.

  13. Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus starter cultures as a tool for microflora management in malting and for enhancement of malt processability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitila, Arja; Sweins, Hannele; Vilpola, Arvi; Kotaviita, Erja; Olkku, Juhani; Home, Silja; Haikara, Auli

    2006-05-31

    Lactobacillus plantarum VTT E-78076 (E76) and Pediococcus pentosaceus VTT E-90390 (E390) starter cultures were added to the steeping water of normal malting barley in order to balance the microbial community and to enhance malt processability. In this study, we also investigated the effects of lactic acid-acidified MRS-spent medium (MRS-LA) on malting performance. Malting trials with five different two-row barley varieties were carried out in 25 kg pilot scale. The starter cultures promoted yeast growth during malting and restricted the growth of harmful bacteria and Fusarium fungi. Furthermore, they had positive effects on malt characteristics. Reduction in wort viscosity and beta-glucan content and enhanced xylanase and microbial beta-glucanase activities were observed. Starter cultures notably improved lautering performance. Some of the beneficial effects were due to the lactic acid and low pH, as similar effects were obtained with MRS-LA. Starter cultures offer a tool for tailoring of malt properties. PMID:16719505

  14. Influence of different proteolytic strains of Streptococcus thermophilus in co-culture with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus on the metabolite profile of set-yoghurt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settachaimongkon, S.; Nout, M.J.R.; Antunes Fernandes, E.C.; Hettinga, K.A.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Smid, E.J.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Proto-cooperation between Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is one of the key factors that determine the fermentation process and final quality of yoghurt. In this study, the interaction between different proteolytic strains of S. thermophilus and L. delbruec

  15. Selection of aroma compounds for the differentiation of wines obtained by fermenting musts with starter cultures of commercial yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vararu, Florin; Moreno-García, Jaime; Zamfir, Cătălin-Ioan; Cotea, Valeriu V; Moreno, Juan

    2016-04-15

    Nine wines obtained by fermenting Aligoté musts with individual starter cultures of eight Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains and with the indigenous microbiota were compared in terms of their composition in minor volatile aroma compounds. An easy handle methodology Stir-Bar-Sorptive-Adsorption, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry based, permits the identification of 49 aroma compounds. The rearrangement of these aroma compounds in six chemical families permits the establishment of a finger printing for each wine. Eighteen aroma compounds that exhibit a high differentiation power (p⩽0.05) were selected for chemometric analysis. The Principal Component Analysis carried out with these aroma compounds reveal that the first two principal components explain 53.8% and 17.2% of the total variance, respectively, allowing the establishment of nine different groups, in accordance with the wine types obtained. These results reveal analytical differences among the wines that are not recognized by sensorial analysis. PMID:26616963

  16. Selection of aroma compounds for the differentiation of wines obtained by fermenting musts with starter cultures of commercial yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vararu, Florin; Moreno-García, Jaime; Zamfir, Cătălin-Ioan; Cotea, Valeriu V; Moreno, Juan

    2016-04-15

    Nine wines obtained by fermenting Aligoté musts with individual starter cultures of eight Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains and with the indigenous microbiota were compared in terms of their composition in minor volatile aroma compounds. An easy handle methodology Stir-Bar-Sorptive-Adsorption, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry based, permits the identification of 49 aroma compounds. The rearrangement of these aroma compounds in six chemical families permits the establishment of a finger printing for each wine. Eighteen aroma compounds that exhibit a high differentiation power (p⩽0.05) were selected for chemometric analysis. The Principal Component Analysis carried out with these aroma compounds reveal that the first two principal components explain 53.8% and 17.2% of the total variance, respectively, allowing the establishment of nine different groups, in accordance with the wine types obtained. These results reveal analytical differences among the wines that are not recognized by sensorial analysis.

  17. Microbiological characterization of traditional dough fermentation starter (Jiaozi) for steamed bread making by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijian; Li, Haifeng; Bian, Ke

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the microbial composition of two types of Jiaozi (a dough fermentation starter in making steamed bread) was investigated using both culture-dependent and culture-independent (PCR-DGGE) methods. The numbers of the cultivable bacteria on MRS at 30°C and yeast on YPD at 28°C in the maize flour Jiaozi (MFJ) were 9.21±0.16 Log CFU/g and 9.18±0.05 Log CFU/g, respectively, which were higher than that in the rice flour Jiaozi (RFJ) (PLactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus represented 12.8% and 8.6%. In the RFJ sample, the most prominent isolate was P. pentosaceus (38.6%), followed by L. plantarum (24.3%), A. tropicalis (22.8%), and E. durans (5.7%). P. pentosaceus and L. plantarum were also detected in both starters by PCR-DGGE, while some bacteria species such as A. tropicalis and E. durans, recovered as pure cultures, were not detected by direct PCR-DGGE. On the other hand, Lactobacillus brevis, Weissella sp. and Lactobacillus alimentarius detected by PCR-DGGE were not recovered in any of the media and conditions used. In the MFJ sample, the isolated main yeast species were identified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus (67.2%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (27.9%) and Torulaspora delbrueckii (4.9%). In addition to S. cerevisiae (42.9%), W. anomalus (27.0%) and T. delbrueckii (7.9%), Saccharomycopsis fibuligera was also identified as the predominant isolate in RFJ samples and accounted for 22.2%. PCR-DGGE also indicated the presence of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae in both MFJ and RFJ starters and S. fibuligera was also detected in RFJ, but T. delbrueckii was not detected in both samples. PMID:27351835

  18. Whey - raw material for the production of baker starter-cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Mrvčić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of production Lactic acid bacteria (LAB, which are suitable for breadmaking on whey was researched and compared to the results achieved in modified MRS medium. The growth and fermentation activities of Leuconostoc meseteroides L-3, Lactobacillus brevis L-62 and Lactobacillus plantarum L-73 were examined by monitoring lactic and acetic acid production in fermentation broth and in sourdough. Presented results show that deproteinized whey is suitable for LAB production. The best biomass yield (1,7 g/L and lactic acid production (9,15 mg/mL was achieved with L. plantarum L-73. Better flavour, elasticity and shelf life of bread made with whey-based starters compared to the classical yeast-monoculture based bread were determined by sensory analysis (DLG method.

  19. STUDI PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN BIFIDOBAKTERIA TERHADAP FLAVOR YOUGHURT [Study on the Effect of the Use of Bifidobacteria on Flavor of Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Apriyantono4

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effect of bifidobacteria on flavor of yoghurt. Parameters measured in the experiment were acidity, pH, viscosity, volatile composition, sensory acceptance and intensity of yoghurt sensory attributes.Results of the experiment indicated that the use of bifidobacteria in mixture of yoghurt culture was able to increase the levels of acidity and viscosity of yoghurt. The highest acidity and viscosity was found in yoghurt prepared by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and bifidobacteria mixture, and also by Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus and bifidobacteria mixture cultures. The major classes of volatile component identified were acids, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. The major component identified were octanoic acid, acetoin and octadecanal. It was found that there was no significant difference in sensory acceptance of the panelist for colour, aroma and taste of yoghurt prepared by the various combination of cultures. However, consistency of yoghurt prepared by S. thermophilus with or without addition of bifidobacteria, was less compared to that of others. Yoghurt prepared by single culture of S. thermophilus showed higher intensity of bitter and syneresis. The use of bifidobacteria in the cultures mixture decrease the intensity of bitter and syneresis of the yoghurt.

  20. In vitro fermentation studies for selection and evaluation of Bacillus strains as starter cultures for the production of okpehe, a traditional African fermented condiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A; Sanni, Abiodun I; Franz, Charles M A P; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2007-01-25

    Selected Bacillus and Enterococcus strains, isolated from traditional okpehe fermentations, were studied for their suitability as starter cultures in laboratory-scale fermentations of Prosopis africana seeds for the production of okpehe, a traditional fermented vegetable product of Nigeria. The strains were selected on the basis of highest proteolytic activity, as determined with the APIZYM (BioMerieux) test. The choice of starter strains was narrowed to Bacillus subtilis strains BFE 5301 and BFE 5372. These were determined as the best starter combination because of rapid growth, high amylolytic and proteolytic activities, high levels of polyglutamic acid production by strain BFE 5372, as well as bacteriocin production by strain BFE 5301. Other mixed culture fermentations did not yield sensorically acceptable products. Although a monoculture fermentation, using only B. subtilis strain BFE 5372, produced okpehe with very good sensory characteristics, the growth of B. cereus could be detected after 48 h fermentation, indicating that this starter did not sufficiently contribute to product safety. Mixed culture fermentation with the combination of bacteriocin-producing starter B. subtilis BFE 5301 and the non-bacteriocin-producing B. subtilis BFE 5372, produced a product with good sensory characteristics, in which growth of B. cereus was delayed. The bacteriocin produced by B. subtilis strain BFE 5301 was identified as subtilisin, using subtilisin-specific primers and PCR amplification of the subtilisin gene. The bacteriocin was heat-stable at 100 degrees C for 10 min and exhibited highest activity at pH values lower or equal to pH 6.0. The bacteriocin was sensitive to the proteolytic enzymes trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin at concentrations of 10 mg/ml.

  1. Genome sequences of two Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides strains isolated from Danish dairy starter cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bæk; Kot, Witold Piotr; Hansen, L.H.;

    2014-01-01

    The lactic acid bacterium Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides can be found in mesophilic cheese starters, where it produces aromatic compounds from, e.g., citrate. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two L. pseudomesenteroides strains isolated from traditional Danish cheese starters....

  2. Effect of dissolved oxygen on redox potential and milk acidification by lactic acid bacteria isolated from a DL-starter culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nadja; Werner, Birgit Brøsted; Vogensen, Finn Kvist;

    2015-01-01

    ) and after (anaerobic maximum) oxygen depletion. The redox potential decreased concurrently with oxygen consumption and continued to decrease at slower rate until reaching the final values, indicating involvement of both oxygen and microbiological activity in the redox state of milk. Oxygen flushing had......Milk acidification by DL-starter cultures [cultures containing Lactococcus lactis diacetylactis (D) and Leuconostoc (L) species] depends on the oxidation-reduction (redox) potential in milk; however, the mechanisms behind this effect are not completely clear. The objective of this study...... was to investigate the effect of dissolved oxygen on acidification kinetics and redox potential during milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Fermentations were conducted by single strains isolated from mixed DL-starter culture, including Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris...

  3. Enhancement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in Nham (Thai fermented pork sausage) using starter cultures of Lactobacillus namurensis NH2 and Pediococcus pentosaceus HN8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanaburee, Anussara; Kantachote, Duangporn; Charernjiratrakul, Wilawan; Sukhoom, Ampaitip

    2013-10-15

    The aim was to produce Nham that was enriched with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA); therefore two GABA producing lactic acid bacteria (Pediococcus pentosaceus HN8 and Lactobacillus namurensis NH2) were used as starter cultures. By using the central composite design (CCD) we showed that addition of 0.5% monosodium glutamate (MSG) together with an inoculum size of roughly 6logCFU/g of each of the two strains produced a maximal amounts of GABA (4051 mg/kg) in the 'GABA Nham' product. This was higher than any current popular commercial Nham product by roughly 8 times. 'GABA Nham' with the additions of both starters and MSG (TSM) supported maximum populations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with a minimum of yeasts and no staphylococci or molds when compared to the controls that had no addition of any starters or MSG (TNN), or only the addition of MSG (TNM), or with only the starter (TSN). Based on proximate analysis among the Nham sets, 'GABA Nham' was low in fat, carbohydrate and energy although its texture and color were slightly different from the control (TNN). However, sensory evaluations of 'GABA Nham' were more acceptable than the controls and commercial Nham products for all tested parameters. Hence, a unique novel 'GABA Nham' fermented pork sausage was successfully developed.

  4. Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 16366 starter added to brine as freeze-dried and as culture in the nutritive media for Spanish style green olive production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peres, Cidália

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 16366, a strain originally isolated from olive fermentation, was used as a starter culture for "Azeiteira" the preparation of Spanish style green olives. Inoculum was added to the fermentors as a freezedried starter culture or as a culture in the nutritive media. Lactic acid fermentation induction produced a more rapid acidification of brines and reduced the survival period of Enterobacteriaceae compared with the uninoculated process. The best results were obtained using the nutritive media as a culture carrier rather than the freeze-dried starter.En este trabajo se empleo el inóculo Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 16366 liofilizado y en caldo nutritivo para preparación de aceitunas "Azeiteira" tipo verde, estilo sevillano. En las salmueras inoculadas se observó una acidificación más rápida y reducción del periodo de supervivencia de las Enterobacteriaceae, especialmente cuando se aplicó el inóculo en caldo nutritivo.

  5. Quantification of viable bacterial starter cultures of Virgibacillus sp. and Tetragenococcus halophilus in fish sauce fermentation by real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsil, Natteewan; Chen, Shu; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2016-08-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods were developed for the quantification of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 and Tetragenococcus halophilus MS33, which were added as starter cultures in fish sauce fermentation. The PCR assays were coupled with propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment of samples to selectively quantify viable cells and integrated with exogenous recombinant Escherichia coli cells to control variabilities in analysis procedures. The qPCR methods showed species-specificity for both Virgibacillus halodenitrificans and T. halophilus as evaluated using 6 reference strains and 28 strains of bacteria isolated from fish sauce fermentation. The qPCR efficiencies were 101.1% for V. halodenitrificans and 90.2% for T. halophilus. The quantification limits of the assays were 10(3) CFU/mL and 10(2) CFU/mL in fish sauce samples with linear correlations over 4 Logs for V. halodenitrificans and T. halophilus, respectively. The matrix effect was not observed when evaluated using fish sauce samples fermented for 1-6 months. The developed PMA-qPCR methods were successfully applied to monitor changes of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 and T. halophilus MS33 in a mackerel fish sauce fermentation model where culture-dependent techniques failed to quantify the starter cultures. The results demonstrated the usability of the methods as practical tools for monitoring the starter cultures in fish sauce fermentation. PMID:27052702

  6. Inoculated fermentation of green olives with potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures isolated from industrially fermented olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blana, Vasiliki A; Grounta, Athena; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2014-04-01

    The performance of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282, previously isolated from industrially fermented table olives and screened in vitro for probiotic potential, was investigated as starter cultures in Spanish style fermentation of cv. Halkidiki green olives. Fermentation was undertaken at room temperature in two different initial salt concentrations (8% and 10%, w/v, NaCl) in the brines. The strains were inoculated as single and combined cultures and the dynamics of their population on the surface of olives was monitored for a period of 114 days. The survival of inoculated strains on olives was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Both probiotic strains successfully colonized the olive surface at populations ranged from 6.0 to 7.0 log CFU/g throughout fermentation. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 presented higher colonization in both salt levels at the end of fermentation (81.2% and 93.3% in 8% and 10% NaCl brines, respectively). For L. plantarum B282 a high survival rate (83.3%) was observed in 8% NaCl brines, but in 10% NaCl the strain could not colonize the surface of olives. L. pentosus B281 also dominated over L. plantarum B282 in inoculated fermentations when the two strains were used as combined culture. The biochemical profile (pH, organic acids, volatile compounds) attained during fermentation and the sensory analysis of the final product indicated a typical lactic acid fermentation process of green olives.

  7. 益生菌发酵剂发酵特性研究%Fermentation Property of Probiotics Microbial Culture Starters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路守栋; 刘玺; 马瑞芬

    2012-01-01

    Three strains(Lactobacillu casei,Lactobacillus bulgaricus,Lactobacillus acdophilus) of common probiotics bacteria were selected,and fermentation property of probiotics microbial culture starters were studied.The three strains performed stronger resistant capabilities of NaNO2,stronger resistant capabilities of NaCl,and lacked in the abilities of lipolysis and proteolysis.They had strong acid—producing capability and could effectively inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria.They were suitable for fermented meat products.%选择干酪乳杆菌(Lactobacillu casei,Lc),嗜酸乳杆菌(Lactobacillus acdophilus,La),保加利亚乳杆菌(Lactobacillus bulgaricus,Lb)三种益生菌作为发酵肉发酵剂,对其发酵特性进行研究。结果表明:三种菌均有较强的耐亚硝酸盐、食盐能力,能够耐受150 mg/kg亚硝酸盐和6%食盐。所选菌种无蛋白和脂肪分解能力,能够有效降低pH,抑制致病菌的生长,适合发酵肉制品的生产。

  8. Hydrolytic activity of Virgibacillus sp. SK37, a starter culture of fish sauce fermentation, and its cell-bound proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsuwan, Sornchai; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2012-08-01

    Fish sauce production relies on a natural fermentation process requiring 12-18 months for process completion. Virgibacillus sp. SK37 has been shown to be a potential strain for fish sauce acceleration. However, hydrolytic activity of proteinases bound at cell surface of this strain has not been well elucidated. Addition of 0.2 % CaCl(2) (w/w) in conjunction with starter cultures of Virgibacillus sp. SK 37 increased protein hydrolysis as measured by α-amino group content throughout fermentation (P Virgibacillus sp. SK 37 were extracted into a free form by incubating the washed cells in Ca(2+)-free buffer at 37 °C for 2 h. Cell-bound proteinases revealed molecular mass of 19, 20, 22, 32, 34, and 44 kDa based on a synthetic peptide zymogram. The proteinases showed subtilisin-like serine characteristics with the highest activity at 50 °C and pH 8 and 11. Activity of the extracted proteinases increased ~4 times at ≥100 mM CaCl(2). In addition, CaCl(2) enhanced thermal stability of the extracted proteinases. Enzymes showed proteolytic activity in either the absence or presence of 10 and 25 % NaCl toward fish muscle, soy protein isolate, and casein substrates. Cell-bound proteinases were likely to play an important role in protein hydrolysis during fish sauce fermentation. PMID:22806191

  9. Diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of autochthonous dairy enterococci isolates: Are they safe candidates for autochthonous starter cultures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarela eTerzić-Vidojević

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci represent the most controversial group of dairy bacteria. They are found to be the main constituent of many traditional Mediterranean dairy products and contribute to their characteristic taste and flavor. On the other hand, during the last 50 years antibiotic-resistant enterococci have emerged as leading causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity, technological properties, antibiotic susceptibility and virulence traits of 636 enterococci previously isolated from 55 artisan dairy products from 12 locations in the Western Balkan countries of Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. All strains were identified both by microbiological and molecular methods. The predominant species was Enterococcus durans, followed by E. faecalis and E. faecium. Over 44% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, while 26.2% of the isolates were multi-resistant to three or more antibiotics belonging to different families. 185 isolates (29.1% were susceptible to all 13 of the antibiotics tested. The antibiotic-susceptible isolates were further tested for possible virulence genes and the production of biogenic amines. Finally, five enterococci isolates were found to be antibiotic susceptible with good technological characteristics and without virulence traits or the ability to produce biogenic amines, making them possible candidates for biotechnological application as starter cultures in the dairy industry.

  10. 富含阿魏酸和γ-氨基丁酸的发芽糙米酸奶品质控制的研究%Quality Control on Germinated Brown Rice Yoghurt Rich in Ferulic Acid- and γ-GABA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿欣; 杜江; 肖军霞

    2011-01-01

    Germinated brown rice is a brown rice product which is the brown rice germinates to a certain length af-ter being cultured under a certain temperature and humidity combined with bud, bran and endosperm. It has shown many important physiological functions, such as reducing blood pressure and cholesterol, preventing obesity etc. Germi-nated brown rice yoghurt is a novel fermented dairy product which is prepared with germinated brown rice, fresh milk, sugar and together with ready-to-use yoghurt starter. The influence of the amount of germinated brown rice, milk, sug-ar, the starter and fermentation time on the quality of the yoghurt were studied in this paper. The optimum conditions were determined by orthogonal test and the nutritional components of the yoghurt including ferulic acid andγ-GABA were investigated finally. It was shown that the ratio of germinated brown rice to milk was 1:1.5, the amount of sugar was 7%, and the amount of starter was 0.008%. Under these conditions, the germinated brown rice yoghurt with abundant nutrition, sour-sweet agreeable to the taste and unique flavor was obtained, its content of femlic acid and γ-GABA were 5.02 mg/g and 4.54 mg/g, respectively.%目的:以发芽糙米、鲜牛奶及白砂糖为主要原料,利用直投式发酵剂制作富含阿魏酸和γ-氨基丁酸的发芽糙米酸奶.方法:研究发芽糙米浆与牛奶的体积比、糖添加量、发酵剂接入量、发酵时间等因素对成品酸奶品质的影响.结果:通过正交试验等得到最佳工艺条件:发芽糙米浆与牛奶的体积比1:1.5,糖添加量7%.发酵剂接入量0.008%.在此条件下得到的发芽糙米酸奶中阿魏酸和γ-氨基丁酸的含量分别为5.02 mg/g和4.54 mg/g.结论:在最佳工艺条件下获得了营养丰富、酸甜适宜和风味独特的发芽糙米酸奶制品.

  11. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

    2014-10-01

    Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acid and the interaction between these environmental factors. Growth models were developed by combining new and existing cardinal parameter values. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameters (μref at 25°C) were fitted to a total of 52 growth rates from cottage cheese to improve model performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese. The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias- and accuracy factors and with the concept of acceptable simulation zone. Evaluation of predicted growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing resulted in bias-factors (Bf) of 1.07-1.10 with corresponding accuracy factor (Af) values of 1.11 to 1.22. Lactic acid bacteria from added starter culture were on average predicted to grow 16% faster than observed (Bf of 1.16 and Af of 1.32) and growth of the diacetyl producing aroma culture was on average predicted 9% slower than observed (Bf of 0.91 and Af of 1.17). The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new models to successfully predict maximum population density of L. monocytogenes when growing together with lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. 11 of 13 simulations of L

  12. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

    2014-10-01

    Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acid and the interaction between these environmental factors. Growth models were developed by combining new and existing cardinal parameter values. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameters (μref at 25°C) were fitted to a total of 52 growth rates from cottage cheese to improve model performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese. The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias- and accuracy factors and with the concept of acceptable simulation zone. Evaluation of predicted growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing resulted in bias-factors (Bf) of 1.07-1.10 with corresponding accuracy factor (Af) values of 1.11 to 1.22. Lactic acid bacteria from added starter culture were on average predicted to grow 16% faster than observed (Bf of 1.16 and Af of 1.32) and growth of the diacetyl producing aroma culture was on average predicted 9% slower than observed (Bf of 0.91 and Af of 1.17). The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new models to successfully predict maximum population density of L. monocytogenes when growing together with lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. 11 of 13 simulations of L

  13. CELL-SURFACE BINDING OF DEOXYNIVALENOL TO Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans ISOLATED FROM SOURDOUGH STARTER CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef I. Hassan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisin B1 (FB1 are two contaminant-mycotoxins frequently found in food commodities produced under poor conditions. Several methods have been suggested for the detoxification of such mycotoxins. Among the proposed methods, biological detoxification seems to be the most promising and cost-efficient. This study explores the capability of one strain of lactic acid bacteria, identified as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans, to bind both DON and FB1 in liquid cultures. Here we report the ability of heat-inactivated cells to significantly reduce concentrations of DON in liquid cultures. Further mechanistic investigation showed that the detoxification process is a result of the physical binding of such mycotoxins to the cell wall of this bacterium.

  14. Bacteriocin production by strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus BB18 during continuous prefermentation of yogurt starter culture and subsequent batch coagulation of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simova, E D; Beshkova, D M; Angelov, M P; Dimitrov, Zh P

    2008-06-01

    By screening for bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria of 1,428 strains isolated from authentic Bulgarian dairy products, Lb. bulgaricus BB18 strain obtained from kefir grain was selected. Out of 11 yogurt starters containing Lb. bulgaricus BB18 and S. thermophilus strains resistant to bacteriocin secreted by Lb. bulgaricus BB18 a yogurt culture (S. thermophilus 11A+Lb. bulgaricus BB18) with high growth and bacteriocinogenic activity in milk was selected. Continuous (pH-stat 5.7) prefermentation processes were carried out in milk at 37 degrees C in a 2l MBR bioreactor (MBR AG, Zurich, Switzerland) with an IMCS controller for agitation speed, temperature, dissolved oxygen, CO2 and pH. Prefermented milk with pH 5.7 coagulated in a thermostat at 37 degrees C until pH 4.8-4.9. S. thermophilus 11A and Lb. bulgaricus BB18 grew independently in a continuous mode at similar and sufficiently high-dilution rates (D=1.83 h(-1)-S. thermophilus 11A; D=1.80 h(-1)-Lb. bulgaricus BB18). The yogurt cultures developed in a stream at a high-dilution rate (D=2.03-2.28 h(-1)). The progress of both processes (growth and bacteriocin production) depended on the initial ratio between the two microorganisms. The continuous prefermentation process promoted conditions for efficient fermentation and bacteriocinogenesis of the starter culture during the batch process: strong reduction of the times for bacteriocin production and coagulation of milk (to 4.5-5.0 h); high cell productivity (lactobacilli-4x10(12) CFU ml(-1), streptococci-6x10(12) CFU ml(-1)); high productivity of bacteriocins (4,500 BU ml(-1))-1.7 times higher than the bacteriocinogenic activity of the batch starter culture.

  15. Impact of NaCl reduction in Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses on proliferation and autolysis of DL-starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Lise; Ryssel, Mia; Svendsen, Carina; Høier, Erik; Andersen, Ulf; Hammershøj, Marianne; Møller, Jean R; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-11-20

    Reduction of sodium chloride (NaCl) in cheese manufacturing is a challenge for the dairy industry. NaCl has a profound role on microbial development influencing cheese sensory and technological properties. The purpose of this work was to investigate how proliferation, distribution and autolysis of two commercial DL-starter cultures (C1 and C2) used in the production of Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses were affected by reduced NaCl levels. Cheeses containing <0.3% (unsalted), 2.3% (reduced-salt) and 3.4% (normal-salted) (w/v) NaCl in moisture were produced and analyzed during 12 weeks of ripening. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), distribution of bacteria as single cells or microcolonies, their viability in the cheeses and cell autolysis were monitored during ripening, as well as the impact of NaCl content and autolysis on the formation of free amino acids (FAA). Reduction of NaCl resulted in higher LAB counts at the early stages of ripening, with differences between the two DL-starter cultures. The unsalted cheeses produced with C1 had retained a significantly higher number of the initial LAB counts (cfu/g) after 1 and 2 weeks of ripening (i.e. 58% and 71%), compared to the normal-salted cheeses (i.e. 22% and 21%), whereas no significant difference was found between the reduced-salt (i.e. 31% and 35%) and normal-salted cheeses. At the later stages of ripening (i.e. 7 and 11 weeks) NaCl had no significant influence. For cheeses produced with C2, a significant influence of NaCl was only found in cheeses ripened for 7 weeks, where the unsalted and reduced-salt cheeses had retained a significantly higher number of the initial LAB counts (cfu/g) (i.e. 39% and 38%), compared to the normal-salted cheeses (i.e. 21%). In the Samsoe cheeses, bacteria were organized as single cells, in groups of 2-3 cells or in groups of ≥4 cells. During ripening the decrease in the number of viable bacteria was mainly due to a reduction in the number of viable bacteria organized in groups of ≥4

  16. Inhibitory effects of meju prepared with mixed starter cultures on azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon carcinogenesis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Kang Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Meju is the main ingredient and the starter culture of traditional Korean fermented soybean foods; these fermented soybean products are well-known for their various health benefits, including anticancer effects. We developed the grain-type meju using probiotic mixed starter cultures to improve the qualities and functionalities of fermented soybean products, as well as the meju itself. In this study, the inhibitory effects of the grain-type meju were investigated in azoxymethane (AOM and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis mice model. Materials and Methods: AOM and DSS colon carcinogenesis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice and meju was orally administered for 4 weeks. The body weight, colon length, and colon weight of mice were determined, and colonic tissues were histologically observed. The serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and the levels of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in colonic tissue were also analyzed. Results: The administration of meju using probiotic mixed starter cultures ameliorated the symptoms of colon cancer and reduced number of neoplasia, and reduced serum proinflammatory cytokine levels and iNOS and COX-2 expression levels in colonic tissue. It increased Bax and reduced Bcl-2 expression levels and increased p21 and p53 expression in colonic tissues. Conclusion: The meju showed inhibitory effects on the progression of colon cancer induced by AOM and DSS by ameliorating the symptoms of colon cancer, reducing the number of neoplasias and regulating proinflammatory cytokine levels and the expressions of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in the colonic tissue.

  17. Doenjang prepared with mixed starter cultures attenuates azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Kang Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Doenjang is traditional Korean fermented soybean paste and widely known for its various health benefits including anticancer effect. In this study, we manufactured doenjang with the grain-type meju using probiotic mixed starter cultures of Aspegillus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis-SKm, and Lactococcus lactis-GAm to improve the qualities and beneficial properties of doenjang. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory effects of the doenjang prepared with the grain-type meju using mixed starter cultures were investigated in azoxymethane (AOM and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis mice model. AOM and DSS colon carcinogenesis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice, and doenjang was orally administered for 4 weeks. Body weight, colon length, and colon weight of mice were determined, and colonic tissues were histologically evaluated. The serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines as well as the expression of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in colonic tissue were also analyzed. Results: Administration of the doenjang using probiotic mixed starter cultures ameliorated the symptoms of colon cancer, and reduced the incidence of neoplasia, and reduced the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cycloooxygenase-2 expression levels in colonic tissue. In addition, it increased Bax and reduced Bcl-2 expression levels and increased p21 and p53 expression in the colonic tissues. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the doenjang attenuated colon carcinogenesis induced by AOM and DSS by ameliorating the symptoms of colon cancer, reducing the occurrence of neoplasia, regulating proinflammatory cytokine levels, and controlling the expressions of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in the colonic tissue.

  18. Fermentation of table olives by oleuropeinolytic starter culture in reduced salt brines and inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataridou, M; Kotzekidou, P

    2015-09-01

    The effect of an autochthonous starter culture developed by oleuropeinolytic strains belonging to the Lactobacillus plantarum group on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics and the biophenol content of table olives fermented under reduced salt conditions was studied. Black (cv. Kalamata) and green (cv. Chalkidikis) olives were fermented in two different kinds of brine (Brine A containing 2.3% NaCl, 32.3mM Ca-acetate and 33.9mM Ca-lactate and Brine B containing 4% NaCl, pH5.0 in both brines). The sensory attributes of olives fermented by oleuropeinolytic starter culture assessed by a trained panel did not differ significantly compared with industrial processing. It is possible to carry out significant changes in table olive processing applying a completely microbiological procedure using oleuropeinolytic strains of the L. plantarum group as both the debittering and the fermentation agent in order to achieve improved sensorial and nutritional characteristics of the final product. Table olives processed by the suggested methodology may constitute a good source of biophenols in the diet, especially hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The inactivation potential of Escherichia coli O157 EDL-932 and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A in olives fermented by oleuropeinolytic starter culture was evaluated. The population of each pathogen in olive homogenates of both cultivars is inactivated by more than 6logCFU/ml in less than 24h. When whole fermented olives were submerged in peptone/saline (containing 6.7logCFU/ml of the relevant bacterial pathogen) for 30min followed by rinsing in distilled water, the population of viable foodborne pathogens dropped more than 4 logs in olive pulp. During subsequent storage at 22 or 4°C the population of L. monocytogenes Scott A was further eliminated under the detection limit in both olive cultivars whereas the population of E. coli O157 EDL-932 could be detected in olives stored in peptone/saline at 22°C for 7days. The inhibitory

  19. Comparative inhibitory effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and mesophilic starter co-culture in cheese-mimicking models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Rayssa Julliane; de Souza, Geanny Targino; Honório, Vanessa Gonçalves; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; Maganani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil (TVEO) on Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic bacteria frequently associated with fresh or low-ripened cheeses (e.g., Brazilian coalho cheese), and on a starter co-culture comprising Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, which are commonly used for the production of different cheeses. To measure these effects, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and assessed bacterial cell viability over time in (coalho) cheese-based broth and in a semi-solid (coalho) cheese model at 10 °C. The MIC for TVEO was 2.5 μL/mL against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, while the MIC was 1.25 μL/mL against the starter co-culture. The TVEO (5 and 2.5 μL/mL) sharply reduced the viable counts of all assayed bacteria in cheese broth over 24 h; although, at 5 μL/mL, TVEO more severely affected the viability of the starter co-culture compared with pathogenic bacteria. The addition of 1.25 μL/g of TVEO in the semi-solid cheese model did not reduce the viable counts of all assayed bacteria. At 2.5 μL/g, TVEO slightly decreased the viable counts of S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and Lactococcus spp. in the semi-solid cheese model over 72 h. The final counts of Lactococcus spp. in a semi-solid cheese model containing 2.5 μL/mL TVEO were lower than those of pathogenic bacteria under the same conditions. These results suggest that the doses of TVEO used to control pathogenic bacteria in fermented dairy products, especially in low-ripened cheeses, should be cautiously considered for potential negative effects on the growth and survival of starter cultures. PMID:26338117

  20. The influence of douchi starter cultures on the composition of extractive components, microbiological activity, and sensory properties of fermented fish pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasankala, Ladislaus M; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that douchi cultures could serve as a potential starter for enhancing the quality attributes of fermented silver carp meat. In experiment 1, an active, prefermented douchi culture was incorporated into a fish paste to aid in the fish fermentation (30 d) and facilitate biochemical production of extractive flavor components (PRF). In experiment 2, a fully fermented (30 d) douchi was added to a fish paste and the mixture was fermented for 30 d (PSF). In experiment 3, a fish paste without the douchi culture was fermented for 30 d (CF). Total extracted free amino acids increased by 68.0, 68.6, and 78.8% (P 100 mg/mL). The concentrations of both formaldehyde-reactive nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen extractives increased significantly (P PSF > CF. Low amounts of biogenic amines (ingredient commonly used in China, Japan, and other Asian countries. It is also used in many Chinese cuisines in the United States. On the other hand, fermented seafood made from freshwater fish such as silver carp is known to contain bioactive components believed to promote health. The findings from the present study indicated that douchi as a novel starter can be used to produce fermented silver carp fish pastes with excellent flavor and consumer acceptability. The results may be applicable to other fish species to produce similar fermentation products. PMID:21535644

  1. The influence of douchi starter cultures on the composition of extractive components, microbiological activity, and sensory properties of fermented fish pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasankala, Ladislaus M; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that douchi cultures could serve as a potential starter for enhancing the quality attributes of fermented silver carp meat. In experiment 1, an active, prefermented douchi culture was incorporated into a fish paste to aid in the fish fermentation (30 d) and facilitate biochemical production of extractive flavor components (PRF). In experiment 2, a fully fermented (30 d) douchi was added to a fish paste and the mixture was fermented for 30 d (PSF). In experiment 3, a fish paste without the douchi culture was fermented for 30 d (CF). Total extracted free amino acids increased by 68.0, 68.6, and 78.8% (P 100 mg/mL). The concentrations of both formaldehyde-reactive nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen extractives increased significantly (P PSF > CF. Low amounts of biogenic amines (ingredient commonly used in China, Japan, and other Asian countries. It is also used in many Chinese cuisines in the United States. On the other hand, fermented seafood made from freshwater fish such as silver carp is known to contain bioactive components believed to promote health. The findings from the present study indicated that douchi as a novel starter can be used to produce fermented silver carp fish pastes with excellent flavor and consumer acceptability. The results may be applicable to other fish species to produce similar fermentation products.

  2. The relationships between consumer liking, sensory and chemical attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines elaborated with different Oenococcus oeni starter cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malherbe, Sulette; Menichelli, Elena; du Toit, Maret;

    2013-01-01

    over two vintages by four different lactic acid Oenococcus oeni starter cultures as well as a control treatment where MLF was prevented. ResultsDescriptive analysis showed that the sensory attributes buttery, caramel, vegetative flavour, fruity and nutty aroma differed significantly between the wines....... These effects on the wines were not the same for the two vintages tested. Preference mapping results showed that the sensory attributes influenced the average consumer liking. The main chemical and sensory correlations found for MLF-treated wines were related to 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) with the buttery...... character and various esters with fruity aromas. ConclusionAlthough the direct effect of the bacterial starter cultures on wine sensory attributes is difficult to establish, and subject to variation over vintage, the present work suggests that the contribution of LAB starter cultures to wine sensory...

  3. Evaluation of Leuconostoc citreum HO12 and Weissella koreensis HO20 isolated from kimchi as a starter culture for whole wheat sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyejung; Kim, Yeo-Won; Hwang, Inyoung; Kim, Jeongho; Yoon, Sun

    2012-10-15

    Leuconostoc citreum HO12 and Weissella koreensis HO20 isolated from kimchi were evaluated as starter cultures in the making of whole wheat sourdough bread. After 24h of fermentation at 25 °C, both lactobacilli grew to the final cell numbers of ca. 10(9)cfu/g dough, and both doughs had similar pHs and total titratable acidities. In addition, the fermentation quotient of the dough with Lc. citreum HO12 was slightly lower than that of the dough with W. koreensis HO20 (1.6 versus 2.8). Sourdoughs and bread with 50% sourdough produced with the starter cultures exhibited consistent ability to retard the growth of bread spoilage fungi (Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus niger) and rope-forming bacterium (Bacillus subtilis). Sourdough breads underwent a significant reduction in bread firming during storage. It seems that both lactobacilli have the potential to improve the shelf-life of wheat bread. The results indicate that the selected lactobacilli have unique fermentation characteristics and produce sourdough breads with overall satisfactory quality.

  4. Yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables: acidity, antioxidant properties and sensory quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Najgebauer-Lejko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Yoghurt is a fermented milk of unique sensory, nutritive and dietetic value offered in a variety of types and in different fl avours. Vegetables belong to the group of food products rich in antioxidant substances (e.g., vitamin C, carotenoids, tocopherols, polyphenols which regular consumption lowers the risk of many diseases including cancers and cardiovascular disorders. The aim of the present work was to manufacture and assess the acidity, sensory quality and antioxidant capacity of yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables during 2-week refrigerated storage. Material and methods. The vegetable preparations (carrot, pumpkin, broccoli and red sweet pepper were added to the cow’s milk fermented using DVS type yoghurt culture after initial cooling to 15-20°C in the amount of 10% (w/w. The following analyses were performed: determination of pH, titratable acidity, antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method as well as sensory evaluation and were conducted after 1, 7 and 14 days of cold storage. Results. The yoghurt supplementation with selected vegetables had no signifi cant effect on the pH and titratable acidity level. The highest ability to scavenge DPPH radicals was stated for yoghurts with broccoli and red sweet pepper. The latter treatment gained the highest notes in sensory evaluation. All vegetable yoghurts were characterised by higher than the natural yoghurt FRAP values measured directly after production. However, the level of this parameter signifi cantly decreased after storage. Conclusions. The red sweet pepper additive was the most benefi cial regarding antioxidant properties and organoleptic acceptance of the studied yoghurts.

  5. Determination of free amino acids in whole-fat Turkish White Brined Cheese produced by animal and microbial milk-clotting enzymes with and without the addition of starter culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Eren-Vapur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coagulating enzymes are essential ingredients for the production of different cheese varieties. The objective of this research was to summarize the effect of rennet type (calf rennet and microbial rennet from Rhizomucor miehei and starter culture on the sensory properties and free amino acids (FAA release during the ripening of Turkish White brined cheese. The concentrations of FAA and sensory properties were similar for cheeses made with both types of coagulant and starter culture. Aminoacids Phe, Leu - Ile, Gln, Val, Pro and Ala were the principal FAAs in the White brined cheeses at all stages of ripening.

  6. Inhibitory activity of a nisin-producing starter culture on Listeria innocua in raw ewes milk Manchego cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, E; Gaya, P; Nuñez, M; Medina, M

    1998-01-01

    The inhibitory activity of nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ESI 515 on the survival of Listeria innocua during ripening of raw ewes milk Manchego cheese was investigated. After 60 days of ripening, counts of L. innocua in cheese were 4.08 log units lower than the control when Lc. lactis subsp. lactis ESI 515 was used as a single-strain starter. Nisin activity was detected in cheeses manufactured with Lc. lactis subsp. lactis ESI 515 throughout the ripening period. PMID:9580244

  7. Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir Efeito do tipo de cultura starter e da adição de inulina na viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de Kefir de leite integral ou desnatado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Daiana Montanuci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial viability during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis were more pronounced in the formulations fermented with grains than those fermented with the starter culture. The addition of inulin did not influence acidity or viability of lactic acid bacteria, but in general, its effect on the survival of acetic acid bacteria, Lactococcus and yeasts, firmness, and syneresis depended on the type of milk and starter culture used. Generally, the yeast, acetic acid bacteria, and Leuconostoc counts increased or remained unchanged, while the total population of lactic acid bacteria and Lactococcus were either reduced by 1 to 2 logs or remained unchanged during storage.O efeito da adição de inulina e do tipo de iniciador (grãos de Kefir ou cultura starter comercial da fermentação sobre a viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de bebidas Kefir, formuladas com leite integral ou desnatado, foi avaliado durante o armazenamento refrigerado. O tipo de iniciador não teve influência sobre a viabilidade microbiana ao longo da estocagem das bebidas, mas as alterações químicas e de textura (redução do pH, teores de lactose e inulina e aumento da acidez, firmeza e sinérese foram mais acentuadas nas formulações fermentadas com grãos do que com cultura starter. A adição de inulina não influenciou a acidez ou a viabilidade de bactérias ácido-láticas, mas, em geral, seu efeito sobre a sobrevivência das bactérias ácido-acéticas, Lactococcus e leveduras, firmeza e sinérese foi dependente do tipo de leite e da

  8. Lactobacillus casei Zhang和Bifidobacterium lactis V9在益生菌酸乳中的应用%Application of Lactobacillus casei Zhang and Bifidobacterium lactis V9 in the probiotic yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彪; 张和平

    2012-01-01

    益生菌在酸乳中的应用已非常普遍,将Lactobacillus casei Zhang单独(样品A)以及与Bifidobacterium lactis V9复合(样品B),同酸乳发酵剂(G027)共同发酵益生菌酸乳,于4℃贮藏21 d.结果表明,整个贮藏期间2组样品间的黏度和持水性差异不显著;贮藏期间2组样品间L.casei Zhang的活菌数没有差异,且L.casei Zhang和B.lactis V9的活菌数不随贮藏时间而降低;L.casei Zhang和B.lactis V9复合益生菌酸奶感官评价优于单独添加L.casei Zhang酸乳.L.casei Zhang和B.lactis V9复合添加,更适合于益生菌酸乳的生产.%Now it is common for adding probiotics in fermented yoghurt. Yoghurt was fermented by Lactobadllus casei Zhang (A) or combined with Bifidobacterium lactis V9 (B) plus with starter culture (G027) and followed with a 21 d storage at 4 t. The results showed that there was no significance between A and B concerning viscosity and syneresis. It also observed no significant difference existed in counts of L. casei 7ian% between A and B during storage and counts of two probiotics had no change as the storage passed by. However, Fermented milk by combined L. casei Zhang with B. lactis V9 possess markedly higher favorable sensory scores than L. casei Zhang fermented milk, suggesting that it is more suitable for probiotic yoghurt manufacture.

  9. Lactic acid microbiota identification in water, raw milk, endogenous starter culture, and fresh Minas artisanal cheese from the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil during the dry and rainy seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R D; Oliveira, L G; Sant'Anna, F M; Luiz, L M P; Sandes, S H C; Silva, C I F; Silva, A M; Nunes, A C; Penna, C F A M; Souza, M R

    2016-08-01

    Minas artisanal cheese, produced in the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil, is made from raw milk and endogenous starter cultures. Although this cheese is of great historical and socioeconomic importance, little information is available about its microbiological and physical-chemical qualities, or about its beneficial microbiota. This work was aimed at evaluating the qualities of the cheese and the components used for its production, comparing samples collected during the dry and rainy seasons. We also conducted molecular identification and isolated 50 samples of lactic acid bacteria from cheese (n=21), water (n=3), raw milk (n=9), and endogenous starter culture (n=17). The microbiological quality of the cheese, water, raw milk, and endogenous starter culture was lower during the rainy period, given the higher counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and total and thermotolerant coliforms. Enterococcus faecalis was the lactic acid bacteria isolated most frequently (42.86%) in cheese samples, followed by Lactococcus lactis (28.57%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (14.29%). Lactobacillus brevis (5.88%), Enterococcus pseudoavium (5.88%), Enterococcus durans (5.88%), and Aerococcus viridans (5.88%) were isolated from endogenous starter cultures and are described for the first time in the literature. The lactic acid bacteria identified in the analyzed cheeses may inhibit undesirable microbiota and contribute to the safety and flavor of the cheese, but this needs to be evaluated in future research.

  10. Genotypic and technological diversity of Brevibacterium linens strains for use as adjunct starter cultures in 'Pecorino di Filiano' cheese ripened in two different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, Maria Grazia; Cafaro, Caterina; Salzano, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-two Brevibacterium linens strains isolated from 'Pecorino di Filiano' cheese ripened in two different environments (natural cave and storeroom) were characterized and differentiated for features of technological interest and by genotypic methods, in order to select strains with specific features to be used as surface starter cultures. Results showed significant differences among strains on the basis of physiological and technological features, indicating heterogeneity within the species. A middle-low level of proteolytic activity was observed in 27.3 % of strains, while a small group (9.1 %) showed a high ability. Lipolytic activity was observed at three different temperatures and the highest value was detected at 20 °C with 13.6 % of strains, while an increase in temperature produced a slightly lower lipolysis in all strains. The evaluation of diacetyl production revealed that only 22.8 % of strains showed this ability, and most of them were isolated from product ripened in the natural cave. All strains exhibited only leu-aminopeptidase activity, with values more elevated in strains coming from the natural cave product. The combined analysis of genotypic results with the data obtained by the features of technological interest study established that the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) clusters obtained were composed not only of different genotypes but of different profiles based on technological properties too. This study demonstrated the importance of the ripening environment that affects the typical features of the artisanal product, leading to the selection of a specific surface microflora. Characterized strains could be associated within surface starters to standardize the production process of cheese, but preserving its typical organoleptic and sensory characteristics and improving the quality of the final product. PMID:25147054

  11. Genotyping of starter cultures of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus for fermentation of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) to produce Soumbala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouoba, Labia Irène Ivette; Diawara, Bréhima; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom kofi; Traoré, Alfred Sababénedyo; Møller, Peter Lange

    2004-01-15

    Bacillus spp. are the predominant microorganisms in fermented African locust bean called Soumbala in Burkina Faso. Ten strains selected as potential starter cultures were characterised by PCR amplification of the16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS-PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism of the ITS-PCR (ITS-PCR RFLP), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequencing of the 968-1401 region of the 16S rDNA. In previous studies, the isolates were identified by phenotyping as Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus. The phenotyping was repeated as a reference in the present study. The ITS-PCR and ITS-PCR RLFP allowed a typing at species level. The PFGE was more discriminative and allowed a typing at strain level. Full agreement with the phenotyping was observed in all cases. The sequencing of the 16S rDNA allowed the identification at species level with an identity from 97% to 100% comparing the sequences to those from the GenBank databases. The desired cultures of B. subtilis and B. pumilus from African locust bean fermentation were distinguished by ITS-PCR and ITS-PCR RLFP from Bacillus cereus and Bacillus sphaericus which sometimes occur in the beginning of the fermentation.

  12. Biofilm formation on Conservolea natural black olives during single and combined inoculation with a functional Lactobacillus pentosus starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grounta, Athena; Doulgeraki, Agapi I; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2016-06-01

    The potential of biofilm formation of multifunctional starters Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Pichia membranifaciens M3A during inoculated fermentation of Conservolea natural black olives according to Greek-style processing was investigated. Olives were directly brined in 8% (w/v) NaCl following three fermentation procedures namely, i) spontaneous fermentation, ii) inoculated fermentation with L. pentosus B281, and iii) co-inoculated fermentation with L. pentosus B281 and P. membranifaciens M3A. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts were monitored on olives by plate counting for a period of 153 days, whereas the survival of the inoculated strains was confirmed by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Inoculated fermentation with L. pentosus B281 with/without the presence of the yeast resulted in higher acidification of the brine compared to the spontaneous process where no indigenous LAB could be enumerated. The population of LAB on olives ranged between 5.5 and 6.5 log CFU/g and it was maintained at higher levels compared to yeasts (3.5-4.5 log CFU/g) throughout the process. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 could successfully colonize the surface of black olives presenting high recovery rate (100%) at the end of fermentation in contrast to P. membranifaciens M3A that was successfully recovered (42%) only after 72 days of the process. The obtained results provide interesting perspectives for the production of natural black olives with functional properties. PMID:26919816

  13. Comparing the Protective Effect of the Conventional Pasteurized and Lactobacillus Acidophilus-fortified Pasteurized Yoghurts on Candida Albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi H.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problems: Candida species are the most common fungal pathogen in human’s body. Therefore an accurate and immediate treatment seems to be necessary. Nowadays, alternative treatments, such as probiotics, are considered because of the adverse side effects of chemical medications. Probiotics are alive organisms which can be used for medical purposes and are added to different kinds of diary such as yoghurt. Lactobacill Acidophilus (LA was detected form human’s recourses many years ago and nowadays can be found in special kinds of milk, yoghurt, juice and food complementories. Purpose: In this study we are to compare the effect of conventional pasteurized and lactobacillus acidophilus- fortified pasteurized yoghurt on Candida Albicans in vitro.Materials and Method: Candida Albicans was isolated from 30 oral candidasis patients, cultured and prepared as standard suspension. Probiotic powder of LA in MRS Media after 24hrs led to 5×109 lactobacillus. LA- fortified yoghurt was prepared via adding lactobacills into 250 ml of pasteurized boiled milk after 8hrs in 37oc. We prepared 3 tubes and added standard suspension of Candida in each of them. Adding sterile yoghourt, conventional pasteurized yoghurt and LA-fortified yoghurt to the tubes respectively, we put them in 35oc incubator for 48 hrs. We added the content of each tube in Sabouraud agar media and incubated in 25oc for 72 hrs and then counted the colonies.Results: There was a significant difference between the mean of colonies in each group during 5 days ( p = 0, df = 4 and also on each day ( p = 0, df = 2.Conclusion: L.A. can inhibit colonization of Candida in vitro. In this study the most of Candida colonies were in the sterile yoghurt and the least of them were in LA fortified yoghurt.

  14. Study on DVS Yogurt Starter Cultures in Processing of Yogurt%直投式酸奶发酵剂在酸奶制作中应用的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙灵霞; 张秋会; 李红; 李真真

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce the amount of DVS yogurt starter cultures and the production cost, the activation times and inoculum concentration were studied. The results showed that the best activation times of 518 and 350 DVS yogurt starter culture was once, and the best inoculum concentration was 0.06g/250mL.%为了减少直投式酸奶发酵剂的用量和降低生产成本,对直投式酸奶发酵剂的活化次数和最小接种量进行了研究.结果表明:518、350直投式酸奶发酵剂的最佳活化次数均为一次,最佳接种量均为0.06g/250mL.

  15. Study on the Quality of Yoghurt Fermented at Low Temperature%低温发酵乳品质特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 任发政; 李晓鹏; 顾会咏; 甘伯中

    2011-01-01

    以青藏高原传统发酵牦牛乳中分离的保加利亚乳杆菌(编号为CGMCC2603)和酸乳球菌(编号为CGMCC1.3920)为研究对象,研究菌株低温发酵酸乳的感官特性、后酸化能力、粘度及双乙酰含量变化。结果表明试验菌株在25℃发酵的酸乳凝乳状态较好,冷藏14d后酸度分别提高29.2°T和8.5°T,后酸化较弱。冷藏期间粘度变化与发酵温度没有直接关系。低温有利于双乙酰的积累,双乙酰含量最高分别为12.04ug/mL和9.78ug/mL。本研究时开发低温发酵剂具有重要意义。%Take Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp.bulgaricus (accession number is CGMCC2603) and Lactococcus lactis (accession number is CGMCC1.3920) that isolated from Tibetan fermented yak milk at low temperature as starter. Sensory analysis, post acidification, viscosity and diacetyl were measured for all the yoghurt fermented at different temperature. Results indicated that yoghurt fermented at 25℃ with experimental strains had good texture; the titrable acidity increased 29.2°T and 8.5°T respectively during storage and had weak post acidification. Viscosity was not increased with the decreasing of the fermented temperature. Decreases in temperature might contribute to the accumulation of diacetyl, the maximum value of diacetyl were 12.04ug/mL and 9.78ug/mL, respectively. This study had important significance for the development of the starter culture fermented at low temperature.

  16. Impact of NaCl reduction in Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses on proliferation and autolysis of DL-starter cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lise; Ryssel, Mia; Svendsen, Carina;

    2015-01-01

    of two commercial DL-starter cultures (C1 and C2) used in the production of Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses were affected by reduced NaCl levels. Cheeses containing reduced-salt) and 3.4% (normal-salted) (w/v) NaCl in moisture were produced and analyzed during 12weeks of ripening.......e. 22% and 21%), whereas no significant difference was found between the reduced-salt (i.e. 31% and 35%) and normal-salted cheeses. At the later stages of ripening (i.e. 7 and 11weeks) NaCl had no significant influence. For cheeses produced with C2, a significant influence of NaCl was only found...... in cheeses ripened for 7weeks, where the unsalted and reduced-salt cheeses had retained a significantly higher number of the initial LAB counts (cfu/g) (i.e. 39% and 38%), compared to the normal-salted cheeses (i.e. 21%). In the Samsoe cheeses, bacteria were organized as single cells, in groups of 2-3 cells...

  17. Screening and identification of lactic acid bacteria from raw seafoods and Thai fermented seafood products for their potential use as starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thitirut Jaichalad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB was analyzed from 52 samples of raw seafoods (shrimp and mussel, andThai fermented seafood products including fermented shrimp (kung-jom, mussel (hoi-dong, and fish (pla-jom. The viableLAB were 3.0103 to 3.4108 CFU/g. LAB were isolated and screened for their inhibitory activities against eight indicatorbacteria by agar spot test. Among all selected LAB isolates, 52 isolates showed strong inhibitory activity. They were furthercharacterized for their ability to resist hydrochloric acid, lactic acid, bile salts, and sodium chloride, and their ability toproduce bacteriocins and amino acid decarboxylase. The selected LAB isolates, 1IS11 and 4IS17, were bacteriocin-producingstrains, and showed no amino acid decarboxylase activity, which was suitable property for starter cultures. The isolate 1IS11could resist both hydrochloric and lactic acid at the lowest pH of 2.0, while the isolate 4IS17 was able to tolerate hydrochloricand lactic acid at the lowest pH of 1.5 and 2.0, respectively. Both isolates could grow in MRS broth containing a highconcentration of sodium chloride (10 % and bile salts (1.5%. They were identified by morphological characterization, biochemicaltest, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The isolate 1IS11 was found to be Enterococcus faecium, whereas the isolate4IS17 was Enterococcus faecalis.

  18. Technological characterization and probiotic traits of yeasts isolated from Altamura sourdough to select promising microorganisms as functional starter cultures for cereal-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perricone, Marianne; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2014-04-01

    The main topic of this research was to select some suitable functional starter cultures for cereal-based food or beverages. This aim was achieved through a step-by step approach focused on the technological characterization, as well as on the evaluation of the probiotic traits of yeasts; the technological characterization relied on the assessment of enzymatic activities (catalase, urease, β-glucosidase), growth under various conditions (pH, temperature, addition of salt, lactic and acetic acids) and leavening ability. The results of this step were used as input data for a Principal Component Analysis; thus, the most technologically relevant 18 isolates underwent a second selection for their probiotic traits (survival at pH 2.5 and with bile salts added, antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial activity towards foodborne pathogens, hydrophobic properties and biofilm production) and were identified through genotyping. Two isolates (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 2 and S. cerevisiae strain 4) were selected and analyzed in the last step for the simulation of the gastric transit; these isolates showed a trend similar to S. cerevisiae var. boulardii ATCC MYA-796, a commercial probiotic yeast used as control. PMID:24290622

  19. Determinação da compatibilidade de desenvolvimento de culturas bacteriocinogênicas e fermento láctico Determination of the growth compatibility between bacteriocinogenic and starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela da Silva do Nascimento

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Além da utilização como bioconservantes de alimentos, algumas culturas bacteriocinogênicas estão sendo empregadas para acelerar a maturação de queijos. Porém a compatibilidade de desenvolvimento destas culturas com o fermento láctico é essencial para a obtenção de produtos característicos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a compatibilidade de desenvolvimento de Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, Lactobacillus plantarum ALC 01 e Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 com duas marcas comerciais de fermentos lácticos. Inicialmente, foi determinada a sensibilidade in vitro dos fermentos às culturas bacteriocinogênicas, somente Lc. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 foi capaz de promover a inibição de ambos os fermentos. Durante desenvolvimento associativo em leite a 35 ºC, as culturas bacteriocinogênicas não afetaram significativamente a produção de ácido láctico pelos fermentos. Estes, por sua vez proporcionaram aumento significativo da atividade de pediocina AcH e enterocina FAIR-E 198 e supressão da atividade da nisina. Dentre todas as culturas lácticas, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 apresentou a maior atividade de aminopeptidases (0,226 a 0,390. Portanto, baseado nos resultados em questão, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 e E. faecium FAIR-E 198 apresentam características de compatibilidade de desenvolvimento com o fermento mesofílico tipo O para serem empregadas como adjuntas no processamento de queijos.In addition to being used as food bioconservants, some bacteriocinogenic cultures have been employed to accelerate cheese ripening. However, the compatibility between their growth and starter cultures is essential to obtain the characteristic products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth compatibility between Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, Lactobacillus plantarum ALC 01, and Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 and two commercial starter cultures. Initially, the sensibility in vitro of the starter to

  20. SPSS for starters

    CERN Document Server

    Cleophas, Ton J

    2010-01-01

    This book contains all statistical tests relevant for starters on SPSS. Each test is explained using a data example from clinical practice along with the main tables of results with an accompanying text with interpretations of the results and hints.

  1. Starter Motor Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Gerhardsson, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Starter motors are sensitive for overheating. By estimating the temperature and preventing cranking in time, there is an option to avoid the dangerous temperatures. The truck manufacturer Scania CV AB proposed a master thesis that should evaluate the need of an overheating protection for the starter motor. The aim is to evaluate any positive effects of implementing an algorithm that can estimate the brush temperature instead of using the available time constrain, which allows 35 seconds of cr...

  2. Expecting yoghurt drinks to taste sweet or pleasant increases liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzel, Johanna; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; El Deredy, Wael; Blanchette, Isabelle; Thomas, Anna

    2011-02-01

    This experiment studied the effect of cues on liking of yoghurt drinks. We examined how hedonic (degrees of like/dislike) and sensory (level of sweetness/saltiness) cues affected liking ratings. In the learning phase, thirty-nine participants learned to associate cues with yoghurt drinks. Cues were learned for mildly and highly salty and sweet yoghurts. Sweet yoghurts were used as liked, salty yoghurts as disliked stimuli. Half the participants associated the cues with yoghurt liking (i.e. hedonic cues), the other half with the sweetness or saltiness of the yoghurt drink (i.e. sensory cues). In the test phase a cue was presented to participants subliminally (20 ms) or supraliminally (500 ms) before they tasted and rated liking of one of three yoghurt drinks in each category. The three yoghurt drinks consisted of the trained samples and a new third drink situated approximately half-way in between. The cue-drink combination was either congruent (the cued drink was given) or incongruent (two degrees of incongruence). For sweet yoghurt drinks cue-following assimilation effects were found for the supraliminal but not the subliminal cue presentations. For salty yoghurts, no effects of cue were found. This indicates that the nature of the drinks itself plays a critical role in modulating assimilation.

  3. Supplementation with fruit and okara soybean by-products and amaranth flour increases the folate production by starter and probiotic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Marcela Albuquerque Cavalcanti de; Bedani, Raquel; Vieira, Antônio Diogo Silva; LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2016-11-01

    The ability of two starter cultures (Streptococcus (S.) thermophilus ST-M6 and St. thermophilus TA-40) and eleven probiotic cultures (St. thermophilus TH-4, Lactobacillus (Lb.) acidophilus LA-5, Lb. fermentum PCC, Lb. reuteri RC-14, Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lb. casei 431, Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei F19, Lb. rhamnosus GR-1, and Lb. rhamnosus LGG, Bifidobacterium (B.) animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, B. longum subsp. longum BB-46, and B. longum subsp. infantis BB-02) to produce folate in a modified MRS broth (mMRS) supplemented with different fruit (passion fruit, acerola, orange, and mango) and okara soybean by-products and amaranth flour was investigated. Initially, the folate content of each vegetable substrate was determined: passion fruit by-product showed the lowest folate content (8±2ng/mL) and okara the highest (457±22ng/mL). When the orange by-product and amaranth flour were added to mMRS, all strains were able to increase folate production after 24h of fermentation. B. longum subsp infantis BB-02 produced the highest concentrations (1223±116ng/mL) in amaranth flour. Okara was the substrate that had the lowest impact on the folate production by all strains evaluated. Lb. acidophilus LA-5 (297±36ng/mL) and B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (237±23ng/mL) were also able to produce folate after growth in mMRS containing acerola and orange by-products, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate that folate production is not only strain-dependent but also influenced by the addition of different substrates in the growth media. PMID:27442847

  4. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

    2014-01-01

    Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with freshor cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature...... cheese to improvemodel performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese....... The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias...

  5. Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, II: Microstructure and Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Siefarth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency (RF heating was applied to stirred yoghurt after culturing in order to enhance the shelf-life and thereby meet industrial demands in countries where the distribution cold chain cannot be implicitly guaranteed. In parallel, a convectional (CV heating process was also tested. In order to meet consumers’ expectations with regard to texture and sensory properties, the yoghurts were heated to different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C. This second part of our feasibility study focused on the changes in microstructure and texture caused by post-fermentative heat treatment. It was shown that there were always microstructural changes with additional heat treatment. Compared to the dense and compact casein network in the stirred reference yoghurt, network contractions and further protein aggregation were observed after heat treatment, while at the same time larger pore geometries were detected. The changes in microstructure as well as other physical and sensorial texture properties (syneresis, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, apparent viscosity, G’, G’’, homogeneity were in good agreement with the temperature and time of the heat treatment (thermal stress. The RF heated products were found to be very similar to the stirred reference yoghurt, showing potential for further industrial development such as novel heating strategies to obtain products with prolonged shelf-life.

  6. Influence of Starter Cultures, Fermentation Techniques, and Acetic Acid on the Volatile Aroma and Sensory Profile of Cocoa Liquor and Chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael

    of acetic acid concentration on the generation of flavour precursors and volatile aroma compounds in cocoa beans subjected to incubation in acetic acid buffers. (GTG)5-based rep-PCR fingerprinting in combination with 26S rRNA (D1/D2 region) and actin gene sequencing revealed that during the first 12 hours...... chocolates were characterised as fruity, acid and bitter with berry, yoghurt and balsamic flavours. Despite differences in the volatile aroma profile, the inoculated chocolates could not be distinguished from a spontaneously fermented control in a triangle test by a panel of un-trained judges. Arguably...

  7. Instant Sinatra starter

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, Instant Sinatra Starter will help you create a simple web app in no time at all. Instant Sinatra Starter is great if you are looking to get started with Sinatra for web development. Some previous experience with Ruby would be beneficial though not necessary for this step-by-step exploration of Sinatra and the world of web development.

  8. Instant Sublime Text starter

    CERN Document Server

    Haughee, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A starter which teaches the basic tasks to be performed with Sublime Text with the necessary practical examples and screenshots. This book requires only basic knowledge of the Internet and basic familiarity with any one of the three major operating systems, Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. However, as Sublime Text 2 is primarily a text editor for writing software, many of the topics discussed will be specifically relevant to software development. That being said, the Sublime Text 2 Starter is also suitable for someone without a programming background who may be looking to learn one of the tools of

  9. Instant Apache Maven starter

    CERN Document Server

    Turatti, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book follows a starter approach for using Maven to create and build a new Java application or Web project from scratch.Instant Apache Maven Starter is great for Java developers new to Apache Maven, but also for experts looking for immediate information. Moreover, only 20% of the necessary information about Maven is used in 80% of the activities. This book aims to focus on the most important information, those pragmatic parts you actually use

  10. Instant Prezi starter

    CERN Document Server

    Ladores, Minerva M

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starter guide to learning how to create presentations with Prezi.Instant Prezi Starter takes you through the first steps of learning how to use this amazing web-based tool! If you are tired of your same old presentation tools and are looking to wow your audience, then this book is for you! If you surf the Internet, you're all set. If you have created a website, wiki, or blog, then you're in even better shape! Enjoy!

  11. Rice- Coconut Yoghurt: Preparation, Nutritional and Sensory Qualities

    OpenAIRE

    Belewu, Moshood Adewale; Abdulsalam, Khadijat O.; Belewu, Kafayat; Belewu, Nosimot

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of using rice milk and coconut milk in the preparation of yoghurt was evaluated in a completely randomized design model. Commercial yoghurt was the control Treatment (A) while other Treatments were B (25% rice milk plus 75% coconut milk), C (50% rice milk plus 50% coconut milk) and D (75% rice milk plus 25% coconut milk) .The various yoghurt samples were analyzed for their proximate composition and sensory value. Higher crude protein content and solids not fat were recorded for T...

  12. Influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis lafti® b94, inulin and transglutaminase on the properties of set- style yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Benković

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase on quality and sensory properties of set-style yoghurt. Fresh, homogenized milk with 3,3% of milk fat was used for yoghurt production, with addition of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase activated during 1h 30 min at 55 °C. Enzyme inactivation was carried out by pasteurization of milk during 15 minutes at 85 °C. Control samples were prepared without addition of probiotic culture, inulin and transglutaminase. Physico-chemical parameters and sensory properties of produced set-style yoghurt have been determined. For reliable identification of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, isolated from the produced yoghurt, SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins and PCR with species specific primers for Bifidobacterium were carried out. It has been shown that produced set-style yoghurt with probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase had higher firmness, less syneresis and better sensory properties than control yoghurt samples. After 28 days of storage the viable count of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94 was higher in samples containing inulin as prebiotic. Fermentation of yoghurt samples containing inulin and transglutaminase lasted shorter than fermentation of samples without inulin and transglutaminase. The presence of high number of probiotic culture (more than 106 cells/mL in produced set yoghurts was confirmed by SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins and PCR with species specific primers for Bifidobacterium

  13. Influence of starter culture and a protease on the generation of ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant bioactive nitrogen compounds in Iberian dry-fermented sausage "salchichón".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Margarita; Benito, María J; Martín, Alberto; Casquete, Rocío; Córdoba, Juan J; Córdoba, María G

    2016-03-01

    The effect of the addition of an autochthonous starter culture and the protease EPg222 on the generation of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory and antioxidant compounds by the dry-fermented sausage "salchichón" was investigated. Sausages were prepared with purified EPg222 and Pediococcus acidilactici MS200 and Staphylococcus vitulus RS34 as the starter culture (P200S34), separately and together, ripened for 90 days, and compared to a control batch. Among the ripening time points (20, 35, 65, 90 days) studied, batches inoculated with EPg222 had higher nitrogen compound concentrations at 63 days of ripening. ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities were also highest in both batches with EPg222 at 63 days of ripening, and these activities were stable in most cases after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion. These activities were correlated with the most relevant compounds detected by HLPC-ESI-MS. The principal components analysis (PCA) linked the P200S34 + EPg222 batch with the major compounds identified. The antioxidant activity was higher at 63 days of ripening, especially in highly proteolytic batches, such as P200S34 + EPg222. The ACE-inhibitory activity was not associated with any of the major compounds. The use of the enzyme EPg222 in association with the starter culture P200S34 in the preparation of dry-cured meat products could be of great importance due to their demonstrated ability to produce compounds with high biological activity, such as ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activity. PMID:27441267

  14. Influence of starter culture and a protease on the generation of ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant bioactive nitrogen compounds in Iberian dry-fermented sausage "salchichón".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Margarita; Benito, María J; Martín, Alberto; Casquete, Rocío; Córdoba, Juan J; Córdoba, María G

    2016-03-01

    The effect of the addition of an autochthonous starter culture and the protease EPg222 on the generation of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory and antioxidant compounds by the dry-fermented sausage "salchichón" was investigated. Sausages were prepared with purified EPg222 and Pediococcus acidilactici MS200 and Staphylococcus vitulus RS34 as the starter culture (P200S34), separately and together, ripened for 90 days, and compared to a control batch. Among the ripening time points (20, 35, 65, 90 days) studied, batches inoculated with EPg222 had higher nitrogen compound concentrations at 63 days of ripening. ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities were also highest in both batches with EPg222 at 63 days of ripening, and these activities were stable in most cases after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion. These activities were correlated with the most relevant compounds detected by HLPC-ESI-MS. The principal components analysis (PCA) linked the P200S34 + EPg222 batch with the major compounds identified. The antioxidant activity was higher at 63 days of ripening, especially in highly proteolytic batches, such as P200S34 + EPg222. The ACE-inhibitory activity was not associated with any of the major compounds. The use of the enzyme EPg222 in association with the starter culture P200S34 in the preparation of dry-cured meat products could be of great importance due to their demonstrated ability to produce compounds with high biological activity, such as ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activity.

  15. Instant OSGi starter

    CERN Document Server

    Goodyear, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Using a practical approach with explanation where needed, the book will take an in depth look at what OSGi is and what it offers to Java programmers and development standards. ""OSGi Starter"" is intended for the senior Java programmer whom will be joining OSGi based projects, or for Architects looking to broaden their exposure to OSGi as a beneficial framework and runtime software system.

  16. Oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Debnath, D.; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    The oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt as well as the antioxidative effect of citric acid ester, vitamin K and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were investigated by measuring peroxide value and volatile secondary oxidation products and by sensory analysis....... No oxidation was observed in yoghurt stored at 2 [degree sign]C for up to 19 days, with or without addition of citric acid ester. Fish oil enriched yoghurt was also very stable even when compared to yoghurt with added rapeseed oil or a mixture of rapeseed oil and fish oil stored for up to 29 days. The addition...

  17. On-line monitoring of important organoleptic methyl-branched aldehydes during batch fermentation of starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus reveal new insight into their production in a model fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vos Petersen, Christian; Beck, Hans Christian; Lauritsen, Frants R

    2004-01-01

    of a longer aerobic growth period. Growing S. xylosus under conditions resembling those in a fermented sausage revealed that NaCl (5%) increased aldehyde production considerably, whereas KNO(3) (0.03%) or NaNO(2) (0.03%) had little effect. A lowering of pH from 7.2 to 6.0 reduced cell density, but had a minor......A small fermentor (55 mL) was directly interfaced to a membrane inlet mass spectrometer for continuous on-line monitoring of oxygen and volatile metabolites during batch fermentations of the starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus. Using this technique, we were able to correlate production...

  18. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viabilidade de Staphylococcus xylosus isoladas de embutidos artesanais para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em produtos cárneos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Maria Fiorentini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages.Investigamos a viabilidade de cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5 isoladas de embutidos com fermentação natural, para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em embutidos fermentados produzidos na Região Sul do Brasil. O estudo demonstrou que cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5 apresentaram crescimento significativo durante a fermentação, estabilidade no processo de liofilização e conservação, ausência de produção de enterotoxinas e viabilidade para aplicação como cultivo iniciador simples ou associado com bactérias lácticas na elaboração de embutidos fermentados.

  19. Effects on product quality for probiotic yoghurts caused by long storage times during production

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Catrine

    2009-01-01

    Recent years there has been a large increase in the worldwide sales of cultured products containing probiotics. The obstacle in the production of fermented products incubated with probiotic strains is its effect on sensory, chemical and physical properties. This Master´s Thesis investigates how extended storage times in fermentation tank as well as buffer tank during production of probiotic yoghurts affect final product quality. Through experimental studies, maximum storage times for probioti...

  20. Research on development of Bifidobacterium adolescentis-containing solidified yoghurt and selective medium for strains%青春双歧杆菌凝固型酸奶研制及选择性培养基比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘韩; 关宏; 杨文钦; 张琪; 韩明宇; 刘吉成

    2011-01-01

    以鲜牛奶、白砂糖为主要原料,以青春双歧杆菌、保加利亚乳杆菌、嗜热链球菌为发酵剂,制成营养保健的青春双歧杆菌凝固型酸奶.通过试验确定了青春双歧杆菌凝固型酸奶最佳工艺为:白砂糖8%,接种量3%,保加利亚乳杆菌:嗜热链球菌:青春双歧杆菌=1:1:4,发酵4h.结合MRS培养基和LM-MRS培养基可以对青春双歧杆菌凝固型酸奶中三种乳酸分别计数.青春双歧杆凝固型酸奶中保加利亚乳杆菌活菌数为8.0x108 cfu.mL-1,嗜热链球菌活茵数为8.5x108cfu·mL-1,青春双歧杆菌活茵数为2.0x106 cfu·mL-1.%The nutritional and healthy solidified yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium adolescentic has been made, using fresh milk and sugar as the main raw materials and using Bifidobacterium adolescentic, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as starter cultures. The optimum technological condition of solidified yoghurt of Bifidobacterium adolescentic was determined: they are respectively 8% of sugar, 3% of inoculum and three lactic acid bacteria which are Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium adoles centic and the percentage of these three lactic acid bacteria is 1:1:4, the time of fermentation is 4 h. The number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium adolescentic could be counted in solidified Bifidobacterium adolescentic. Solidified yoghurt contain the number of viable Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is 8.0 × 108 cfu· mL-1, the number of viable Streptococcus thermophilus is 8.5× 108 cfu· mL-1, the number of viable Bifidobacterium adolescentic is 2.0×106 cfu·mL-1.

  1. Instant Google Drive starter

    CERN Document Server

    Procopio, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This book is a Starter which teaches you how to use Google Drive practically. This book is perfect for people of all skill levels who want to enjoy the benefits of using Google Drive to safely store their files online and in the cloud. It's also great for anyone looking to learn more about cloud computing in general. Readers are expected to have an Internet connection and basic knowledge of using the internet.

  2. Instant Gimp starter

    CERN Document Server

    Amreen, Fazreil

    2013-01-01

    A Starter guide which helps you practically start with GIMP through plenty of examples and screenshots. This is an excellent handbook for anyone who would like to start drawing using their computers. The approach used within this book is objective so that readers from any age will be able to learn the process. The setup is so basic that you will need only a computer and a very minimal amount of computer literacy to start using this book.

  3. FERMENTABILITY AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LACTOPEROXIDASE ACTIVATED BUFFALO MILK YOGHURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz H. Soomro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study was planned to produce and evaluate the coagulum from buffalo milk preserved with the activation of its lactoperoxidase system (LPO-system. A total of 10 trials were conducted and in each trial milk base was equally divided into three parts, two of which were treated with 20 mg/L (A and 30 mg/L (B solution of Sodium thiocyanate + Hydrogen peroxide and third part was kept as control (C. All the samples were analyzed for fermentability trend, pH, acidity, viscosity, specific gravity, syneresis and organoleptic properties. The decreasing trend in pH during fermentation period was comparatively slow in LPO-system activated milk A and B (4h and 5h as compared to control yoghurt (3h. The titratable acidity (% lactic acid of A, B and C yoghurt was 0.86±0.022, 0.85±0.025 and 0.89±0.024, respectively. The viscosity and specific gravity of control yoghurt was significantly (P0.05 were observed in the total solids, fat, ash, lactose and protein contents among the control, A and B yoghurt. Two week stored samples of control yoghurt received lower sensory score for appearance, flavor, body/texture and overall acceptability as compared to fresh control yoghurt. Simultaneously, LPO-system treated A and B yoghurt received high score during storage period than the control yoghurt.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF SET AND DRINKING SESAME YOGHURT FROM DECORTICATED SESAME SEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abdullah Afaneh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sesame yoghurt developed from sesame seed fortified with different fortifiers resulted in yoghurt that lacks the typical yogurt texture. This study aimed to develop set and drinking yoghurt from sesame milk. Gums were used to develop sesame set yoghurt and sesame yoghurt drink. The best set yoghurt was produced from the sesame milk fortified with 2% Cheese Dried Whey (CDW plus 0.6% pectin and 0.2% CMC. The best yoghurt drink was produced from sesame milk fortified with dried whey plus 0.2% guar gum and pasteurized at 75°C for 5 min.

  5. Instant Metasploit starter

    CERN Document Server

    Ranganath, Karthik

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Metasploit Starter is a fast-paced introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start as a smart ethical hacker, and defend your world from attacks instantly.This book is designed for security enthusiasts who are more interested in getting hands-on experience rather than reading just theory. It is also for anyone who is aware of the Metasploit framework and wishes to understand it better and start using it inst

  6. Munin plugin starter

    CERN Document Server

    Brinke, Bart ten

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This hands-on Starter guide will get you up and running with Munin and Munin plugins, giving you the power to monitor, fix, and optimize your networks.This book is great for system administrators who want to improve the monitoring level of their systems. It's assumed that you have some experience with Linux-based systems and know your way around them.

  7. Instant Spring security starter

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  8. Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages and their technological properties for application as starter cultures Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de salames artesanais naturalmente fermentados e suas propriedades tecnológicas como culturas iniciadoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Cortez Sawitzki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, technological properties of L. plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages manufactured in the South region of Brazil were investigated in order to obtain a starter culture. The technological properties evaluated were the following: ability to growth at different pH values, at different temperatures, in different salt concentrations and in the presence of commercial curing salt, fast production of acid, determination of D - and L - lactic acid; nitrate reductase activity; antagonistic activity and stability of the isolated cultures after fermentation, concentration, and freeze-drying process. The isolated strains showed effectiveness to improve technological properties as starter cultures.No presente estudo foram investigadas as propriedades tecnológicas de culturas de L. plantarum, isoladas de salames artesanais, naturalmente fermentados, manufaturados na região Sul do Brasil, a fim de obter um cultivo iniciador. As propriedades tecnológicas investigadas foram as seguintes: habilidade das culturas para crescer em diferentes valores de pH, em diferentes concentrações de sal e na presença de sal de cura comercial; rápida produção de ácido, produção do isômero D - ou L - ácido láctico, atividade nitrato redutase, atividade antagonística e estabilidade das culturas após processo de fermentação, concentração e liofilização. Todas as culturas apresentaram eficiência quanto às propriedades tecnológicas investigadas.

  9. Rice- Coconut Yoghurt: Preparation, Nutritional and Sensory Qualities

    OpenAIRE

    Afishata Mohammed Abujaja; Hamza Adam; Hudu Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of using rice milk and coconut milk in the preparation of yoghurt was evaluated in a completely randomized design model. Commercial yoghurt was the control Treatment (A) while other Treatments were B (25% rice milk plus 75% coconut milk), C (50% rice milk plus 50% coconut milk) and D (75% rice milk plus 25% coconut milk) .The various yoghurt samples were analyzed for their proximate composition and sensory value. Higher crude protein content and sHamza Adam olids not fat were rec...

  10. Comparison of Flavor Substances from Steamed Bread Fermented with a Mixed Starter Culture or Commercial Bread Yeast%复合发酵剂馒头和单一酵母馒头风味物质比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩德权; 孙庆申; 李冰; 吴桐

    2012-01-01

    采用同时蒸馏萃取(simultaneous distillation extraction,SDE)提取,气相色谱-质谱联用(gas chromatogra-phy-mass spectrometry,GC-MS)检测复合发酵剂馒头和单一酵母馒头的风味物质成分,结果表明:从复合发酵剂馒头中检测到36种化合物,包括对风味物质贡献较大的醇类、酯类、羰基化合物等。从单一发酵剂馒头中检测到16种化合物。研究结果表明,复合发酵剂馒头的风味物质不仅种类多,而且相对含量也明显高于酵母馒头。%In this work,the compositions of flavor substances in steamed bread fermented with a mixed starter culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae,Lactobacillus acidophilus,Lactobacillus paracasei and Hansenula anomala(4:2:6:1) or commercial bread yeast(Hubei Angel Yeast Co.,Ltd.) were determined by simultaneous distillation-extraction(SDE) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS).The results showed that 36 compounds including hydrocarbons,alcohols,esters and carbonyl compounds were detected in steamed bread prepared with the mixed starter culture;while 16 compounds were detected in steamed bread prepared with pure yeast fermentation.Therefore,mixed strain fermentation could result in more types and contents of flavor compounds in steamed bread than pure yeast fermentation.

  11. Rice- Coconut Yoghurt: Preparation, Nutritional and Sensory Qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belewu, Moshood Adewale

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of using rice milk and coconut milk in the preparation of yoghurt was evaluated in a completely randomized design model. Commercial yoghurt was the control Treatment (A while other Treatments were B (25% rice milk plus 75% coconut milk, C (50% rice milk plus 50% coconut milk and D (75% rice milk plus 25% coconut milk .The various yoghurt samples were analyzed for their proximate composition and sensory value. Higher crude protein content and solids not fat were recorded for Treatment C. The overall acceptability was greatest for Treatment C, greater for Treatment B, great for Treatment D and least for Treatment A (control. This type of yoghurt is recommended for weight watcher and lactose intolerance persons.

  12. Development of Set Raspberry Soya-yoghurt%凝固型覆盆子酸豆奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐民民; 颜繁龙; 李岩

    2012-01-01

      Set Raspberry Soya-yoghurt was made by using soy, raw milk and raspberry. In this paper, the opti⁃mum content of the soya-milk was obtained, while the optimization of technologic parameters for Set Raspber⁃ry Soya-yoghurt production were investigated by orthogonal test. Determined parameters for the production process were:fermentation temperature of 42℃, the starter inoculum of 3%and the addition quantity of Rasp⁃berry fruit of 5%. The Set Raspberry Soya-yoghurt tastes delicious and thus has extensive application pros⁃pects.%  以大豆、牛乳、覆盆子为主要原料研制凝固型酸豆奶,确定了豆乳替代牛乳的最佳添加量;同时以发酵温度(A)、果汁添加量(B)、菌种接种量(C)为三因素,对凝固型覆盆子酸豆奶的工艺参数进行了优化。试验结果表明,最优工艺优化参数:发酵温度为42℃,接种量为3%,覆盆子果汁添加量为5%。采用本工艺生产的凝固型酸豆奶不但口感细腻爽口,酸甜适宜,而且有浓郁的覆盆子香味,发展前景十分广阔。

  13. 发酵剂与凝乳酶对Mozzarella干酪品质的影响研究%Studies on Effects of Culture Starters and Coagulants on the Quality of Mozzarella Cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪梅; 张轶

    2014-01-01

    为生产出适合在国内消费的Mozzarella干酪,本文研究了发酵剂和凝乳酶对Mozzarella干酪品质的影响。结果表明:以产酸较快、产粘性较高、双乙酰含量较高、pH值为4.6时可溶性氮适中为原则,结合干酪的感官评价结果,选择CHOOZIT MA14发酵剂作为Mozzarella干酪实际生产用发酵剂;综合考虑凝乳的状态、凝乳时间及干酪产率和感官评价结果,添加量为0.025 g/L的奶酪凝乳酶更适用于Mozzarel a干酪的实际生产。%The paper studied the effect of culture starters and coagulants on the quality of Mozzarel a cheese which was suitable for domestic consumption. In view of the high acid production, production of viscous and diacetyl content, as wel as the soluble nitrogen is medium when the pH value is 4.6, the starter of CHOOZIT MA14 was chosen for the actual production. In consideration of the state and time of curd , cheese yield and texture and sensory evaluation, the cheese rennet which additives for 0.025 g/L was more suitable for the actual production of Mozzarel a cheese.

  14. Examining the possibilities of applying high pressure to preserve yoghurt supplemented with probiotic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Agnieszka; Grześkiewicz, Aleksandra; Wiśniewska, Krystyna; Reps, Arnold

    2012-09-01

    Natural yoghurt was subject to pressures of 200 and 250 MPa/4 and 18°C/15 min, after which milk-activated inocula of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. were added. The yoghurts were stored for 4 weeks at refrigeration temperature. After preparation and each week of storage, the count of bacteria, acidity, antibacterial property and an organoleptic assessment was determined. The highest survival rate was demonstrated by the bacteria of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. in the yoghurt pressurised 200 MPa/15min at 4°C. Acidity increases in the control yoghurts were higher than in the pressurised ones. Pressurised yoghurts demonstrated weaker antibacterial effect in comparison to control yoghurts. Slight changes in the smell and taste were observed after pressurisation. Yoghurts pressurised at 18°C were characterised by more favourable organoleptic properties. Better conciseness of the curd and lower whey seep out were observed in pressurised yoghurt.

  15. Sensory Evaluation of the Strawberry Flavored Yoghurt with Stevia and Sucrose Addition

    OpenAIRE

    Lisak, Katarina; Lenc, Maja; Jeličić, Irena; Božanić, Rajka

    2012-01-01

    As obesity is a growing problem in the world the target of food industries is to produce low calorie products safe for the human health. According to the non-caloric value of stevia and its beneficial influence on human health, there is a great possibility of its use in the food industry. Plain yoghurts were produced by fermentation with ABT-5 cultures (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifi dobacterium spp.) and flavored by addition of 0.2 mL/100 g strawberry aroma. Y...

  16. Study on high cell density culture conditions of DVS yogurt starter cultures%直投式酸奶发酵剂高密度培养工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古绍彬; 吴影; 李爱江; 李荣春; 姬丹阳; 邓衍庆; 王强

    2009-01-01

    Lactobacillus bulgaricus L.b-23 and Streptococcus thermophilus S.t-14, which had been isolated and identified in our laboratory,were used for the production of DVS yogurt starter cultures.The optimum fermentation condition was studied.For strains L.b-23 :S.t-14 of 1:1, pH varied from 6.6~6.8,shakers rotating speed 85~100r/min, 42℃ for 18h,the cell population was up to 1.27×10~9 cfu/mL.The cryoprotectants consisting of trehalose (1.8%), glycerin (0.25%), glutamate- Na (5.5%) and Tween 80 (0.5%) was added to the suspension. Owing to the cryoprotectants produced a very positive effect on promoting the viability of the paired strains Lb-23-S.t-14,the cells of the production were 3.35 × 10~(11) cfu/g after freeze-drying treatment.%以实验室筛选获得的适于发酵生产用的直投式酸奶发酵剂菌株组合保加利亚乳杆菌Lb-23和嗜热链球菌S.t-14为材料,对其高密度培养工艺进行了研究.结果发现,按球菌:杆菌=1:1的混合培养比例,pH 6.6~6.8,转速85~100r/min,42℃培养18h后,活菌数达到1.27×10~9cfu/mL;菌悬液经1.8%海藻糖、0.25%甘油、5.5%谷氨酸钠和0.5%吐温80保护剂处理,冷冻干燥后获得的发酵剂活菌数达到3.35×10~(11)cfu/g.

  17. Cow feeding system versus milk utility for yoghurt manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Jasińska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. A cow feeding system had a significant effect on the basic parameters characterising milk technological usability. Milk from the Polish Black-and-White variety of the Holstein-Friesland cows kept in the Total Mixed Ration (TMR feeding system or on the traditional feeding regime was compared in terms of its utility for yoghurt manufacture. Material and methods. Milk samples, collected six times a year at about 2-month intervals, were assayed for density, acidity, and contents of fat, protein, and lactose. Dry matter and solid-not-fat (SNF contents were determined, as was the protein/fat ratio. Thermal stability of the milk was assessed with alcohol tests. The yoghurts manufactured (test yoghurts were assayed for acidity, acetaldehyde content, and hardness. The yoghurts were also subjected to sensory evaluation. Results. The cow feeding regime was found to have distinctly affected the composition and physico-chemical parameters of milk. Milk samples collected from cows fed in the traditional system contained more fat and dry matter than the milk yielded by the TMR-fed cattle. The latter produced milk that usually showed higher crude protein and casein contents, as well as higher SNF contents; in addition, the density of that milk was higher. Conclusions. The feeding regime did not affect, in any clear-cut way, the sensory characteristics of the test yoghurts. However, those yoghurts manufactured from the TMR-fed cow milk contained more acetaldehyde and, in most cases, showed higher hardness, compared to the yoghurts made from milk produced by the cows kept on the traditional feeding regime.

  18. 乳酸菌直投制备金针菇泡菜的风味物质分析%Analysis of flavor compounds in Flammulina velutiper fermented by lactobacillus starter culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈聪; 董英; 程新; 肖香; 史腊妮

    2015-01-01

    将2株Lactobacillus plantarum(植物乳杆菌)1∶1复配,直投制备金针菇泡菜,并以自然发酵为对照,比较发酵前后金针菇泡菜的感官指标及主要风味物质的变化.结果表明,直投发酵制备的金针菇泡菜呈乳白色,酸度适宜,感官指标优于自然发酵金针菇;直投发酵制备的金针菇泡菜所产生的挥发性风味物质中芳香族化合物、酚类、杂环化合物、醛类、酮类、醚类和酯类化合物的含量均明显高于自然发酵,且主要挥发性成分(相对含量在1%以上)如1-辛醇(1.53%)、乙醛(1.18%)、乙偶姻(1.14%)等含量均高于自然发酵.直投发酵所产生的总氨基酸(547.59 μg/mL)、鲜甜味氨基酸(315.93μg/mL)、必需氨基酸(76.46μg/mL)以及多种有机酸的含量也明显高于自然发酵.与自然发酵相比,乳酸菌直投发酵可以加快金针菇泡菜成熟速度,改善产品风味,适用于金针菇泡菜的生产.%Flammulina velutiper was fermented from two Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures with ratio of 1∶ 1.The natural fermentation was used as control.The organoleptic investigation was carried out and the main flavor compounds were compared.The results showed that,the color of Flammulina velutiper fermented from starter culture was white and its acidity was appropriate,which was better than that from natural fermentation.The contents of aromatic compound,phenols,heterocyclic compound,aldehyde,ketone,ether and esters in Flammulina velutiper from direct fermentation were higher than those from natural fermentation.The contents of some kinds of main flavor compounds (above 1%) in the former were higher,including 1-Octanol (1.53%),aldehyde (1.18%),acetoin (1.14%),and so on.The contents of total amino acid (547.59 μg/mL),amino acid (315.93 μg/mL) with sweet and palatable taste,essential amino acid (76.46 μg/mL) and many kinds of organic acid in the former were higher.Compared with natural fermentation

  19. Biodiversity of Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages isolated from cheese whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Miriam; Bonvini, Barbara; Rossetti, Lia; Meucci, Aurora; Giraffa, Giorgio; Carminati, Domenico

    2015-05-01

    Twenty-one Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages, 18 isolated from different cheese whey starters and three from CNRZ collection, were phenotypically and genetically characterised. A biodiversity between phages was evidenced both by host range and molecular (RAPD-PCR) typing. A more detailed characterisation of six phages showed similar structural protein profiles and a relevant genetic biodiversity, as shown by restriction enzyme analysis of total DNA. Latent period, burst time and burst size data evidenced that phages were active and virulent. Overall, data highlighted the biodiversity of Lb. helveticus phages isolated from cheese whey starters, which were confirmed to be one of the most common phage contamination source in dairy factories. More research is required to further unravel the ecological role of Lb. helveticus phages and to evaluate their impact on the dairy fermentation processes where whey starter cultures are used.

  20. PRESERVATIVE POTENTIAL OF PURIFIED BACTERIOCIN PRODUCED FROM BREVIBACILLUS BORSTELENSIS AG1 ISOLATED FROM MARCHA – A TRADITIONAL WINE STARTER CULTURE CAKE IN TOMATO PASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Gupta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purified bacteriocin produced from Brevibacillus borstelensis AG1 isolated from Marcha a local wine starter herbal cake, was used to enhance the shelf life of tomato paste. Preservative effect of purified bacteriocin was studied for nine days in tomato paste inoculated with food borne pathogens and was compared to commercial biopreservative – nisin and chemical preservative – sodium benzoate. The indicator strains i.e. Listeria monocytogenes MTCC839, Bacillus subtilis CRI and Clostridium perfringens MTCC1739 were used at the amount 8.16, 8.13 and 8.18 log CFU/ml. Viable cells were counted periodically and a consistent reduction in number of viable cells of each tested pathogen was observed. It was found antagonistic against L. monocytogenes MTCC839, B. subtilis CRI and C. perfringes MTCC1739 which are the most challengeable and food borne pathogens found in processed vegetables products. Purified bacteriocin was found active over a wide pH range i.e. 3.0 to 11.0 and was able to withstand temperature up to 100oC. It showed a better preservative potential by reducing pathogenic load of the tested strains (by 2.02, 2.05 and 2.02 log cycles (CFU/ml of L. monocytogenes MTCC839, B. subtilis CRI and C. perfringes MTCC1739, respectively in tomato paste as compared to control (without bacteriocin. This proves efficiency of bacteriocin produced by B. borstelensis AG1 as biopreservative to enhance the safety and shelf life of acidic foods.

  1. USO DE CULTURAS INICIADORAS PARA A ELABORAÇÃO DE UM EMBUTIDO À BASE DE CARNE DE PATO (Cairina moschata USE OF STARTER CULTURES TO PRODUCE FERMENTED SAUSAGE FROM DUCK MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Oliveira CARIONI

    2001-12-01

    industry, being directly related to the final product flavor, texture, colour and shelf life. The use of starter cultures to produce fermented sausages with a base of duck meat from the boning of thighs and real thighs was evaluated in this research. A mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum BN and Kokuria varians CCT 4492 starter cultures was used to inoculate the meat mixture. The sausages were smoked in a smoking chamber at 23±1°C for approximately 19 hours and were cured for 25 days. The initial counting of viable cells in the sausage mixture was 6.08Log10 CFU/g and 6.04Log10 CFU/g for lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcacea, respectively. Acid lactic bacteria displayed a growth of 0.79 logarithm cycles after the second day of processing, and an increase of 2.58 logarithm cycles at the 11th day. The final product acidity average value in lactic acid was 0,39%, and the pH value, 5.11. The physico-chemical analyses rested within Brazilian Legal Standards. The final product presented a sensorial profile within acceptable quality standards.

  2. Phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR of promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented sausages Caracterização fenotípica e por PCR espécie-específica de cepas promissoras como cultivos iniciadores de Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de embutidos cárneos fermentados naturalmente

    OpenAIRE

    Maristela Cortez Sawitzki; Ângela Maria Fiorentini; Fábio Cristiano Angonesi Brod; Caroline Tagliari; Teresinha Marisa Bertol; Ana Carolina Maisonnave Arisi; Ernani Sebastião Sant'Anna

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to characterize promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented artisanal sausage manufactured in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. From 127 isolates of homofermentative, Gram-positive and catalase-negative lactic acid bacteria, ten isolates were randomly selected and the phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR were performed. Genomic DNA from each isolated strain and from...

  3. Instant OpenNMS starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hachey, Ghislain

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starters' guide to learning OpenNMS with ease, with a focus on immediate results.Instant OpenNMS Starter is for network administrators of any level with a slight focus on the novice that would enjoy a swift glance at what OpenNMS has to offer. It assumes the reader will have knowledge of basic network operations and protocols such as the Internet Protocol Suite.

  4. Instant Spring for Android starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dahanne, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  5. Instant CloudFlare starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dickey, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, CloudFlare Starter will show you all you need to know in order to effectively improve your online presence in a multitude of different ways. ""Instant CloudFlare Starter"" is a practical yet accessible guide for website owners looking to optimize their site for optimum security and maximum performance.

  6. Instant PrimeFaces starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hlavats, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),

  7. 益生菌豆乳发酵剂的筛选%Screening of probiotic strain of soymilk fermentation starter culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包艳; 苏芳; 董喜梅; 姚国强; 王水泉; 张和平

    2011-01-01

    To produce fermented soy milk with favorable taste and sensory properties, L. Plantarum IMAU10156 and L. Plantarum IMAU60042 was repectively combined with L. Acidophilum S21-1, S. Thermophilus S21-2, B. Animalis L01-1 for soy milk fermnetation. The initial inoculation were lxl07 cfu/mL and then subjected to fermentation at 42 'C followed with a 4 °C storage for evaluation of viable counts, pH value, TA, viscosity, syneresis and sensory assessment (Id storage). The results showed that fermented soy milk in the L. Plantarum IMAU10156 and S. Thermophilus S21-2, L. Plantarum IMAU60042 and S. Thermophilus S21-2 group was of better fermented characteristic and pleasing aroma of beans, moderate sweet and great appearance plus with 6h short fermentation time, indicating that it is a promising potential starter cuture for probiotic soy milk fermentation.%为生产出具有良好风味和感官特性的发酵豆乳,选用Lacobacillus plantarum IMAU10156和L.IMAU60042分别与Lacbobacillus acidophilum S21-1,Streptococcus thermophilus S21-2,Bifidobacterium animalis L01-1复合发酵豆乳,接种量分别为1×107 mL-1,于42 °C发酵和4℃贮藏期间测定菌落总数、pH值、滴定酸度、黏度及脱水收缩性指标,并在贮藏1d进行感官鉴评.结果表明,L.plantarum IMAU10156与S.thermophilus S21-2,L.plantarum IMAU60042与S.thermophilus S21-2复合具有良好的发酵特性,在6h即可到达发酵终点,发酵豆乳产品具有纯正的豆乳发酵香味、酸甜适口、组织状态良好等特点,是两组具有开发价值的益生菌豆乳发酵剂.

  8. A STARTER-GENERATOR FOR HELICOPTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Lushchyk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative electromagnetic calculations of a commercial starter-generator and a nonsalient-pole-stator starter-generator are made. The nonsalient-pole-stator starter-generator magnetic fields are shown in start-up and generator rated conditions. The electromagnetic calculation technique is verified and confirmed with experimentally investigated nonsalient-pole-stator machines of other types.

  9. The effect of high pressures on the yoghurt from milk with the stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reps, A; Jankowska, A; Wisniewska, K [Chair of Food Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury, Heweliusza str 1., 10-724 Olsztyn (Poland)], E-mail: arnold.reps@uwm.edu.pl

    2008-07-15

    The effect of high pressures on the microbiological and physio-chemical properties of yoghurt was investigated. The best results were obtained when the yoghurt was manufactured from milk with the addition of MYO 752 stabilizer (starch, gelatin, pectin) selected from 10 stabilizers. Yoghurt manufactured with the addition of 0, 6% MYO 752 stabilizer was processed at the pressure of 400-600 MPa/15 min. in the range of 50 MPa. Pressurization caused a total reduction of number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and reduced the number of Streptococcus thermophilus by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Pressurized and non-pressurized yoghurts characterized of a homogenous consistency and typical plain yoghurt taste. The decrease of the number of living bacteria was observed in yoghurts during the storage. The acidity of pressurized yoghurts remained on the some level at the temperature of 4{sup 0}C and 20{sup 0}C. The more intensive antibacterial activity of microflora was observed in yoghurts storaged at 20{sup 0}C in comparison with yoghurts storaged at 4{sup 0}C. Disadvantageous changes of the pressurized yoghurts consistency were not found. The taste and aroma of yoghurts remained without any changes.

  10. Yoghurt enrichment with natural bee farming products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lomova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bee pollen is a unique and unparalleled natural bioactive substances source. Using it in conjunction with the popular functional fermented milk product -yogurt will expand its product range and increase the biological value. Materials and Methods. Dried bee pollen’s moisture determination was made by gravimetry methods, based on the sample weight loss due to desiccation, until constant weight was reached.Test and control yogurt samples were studied by applying standard techniques for milk and milk products set forth in the regulations of Ukraine. Results and discussion. It is found that bee pollen pellet drying to a moisture content of 2 -4%, increases the flow rate of powder almost by 90%. The sample having moisture content of 2% will have a bulk density exceeding 12.5% compared to the sample having moisture content of 10%. Raw output will also increase by 3.7%. By contrast, apparent density and weight fraction of losses decreases, which has a positive impact on pollen efficiency of use and distribution in bulk yogurt. Moreover, the weight fraction of losses decreases by fourfold (4.6% vs. 1%. It was experimentally determined that pollen can deteriorate microbiological characteristics of yogurt. It was proved that treatment of crushed bee pollen pellet sample with ultraviolet allows improving yogurt microbiological safety indicators. Namely, to reduce the presence of coli-forms to 0, mould –to 10 CFU/cm³. Conclusions. The proposed bee pollen pellet treatment method will improve the technological and microbiological characteristics of pollen powder. This provides for yoghurt production biotechnology using bee farming products.

  11. Screening and Appliance of the Starter Cultures of Weak Postacidification in Yogurt%弱后酸化酸奶发酵剂的筛选及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕; 乔成亚; 龚广予; 刘振民; 梅芳; 李向东; 孙卓

    2012-01-01

    选取3种酸奶发酵剂09D-B、YT-A和YT-B,制成酸奶,测定不同温度条件下3种酸奶样品在发酵过程和保质期内的酸度、黏度、pH值和乳酸菌活菌数的变化趋势,研究不同发酵剂对酸奶产品品质的影响。结果表明,发酵剂YT-A的后酸化能量最弱,在4℃冷藏20 d后,酸度仅上升了9°T,产品黏度较高,在冷藏条件下乳酸菌活菌数为4.6×107个/mL,在4℃冷藏和20℃常温贮存过程中,产品的感官状态和组织状态均优于发酵剂09D-B和YT-B。%Yogurt with cultures 09D-B,YT-A and YT-B were selected to analysed the acidity,viscocity,pH,viable cells of lactic acid bacteria,mold and yeast at 4℃ and 20℃,detected the different cultures have different effecfs on the quality of the yogurt.The results indicaded that YT-A was the weak postacidification culture,acidity rose only 9 °T after 20 days at 4℃,viscocity was better than other samples,viable cells of lactic acid bacteria was 4.6×10~7/mL,the sense and texture of the yogurt with culture YT-A was batter than culture 09D-B and YT-B.

  12. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN VARIASI KONSENTRASI STARTER PROBIOTIK PADA PAKAN TERHADAP PERKEMBANGAN AYAM KAMPUNG Gallus domesticus

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayah, Nurul; Risco B. Gobel; Djide, M. Natsir; Hassan, Munif S.

    2008-01-01

    The researh about ???The Effect of Addition of Various Concentration of Probiotic Starter on Feed to the Development of Local Chicken Gallus domesticus??? has been done. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of addition of various concentration of probiotic starter on body weight gain, feed conversion and appearance of local chicken Gallus domesticus. MRSA medium (Man Rogosa Sharpe Agar) is used to cultivate of pure culture probiotic isolate. The grown isolates diluted and ...

  13. Functional Starters for Functional Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia P. Arena

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the multifunctionality (microbial starters and probiotics of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 and Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 8328 strains used as microbial starters for the production of yogurt in combination with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The ability of the probiotic strains to survive oro-gastrointestinal stresses was monitored by an in vitro assay simulating the human digestive tract. The transcriptional level of several genes involved in the immune response suggested that the probiotic strains may have a favorable influence on immunomodulation. Overall, this study revealed that the tested Lactobacilli exhibited suitable technological features for yogurt production and might be used to formulate novel food with immunomodulating effects.

  14. Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, W.C.

    1987-02-01

    The Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit was designed to help engineering educators develop and teach energy management courses. Montana State University and Oklahoma State University courses are embodied in the model curriculum given. The curricula offered at many other universities throughout the United States are also presented. The kit was designed specifically to train engineering students to be good energy managers. Courses at both the undergraduate and postgraduate level are presented.

  15. Instant MinGW starter

    CERN Document Server

    Shpigor, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    This is a Starter guide designed to enable the reader to start using MinGW to develop Microsoft Windows applications as quickly, and as efficiently, as possible. This book is for C and C++ developers who are looking for new and effective instruments to use in application development for Microsoft Windows. No experience of MinGW is needed: this book will guide you through the essentials to get you using the software like a pro in a matter of hours.

  16. 饮用型覆盆子酸奶的工艺参数优化%Optimization of Technologic Parameters for Drinking Raspberry Yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀梅; 唐民民

    2015-01-01

    覆盆子果汁营养丰富,具有一定保健功效。本文以牛乳、覆盆子为主要原料研制饮用型酸奶,以发酵温度(A)、果汁添加量(B)、发酵剂添加量(C)为三因素,对饮用型覆盆子酸奶的工艺参数进行了优化。试验结果表明,最优工艺优化参数为:培养温度42℃,覆盆子果汁添加量8%,发酵剂添加量3%。采用本工艺生产的饮用型覆盆子酸奶不但口感细腻爽口,酸甜适宜,而且有浓郁的覆盆子香味,发展前景十分广阔。%Raspberry has rich nutrition and health function. In this paper, drinking raspberry yoghurt was made by using raw milk and raspberry. At the same time, the optimization of technologic parameters for drinking raspberry yoghurt investigated by orthogonal test. Determined parameters of the production process showed that fermentation temperature was 42 ℃ , the added content of raspberry fruit was 8% and starter inoculums’ was 3%. The drinking raspberry yoghurt taste delicious and has wide development prospects.

  17. 胡萝卜菠萝酸奶的研制%Development of Yoghurt with Carrot and Pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继成

    2012-01-01

    以鲜牛乳和胡萝卜、菠萝为主要原料,以保加利亚乳杆菌、嗜热链球菌和双歧杆菌作为发酵剂,采用感官品质评价和正交试验方法,研究胡萝卜菠萝酸奶的加工工艺.结果表明,胡萝卜菠萝酸奶加工制作的最佳配方及工艺条件为:在鲜牛乳中添加10%的胡萝卜和菠萝汁(胡萝卜汁∶菠萝汁=1∶2),8%的白砂糖,菌种添加量为4%(保加利亚乳杆菌∶嗜热链球菌∶双歧杆菌=1∶2∶1),在42 ℃下发酵4h,经冷却后熟后,制得的胡萝卜菠萝酸奶具有均匀的橙红色和独特的胡萝卜菠萝风味,其凝块均匀一致,表面细腻光滑,硬度、黏度适中,酸甜可口,清爽润喉,无异味,无或有少量的乳清析出,符合酸奶标准.%Using fresh milk, carrots and pineapples as the main raw materials, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bacillus bifidus as the starter, the processing technology of carrot pineapple yoghurt was studied, through sensory evaluation and orthogonal test method. The results showed that, the optimum formula and processing technology of carrot pineapple yoghurt were as follows: added 10% carrot and pineapple juice (carrot juice :pineapple juice = 1 -2) to fresh milk, 8% white sugar and 4% bacteria (Lactobacillus bulgaricus 'Streptococcus thermophilus: Bacillus bifidus = 1:2:1), fermented for 4 hours at 42 ℃ and then cooled down. The obtained carrot pineapple yoghurt had a uniform orange red color and clot, unique flavor of carrot and pineapple, smooth appearance, moderate hardness and viscosity, suitable acid and sweet flavor, no off-flavor, and no or a little of whey separtion, and was in line with the yogurt standard.

  18. Production of wheat bread without preservatives using sourdough starters

    OpenAIRE

    Denkova, Rositsa; Ilieva, Svetla; Denkova, Zapryana; Georgieva, Ljubka; Yordanova, Mariya; Nikolova, Dilyana; Evstatieva, Yana

    2014-01-01

    In order for the beneficial effects of sourdough application in breadmaking to take place a proper selection of lactic acid bacteria species and strains, an appropriate technology and effective control of the purity and activity of the selected cultures. Four symbiotic starters for sourdough for the production of bread were developed and probated in a production laboratory using the selected strains Lactobacillus brevis LBRZ7, L. buchneri LBRZ6, L. plantarum X2, L. paracasei RN5, L. sanfranci...

  19. Aroma profile of Montepulciano d’Abruzzo wine fermented by single and co-culture starters of autochthonous Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna eTofalo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Montepulciano d’Abruzzo is a native grape variety of Vitis vinifera L., grown in central Italy and used for production of high quality red wines. Limited studies have been carried out to improve its enological characteristics through the use of indigenous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main objective of the present work was to test two indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae (SRS1, RT73, a strain of Starm. bacillaris (STS12, one of H. uvarum (STS45 and a co-culture of S. cerevisiae (SRS1 and Starm. bacillaris (STS12, in an experimental cellar to evaluate their role in the sensory characteristic of Montepulciano d’Abruzzo wine. A S. cerevisiae commercial strain was used. Fermentations were conducted under routine Montepulciano d’Abruzzo wine production, in which the main variables were the yeast strains used for fermentation. Basic winemaking parameters, some key chemical analysis and aroma compounds were considered. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain dynamics during fermentation were determined by molecular methods. The musts inoculated with the co-culture were characterized by a faster fermentation start and a higher content of glycerol after three days of fermentation, as well as the musts added with strains Starm. bacillaris (STS12 and H. uvarum (STS45. At the end of fermentation the parameters studied were quite similar in all the wines. Total biogenic amines (BA content of all the wines was low. Ethanolamine was the predominant BA, with a concentration ranging from 21 to 24 mg/l. Wines were characterized by esters and alcohols. In particular, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methylbut-1-yl methanoate and ethyl ethanoate were the major aroma volatile compounds in all wines. Statistical analysis highlighted the different role played by aroma compounds in the differentiation of wines, even if it was impossible to select a single class as the most important for a specific yeast. The present study represents a further step towards the use of tailored

  20. Aroma Profile of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Wine Fermented by Single and Co-culture Starters of Autochthonous Saccharomyces and Non-saccharomyces Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Di Gianvito, Paola; Pizzoni, Daniel; Arfelli, Giuseppe; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Montepulciano d'Abruzzo is a native grape variety of Vitis vinifera L., grown in central Italy and used for production of high quality red wines. Limited studies have been carried out to improve its enological characteristics through the use of indigenous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main objective of the present work was to test two indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae (SRS1, RT73), a strain of Starmerella bacillaris (STS12), one of Hanseniaspora uvarum (STS45) and a co-culture of S. cerevisiae (SRS1) and S. bacillaris (STS12), in an experimental cellar to evaluate their role in the sensory characteristic of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine. A S. cerevisiae commercial strain was used. Fermentations were conducted under routine Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine production, in which the main variables were the yeast strains used for fermentation. Basic winemaking parameters, some key chemical analysis and aroma compounds were considered. S. cerevisiae strain dynamics during fermentation were determined by molecular methods. The musts inoculated with the co-culture were characterized by a faster fermentation start and a higher content of glycerol after 3 days of fermentation, as well as the musts added with strains S. bacillaris (STS12) and H. uvarum (STS45). At the end of fermentation the parameters studied were quite similar in all the wines. Total biogenic amines (BA) content of all the wines was low. Ethanolamine was the predominant BA, with a concentration ranging from 21 to 24 mg/l. Wines were characterized by esters and alcohols. In particular, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methylbut-1-yl methanoate, and ethyl ethanoate were the major aroma volatile compounds in all wines. Statistical analysis highlighted the different role played by aroma compounds in the differentiation of wines, even if it was impossible to select a single class of compounds as the most important for a specific yeast. The present study represents a further step toward the use of tailored

  1. Nutritional and sensory quality of stirred soursop (Annona muricata L.) yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutchmedial, Maria; Ramlal, Reshma; Badrie, Neela; Chang-Yen, Ivan

    2004-08-01

    Soursops (Annona muricata L.) are highly aromatic fruits with white juicy flesh and are native to tropical North and South America. The ripe fruits are highly perishable, as they become soft and easily bruised. The objectives of the study were to incorporate soursop nectar at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% in stirred yoghurts and to analyse the products for chemical and sensory quality. A focus group evaluated the initial yoghurts for process modifications. Yoghurts were evaluated on sensory attributes of appearance and colour, body and texture, flavour and aroma, and overall quality. Yoghurts with 10% and 15% soursop nectar had the highest (P<0.05) overall quality scores (12.60/20 and 12.75/20, respectively) but differed (P<0.05) in flavour and aroma from plain yoghurt and 5% soursop yoghurt. Most panelists would consider purchase of 10% and 15% soursop yoghurts over 0% and 5% soursop yoghurts. These yoghurts provided high percentage daily values of zinc, phosphorus and calcium and a good level of protein.

  2. Probiotic fermented almond “milk” as an alternative to cow-milk yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Bernat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics in almond-based matrices were considered as a means of obtaining fermented products which would cover both the current demand for health-promoting foods and for alternatives to standard yoghurts. Firstly, the combined effect of high pressure homogenisation (HPH and heat treatment on the physical stability of almond “milk” was studied. The beverage was homogenised by applying 62, 103 and 172 MPa (MF1, MF2 and MF3 respectively; MF3 was also combined with two different heat treatments (85 ºC-30 min (LH and 121 ºC-15 min (HH. Both microstructure and colloidal stability were analysed in all the processed samples to select the most suitable treatment with which to obtain a stable product. The selected almond milk was then fermented with probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus thermophilus and the final product was characterised throughout cold storage time (28 days as to pH, acidity, serum retention and starter viability. A sensory evaluation and probiotic survival to in vitro digestion was also conducted. The results showed that the physical and structural almond-milk properties were affected by both HPH and heat treatments, obtaining the greatest stability in MF3-LH samples. The fermented milk permitted probiotic survivals above the level suggested as minimum for ensuring health benefits during the entire controlled time and, hence, can be considered as a functional food. No differences in the sensory acceptability of the product were found between 1 and 28 storage days. Therefore, a new, functional, fermented product was developed, which was suitable for targeted groups, such as the lactose-intolerant and cow-milk-protein allergic populations.

  3. Taurine in milk and yoghurt marketed in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Pamela; Pizzoferrato, Laura

    2013-02-01

    Taurine, a free amino acid, was studied as natural compound of different typologies of milk: pasteurized, ultra-high temperature (UHT), microfiltered whole and semi-skimmed cow's milk; pasteurized and UHT goat's whole milk and raw buffalo's whole milk. Moreover, taurine contents in yoghurt from cow and goat's milk were evaluated. The data obtained in this research showed that no significant variations of taurine occurred in cow's milk subjected to different technological processes and between whole and semi-skimmed milk. The amount of taurine was less (p taurine occurred between goat and buffalo's samples. The amounts of taurine in yoghurt reflected, substantially, the content of this molecule in the milk of the relevant animal species. These results are noteworthy because data available in the literature on this molecule in commercial dairy products are old or few. PMID:22779912

  4. Taurine in milk and yoghurt marketed in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Pamela; Pizzoferrato, Laura

    2013-02-01

    Taurine, a free amino acid, was studied as natural compound of different typologies of milk: pasteurized, ultra-high temperature (UHT), microfiltered whole and semi-skimmed cow's milk; pasteurized and UHT goat's whole milk and raw buffalo's whole milk. Moreover, taurine contents in yoghurt from cow and goat's milk were evaluated. The data obtained in this research showed that no significant variations of taurine occurred in cow's milk subjected to different technological processes and between whole and semi-skimmed milk. The amount of taurine was less (p taurine occurred between goat and buffalo's samples. The amounts of taurine in yoghurt reflected, substantially, the content of this molecule in the milk of the relevant animal species. These results are noteworthy because data available in the literature on this molecule in commercial dairy products are old or few.

  5. Fluorescent bioassays for toxic metals in milk and yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiki Mohammad Shohel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From a human health viewpoint, contaminated milk and its products could be a source of long-term exposure to toxic metals. Simple, inexpensive, and on-site assays would enable constant monitoring of their contents. Bioassays that can measure toxic metals in milk or yoghurt might reduce the risk. For this purpose, the green fluorescent protein (GFP-tagged trans factors, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, together with their cis elements were used to develop such bioassays. Results ArsR-GFP or CadC-GFP, which binds either toxic metal or DNA fragment including cis element, was directly mixed with cow’s milk or yoghurt within a neutral pH range. The fluorescence of GFP, which is reflected by the association/dissociation ratio between cis element and trans factor, significantly changed with increasing externally added As (III or Cd (II whereas smaller responses to externally added Pb (II and Zn (II were found. Preparation and dilution of whey fraction at low pH were essential to intrinsic zinc quantification using CadC-GFP. Using the extraction procedure and bioassay, intrinsic Zn (II concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/l for milk brands and from 1.2 to 2.9 mg/kg for yoghurt brands were determined, which correlated to those determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Conclusions GFP-tagged bacterial trans factors and cis elements can work in the neutralized whole composition and diluted whey fraction of milk and yoghurt. The feature of regulatory elements is advantageous for establishment of simple and rapid assays of toxic metals in dairy products.

  6. Fundamental Elements to Produce Sesame Yoghurt from Sesame Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Afaneh; Khaled Abu-Alruz; Jihad M. Quasem; Ahmad Sundookah; Jehad Abbadi; Suleiman Alloussi; Ziad Ayyad

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: In previous work sesame milk was developed. The developed milk had slightly acceptable flavor and limited shelf life. Fermentation of sesame milk is one way to overcome these problems. Approach: Sesame yoghurt experiments were carried out using pasteurized sesame milk (75°C for 5 min) with 14% initial sesame seed concentration and 2.7% glucose with different dairy products: lactose, Cheese Dried Whey (CDW), Non Fat Dried Milk (NFDM) and skim milk. The formulas were ferm...

  7. Determination of Contamination Sources during the Manufacturing of Yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    KASIMOĞLU, Aylin

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the critical control points for the contamination in a factory experiencing a problem with coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli, and to prevent economic losses and also to protect public health by facilitating production under hygienic conditions. Samples were taken from a total of 20 control points, which involved every stage of production from the beginning to the end, including milk, all equipment, surfaces, air, hands of staff and water; yoghurt samples ...

  8. 人工接种发酵甘蓝工艺条件的优化%Optimization of Cabbage Fermentation Using Starter Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕平梅; 赵文婧; 宋敏丽; 吴丽花; 陈燕飞; 张腾

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a fermentation strater culture and to optimize the fermentation conditions for fermented cabbage production.In this study,16 strains including single strains of Lactobacillus plantarum,Lactobacillus pentosus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides isolated from Sichuan pickles and their combinations were first tested.Two different strain combinations were then selected out of them based on fermentation speed,nitrite content and fermented cabbage flavor for the optimization of fermentation by response surface methodology.The results showed that the optimal condition for cabbage fermentation by a mixture of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus pentosus(1:2) or Leuconostoc mesenteroides Lactobacillus pentosus,and Lactobacillus plantarum(1:1:1) were 4 g/100 mL salt,0.2% of inoculum size and 25 ℃ of fermentation temperature.Main effect analysis showed that salt concentration had the greatest effect on total acidity of fermented cabbage,followed by fermentation temperature and then inoculums size.%为了探究甘蓝人工接种发酵适宜的发酵剂及发酵条件,采用从四川泡菜老汤中分离的植物乳杆菌(Lactobacillus plantarum)、戊糖乳杆菌(Lactobacillus pentosus)、肠膜明串珠菌(Leuconostoc mesenteroides)3种菌以单一和不同配比混合组合成16组组合发酵剂中选出发酵甘蓝时亚硝酸盐含量低、发酵速度快、风味好的发酵剂。结果表明:肠膜明串珠菌、戊糖乳杆菌,其质量比为1:2(nPb:SPc组合),肠膜明串珠菌、戊糖乳杆菌、植物乳杆菌,其质量比为1:1:1(nPb:bC1:SPc组合),此两种组合为较优化发酵剂。应用响应面分析法优化此两种组合发酵剂接种发酵甘蓝的工艺条件。人工接种发酵甘蓝的条件为食盐质量浓度4g/100mL、接种量0.2%、发酵温度25℃。通过主效应分析说明食盐质量浓度对总酸度影响最大,发酵温度次之,接种量对其影响较小。

  9. QUALITY OF YOGHURTS FROM GOAT'S MILK ENRICHED WITH MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Znamirowska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Goat’s milk can be enriched with magnesium in the form of chloride before pasteurization with a save dose, i.e. 20 mg of magnesium for 100 g of milk. Higher doses of magnesium can lead to coagulation of proteins since together with the increase of the dose of fortification there increases general acidity while pH of milk decreases. Together with the increase of the dose of fortification of yoghurts with magnesium there was shown an essential proportional increase of acidity and hardness of curds persisting for 21 days of storage. Enriching goat’s milk yoghurts with magnesium decreased the intensity of „goat” smell and aftertaste and did not cause a change in colour. The most favourable solution is the production of goat’s milk yoghurts enriched with 10-20 mg of magnesium in the form of magnesium chloride. Such doses of enrichment caused successive lowering of perceptibility of „goat” aftertaste and smell together with extension of storage time.

  10. Instant Adobe Edge Inspect starter

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy-to-understand Starter guide will get you up to speed with Adobe Edge Inspect quickly and with little effort.This book is for frontend web developers and designers who are developing and testing web applications targeted for mobile browsers. It's assumed that you have a basic understanding of creating web applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as well as being familiar with running web pages from local HTTP servers. Readers are a

  11. Instant forgedUI starter

    CERN Document Server

    Luiz, Joseandro

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book is a Starter guide to learning ForgedUI. This book will start by unfolding the installation and creating a simple application using Titanium and ForgedUI, followed by taking you through the features to model an engaging UI and generate multi-platform code with Titanium, while covering the best design practice for Apple and Android application development. Last but not least, you will also come across the available resources where you can

  12. SPSS for Starters, Part 2

    CERN Document Server

    Cleophas, Ton J

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this title contained all statistical tests that are relevant for starters on SPSS, and included standard parametric and non-parametric tests for continuous and binary variables, regression methods, trend tests, and reliability and validity assessments of diagnostic tests. The current part 2 of this title reviews multistep methods, multivariate models, assessments of missing data, performance of diagnostic tests, meta-regression, Poisson regression, confounding and interaction, and survival analyses using log tests and segmented time-dependent Cox regression. Methods for asses

  13. Effect of ingredients on oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched drinking yoghurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Klein, Anna; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    , pectin, citric acid or gluconodelta- lactone did not affect the oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched yoghurt emulsions. Furthermore, the fruit preparation and added sugar did not lead to increased antioxidative activity. It is concluded that yoghurt as the dairy component in the fish oil...

  14. Effect of modified yam (Dioscorea esculenta) flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, M. N.; Cakrawati, D.; Handayani, S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study were to know characteristics of yam modified flour; to know the effect of modified yam flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt and to determine the concentration level of modified yam flour to produce symbiotic yoghurt preferred by panelists. The reasearch was conducted using one factor complete randomized design. Modified yam flour was added to yoghurt at concentration of 2%, 4%, 6%. The effect of physical modification were investigated. Proximate analysis showed modified yam flour consist of 7.66% moisture content, 1.42% ash content, 10.16%, dietary fiber, 7.49% inulin, and 71.78% total starch content. Result obtained that modified yam flour has yield of 10.54%, the modified yam flour showed solubility and water absopsion of 77,63% and 136,65 respectively. The addition of modified yam flour on yoghurt resulted significantly difference effect on texture, but did not have significantly difference on colour, flavour and aroma. Modified yam flour added yoghurt thickness because it was gelatinized when added to yoghurt at 40°C. Sensory analysis conducted with hedonic test showed synbiotic yoghurt added with 2% of modified yam flour most preferred by panellists. Synbiotic yoghurt with 2% of modified yam flour has pH number of 4, 8 and total acid tirated of 1, 7%.

  15. Inulins improve sensoric and textural properties of low-fat yoghurts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kip, P.; Meyer, D.; Jellema, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we investigated in detail the effects of the addition of inulins to the sensoric properties of low-fat yoghurts. Yoghurts were prepared from skimmed milk and with different concentrations of inulin (0-4%). Two types of inulin with different chain length of the polymer were used. Attrib

  16. Compositional characteristics of commercial yoghurt based on quantitative determination of viable lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niketić Gordana B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt quality is particularly difficult to standardize because of the many forms, varieties, manufacturing methods, ingredients and consumer preferences that exist. Since these factors will always play an important role, it is unlikely that a uniform yoghurt quality concept will ever emerge, such as has been developed for other dairy products. There are a number of common denominators, however that have bearing on yoghurt quality. Since a number of producers are recognized within the broad category entitled yoghurt. This situation makes yoghurt an interesting, challenging, but also a confusing area to work in. The present investigation was undertaken to isolate from commercial yoghurt the strains involved in its manufacture and determine the characteristics of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus. This study is concerned with the lactic acid bacteria (L.delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus growth in yoghurt from involving different procedures and with the determination of the number of lactic acid bacteria in dependence of the temperature and acidity in the period of storage. Predominant samples of yoghurt were with 11-107/ml lactic acid lactococci (44.28%.

  17. Influência da fonte de carbono e da temperatura sobre a fermentação lática desenvolvida por cultura mista de bactérias láticas Influence of the carbon source and temperature on the lactic acid fermentation developed by starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosicler BALDUINO

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Bactérias ácido láticas vêm sendo aplicadas em produtos cárneos como culturas iniciadoras. A finalidade das culturas iniciadoras em produtos cárneos é reduzir o pH no início da fermentação O que contribui na inibição de microrganismos indesejáveis, melhorar as propriedades sensoriais, reduzir o tempo de maturação e reduzir nitratos e nitritos. A composição do meio, assim como as condições de cultivo, são importantes para o bom desenvolvimento da cultura iniciadora, sendo necessário conhecer a influência da fonte de carbono e da temperatura no processo fermentativo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da temperatura e de diferentes concentrações de glicose e lactose sobre a fermentação lática desenvolvida em caldo MRS (Man-Rogosa-Sharpe pela cultura mista constituída de L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium. O caldo MRS foi suplementado com glicose e lactose, e as temperaturas de fermentação foram de 28ºC, 37ºC e 46ºC. Os ensaios foram delineados por desenho fatorial incompleto de 3³. Através da Superfície de Resposta, o modelo matemático mostrou que o caldo MRS suplementado de glicose 4,5% (m/v e lactose 0,5% (m/v e temperatura de incubação de 46ºC foram as condições mais adequadas para obtenção de ácido lático. A fermentação lática desenvolvida pela cultura mista, durante 48 horas nestas condições, forneceu em média 4,78% de ácido lático sendo a viabilidade celular de 1x10(15UFC/mL.Lactic acid bacteria has been used in meat products as starter culture. The purpose of the starter culture in meat products is to reduce the pH in the begining of fermentation in order to inhibit undesirable microorganisms, to improve sensorial properties, to reduce the time of maturation and to reduce nitrates and nitrites. The composition of the medium as well as the culture conditions are essential for good growth of the starter culture, being of fundamental importance to know the

  18. Proteinase genes of cheese starter cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jan

    1991-01-01

    The proteolytic enzymes of lactococci are of eminent importance for milk fermentations. By the combined action of proteinases and peptidases milk protein is degraded to peptides and amino acids which are required for cell growth and contribute to the organoleptic properties of the foods. The importa

  19. Antioxidant activity of yoghurt peptides: Part 2 – Characterisationof peptide fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Baron, Caroline; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate previous findings showing that peptide fractions isolated from yoghurt had antioxidant effects. Therefore, peptides and free amino acids released during fermentation of milk were characterised. Yoghurt samples were stripped from sugars and lactic acid...... antioxidant activity in these fractions.......The aim of the present study was to elucidate previous findings showing that peptide fractions isolated from yoghurt had antioxidant effects. Therefore, peptides and free amino acids released during fermentation of milk were characterised. Yoghurt samples were stripped from sugars and lactic acid...... the peptides identified contained at least one proline residue. Some of the identified peptides included the hydrophobic amino acid residues Val or Leu at the N-terminus and Pro, His or Tyr in the amino acid sequence, which is characteristic of antioxidant peptides. In addition, the yoghurt contained...

  20. Physicochemical, nutritional and sensory quality of stirred 'dwarf' golden apple (Spondias cytherea Sonn) yoghurts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann Bartoo, Shelly; Badrie, Neela

    2005-09-01

    The dwarf golden apple (Spondias cytherea Sonn) is an exotic fruit which is mainly consumed in its fresh form but could be processed. The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of adding golden apple nectar on the physicochemical and sensory quality of stirred yoghurts from cow's milk. Yoghurts with 15% and 20% golden apple nectar were more (P>0.01) liked than the control (0% nectar) yoghurt in all sensory attributes. The appearance and body attribute differed (P0.05) changes, in pH, lactic acid, consistency, colour, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and moulds on storage at 4 degrees C for 4 weeks. By week 4 of storage, yoghurts developed a buttery smell and were less dark and yellow. A 226 g yoghurt serving provided an excellent source of phosphorus and was good in protein. PMID:16361184

  1. Development of an alternative culture medium for the selective enumeration of Lactobacillus casei in fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Monique; de Oliveira, Aline Evelyn Zimmermann; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring the populations of probiotic strains of the species Lactobacillus casei in food is required by food industries in order to assure that a minimum concentration of these organisms will be ingested by consumers. In this context, Petrifilm™ AC plates can be used along with selective culture media to allow the enumeration of specific groups of lactic acid bacteria. The present study aimed to assess chemical substances as selective agents for Lb. casei in order to propose a selective culture medium to be used with Petrifilm™ AC plates as an alternative protocol for the enumeration of probiotic strains of this species in fermented milk. Twenty-six probiotic and starter cultures (including six strains of Lb. casei) were plated on de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar with distinct concentrations of nalidixic acid, bile, lithium chloride, metronidazole, sodium propionate, and vancomycin. Vancomycin at 10 mg/L demonstrated selective activity for Lb. casei. In addition, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chlorine was identified as a compound that did not inhibit Lb. casei, and Petrifilm™ AC plates used with MRS and vancomycin at 10 mg/L (MRS-V) demonstrated more colonies of this organism when incubated under anaerobic conditions than aerobic conditions. Acidophilus milk and yoghurt were prepared, added to Lb. casei strains, and stored at 4 °C. Lb. casei populations were monitored using MRS-V and MRTLV by conventional plating and associated with Petrifilm™ AC plates. All correlation indices between counts obtained by conventional plating and Petrifilm™ AC were significant (p enumeration of Lb. casei strains in fermented milk. However, the selective potential of this culture medium must be evaluated considering the specific strains of Lb. casei and the starter cultures inoculated in the fermented milk that requires monitoring.

  2. Indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts as a source of biodiversity for the selection of starters for specific fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capece Angela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-time studies on wine yeasts have determined a wide diffusion of inoculated fermentations by commercial starters, mainly of Saccharomyces. Although the use of starter cultures has improved the reproducibility of wine quality, the main drawback to this practice is the lack of the typical traits of wines produced by spontaneous fermentation. These findings have stimulated wine-researchers and wine-makers towards the selection of autochthonous strains as starter cultures. The objective of this study was to investigate the biodiversity of 167 S. cerevisiae yeasts, isolated from spontaneous fermentation of grapes. The genetic variability of isolates was evaluated by PCR amplification of inter-δ region with primer pair δ2/δ12. The same isolates were investigated for characteristics of oenological interest, such as resistance to sulphur dioxide, ethanol and copper and hydrogen sulphide production. On the basis of technological and molecular results, 20 strains were chosen and tested into inoculated fermentations at laboratory scale. The experimental wines were analyzed for the content of some by-products correlated to wine aroma, such as higher alcohols, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and acetic acid. One selected strain was used as starter culture to perform fermentation at cellar level. The selection program followed during this research project represents an optimal combination between two different trends in modern winemaking: the use of S. cerevisiae as starter cultures and the starter culture selection for specific fermentations.

  3. Podcasting the Ultimate Starter Kit

    CERN Document Server

    Shipside, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Podcasting doesn't require an iPod; anyone with a computer, an MP3 player, or in some cases even a phone or a pair of shades can play podcasts. It requires very little technological know-how to set up, listen to, or even make your own programmes. Podcasting: The ultimate starter kit takes a light-hearted, friendly and refreshingly jargon-free look at eveything you need to know to get started, and with its free start-up CD it couldn't be easier. With the help of Podcasting, you can find out how to set up your software and record podcasts, where to go to find programmes on anything from religion

  4. 不同发酵剂对羊肉发酵香肠理化特性的影响%The Effect of Different Culture Starters on the Physicochemical Properties of Fermented Mutton Sausages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    通力嘎; 段艳; 靳志敏; 贾雪晖; 靳烨

    2012-01-01

    The pH value, Aw values, moisture content, TBA value, and color of fermented mutton sausages supplied with different culture starters during processing and storage were determined. Group 1 without additive agent was control group, group 2 was Lactobacillus plantarum group, group 3 supplied with Lactobacillus plantarum and Staphy-lococcus xylosus by the ratio of 1:2 was mixed group. The results showed that the pH values of fermented sausages in all groups were decreased during fermentation, especially the Lactobacillus plantarum group and the mixed group. Then the pH value increased during the process of dry, mature and storage. Among them, the pH value of control group increased quickly, and that of lactobacillus plantarum group and mixed group increased slowly. Aw values of each group falling rapidly in processing stage, especially the Lactobacillus plantarum group and the following mixed group. Moisture content in the fermented stage changes slightly, but it was significantly decreased during the dry and mature phase, and it was still declined during the storage. TB A value during process of fermentation, dry, mature and 2 weeks after storage showed uptrend. Four weeks after storage, TB A value significantly increased. The redness ( a) of Lactobacillus plantarum group and mixed group were 16. 91 and 17. 17, which were higher than that of the control group, and their Yellowness (b) and lightness (L) were significantly lower than that of control group (P < 0. 05 ) , and that of mixed group was slightly lower than that of Lactobacillus plantarum group.%通过测定添加不同发酵剂羊肉发酵香肠加工和贮藏过程中的pH值,Aw值,水分含量,TBARS值和色泽的变化,研究菌种对羊肉发酵香肠理化特性的影响.第1组为未添加菌种的对照组,第2组为添加植物乳杆菌组,第3组为按1:2添加植物乳杆菌和木糖葡萄球菌的混合组.结果表明:发酵过程中,3组发酵香肠pH值均有所下降,但添加植物乳杆

  5. Free and attached cells of Bacillus subtilis as starters for production of a soup flavouring (“ogiri egusi”)

    OpenAIRE

    Peter-Ikechukwu, A. I.; Ahaotu, I.; Owuamanam, C. I.; Ogueke, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This Bacillus subtilis has been identified to be the main fermenting bacterium during indigenous production of “ogiri egusi”; a traditional soup flavouring rich in protein. Evaluation of the use of starter and broth cultures of this bacterium in the production of ‘ogiri egusi’ was therefore undertaken with the view to improve the fermentation process and quality of product. Methodology and Results: Cowpea granules in association with Bacillus subtilis cells were developed as starter cul...

  6. KEEPING QUALITY OF YOGHURT FORTIFIED WITH WHEY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE AND SKIM MILK POWDER BY USING GAMMA RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four batches of yoghurt were prepared to study the effect of gamma radiation doses on the quality of yoghurt. All samples were prepared by the addition of 1.5% whey proteins concentrate and 1.5% skim milk powder (from buffalo's milk). The four yoghurt batches were treated with gamma radiation at doses of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. All treated yoghurt was kept in a refrigerator at 70C and samples were examined every three days for chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation. Control yoghurt that was not exposed to gamma radiation exhibited the highest total bacterial counts and lactic acid bacterial counts after 6 day from storage while the irradiated samples counts were decreased and this decrease was proportional to the dose of gamma radiation used. Applying gamma radiation improved the keeping quality of yoghurt, which provide that control yoghurt was still accepted till the 12th day while the samples irradiated with 1, 2 and 3 kGy were still accepted till the 15, 24 and 30 days, respectively. Coliform bacteria were not detected in all yoghurt treatment and there were non-significant differences among yoghurt treatments considering the chemical composition. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be recommended for both increasing the shelf-life of yoghurt and enhance its overall quality.

  7. Effect of mixed starter cultures on the changes of biogenic amines contents during fermentation and ripening of Sichuan-style sausage%混合发酵剂对川味香肠发酵成熟过程中生物胺含量变化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙霞; 杨勇; 巩洋; 杨敏; 卿丹丹; 李跃文; 张雯; 李诚; 胡滨

    2015-01-01

    The Sichuan-style sausage was processed by being inoculated Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediocossus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus as starter cultures (A group).Changes of biogenic amines contents in Sichuan-style sausages during fermentation and ripening were determined by high performance liquid chromatography.The results showed that the contents of biogenic amines including tryptamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine and spermidine in group A were significantly lower than those in group B (natural fermentation) at the end of ripening, except the content of phenylethylamine (P < 0.01) , which indicated that the mixed starter culture could significantly inhibit the formation of biogenic amines in Sichuan-style sausages during fermentation and ripening (P < 0.01).The contents of biogenic amines were less than 100 mg/kg in group A during fermentation and ripening, except the tyramine content up to 103.05 mg/kg, meanwhile, the content of putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine were more than 100 mg/kg in group B, which indicated the mixed starter culture could ensure the safety of Sichuan-style sausage.%以植物乳杆菌、戊糖片球菌和葡萄球菌作为发酵剂接种至川味香肠,采用高效液相色谱法测定川味香肠发酵成熟过程中生物胺含量的变化.结果表明:成熟结束时,除苯乙胺外,A组(接种组)中的色胺、腐胺、尸胺、组胺、酪胺和亚精胺的含量显著低于B组(自然发酵组)(P<0.01),说明混合发酵剂能显著抑制川味香肠发酵成熟过程中生物胺的形成(P<0.01).A组香肠在发酵成熟过程中除酪胺含量最高达到103.05 mg/kg外,其余生物胺含量均低于100 mg/kg;B组香肠在发酵成熟过程中腐胺、尸胺、组胺和酪胺含量超过100 mg/kg,因此接种混合发酵剂可以更好地保障川味香肠的安全性.

  8. Daqu : a traditional fermentation starter in China: microbial ecology and functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Fermented products have high nutritional value and constitute an important part of the Chinese dietary profile; they are also gaining popularity throughout the world. Daqu is a traditional natural fermentation starter culture that has a

  9. Screening of a micro-ecological fodder starter culture lactic acid bacterial strain and optimization of culture conditions%一株用于微生态饲料发酵剂的乳酸菌筛选及培养条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 张一; 陈宇飞

    2016-01-01

    A micro-ecological fodder starter culture lactic acid bacterial strain was screened and the culture conditions were optimized in this article. The acid production rate of three kinds of lactic acid bacteria was determined, and the antibacterial test for e.coli was carried out. Meanwhile the excellent strains were identified by using French bacteria identification system. The result shows that the acid production rate of type A lactic acid bacteria was fast, with good antibacterial effect. And the type A lactic acid bacteria was identified as Pediococcus pentosus. By studying the effect of each culture con⁃dition on biomass of lactic acid bacteria, we reached that the culture temperature was 30 ℃, stilling culture, inoculum size was 1%, choosing peptone as nitrogen source with the concentration of 8%~10%, the initial pH was 6.5. Under this condition, the biomass of lactic acid bacteria was the highest. These provided a theoretical reference for development and application of micro-ecological fodder start⁃er culture strains.%对用于微生态饲料发酵剂的乳酸菌进行筛选和培养条件优化。测定了3种乳酸菌的产酸速度,进行了大肠杆菌的抑菌效果试验,并利用梅里埃细菌鉴定系统对优良菌种进行鉴定,得出A型乳酸菌的产酸速度快、抑菌效果好,并鉴定该菌为戊糖片球菌;通过研究培养条件诸因素对乳酸菌生物量的影响,研究得出:培养温度30℃、静置培养、接种量1%、氮源选择蛋白胨、碳源浓度为8%~10%、初始pH值为6.5,该条件下乳酸菌的生物量最大。为微生物饲料发酵剂菌种的开发与应用提供理论参考。

  10. Effect of rice fat mimics on texture and microstructure of low-fat yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dan; KONG Baohua; LIU Huaiwei

    2007-01-01

    This paper made a research on a new kind of rice fat mimics, which was obtained from rice powder hydrolyzed by a -amylase. Through the comparison between the yoghurt added with diverse proportions of above mentioned rice fat mimics and the reduced-fat yoghurt without any fat mimics as well as full-fat ones, the effect of the rice fat mimics in different proportions was examined upon the composition, the microstructure, the texture and the sensory evaluation of reduced-fat yoghurt. The results showed that the yoghurts added with rice fat mimics exhibited similar organoleptic attribute, textual characteristics and acceptability compared to those of full-fat controls(P>0.05), but with lower fat content and looser microstructures.

  11. Evaluation of culture media for counts of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb 12in yoghurt after refrigerated storage Avaliação de meios de cultura para contagem de Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb 12em iogurte após a estocagem refrigerada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Fachin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The agar RCPB pH5 has been considered a good alternative for counts of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt. However, during the refrigerated storage of yoghurt it is extremely difficult to count this microorganism due to the size of the colonies, which are so small they require the aid of a stereoscope to count them. Another agar, MRS-LP, has been also recommended for counts of Bifidobacterium in the presence of yoghurt bacteria. This study evaluated the supplementation of RCPB pH5 agar with dehydrated liver extract and the salts KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(47H2O, MnSO4H2O and MgSO(47H2O, aiming at improving the differentiation of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt after refrigerated storage, and also evaluated the selective count of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt using the agar MRS-LP. The agar MRS-LP presented the same cell recovery as non-fortified RCPB pH5 agar, used as a standard medium, thus being considered a good option for counts of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt. The fortified RCPB pH5 also presented the same recovery as the standard RCPB pH5 medium, however, the addition of dehydrated liver extract to the RCPB pH5 agar considerably increased the size of the Bifidobacterium colonies after refrigerated storage, making differentiation of the colonies much easier and reliable when compared to the standard non-fortified RPCP pH5. The addition of the salts (KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(47H2O, MnSO4H2O and MgSO(47H2O had no influence on the performance of the RCPB pH5 agar.O meio RCPB pH5 tem sido considerado uma boa opção para a contagem de Bifidobacterium em iogurte. Entretanto, durante a estocagem refrigerada do iogurte é extremante difícil a contagem deste microrganismo devido ao pequeno diâmetro desenvolvido pelas colônias de Bifidobacterium neste meio, sendo que a sua contagem somente se torna possível com o auxílio de um estereoscópio. Outro meio, MRS-LP, também tem sido recomendado para a contagem de Bifidobaterium em iogurte. Este estudo avaliou a suplementa

  12. Involvement of glutamate mutase in the biosynthesis of the unique starter unit of the macrolactam polyketide antibiotic vicenistatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Yasushi; Kakinuma, Katsumi; Eguchi, Tadashi

    2005-07-01

    The macrolactam antibiotic vicenistatin, produced in Streptomyces halstedii HC34, is biosynthesized by the polyketide pathway, using a unique 3-methylaspartate-derived molecule as starter unit. The vinI gene in the vicenistatin biosynthetic gene cluster encoding glutamate mutase, which rearranges glutamate to 3-methylaspartate, was disrupted. The vinI disruption completely abolished the production of vicenistatin, while the disruptant recovered the production of vicenistatin when 3-methylaspartate was added to the culture. These results indicate that vinI is essential for the 3-methylaspartate formation in the vicenistatin biosynthesis. Furthermore, the mutant accumulated new vicenistatin derivatives (desmethylvicenistatins), which lacked a methyl group in the starter unit. The desmethylvicenistatins were shown by feeding experiments to be derived from aspartate instead of 3-methylaspartate as the starter unit. These results indicate that the vicenistatin polyketide synthase can accept alternative starter units toward the production of novel polyketides. PMID:16161486

  13. Acute calcium assimilation from fresh or pasteurized yoghurt depending on the lactose digestibility status

    OpenAIRE

    Parra, M.D.; Martinez-de-Morentin, B.E. (B.E.); Cobo, J.M. (J.M.); Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I.; Martinez, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The major aim of this trial was to evaluate the potential interaction of fresh or pasteurized yoghurt intake with lactose intolerance on calcium assimilation by means of the stable isotope 43Ca as a tracer. METHODS: Forty volunteers (age: 32 +/- 7 years) participated in this parallel simple blind study (20 of them with moderate lactose intolerance). The protocol included the intake of a test meal consisting on 43Ca-labelled fresh or pasteurized yoghurt. Volunteers, in whom...

  14. Penurunan jumlah Streptococcus mutans pada saliva anak dengan ortodonti cekat setelah konsumsi yoghurt (Reduction of salivary Mutans Streptococci in children with fixed orthodontic appliance after yoghurt consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Anggreani Bibi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orthodontic treatment using fixed appliances in children increases with the case of malocclusion in Indonesia. The patients with fixed orthodontics have higher risks of caries. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the influences short term daily consumption fruit-flavored yoghurt on salivary mutans Streptococci in pediatric patients during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Methods: This was an experimental laboratory study with a double-blind randomized crossover design. The subjects were 26 children in range of age 11 to 15 years old who were under orthodontic treatment using fixed appliances. Subjects were divided into 2 (two groups which consist of 13 children each. Group A were asked to consumed a 150 ml of yoghurt Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus once a day for 2 weeks, while group B were asked to consumed milk once a day for the same period of time. After “washout” period for 2 weeks, the subjects of group A and B crossed over the drink, group A was asked to consumed milk and group B was asked to consumed yoghurt for another 2 weeks. Before and after consuming yoghurt or milk, the subject’s saliva samples were taken and the colonies of mutans Streptococci were counted on TYC media. Results: Statistical analysis showed that on subjects who consumed yoghurt the colony number of mutans Streptococci reduced significantly (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Short-term daily consumption of the probiotic yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium bifidum bacteria and Lactobacillus acidophilus could reduce the number of salivary mutans streptococci in pediatric patient during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances.Latar belakang: Kebutuhan perawatan ortodonti menggunakan alat cekat pada anak-anak meningkat seiring bertambahnya jumlah kasus maloklusi di Indonesia. Namun faktanya penggunaan piranti ortodonti cekat berisiko terjadinya karies disekitar bracket. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan meneliti pengaruh

  15. Yoghurt Sinbiotik Berbasis Probiotik Lokal Dapat Mencegah Diare dan Mengubah Status Hematologi Tikus (SYNBIOTIC YOGHURT BASED ON INDIGENOUS PROBIOTIC: IT’S EFFECT ON DIARRHEA AND HEMATOLOGICAL STATUS IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Astawan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to observe the effect of functional synbiotics yoghurt (made ofindigenous probiotic + oligofructosaccharides in rats that were infected with Enteropathogenic Escherichiacoli (EPEC, and to detect its effect on hematological status. A total of 25 male Sprague Dawley rats wereused in this study and divided into five treatment groups: (i negative-control; (ii positive-control; (iiisynbiotic yoghurt; (iv synbiotic yoghurt + EPEC; and (v conventional prebiotic yoghurt. Yoghurt (109 cfu/mL lactic acid bacteria was given orally using feeding tube at day one until day 4. At day 8 – day 14animals were infected with EPEC (107 cfu/mL orally using feeding tube; at day 22 blood samples werecollected for hematology analysis (erythrocytes, hematocrit (Hct, hemoglobulin (Hb, platelets, andleucocytes. Post infection with the EPEC diarrhea was developed in rats both in the control positivegroups and in the synbiotic yoghurt + EPEC group. Animals in the positive-control group had a significantlyhigher thrombocytes and leucocytes counts and Hct compared to that in animals in the other groups(P<0.01. Whereas there were no significant effect on the erythrocytes counts and Hb (P>0.05. The treatmentwith synbiotic yoghurt, in both synbiotic yoghurt only and synbiotic yoghurt + EPEC groups significantlyreduced the platelets and leucocytes counts and Hct of rats

  16. Influence of sweetener stevia on the quality of strawberry flavoured fresh yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Lisak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stevia is a natural, non energetic sweetener, 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose, and is obtained by leaves extraction of the Stevia rebaudiana. According to the low energy value of stevia to sweeten food products, it is a great possibility of its use in the dairy industry. This study examined the differences in the sweetness of the strawberry flavoured yoghurt with the addition of sucrose, stevia and equal portions of sucrose and stevia; each combination was used at three different concentrations (3, 4.5 and 6 % / 100 g yoghurt. Stevia was diluted in a concentration which, according to the literature, matches the sweetness profile of sucrose. Viscosity of the yoghurts was determined by the rheometer, and sensory profiling of the products was evaluated by a panel using the ranking test and weighted factors methods. The level of sweetness of all yoghurt samples (using sucrose, stevia and mixture of sucrose and stevia was judged by a test panel, and products were rated in the terms of degree of sweetness as sucrose > sucrose + stevia > stevia. The recommended level by panelists of any type or combination of sweeteners for strawberry yoghurt was 4.5 g sweetner/100 g. The apparent viscosity was lower in sucrose yoghurts compared to products made with stevia or stevia + sucrose which was also reflected in the sensory scores.

  17. Microbial Analysis of Traditional Starter Culture (Jiaotou) and Its Influence on the Quality of Chinese Steamed Bread%传统起子(酵头)的微生物分析及其对馒头品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁长河; 戚光册; 张建华; 陈复生; 李里特

    2007-01-01

    馒头是一种中国主要的发酵食品.传统方法制作馒头是用酵头发酵的,酵头也叫起子、面肥.本文主要研究酵头的微生物组成以及对馒头品质的影响.采用平板划线法对12个酵头进行乳酸菌、酵母菌计数和分离.分离得到的菌种用生物梅里埃的Vitek-32系统进行自动鉴定.通过感官评价和(TPA)质地剖面分析分析来比较酵头发酵馒头和工厂化生产馒头的品质差别.12个酵头的乳酸菌计数的均数为8.1 lg CFU/g,酵母菌计数的均数为7.7 lg CFU/g.干燥的酵头的酵母菌计数(8.2 lg CFU/g)显著高于湿酵头(7.2 lg CFU/g,p<0.05).分离得到的3株酵母都为Saccharomyces cerevisiae(啤酒酵母),3株细菌分别为Bacillus cereus(蜡样芽胞杆菌),Acinetobacter lwoffii(鲁氏不动杆菌),Brevibacillus brevis(短小芽胞杆菌).在酵头发酵馒头面团过程中,随时间延长pH降低,酵母菌和乳酸菌计数增加.与工厂化生产的馒头比较,酵头发酵馒头有较好的内部结构,相对较差的气味,而在感官评价的总分上与工厂化生产的馒头没有显著的差别.TPA分析的结果表明酵头发酵馒头在以下几个指标上显著高于其中一种工厂化生产的馒头(p<0.05):硬度、胶性,咀嚼性,凝聚性,粘附性.总的来说,TPA分析结果表明酵头发酵馒头有着较好的食用品质.%Chinese steamed bread (CSB) is a kind of Chinese traditional fermented staple food. It is traditionally fermented by Jiaotou, which is the starter culture of CSB. This study was to determine the microbial characteristics of Jiaotou and its influence on CSB quality. In this paper, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts counts in 12 Jiaotou samples were enumerated and separated by plate method. The isolated strains were identified by BioMerieu Vitek-32 system. The qualities of Jiaotou fermented CSB and that of commercially produced ones were compared by sensory analysis and texture profile analysis (TPA). The

  18. Feasibility study for the development of a pyro starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, M.; Welland, W.; Bouquet, F.; Lee, S.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Pyro starters can play a role as turbopump starter in liquid propellant propulsion systems by supplying pressurized gas to power turbines for engine start up. For such a purpose, the pyro starters supply a flow of combustion gases with a relatively low flame temperature to the turbines. A feasibilit

  19. Viability and cholesterol uptake by Streptococcus thermophilus cultures in artificial git fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ziarno

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Streptococcus thermophilus is traditionally used in association with Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus as a starter culture for the production of yoghurt. Some researchers have indicated that S. thermophilus may provide additional health benefits, for example it may reduce cholesterol levels. The aim of this study was to in vitro evaluate the cholesterol uptake and the viability of S. thermophilus isolates in artificial GIT environments. Material and methods. Twelve isolates of S. thermophilus were cultured in artificial gastric fluid (with pepsin added and in artificial duodenal fluid (with the enzyme complex added, and in M17 broth containing cholesterol at an initial concentration of 600 µg/mL, as well as in M17 broth without cholesterol. Immediately after the adding of bacteria inoculums and at the end of experiment, the concentration of cholesterol and the number of bacteria were measured. Results. S. thermophilus did not remove statistically significant amounts of cholesterol from artificial gastric fluid. The isolates showed the ability to uptake cholesterol from M17 broth and artificial duodenal fluid, and the degree of cholesterol uptake depended on the isolate. All isolates of S. thermophilus remove much more cholesterol from M17 broth than from artificial duodenal fluid. All S. thermophilus isolates had worse survival in artificial gastric or duodenal fluids than in M17 broth. Conclusions. The ability of S. thermophilus cells to survive in artificial gastric fluid and artificial duodenal fluid varied according to the isolates.

  20. Fermentation and storage of probiotic yoghurt from goat’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajka Božanić

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Cow’s and goat’s milk supplemented with inulin were fermented withABT4 culture. The population growth of Streptococcus thermophilus,Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium ssp. in plain and inulinsupplemented goat’s milk during fermentation was evaluated. The survival of strains during 28 d of storage was followed in comparison with that of cow’s milk. The time required to reach the desired pH of 4.6 during fermentation was 6 h for both types of milk. At that time the proportion of viable cells of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium ssp. in all fermented samples was comparable 40 : 33 : 27, respectively. During the storage viable count of streptococci and bifidobacteria have not decreased. In supplemented samples viable counts of bifidobacteria were increased and during 28th day of storage were higher for 0.6 logarithms compared to the non supplemented samples. Surviving of lactobacilli was poorer in fermented goat's milk than in fermented cow's milk during storage. The addition of inulin improved the firmness of fermented goat’s and cow’s milks products. Inulin addition partly masked the goat’s flavour of produced yoghurt. During storage the fermented goat's samples were scored better in comparison with cow's samples. Goat’s milk fermented with probiotic bacteria and fortified with inulin complies with the requirements of functional food.

  1. Free and attached cells of Bacillus subtilis as starters for production of a soup flavouring (“ogiri egusi”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter-Ikechukwu, A. I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This Bacillus subtilis has been identified to be the main fermenting bacterium during indigenous production of “ogiri egusi”; a traditional soup flavouring rich in protein. Evaluation of the use of starter and broth cultures of this bacterium in the production of ‘ogiri egusi’ was therefore undertaken with the view to improve the fermentation process and quality of product. Methodology and Results: Cowpea granules in association with Bacillus subtilis cells were developed as starter cultures for the fermentation. Results obtained showed that the starter cultures resulted in an increase in the aminonitrogen from 1.67±0.02 to 19.96±0.05 mg N/100 g dry matter in 48 h while the broth cultures increased the aminonitrogen from 1.63±0.03 to 16.54±0.05 mg N/100 g dry matter in 72 h. There was also a corresponding increase in the protease activity of the fermentation conducted with the starter cultures from 2.69±0.03 to 54.98±0.04 mg N/min in 48 h. The broth cultures produced an increase from 2.65±0.02 to 47.61±0.06 mg N/min in 72 h. Changes in these parameters for the natural process were gradual and reached their peaks at 120 h with values of 9.89±0.13 mg N/100g dry matter and 31.92±0.03 mg N/min respectively. Peroxide values for the fermentation processes increased throughout the period; however the starter cultures produced the lowest value (10.20±0.10 meq/kg showing that rancidity may not occur in the product fermented by the starter culture. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The starter cultures significantly reduced fermentation time from 96 – 120 h in the natural process to 48 h. Thus use of starter cultures optimized the process of fermentation and will eliminate chances of contamination of product with pathogens and spoilage organisms. This ultimately will improve product quality.

  2. School Starters' Vision--An Educational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsen, Gunvor B

    2016-01-01

    Although good visual capacity is essential for children's learning, we have limited understanding of the various visual functions among school starters. In order to extend this knowledge, a small-scale study was undertaken involving 24 preschool children age 5-6 years who completed a test battery originally designed for visual impairment…

  3. Instant Microsoft Forefront UAG mobile configuration starter

    CERN Document Server

    Volpe, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    A no-nonsense Starter guide, designed to give you maximum guidance with minimum fuss. This book is written for system administrators, I.T. professionals, unified communication technicians, and decision makers, in general. No knowledge of UAG is required to understand the book and start setting up UAG immediately.

  4. Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Rezaei Tabrizi, M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Han, B.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the world's oldest distilled alcoholic beverages, and it is typically obtained with the use of Daqufermentation starters. Daqu is a saccharifying and fermenting agent, having a significant impact on the flavour of the product. Daqucan be categorized according to maximum incu

  5. Characterization of new exopolysaccharides produced by coculturing of L. kefiranofaciens with yoghurt strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zaheer; Wang, Yanping; Anjum, Nomana; Ahmad, Hajra; Ahmad, Asif; Raza, Mohsin

    2013-08-01

    This project was designed to study the coculturing affect of exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing strains Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens (L.k) ZW3, with non EPS producing strains L. bulgaricus (L.b) and Streptococcus thermophilus (S.t) in three different combinations: L.k+L.b, L.k+S.t, and L.k+L.b+S.t. FTIR analysis revealed presence of strong stretch in regions of 3400, 2900 and 1647cm(-1) which is characteristic of a typical polysaccharide. Co-cultured EPSs were composed of glucose, galactose, arabinose and xylose; and their sugar compositions were different from ZW3 polysaccharide that was mainly composed of gluco-galactan. Peak temperature for L.k+L.b, L.k+S.t, L.k+S.t+L.b and ZW3 polymers were 90.59, 87.61, 95.18 and 97.38°C, respectively. Thermal analysis revealed degradation temperature of 326.44, 294.6, 296.7 and 299.62°C for L.k+L.b, L.k+S.t, L.k+S.t+L.b and ZW3 polymers, respectively. SEM and AFM analysis divulged that three cocultured EPSs had different surface morphology than ZW3 polymer. Since co-cultured polymers have different structure than the polymer produced exclusively by EPS producing strain, it can be safely concluded from the study that co-culturing can be one way to change the structure of polymers. Coculturing of L. kefiranofaciens with non-EPS producing strains resulted in yoghurt with increased viscosity and delayed syneresis.

  6. Development of a novel yoghurt based on date liquid sugar: physicochemical and sensory characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerinasab, Asal; Labbafi, Mohsen; Mousavi, Mohammad; Khodaiyan, Faramarz

    2015-10-01

    The addition effect of date liquid sugar (DLS, 1-9 % v/v) to yoghurt milk on the physical (colour, firmness and syneresis), chemical (pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity), rheological (viscosity and flow behaviour), and sensory attributes was scrutinized. Results showed that the pH value decreased by increasing DLS concentration from 1 to 6 %, while the TTA decreased with an increase in DLS from 6 to 9 % (p syneresis, firmness and viscosity values were considerably influenced by the DLS content and acidity of the yoghurts (p syneresis and the highest firmness among the different samples. Moreover, a pseudoplastic rheological behaviour was detected for all the produced yoghurts. An increase in DLS concentration of manufactured yoghurts led to an increase in a, b and total colour difference (TCD) values and a decrease in L value (p < 0.05). The sensory evaluation revealed that there was no significant different in the colour scores. However, the used panelists determined the yoghurt supplemented with 6 % DLS had the highest scores for other investigated attributes.

  7. Isolation of cultivable thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from cheeses made with mesophilic starter and molecular comparison with dairy-related Lactobacillus helveticus strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Elisabeth Penderup; Ardö, Ylva Margareta; Vogensen, Finn Kvist

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To isolate cultivable thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from cheeses made with mesophilic starter and compare them with dairy-related Lactobacillus helveticus strains using molecular typing methods. Methods and Results: The number of thermophilic bacteria in seven commercial cheeses manufac...... and thermophilic adjunct cultures by using an enumeration step. Significance and Impact of the Study: Isolation of cultivable thermophilic bacteria from ripened cheeses made with mesophilic starters offers an original source for new dairy-relevant cultures.......Aims: To isolate cultivable thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from cheeses made with mesophilic starter and compare them with dairy-related Lactobacillus helveticus strains using molecular typing methods. Methods and Results: The number of thermophilic bacteria in seven commercial cheeses...... manufactured with mesophilic starters was estimated to be enumeration step in the isolation method made it possible to isolate one thermophilic strain from each of five of seven cheeses. Comparing repetitive sequence PCR (rep-PCR) profiles of the isolates with dairy...

  8. Staphylococcus aureus growth and survival during curding of Manchego type cheese produced with normal and subnormal starter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lucia, E; Goyache, J; Blanco, J L; Vadillo, S; Garayzabal, J F; Suarez, G

    1987-04-01

    Manchego type cheese was manufactured from milk from cows, goats and ewes artificially contaminated with 2 X 10(4) S. aureus cells ml. Lactic starter culture was added to the milk at the rate of 1.0 or 0.1% (v/v). the industrial process of Manchego type cheese manufacture was imitated. Cheeses were analyzed for both staphylococcal and non-staphylococcal total aerobic counts, as well as for the pH and enterotoxin production. Growth differences in staphylococcal counts in cheeses prepared with both starter concentrations were seen only after the brine treatment, the counts were 10 times greater with the 0.1% starter. Nevertheless, with the 1% starter culture the staphylococcal counts did not decrease from the moment of inoculation remaining high after brine treatment. For a similar inoculum, the strains used responded in a different manner, the highest values corresponding to strains FRI-100, S6 and FRI-472, and the lowest to FRI-137 and FRI-361. No differences in pH were seen between batches prepared with both starter concentrations. PMID:3590995

  9. Acceleration of yoghurt fermentation time by yeast extract and partial characterisation of the active components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Esti-Andrine; Myburgh, Jacobus; Osthoff, Gernot; de Wit, Maryna

    2014-11-01

    Water soluble autolysate of yeast, usually utilised for microbial growth support, was used as additive in yoghurt fermentation. The yeast extract (YE) resulted in a decrease of fermentation time by 21% to reach a pH of 4·6. However, the YE resulted in unacceptable flavour and taste. By size exclusion chromatography, a fraction of the YE was obtained that could account for the observed 21% decrease in fermentation time. The fraction contained molecules of low molecular weight, consisting of minerals, free amino acids and peptides. The acceleration of the yoghurt fermentation was ascribed to the short peptides in the fraction. It is proposed that the application of this extract in industrial yoghurt manufacture would result in savings for both the industry and the consumer.

  10. Hypocholesterolaemic effect of yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 or Bifidobacterium longum BB536.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sheraji, Sadeq Hasan; Ismail, Amin; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yusof, Rokiah Mohd; Hassan, Fouad Abdulrahman

    2012-11-15

    The effect of a yoghurt supplement containing Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 or Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on plasma lipids, lipid peroxidation and the faecal excretion of bile acids was examined in rats fed a cholesterol-enriched diet. After 8 weeks, the rats in the positive control (PC) group who were fed the cholesterol-enriched diet showed significant increases in plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and malondialdehyde (MDA). However, groups fed a cholesterol-enriched diet supplemented with yoghurt containing B. pseudocatenulatum G4 or B. longum BB536 had significantly lower plasma TC, LDL-C, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, and MDA than had the PC group after 8 weeks of treatment. In addition, faecal excretion of bile acids was markedly increased in the rats fed the yoghurt containing B. pseudocatenulatum G4 or B. longum BB536 as compared to the PC and NC groups.

  11. Ketahanan dan viabilitas probiotik bakteri asam laktat selama proses pembuatan kultur kering dengan metode freeze dan spray drying [Survival and Viability of Lactid Acid Bacteria Probiotic during production of Dried Culture Using Freeze and Spray Drying Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erni Harmayani 1

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Selection on 36 lactid aid bacteria isolate from various source (dadih, sausage, infant faces, gato, chinese leaf pickle, growol and yoghurt has been carried out based on their potency to reduce choresterol. Based on their ability to assimilate choresterol, conjugate bile solt, restency on bile salt and low pH, three isolates i.e. Lactobacillus sp. Dad 13, L. asidophillus D2 and L. plantarum Mut 7 have been chosen for further study. Viability of selected cultures during biomass production using coconut water with addition of 0.5% yeast extract, and during production of dried starter culture using freeze and spray dried were investigated. The results show that the growth patern of the three isolates selected were almost similar i.e. reaching maximum amount after 16 hours fermentation at 37°C. biomass production using coconut water produced 109 cfu/ml after 16-18 hours incubation at 37°C. decrease on viability after drying using freeze drier ranged between 0.5-2 log cycles, while that of storage of freeze dried culture during 4 weeks at -20°C caused descreasing in viability of 26-56%.

  12. Cell-wall proteinases PrtS and PrtB have a different role in Streptococcus thermophilus/Lactobacillus bulgaricus mixed cultures in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtin, P; Monnet, V; Rul, F

    2002-11-01

    The manufacture of yoghurt relies on the simultaneous utilization of two starters: Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Lb. bulgaricus). A protocooperation usually takes place between the two species, which often results in enhanced milk acidification and aroma formation compared to pure cultures. Cell-wall proteinases of Lactococcus lactis and lactobacilli have been shown to be essential to growth in milk in pure cultures. In this study, the role of proteinases PrtS from S. thermophilus and PrtB from Lb. bulgaricus in bacterial growth in milk was evaluated; a negative mutant for the prtS gene of S. thermophilus CNRZ 385 was constructed for this purpose. Pure cultures of S. thermophilus CNRZ 385 and its PrtS-negative mutant were made in milk as well as mixed cultures of S. thermophilus and Lb. bulgaricus: S. thermophilus CNRZ 385 or its PrtS-negative mutant was associated with several strains of Lb. bulgaricus, including a PrtB-negative strain. The pH and growth of bacterial populations of the resulting mixed cultures were followed, and the Lactobacillus strain was found to influence both the extent of the benefit of Lb. bulgaricus/S. thermophilus association on milk acidification and the magnitude of S. thermophilus population dominance at the end of fermentation. In all mixed cultures, the sequential growth of S. thermophilus then of Lb. bulgarius and finally of both bacteria was observed. Although proteinase PrtS was essential to S. thermophilus growth in milk in pure culture, it had no effect on bacterial growth and thus on the final pH of mixed cultures in the presence of PrtB. In contrast, proteinase PrtB was necessary for the growth of S. thermophilus, and its absence resulted in a higher final pH. From these results, a model of growth of both bacteria in mixed cultures in milk is proposed.

  13. The Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on Some Quality Properties and Shelf-Life of Set and Stirred Yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNDOĞDU, Engin; ÇAKMAKÇI, Songül; DAĞDEMİR, Elif

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine some properties of set and stirred type yoghurts containing 0.5% and 1% garlic (Allium sativum L.) during storage period of 28 days at 4±1 °C. Some microbiological, physical, chemical, and sensory properties of yoghurts were determined in days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the storage period. Coliform bacteria were not detected in all samples during the storage period ( 0.05) and sensory scores of yoghurts decreased during the storage period. It was also shown ...

  14. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurts made from goat and cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Roberto Germano; Beltrão Filho, Edvaldo Mesquita; de Sousa, Solange; da Cruz, George Rodrigo Beltrão; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto; da Cruz, Eliel Nunes

    2016-05-01

    Substituting goats' milk for cows' milk could improve the quality of dairy products, because it adds new sensorial characteristics. The aim of this study was to develop a type of yoghurt using goats' milk (25, 50, 75 and 100%) in place of cows' milk and to compare their characteristics. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics were evaluated using a nine-point hedonic scale and purchase intention test. The data obtained in the physicochemical analysis were submitted to regression analysis and the sensory results were evaluated through analysis of variance. Among the physicochemical characteristics of the yoghurts, variation (P < 0.05) of ash, acidity and lactose was observed. Tasters in the sensory analysis indicated that yoghurts up to 50% of goats' milk received favorable averages; with lower scores for higher goats' milk concentrations (75% and 100%). No difference was reported in acidity. Replacing cows' milk with goats' milk in yoghurt preparation promotes variations in the physicochemical characteristics for ash, acidity and lactose. However, it does not cause alterations in the sensory attributes (50% goat milk) and therefore could be considered as an alternative for the production of dairy products. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. PMID:26867520

  15. Sensorless soft starters for loaded induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrisanov, V.I.; Konovalov, Y.N. [Power Plearonics Department, State University of Telecommunication, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The paper is devoted to the research and design of sensorless thyristor soft starters for loaded induction motors (IM) with short circuited squirrel case rotors. It is shown that the applied direct converter topology depends on the output power and consists of a small number of thyristors with special algorithm of switching to realize voltage - frequency control of IM drive systems at low speeds of starting. Sensorless control is realized from the both sides when neither direct converter nor drive system consists of any additional transducers for soft starting operation. (orig.) 4 refs.

  16. Curcumin-supplemented yoghurt improves physiological and biochemical markers of experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierres, Vânia O; Pinheiro, Clara M; Assis, Renata P; Vendramini, Regina C; Pepato, Maria T; Brunetti, Iguatemy L

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the effects of prolonged treatment of diabetic rats with curcumin-supplemented yoghurt on the physiological and biochemical changes associated with diabetes mellitus. An established metabolic cage model was used to assess these changes in three groups of streptozotocin-diabetic rats which had been administered, by gavage, curcumin blended into yoghurt in the doses of 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg body weight (BW) per d (groups DC30, DC60, DC90) for 31 d. One group of non-diabetic rats was also treated with 90 mg/kg BW per d curcumin (NDC90). Three control groups of diabetic animals received water (DW), yoghurt (DY) and insulin at 27·78 μmol/d by subcutaneous injection (DI). Also, two groups of non-diabetic animals received water (NDW) and yoghurt (NDY). Groups DI and DC90 exhibited significant falls, relative to DW and DY, in food and water intake, urine volume, glycaemia, urinary urea and glucose, proteinuria, serum TAG and activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, and higher hepatic glycogen and BW. These improvements were greater in DI than in DC90. No difference was observed in the serum levels of total cholesterol or HDL-cholesterol, or in the masses of adipose and muscular tissues, between DC90 and DW or DY. Moreover, the improvements in curcumin-treated rats, relative to DW and DY, were significant and dose-dependent. The NDC90 group also showed no difference from the NDW or NDY groups, in any of the markers for diabetes. In conclusion, curcumin mixed into yoghurt at the highest dose tested exhibited anti-diabetic activity, improving significantly most of the markers assessed in this study.

  17. Penicillium salamii strain ITEM 15302: A new promising fungal starter for salami production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistà, D; Ferrara, M; Del Nobile, M A; Gammariello, D; Conte, A; Perrone, G

    2016-08-16

    Traditional sausages are often considered of superior quality to sausages inoculated with commercial starter cultures and this is partially due to the action of the typical house microflora. Penicillium nalgiovense is the species commonly used as starter culture for dry-cured meat production. Recently a new species, Penicillium salamii, was described as typical colonizer during salami seasoning. In order to understand its contribution to the seasoning process, two different experiments on curing of fresh pork sausages were conducted using P. salamii ITEM 15302 in comparison with P. nalgiovense ITEM 15292 at small and industrial scale, and the dry-cured sausages were subjected to sensory analyses. Additionally, proteolytic and lipolytic in vitro assays were performed on both strains. P. salamii ITEM 15302 proved to be a fast growing mould on dry-cured sausage casings, well adapted to the seasoning process, with high lipolytic and proteolytic enzymatic activity that confers typical sensory characteristics to meat products. Therefore, P. salamii ITEM 15302 was shown to be a good candidate as new starter for meat industry. PMID:27183229

  18. Optimization Of Freeze-Dried Starter For Yogurt By Full Factorial Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen He

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapidly development of fermented milk product, it is significant for enhancing the performance of starter culture. This paper not only investigated the influence of anti-freeze factors and freeze-drying protective agents on viable count, freeze-drying survival rate and yield of Lactobacillus bulgaricus (LB and Streptococcus thermophilus (ST, but also optimized the bacteria proportion of freeze-dried starter culture for yogurt by full factorial experimental design. The results showed as following: the freeze-drying protective agents or anti-freeze factors could enhanced survival rate of LB and ST; the freeze-dried LB and ST powders containing both of anti-freeze factors and freeze-drying protective agents had higher viable count and freeze-drying survival rate that were 84.7% and 79.7% respectively; In terms of fermentation performance, the best group of freeze-dried starter for yogurt was the compound of LB3 and ST2.

  19. Lipid oxidation in milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing enriched with neat fish oil or pre-emulsified fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This study compared the oxidative stabilities of fish-oil-enriched milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing and investigated the effects on oxidation of adding either neat fish oil or a fish-oil-in-water emulsion to these products. Milk emulsions had higher levels of a fishy off-flavor and...... oxidized faster, as determined by the peroxide value and volatile oxidation products, than fish-oil-enriched yoghurt and dressing, despite the fact that dressings had a higher fish oil content and were stored at room temperature. Additionally, fish-oil-enriched yoghurt generally had higher oxidative...... stability than fish-oil-enriched dressings, irrespective of the mode of fish oil addition. Yoghurt thus seemed to be a good delivery system of lipids containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Different effects of adding fish oil either as neat fish oil or as a fish-oil-in-water emulsion were observed for...

  20. Chitosan Interaction with Iron from Yoghurt Using an In Vitro Digestive Model: Comparative Study with Plant Dietary Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Albertengo; María Susana Rodríguez; Mirta Montero; Marina Dello Staffolo; Miriam Martino; Alicia Bevilacqua

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the interaction of chitosan with iron from yoghurt by an in vitro gastrointestinal tract model. Taking into account that chitosan is a polysaccharide included in fiber definition by Codex Alimentarius; chitosan behavior was studied and compared with different plant fiber (wheat, bamboo, apple, psyllium and inulin) behaviors, in the same in vitro conditions. Ferrous sulfate was added to yoghurts with each type of fiber. The gastric environment was ...

  1. Impact of selected coagulants and starters on primary proteolysis and amino acid release related to bitterness and structure of reduced-fat Cheddar cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Mette Winther; Qvist, Karsten Bruun; Rasmussen, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    Despite substantial research, it is still difficult to produce high quality reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. The objective of this study was to investigate how two coagulants, bovine chymosin (BC) and camel chymosin (CC) having different proteolytic activities and two starter cultures, an O-culture (O...

  2. Commercial ripening starter microorganisms inoculated into cheese milk do not successfully establish themselves in the resident microbial ripening consortia of a South german red smear cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerges, Stefanie; Mounier, Jérôme; Rea, Mary C; Gelsomino, Roberto; Heise, Valeska; Beduhn, Rüdiger; Cogan, Timothy M; Vancanneyt, Marc; Scherer, Siegfried

    2008-04-01

    Production of smear-ripened cheese critically depends on the surface growth of multispecies microbial consortia comprising bacteria and yeasts. These microorganisms often originate from the cheese-making facility and, over many years, have developed into rather stable, dairy-specific associations. While commercial smear starters are frequently used, it is unclear to what degree these are able to establish successfully within the resident microbial consortia. Thus, the fate of the smear starters of a German Limburger cheese subjected to the "old-young" smearing technique was investigated during ripening. The cheese milk was supplemented with a commercial smear starter culture containing Debaryomyces hansenii, Galactomyces geotrichum, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, and Brevibacterium aurantiacum. Additionally, the cheese surface was inoculated with an extremely stable in-house microbial consortium. A total of 1,114 yeast and 1,201 bacterial isolates were identified and differentiated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, repetitive PCR, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis analyses were used to type selected isolates below the species level. The D. hansenii starter strain was primarily found early in the ripening process. The G. geotrichum starter strain in particular established itself after relocation to a new ripening room. Otherwise, it occurred at low frequencies. The bacterial smear starters could not be reisolated from the cheese surface at all. It is concluded that none of the smear starter strains were able to compete significantly and in a stable fashion against the resident microbial consortia, a result which might have been linked to the method of application. This finding raises the issue of whether addition of starter microorganisms during production of this type of cheese is actually necessary.

  3. Phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR of promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented sausages Caracterização fenotípica e por PCR espécie-específica de cepas promissoras como cultivos iniciadores de Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de embutidos cárneos fermentados naturalmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Cortez Sawitzki

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to characterize promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented artisanal sausage manufactured in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. From 127 isolates of homofermentative, Gram-positive and catalase-negative lactic acid bacteria, ten isolates were randomly selected and the phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR were performed. Genomic DNA from each isolated strain and from the reference strains L. plantarum ATCC 8014 and L. pentosus ATCC 8041 were amplified using two pairs of L. plantarum species-specific primers (16/Lpl and LbP11/LbP12. The results of the phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR indicated that five out of ten isolates were Lactobacillus plantarum.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar cepas promissoras como cultivos iniciadores de Lactobacillus plantarum isoladas de embutidos cárneos fermentados naturalmente produzidos na região noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Das 127 bactérias ácido láctica homofermentativas, Gram-positivo e catalase-negativo isoladas, dez foram aleatoriamente selecionadas e a caracterização fenotípica e a PCR espécie-específica foram realizadas. DNA genômico das cepas isoladas e das cepas de referência L. plantarum ATCC 8014 e L. pentosus ATCC 8041 foram amplificadas utilizando-se dois pares de iniciadores espécie-específicos para L. plantarum (16/Lpl e LbP11/LbP12. Os resultados da caracterização fenotípica e da PCR espécie-específica permitiram a identificação como Lactobacillus plantarum de cinco cepas das dez selecionadas.

  4. The influence of selected prebiotics on the growth of lactic acid bacteria for bio-yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gustaw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Prebiotics are a category of nutritional com­pounds grouped together, not necessarily by structural similarities, but by ability to promote the growth of spe­cific beneficial (probiotic gut bacteria. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS and inulin are among the most famous prebiotic compounds. In order to improve viability of probiotic bacteria during storage, fermented food should be supplemented with prebiotics. Material and methods. Yoghurts were produced from skimmed milk powder and prebiotics (FOS, inulin or resistant starch, which were added at concentrations of 1%, 2% and 3%. Yoghurts were stored in +4°C for three weeks. Every week each kind of fermented drink was examined in order to check the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Apparent viscosity and texture of bio-yoghurt were determinated during refrigerated storage. Results. The FOS and inulin addition to yoghurt caused an increase in the numbers of all bacteria in comparison to control yoghurt obtained without addition of prebiotics. The viable counts of Str. thermophilus, Lb. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. when 1% of FOS was added to yoghurt were about 9 log cfu/g, 7.8 log cfu/g and 7.7 log cfu/g, respectively. In the presence of 1% of inulin, streptococci and bifidobacteria reached the growth at the level 8.8 log cfu/g and 7.5 respectively. Hardness and adhesiveness of yoghurt obtained with addition resistant starch increased systematically during 21 days of refrigerated storage. Conclusions. The numbers of lactic acid bacteria in obtained bio-yoghurts were sufficient in 97% of samples (106-109 cfu/g according to FAO/WHO protocols. Generally, viability of bacteria was sufficient for 14 days and then their numbers decreased but usually not below 106 cfu/g. Prebiotics as FOS and inulin added to bio-yoghurt exhibited stimulatory effect on growth Lb. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. Addition of prebiotics caused an increase in apparent viscosity and hardness (in case of

  5. A study of product stability of commercial probiotic fermented milk and yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaojiao

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the stability of three probiotic fermented milk products (‘Cultura Naturell’, ‘Biola Syrnet Lettmelk Naturell’ and ‘Biola Pluss Yoghurt Mild Naturell’) produced by TINE BA was studied and samples from each production were studied at three different times within designated shelf-life. The study focused mainly on the viability of probiotic bacteria during storage, which is a key criterion for quality evaluation of probiotic dairy products. Other parameters (pH, viscosity, organic...

  6. [Acceptance of yoghurt with different functional ingredients among consumers in supermarkets in southern Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Shene, Carolina; Rubilar, Mónica; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Lobos, Germán

    2010-12-01

    In view of the interest in the role of foodstuffs in improving wellbeing and health, the object of this study is to distinguish consumer typologies in Temuco, La Araucanía Region, Chile, according to their preferences for different functional ingredients, flavouring, colouring and price in yoghurt. A semi-structured survey was applied to 400 supermarket customers. The respondents ordered eight alternative yoghurts according to their preferences, with different functional ingredients (fibre, antioxidants), flavourings (sugar, sweetener), colouring (natural, artificial) and three price options, for a conjoint analysis with fractional factorial design. Variables affecting knowledge of "functional food" were evaluated using a binomial logit model. It was determined by conjoint analysis that in general a preference existed for yoghurt containing fibre, sweetener, natural colouring, and at the lowest price. Three typologies were distinguished by analysis of hierarchical conglomerates: the majority segment (48.8%) displayed a greater preference for fibre; the second (41.7%) also preferred fibre, but gave first priority to artificial colouring and preferred a higher price. The minority (9.5%) was the only segment to prefer antioxidants. The typologies differed significantly in satisfaction with their food-related life, knowledge of the function of fibre and presence of cancer and obesity in some member of the respondent's family. The binomial logit model was significant (P < 0.01), indicating that if the consumer has a job or has had access to information on functional foods, the probability increased of knowledge of what these mean. There was thus majority acceptance of yoghurt enriched with fibre and with added sweetener. PMID:21866689

  7. Influence of sweetener stevia on the quality of strawberry flavoured fresh yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Lisak; Irena Jeličić; Ljubica Tratnik; Rajka Božanić

    2011-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non energetic sweetener, 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose, and is obtained by leaves extraction of the Stevia rebaudiana. According to the low energy value of stevia to sweeten food products, it is a great possibility of its use in the dairy industry. This study examined the differences in the sweetness of the strawberry flavoured yoghurt with the addition of sucrose, stevia and equal portions of sucrose and stevia; each combination was used at three different concentra...

  8. Fatty Acid Content of Bovine Milkfat From Raw Milk to Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Santos Junior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The present study aimed to study the evolution of fatty acid content, focusing on rumenic acid content, from raw milk to yoghurt processed from this milk. Approach: Milk samples were collected in a dairy plant in the northwest of Parana State weekly in January 2011 (Brazilian summer. It processed one truck load of 26,000 L of refrigerated type-C (whole standardized milk with a minimum of 3% fat milk per day, mostly from the city of Lobato, Parana, produced mainly by Gir (Bos indicus cattle raised on stargrass (Cynodon nlenfuensis var. nlenfuensis pasture. Results: Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA were the most abundant, particularly palmitic (16:0, stearic (18:0 and myristic (14:0. Among the Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA and trans fatty acid, oleic acid (18:1n-9, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, elaidic acid (t9-18:1 and c9, t11-18:2 (rumenic acid predominated. It was detected significant differences (p-1 of lipids, decreasing to 6.22±0.20 after pasteurization and to 5.41±0.18 mg g-1 in yoghurt. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is demonstrated that pasteurization and yoghurt making affect the CLA contents.

  9. The effect of kefir starter on Thai fermented sausage product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Jatupornpipat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml was significantly higher (P0.05. It is concluded that the addition of kefir starter (7 ml could be useful to improve the final quality of Thai fermented sausages. The addition of kefir starter that initiates rapid acidification of the raw meat and that leads to a desirable sensory quality of the end-product are used for the production of fermented sausages, and represents a way of improving and optimizing the sausage fermentation process and achieving tastier, safer, and healthier products.

  10. 发酵豆制品中高产转氨酶菌株筛选及固态菌剂制备%Screening and Identification of Aminotransferase-producing Strain from Fermented Soybean Products and Preparation of Its Solid Starter Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍玲; 秦礼康

    2012-01-01

    为缩短传统大豆发酵制品后熟期,基于转氨反应这一主要风味形成途径,现从贵州各地采集风味良好的豆豉、腐乳等发酵样品,经稀释涂布平板法分离得到150株细菌。通过支链氨基酸转氨酶活力测定,从中筛选出WDH-8菌株具有最高酶活力,菌种鉴定后确定其为地衣芽孢杆菌,属安全益酵菌株,其支链氨基酸转氨酶活力达36.53U/mL。为便于生产应用,对该菌株进行固态菌剂培养基配方实验,以转氨酶活力为指标,培养基最佳配方为:黄豆粉25g、水料比1:1(V/m)、氯化钠添加量5%、葡萄糖添加量3%,其酶活力达到37.965U/mL。%In order to shorten the fermentation period of fermented soybean products,a total of 150 strains were isolated from top-quality fermented foods in Guizhou.Among these strains,strain WDH-8 was found to have the highest branched-chain aminotransferase activity.The strain was identified as Bacillus licheniformis that was a safe prebiotic yeast strain with a branched-chain aminotransferase activity of 36.53 U/mL.In order to facilitate practical applications,the preparation of its solid starter culture was investigated,and the optimal culture medium for achieving the highest branched-chain aminotransferase activity,37.965 U/mL,was determined to be composed of soybean power 25 g,material-to-water ratio 1:1,sodium chloride 5% and glucose 3%.

  11. Indução da fermentação maloláctica em vinho tinto com a cultura láctica viniflora oenos Induction of malolactic fermentation in red wine with the starter culture viniflora oenos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Dias de Avila

    1997-06-01

    comportamento dos ácidos málico, acético, láctico, pirúvico e tartárico foi demonstrado.Malolactic fermentation is responsible for the reduction of the total acidity, which usually is too high in young red wines. This fermentation provides a higher biological stability and higher complexity of aroma and flavor. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul, malolactic fermentation becomes a necessity because frequently grapes have high acidity and the induction by bacterial inoculation has not been a common practice. This work had as a main aim to evaluate the lactic culture behavior in the induction of malolactic fermentation in relation to the wild bacteria. A must of Cabernet Sauvignon Vitis vinífera was fermented and inoculated with the commercial culture of Leuconostoc oenos, Viniflora Oenos in several residual sugar levels: 34.1 - 13.8 - 1.7 and 1.5g/l. The inoculations, in duplicate, were compared with spontaneous malolactic fermentation (control. Degradation of malic acid was monitored through paper chromatography. Organic acids were determinated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Reducing sugars (RS, °Brix, pH, total acidity and alcohol were also analysed. The inoculated wine in the 34.1g/l RS stage fermented in 14 days, while the control took 28.5 days in average. In the 13.8 and 1.7g/l RS stages, Viniflora Oenos completed the malic acid degradation around 13 and 11 days, while the controls took 20.5 and 16.5 days, respectively. In the 1.5g/l RS stage, the inoculated wines and the controls did not demonstrate significative difference and fermented between 8 and 10 days. Viniflora Oenos completed the malolactic fermentation in less time. This demonstrates that the inoculation can be made before the end of alcoholic fermentation with good results. In the majority of the treatments there was not significative difference in the acetic acid production between the culture and the control. The behavior of the malic, acetic, lactic, piruvic and tartaric acids were

  12. The effect of microbial starter composition on cassava chips fermentation for the production of fermented cassava flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Listianingrum, Zaenudin, Ahmad; Trihatmoko, Kharisrama

    2015-12-01

    The processing of cassava into fermented cassava flour (fercaf) or the widely known as modified cassava flour (mocaf) presents an alternative solution to improve the competitiveness of local foods and to support national food security. However, the mass production of fercaf is being limited by several problems, among which is the availability of starter cultures. This paper presents the mapping of the effect of microbial starter compositions on the nutritional content of fercaf in order to obtain the suitable nutritional composition. Based on their enzymatic activities, the combination of Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus oryzae were tested during the study. In addition, commercial starter was also tested. During the fermentation, the dynamics in microbial population were measured as well as changes in cyanogenic glucoside content. The microbial starter composition was observed to affect the dynamics in microbial populationcynaogenic glucoside content of the produced fercaf. In general, steady state microbial population was reached within 12 hours of fermentation. Cyanogenic glucoside was observed to decrease along the fermentation.

  13. Application of a Cholesterol-Lowering Strain of Bifidobacterium animalis in Fat-Free Yoghurt%降胆固醇双歧杆菌B菌在零脂酸奶生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅强; 周星浩; 高兴华; 欧凯; 王银娟; 刘小杰

    2012-01-01

    Bifidobacterium animalis strain B, a strain that is capable of lowering cholesterol levels in the body, was screened out and used in combination with the conventional fermentation starter (composed of L.bulgaricus and S.thermophilus) for the mixed-strain fermentation of fat-free yoghurt at 43 °C. The end point of the fermentation was reached after 5.5 - 6 hours. The total numbers of viable Bifidobacterium animalis and lactic acid bacteria reached an average of 4.8 X 106 CFU/g and 7.4 X 107 CFU/g respectively during 28 days of storage at 4 °C.The yoghurt obtained showed a protein content of 2.8 g/100 g, a fat content of 0.2 g/100 g, and an acidity value of 80 °T. All of these three indexes met the requirements of the National Food Safety Standard GB 19302--2010: Fermented Milk. Meanwhile, according to the Ministry of Health's Regulation for Food Nutrition Labeling, the yoghurt product could be labeled as fat-free fermented milk. The results of sensory evaluations revealed that it had a very gentle flavor and a strong taste of fresh cream with a smooth and exquisite texture and a good consumer acceptance. Therefore, the yoghurt developed in this study has promising commercial prospects.%研究降胆固醇益生菌在酸奶中的应用。筛选一株具有降低人体胆固醇水平的双歧杆菌B菌,采用此双歧杆菌B菌(Bifidobacterium animalis)和常规酸奶菌种A菌(L.bulgaricus和S.thermophilus)在43℃混合发酵,发酵5.5~6h可达到发酵终点,该酸奶产品在4℃、28d冷藏保质期内,功效双歧杆菌数和乳酸菌总数平均值分别达到4.8×106CFU/g和7.4×107CFU/g,成品理化指标检测为蛋白质含量2.8g/100g、脂肪含量0.2g/100g和酸度80°T,均符合食品安全国家标准GB 19302—2010《发酵乳:风味发酵乳》的要求,根据卫生部食品营养标签管理规范,本产品可标示为零脂风味发酵乳,从感官评价结果来看,此风味发酵乳具有非常柔和的风味及有较

  14. Microbial evolution of traditional mountain cheese and characterization of early fermentation cocci for selection of autochtonous dairy starter strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carafa, Ilaria; Clementi, Francesca; Tuohy, Kieran; Franciosi, Elena

    2016-02-01

    The microbial population of Traditional Mountain (TM) cheese was investigated and characterized for the selection of cocci suitable for developing new starter cultures. Samples of milk, curd and cheese at different ripening times were enumerated in selective culture media and 640 colonies were isolated from curd and cheese after 24 h of ripening. The Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from M17 were clustered into 231 biotypes by RAPD-PCR analysis and identified as Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus faecalis. Forty percent of enterococci showed the in vitro ability to inhibit raw milk resident coliforms, but they were excluded as possible starters due to the presence of associated risk factors. All lactococci and streptococci were tested for their technological properties; 4 Lc. lactis subsp. lactis and 2 Sc. thermophilus which were fast acidifiers and did not produce unpleasant flavours were subjected to the freeze-drying stability test. Lc. lactis subsp. lactis biotype 68 and Sc. thermophilus biotype 93 showed the best technological properties and may be appropriate for cheese production. This work gave evidence of the high biodiversity of TM-cheese autochthonous biotypes which could be used as starter cultures for the improvement of TM-cheese technology. PMID:26678135

  15. Influence of microflora on texture and contents of amino acids, organic acids, and volatiles in semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionibacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehn, Lina Ulrika Ingeborg; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Persson, S.-E.;

    2011-01-01

    The microflora of semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionic acid bacteria (PAB) is quite complex, and we investigated the influence of its variation on texture and contents of organic acids, free amino acids, and volatile compounds. Variation in the microflora within the normal range...... for the cheese variety Grevé was obtained by using a PAB culture in combination with different DL-starters and making the cheeses at 2 dairy plants with different time and temperature profiles during ripening. Propionic acid bacteria dominated the microflora during ripening after a warm room period at levels...

  16. Novel liquid starter cultures for malolactic fermentation in wine

    OpenAIRE

    Berbegal de Gracia, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    La fermentación maloláctica es fundamental para la calidad del vino, especialmente en el vino tinto. Se trata de la transformación del ácido L-málico procedente de las uvas, de un gusto fuerte y áspero, en ácido L-láctico, de gusto más agradable, liberándose además CO2. Esta fermentación puede ser una poderosa herramienta en la elaboración del vino, no solo por reducir su acidez, sino también por influir positivamente en el aroma y perfil sensorial del vino. Esta fermentación es llevada a cab...

  17. 不同乳酸菌对羊酸奶的感官和质构特性的影响%The Effect of Different Lactobacillus on the Sensory and Textural Properties of Goat Yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝静; 丁武

    2011-01-01

    研究分析不同乳酸菌对羊酸奶感官与质构特性的影响作用,为筛选优良的羊酸奶发酵剂提供依据.使用双歧杆菌、保加利亚乳杆菌、嗜热链球菌、丁二酮乳链球菌发酵羊奶,对羊酸奶的感官品质、酸度及质构特性进行评定.结果表明,单一菌种发酵,四种菌发酵的羊酸奶的感官评分排序是双歧杆菌>嗜热链球菌>保加利亚乳杆菌>丁二酮乳链球菌,不同乳酸菌发酵羊酸奶的质构特性差异显著,使用双歧杆菌发酵可以获得最佳的质构特性,其发酵的羊酸奶的硬度为34.96g、黏度为802.28g·s、凝聚性为44.65g、粘性指数为137.17g·s、保水力为85.00%;混合发酵剂发酵羊酸奶具有各自不同的感官和质构特性优势,双歧杆菌和嗜热链球菌发酵的羊酸奶的硬度和黏度最好,分别达到29.93g和715.09g·s,但风味欠佳;双歧杆菌和丁二酮乳链球菌发酵的羊酸奶的凝聚性、粘性指数和保水力最好,分别达到45.86g、143.49g·s、91.00%,且风味良好.综合感官评价与质构特性,复合菌种双歧杆菌和丁二酮乳链球菌适宜作为羊酸奶的发酵剂.%The effect of different lactobacillus on the sensory and textural properties of goat yoghurt was investigated, and a basis for selectiving better starters of goat yoghurt was provided. Goat milk was fermented by Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus thermophilus,Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus diacetilucs, and their sensory evaluation, acidity and texture were determind. The result showed that fermentation by singlelactobocillus, the sensory order of the four kind oflactobocillus was Bifidobacterium>Streptococcus thermophilus >Lactobocillus bulgaricus >Streptococcus diacetilucs. Different lactobacillus was significantly different on textural properties, and the firmness, consistency, cohesiveness, index of viscosity and water holding capacity of goat yogurt fermented by Bifidobactedum were the best, the were 34

  18. Physico-Chemical And Microbiological Quality Of Some Consumer Preferred Plain Set Yoghurts Sold In Matara Municipal Area Of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K.G.U Hemamali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As yoghurt is a health food assessment of quality of commercialized yoghurt during storage period in refrigerator is needed. Lack of data on quality parameters of yoghurt brands in Sri Lanka is impediment to consumer health. This study is an attempt to fill that gap by providing data on evaluation of the changes of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of some plain set yoghurt sold in Matara municipal area of Sri Lanka. Five different brands of plain set yoghurt samples were collected on the basis of consumer preference for the present study. From each brand fifteen samples were analyzed by means of their physico-chemical syneresis effect pH titratable acidity total protein content and microbiological composition total plate count total yeast and mould count by using three replicates of each sample at 4 7 14 21 and 28 days intervals from production date under refrigerated condition 4 amp61616C and compared against local and international standards. All microbiological parameters and total protein content of all plain set yoghurt brands were not within the permissible range for local and international standards. Titratable acidity was only in the permissible range of local standards. All the physico-chemical parameters and microbiological parameters of collected samples were significantly affected by storage period. Good quality yoghurt of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters with hygiene conditions during processing and storage should be encouraged for consumption.

  19. Whey starter for Grana Padano cheese: effect of technological parameters on viability and composition of the microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, M; Gatti, M; Lazzi, C; Bernini, V; Zapparoli, G A; Neviani, E

    2008-03-01

    This work aimed to investigate the effects of thermal treatments and yeast extract addition on the composition of the microbial community of natural whey starters for Grana Padano cheese. Different natural whey starter samples were held at 4 degrees C for 24 h (cooling treatment), or at -20 degrees C for 24 h (freezing treatment) to evaluate the possibility of conservation, or at 54 degrees C for 1 h (heat treatment) to evaluate the effect of the temperature commonly used during curd cooking. Separately, another set of samples was enriched with 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0% (wt/vol) of yeast extract to study its effect on the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the starter. The new approach in this study is the use of 2 culture-independent methods: length heterogeneity (LH)-reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and fluorescence microscopy. These techniques allowed us to easily, quickly, and reproducibly assess metabolically active LAB in the control and treated samples. The LH-RT-PCR technique distinguished microorganisms based on natural variations in the length of 16S rRNA amplified by RT-PCR, as analyzed by using an automatic gene sequencer. Fluorescence microscopy counts were performed by using a Live/Dead BacLight bacterial viability kit. The repeatability of LH-RT-PCR showed that this technique has great potential to reveal changes in the microbial community of natural whey starters for Grana Padano cheese. All species showed low sensitivity to cold (4 degrees C). However, after the freezing (-20 degrees C) and heating (54 degrees C) treatments, different behaviors of the species were reported, with significant changes in their viability and relative composition. Heating treatment during curd cooking profoundly affected the viability and composition of the community that remained in the cheese and that consequently modified the microbial population. At the same time, this treatment produced the selection of LAB in whey and could be considered as the first step in natural

  20. Fluorescent method for monitoring cheese starter permeabilization and lysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunthof, C.J.; Schalkwijk, van S.; Meijer, W.; Abee, T.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2001-01-01

    A fluorescence method to monitor lysis of cheese starter bacteria using dual staining with the LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit is described. This kit combines membrane-permeant green fluorescent nucleic acid dye SYTO 9 and membrane-impermeant red fluorescent nucleic acid dye propidium iod

  1. Sodium reduction in starter-free Queso Fresco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creating lower sodium Queso Fresco (QF) for health conscious consumers is a challenge when this high-moisture, higher pH, starter-free cheese relies on high salt levels to control the microflora and to obtain its signature salty taste. In phase 1, QF made from pasteurized, homogenized bovine milk wi...

  2. On One Possibility to Improve Reliability of Magnetic Starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anishchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes and considers a possibility to improve an operational reliability of reversing magnetic starters by reservation of main and auxiliary contacts in accordance with majority-logic voter «two out of three».

  3. A Novel Open-winding Permanent Magnetic Starter-generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to overcome the difficulties of voltage regulation, narrow speed range and low power factor of the traditional permanent magnetic generator applied in the vehicles, a novel open-winding permanent magnetic starter-generator (see Fig.l) is used to widen the speed range and improve the efficiency in the generation mode.

  4. Microbiology of Cheddar cheese made with different fat contents using a Lactococcus lactis single-strain starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, J R; Brighton, C; McMahon, D J; Farkye, N Y; Johnson, M E; Steele, J L

    2013-07-01

    Flavor development in low-fat Cheddar cheese is typified by delayed or muted evolution of desirable flavor and aroma, and a propensity to acquire undesirable meaty-brothy or burnt-brothy off-flavor notes early in ripening. The biochemical basis for these flavor deficiencies is unclear, but flavor production in bacterial-ripened cheese is known to rely on microorganisms and enzymes present in the cheese matrix. Lipid removal fundamentally alters cheese composition, which can modify the cheese microenvironment in ways that may affect growth and enzymatic activity of starter or nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB). Additionally, manufacture of low-fat cheeses often involves changes to processing protocols that may substantially alter cheese redox potential, salt-in-moisture content, acid content, water activity, or pH. However, the consequences of these changes on microbial ecology and metabolism remain obscure. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of fat content on population dynamics of starter bacteria and NSLAB over 9 mo of aging. Duplicate vats of full fat, 50% reduced-fat, and low-fat (containing cheeses were manufactured at 3 different locations with a single-strain Lactococcus lactis starter culture using standardized procedures. Cheeses were ripened at 8°C and sampled periodically for microbiological attributes. Microbiological counts indicated that initial populations of nonstarter bacteria were much lower in full-fat compared with low-fat cheeses made at all 3 sites, and starter viability also declined at a more rapid rate during ripening in full-fat compared with 50% reduced-fat and low-fat cheeses. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of cheese bacteria showed that the NSLAB fraction of all cheeses was dominated by Lactobacillus curvatus, but a few other species of bacteria were sporadically detected. Thus, changes in fat level were correlated with populations of different bacteria, but did not appear to alter the

  5. Effect of yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® on faecal excretion of secretory immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin 2 in healthy adult volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabeerdoss Jayakanthan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotics are used to provide health benefits. The present study tested the effect of a probiotic yoghurt on faecal output of beta-defensin and immunoglobulin A in a group of young healthy women eating a defined diet. Findings 26 women aged 18-21 (median 19 years residing in a hostel were given 200 ml normal yoghurt every day for a week, followed by probiotic yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® (109 in 200 ml for three weeks, followed again by normal yoghurt for four weeks. Stool samples were collected at 0, 4 and 8 weeks and assayed for immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin-2 by ELISA. All participants tolerated both normal and probiotic yoghurt well. Human beta-defensin-2 levels in faeces were not altered during the course of the study. On the other hand, compared to the basal sample, faecal IgA increased during probiotic feeding (P = 0.0184 and returned to normal after cessation of probiotic yoghurt intake. Conclusions Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® increased secretory IgA output in faeces. This property may explain the ability of probiotics to prevent gastrointestinal and lower respiratory tract infections.

  6. Synergistic Effect of Fermented Rice Extracts on the Probiotic and Laxative Properties of Yoghurt in Rats with Loperamide-Induced Constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Suk Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The objective was to evaluate the synergistic effects of fermented rice extracts (FRe on the laxative and probiotic properties of yoghurt in rats with loperamide-induced constipation. Methods. After constipation induction, yoghurt containing FRe (BFRe; 0.05%, 0.1%, or 1% was administered orally once per day for 6 days. Results. Loperamide treatment caused marked decreases in fecal pellet numbers and water content discharged, as well as in the surface mucosal thickness of the colonic lumen, intestinal charcoal transit ratio, thickness, and number of mucous-producing goblet cells in the colonic mucosa, whereas it increased the remnant fecal pellet number and the mean diameter of the colonic lumen. However, this loperamide-induced constipation was ameliorated by treatment with FRe, yoghurt single formula, or 0.05%, 0.1%, or 1% BFRe (10 mL/kg. Additionally, the viable numbers of Lactobacillus in the cecal contents and feces were markedly higher than those in constipated rats. Moreover, greater probiotic and laxative effects were detected in BFRe-treated rats than in rats treated with equivalent doses of yoghurt or FRe single formula. Conclusion. The results suggest that addition of FRe to liquid yoghurt will enhance the probiotic and beneficial laxative effects of yoghurt in the digestive tract, without causing side effects.

  7. INHIBITION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS BY LACTIC ACID BACTERIA AND / OR BIFIDOBACTERIUM LACTIS DURING MILK FERMENTATION AND STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Khalaf S. Al-Delaimy; Yaser M. Hamamdeh

    2013-01-01

    Survival and inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter culture (Sterptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus delbrukii subsp. bulgaricus) and/ or probiotic bacteria Bifidobacterium lactis during milk fermentation to yoghurt and storage up to 12 days was studied. Adding S. aureus (initial count log 6.64/ ml) with LAB (initial count log 6.8/ ml) in milk during yoghurt processing and storage resulted in no significant change in the counts of both S. aureus an...

  8. Fortification of dahi (Indian yoghurt) with omega-3 fatty acids using microencapsulated flaxseed oil microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ankit; Sharma, Vivek; Sihag, Manvesh Kumar; Singh, A K; Arora, Sumit; Sabikhi, Latha

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study was to develop and characterize omega-3 dahi (Indian yoghurt) through fortification of microencapsulated flaxseed oil powder (MFOP). Four different formulations of MFOP were fortified in dahi @ 1, 2 and 3 % levels and the level of addition was optimized on the basis of sensory scores. Dahi fortified at 2 % level was observed comparable to control, which was further studied for titratable acidity, syneresis, firmness, stickiness, oxidative stability (peroxide value), α-linolenic acid (ALA, ω-3) content and sensory attributes during 15d of storage. MFOP fortified dahi showed significantly (p oil) prescribed by Codex Alimentarius Commission (1999). Gas-liquid chromatography profile showed ~21 % decrease in ALA content in fortified dahi after 15d of storage. Overall, it can be concluded that flaxseed oil microcapsules could be successfully incorporated in dahi; which could serve as a potential delivery system of omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:27407209

  9. Removal of aflatoxin M1 from artificially contaminated yoghurt by using of new synthesized dehydroacetic acid analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frane Delaš

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroacetic acid (DHA and its new synthesized analogues, 4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl-6-(ptolyl-2H-pyrane-2-one (DHT and 5-Bromo-4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl-6-(p-tolyl-2H-pyrane-2-one (BrDHT were tested for removal of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 from artificially contaminated yoghurt with known concentrations of this toxin to determine the possible use of these chemicals as a means of controlling AFM1 accumulation. Yoghurt from cow’s milk was artificially contaminated with AFM1 at levels of 0.01 to 0.5 μg/L. Yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and 7 °C, respectively, for up to 28 days. Analysis of AFM1 in yoghurt was carried out using two dimensional thin-layer chromatography (TLC - visual estimation. The limit of detection was 0.15 ng/L. The recoveries of AFM1 from the samples spiked at levels of 10, 50, 100, and 500 ng/L were between 80.6 and 107.8 %, respectively. Concentrations of DHA and DHT of 0.01 and 0.03 μmol/L had non or little effect on AFM1 content in experimentally contaminated yoghurt, whereas concentrations higher than 0.05 μmol/L, partially inhibited AFM1 content. The percentage loss of the initial AFM1 amount in yoghurt was estimated by about 15 and 25 %, and 22 to 45 % by the end of storage, respectively. In experiments with 0.01 and 0.05 μmol/L of BrDHT or higher, the concentration of AFM1 was reduced after 28 days by 20 to 95 % or completely, respectively, depending on the time and temperature of deposit. Detection of toxicity of investigated analogues was evaluated by using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina larvae as a screening system for the determination of their sensitivity to some chemicals

  10. Chitosan Interaction with Iron from Yoghurt Using an In Vitro Digestive Model: Comparative Study with Plant Dietary Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Albertengo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the interaction of chitosan with iron from yoghurt by an in vitro gastrointestinal tract model. Taking into account that chitosan is a polysaccharide included in fiber definition by Codex Alimentarius; chitosan behavior was studied and compared with different plant fiber (wheat, bamboo, apple, psyllium and inulin behaviors, in the same in vitro conditions. Ferrous sulfate was added to yoghurts with each type of fiber. The gastric environment was simulated with HCl (pH 1.0–2.0. The duodenal environment was simulated with NaHCO3 (pH 6.8–7.2 and a dialysis tubing cellulose membrane. Results showed that chitosan had the highest iron retention percentages (53.2% at 30 min; 56.8% at 60 min interacting in a more pronounced manner with iron than the plant fibers used in this work.

  11. Pengaruh Jenis Susu dan Persentase Starter yang Berbeda terhadap Kualitas Kefir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusdar Zakaria

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different milk and starter percentage on kefir quality ABSTRACT. The objective of this study is to study the quality of kefir with different amount of starter added and different kind of milk. The quality of kefir was evaluated by measuring lactic acid level, syneresis, crude protein, crude fat and amount of active microorganism. The result showed that the different percentage of starter and kind of milk has a high significant on syneresis and Lactic Acid level (P < 0,01. The best interaction was resulted from the combination of 10% starter and UHT milk. The result also indicated that the different percentage of starter and kind of milk has no effect on crude protein, crude fat and the amount of active microorganism. The combination of 10% Starter and UHT milk, produces the best quality of kefir

  12. Sweetening yoghurt with glucose, but not with saccharin, promotes weight gain and increased fat pad mass in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakes, Robert A; Kendig, Michael D; Martire, Sarah I; Rooney, Kieron B

    2016-10-01

    The claim that non-nutritive sweeteners accelerate body weight gain by disrupting sweet-calorie associations was tested in two experiments using rats. The experiments were modelled on a key study from a series of experiments reporting greater body weight gain in rats fed yoghurt sweetened with saccharin than with glucose (Swithers & Davidson, 2008). Both of the current experiments likewise compared groups fed saccharin- or glucose-sweetened yoghurt in addition to chow and water, while Experiment 1 included a third group (Control) given unsweetened yoghurt. In Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2, rats were initially exposed to both saccharin- and glucose-sweetened yoghurts to assess their relative palatability. We also tested whether the provision of an energy-dense sweet biscuit would augment any effects of saccharin on food intake and weight gain, as seemingly predicted by Swithers and Davidson (2008). In Experiment 1 there were no differences in body weight gain or fat pad mass between the Saccharin and Control group, whereas the Glucose group was the heaviest by the final 5 weeks and at cull had the largest fat pads. Greater acceptance of saccharin predicted more weight gain over the whole experiment. Consistent with past reports, fasting blood glucose and insulin measures did not differ between the Saccharin and Control groups, but suggested some impairment of insulin sensitivity in the Glucose group. Experiment 2 found similar effects of glucose on fat mass, but not on body weight gain. In summary, adding saccharin had no detectable effects on body-weight regulation, whereas the effects of glucose on fat pad mass were consistent with previous studies reporting more harmful effects of sugars compared to non-nutritive sweeteners. PMID:27189382

  13. Assessment of the effect of the technological processing and the storage term on the fatty acid composition of buffalo yoghurt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fatty acid composition of the milk fat of buffalo yoghurt after lyophilization and gamma ray treatment with dozes 2 and 4 kGy has been investigated.It has been established that the fatty acid spectrums of these fat contain a considerable number of short, medium and long chain fatty acids.The buffalo milk fat after treatment has fatty acid composition a typical specific quantitative balancing

  14. Effects of the Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare L. on Survival of Pathogenic Bacteria and Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria in Semihard Cheese Broth and Slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Geany Targino; de Carvalho, Rayssa Julliane; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Schaffner, Donald; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Magnani, Marciane

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the inhibitory effects of the essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. (OVEO) on Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and a mesophilic starter coculture composed of lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris) in Brazilian coalho cheese systems. The MIC of OVEO was 2.5 μl/ml against both S. aureus and L. monocytogenes and 0.6 μl/ml against the tested starter coculture. In cheese broth containing OVEO at 0.6 μl/ml, no decrease in viable cell counts (VCC) of both pathogenic bacteria was observed, whereas the initial VCC of the starter coculture decreased approximately 1.0 log CFU/ml after 24 h of exposure at 10°C. OVEO at 1.25 and 2.5 μl/ml caused reductions of up to 2.0 and 2.5 log CFU/ml in S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, respectively, after 24 h of exposure in cheese broth. At these same concentrations, OVEO caused a greater decrease of initial VCC of the starter coculture following 4 h of exposure. Higher concentrations of OVEO were required to decrease the VCC of all target bacteria in semisolid coalho cheese slurry compared with cheese broth. The VCC of Lactococcus spp. in coalho cheese slurry containing OVEO were always lower than those of pathogenic bacteria under the same conditions. These results suggest that the concentrations of OVEO used to control pathogenic bacteria in semihard cheese should be carefully evaluated because of its inhibitory effects on the growth of starter lactic acid cultures used during the production of the product.

  15. Molecular Detection of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains and Evaluation of Their Performance as Starter Adjuncts in Yogurt Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Saxami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A molecular method for efficient and accurate detection and identification of two potential probiotic lactobacilli strains isolated from fermented olives, namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lb. plantarum B282, was developed in the present study. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was performed, and strain specific primers were designed and applied in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. The specificity of the assay was tested and successfully confirmed in 27 and 22 lactobacilli strains for Lb. pentosus B281 and Lb. plantarum B282, respectively. Moreover, the two strains were used as starter cultures in yogurt production. Cell enumeration followed by multiplex PCR analysis demonstrated that the two strains were present in yogurt samples at levels ≥6 log CFU/g even after 35 days of storage at 4 °C. Microbiological analysis showed that lactobacilli and streptococci were present within usual levels, whereas enterobacteriaceae and yeast/mold counts were not detected as expected. Although the pH values of the novel products were slightly lower than the control ones, the yogurt containing the probiotic cultures scored similar values compared to the control in a series of sensory tests. Overall, these results demonstrated the possible use of the two strains as starter adjuncts in the production of yogurt with potential probiotic properties.

  16. Molecular Detection of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains and Evaluation of Their Performance as Starter Adjuncts in Yogurt Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxami, Georgia; Papadopoulou, Olga S; Chorianopoulos, Nikos; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Galanis, Alex

    2016-05-04

    A molecular method for efficient and accurate detection and identification of two potential probiotic lactobacilli strains isolated from fermented olives, namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lb. plantarum B282, was developed in the present study. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed, and strain specific primers were designed and applied in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The specificity of the assay was tested and successfully confirmed in 27 and 22 lactobacilli strains for Lb. pentosus B281 and Lb. plantarum B282, respectively. Moreover, the two strains were used as starter cultures in yogurt production. Cell enumeration followed by multiplex PCR analysis demonstrated that the two strains were present in yogurt samples at levels ≥6 log CFU/g even after 35 days of storage at 4 °C. Microbiological analysis showed that lactobacilli and streptococci were present within usual levels, whereas enterobacteriaceae and yeast/mold counts were not detected as expected. Although the pH values of the novel products were slightly lower than the control ones, the yogurt containing the probiotic cultures scored similar values compared to the control in a series of sensory tests. Overall, these results demonstrated the possible use of the two strains as starter adjuncts in the production of yogurt with potential probiotic properties.

  17. Molecular Detection of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains and Evaluation of Their Performance as Starter Adjuncts in Yogurt Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxami, Georgia; Papadopoulou, Olga S; Chorianopoulos, Nikos; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Galanis, Alex

    2016-01-01

    A molecular method for efficient and accurate detection and identification of two potential probiotic lactobacilli strains isolated from fermented olives, namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lb. plantarum B282, was developed in the present study. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed, and strain specific primers were designed and applied in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The specificity of the assay was tested and successfully confirmed in 27 and 22 lactobacilli strains for Lb. pentosus B281 and Lb. plantarum B282, respectively. Moreover, the two strains were used as starter cultures in yogurt production. Cell enumeration followed by multiplex PCR analysis demonstrated that the two strains were present in yogurt samples at levels ≥6 log CFU/g even after 35 days of storage at 4 °C. Microbiological analysis showed that lactobacilli and streptococci were present within usual levels, whereas enterobacteriaceae and yeast/mold counts were not detected as expected. Although the pH values of the novel products were slightly lower than the control ones, the yogurt containing the probiotic cultures scored similar values compared to the control in a series of sensory tests. Overall, these results demonstrated the possible use of the two strains as starter adjuncts in the production of yogurt with potential probiotic properties. PMID:27153065

  18. Instant Django 1.5 application development starter

    CERN Document Server

    Rocco, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is written in a practical Starter style with lots of helpful screenshots and step-by-step tutorials which will guide you gently into the world of Django.This book is for Python developers who want to jump into the world of Django. If you want to create awesome Python web applications without sacrificing speed then this book is for you. This book will also appeal to people learning Python who wish to hit the ground running and develop P

  19. The role of developmental networks in career starters' meaning of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.; Alberts, M.; Vuuren, van Mark

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how career starters (age: 26-33 years) experience work meaning and how their developmental network influences this sense of work meaning. Accordingly, we interviewed 16 career starters about how they sense purpose, values, self-efficacy, and positive self-worth in their work. Mor

  20. Suitability of a new mixed-strain starter for manufacturing uncooked raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feutry, Fabienne; Torre, Paloma; Arana, Ines; Garcia, Susana; Pérez Elortondo, Francisco J; Berthier, Françoise

    2016-06-01

    Most raw milk Ossau-Iraty cheeses are currently manufactured on-farm using the same commercial streptococcal-lactococcal starter (S1). One way to enhance the microbial diversity that gives raw milk its advantages for cheese-making is to formulate new starters combining diverse, characterized strains. A new starter (OI) combining 6 raw milk strains of lactococci, recently isolated and characterized, was tested in parallel with the current starter by making 12 Ossau-Iraty raw milk cheeses at 3 farmhouses under the conditions prevailing at each farm. Compliance of the sensory characteristics with those expected by the Ossau-Iraty professionals, physicochemical parameters and coliforms were quantified at key manufacturing steps. The new starter OI gave cheeses having proper compliance but having lower compliance than the S1 cheeses under most manufacturing conditions, while managing coliform levels equally well as starter S1. This lower compliance relied more on the absence of Streptococcus thermophilus in starter OI, than on the nature of the lactoccocal strains present in starter OI. The study also shows that variations in 5 technological parameters during the first day of manufacture, within the range of values applied in the 3 farmhouses, are powerful tools for diversifying the scores for the sensory characteristics investigated.

  1. Fortification of dahi (Indian yoghurt) with omega-3 fatty acids using microencapsulated flaxseed oil microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Ankit; Sharma, Vivek; Sihag, Manvesh Kumar; Singh, A K; Arora, Sumit; Sabikhi, Latha

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study was to develop and characterize omega-3 dahi (Indian yoghurt) through fortification of microencapsulated flaxseed oil powder (MFOP). Four different formulations of MFOP were fortified in dahi @ 1, 2 and 3 % levels and the level of addition was optimized on the basis of sensory scores. Dahi fortified at 2 % level was observed comparable to control, which was further studied for titratable acidity, syneresis, firmness, stickiness, oxidative stability (peroxide value), α-linolenic acid (ALA, ω-3) content and sensory attributes during 15d of storage. MFOP fortified dahi showed significantly (p syneresis after 12d of storage. However, peroxide value remained well below (~0.41) to the maximum permissible limit (5 meq peroxides/kg oil) prescribed by Codex Alimentarius Commission (1999). Gas-liquid chromatography profile showed ~21 % decrease in ALA content in fortified dahi after 15d of storage. Overall, it can be concluded that flaxseed oil microcapsules could be successfully incorporated in dahi; which could serve as a potential delivery system of omega-3 fatty acids.

  2. 菊粉保健酸奶的研制%Development of Inulin Fortified Health Yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于伟

    2012-01-01

    Inulin is a widespread polyfructan in plants,made up of linear chains of β-2,1-linked fructose residues attached to a terminal glucose molecule.Inulin can improve fat metabolism and promote mineral absorption in the human body.In the present study,inulin and xylitol as a sweetener were added to raw milk and fermented to develop a functional yoghurt.By using one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design methods,the optimal fermentation conditions were determined as 6% of inulin,8% of xylitol,2.0% of inoculum size,and 2 h of fermentation time.%菊粉是由D-呋喃果糖以β-2,1-糖苷键连接的多聚果糖,具有改善人体的脂肪代谢,提高矿物质吸收等生理活性。本实验以菊粉为原料,以木糖醇为甜味剂,通过单因素试验和正交试验对菊粉功能性酸奶进行研制。得到的最佳配方为菊粉6%、甜味剂8%、发酵剂2.0%、发酵时间2h。

  3. Yoghurt and probiotic bacteria in dietary guidelines of the member states of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smug, L N; Salminen, S; Sanders, M E; Ebner, S

    2014-03-01

    Beneficial microbes enter the food supply primarily through fermented foods (largely milks) and addition of probiotics. Fermented milks are a significant component of the diet of some geographical regions, including Europe. The fermentation process serves to preserve safety, nutritional quality and palatability of milk. In addition, the microbes associated with fermented milks and probiotics are associated with human health benefits. However, in the area of health claims only one claim for beneficial microbes has been approved in the European Union, that is for yoghurt to improve lactose tolerance. We searched for health messages that include probiotics or fermented milks in nutrition guidelines and recommendations in thirteen countries of the EU plus Switzerland. Such messages are allowed when they are made by non-commercial government bodies. Our analysis revealed that five EU member states have national nutrition guidelines or recommendations that include either probiotics or fermented milks with live bacteria. This supports that some EU member states recognise health benefits associated with consumption of live microbes, even if commercial marketing claims are not authorised. Harmonisation between recommendations and approved health-claims would benefit consumers and public health.

  4. Growth and gas formation by Lactobacillus wasatchensis, a novel obligatory heterofermentative nonstarter lactic acid bacterium, in Cheddar-style cheese made using a Streptococcus thermophilus starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortakci, Fatih; Broadbent, Jeffery R; Oberg, Craig J; McMahon, Donald J

    2015-11-01

    A novel slow-growing, obligatory heterofermentative, nonstarter lactic acid bacterium (NSLAB), Lactobacillus wasatchensis WDC04, was studied for growth and gas production in Cheddar-style cheese made using Streptococcus thermophilus as the starter culture. Cheesemaking trials were conducted using S. thermophilus alone or in combination with Lb. wasatchensis deliberately added to cheese milk at a level of ~10(4) cfu/mL. Resulting cheeses were ripened at 6 or 12°C. At d 1, starter streptococcal numbers were similar in both cheeses (~10(9) cfu/g) and fast-growing NSLAB lactobacilli counts were below detectable levels (blowing in Cheddar-style cheeses, especially when the cheese is ripened at elevated temperature. PMID:26364109

  5. Fate of Bacillus anthracis during production of laboratory-scale cream cheese and homemade-style yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Katja; Schneider, Oda; Schmoock, Gernot; Melzer, Falk; Elschner, Mandy C

    2015-04-01

    The viability of Bacillus anthracis during production and storage of cream cheese and yoghurt was evaluated. Experimental cheeses were manufactured from whole milk inoculated with a suspension of B. anthracis vegetative cells and spores at a final concentration of 10(4) cfu/ml. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and lab ferment were used to induce milk ripening and milk coagulation. The pH-value of the contaminated milk dropped below 4.5 within the first 6 h and the amount of LAB increased by approximately 2-logs. During cheese production and storage at 5-9 °C for 24 days no growth of B. anthracis was observed. The amount of vegetative cells and spores fluctuated by 1-log. Inoculation of whole milk with heat-treated spores at 10(4) cfu/ml resulted in a slight increase of vegetative cell counts during the first 6 h. This indicated that germination occurred, but replication of vegetative cells was still inhibited in the produced cheese. Incubation of cheeses at room temperature or heating after milk coagulation strongly reduced the amount of LAB but had no effect on the growth behaviour of B. anthracis. The vegetative cell and spore content remained steady at 10(4) cfu/100 mg. During yoghurt production the pH-value decreased within 5 h below 5 and growth of B. anthracis was inhibited throughout storage. A pH-value of 5 or less is likely a critical factor to control the growth of B. anthracis. However, spores remained viable in experimental cream cheeses and yoghurts and are a potential risk of infection. PMID:25475304

  6. Metagenomic analysis of fungal diversity in Korean traditional wheat-based fermentation starter nuruk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Jyotiranjan; Yun, Suk-Hyun; Yeo, Soo-Hwan; Kim, Jung-Mi; Kim, Dae-Hyuk

    2016-12-01

    Nuruk, a traditional natural starter, is extensively used in the brewing of Makgeolli, one of Korea's most popular alcoholic beverages that has been recently gaining global popularity. Thus, the quality of traditional nuruk needs to be enhanced. The nuruk mycobiome greatly influences both fermentation process as well as palatability enhancement. Limitations of culture-dependent identification restrict an accurate analysis of fungal diversity and distribution in nuruks. 454 pyrosequencing of two traditional wheat-based nuruks, prepared at two representative temperature conditions revealed a total of 153 and 53 OTUs for nuruks A and B, respectively, from a total of 33,157 ITS sequences. Phylogenetic assignments indicated that nuruk A mycobiota was dominated by the genera Aspergillus and Mucorales, whereas nuruk B by Rhizomucor. Species-level identification indicated that Mucorales sp., Aspergillus candidus, and Aspergillus cibarius predominated in nuruk A mycoflora whereas Rhizomucor pusillus, Mucorales sp., and Thermoascus crustaceus in nuruk B. The alpha diversity indices suggest nuruk A mycobiota to be more diverse than that of nuruk B at almost all time points of fermentation. Resemblances of patterns of predominant species composition and succession between culture-dependent and -independent phylogenetic analysis creates the potential to reconstruct the nuruk mycobiome in vitro, which allows the establishment of a standard inoculum for scientific comparison. PMID:27554148

  7. 荞麦酸奶的加工工艺研究%The Research on Buckwheat Yoghurt Processing Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐学万; 李华钧; 杨坚

    2001-01-01

    A fermented yoghurt which is rich in balanced nutrients and has an agreeable flavor of buckwheat is developed and produced from buckwheat as the main material. The optimum technical conditions is determined by orthogonal test.The composition of the stabilizer and the materials is analyzed in detail.%以荞麦为主要原料,研制出一种营养丰富、均衡、有荞麦风味的发酵酸奶,并对其发酵工艺条件、物料及稳定剂的配比进行了分析探讨。

  8. QUALITY AND MICRIOBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN YOGHURT SUPPLEMENTED WITH COW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo A. Aderinola

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of African yam bean for the production of yoghurt substituted with cow milk was studied. African yam bean milk was extracted from dehulled seed, pasteurized and fermented with Yoghurmet® in ratios with reconstituted cow milk powder in the ratios 50:50, 70:30, 90:10, 100:0 and 0:100 (African yam bean milk:Cow milk. Sample 0:100 which was 100% cow milk yoghurt served as the control. The samples were stored for 14 days at 4oC and 3 days at room temperature. The results of the proximate composition of the fresh samples in percentages are; Moisture: 82.76, 81.62, 83.62, 86.53 and 85.42. Total solids: 17.25, 18.47, 16.35, 13.47and14.57. Protein: 5.93, 4.27, 5.87, 5.57 and 5.14. Ash: 0.94, 0.83, 0.91, 0.90 and 0.87. Fat: 1.07, 2.53, 1.18, 1.45 and 1.75. Carbohydrate: 9.09, 10.73, 8.33, 5.53 and 6.78 for the samples 100:0, 0:100, 90:10, 70:30 and 50:50 respectively. The moisture, total solids, fat and carbohydrate contents differed significantly (p≤0.05 in all the samples. The protein content of 100:0 and 90:0 did not differ significantly but differs in other samples. 0:100 differ significantly from other samples in ash content. There was no fiber in the samples. The total viable microbial count was highest in 70:30 (1×107cfu/ml for refrigerated storage samples while 50:50 (9.5×106cfu/ml had the highest count in room temperature storage samples. There were no yeasts/moulds enumerated in the refrigerated storage samples while yeast/moulds appeared in 100:0 (3×106cfu/ml and 70:30 (1×106cfu/ml on the 3rd day of room temperature storage. The titratable acidity of all the samples increased gradually throughout the storage period while their pH decreased. The specific gravity of the samples also decreased gradually throughout the storage period. The anti-nutritional composition of the samples containing African yam bean was also determined. The sensory properties showed that samples stored at refrigeration temperature maintained good

  9. Genotypic and technological characterization of Leuconostoc isolates to be used as adjunct starters in Manchego cheese manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Arribas, Pedro; Seseña, Susana; Poveda, Justa M; Palop, Llanos; Cabezas, Lourdes

    2010-02-01

    Twenty-seven Leuconostoc (Ln.) isolates from Manchego cheese were characterized by phenotypic and genotypic methods, and their technological abilities studied in order to test their potential use as dairy starter components. While phenotypic diversity was evaluated by studying the biochemical characteristics of technological interest (i.e. acidifying and aminopeptidase activities), genotypic diversity was evidenced by using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR). Additional technological abilities such as lipolytic, proteolytic and autolytic activities, salt and pH tolerance and production of dextran, flavour compounds and biogenic amines, were investigated. The marked differences among strains reflected the existing biodiversity in naturally fermented products. After statistically evaluating their performance, strains C0W2, belonging to Ln. lactis, and C16W5 and N2W5, belonging to Ln. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum, revealed the best properties to be used in mixed dairy starter cultures. This study evidences the fact that natural environments can be considered as a proper source of useful strains, for the dairy industry. PMID:19913697

  10. 丢糟在细菌麸曲中的应用研究%Spent Grains in The Application of Bacterial Fuqu Starter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建波; 赵德义; 曹建全; 齐士朋

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial Fuqu starter of liquor was cultured in the alkaline condition, and with the use of rice husk in order to increase its permeability. Considering the acidic environment in which we brewed liquor, bacterial acid protease gave great contribution to flavor component of Zhima-flavor Chinese spirits, in addition, the strains of bterial Fuqu starter was also selected from the old pits, Daqu starter or some other acidic and weakly acidic conditions. Therefore, in this paper, we took the method into research ,which was used to make bacterial Fuqu starter with lees instead of rice hull in acidic conditions, so that, the bacterial could adapt to acidic brewing conditions, and lees residual fragrance ingredients may be also e fermenting and extracted.%分析了芝麻香型白酒丢糟的成分,采用酒糟代替稻壳在酸性条件下制曲的方法进行了研究探索,研究发现随酒糟添加量的增加而培养料的pH下降,当添加量达到30%时,为pH5.1,与空白对照,细菌总数相当,酸性蛋白酶显著提高;成曲用于芝麻香型白酒酿造试验,原酒香味明显浓厚,焦糊香、芝麻香更加突出;三甲基吡嗪、四甲基吡嗪含量明显提高。

  11. The effect of different concentrations of sugars in two foods (yoghurts and baked beans) on plaque pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, J A; Pollard, M A; Curzon, M E

    1997-04-01

    The effect of different concentrations of sugars in two foods (strawberry yoghurt and baked beans) on plaque acidogenicity was investigated using plaque sampling with a 'Beetrode' electrode. Six varieties of yoghurt, four varieties of baked beans and positive and negative control solutions of 10 per cent sucrose and sorbitol, respectively, were tested on six volunteers, selected according to the guidelines agreed at the San Antonio Conference of 1985. Plaque was harvested immediately before a one minute challenge with the test condition and at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes thereafter. Parameters investigated were minimum plaque pH reached after a one minute consumption/rinse of the test food or control solution, maximum drop in plaque pH and 'area of the Stephan curve below pH 6.5'. An Acidogenic Potential Index was calculated for each test food and the results did not suggest a linear relationship between sucrose concentration in a food and acidogenic potential. PMID:9448797

  12. Preparation of the Sugar Free Chickpea Yoghurt%无糖鹰嘴豆酸奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅樱花

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to prepare the sugar free chickpea yoghurt.The results showed that the product of sugar free chickpea yoghurt was good in color,smell and flavor under the conditions of the inoculation size dose 7%,the fermentation time 10 h at 42 ℃ and the addition 0.05% aspartame.%以鹰嘴豆、复原乳为主要原料,将保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌作为发酵剂,按质量分数为7%进行接种,在发酵时间为10 h、发酵温度为42℃的条件下,添加不同水平的甜味剂进行无糖鹰嘴豆酸奶发酵研究。结果表明:阿斯巴甜在甜味和口感上较柔和,适合作为无糖鹰嘴豆酸奶的甜味剂使用,按质量分数0.05%水平进行添加得到的酸奶口感及风味较好。

  13. CALCULATION OF BIMETAL PLATE BENDING FORCE OF A GLOW DISCHARGE STARTER

    OpenAIRE

    Akimov, V.; Mukha, L.

    2005-01-01

    Calculation techniques of bending power of bimetal plate electrode causing its displacement in the direction of the electrode of glow discharge starter have been represented. Calculation of bimetal electrode displacement has been conducted in correspondence with the chosen scheme.

  14. Flywheel starter ring gear failures and hardness variation reduction in surface hardening process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Can Yücel

    2015-10-01

    This technical paper summarizes the case study conducted for truck flywheel starter ring gears with diameter of 470 mm in order to reduce hardness variation by optimization of induction hardening and tempering processes.

  15. Effect of Skimmed-Milk and Starter Addition on Lactic Acid Formation in Soyghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanna Syamsuddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on Effect of Skimmed-Milk and Starter Addition on Lactic Acid Formation in Soyghurt has been done. Soyghurt is a probiotic drinking product made from soy-milk produced by fermentation process using lactic acid bacteria. The bacteria used as starter was Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of skimmed-milk and starter addition on the formation of lactic acid. Variables used in this research was skimmed-milk concentration of 5, 10, and 15% and starter concentration of 3, 5, and 7%, based on volume of soy-milk used as raw material. The soy-milk used was analyzed for its carbohydrate and protein content, and the soyghurt produced was analyzed for its lactic acid, pH and syneresis. The result showed that carbohydrate and protein content in soy-milk was 122.39 mg/L and 2.75%, respectively. The best condition of this process was the addition of 15% skimmed-milk and 5% starter, which yielded the highest lactic acid of 15% with pH of 4.23 and syneresis of 15%. It can be concluded that increasing skimmed-milk concentration cause the increase in lactic acid formation and decrease pH and syneresis. While effect of starter concentration on product analysis was influenced by the amount of nutrition contain in soy-milk.

  16. Controlling An Electric Car Starter System Through Voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Muhammad Firdaus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract These days automotive has turned into a stand out amongst the most well-known modes of transportation on the grounds that a large number of Malaysians could bear to have an auto. There are numerous decisions of innovations in auto that have in the market. One of the engineering is voice controlled framework. Voice Recognition is the procedure of consequently perceiving a certain statement talked by a specific speaker focused around individual data included in discourse waves. This paper is to make an car controlled by voice of human. An essential pre-processing venture in Voice Recognition systems is to recognize the vicinity of noise. Sensitivity to speech variability lacking recognition precision and helplessness to mimic are among the principle specialized obstacles that keep the far reaching selection of speech-based recognition systems. Voice recognition systems work sensibly well with a quiet conditions however inadequately under loud conditions or in twisted channels. The key focus of the project is to control an electric car starter system.

  17. Starter kültür kullanılarak üretilen hıyar turşularında biyojen amin oluşumu üzerine araştırma

    OpenAIRE

    TURGUT, Zeynep

    2006-01-01

           Abstract

    In this study, cucumber pickle was produced by spontaneous fermentation or using Lactobacillus plantarum 11B as starter culture, then amount of biogenic amines, whichwere produced during fermentation, was determined by High Performance LiquidChromatography (HPLC). Additionally, on certain days during fermentation,enumeration of total mesophilic aer...

  18. The effect of homogenization pressure and stages on the amounts of Lactic and Acetic acids of probiotic yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Massoud

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the use of probiotic products especially yogurt, due to having wonderful and health properties, has become popular in the world. In this study, the effect of homogenization pressure (100, 150 and 200 bars and stage (single and two on the amount of lactic and acetic acids was investigated. Yoghurts were manufactured from low-fat milk treated using high pressure homogenization at 100,150 and 200 bar and at 60°C. The amount of lactic and acetic acids was determined after the days 1, 7, 14 and 21 of storage at 4ºC. The experiments were set up using a completely randomized design. With the increase of pressure and stage of homogenization, the amount of both acids was increased (p<0.01. The greatest amount of lactic and acetic acids during the storage period was observed in the sample homogenized at a pressure of 200 bars and two stages.

  19. Perceived and actual key success factors: A study of the yoghurt market in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Sørensen, Elin

    an emphasis on an objective concept of quality. 5. According to managers' perceptions, extensive market knowledge is the main determinant of good relations with trade, supplemented by extensive product development activities, good logistics management, and extensive marketing activities. Competent management......Executive summary 1. We define a key success factor as a skill or resource that a business can invest in, which, on the market the business is operating on, explains a major part of the observable differences in perceived value and/or relative costs. The key success factors as perceived by managers...... need not be identical with the actual key success factors in a market. 2. Depth interviews with managers in yoghurt-producing companies in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom showed considerable variation in both substance and degree of detail in their perceptions of the determinants of success...

  20. The effects of marketing activities on fast moving consumer good purchases: the case of yoghurt Italian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Brasini

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether sales promotions effectiveness depends upon the consumer’s brand loyalty and her buying behaviour and whether consumer’s behavioural characteristics in term of purchase frequency and level affect the response to promotional activities and moderate the effect of brand loyalty during the consumer choice process. Different specifications for the utility function, exploiting information on selling price, promotional activities such as displays usage, ad features in the store, 3x2 and discount, and differently brand loyalty measures have been estimated into a discrete choice framework, that is into the rational brand choice paradigm, paying attention to their effects on individuals’ probabilities to choose the specific brand during each purchase occasion. The application is run on a ACNielsen dataset of Italian households consumer panel, observed to buy at least two yoghurt packages during a year, matched to store panel data with respect to quantities, prices and promotions.

  1. Anti-Listeria starters: in vitro selection and production plant evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Stefano; Popovic, Mina; Amaretti, Alberto; Di Gioia, Diana; Rossi, Maddalena

    2014-05-01

    Anti-Listeria bacterial starters are highly demanded by the meat industry. Novel bioprotective anti-Listeria starters were searched among Lactobacillus species strains isolated from artisanal sausages. The screening confirmed that anti-Listeria activity is a strain-specific property and yielded only 1 strain (of 36) exhibiting a satisfactory level of inhibition, L. delbrueckii WC0286. This strain was compared with two commercial bioprotective starters, SafePro B-SF-43 and SafePro B-LC-20, in a model simulating in vitro the first step of the fermentation process. The presence of the bioprotective starters did not modify the pH in such a way that could affect the safety or organoleptic properties of the product. Both SafePro B-SF-43 and SafePro B-LC-20 effected an important reduction of Listeria counts (0.56 and 0.72 log CFU g(-1), respectively, in 72 h), while the anti-Listeria effect of L. delbrueckii WC0286 was minor (0.15 log CFU g(-1)). These results discouraged the utilization of L. delbrueckii WC0286 for a challenge test in a pilot salami production, in favor of the best-performing bioprotective starter, SafePro B-LC-20. The test confirmed that SafePro B-LC-20 did not alter the acidification trend of sausages and was capable of inhibiting Listeria, which decreased by 1.21 log CFU g(-1). This information is relevant to address research activity toward the development of new bioprotective starters. The data herein presented demonstrate that the efficacy in Listeria control of potentially bioprotective bacterial starters requires further validation in real meat matrixes, possibly by using in vitro meat fermentation experiments to narrow down the list of candidates before pilot scale challenge tests.

  2. Study on probiotic yoghurt%植物乳杆菌C88在酸奶中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于志会; 张雪; 李盛钰; 侯聚敏; 王辑; 李达; 杨贞耐

    2013-01-01

    In this experiment,we test the application of probiotics L.plantarum C88 and YO-MIX in yoghurt.The results proved that Yogurt produced with L.plantarum C88 exhibited no effect to the yogurt pH,titratable acidity,gel strength as well as water holding capacity(P>0.05).The strain not only increases the viscosity of yogurt but also promotes the sensory index of yogurt (P>0.05).Moreover,the sensory evaluation results showed that,compared with that of the ordinary yogurt,the C88 yogurt taste is more delicate,soft smooth,thick and uniform.C88 yoghurt very fit for Chinese people and has a good potential market.%将植物乳杆菌C88及YO-MIX发酵剂应用于益生菌酸奶生产中,并对酸奶的理化指标、感官进行了测定、评价.结果显示:L.plantarum C88对酸奶样品的商业菌种活菌数、pH值、滴定酸度、凝胶强度、持水力等均无不良影响(P>0.05);在乳中存活能力较好;可提高酸奶样品的黏度、凝胶强度(P>0.05);感官评定结果也表明,C88菌株发酵的酸奶口感更加细腻、绵滑、黏稠、均匀,香气更加浓郁,更加符合国人的口味习惯,具有良好的生产开发前景.

  3. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  4. Daya Tahan dan Uji Organoleptik Terhadap Dadih dan Yoghurt dari Susu Kerbau Murrah di Kecamatan Siborongborong Kabupaten Tapanuli Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Nababan, Marta sofia k.

    2015-01-01

    Curd milk or buttermilk is milk products obtained from the process of curdling milk with rennet or acids such as pineapple juice or vinegar and then eliminating the liquid (whey). Yogurt is milk acidified by fermentation using Lactobacillus bacteria starter. The processed Murrah buffalo milk can allows consume to people who suffer from lactose intolerance. The study was conducted to determine the ratio between buttermilk and yogurt thr...

  5. Probiotic yoghurt with inulin-type fructans of different degrees of polymerization: physicochemical and microbiological characteristics and storage stabilityIogurte probiótico com frutanos tipo inulina de diferentes graus de polimerização: características físico-químicas e microbiológicas e estabilidade ao armazenamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Helena Prudencio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the addition of inulin-type fructans of different degrees of polymerization (DP on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics and storage stability (4°C for 28 days of nonfat probiotic yoghurt was investigated. The yoghurts were prepared using traditional lactic culture (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei as probiotic. The formulations contained inulin- type fructans of DP: low (P95 oligofructose, DP 5, medium (ST inulin, DP 10 or high (HP inulin, DP 23 in a concentration of 2g 100g of milk-1, meeting the current Brazilian legislation and, thus their claim of functional properties could be utilized; and were compared to a Normal formulation (without inulin-type fructans addition. The addition of inulin-type fructans with different DP did not alter the L*, a* and b* color parameters, the syneresis and the viability of the probiotic culture in yoghurts. Yoghurts with inulin-type fructans of low DP were more acidic (lower pH values and higher values of acidity. The high DP inulin caused a reduction in the firmness of yoghurt. The products contained Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei at concentrations higher than that recommended to consider them as probiotic foods throughout the storage period. The refrigerated storage resulted in decreased pH and viability of the probiotic culture and increased acidity and syneresis of yoghurt, regardless of the use of inulin-type fructans. It can be concluded that the addition of inulin-type fructans of different DP does not adversely affect the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of yoghurts and their stability to storage, thus, the selection of the type to be used depend on the purpose of the manufacturer and the intended use.Investigou-se o efeito da adição de frutanos tipo inulina de diferentes graus de polimerização (DP nas características físico-químicas e microbiol

  6. Diversity and evolution of the microbial populations during manufacture and ripening of Casín, a traditional Spanish, starter-free cheese made from cow's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría, Angel; Alvarez-Martín, Pablo; Sacristán, Noelia; Fernández, Elena; Delgado, Susana; Mayo, Baltasar

    2009-11-30

    Classical culturing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques have been used for studying the microbial diversity and dynamics of the traditional Spanish Casín cheese during manufacturing and ripening. As with other starter-free cheeses made from raw milk, the microbial diversity of Casín was shown to be high by both culturing and DGGE analyses. The culture technique showed that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species constituted the majority of the microbial populations. Of the 14 bacterial species identified, Lactococcus garvieae was predominant in the three-day-old cheese sample, although it was replaced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis at day 30. As expected, the DGGE profiles obtained were complex, consisting, depending on the sample, in five to ten different amplification bands. Among these, a band corresponding to Streptococcus thermophilus was observed throughout the whole manufacturing process. This species had never been identified from traditional Spanish cheeses previously. Culturing and molecular methods showed high populations of undesirable microorganisms, arguing for a required improvement in the hygiene of Casín manufacture. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling suggested that the L. garvieae and L. lactis populations were composed of one and five strains, respectively. In addition, only a single L. lactis RAPD pattern was stably maintained from day three to day 30, indicating high succession of strains along ripening. After a thoroughly characterisation, strains of the two Lactococcus species could be used in designing specific starter cultures for Casín. Additional species (such as Lactobacillus plantarum and Corynebacterium variabile) might be included as adjunct cultures.

  7. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for final healthy product - natural preservatives in yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S.; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira; Soković, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both s...

  8. Method validation for aflatoxin M1 determination in yoghurt using immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, Mahsa; Karim, Guity; Ghavami, Mehrdad; Chamani, Mohammad

    2011-08-01

    Yoghurt is a popular dairy product in Iran because of its beneficial influence on human health and nutritional value. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the metabolite of potential carcinogen aflatoxin B1, which can contaminate milk through the feed and is not eliminated by common processing heat treatment. An analytical method using immunoaffinity column for extraction and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantification was developed for AFM1 in this study. An HPLC method with fluorimetric detection for the determination of AFM1 in yoghurt milk has been optimized and validated according to Commission Decision BS EN ISO 14501: 2007 by using the conventional validation approach. The procedure for determining selectivity, recovery, precision, decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) of the method has been reported. The results of the validation process demonstrate the agreement of the method with the provisions of Commission Regulation 401: 2006:EC. A new HPLC method with fluorescence detection was developed to determine aflatoxin M1. The detection limit was 1 ng/kg for yoghurt. The calibration curve was linear from 0.1 to 3.0 μg l⁻¹ injected. The method includes a preliminary clean-up and the average recoveries determined on three different days at the concentration levels of 0.025, 0.050 and 0.075 μg kg⁻¹ were in the range of 72.57%-86.66% with RSD in the range of 2.56%-8.41%. The interday and interlevel mean recovery value, which has been used to correct routine analysis results, was 80%. The method is rapid, easily automatable and therefore useful for accurate and precise screening of aflatoxin M1 in yoghurt. PMID:21385770

  9. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG by Transglutaminase Cross-Linked Soy Protein Isolate to Improve Survival in Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions and Yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Wang, Chun-Ling; Sun, Yu; Li, Ai-Li; Liu, Fei; Meng, Xiang-Chen

    2016-07-01

    Microencapsulation is an effective way to improve the survival of probiotics in simulated gastrointestinal (GI) conditions and yoghurt. In this study, microencapsulation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) was prepared by first cross-linking of soy protein isolate (SPI) using transglutaminase (TGase), followed by embedding the bacteria in cross-linked SPI, and then freeze-drying. The survival of microencapsulated LGG was evaluated in simulated GI conditions and yoghurt. The results showed that a high microencapsulation yield of 67.4% was obtained. The diameter of the microencapsulated LGG was in the range of 52.83 to 275.16 μm. Water activity did not differ between free and microencapsulated LGG after freeze-drying. The survival of microencapsulated LGG under simulated gastric juice (pH 2.5 and 3.6), intestinal juice (0.3% and 2% bile salt) and storage at 4 °C were significantly higher than that of free cells. The survival of LGG in TGase cross-linked SPI microcapsules was also improved to 14.5 ± 0.5% during storage in yoghurt. The microencapsulation of probiotics by TGase-treated SPI can be a suitable alternative to polysaccharide gelation technologies. PMID:27228279

  10. 山竹枸杞酸乳的研制与开发%Study on the Processing of Mangosteen Medlar Yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟丽丽

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the unique flavor yoghurt, mangosteen juice and medlar juice mixed with milk to produce mangosteen medlar yoghurt.The optimum production of the product parameters determined by orthogonal test, namely the optimal conditions for the stabilizer (Carrageenan, xanthan gum and acid CMC 4∶1∶3) 0.2%, mangosteen juice 35%,medlar juice 5%,sucrose 7%, the inoculation amount 5%, fermentation temperature 42℃,fermentation time 5 h. Mangosteen medlar yoghurt was pure flavor, soft tasty, sweet sour.%为了研究具有独特风味的酸乳,将山竹汁、枸杞浆与牛乳混合,通过单因素实验、正交试验确定了最佳的工艺条件:稳定剂(卡拉胶∶黄原胶∶耐酸CMC质量比=4∶1∶3)添加量0.2%,山竹汁添加量35%,枸杞浆添加量5%,蔗糖添加量7%,接种量5%,发酵温度42℃,发酵时间5 h。生产出的山竹枸杞酸乳风味纯正,口感细腻柔和,酸甜适口。

  11. 高蛋白无脂肪酸奶的研制%Development of yoghurt with high protein and zero fat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫序东; 王彩云; 云战友; 秦文林

    2012-01-01

    Complex ingredients containing high gel whey protein concentrate 80, microparticulate whey protein and starch-based fat substitute as fat replacer in non-fat yoghurt was studied, the ratio of the three ingredients was optimized ,and the fat replacer could successfully simulate the function of milk fat in yoghurt. A type of healthy yoghurt with high protein content but without fat was developed.%以凝胶型乳清浓缩蛋白80、微粒化乳清蛋白和淀粉脂肪替代物的组合作为脂肪替代品用于替代酸奶中的脂肪,得到了3种配料的最优比例,从而从质构、口感、风味角度成功模拟了酸奶中脂肪的作用,成功开发出一款高蛋白、零脂肪的健康酸奶.

  12. 弱后酸化酸奶发酵剂菌株洲的筛选及复配%Screening and studying the strains of weak postacidification in yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁宁; 郭红敏; 崔文静; 葛春美

    2012-01-01

    以典型的酸奶发酵剂菌株:德氏乳杆菌保加利亚亚种和嗜热链球菌为实验材料,进行了单菌株产酸特性的测定,并研究了后酸程度不同的球杆菌按照不同比例混合后产酸特性。结果显示:筛选到2株后酸化弱的菌株,当这两株菌的复配比例为100:1时,后酸程度较弱,在42℃放置24h酸度仅上升了10°T,与科汉森的酸奶发酵剂YF—L822相比后酸更弱。%In this paper, the typical yogurt starter strains: Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were experimental materials. The characteristics of acid producing of single strain and mixing according to different ratio were determined. Results indicated that two trains with weak postacidification were obtained. When the mixing ratio of the two strains was 100:1, its acidity rose only 10 °T after 24 h at 42 ℃. Compared to YF-L822 starter culture from Hansen Corporation, it produced a little postacidification.

  13. Die Starter: A New System to Manage Early Feasibility in Sheet Metal Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narainen, Rodrigue; Porzner, Harald

    2016-08-01

    Die Starter, a new system developed by ESI Group, allows the user to drastically reduce the number of iterations during the early tool process feasibility. This innovative system automatically designs the first quick die face, generating binder and addendum surfaces (NURBS surfaces) by taking account the full die process. Die Starter also improves the initial die face based on feasibility criteria (avoiding splits, wrinkles) by automatically generating the geometrical modifications of the binder and addendum and the bead restraining forces with minimal material usage. This paper presents a description of the new system and the methodology of Die Starter. Some industrial examples are presented from the part geometry to final die face including automatic developed flanges, part on binder and inner binder.

  14. Stirring and biomass starter influences the anaerobic digestion of different substrates for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Christian; Fang, Sheng; Uhlenhut, Frank; Borchert, Axel; Stein, Ingo; Schlaak, Michael [Institut fuer Umwelttechnik EUTEC, Fachbereich Technik, Fachhochschule Emden/Leer, Emden (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Here, we present the results of lab-scale experiments conducted in a batch mode to determine the biogas yield of lipid-rich waste and corn silage under the effect of stirring. Further semi-continuous experiments were carried out for the lipid-rich waste with/without stirring. Additionally, it was analyzed how the starter used for the batch experiment influences the digestion process. The results showed a significant stirring effect on the anaerobic digestion only when seed sludge from a biogas plant was used as a starter. In this case, the experiments without stirring yielded only about 50% of the expected biogas for the investigated substrates. The addition of manure slurry to the batch reactor as part of the starter improved the biogas production. The more diluted media in the reactor allowed a better contact between the bacteria and the substrates making stirring not necessary. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Learning Opportunities And Learning Behaviours Of Small Business Starters: Relations With Goal Achievement, Skill Development, And Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Gelderen (Marco); L. van der Sluis; P. Jansen (Paul)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractLearning is a vital issue for small business starters, contributing to short term and long term business performance, as well as to personal development. This study investigates when and how small business starters learn. It specifies the situations that offer learning opportunities, as

  16. Design of an Interior Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine for an Integrated Starter-Alternator System Used on an Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    FILIP Andrei-Toader; HANGIU Radu-Petru; MARŢIŞ Claudia; BIRO Karoly-Agoston

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, to reduce fuel consumption, weuse more often vehicles with hybrid propulsion usingfor traction an electric motor and the regularcombustion engine. There are three types of hybridvehicles: serial, parallel and mixed propulsion.Hybrid vehicles use Integrated Starter Alternator(ISA) system instead of usual starter and alternator.This article points out the advantages of using anIntegrated Starter Alternator System in comparisonwith the classical starter and alternator. This systemsaves...

  17. The role of developmental networks in career starters' meaning of work

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, S.; Alberts, M.; Vuuren, van, D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how career starters (age: 26-33 years) experience work meaning and how their developmental network influences this sense of work meaning. Accordingly, we interviewed 16 career starters about how they sense purpose, values, self-efficacy, and positive self-worth in their work. Moreover, they shared how both work and non-work developers influence these work meaning processes. This study contributes to the discussion on how meaning of work contributes to “the good life” in tw...

  18. Experimental Study and Comparative Analysis of Transients of Induction Motor with Soft Starter Startup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA, G. N.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of the parameters of the machine and of the soft starter on the dynamics of the induction machine start. In order to evaluate the effects of this variation we have used a design of experiments (DOE. The situations may reproduce actual situations occurred in practice, for example the variation of initial voltage Ui , modification of the start time and load value. In the present paper we have investigated the relation between the inrush current, voltage dip at the startup of one industrial soft starter. Using an already predefined fire angle characteristic the influence of the initial voltage was also evaluated.

  19. Simulation and Determination of the Laws Control of the SRM for the Integrated Starter Generator Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boudouda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design of an integrated starter generator system for a car flywheel based on the Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM technology. First, we discuss about the starter generator problematic following the results of our bibliography research. Secondly, we briefly remained generalities about the SRM and the determination of the laws control. In addition, we designed the converter associated to the machine using (Matlab/Simulink software in order to identify the laws control and to adapt the operating modes (motor, generator, booster, brake. Finally, simulations of the open and closed loop model were performed on the converter with the (SRM

  20. Performance and Metabolism of Calves Fed Starter Feed Containing Sugarcane Molasses or Glucose Syrup as a Replacement for Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltramari, C E; Nápoles, G G O; De Paula, M R; Silva, J T; Gallo, M P C; Pasetti, M H O; Bittar, C M M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn grain for sugar cane molasses (MO) or glucose syrup (GS) in the starter concentrate on performance and metabolism of dairy calves. Thirty-six individually housed Holstein male calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth and assigned to one of the starter feed treatments, during an 8 week study: i) starter containing 65% corn with no MO or GS (0MO); ii) starter containing 60% corn and 5% MO (5MO); iii) starter containing 55% corn and 10% MO (10MO); and iv) starter containing 60% corn and 5% GS (5GS). Animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily (20 crude protein, 16 ether extract, 12.5% solids), divided in two meals (0700 and 1700 h). Starter and water were provided ad libitum. Starter intake and fecal score were monitored daily until animals were eight weeks old. Body weight and measurements (withers height, hip width and heart girth) were measured weekly before the morning feeding. From the second week of age, blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after the morning feeding, for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate determination. Ruminal fluid was collected at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age using an oro-ruminal probe and a suction pump for determination of pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). At the end of the eighth week, animals were harvested to evaluate development of the proximal digestive tract. The composition of the starter did not affect (p>0.05) concentrate intake, weight gain, fecal score, blood parameters, and rumen development. However, treatment 5MO showed higher (p0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of corn by 5% or 10% sugar cane molasses or 5% GS on starter concentrate did not impact performance, however it has some positive effects on rumen fermentation which may be beneficial for calves with a developing rumen. PMID:26954149

  1. Performance and Metabolism of Calves Fed Starter Feed Containing Sugarcane Molasses or Glucose Syrup as a Replacement for Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltramari, C E; Nápoles, G G O; De Paula, M R; Silva, J T; Gallo, M P C; Pasetti, M H O; Bittar, C M M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn grain for sugar cane molasses (MO) or glucose syrup (GS) in the starter concentrate on performance and metabolism of dairy calves. Thirty-six individually housed Holstein male calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth and assigned to one of the starter feed treatments, during an 8 week study: i) starter containing 65% corn with no MO or GS (0MO); ii) starter containing 60% corn and 5% MO (5MO); iii) starter containing 55% corn and 10% MO (10MO); and iv) starter containing 60% corn and 5% GS (5GS). Animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily (20 crude protein, 16 ether extract, 12.5% solids), divided in two meals (0700 and 1700 h). Starter and water were provided ad libitum. Starter intake and fecal score were monitored daily until animals were eight weeks old. Body weight and measurements (withers height, hip width and heart girth) were measured weekly before the morning feeding. From the second week of age, blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after the morning feeding, for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate determination. Ruminal fluid was collected at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age using an oro-ruminal probe and a suction pump for determination of pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). At the end of the eighth week, animals were harvested to evaluate development of the proximal digestive tract. The composition of the starter did not affect (p>0.05) concentrate intake, weight gain, fecal score, blood parameters, and rumen development. However, treatment 5MO showed higher (p0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of corn by 5% or 10% sugar cane molasses or 5% GS on starter concentrate did not impact performance, however it has some positive effects on rumen fermentation which may be beneficial for calves with a developing rumen.

  2. Diagnostics of D.C. Starter Generators While Using Fuzzy Logic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodology for sparking control in generator brush contact has been developed on the basis of the proposed fuzzy diagnostic model for ad.c.starter-generator and complex processing of diagnostic data. The paper provides investigation results, namely: dependence of voltage parameters  in an external generator circuit on collector sparking intensity.

  3. Story Starters on the Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas. A Creative Writing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Steve; Henrich, Jean

    Designed to supplement an established language arts and social studies program, this books deals with the Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas of Latin America. All of the "Story Starter" books are intended to give a variety of vocabulary and story ideas to help with the writing process. Each of the books is divided into four main sections: (1) an…

  4. Inrush Current Limitation in Wind Generators by SCR Based Soft-starter during grid connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mishra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available High Inrush current & harmonics is a generic problem wind generators during grid connection.The designed SCR based soft-starter successfully limits the high inrush current during the connection of the wind-turbine system to the grid. The proposed SCR based soft starter using will be simulating in PSCAD on a three-phase induction generator. Expected results will show a significant reduction in high inrush current and smooth connection of the three phase induction generator to the grid with small impact on the power quality. A small-scale wind turbine coupled three phase induction generator is an attractive choice for an isolated grid hybrid power system in remote areas because of its low cost, compactness, ruggedness, high reliability, low inertia and ease in control. In this work, a SCR based soft starter for limiting the high inrush current during the connection of the small-scale wind turbine coupled three phase induction generator to an isolated weak grid has been proposed. Soft-starter is designed to reduce inrush current or surge in current while achieving a proper synchronism between the generator and the grid.

  5. Characterization of volatile compounds in Fen-Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van-Diep, L.; Zheng, X.; Chen, J.Y.; Han, B.Z.

    2012-01-01

    Fen-Daqu is a saccharifying agent and fermentation starter for the production of Chinese liquor Fen (alcoholic spirit) and Fen traditional vinegar. The volatile compounds produced at seven incubation steps were analysed by HS-SPME-GC-MS. A total of 83 major volatile compounds were identified, includ

  6. Side-band injection of acidified cattle slurry as starter P-fertilization for maize seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Lemming, Camilla; Rubæk, Gitte Holton;

    Accumulation of phosphorus (P) in agricultural soils has caused increasing environmental concerns. Maize cropped for fodder implies return of animal manures rich in nutrients. In addition, starter fertilization with mineral P is used in cold conditions for maize cropping. It was hypothesized that...

  7. Digestive development in neonatal dairy calves with either whole or ground oats in the calf starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Heinrichs, A J; Jones, C M; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D

    2015-05-01

    A series of 3 trials was conducted to determine effects of whole or ground oats in starter grain on reticulorumen fermentation and digestive system development of preweaned calves. Male Holstein calves (43.1±2.3kg at birth; n=8, 9, and 7 for trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively) were housed in individual pens in a heated facility; bedding was covered with landscape fabric to prevent consumption of bedding by the calves. In trials 1 and 2 only, calves were fitted with rumen cannulas by wk 2 of life. In all trials, a fixed amount of starter (containing 25% oats either ground and in the pellet or whole) was offered daily; orts were fed through the cannula in trials 1 and 2. Calves were randomly assigned to an all-pelleted starter or pellets plus whole oats. Rumen contents (trials 1 and 2) were sampled weekly at -8, -4, 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after grain feeding for determination of pH and volatile fatty acids. Calves were killed 3 wk (trial 1) or 4 wk (trials 2 and 3) after grain was offered; organs were harvested, emptied, rinsed, and weighed to gauge digestive organ development. Starter intake was not different between treatments. Weekly measurements of rumen digesta pH did not change and only subtle changes were observed in molar proportions of individual volatile fatty acids. Molar proportion of butyrate and pH linearly decreased with age, whereas acetate proportion increased. Reticulorumen weight and papillae length tended to be greater for calves fed pelleted starter, whereas abomasum weight was greater for calves fed pellets plus whole oats. Fecal particle size and starch content were greater for calves fed pellets plus whole oats. Under the conditions of this study, physical form of oats in starter grain did not affect rumen fermentation measurements; greater rumen weight and papillae length in calves fed pelleted starter may be the result of greater nutrient availability of ground oats. Under the conditions of this study with young calves on treatments for oats

  8. Efisiensi dan Kecernaan Ransum Domba yang Diberi Silase Ransum Komplit Eceng Gondok Ditambahkan Starter Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Ekawati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available (Efficiency and digestibility feed of sheep given silage complete feed water hyacinth added starter lactobacillus plantarum ABSTRACT. This study aims to determine the effect of a complete ration of silage made from water hyacinth on feed efficiency and digestibility. This study uses fifteen rams (12 months old with an average body weight of 19 ± 3.98 kg. The experimental was designed completely random. The sheeps were randomly divided into 3 treatments, and 4 replications. The sheeps wereted concentrate and fresh elephant grass (T0, silage-based rations complete without the addition of starter hyacinth L. plantarum (T1, and a complete ration silage made from water hyacinth by the addition of L. plantarum starter (T2. Feed structured treatment isoenergi and isoprotein (PK 13% and 65% TDN. Feed treatment was given for 12 weeks with a 2-week adaptation period. The results showed that feed intake, ADG, feed conversion, and feed efficiency were not significantly different (P> 0.05, but it can improve feed digestibility (P <0.05 between treatments. Feed intake data, digestibility, ADG, feed conversion and feed efficiency at T0, T1 and T2 as follows: 678.27, 811.43, 701.21 g / day; 70.51, 71.74, 69.82%; 94.09, 106.34, 97.28 g / day; 7.22, 7.66, and 7.18; 14.09, 13.23 and 14.02% use a complete ration silage with L. plantarum starter better than the control treatment in the form of concentrates with elephant grass but not better than silage without a starter.

  9. The importance of calf sensory and physical preferences for starter concentrates during pre- and postweaning periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terré, M; Devant, M; Bach, A

    2016-09-01

    We performed 3 studies to evaluate the effects of feed sensory and form preferences in young calves on performance and rumen fermentation dynamics. In experiment 1, starter feeds containing wheat and soybean meal; wheat and canola meal; and oats and soybean meal were evaluated in 63 calves (9±0.9 d old). In experiment 2, 37 crossbreed female calves were used from 4 to 45 d of age (weaning) in a cafeteria study consisting of 4 different presentations of the same starter feed: meal, pellet, pellet mixed with whole-cereal grains (WHG), and pellet mixed with steamed-rolled cereal grains (SRG). In experiment 3, 63 Holstein male calves (10±1.03 d old) were randomly distributed to 2 treatments that consisted of feeding a pellet concentrate mixed with whole corn and barely grains (WHG) or the same pellet concentrate mixed with steamed-rolled corn and barley grains (SRG). In experiment 1, animals in all 3 treatments had similar intake and performance, and we found no differences in rumen fermentation parameters. In experiment 2, during the first week of study, calves had a greater preference for WHG; after the first week, calves had a greater preference for SRG. In experiment 3, starter concentrate intake was greater in WHG than in SRG concentrates between wk 5 and weaning. However, we observed no differences in growth or gain-to-feed ratio. Calves offered WHG concentrates had greater rumen pH and tended to have lower total rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations than those offered SRG concentrates. We concluded that preweaned calves preferred concentrates based on pellets mixed with steamed-rolled grains. When calves could not choose their starter feed, pellets mixed with steamed-rolled grains reduced concentrate intake and rumen pH compared to pellets mixed with whole grains, but performance was not impaired. Formulating starter concentrates according to calves' sensory and physical preferences had little effect on performance. PMID:27289146

  10. Time-dependent correlation of the microbial community and the metabolomics of traditional barley nuruk starter fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Kannan; Lee, Sarah; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2013-01-01

    The microbial community and the metabolites of barley nuruk were studied to determine the time-dependent correlation between the fermentation of microbes and metabolites. Samples were analyzed by a polyphasic approach based on culture-dependent, culture-independent (PCR-DGGE and qPCR analysis), and metabolite analysis using GC-MS. Barley nuruk consists of varying amounts of bacteria, yeasts, and molds. The PCR-DGGE results showed that only one phylotype, Aspergillus oryzae, was predominant throughout fermentation, reaching a maximum on day 9. The bacterial load was higher on day 6 of fermentation, and then gradually decreased because of increased fungal activity. The shift in fungal and bacterial diversity observed by DGGE was further confirmed by qPCR analysis. In addition, microbes closely related to Pantoea agglomerans and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera appeared to play key roles in the fermentation of barley nuruk. GC-MS analysis combined with multivariate analysis, including PCA, PLS-DA, and OPLS-DA, showed fermentation time-dependent metabolite patterns. A total of 21 metabolites, including organic acids, amino acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols, were identified. In particular, glycerol, malic acid, fructose, glucose, sucrose, and maltose were produced at the early fermentation stages (0-6 d), whereas glutamine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, mannitol, and xylitol were produced during the latter stages of fermentation (9-18 d). Mixed culture fermentation was found throughout the natural fermentation of barley nuruk starter. Most likely, A. oryzae had a major role in saccharification, along with other mixed cultures.

  11. Production of Synbiotic Yogurt-Like Using Indigenous Lactic Acid Bacteria as Functional Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Astawan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt is a product of fermented milk using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as culture starter. Indigenous probiotic lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum 2C12 or Lactobacillus acidophilus 2B4, were applied in the making of functional synbiotic yoghurt-like with 5% of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS as a prebiotic source. The aim of this study was to determine the best formula of functional synbiotic yoghurt-like among four formulas: F1 (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophilus, F2 (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophilus + L. plantarum 2C12, F3 (L. bulgaricus+ S. thermophilus + L. acidophilus 2B4, and F4 (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophilus + L. plantarum 2C12 + L. acidophilus 2B4 to be choosen and followed detection of it’s flavor to improve the product quality and consumer acceptance. The results showed that the F3 synbiotic yogurt made from mixed culture L. bulgaricus, S. thermophilus, and L. acidophilus 2B4 had the highest antibacterial effect against Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC. Addition of 1.75% natural corn starch as a stabilizer produced optimum improvement in yoghurt consistency and minimize whey separation. Result of sensory evaluation indicated that the yoghurt with addition of 1% strawberry flavor and 0.1% vanilla flavor were ranked at first and second. Yoghurts were still good to be consumed after 15 d storage period at the refrigeration temperature (10 oC.

  12. 苦瓜枸杞低糖酸奶的研制%Production and research on low-sugar yoghurt with balsam pear and Lycium barbarum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋立; 李雨露; 马勇; 吕长鑫; 励建荣

    2011-01-01

    The optimum formula and technique of yoghurt were studied by using aspartame and acesulfame potassium as substitutes of sucrose with milk,balsam pear,Lycium barbarum and de-fatted milk powder as material. The results showed that 3% of mixed bacteria with lactobacillus l. d. Bulgaricus and Str. Thermophilus as proportion 1∶ 1 was inoculated after milk,the sweetener 0. 010%(aspartame:acesulfame potassium=1∶ 1),balsam pear juice 1. 5%,Lycium barbarum juice 3% and 2% de-fatted milk powder were mixed,homogenized and sterilized. The low- sugar yoghurt with balsam pear and Lycium barbarum was produced through fermentation under 42℃ for 4h. The low-sugar yoghurt was uniform in color,fine in texture and smooth organizing,delicious taste in sour and sweet with coordinated flavour.%研究了以牛奶、苦瓜、枸杞、脱脂奶粉为主要原料,并以阿斯巴甜和安赛蜜替代蔗糖来生产酸奶的最佳配方及工艺。结果表明,牛奶与0.010%的甜味剂(阿斯巴甜∶安赛蜜=1∶1)、1.5%的苦瓜汁、3%的枸杞汁、2%的脱脂奶粉混合、均质、杀菌后,接入保加利亚乳杆菌与嗜热链球菌比例为1∶1的混合菌种3%,在42℃条件下发酵4h,制得颜色均一、组织细腻、酸甜爽口、香味协调的苦瓜枸杞低糖酸奶。

  13. Characteristic of cow milk dadih using starter of probiotic of lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Usmiati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dadih is an original dairy product from West Sumatera processed traditionally. It is a spontaneous fermentation of buffalo milk at room temperature for 48 hours in a bamboo tube, has no standard of processing and quality. Dadih is potentially to be develop into probiotic products (functional food that can be enjoyed by the public widely. Development of cow's milk dadih is necessary since buffalo milk is available only in certain area. Product and characteristic information of cow milk dadih using probiotic of lactic acid bacteria starter has not been known. The research objective was to determine the characteristics of cow milk dadih that used starter of probiotic lactic acid bacteria during storage at room temperature (27oC and cold temperature (4oC. The study was designed using a factorial randomized block design pattern 12x3 at room temperature and 12X4 at cold temperatures, with the number of repeatation of 3 times. Treatment consisted of: (i starter formula (A using a single bacterium or a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum, and (ii storage time (B. Observed parameters included pH value, titrable acidity, the total plate count, and in-vitro probiotic testing (bacterial resistance to bile salts and low pH of cow milk dadih. The results showed that L. acidophilus early exponential phase was at the hour 3rd, L. casei at the hour 4th and B. longum on the 3rd of which is used as the optimum time of mixing two or more bacteria in the manufacture of cow milk dadih. The volume of starter used was 3% with time fermentation of 48 hours at room temperature (27-30oC. Cow milk dadih that was stored for 7 days at room temperature (27-30oC and for 21 days at cold temperatures (4-10oC was able to maintain viability of bacteria to bile salts and low pH at 1010-1012 cfu/ml with percentage resistance varied. The cow milk dadih using a combination starter of B. longum with other probiotics on the

  14. Straw particle size in calf starters: Effects on digestive system development and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Heinrichs, A J; Jones, C M; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D

    2016-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine effects of straw particle size in calf starter on rumen fermentation and development in calves. Holstein calves (n=17 in trial 1; n=25 in trial 2) were housed in individual pens; bedding (wood shavings) was covered with landscape fabric to completely avoid consumption of bedding. Milk replacer was fed at 12% of birth body weight per day and water offered free choice. Calves were randomly assigned to 4 treatments differing in geometric mean particle length (Xgm) of straw comprising 5% of starter dry matter. Straw was provided within the pellet at manufacture (PS; 0.82 mm Xgm) or mixed with the pellet at time of feeding at Xgm of 3.04 (SS), 7.10 (MS), or 12.7 (LS) mm. Calves (n=12; 3/treatment) in trial 1 were fitted with a rumen cannula by wk 2 of age. A fixed amount of starter that was adjusted with age and orts were fed through the cannula in cannulated calves. Calves were euthanized 6 wk after starter was offered (9 and 7 wk of age for trials 1 and 2, respectively). Rumen digesta pH linearly decreased with age, whereas volatile fatty acid concentration increased with age. Overall pH had a cubic trend with SS lower than that of PS and MS. Molar proportion of acetate decreased with age whereas propionate proportion increased. Overall molar proportions of volatile fatty acids were not affected by diet. Fecal Xgm was not different in spite of changes in diet particle size and rumen digesta of PS being greater than SS, MS, and LS at slaughter. Fecal pH and starch concentration were not affected by diet; however, pH decreased whereas starch content increased with age. Weight of stomach compartments, rumen papillae length and width, and rumen wall thickness did not differ between diets. Omasum weight as a percentage of body weight at harvest linearly decreased as straw particle size increased. Under the conditions of this study, modifying straw particle length in starter grain resulted in minimal rumen fermentation parameter

  15. Saccharification of cassava starch by Saccharomycopsis fibuligera YCY1 isolated from Loog-Pang (rice cake starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aran H-Kittikun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were to select amylolytic yeasts from Loog-Pang, a traditional starter culture for production of alcoholic foods and drinks in southern Thailand, and to optimize the saccharification of cassava starch to reducing sugar by the selected yeast isolate. Seventy-four yeast isolates were obtained from ten samples of Loog-Pang. The isolates were tested for amylolytic activity on Yeast-Peptone Cassava medium (YPC contained 30 g/l of cassava starch.Only three isolates showed amylolytic activity which produced clear zone on the YPC agar. The best amylolytic strain with clear zone of 8 mm was identified by 26s rDNA as Saccharomycopsis fibuligera. The optimum medium for saccharification by Saccharomycopsis fibuligera. YCY1 was only 50 g/l of cassava starch in distilled water without nitrogen sources added and pH adjustment. The optimal saccharification conditions were 200 ml cassava starch (50 g/l in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask, shaking at 100 rpm and 37oC. Under these conditions, the highest reducing sugar was obtained 46±0.53 g/l after 120 h cultivation (84% of the theoretical yield.

  16. Minimum bactericidal concentration of phenols extracted from oil vegetation water on spoilers, starters and food-borne bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Fasolato

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the in vitro effect of phenols extracted from oil vegetation water (PEOW on several food-borne strains. Antibacterial activity of PEOW was based on the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC on microtitre assay. The taxa tested were: Staphylococcus (n. 5, Listeria (n. 4, Escherichia (n. 2, Salmonella (n. 1, Pseudomonas (n. 3, Lactobacillus (n. 2 and Pediococcus (n. 1. S. aureus and L. monocytogens showed the lowest level of resistance to PEOW (MBC=1.5-3 mg/mL. In contrast, the Gram negative strains (e.g. S. Typhimurium and Pseudomonas spp. were in some cases unaffected by the tested doses and the MBCs ranged between 6 to 12 mg/mL. Starter cultures were dramatically reduced on growth (e.g. Staphylococcus xylosus; 0.75 mg/mL MBC. The thresholds for pathogenic strains could be considered for further applications of PEOW in food models (e.g. shelf life or challenge test studies.

  17. Growth promoting effects of prebiotic yeast cell wall products in starter broilers under an immune stress and Clostridium perfringens challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to investigate the growth promoting effects of supplementing different sources and concentrations of prebiotic yeast cell wall (YCW) products containing mannanoligosaccharides in starter broilers under an immune stress and Clostridium perfringens challenge. Through a series ...

  18. Importance in dairy technology of bacteriocins produced by dairy starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedia Şimşek

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by Lactic acid bacteria (LAB and propionic acid bacteria (PAB are heterogeneous group of peptide inhibitors which include lantibiotics (class I, e. g. nisin, small heat-stable peptides (class II, e. g. pediocin PA-1 and large heat-labile proteins (class III, e. g. helveticin J. Many bacteriocins belonging to the first two groups can be successfully used to inhibit undesirable microorganisms in foods, but only nisin is produced industrially and is used as a food preservative. LAB and PAB develops easily in milk and milk products. LAB and PAB growth in dairy products can cause microbial interference to spoilage and pathogenic bacteria through several metabolits, specially bacteriocins. The review deals with the description of milk-borne bacteriocins and their application in milk and milk products either to extend the shelf life or to inhibit milk pathogens.

  19. The effect of lactic acid bacterial starter culture and chemical additives on wilted rice straw silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Su; Shi, Wei; Huang, Lin-Ting; Ding, Cheng-Long; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are suitable for rice straw silage fermentation, but have been studied rarely, and rice straw as raw material for ensiling is difficult because of its disadvantages, such as low nutrition for microbial activities and low abundances of natural populations of LAB. So we investigated the effect of application of LAB and chemical additives on the fermentation quality and microbial community of wilted rice straw silage. Treatment with chemical additives increased the concentrations of crude protein (CP), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), acetic acid and lactic acid, reduced the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), but did not effectively inhibit the growth of spoilage organisms. Inoculation with LABs did not improve the nutritional value of the silage because of poor growth of LABs in wilted rice straw. Inoculation with LAB and addition of chemical materials improved the quality of silage similar to the effects of addition of chemical materials alone. Growth of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria was inhibited by this mixed treatment and the LAB gradually dominated the microbial community. In summary, the fermentation quality of wilted rice straw silage had improved by addition of LAB and chemical materials.

  20. A high-throughput cheese manufacturing model for effective cheese starter culture screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachmann, H.; Kruijswijk, Z.; Molenaar, D.; Kleerebezem, M.; Hylckama Vlieg, van J.E.T.

    2009-01-01

    Cheese making is a process in which enzymatic coagulation of milk is followed by protein separation, carbohydrate removal, and an extended bacterial fermentation. The number of variables in this complex process that influence cheese quality is so large that the developments of new manufacturing prot

  1. Coculture-inducible bacteriocin biosynthesis of different probiotic strains by dairy starter culture Lactococcus lactis

    OpenAIRE

    Blaženka Kos; Jasna Beganović; Lina Jurašić; Martina Švađumović; Andreja Leboš Pavunc; Ksenija Uroić; Jagoda Šušković

    2011-01-01

    Bacteriocins produced by probiotic strains effectively contribute to colonization ability of probiotic strains and facilitate their establishment in the competitive gut environment and also protect the gut from gastrointestinal pathogens. Moreover, bacteriocins have received considerable attention due to their potential application as biopreservatives, especially in dairy industry. Hence, the objective of this research was to investigate antimicrobial activity of probiotic strains Lactobacill...

  2. CELL-SURFACE BINDING OF DEOXYNIVALENOL TO Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans ISOLATED FROM SOURDOUGH STARTER CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Yousef I.; Lloyd B. Bullerman

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are two contaminant-mycotoxins frequently found in food commodities produced under poor conditions. Several methods have been suggested for the detoxification of such mycotoxins. Among the proposed methods, biological detoxification seems to be the most promising and cost-efficient. This study explores the capability of one strain of lactic acid bacteria, identified as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans, to bind both DON and FB1 in liquid cultu...

  3. A natural protecting group strategy to carry an amino acid starter unit in the biosynthesis of macrolactam polyketide antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Yuji; Kudo, Fumitaka; Eguchi, Tadashi

    2011-11-16

    Macrolactam antibiotics are an important class of macrocyclic polyketides that contain a unique nitrogen-containing starter unit. In the present study, a set of starter biosynthetic enzymes in the macrolactam antibiotic vicenistatin was characterized. We found that the protection-deprotection strategy of the aminoacyl-ACP intermediate was critical in this system. On the basis of bioinformatics, the described pathway is also proposed as a common method for carrying amino acids in the biosynthesis of other macrolactam antibiotics. PMID:22010945

  4. Thermal Management of a Soft Starter: Transient Thermal Impedance Model and Performance Enhancements using Phase Change Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Volle, F.; Garimella, S V; Juds, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Adverse effects of starting-torque transients and high in-rush currents in induction motors are typically mitigated by employing electronically controlled soft starting voltages through silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs). However, the heat dissipation in the soft starter must be carefully managed in the design of motor drives. The objective of this study is both to address the heat dissipation in the soft starter by implementing analytical solutions to the heat diffusion equations inside th...

  5. Biodiversity of Saccharomyces yeast strains from grape berries of wine-producing areas using starters commercial yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Valero, Eva; Cambon, Brigitte; Schuller, Dorit Elisabeth; Casal, Margarida; Dequin, Sylvie

    2007-01-01

    The use of commercial wine yeast strains as starters has been extensively generalised over the past two decades. In this study, a large scale sampling plan was devised over a period of three years in three different vineyards in the south of France, to evaluate autochthonous wine yeast biodiversity in vineyards around wineries where active dry yeasts have been used as fermentation starters during more than 5 years. 72 spontaneous fermentations were performed from a total of 106 grape samples,...

  6. Biološka aktivnost fermentisanih mlečnih napitaka dobijenih primenom kombuhe i konvencionalnih starter kultura

    OpenAIRE

    Hrnjez, Dajana

    2015-01-01

    Proizvodnja fermentisanih mliječnih napitaka unapreijeđenih funkcionalnih karakteristika postala je jedan od glavnih fokusa u industriji prerade mlijeka. Cilj doktorske disertacije je ispitivanje biološke aktivnosti fermentisanih mliječnih napitaka dobijenih primjenom nekonvencionalne starter kulture, kombuhe (kultivisane na crnom čaju zaslađenim saharozom u koncentraciji od 10%) i poređenje sa karakteristikma proizvoda dobijenih primenom konvencionalnih starter kultura, jogurtne odnos...

  7. Study on Preparation of Pasteurized Yoghurt%巴氏杀菌酸牛奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建磊; 康志远; 郭慧; 王楠; 王红叶; 朱素芳; 朱宏

    2015-01-01

    研究了制作巴氏杀菌酸牛奶时影响产品感官及稳定性的因素,通过原奶贮存时间对持水力的影响得出原奶贮存不能超过24 h;通过研究变性淀粉与胶体对酸奶体系稳定性的影响,筛选出稳定剂的最佳复配组合为:变性淀粉∶明胶∶琼脂∶果胶=12∶1∶2.5∶0.5。通过正交试验优化出巴氏杀菌段最佳工艺条件为:杀菌温度75℃,杀菌时间30 s,灌装温度30℃。%The effect factor about sensory and stability on the pasteurized yoghurt was studied in this paper. By studying the effect of original milk storage time on the water holding capacity, result showed that the original milk storage time could not be more than 24 h. By studying the effect of the modiifed starch and coloid on yogurt stability, the best combination of stabilizer was selected:the optimum ratio of starch, gelatin, agar and pectin was 12∶1∶2.5∶0.5.The pasteurized parameters of optimum conditions were decided by orthogonal assay. The results showed as folowed: the pasteurized temperature was 75℃, the pasteurized time was 30 s, and the ifling temperature was 30℃.

  8. 巴氏杀菌酸牛奶的研制%Study on Preparation of Pasteurized Yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建磊; 康志远; 郭慧; 王楠; 王红叶; 朱素芳; 朱宏

    2015-01-01

    研究了制作巴氏杀菌酸牛奶时影响产品感官及稳定性的因素,通过原奶贮存时间对持水力的影响得出原奶贮存不能超过24 h;通过研究变性淀粉与胶体对酸奶体系稳定性的影响,筛选出稳定剂的最佳复配组合为:变性淀粉∶明胶∶琼脂∶果胶=12∶1∶2.5∶0.5。通过正交试验优化出巴氏杀菌段最佳工艺条件为:杀菌温度75℃,杀菌时间30 s,灌装温度30℃。%The effect factor about sensory and stability on the pasteurized yoghurt was studied in this paper. By studying the effect of original milk storage time on the water holding capacity, result showed that the original milk storage time could not be more than 24 h. By studying the effect of the modiifed starch and coloid on yogurt stability, the best combination of stabilizer was selected:the optimum ratio of starch, gelatin, agar and pectin was 12∶1∶2.5∶0.5.The pasteurized parameters of optimum conditions were decided by orthogonal assay. The results showed as folowed: the pasteurized temperature was 75℃, the pasteurized time was 30 s, and the ifling temperature was 30℃.

  9. A New Cold Rotary Forging Technology for Automotive Starter Guiding Cylinder with Internal Helical Involute Spline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new cold rotary forging technology of the internal helical involute spline was presented based on an analysis of the structure of automotive starter guide cylinder. 3D rigid-plastic finite element model was employed. Billet deformation, Billet equivalent stress and forming load were investigated under the DEFORM 3D software environment, then the forming process parameters were applied in the forming trials, and the simulation results are conformed with the experimental results. The validity of 3D finite element simulation model has been verified. The research results show that the proposed cold rotary forging technology can be efficient in handling of the forming manufacturing problems of automobile starter guide cylinder with internal helical involute spline.

  10. Starting of fluorescent tube light by using inverter circuit instead of choke and starter arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Debnath

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A fluorescent tube light generally starts glowing when a large voltage is applied across its terminals at the time of starting for a very short period, once it starts glowing then it will be able to continue with normal supply voltage. Conventionally this needed high voltage, at the time of starting, is provided by the use of choke starter arrangement.On the other hand, the circuit which converts the dc into ac is called inverter circuit. This paper will discuss about an inverter circuit which can be used in place of choke starter arrangement. This inverter circuit develops high voltage at the time of starting and after that its output voltage will come down to the normal rated voltage level. This inverter circuit arrangement not only make the tube light performance faster but also economically preferable.

  11. Secondary metabolites from Penicillium roqueforti, a starter for the production of Gorgonzola cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Vallone; Alberto Giardini; Gabriella Soncini

    2014-01-01

    The presence of mold in food, although necessary for production, can involve the presence of secondary metabolites, which are sometimes toxic. Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprophytic fungus but it is also the essential fungus used in the production of Roquefort cheese and other varieties of blue cheese containing internal mold. The study was conducted on industrial batches of Penicillium roqueforti starters used in the production of the Gorgonzola cheese, with the aim to verify the pro...

  12. Secondary metabolites from Penicillium roqueforti, a starter for the production of Gorgonzola cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Vallone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of mold in food, although necessary for production, can involve the presence of secondary metabolites, which are sometimes toxic. Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprophytic fungus but it is also the essential fungus used in the production of Roquefort cheese and other varieties of blue cheese containing internal mold. The study was conducted on industrial batches of Penicillium roqueforti starters used in the production of the Gorgonzola cheese, with the aim to verify the production of secondary metabolites. Nine Penicillium roqueforti strains were tested. The presence of roquefortine C, PR toxin and mycophenolic acid was tested first in vitro, then on bread-like substrate and lastly in vivo in nine cheese samples produced with the same starters and ready to market. In vitro, only Penicillium out of nine produced roquefortine C, four starters showed mycophenolic acid production, while no significant amounts of PR toxin were detected. In the samples grown on bread-like substrate, Penicillium did not produce secondary metabolites, likewise with each cheese samples tested. To protect consumers’ health and safety, the presence of mycotoxins needs to be verified in food which is widely consumed, above all for products protected by the protected denomination of origin (DOP label (i.e. a certificate guaranteeing the geographic origin of the product, such as Gorgonzola cheese.

  13. C-Codes: Cyclic Lowest-Density MDS Array Codes Constructed Using Starters for RAID 6

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Mingqiang

    2011-01-01

    The distance-3 cyclic lowest-density MDS array code (called the C-Code) is a good choice for RAID 6 because of its optimal storage efficiency, optimal update complexity, optimal length, and cyclic symmetry. In this paper, the underlying connections between C-Codes (or quasi-C-Codes) and starters in group theory are revealed. It is shown that each C-Code (or quasi-C-Code) of length $2n$ can be constructed using an even starter (or even multi-starter) in $(Z_{2n},+)$. It is also shown that each C-Code (or quasi-C-Code) has a twin C-Code (or quasi-C-Code). Then, four infinite families (three of which are new) of C-Codes of length $p-1$ are constructed, where $p$ is a prime. Besides the family of length $p-1$, C-Codes for some sporadic even lengths are also presented. Even so, there are still some even lengths (such as 8) for which C-Codes do not exist. To cover this limitation, two infinite families (one of which is new) of quasi-C-Codes of length $2(p-1)$ are constructed for these even lengths.

  14. Secondary Metabolites from Penicillium roqueforti, A Starter for the Production of Gorgonzola Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardini, Alberto; Soncini, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    The presence of mold in food, although necessary for production, can involve the presence of secondary metabolites, which are sometimes toxic. Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprophytic fungus but it is also the essential fungus used in the production of Roquefort cheese and other varieties of blue cheese containing internal mold. The study was conducted on industrial batches of Penicillium roqueforti starters used in the production of the Gorgonzola cheese, with the aim to verify the production of secondary metabolites. Nine Penicillium roqueforti strains were tested. The presence of roquefortine C, PR toxin and mycophenolic acid was tested first in vitro, then on bread-like substrate and lastly in vivo in nine cheese samples produced with the same starters and ready to market. In vitro, only Penicillium out of nine produced roquefortine C, four starters showed mycophenolic acid production, while no significant amounts of PR toxin were detected. In the samples grown on bread-like substrate, Penicillium did not produce secondary metabolites, likewise with each cheese samples tested. To protect consumers’ health and safety, the presence of mycotoxins needs to be verified in food which is widely consumed, above all for products protected by the protected denomination of origin (DOP) label (i.e. a certificate guaranteeing the geographic origin of the product), such as Gorgonzola cheese.

  15. Evaluation of uncertainty for lactic acid bacteria determination in yoghurt%酸乳乳酸菌数检验中不确定度的评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莎; 谭震

    2012-01-01

    目的:对酸乳中乳酸菌数不确定度的来源进行分析.方法:采用合并样品标准差的方法来评定乳酸菌数的不确定度.结果:评定结果表明酸乳中乳酸菌数检验的不确定度是测量结果对数值±0.039.结论:该批样品乳酸菌数的置信区间范围为6.2 ×107≤X≤7.5×107 cfu/g.%Objective:The source of measurement uncertainty of lactic acid bacteria in yoghurt was analyzed. Methods: Pooled sample standard deviation was applied to determine the uncertainty of lactic acid bacteria. Re-sults : The log value of uncertainty of lactic acid bacteria examination in yoghurt beverage was log value of measuring result ±0. 039.Conclusion: Confidence interval of the measurement result was; 6. 2 × 107 ~7. 5 × 107 cfu/g.

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Sodium Benzoate Potassium Sor­bate and Natamycin Content in Iranian Yoghurt Drink (Doogh and the Associated Risk of Their Intake through Doogh Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Esfandiari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regarding the public health concerns over the use of food preservatives in yoghurt drink “Doogh", the aim of this study was the determination of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamycin in Doogh. Based on Iranian national standard, none of these preservatives are permitted to be used in Doogh.Methods: A total of 39 Doogh samples were analyzed through RP- HPLC in order to quantify sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamaycin simultaneously. Exposure to each preservative is estimated by mean and maximum concentrations as the residue levels. The per capita Doogh consumption was calculated by the published data from official reports for Doogh annual production in Iran.Results: All samples were shown to contain sodium benzoate while natamaycin was detected in 10.25% of the samples and potassium sorbate was not detected in any of them. Sodium benzoate concentration extremely varied among the investigated samples ranged from 0.94 to 9.77 mg/l. Due to the result of the exposure estimation, no serious public health concern would exist regarding the mentioned preservatives.Conclusions: The detection of sodium benzoate in all Doogh samples could indicate the natural production of benzoic acid in yoghurt. Sodium benzoate may be formed through the interaction of the added food grade salt to the Doogh formula which contains benzoic acid. The results of exposure estimation show the lack of health risk within the usage of preservatives in spite of the national regulatory agencies does not permit the preservative use.

  17. Steady, dynamic, creep/recovery, and textural properties of yoghurt/molasses blends: Temperature sweep tests and applicability of Cox-Merz rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Ali; Bayrambaş, Kadir; Eroglu, Zeynep; Toker, Omer S; Yilmaz, Mustafa T; Karaman, Safa; Dogan, Mahmut

    2016-01-01

    In this study, physicochemical, rheological (steady, dynamic, and creep/recovery), and textural properties of yoghurt/molasses blends (0, 5, 10, and 15% molasses) were investigated. The blends showed shear thinning behavior, as described by Ostwald de Waele model (R(2) ( )≥ 0.955). Consistency coefficient value (K) of the blends decreased with increasing molasses concentration in the sample. Storage modulus (G') of blends was higher than loss modulus (G″), exhibiting weak gel-like behavior. Molasses addition decreased G' and G″ values. Temperature sweep tests indicated that blends followed Arrhenius relationship. A modified Cox-Merz rule was applicable using shift factors. Compliance values (J(t)) increased as molasses concentration increased, revealing that deformation stability and internal viscosity (η1) decreased with concentration. Creep behavior was characterized using Burger model. Obtained J data as a function of time could be satisfactorily fitted to Burger model (R(2) ( )≥ 0.994). The final percentage recovery of blends remarkably decreased with the increase of molasses concentration. Firmness, consistency, cohesiveness, and viscosity index values decreased with molasses addition. According to the results of the current study, molasses amount to be added to the yoghurt should be determined regarding rheological properties since resistance of the sample to deformation decreased with increase in molasses concentration. PMID:25614154

  18. Preparation and processing conditions optimization of Tibetan mushroom yoghurt%藏灵菇酸奶的制作及工艺条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炎; 甘伯中; 米兰; 张卫兵; 何林; 赵小元; 杭洁

    2012-01-01

    以藏灵菇为发酵剂,考察了发酵温度、时间和接种量对藏灵菇酸奶感官品质的影响,通过Box-Benhnken实验设计优化了发酵条件,得到藏灵菇酸奶的最佳发酵条件为:接种量为2%(w/v),发酵温度为20℃,发酵时间为18h。所制产品为乳白色,组织细腻、均匀,稍黏稠,味道独特的营养食品,实验结果可为藏灵菇酸奶的工业化生产提供理论依据。%Quality of Tibetan mushroom yoghurt was effected by fermentation temperature,time and inoculum. Close analysis of sensory evaluation of the yoghurt indicated that the optimum processing conditions was inoculation amount 2%(w/v),temperature 20℃,time 18h. The product with nutrition and unique taste was white with slightly viscous produced in experimental tests carried out according to optimum processing conditions. The result provided the basic theory for industrial production of Tibetan mushroom yogurt.

  19. Effect of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: a single blind randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Til, van A.J.; Naumann, E.; Cox-Claessens, I.J.H.M.; Kremer, S.; Boelsma, E.; Schueren, van der D.E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults. Design A single blind randomised controlled trial. Setting Rehabilitation centre. Part

  20. Utilización del suero de queso en polvo y la harina de soya, como fuentes de sólidos en la elaboración de yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña Aurora

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de incrementar los sólidos no grasos en el yoghurt, se utilizaron materias primas no tradicionales, con ventajas nutritivas y económicas, como el suero de queso en polvo y la harina de soya semidesengrasada, en niveles independientes o en mezclas entre el 1 y 2%. El nivel del 2% de suero de queso en polvo, presentó características físico-químicas y organolépticas favorables, que lo acreditan como posible sustitutivo de la leche en polvo descremada, reduciendo en 6% el costo por litro de yoghurt.The purpose was to increase non fatty solids in the yoghurt, using non traditional raw materials, with nourishing and economic advantages as the dried cheese whey and semidefatted soybean flour, in mixtures of 1 and 2% independent levels. The level of replacement with 2% of dried cheese whey, showed favorable organoleptic and physical and chemical conditions that merit as a dried skim milk possible substitute, reducing 6% cost per litre of yoghurt.

  1. Differentiation of Enterococcus faecium from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains by PCR and dot-blot hybridisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langa, S; Fernández, A; Martín, R; Reviriego, C; Marín, M L; Fernández, L; Rodríguez, J M

    2003-12-01

    Variations in length and sequence of the 16S/23S spacer region of Enterococcus faecium provided the basis for development of simple PCR and dot-blot hybridisation assays that enabled the differentiation of potentially probiotic Enterococcus faecium strains from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Such assays may be useful for differentiation of yoghurt starter cultures and enterococcal strains when they are simultaneously present in probiotic food products.

  2. Correlation of Activities of the Enzymes α-Phosphoglucomutase, UDP-Galactose 4-Epimerase, and UDP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase with Exopolysaccharide Biosynthesis by Streptococcus thermophilus LY03

    OpenAIRE

    Degeest, Bart; De Vuyst, Luc

    2000-01-01

    The effects of different carbohydrates or mixtures of carbohydrates as substrates on bacterial growth and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production were studied for the yoghurt starter culture Streptococcus thermophilus LY03. This strain produces two heteropolysaccharides with the same monomeric composition (galactose and glucose in the ratio 4:1) but with different molecular masses. Lactose and glucose were fermented by S. thermophilus LY03 only when they were used as sole energy and carbohydrate s...

  3. 葡萄多酚酸奶的加工工艺%The Processing Technology of Grape Polyphenols Yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤英; 张文秋; 刘德全

    2012-01-01

    A new type of functional yoghurt was developed by using grape seed extract and skim milk as main raw materials. The study was conducted of processing condition in five aspects which involved the adding meth- od of polyphenol extract, the effect of different adding amount on fermentation speed and quality,the determina- tion of recipe of health yoghourt and the variation of grape polyphenol during the processing of the yoghourt. The results showed that grape polyphenol extract was added before pasteurization, the optimum adding amount was 0.07 ; the best recipe was 0.05 inoculum concentration, 100 g/L sugar, 10 g/L cyclodextrin and 4 h of fer- mention;grape seed polyphenol was stable during fermentation except that a little losses occurred during pas- teurization;Slight inhibition of grape seed polyphenol was found in the post-acidification process of the yogurt.%以葡萄籽浸提液、脱脂乳粉为原料,研制了一种新型的功能酸奶——葡萄多酚酸奶。从葡萄籽浸提液的添加方法和添加量对发酵速度和品质的影响,葡萄多酚酸奶配方的确定,葡萄多酚在酸奶加工中的变化等方面研究了葡萄多酚酸奶的制作工艺。结果表明:葡萄多酚酸奶的工艺为葡萄籽浸提液在灭菌前添加;适宜添加量为占葡萄多酚酸奶体积分数0.07;最佳配方为乳酸菌接种量为占葡萄多酚酸奶体积分数0.05,糖的质量浓度为100 g/L,环糊精的质量浓度为10 g/L,发酵时间4 h;葡萄多酚除在杀菌工艺中有所损失外,在发酵过程中非常稳定;葡萄籽浸提液对酸奶后酸化过程有轻微抑制作用。

  4. Artisanal and experimental Pecorino Siciliano cheese: Microbial dynamics during manufacture assessed by culturing and PCR-DGGE analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randazzo, C.L.; Vaughan, E.E.; Caggia, C.

    2006-01-01

    Traditional artisanal Pecorino Siciliano (PS) cheeses, and two experimental PS cheeses were manufactured using either raw or pasteurised ewes' milk with the addition of starter cultures. The bacterial diversity and dynamics of the different cheese types were evaluated both by culturing and character

  5. Study on the Solidified Medlar and Carrot Juice Yoghurt%凝固型枸杞胡萝卜汁酸奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘崑; 任亚楠; 闫微; 申思瑶

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The research aimed to study the processing technics of solidified medlar and carrot juice yoghurt. [ Method ] The medlar, carrot, milk were the main materials, and the white crystal sugar, stabilizer were the auxiliary materinls. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were the fermentation agents. The orthogonal test was used to determine the optimum formulation of solidified medlar and carrot juice yoghurt. [ Result ] The optimum clarification condition of medlar juice was: pectase 0.05%, temperature 45 ℃, time 80 min and pH 3.5. The optimum clarification condition of carrot juice was:pectase 0.06%, temperature 45 ℃, time 180 rain and pH 3.5. The optimum formulation of solidified medlar and carrot juice yoghurt was:medlar 5%, carrot 7 %, white crystal sugar 6%, inoculum size 4%, multiple stabilizer ( CMC:isinglass was 1∶1 ) 0.2%, fermentation lime 3.5 h. [ Conclusion ] The product is sweet, sour and delicious. The flavor is unique, and the nutrition is rich. Moreover, it has the health effect.%[目的]研究凝固型枸杞胡萝卜汁酸奶的加工工艺.[方法]以枸杞、胡萝卜、牛奶为主要原料,白砂糖、稳定剂为辅料,保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌为发酵剂,采用正交试验确定凝固型枸杞胡萝卜汁酸奶的最佳配方.[结果]枸杞汁的最佳澄清奈件是:果胶酶为0.05%,温度为45℃,时间为80 min,pH为3.5;胡萝卜汁的最佳澄清条件是:果胶酶为0.06%,温度为45℃,时间为180 min,pH为3.5;枸杞胡萝卜汁凝固型酸奶的最佳配方是:枸杞5%,胡萝卜7%,白砂糖6%,接种量4%,复合稳定剂(CMC:明胶为1:1)0.2%,发酵时间为3.5 h.[结论]产品酸甜适口,风味独特,营养丰富,具有保健作用.

  6. 乳清蛋白在无添加剂酸奶中的应用%Application of Whey Protein in No-addtives Yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖文艳; 苏米亚; 周杰; 徐致远; 沈玲; 王豪

    2012-01-01

    本实验采用乳清蛋白制备了一种不添加稳定剂的酸奶,为制作无添加剂酸奶提供理论依据.通过分析不同添加量的乳清蛋白对酸奶发酵终点,以及后熟和保质期内酸奶的酸度、粘度、脱水收缩作用敏感性(STS)、持水率(WHC)的影响,结果发现:乳清蛋白对发酵终点的影响不大;随着乳清蛋白添加量的增加,在后熟时酸奶的酸度变化加快;乳清蛋白可以提高酸奶在保质期内的稳定性,对STS和WHC都有促进作用,可保证产品最终质量.此外,结合感官测评,乳清蛋白添加量在3~4%时,产品口感及稳定性较佳,通过使用乳清蛋白可以使无添加剂的酸奶在保质期内稳定.%In this experiment, whey protein YO-5011 was added to produce yoghurt without stabilization additives. Different quantity of whey protein was added to observe its effect on the yoghurt fermentation end point, as well as the titratable acidity, viscosity, STS, WHC during post fermentation and self-life time. The result showed the effect of the addition quantity of whey protein on the fermentation end point was not significant. The more whey protein added, the more rapidly titratable acidity increased. Whey protein enhanced the yoghurt stability during self-life time and improves STS and WHC which guaranteed the final product quality. Besides, combined with the result of additional sensory testing, the product taste and stability was optimized with a 3~4% whey protein addition.

  7. Effects of starter diet supplementation with arginine on broiler production performance and on small intestine morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice E. Murakami

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of starter diet (days 1 to 21 supplemented with arginine (Arg on the production performance and duodenum and jejunum mucosa morphometry of broilers were studied. Male Cobb broiler chickens (990 were randomly assigned to one of five treatments in a complete random design. Measurements of 33 chicks per treatment were made in six repetitions. The treatments consisted of a basal diet with 1.390% digestible Arg (no supplementation and four dietary levels (1.490%, 1.590%, 1.690%, and 1.790%, providing a relationship with lysine of 1.103; 1.183; 1.262; 1.341 and 1.421%, respectively. From the age of 22 days on, all birds received conventional grower diet. The data were submitted to regression analysis by polynomial decomposition of the degrees of freedom in relation to the levels of Arg. The Arg supplementation increased (P0.05 in the growth phase (days 22 to 42 in the absence of the Arg supplementation. The supplementation of Arg over of NRC recommendation during the starter phase may be necessary for the expression of the maximal weight gain potential in birds. No effect (P<0.05 of Arg dietary supplementation was observed either on small intestine weight and length at any age. However, the duodenum villus:crypt ratio increased and the crypt depth decreased in the first week in response to increasing dietary Arg. It is concluded that broiler Arg dietary supplementation in the starter diet improved production performance and small intestine morphometry, especially in the first week.

  8. Microflora and Selected Metabolites of Potato Pulp Fermented with an Indonesian Starter Ragi Tapé

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Ayumi; Sujaya, I-Nengah; Sone, Teruo; Asano, Kozo; Oda, Yuji

    2004-01-01

    When potato pulp was mixed with Indonesian starter ragi tapé and incubated, both lactic acid and ethanol were gradually formed and attained certain concentrations during 2 days of fermentation. Viable counts of fungi in fresh weight matter, yeasts and lactic acid bacteria after fermentation were 105, 107 and 105 CFU/g, respectively. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the PCR-amplified internal transcribed spacer of 18S–28S rRNA genes detected Amylomyces rouxii-Rhizopus oryzae, Mucor i...

  9. Performance and plasma metabolites of dairy calves fed starter containing sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L S; Bittar, C M M

    2011-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the influence of supplementation of sodium butyrate, sodium monensin or calcium propionate in a starter diet on the performance and selected plasma metabolites (plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate) of Holstein calves during pre- and post-weaning periods. Twenty-four newborn Holstein calves were housed in individual hutches until 10 weeks of life, receiving water free choice, and fed four liters of milk daily. Calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth, and allocated to one of the following treatments, according to the additive in the starter: (i) sodium butyrate (150 g/kg); (ii) sodium monensin (30 mg/kg); and (iii) calcium propionate (150 g/kg). During 10 weeks, calves received starter ad libitum, while coast cross hay (Cynodon dactylon (L.) pers.) was offered after weaning, which occurred at the 8th week of age. Weekly, calves were weighted and evaluated for body measurements. Blood samples were taken weekly after the fourth week of age, 2 hours after the morning feeding, for determination of plasma metabolites. No differences were observed among treatments for starter or hay intake, BW and daily gain of the animals. Mean concentrations of selected plasma metabolites were similar in calves fed a starter supplemented with sodium butyrate, sodium monensin and calcium propionate. There was significant reduction in the concentrations of plasma glucose as calves aged. The inclusion of sodium butyrate, calcium propionate or sodium monensin as additives in starter feeds resulted in equal animal performance, before and after weaning, suggesting that sodium monensin may be replaced by organic acid salts.

  10. 木瓜、山楂复合型保健酸奶的研制%Development of Health Yoghurt Mixed with Pawpaw and Hawthorn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董道顺

    2012-01-01

    The compound type health yoghurt was developed and the optimum technological parameter were explored to develop new-type nutritional and healthy yoghurt with the special flavors of pawpaw and hawthorn. The results showed that the best formula and production technology were as follows: rate of papaya juice (1 : 2 ) and hawthorn juice ( 1 : 3 ) was 6:4, compound juice adding amount 40%, milk liquid concentration 13%, white sugar adding amount 6%, lactic acid bacteria inoculum size 3%, fermentation at 40 癈 for 20 h. Under these conditions, the products would be of special flavors of papaya, hawthorn and acidified milk, moderate sweet and sour, refreshin and smooth.%为开发出兼有木瓜、山楂特有果香味的营养、健康的新型发酵酸乳,以新鲜木瓜和山楂为主要原料,开发果汁复合型保健酸奶,通过试验确定复合型酸奶的最佳制作工艺参数.结果表明,木瓜汁(料水比1∶2)和山楂汁(料水比1∶3)的比例为6∶4,复合果汁添加量40%,奶液浓度13%,白砂糖的添加量6%,乳酸菌接种量3%,40℃发酵20 h.该工艺条件下的产品兼有木瓜、山楂的特有果香味和发酵乳风味,酸甜适中、爽口滑润.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of lactic acid bacteria isolated from yoghurts%酸奶中乳酸菌的药物敏感性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宁; 魏新元; 所辰宇; 张建新

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the susceptibility of lactic acid bacteria(LAB) isolated from yoghurts for medical purpose to 11 antimicrobial agents. Methods: 18 Lactobacillus bulgaricus and 28 Streptococcus thermophilus selected on modified MRS media from yoghurts were examined for antibiotic resistance by using the agar dilution method.Results.The same strain presented different sensitivity to different antibiotics, and different isolates also showed different resistance to the same antibiotic.Conclusions.Multidrug resistance was identified in most isolates and different resistance was seen in different isolates.%目的:分析和鉴定不同产地酸奶中乳酸菌对一些常用抗生素的敏感性,指导合理使用抗菌药物与合理使用乳酸菌发酵制品。方法:利用改良的MRS培养基从各地酸奶中分离获得乳酸菌,然后采用琼脂稀释法,对分离获得的18株保加利亚乳杆菌和28株嗜热链球菌对11种常用抗生素的药物敏感性进行检测和分析。结果:同一菌株对不同的抗生素具有不同的药物敏感性,不同菌株对同一种抗生素也显示出不同的敏感性。结论:乳酸菌对常用抗生素的多重耐药已成为普遍现象,不同来源的菌株表现出了不同的耐药性。

  12. Optimization of Productive Process of Complex Functional Yoghurt with Cactus Honey%仙人掌蜂蜜复合保健酸奶的工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常海军; 王强; 周文斌

    2011-01-01

    为了研制营养全面、具有保健作用的新型复合营养保健酸奶,以仙人掌、蜂蜜和牛乳为原料,采用正交试验设计对仙人掌蜂蜜复合保健酸奶的最优生产工艺进行了优化.结果表明:仙人掌添加量4%、蜂蜜泥添加量4%、菌种接种量6%、发酵温度42℃为最佳工艺条件;0.02%VC或0.03%柠檬酸可对仙人掌起到最佳护色效果;蜂蜜稀释至50%、100℃保温加热30min为最佳澄清技术.%The productive process of complex functional yoghurt with cactus honey was optimized using orthogonal experiment design, taking cactus, honey and milk as raw materials, to develop a new type of complex functional yoghurt. The results showed that the optimum conditions were 4% adding amount of cactus and honey separately,6% inoculation amount of strain and 42℃ fermentation temperature. The color-protecting effect of cactus with 0. 02 % Vc or 0.03 % citric acid was the best, the optimum clarification technology included honey diluted to 50% and heated at 100℃ for 30 minutes.

  13. 新型保健鸡蛋黄酸奶的研制%Research on new functional chicken egg yolk yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 彭志宏; 李和平; 李云芳; 魏建春

    2012-01-01

    Taking chicken egg yolk and fresh milk as main raw material,a new functional egg yolk yoghurt was made through lactobacillus fermentation. The experiment introduced chicken egg yolk health care function and explored the technological conditions and the product formula of processing egg yolk yoghurt with health effect. Orthogonal experiment results showed that the optimum technological conditions were: the egg yolk liquid amount to 15%, lactobacillus fermentation inoculum for 4%, yogurt stabilizer amount to 0.3%, adding sugar amount to 9%, at 40℃ for 5h fermentation.The product had orange yellow color, uniformity and smooth texture, and with delicious egg yolk smell and good flavor. And its acidity was 95°T, viable cell counts was 6.2×108cfu/ml.%以鸡蛋黄液、鲜牛乳为主要原料,通过乳酸菌发酵,制得保健型鸡蛋黄酸奶.正交试验结果表明,当蛋黄液加入量为15%,发酵剂接种量为4%,酸奶稳定剂的添加量为0.3%,白砂糖添加量为9%,在40℃条件下,发酵5h可获得橙黄色,均匀细腻,具有蛋黄特有的鲜香气味,色、香、味具佳的蛋黄酸奶,其酸度为95°T,乳酸菌活菌数为6.2× 108cfu/mL.

  14. 覆盆子益生菌发酵乳工艺参数优化%Optimization of Fermentation Parameters for Raspberry Probiotic Yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐民民; 颜繁龙

    2012-01-01

    对覆盆子果汁对双歧杆菌增殖效果进行研究,发现添加覆盆子果汁对双歧杆菌的生长有明显地促进作用。同时,以发酵温度、添加果汁前物料的pH值、覆盆子果汁添加量为3因素,对覆盆子益生菌发酵乳的工艺参数进行优化。结果表明,最优工艺优化参数为培养温度42℃、物料发酵pH值为6.25,发酵约1.5h后添加5%灭菌的覆盆子果汁。采用本工艺生产的发酵乳不但口感细腻爽口,酸甜适宜,而且有浓郁的覆盆子香味,发展前景十分广阔。%In this study,we found that raspberry juice had a remarkable growth-promoting effect on Bifidobacterium bifidum.Meanwhile,we optimized fermentation temperature,medium pH before raspberry juice addition,the amount of raspberry juice added to raw milk for producing raspberry probiotic yoghurt by orthogonal array design.The optimal fermentation parameters were determined as 42 ℃ of fermentation temperature,initial medium pH 6.25,and addition of 5% raspberry juice after approximately 1.5 h of fermentation.The produced yoghurt had a smooth and refreshing taste,a pleasant balance of tart and sweet,and a strong raspberry scent and showed wide development prospects.

  15. Prolonging the Service Life of the Starter%延长起动机使用寿命的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张沐良

    2014-01-01

    为了消除不科学操作习惯对起动机使用寿命的影响,设计了启动保护器,实践证明,能有效延长起动机的使用寿命,故障率接近为零,方法可行。%In order to eliminate the influence of unscientific operation habits on the service life of starter, designed the start protector. Practice had proved that it can effectively extend the service life of starter, failure rate is close to zero, and the method is feasible.

  16. Research on Switched Reluctance Motor for Automobile Starter/Generator System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Li; LIU Qiang; ZHAO De-an; LIU Di-ji

    2006-01-01

    A self-designed and developed 12/10 switched reluctance motor(SRM)is chosen as the object of study and a prototype of 2.5 kW switched reluctance starter/generator with fly-wheel is designed based on the requirements of the selected engine (Changan Aotooc three-cylinder engine wagon) for the starter, generator and drive. The 36 V/42 V DC source system is applied to establishing the simulation-analyzing model of the motor. A finite-element (FE) analysis of its two-dimensional electromagnetic field is conducted to obtain the exact model of the motor. Systematic simulation is carried out combining with its power conversion circuit and control element. Meanwhile the starting process and performance of the system are studied and analyzed with special efforts. Satisfactory result is derived from the testing of the prototype:theoretical analysis is basically matched with the tested data, which proves the rationality and feasibility of the design procedures, systematic modeling and control strategies. Therefore, the new 12/10-structure scheme is put forward based on the development and analysis of various SRM and it meets the requirements of the researched motor in terms of the structural parameters.

  17. Performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of male calves fed starter concentrate with crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raylon Pereira Maciel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the effects of including crude glycerin in the diet on intake, performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of dairy crossbred veal calves fed starter concentrate containing 0, 80, 160, and 240 g kg−1 crude glycerin. Twenty-eight calves with an average weight of 38.03±6.7 kg and five days of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments with seven replications. Calves were individually housed in covered stalls equipped with feeders and drinkers for 56 days. The calf response to inclusion of crude glycerin in the concentrate changed over the weeks and the inclusion level of 240 g kg−1 resulted in greater dry matter intake and average daily gain. There was no effect on the final weight and total weight gain of the animals, with mean values of 73.60 and 35.16 kg, respectively. The weight of the rumen-reticulum adjusted for body weight, empty body weight, and total stomach weight increased linearly with the inclusion of crude glycerin. Blood total protein, globulin, urea, cholesterol, gamma glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations did not differ among treatments. Carcass traits and meat color were not affected. Crude glycerin can be added to dairy calf starter concentrate up to 240 g kg−1 dry matter because it benefits concentrate intake, performance, and rumen development without affecting animal health.

  18. The relative effect of milk base, starter, and process on yogurt texture: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodini, Isabelle; Remeuf, Florent; Haddad, Samia; Corrieu, Georges

    2004-01-01

    Yogurt is a milk curd produced all over the world, obtained by a lactic fermentation of a milk base enriched with milk proteins, and sometimes sugars and thickeners. One of the most important sensorial attributes for yogurt is texture, which could be assessed by sensory or instrumental analysis. A lot of work has been published in studying the contribution of milk base, starter, and process on yogurt texture in order to develop new textures, or simply to reduce fat content, or the level of addition of protein and thickener in milk. However, these studies are limited to only a few factors. The topic of this review was to synthesize the data of literature, with the aim of extracting and classifying factors on the basis of their influence on yogurt texture. Three factors, milk base heating, starter, and yogurt shearing after fermentation, respectively, play a key role in the elaboration of texture. The control of these three parameters allows the improvement of the textural attributes of yogurts by 2 to 15 times.

  19. Potential benefits of the application of yeast starters in table olive processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Noé eArroyo López

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts play an important role in the food and beverage industry, especially in products such as bread, wine, and beer, among many others. However, their use as a starter in table olive processing has not yet been studied in detail. The candidate yeast strains should be able to dominate fermentation, together with lactic acid bacteria, but should also provide a number of beneficial advantages. Technologically, yeasts should resist low pH and high salt concentrations, produce desirable aromas, improve lactic acid bacteria growth and inhibit spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays, they are being considered as probiotic agents because many species are able to resist the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and show favourable effects on the host. In this way, yeasts may improve the health of consumers by means of the degradation of non assimilated compounds (such as phytate complexes, a decrease in cholesterol levels, the production of vitamins and antioxidants, the inhibition of pathogens, an adhesion to intestinal cell line Caco-2 and the maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity. Many yeast species, usually found in table olive processing (Wicherhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens, Kluyveromyces lactis, among others, have exhibited some of these properties. Thus, the selection of the most appropriate strains to be used as starters in this fermented vegetable, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria, is a promising research line to develop in the near future.

  20. Interactions between the physical form of starter (mashed versus textured) and corn silage provision on performance, rumen fermentation, and structural growth of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Riasi, A; Soltani, A; Moshiri, B; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-02-01

    Introducing forage in the young calf diet during the milk-feeding period stimulates rumen development. It was hypothesized that performance in dairy calves would depend on forage provision and starter physical form such that the textured starter (TS) feed with corn silage (CS) supplementation would benefit calf performance. This study evaluates the effects of the physical form of starter diets and CS supplementation on performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and structural growth of dairy calves. Forty-eight 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves with a mean starting BW of 42.1 kg (SD 2.4) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors dietary CS level (0 or 15% on DM basis) and physical form of starter (mashed vs. textured). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned ( = 12 calves per treatment: 6 males and 6 females) to 4 treatments: 1) a mashed starter (MS) feed with no CS (MS-NCS), 2) a MS feed with CS (MS-CS), 3) a TS feed with no CS (TS-NCS), and 4) a TS feed with CS (TS-CS). The calves had ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the study. All calves were weaned on d 56 of age and remained in the study until d 66. The interaction of the physical form of the starter and CS provision was significant ( 0.05) was detected between the physical form of starter and CS provision with respect to the rumen fermentation parameters and body measurements. Total rumen VFA concentration and the molar proportion of propionate were greater ( < 0.01) in calves fed TS compared with MS-fed calves. In conclusion, independent of the physical form of starter, inclusion of 15% CS in starter diets improves the performance of dairy calves.

  1. Away with Good Bantus: De-Linking African Language Literature from Culture, "Tribe" and Propriety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhize, Nomalanga

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that the "institutionalisation" model used by universities to spearhead the intellectualisation of African languages is a non-starter for taking African languages in new creative directions. The major constraint for African language literary culture is that written output has historically been heavily bent towards…

  2. Fermented mixture of cassava peel and caged layer manure as energy source in broiler starter diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five parts of sun-dried cassava peel a (fibrous and low protein) by-product of cassava tuber processing industry was ground and mixed thoroughly with one part of ground sun-dried caged layers' manure in a vertical feed mill mixer. Rumen filtrate (100ml) from slaughtered bovine, containing rumen microbes was used to spray and inoculate the mixture of the cassava peel and caged layers' manure in a 50 L black plastic vat. The content of the vat was again thoroughly mixed using plastic scoop and was immediately covered airtight with black polythene sheet to ensure fermentation for a period of 14 d. The fermented cassava peel and caged layers' manure (FCPCLM) was analyzed for proximate composition and amino acids. It contained 8.71% crude protein (CP), 11.58% crude fibre (CF), 73.52% Nitrogen free extract (NFE), 2.75% Ether extract (EE), 3.97% Ash. The analyzed essential amino acids in FCPCLM are Lysine 2.16%, Methionine 0.78%, Valine 3.64%, Histidine 1.64%, Leucine 5.13%, Threonine 2.13%, Phenyalanine 3.17%, Arginine 4.00%, Isoleucine 3.01%. FCPCLM was then mixed with other ingredients in broiler starter diets (control) to replace maize at 25% and 50% while other ingredients in the diet remain constant. The objective is to ascertain the performance, serum indices and cost benefit of FCPCLM to partially replace maize as source of energy, which has become expensive because of recent use as raw material for biofuels and to focus on farm residue resource readily available to small-scale farmers for sustainability of poultry products without sophistication in technological approach. The control diet had the following ingredients viz; Maize 40%, Wheat offal 19%, Soybean meal 23%, Fish meal 1.20%, Groundnut cake 12%, Bone meal 2%, Oyster shell 2%, Broiler starter Premix 0.25%, Salt 0.25%, Methionine 0.10%, Lysine 0.1% and Feed antibiotic 0.1%. The prediction equation: metabolisable energy (ME) of FCPCLM = 37x%CP + 81.8x%EE + 35.5 x % NFE which is 3157.18 kcal/kg was used to

  3. OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF CULTURED BUTTER DURING STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Мусій, Л. Я.; Цісарик, О. Й.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to investigate the stability of the cultured butter to oxidation during storage. Starter composition DVS (Chr. Hansen, Denmark) Flora Danica (FD) and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 (La-5) were used for fermenting cream. Four groups cultured butter were produced : Group I (samples KW1, KW2, KW3 using FD; FD+La-5; La-5) - fermentation at 30 ºC; Group II (KW4, KW5, KW6 using FD; FD+La-5; La-5) - fermentation at 37 ºC; Group III (KW7, KW8, KW9 using FD; FD+La-5; La-5) – physi...

  4. Treatment of Bovine Milk by Horseradish Peroxidase and Its Impact on the Quality of Set-yoghurt%牛乳的过氧化物酶处理与凝固型酸奶品质的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温研; 赵新淮

    2011-01-01

    利用辣根过氧化物酶和阿魏酸处理牛乳并制备凝固型酸奶,采用质构仪和流变仪分别对不同酸奶样品的质构和流变特性进行对比研究.研究结果表明,辣根过氧化物酶、阿魏酸和明胶的添加对酸奶样品的主要成分组成没有影响,但对酸奶质构和流变特性的影响较大.与对照样相比,添加明胶、添加酶和阿魏酸、添加酶酸奶样品的硬度分别增加38.03%、34.07%和17.08%,黏度分别增加45.13%、40.85%和28.36%,而乳清析出率分别降低12.02%、6.28%和3.41%.同时,酸奶的表观黏度、触变性和粘弹性也都增加,增幅最大者为添加明胶酸奶样品,其次是添加酶和阿魏酸的酸奶样品,增幅最小的是添加酶的酸奶样品.研究结果显示利用辣根过氧化物酶、阿魏酸处理牛乳可以改善凝固型酸奶的品质.%Bovine milk was treated with horseradish peroxidase or/and ferulic acid, and used to prepare set-yoghurt.The textural and rheological properties of the yoghurt samples prepared were measured with Texture Profile Analyzer and Rheometer and compared to that of control.The results showed that treatment of bovine milk with horseradish peroxidase or/and ferulic acid did not impact the main compositions of the yoghurt samples, but clear influence on the texture and rheology.Compared to that of control, the hardness or the adhesiveness of the yoghurt samples with gelatin addition, horseradish peroxidase treatment, or horseradish peroxidase plus ferulic acid treatment had an increase of 38.03, 34.07 and 17.08% , or 45.13 , 40.85 and 28.36% , respectively, while the syneresis of these samples had a decrease of 12.02, 6.28 and 3.41% , respectively.Also, the apparent viscosities, thixotropy and viscoelastic behaviors of these samples were in the order of the yoghurt with gelatin addition, the yoghurt with horseradish peroxidase plus ferulic acid treatment, the yoghurt samples with horseradish peroxidase treatment

  5. Diversity and dynamic of lactic acid bacteria strains during aging of a long ripened hard cheese produced from raw milk and undefined natural starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogačić, Tomislav; Mancini, Andrea; Santarelli, Marcela; Bottari, Benedetta; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Gatti, Monica

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore diversity and dynamic of indigenous LAB strains associated with a long ripened hard cheese produced from raw milk and undefined natural starter such as PDO Grana Padano cheese. Samples of milk, curd, natural whey culture and cheeses (2nd, 6th, 9th and 13th months of ripening) were collected from 6 cheese factories in northern Italy. DNA was extracted from each sample and from 194 LAB isolates. tRNA(Ala)-23S rDNA-RFLP was applied to identify isolates. Strain diversity was assessed by (GTG)5 rep-PCR and RAPD(P1)-PCR. Finally, culture-independent LH-PCR (V1-V2 16S-rDNA), was considered to explore structure and dynamic of the microbiota. Grana Padano LAB were represented mainly by Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus helveticus and Pediococcus acidilactici, while the structure and dynamic of microbiota at different localities was specific. The strength of this work is to have focused the study on isolates coming from more than one cheese factories rather than a high number of isolates from one unique production. We provided a valuable insight into inter and intraspecies diversity of typical LAB strains during ripening of traditional PDO Grana Padano, contributing to the understanding of specific microbial ecosystem of this cheese. PMID:24010599

  6. Yoghurt fermentation characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum MA2 strain from kefir grains%Kefir源植物乳杆菌MA2的牛乳发酵特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许女; 王艳萍; 习傲登; 张玢

    2011-01-01

    Yoghurt fermentation characteristics of Lactobacillus plantaium MA2 strain from Kefir Grains was studied in this experiment. The results showed that post-acidification degree of L. plantarvm MA2 yoghurt was significantly reduced compared with that of ordinary yoghurt during storage at 4℃ for 21d refrigeration period. In addition, the viscosity of MA2 yoghurt was enhanced and the whey separation rate was decreased. Moreover, the sensory evaluation results showed that, compared with that of the ordinary yogurt, the MA2 yogurt taste is more delicate, soft smooth, thick and u-niform. Based on the earlier experiment results, it was found that MA2 strain can degrade cholesterol and develop intestinal flora. Therefore, it has a good application in dairy probiotics production.%该试验对Kefir源植物乳杆菌MA2的牛乳发酵特性进行了研究,结果显示,在4℃、21d的冷藏期间内,相比较于普通酸奶,添加了植物乳杆菌MA2的益生菌酸奶的后酸化程度显著降低;且MA2菌株提高了酸奶的黏度,降低了储存期间酸乳的乳清析出率;另外,感官评价结果显示,MA2菌株发酵的酸奶口感更加细腻、绵滑、黏稠、均匀,香气更加浓郁;基于前期试验证明MA2菌株还具有降胆固醇、调节肠道菌群的生理功能,因此其具有良好的乳制品益生菌发酵剂应用前景.

  7. Studies on Sterilized Yoghurt Beverage of Xylo-oligosaccharide and Taurine%杀菌型低聚木糖牛磺酸乳酸菌乳饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余保宁

    2011-01-01

    This paper studied the processing of sterilized yoghurt beverage of xylo -ohgosacharide and taurine,and confirmed that xylo-oligosaccharide is one of the best prebiotics to multiply bifidobacterium in human body.It also researched the stability of this kind of yoghurt beverage by adding some ingredients such as stabilizers,emulsifiers,acidity regulators,chelators,and drew a conclusion that the most stable productive formula of sterilized yoghurt beverage of xyli-olgosaccharide and taurine was thus obtained.%本文通过研究低聚木糖牛磺酸杀菌型乳酸菌乳饮料的生产工艺,确认了低聚木糖在人体双歧杆菌增殖中是最好的益生元之一;从增稠剂、乳化剂、酸度调节剂、螯合剂等配方工艺方面对此乳酸菌乳饮料的稳定性进行了研究,最后确定了低聚木糖牛磺酸杀菌型乳酸菌乳饮料的生产最佳稳定配方。

  8. Microbiota dynamics related to environmental conditions during the fermentative production of Fen-Daqu, a Chinese industrial fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Yan, Zheng; Nout, M J Robert; Smid, Eddy J; Zwietering, Marcel H; Boekhout, Teun; Han, Jian-Shu; Han, Bei-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Chinese Daqu is used as a starter for liquor and vinegar fermentations. It is produced by solid state fermentation of cereal-pulse mixtures. A succession of fungi, lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp. was observed during the production of Daqu. Mesophilic bacteria followed by fungi, dominated the

  9. Microbiota dynamics related to environmental conditions during the fermentative production of Fen-Daqu, a Chinese industrial fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Yan, Z.; Nout, M.J.R.; Smid, E.J.; Zwietering, M.H.; Boekhout, T.; Han, J.S.; Han, B.

    2014-01-01

    Chinese Daqu is used as a starter for liquor and vinegar fermentations. It is produced by solid state fermentation of cereal–pulse mixtures. A succession of fungi, lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp. was observed during the production of Daqu. Mesophilic bacteria followed by fungi, dominated the

  10. The Impact of Proteolytic Pork Hydrolysate on Microbial, Flavor and Free Amino Acids Compounds of Yogurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinzhong; Hua, Baozhen; Xu, Zhiping; Li, Sha; Ma, Chengjie

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of proteolytic pork hydrolysate (PPH) on yoghurt production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Fresh lean pork was cut into pieces and mixed with deionized water and dealt with protease, then the resulting PPH was added to milk to investigate the effects of PPH on yoghurt production. The fermentation time, the viable cell counts, the flavor, free amino acids compounds, and sensory evaluation of yoghurt were evaluated. These results showed that PPH significantly stimulated the growth and acidification of the both bacterial strains. When the content of PPH reached 5% (w/w), the increased acidifying rate occurred, which the fermentation time was one hour less than that of the control, a time saving of up to 20% compared with the control. The viable cell counts, the total free amino acids, and the scores of taste, flavor and overall acceptability in PPH-supplemented yoghurt were higher than the control. Furthermore, the contents of some characteristic flavor compounds including acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters were richer than the control. We concluded that the constituents of PPH such as small peptide, vitamins, and minerals together to play the stimulatory roles and result in beneficial effect for the yoghurt starter cultures growth. PMID:27621698

  11. The Impact of Proteolytic Pork Hydrolysate on Microbial, Flavor and Free Amino Acids Compounds of Yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinzhong; Hua, Baozhen; Xu, Zhiping; Li, Sha; Ma, Chengjie

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of proteolytic pork hydrolysate (PPH) on yoghurt production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Fresh lean pork was cut into pieces and mixed with deionized water and dealt with protease, then the resulting PPH was added to milk to investigate the effects of PPH on yoghurt production. The fermentation time, the viable cell counts, the flavor, free amino acids compounds, and sensory evaluation of yoghurt were evaluated. These results showed that PPH significantly stimulated the growth and acidification of the both bacterial strains. When the content of PPH reached 5% (w/w), the increased acidifying rate occurred, which the fermentation time was one hour less than that of the control, a time saving of up to 20% compared with the control. The viable cell counts, the total free amino acids, and the scores of taste, flavor and overall acceptability in PPH-supplemented yoghurt were higher than the control. Furthermore, the contents of some characteristic flavor compounds including acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters were richer than the control. We concluded that the constituents of PPH such as small peptide, vitamins, and minerals together to play the stimulatory roles and result in beneficial effect for the yoghurt starter cultures growth. PMID:27621698

  12. Tidlige brukere av alkohol – hvem er de? Kjennetegn ved ungdom som starter tidlig med alkohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Grimsmo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGDebutalder med alkoholrus er en sterk prediktor for senere alkoholbruk. I denne undersøkelsen har visammenliknet de som starter med alkohol tidlig og før det er kulturelt akseptert, med ungdommenesom begynner i konfirmasjonsalder og de som utsetter alkoholdebuten. Vi finner at gruppen sombegynner tidlig ikke bare bryter de lokale tradisjonene for alkoholkonsum, men er i opposisjon tilnormer og autoriteter generelt. Alkohol er et positivt symbol for gruppen og det å ruse seg et ritualesom gir mening i deres miljø. Hjemmet står i den sterkeste posisjonen til å kunne utsette ungdommensalkoholdebut. Vi skisserer hvilke implikasjoner dette bør ha for strategien i det forebyggende arbeidet.

  13. Lactococcus bacteriophages isolated from whey and their effects on commercial lactic starters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Raquel de Godoy Oriani

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of phages of lactic acid bacteria in milk industry and their effects on acidification ability of commercial lactic acid starters were studied. Cheese whey samples (33 samples were collected from 17 factories. A total of 16 bacteriophages were isolated (12 specific for Lactococcus lactis, 3 for L. diacetylactis and one capable of lysing both species. The results showed that 10% reduction in acidification tests was not good indication of phage in the sample. The majority of samples showed reduction higher than 10%, although only 65% were phage positive. The isolated phages were quite stable and showed no reduction in infectivity even after 20 daily replications. A pool of bacteriophages was prepared from isolates and inoculated in 12 commercial lactic starters. After 8 hours of incubation, only 2 showed reduced acidification. Bacterial strains isolated from commercial starters were tested regarding the phage resistance. Considerable difference in phage sensitivity was observed among different starters (BD, D, O and L. diacetylactis. Five bacteriophages showed no infectivity on any isolates but one was infective for most of isolates.Para ampliar conhecimentos sobre a incidência de bacteriófagos de bactérias lácticas na indústria de leite do Estado de São Paulo e a sua influência sobre a capacidade acidificante de fermentos lácticos disponíveis em nosso mercado, o presente trabalho foi conduzido com o intuito de esclarecer a real situação dos laticínios no Estado. Foram coletadas 33 amostras de soro de queijo em 17 laticínios. Foram isolados 16 bacteriófagos, 12 específicos para Lactococcus lactis, 3 para L. diacetylactis e um capaz de lisar ambos os microrganismos. Os experimentos mostraram que, uma diminuição de 10% na acidez em presença de soro suspeito, ao contrário do estabelecido na literatura, não reflete a veracidade da presença de bacteriófagos na amostra, uma vez que a maioria apresentou redução acima

  14. Variability of the microbial abundance of a kefir grain starter cultivated in partially controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oger R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The variability of the abundance in lactobacilli, lactic acid streptococci and yeasts of a kefir grain starter cultivated in partially controlled conditions – milk renewal at room temperature and incubation at defined temperature - was quantified. Expressed by the geometric relative standard deviations of counts repeated over time, it was respectively of 28%, 443% and 35% for each of the three microbial groups. The origin of the microbial variability observed was ascribed to the heterogeneous medium developed around the grains during fermentation and, for the lactic acid streptococci, even more to the initial conditions of fermentation, probably to parameters linked to milk renewal (room temperature, waiting time at room temperature before incubation.

  15. Final report for the 1996 Engineer Starters Program (Pre-Freshmen Enrichment Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, L. Jr.

    1996-08-15

    This report has been developed for the North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University College of Engineering, Department of Energy and other foundations/corporations sponsoring the 1996 Engineer Starters Program and for general information. The College of Engineering conducted its Annual outreach program for Middle and High School students from July 8 to August 2, 1996. The continuing primary goal of this program is to expose youth to the various challenging opportunities in the Mathematics and Science based careers, Engineering and Technology. The curriculum for the summer of 1996 included: Mathematics; Science; Computers; Graphics; Problem Solving; Career Explorations; Communications; Field Trips to Manufacturing Plants/Industries; and Engineering Projects/Designs. The 1996 program included rising seventh through tenth graders. Parental involvement was instituted as a vital component of the summer experiences. The primary objective is to increase the number of minorities entering engineering and science professions.

  16. Modeling a magneto-rheological soft starter for use with belt conveyors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Zuzhi; Hou Youfu

    2012-01-01

    The theory of magnetic circuit design,the constitutive equations of a magneto-rheological fluid,and the load properties of belt conveyors were used to design a magneto-rheological soft starter test-bed.The magnetic field distribution in the working gap was analyzed and the current-speed relationship was investigated.A mathematical model for the time response was deduced.The results show that a linear relationship between current and magnetic field is seen when the magnetic materials are not saturated and the magnetic field is uniform in the working section.The rotation speed of the driven shaft changes linearly with increasing time.The response is rapid and can be as short as milliseconds.This meets the starting requirements of belt conveyors.

  17. Torque Distribution Strategy for Integrated Starter/ Generator Hybrid Bus Implemented by Fuzzy Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Hu; AO Guo-qiang; WANG Feng; MA Zi-lin; MAO Xiao-jian; ZHUO Bin

    2008-01-01

    A torque distribution strategy was designed by using fuzzy logic to realize the optimal control. Thevehicle load zones were dynamically divided into several zones by several torque lines to indicate the driversdemand and the high or low efficient operating areas of the diesel engine. The fuzzy logic controller withtrapezoid membership function and Mamdani rule reference mechanism was utilized. There are over 100 rulesused in this fuzzy-based torque distribution strategy which are sorted into four rule-bases. The fuel economyand acceleration tests were designed to test and validate the integrated starter/generator (ISG) bus perfor-mance using fuzzy-based torque distribution strategy. The fuel economy is improved 7.7% compared with therule-based strategy. Finally the road test results reveal that there is about 157% improvement of fuel economy.And the 0-50 km/h acceleration time is 9.5% shorter than the original bus.

  18. Multilingual school starters: Social semiotic perspectives on second language and literacy learning in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia

    of globalisation. Furthermore, this perception of literacy entails that the student’s possible insights into other ways of adding signs to language than those we know from a specific version of the Latin alphabet, fall outside the interests of research and teaching. From this perspective and with a social semiotic...... view on language and literacy acquisition in multilingual settings, I will argue that a deconstruction of such ideological conceptualizations of language and literacy requires a separation of language and literacy in order to reconstruct the relationship in ways that reflect the complexity......Multilingual school starters: social semiotics perspectives on second language and literacy learning in education Helle Pia Laursen The starting point for this paper is the still increasing role of literacy in educational settings. Often primary education is seen as almost being synonymous...

  19. TROPICAL VEGETABLE (AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS LEAF MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT IN BROILER STARTER DIETS: BIONUTRITIONAL EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A FASUYI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus cruentus is a tropical leaf vegetable grown in most tropical regions of the world for its vegetable protein. The fresh matured leaves of the plant were harvested and sun dried until a moisture content of between 12-13% was obtained. The sun dried leaves (Amaranthus cruentus leaf meal, ACLM were milled and analysed for their proximate composition. Crude protein was 23.0%+0.55; crude fat, 5.4%+0.01; crude fibre, 8.8%+0.02; ash, 19.3%+0.01 and gross energy, 3.3+0.01kcal/g all on dry matter basis. Methionine and to a lesser extent, lysine, arginine, leucine and aspartate were high. The ACLM was incorporated into five formulated broiler starter diets at varying inclusion levels. The control diet 1 had no ACLM inclusion. All the six diets including control diet 1 were formulated isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed to the experimental chicks (n = 540. Birds kept on diet 2 (5% ACLM inclusion level had the best average weight gain (WG of 372.9+29.94g/chick. The feed efficiency (FE value and the protein efficiency ratio (PER for birds on diet 2 were similar (P > 0.05 to values obtained for the reference diet. The nitrogen retention (NR and apparent nitrogen digestibility (AND values obtained for diet 2 were highest at 1.48+0.24gN/chick/day and 63.12%+10.28, respectively. Except for dressed weight and the back of chicken all the organs weights taken were similar (P > 0.05. Haematological examinations were similar (P > 0.05. Results generally indicated that ACLM could be a useful dietary protein source for broiler starter chicks at 5% inclusion level.

  20. Fatty-Acid composition of free-choice starter broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Kessler

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils with different fatty acid content in starter and pre-starter broiler diets. In Experiment I 480 1- to 9-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing corn oil (CO, acid corn oil (ACO, linseed oil (LO or coconut fat (CoF. Chicks were distributed according to a factorial 2x2x2arrangement (2 free fatty acids - FFA x (2 n6:n3 ratios x (2 medium-chain fatty acids levels - AGMC. Performance responses and dry matter (DMM, crude protein (CPM, and crude fat (CFM metabolizability were evaluated. In Experiment II, 480 1- to 20-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were offered the free choice of 2 different diets: with no fat addition, or with 10% addition of the following fat sources: CO, LO, CoF, soybean soapstock (SBS, acid soybean oil (ASO, or acid cottonseed oil (ACtO. Performance responses and diet selection were evaluated. In experiment I, there were no significant effects of the diets on performance, DMM, or CPM; however, the inclusion of FFA depressed CFM. In experiment II, there was a marked preference of birds of the diets with fat inclusion, leading to the selection of diets with more than 3100 kcal/kg ME in the period of 1 to 20 days, independently of fat source. The broilers selected the high fat and energy diets since the first days of age, which resulted in better bird performance.

  1. Inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus plantarum LMG P-26358 against Listeria innocua when used as an adjunct starter in the manufacture of cheese

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Lactobacillus plantarum LMG P-26358 isolated from a soft French artisanal cheese produces a potent class IIa bacteriocin with 100% homology to plantaricin 423 and bacteriocidal activity against Listeria innocua and Listeria monocytogenes. The bacteriocin was found to be highly stable at temperatures as high as 100°C and pH ranges from 1-10. While this relatively narrow spectrum bacteriocin also exhibited antimicrobial activity against species of enterococci, it did not inhibit dairy starters including lactococci and lactobacilli when tested by well diffusion assay (WDA). In order to test the suitability of Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 as an anti-listerial adjunct with nisin-producing lactococci, laboratory-scale cheeses were manufactured. Results indicated that combining Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 (at 108 colony forming units (cfu)\\/ml) with a nisin producer is an effective strategy to eliminate the biological indicator strain, L. innocua. Moreover, industrial-scale cheeses also demonstrated that Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 was much more effective than the nisin producer alone for protection against the indicator. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of plantaricin 423 and nisin in the appropriate cheeses over an 18 week ripening period. A spray-dried fermentate of Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 also demonstrated potent anti-listerial activity in vitro using L. innocua. Overall, the results suggest that Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 is a suitable adjunct for use with nisin-producing cultures to improve the safety and quality of dairy products.

  2. High league bench players and starters: differences in group interactions, group cohesion, role acceptance and self-confidence in football teams

    OpenAIRE

    Simonenkova Irina Petrovna

    2015-01-01

    Main staff players differ from bench players in their perceptions and demonstrate different responses. This research compares the situation of bench players with the situation of starters in high league Latvian football teams.

  3. Ziziphora clinopodioides Essential Oil and Nisin as Potential Antimicrobial Agents against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Doogh (Iranian Yoghurt Drink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Shahbazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil (0.1 and 0.2% and nisin (250 and 500 IU/mL separately and in combination on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated in Doogh (Iranian yoghurt drink during storage under refrigerated temperature (4 ± 1°C for 9 days. Viability of Lactobacillus casei at different concentrations of Z. clinopodioides essential oil (0.1 and 0.2% in Doogh was also examined. The major components were carvacrol (64.22%, thymol (19.22%, γ-terpinene (4.63%, and p-cymene (4.86%. There was no significant difference (p>0.05 between samples treated with nisin and those of untreated samples. Samples treated with both concentrations of the essential oil (0.1 and 0.2% showed populations of E. coli O157:H7 significantly (p<0.05 lower than those of untreated samples. The essential oil of Z. clinopodioides in combination with nisin had a potential synergistic effect against E. coli O157:H7 in Doogh samples after 5 days. The count of L. casei was not inhibited by different concentrations of the Z. clinopodioides essential oil. It is concluded that the leaf essential oil of Z. clinopodioides in combination with nisin can be applied as alternative antimicrobial agents in Doogh to inhibit the growth of E. coli O157:H7.

  4. Optimization Technology of the Production of Lactobacillus casei Yoghurt%干酪乳杆菌发酵酸乳生产工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 郗宏波; 苏贺靖; 王艳萍

    2013-01-01

      以从日本传统酸奶中分离选育出的优质干酪乳杆菌作为试验菌种。通过单因素试验和正交试验确定最佳发酵工艺条件。结果表明:嗜热链球菌、保加利亚乳杆菌、干酪乳杆菌配比为1∶1∶2;接种量为5%;发酵温度37℃;乳固体含量12%为最佳参数组合。%Lactobacillus casei which was separated and identified from the Japanese traditional yoghurt was taken as the test strains. By the single factor experiments and orthogonal tests to determine the best fermentation conditions, the results showed that the best fermentation parameter combination was the ratio of Streptococcus thermophilus:Lactobacillus bulgaricus:Lactobacillus casei of 1∶1∶2, inoculated quantity of 5%, fermentation temperature of 37℃, milk solid content of 12%.

  5. Study on the Preparation Technology of Red Bean Set Yoghurt%红豆凝固型酸奶制备工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冰

    2014-01-01

    以红豆、脱脂牛乳为主要原料制作红豆凝固型酸奶,研究了红豆的最佳预处理条件,并以感官评定为指标确定了果胶和黄原胶的最佳复配比例。结果表明,红豆浸泡8h、蒸煮1h效果最佳。经感官评分确定,果胶添加量为2.0%、黄原胶添加量为1.5%时制备的凝固型酸奶评分最高。%The red bean and skim milk was used as the main raw material to make set yogurt, the optimal pretreatment conditions and the optimum proportion of pectin and xanthan gum were studied. The results showed that red beans soaked for 8h and boiled for 1h, the effect was best. By the sensory evaluation, when pectin content was 2%and xanthan gum addition was 1.5%, the score for producing yoghurt was highest.

  6. The effect of phase nutrition during starter period on production performances and nitrogen content in feces of broilers of different genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Tolimir N.; Perić L.; Milošević N.; Đukić-Stojčić M.; Jovanović R.; Bogdanović V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective of the research was to investigate the effect of phase nutrition, i.e. different mixtures used in broiler nutrition with phase reduction of protein cotnent during starter period on production peformances of fattening chickens of different genotypes and on nitrogen content in faeces. Differences between groups (treatments) were in the type of mixtures use din starter period, and according to the following program: T1 (control group) - nutrition con...

  7. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf on the Performance and Haematological Indices of Starter Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. N., Onu

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performance and haematological indices were evaluated. Results showed that there was significant (P 0.05) variations in the feed and water intakes of the birds. Results also show no significant (P > 0.05) difference in haematological indices of birds among the treatments. The results of this study indicate that, for enhanced weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, birds should be fed 80 mL FPLE/litre of water. PMID:23738128

  8. Selection of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tunisian cereals and exploitation of the use as starters for sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamhoud, Asma; Nionelli, Luana; Bouzaine, Taroub; Hamdi, Moktar; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2016-05-16

    Wheat bread is the most popular staple food consumed in Tunisia and, despite the niche production of some typical breads (e.g. Tabouna, Mlawi, Mtabga), the major part is currently produced with baker's yeast at industrial or, mainly, at artisanal level, while the use of sourdough fermentation is rarely reported. Considering the growing national demand for cereal baked goods, it can be hypothesized that sourdough fermentation through the use of selected lactic acid bacteria as starters could improve the overall quality and the diversification of local products. Different cereal grains were collected from the regions of Ariana, Bizerta, Beja Nabeul, and Seliana, and the autochthonous lactic acid bacteria were isolated, identified, characterized and selected on the basis of the kinetics of acidification, the proteolytic activity, and the quotient of fermentation. Lactobacillus curvatus MA2, Pediococcus pentosaceus OA2, and Pediococcus acidilactici O1A1 were used together as mixed starter to obtain a selected sourdough. According to the backslopping procedure, a type I sourdough was made from a Tunisian flour (spontaneous sourdough). Compared to the use of the spontaneous sourdough, the one obtained with selected and mixed starters by a unique fermentation step, favored the increase of the concentrations of organic acids, phenols, and total free amino acids, the most suitable quotient of fermentation, and the most intense phytase and antioxidant activities, that increased ca. 20% compared to the control. Moreover, the selected starters improved the in vitro protein digestibility (ca. 82% when selected sourdough was used), textural and sensory features of the breads, as determined by textural profile analysis and panel test, respectively. This study aimed at exploiting the potential of selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria and extending the use of a sourdough (type II), thanks to the set-up of a two-step fermentation protocol designed for application at the

  9. Valine, isoleucine, arginine and glycine supplementation of low-protein diets for broiler chickens during the starter and grower phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina-Rojas, I C; Murakami, A E; Duarte, C R A; Eyng, C; Oliveira, C A L; Janeiro, V

    2014-01-01

    1. Two experiments were performed to study the supplementation of valine, isoleucine, arginine and glycine (Val, Ile, Arg, Gly) in low-protein diets for broiler chickens in the starter (1-21 d; Exp. 1) and grower (22-42 d; Exp. 2) phases. 2. A low-crude protein (CP) diet was formulated to meet the requirements of all amino acids (AA) supplied by the control diet except for Val, Ile, Arg and Gly. The other experimental diets were obtained by the isolated or combined supplementation of the studied AA in the low-CP diet. 3. Growth, serum parameters and litter characteristics were taken in both of the experiments. Carcass measurements were taken in Experiment 2. 4. In the starter and grower phases, low-CP diets without supplementation resulted in birds with a poorer weight gain and feed conversion than those of the birds that received the control diet. 5. In the starter phase, individual supplementation with Val and Gly, but not Ile and Arg, restored the weight gain of the birds, while diets with the addition of Val + Gly, Val + Ile + Arg, Val + Ile + Gly and Val + Ile + Arg + Gly restored their feed conversion. 6. In the grower phase, weight gain was re-established at the same rate as the control diet for the diets supplemented with Val + Ile, Val + Ile + Arg, Val + Ile + Gly and Val + Ile + Arg + Gly. However, the feed conversion was restored only in birds that received the diet supplemented with all studied AA. 7. The supplementation of Val and Gly in low-CP diets was sufficient to avoid adverse effects in the performance and serum parameters of broilers in the starter phase. However, birds in the grower phase required the combined supplementation of Val, Ile, Arg and Gly, to prevent compromised performance.

  10. Selection of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tunisian cereals and exploitation of the use as starters for sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamhoud, Asma; Nionelli, Luana; Bouzaine, Taroub; Hamdi, Moktar; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2016-05-16

    Wheat bread is the most popular staple food consumed in Tunisia and, despite the niche production of some typical breads (e.g. Tabouna, Mlawi, Mtabga), the major part is currently produced with baker's yeast at industrial or, mainly, at artisanal level, while the use of sourdough fermentation is rarely reported. Considering the growing national demand for cereal baked goods, it can be hypothesized that sourdough fermentation through the use of selected lactic acid bacteria as starters could improve the overall quality and the diversification of local products. Different cereal grains were collected from the regions of Ariana, Bizerta, Beja Nabeul, and Seliana, and the autochthonous lactic acid bacteria were isolated, identified, characterized and selected on the basis of the kinetics of acidification, the proteolytic activity, and the quotient of fermentation. Lactobacillus curvatus MA2, Pediococcus pentosaceus OA2, and Pediococcus acidilactici O1A1 were used together as mixed starter to obtain a selected sourdough. According to the backslopping procedure, a type I sourdough was made from a Tunisian flour (spontaneous sourdough). Compared to the use of the spontaneous sourdough, the one obtained with selected and mixed starters by a unique fermentation step, favored the increase of the concentrations of organic acids, phenols, and total free amino acids, the most suitable quotient of fermentation, and the most intense phytase and antioxidant activities, that increased ca. 20% compared to the control. Moreover, the selected starters improved the in vitro protein digestibility (ca. 82% when selected sourdough was used), textural and sensory features of the breads, as determined by textural profile analysis and panel test, respectively. This study aimed at exploiting the potential of selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria and extending the use of a sourdough (type II), thanks to the set-up of a two-step fermentation protocol designed for application at the

  11. Yogurt, living cultures, and gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    Bacteria used to ferment milk to obtain yogurt belong to thermophilic, bile-sensitive species of lactic acid bacteria, which are not ideally suited for survival into the human gut. However, assessing the viability of these bacteria through the digestive tract may be relevant to evaluate their potential to deliver some beneficial effects for the well-being of the consumer. The well-known reduction in the symptoms caused by lactose maldigestion is not the only benefit provided by yogurt starter cultures; some additional effects will be reviewed here, with special attention paid to data that may suggest a strain-dependent effect, features that are not present with lactose hydrolysis.

  12. 保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌发酵紫红薯酸牛奶%Purple sweet potatoes yoghurt fermented by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢兆芸; 陈海婴; 彭冬英; 段学辉; 胡泽红

    2011-01-01

    研究以鲜牛奶和紫红薯为主要原料,保加利亚乳杆菌(Lactobacillus bulgaricus)与嗜热链球菌(Streptococcus thermophilus)为发酵剂,木糖醇为甜味剂,进行了发酵条件的平行和L9(34)正交试验.结果表明,保加利亚乳杆菌与嗜热链球菌混合量比1∶1(数量比),接种量5%,紫红薯添加量15%,木糖醇10%,果胶0.1%,明胶0.1%,CMC 0.1%,变性淀粉0.5%,45℃,发酵4h,制得的紫红薯酸牛奶不仅保留纯酸牛奶的芳香和口感,又具备紫红薯的营养和色泽,是新型紫红薯营养酸奶发酵的优化工艺.%A new type of yoghurt, a clabber mile with the purple sweet potatoes fermented by Lactobadllus bulgaricus and Streptococcus ther-mophilus was studied. The orthogonal experiments of L9(34)results showed that, the optimize fermentation conditions and additive compositions of purple sweet potatoes yoghurt were: purple sweet potatoes 15%, sweeter xylitol 10%, inoculate strain 5%, 45 ℃, fermentation time 4 hours. The dairy products fermented with best nutrition and flavor of yoghurt, and keep the natural colour of purple sweet potatoes.

  13. Dietary Toxicity Evaluation of Brown Rice Starter Red Kojic Rice Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to discuss the reference safety of the Brown Rice Starter Red Kojic Rice Wine (BRSRKRW and provide scientific basis for rational development and utilization of the wine. In order to evaluate the toxicity of BRSRKRW in vivo, acute and subchronic toxicity of BRSRKRW in SD rats by intraperitoneal injections were evaluated. In this acute study, doses of BRSRKRW at 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, or 31.5, 3 and 6 g/kg•bw, were administered. No adverse effects were observed during a 14-day period and at gross histopathological examination. In the subchronic study, BRSRKRW at 1.5, 3 and 6 g/kg•bw were administered for 30 days. The results showed that BRSRKRW did not affect weight gain in growing rats, in the level of hematological parameters, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid in blood and histopathological damages of the liver. Overall, the study suggests that the risk of drinking BRSRKRW toxicity to mammals is not negligible.

  14. Digestible Lysine on Live Performance of Chicken Type Naked Neck During the Starter Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RG de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The poultry market has changed due to a higher consumer interest on products with differentiated organoleptic characteristics, making of free-range broiler production a promising activity. This experiment was conducted to determine the digestible lysine requirements of Redbro Cou Nu male and female chickens during the starter phase (one to 21 days of age. Six hundred and thirty Redbro Cou Nu broilers were distributed into 30 pens (21 chickens/pen according to a randomized complete design in a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement, consisting of five levels of digestible lysine and two sexes, with three replicates (pens per treatments. Diets with increasing digestible lysine levels (8.1, 9.5, 10.9, 12.3 and 13.7 g of digestible lysine per kg of diet were offered ad libitum. The following performance traits were evaluated at the end of the experiment (d 21: feed intake, lysine intake, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio. No interaction between dietary lysine level and sex was observed for the evaluated traits. The effect of sex was only detected on body weight gain, while effects of dietary lysine level were only detected on the feed intake. Males presented higher body weight gain than females. Lysine intake and body weight gain increased, and feed conversion ratio decreased as the level of dietary lysine increased. The best feed conversion ratio was obtained when birds were fed 12.95 g of digestible lysine per kg of diet.

  15. Different sodium levels and electrolyte balances in pre-starter diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maiorka

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment with 400 one-day-old male chicks (Ross was conducted to evaluate the effects of different Na levels (0.10, 0.22, 0.34 and 0.46% and different cation/anion balances (Na+K-Cl (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 meq/kg in pre-starter diets on broiler performance. The corn and soybean-based diets had 22% crude protein and 2,900 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and were fed ad libitum. Performance data showed a positive quadratic effect of increasing Na levels on feed and water consumption, weight gain and feed conversion. Na+K-Cl also had a quadratic influence on feed intake and weight gain. None of the effects tested affected the amount of water measured in excreta. Derivatives of obtained regression equations pointed to optimal Na levels of 0.45% for water consumption, 0.40% for feed intake and weight gain and 0.38% for feed conversion. As to the effect of dietary Na+K-Cl balances on performance, regression equation values were 174 meq/kg for feed consumption and 163 meq/kg for weight gain. These results show that both Na level and Na+K-Cl balance interfere on broiler performance.

  16. Selection of Thai starter components for ethanol production utilizing malted rice from waste paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirilux Chaijamrus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of mixed herbs in Thai rice wine starter (Loog-pang were investigated in order to directly maintain theefficiency of the microbial community (Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Amylomyces sp., Gluconobacter sp. and Pediocccuspentosaceus. The optimum formula was galanga, garlic, long pepper, licorice, and black pepper at the ratio of 0.5:8:1:4:1,respectively. Previously, waste paddy has been used directly as a renewable resource for fuel ethanol production using solidstate fermentation (SSF with Loog-pang. In this study, hydrolyzed malted rice starch was used as the sole nutrient source insubmerged fermentation (SmF to enhance the process yield. The maximum ethanol productivity (4.08 g/kg waste paddy h-1and the highest ethanol concentration (149±7.0 g/kg waste paddy were obtained after 48 hrs of incubation. The resultsindicated that starch saccharification provided a higher ethanol yield (48.38 g/100g sugar consumed than SSF. In addition,the efficiency of ethanol fermentation was 67% which is similar to that of the malted rice made from normal paddy (68%.This result suggests that waste paddy could be used as an alternative raw material for ethanol production.

  17. Effects of strain properties and proportion of Streptococcus thermophilus to Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus on the quality of yoghurt%菌株性能及球杆菌比例对酸奶品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜昭平; 刘鑫; 马成杰; 华宝珍; 马爱民

    2011-01-01

    Fermentation properties of individual strains and combination fermentation of S.t S1,S.t R1(Streptococcus thermophilus)and L.b L1(Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus)with different proportion were performed.The differences of fermentation time,viscosity,syneresis,postacidification and sensory evaluation of yoghurt with different combinations were analyzed.The results indicated that the growth rate of S.t S1 was slower than that of S.t R1,and the acidic rate was similar between each other,but the exopolysaccharide production and yoghurt viscosity of S.t S1 were better than that of S.t R1.The above mentioned properties of strain L.b L1 were inferior to that of S.t S1 and S.t R1.The yoghurt combinatively fermented by S.t S1 and L.b L1 with proportion of 100:1 was better than other combinations,the viscosity and syneresis of which was 0.549Pa·s and 2.5mL/10g respectively,and the acidity rose only 12°T after 15 days at 4℃.The properties and combination modes of strains are with significant influence on the quality of yoghurt.%分析测定了从某直投式发酵剂中分离的两株嗜热链球菌(Streptococcus thermophilus)S.t S1、S.t R1和一株保加利亚乳杆菌(Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus)L.bL1的发酵性能,并将球菌与杆菌以不同比例组合发酵,比较酸奶发酵时间、粘度、乳清析出、后酸化和感官评价差异。结果表明,嗜热链球菌S.tS1生长速度略慢于S.tR1,酸化速度相当,但S.tS1的胞外多糖产量和发酵乳粘度明显高于S.tR1,保加利亚乳杆菌L.bL1的上述性

  18. 亲水胶体对凝固型酸乳影响的研究%Influences of Hydrocolloids on Set Yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈玲; 韩梅; 于鹏

    2013-01-01

    The influences of different hydrocolloids on texture of set yoghurt were studied with texture analyzer, along with taste and dehydration contraction sensitivity. It was found that a certain amount of gelatin would improve the hardness and adhesiveness of the product significantly. The influences of pectin on the hardness and adhesiveness of the product was not obvious, while it can be going to get smooth and gloss. A certain amount of gellan gum would improve the hardness of the product, decrease the dehydration contraction sensitivity and the adhesiveness of the product significantly, also harm the taste. This article finded the best combination of hydrocolloidsbytheexperimentalresearch.%  利用质构仪研究了不同亲水胶体对凝固型酸乳硬度和黏度的影响,以及不同亲水胶体对凝固型酸乳感官和脱水收缩敏感性的影响。研究发现,添加一定量的明胶对提高产品硬度和黏度方面表现显著;而果胶对产品的硬度和黏度影响不明显,但可以起到增加爽滑度、增强光泽的作用;结冷胶对提高产品的硬度方面表现明显,同时可以有效减少脱水收缩敏感性,而对黏度方面降低明显,且不利于感官。通过实验确定了最佳的亲水胶体复配添加量配方。

  19. Optimization of an effective growth medium for culturing probiotic bacteria for applications in strict vegetarian food products

    OpenAIRE

    Manju Pathak; Danik Martirosyan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to modify de Man Rogosa Sharpe culture medium (termed MRS) for selective cultivation of probiotics strain for the consumption by the strictly vegetarian human population. Vegetarian probiotic foods by definition must be free from all animal-derived ingredients. This not only includes the product ingredients but the probiotic inoculum as well. Probiotic starter cultures are traditionally grown and stored in media containing milk or meatderived ingredients. The pre...

  20. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains as potential protective starter cultures for the production of Bikalga, an alkaline fermented food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compaor, C.S.; Nielsen, D.S.; Sawadogo-Lingani, H.;

    2013-01-01

    and fungi. Antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus was produced in H. sabdariffa seed-based medium. PCR results revealed that the isolates have potential for the lipopeptides iturin, fengycin, surfactin, the polyketides difficidin, macrolactin, bacillaene and the dipeptide bacilysin production. Ultra......-highperformance liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis of antimicrobial substance produced in BHI broth allowed identification of iturin, fengycin and surfactin. Conclusions: The Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum exhibited broadspectrum antifungal and antibacterial properties....... They produced several lipopeptide antibiotics and showed good potential for biological control of Bikalga. Significance and Impact of the Study: Pathogenic bacteria often occur in spontaneous food fermentations. This is the first report to identify indigenous B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains...

  1. Production of fermented cheese whey-based beverage using kefir grains as starter culture: evaluation of morphological and microbial variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Karina Teixeira; Pereira, Maria Alcina; Nicolau, Ana; Dragone, Giuliano; Domingues, Lucília; Teixeira, José António; de Almeida Silva, João Batista; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2010-11-01

    Whey valorization concerns have led to recent interest on the production of whey beverage simulating kefir. In this study, the structure and microbiota of Brazilian kefir grains and beverages obtained from milk and whole/deproteinised whey was characterized using microscopy and molecular techniques. The aim was to evaluate its stability and possible shift of probiotic bacteria to the beverages. Fluorescence staining in combination with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy showed distribution of yeasts in macro-clusters among the grain's matrix essentially composed of polysaccharides (kefiran) and bacteria. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis displayed communities included yeast affiliated to Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kazachatania unispora, bacteria affiliated to Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens subsp. Kefirgranum, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens subsp. Kefiranofaciens and an uncultured bacterium also related to the genus Lactobacillus. A steady structure and dominant microbiota, including probiotic bacteria, was detected in the analyzed kefir beverages and grains. This robustness is determinant for future implementation of whey-based kefir beverages. PMID:20619643

  2. The Effect of LAB as Probiotic Starter Culture and Green Tea Extract Addition on Dry Fermented Pork Loins Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Neffe-Skocińska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory quality of dry fermented pork loin produced with the addition of Lb. rhamnosus LOCK900 probiotic strain, 0.2% glucose, and 1.5% green tea extract. Three loins were prepared: control sample (P0: no additives, sample supplemented with glucose and probiotic strain (P1, and sample with glucose, green tea extract, and probiotic (P2. The samples were analyzed after 21 days of ripening and 180 days of storage. The results indicated that the highest count of LAB was observed both in the samples: with probiotic and with probiotic and green tea extract (7.00 log cfu/g after ripening; 6.00 log cfu/g after storage. The oxidation-reduction potential values were lower in the probiotic loin samples. Probiotic and green tea extract have not caused color changes of study loins during storage. The study demonstrated that an addition of probiotic and green tea extract to dry fermented loins is possible and had no impact on sensory quality after product storage.

  3. The effect of storage conditions on microbial community composition and biomethane potential in a biogas starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Live Heldal; Vivekanand, Vivekanand; Pope, Phillip B; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Horn, Svein J

    2015-07-01

    A new biogas process is initiated by adding a microbial community, typically in the form of a sample collected from a functional biogas plant. This inoculum has considerable impact on the initial performance of a biogas reactor, affecting parameters such as stability, biogas production yields and the overall efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, we have analyzed changes in the microbial composition and performance of an inoculum during storage using barcoded pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and determination of the biomethane potential, respectively. The inoculum was stored at room temperature, 4 and -20 °C for up to 11 months and cellulose was used as a standard substrate to test the biomethane potential. Storage up to 1 month resulted in similar final methane yields, but the rate of methane production was reduced by storage at -20 °C. Longer storage times resulted in reduced methane yields and slower production kinetics for all storage conditions, with room temperature and frozen samples consistently giving the best and worst performance, respectively. Both storage time and temperature affected the microbial community composition and methanogenic activity. In particular, fluctuations in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes were observed. Interestingly, a shift from hydrogenotrophic methanogens to methanogens with the capacity to perform acetoclastic methanogensis was observed upon prolonged storage. In conclusion, this study suggests that biogas inocula may be stored up to 1 month with low loss of methanogenic activity, and identifies bacterial and archaeal species that are affected by the storage. PMID:25947246

  4. The effect of storage conditions on microbial community composition and biomethane potential in a biogas starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Live Heldal; Vivekanand, Vivekanand; Pope, Phillip B; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Horn, Svein J

    2015-07-01

    A new biogas process is initiated by adding a microbial community, typically in the form of a sample collected from a functional biogas plant. This inoculum has considerable impact on the initial performance of a biogas reactor, affecting parameters such as stability, biogas production yields and the overall efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, we have analyzed changes in the microbial composition and performance of an inoculum during storage using barcoded pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and determination of the biomethane potential, respectively. The inoculum was stored at room temperature, 4 and -20 °C for up to 11 months and cellulose was used as a standard substrate to test the biomethane potential. Storage up to 1 month resulted in similar final methane yields, but the rate of methane production was reduced by storage at -20 °C. Longer storage times resulted in reduced methane yields and slower production kinetics for all storage conditions, with room temperature and frozen samples consistently giving the best and worst performance, respectively. Both storage time and temperature affected the microbial community composition and methanogenic activity. In particular, fluctuations in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes were observed. Interestingly, a shift from hydrogenotrophic methanogens to methanogens with the capacity to perform acetoclastic methanogensis was observed upon prolonged storage. In conclusion, this study suggests that biogas inocula may be stored up to 1 month with low loss of methanogenic activity, and identifies bacterial and archaeal species that are affected by the storage.

  5. Examination of the technological properties of newly isolated strains of the genus Lactobacillus and possibilities for their application in the composition of starters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkova, Rositsa; Ilieva, Svetla; Denkova, Zapryana; Georgieva, Ljubka; Krastanov, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The ability of four Lactobacillus strains – Lactobacillus brevis LBRZ7 (isolated from fermented cabbage), Lactobacillus plantarum LBRZ12 (isolated from fermented cabbage), Lactobacillus fermentum LBRH9 (of human origin) and Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus LBRC11 (isolated from home-made cheese) – to grow in flour/water environment and to accumulate high concentrations of viable cells was examined. Two starters for sourdough were created for lab-scale production of wheat bread: a two-strain starter and a four-strain starter. Wheat bread with improved properties – greater loaf volume, enhanced flavour and softer and brighter crumb – was obtained from the 7% four-strain starter sourdough. The addition of sourdough in the production of wheat bread affected positively the technological and organoleptic characteristics of the final bread by inhibiting the growth of wild yeasts and mold and Bacillus spores without the addition of preservatives. The inclusion of 15% of the four-strain starter sourdough in the bread-making process led to enhanced safety and longer shelf life of the baked bread. PMID:26019534

  6. Environmental Factors Affecting Microbiota Dynamics during Traditional Solid-state Fermentation of Chinese Daqu Starter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Lin, Weifeng; Liu, Xiong; Wang, Xiaowen; Luo, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the microbiota dynamics during two industrial-scale traditional solid-state fermentation (SSF) processes of Daqu starters. Similar evolution profiles of environmental parameters, enzymatic activities, microbial amounts, and communities were observed during the medium temperature SSF (MTSSF) and low temperature SSF (LTSSF) processes. Orders of Rickettsiales and Streptophyta only dominated the initial 2 days, and Eurotiales only predominated from days 10 to 24, however, phylotypes of Enterobacteriales, Lactobacillales, Bacillales, Saccharomycetales, and Mucorales both prevailed throughout the MTSSF and LTSSF processes. Nevertheless, the pH in MTSSF process on day 5 were 5.28, while in LTSSF process (4.87) significantly lower (P < 0.05). The glucoamylase activities in MTSSF process dropped from 902.71 to 394.33 mg glucose g-1 h-1 on days 5 to 24, while significantly lower (P < 0.05) in LTSSF process and decreased from 512.25 to 268.69 mg glucose g-1 h-1. The relative abundance of Enterobacteriales and Lactobacillales in MTSSF process constituted from 10.30 to 71.73% and 2.34 to 16.68%, while in LTSSF process ranged from 3.16 to 41.06% and 8.43 to 57.39%, respectively. The relative abundance of Eurotiales in MTSSF process on days 10 to 24 decreased from 36.10 to 28.63%, while obviously higher in LTSSF process and increased from 52.00 to 72.97%. Furthermore, lower bacterial richness but higher fungal richness were displayed, markedly differences in bacterial communities but highly similarities in fungal communities were exhibited, during MTSSF process comparatively to the LTSSF process. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed microbial structure transition happened at thermophilic stages under environmental stress of moisture, pH, acidity, and pile temperature. These profound understanding might help to effectively control the traditional Daqu SSF process by adjusting relevant environmental parameters. PMID:27540378

  7. Biological value of bone-precipitated dicalcium phosphate in turkey starter diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, T W; Douglas, J H; Lapjatupon, W; Struwe, F J; Gonzalez, N J

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the relative biological value (RBV) of phosphorus from two bone-precipitated dicalcium phosphates (DCP-BP) in turkey starter diets. An estimated 40,000 metric tons of DCP-BP are produced annually in the United States as a by-product of gelatin production. The two DCP-BP sources were compared to commercial feed phosphates. Two bioassay experiments of 21-d duration were conducted with female turkeys. Phosphate sources were each fed at three levels (.18, .24, and .36% added total phosphorus) in a corn-soybean meal diet. Calcium level was maintained constant at 1.0% in all diets by adjusting the level of ground limestone. Four replicate pens of six poults were randomly assigned at 1 d of age to each level of each phosphorus source in each bioassay. The reference standard was United States Pharmacopeia (USP) grade calcium phosphate, dibasic dihydrate. Data representing three response criteria (weight gain, gain:feed ratio, and tibia ash percentage at 21 d) were combined to calculate a biological value (BV) for each test source and the reference standard phosphate. A RBV was then computed for each test source. The RBV of the two DCP-BP sources were 98.8 and 99.1, as compared to 100.0 for the reference standard, and 86.7, 87.1, and 88.4 for three commercial, thermochemically produced defluorinated phosphates. The RBV of one commercial mono-dicalcium phosphate, and three di-monocalcium phosphates were: 96.4, and 91.2, 94.7, and 101.5, respectively. The two DCP-BP sources compared favorably to commercial feed phosphates, and would be satisfactory supplements in diets for starting chicks, poults, pigs, and other species.

  8. 植物乳杆菌KLDS1.0391在酸奶体系中的细菌素产生特点%The bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus plantarum KLDS1.0391 in yoghurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范修海; 苑晓慧; 陈启佳; 满丽莉; 李雪; 牛墨; 孟祥晨

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum KLDS 1.0391 which can produce bacteriocin is probiotic. It can be used as both probiotic and biocontrol strain in food. The aim of this paper was to investigate the bacteriocin production of this strain in yoghourt during fermentation and storage of yoghourt when co-cultured with starter culture. The results showed that inhibition diameter was increased during fermentation. The antimicrobial activity of group added with L. plantarum KLDS1.0391 was significantly higher than that of control group (P <0. 01 ) during the fermentation of 6 h. There was no obvious difference between the sensory characteristics of yoghourt containing L. plantarum KLDS1.0391 and that of the control yoghourt. It was potential to explore the functional yoghourt using L. plantarum KLDS1. 0391.%植物乳杆菌KLDS1.0391能够合成细菌素,也是益生菌,在食品中既可作为益生菌使用,也可作为辅助发酵剂用于生物防控,该研究主要考察了KLDS1.0391菌株在酸奶体系中细菌素的产生特点.研究结果表明,在发酵的6h期间,抑菌活性随发酵时间延长而增强,发酵结束时,添加植物乳杆菌KLDS1.0391酸奶组的抑菌活性显著高于仅使用酸奶发酵剂的对照组(P<0.01).与对照组相比,加入辅助发酵剂的实验组的感官品质未发生明显的变化.植物乳杆菌KLDS1.0391具备开发益生酸奶的潜力.

  9. Effects of crack starter bead preparation in drop-weight test of nil-ductility transition temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Yokohama (Japan). Production Engineering Dept.; Yamauchi, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan). Kobe Shipyard Machinery Works; Tanaka, Y. [Babcock-Hitachi Corp., Kure (Japan); Iida, K. [Univ. of Tokyo, Koshigaya (Japan)

    1999-05-01

    The procedure for making crack starter weld deposits on drop-weight test (DWT) specimens was altered from two passes to one pass in about 1990. The effects of some parameters of crack starter weld process on drop-weight test results were studied. Results of this study indicated that length of overlap of the second pass and height of crack starter beads were most effective on mil-ductility temperature (T{sub NDT}). When overlap length and bead height of two-pass deposit were small enough, T{sub NDT} obtained by two-pass deposit became lower than one-pass T{sub NDT}, the discrepancy being by as much as 25 C. T{sub NDT} values for 24 Japanese steels were determined using two different DWT methods, one-pass deposit and two-pass deposit having small overlap length and bead height. The difference of T{sub NDT} depending on DWT method could be seen only for high-toughness low-alloy steel base metals. For other materials (i.e., low-to-medium-toughness low-alloy steel base metals, weld metals, and high-toughness carbon steels), T{sub NDT}s by two-pass and one-pass deposits were essentially the same. For lower-toughness steels, T{sub NDT}s by two-pass and one-pass deposits were essentially the same. For lower-toughness steels, T{sub NDT} was frequently lower than the temperature of ({sub v}T{sub cv} {minus} 33 C), and thus, the reference nil-ductility temperature (RT{sub NDT}) was determined from Charpy impact test results. These results can be taken as a way of interpreting the past toughness evaluations made for operating plants using the two-pass T{sub NDT}.

  10. Effects of crack starter bead preparation in drop-weight test of nil-ductility transition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure for making crack starter weld deposits on drop-weight test (DWT) specimens was altered from two passes to one pass in about 1990. The effects of some parameters of crack starter weld process on drop-weight test results were studied. Results of this study indicated that length of overlap of the second pass and height of crack starter beads were most effective on mil-ductility temperature (TNDT). When overlap length and bead height of two-pass deposit were small enough, TNDT obtained by two-pass deposit became lower than one-pass TNDT, the discrepancy being by as much as 25 C. TNDT values for 24 Japanese steels were determined using two different DWT methods, one-pass deposit and two-pass deposit having small overlap length and bead height. The difference of TNDT depending on DWT method could be seen only for high-toughness low-alloy steel base metals. For other materials (i.e., low-to-medium-toughness low-alloy steel base metals, weld metals, and high-toughness carbon steels), TNDTs by two-pass and one-pass deposits were essentially the same. For lower-toughness steels, TNDTs by two-pass and one-pass deposits were essentially the same. For lower-toughness steels, TNDT was frequently lower than the temperature of (vTcv - 33 C), and thus, the reference nil-ductility temperature (RTNDT) was determined from Charpy impact test results. These results can be taken as a way of interpreting the past toughness evaluations made for operating plants using the two-pass TNDT

  11. Comparison between two selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as fermentation starters in the production of traditional cachaça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima de Cássia Oliveira Gomes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were tested as the starter yeasts in a traditional cachaça distillery. The strains used were S. cerevisiae UFMG-A829, isolated from a cachaça fermentation process, and S. cerevisiae K1-V1116, obtained from the wine industry. The permanence of each strain in the fermentation must was determined by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR, with primer M13. Both yeast strains were prevalent in the vats for approximately 30 days. Indigenous non-Saccharomyces and indigenous S. cerevisiae strains were isolated in lower counts during the fermentation period. Indigenous S. cerevisiae strains were molecularly distinct when compared to the starter yeasts. The two yeasts appeared promising starter yeasts in the fermentation process to produce traditional cachaça.Duas linhagens de Saccharomyces cerevisiae foram testadas como iniciadoras em uma destilaria de cachaça. Foram utilizadas as linhagens de S. cerevisiae UFMG-A829, isolada de fermentação de cachaça, e S. cerevisiae K1-V1116, de origem vinícola. A permanência de cada linhagem durante a fermentação foi determinada por RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR, utilizando o iniciador M13. As duas linhagens predominaram nas dornas de fermentação por aproximadamente 30 dias. Leveduras não-Saccharomyces e S. cerevisiae indígenas foram isoladas em menor proporção durante o experimento. As linhagens de S. cerevisiae indígenas apresentaram perfis moleculares distintos em relação às linhagens iniciadoras. As duas linhagens foram promissoras para serem utilizadas como iniciadoras do processo fermentativo para a produção da cachaça.

  12. Taxonomic Characterization, Evaluation of Toxigenicity, and Saccharification Capability of Aspergillus Section Flavi Isolates from Korean Traditional Wheat-Based Fermentation Starter Nuruk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Jyotiranjan; Yun, Suk-Hyun; Chun, Jeesun; Kim, Beom-Tae

    2016-01-01

    The most economically important species used in a wide range of fermentation industries throughout Asia belong to Aspergillus section Flavi, which are morphologically and phylogenetically indistinguishable, with a few being toxigenic and therefore a major concern. They are frequently isolated from Korean fermentation starters, such as nuruk and meju. The growing popularity of traditional Korean alcoholic beverages has led to a demand for their quality enhancement, therefore requiring selection of efficient non-toxigenic strains to assist effective fermentation. This study was performed to classify the most efficient strains of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from various types of traditional wheat nuruk, based on a polyphasic approach involving molecular and biochemical evaluation. A total of 69 strains were isolated based on colony morphology and identified as Aspergillus oryzae/flavus based on internal transcribed spacer and calmodulin gene sequencing. Interestingly, none were toxigenic based on PCR amplification of intergenic regions of the aflatoxin cluster genes norB-cypA and the absence of aflatoxin in the culture supernatants by thin-layer chromatography analysis. Saccharification capability of the isolates, assessed through α-amylase and glucoamylase activities, revealed that two isolates, TNA24 and TNA15, showed the highest levels of activity. Although the degrees of variation in α-amylase and glucoamylase activities among the isolates were higher, there were only slight differences in acid protease activity among the isolates with two, TNA28 and TNA36, showing the highest activities. Furthermore, statistical analyses showed that α-amylase activity was positively correlated with glucoamylase activity (p Aspergillus strain.

  13. Math starters 5- to 10-minute activities aligned with the common core math standards, grades 6-12

    CERN Document Server

    Muschla, Judith A; Muschla, Erin

    2013-01-01

    A revised edition of the bestselling activities guide for math teachers Now updated with new math activities for computers and mobile devices-and now organized by the Common Core State Standards-this book includes more than 650 ready-to-use math starter activities that get kids quickly focused and working as soon as they enter the classroom. Ideally suited for any math curriculum, these high-interest problems spark involvement in the day's lesson, help students build skills, and allow teachers to handle daily management tasks without wasting valuable instructional time. A newly updated edit

  14. New soft starter technology in refrigeration engineering (compressors and pumps); Neue Softstarter-Technologie in der Kaeltetechnik (Verdichter und Pumpen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, M.F. [Danfoss Waerme- und Kaeltetechnik GmbH, Heusenstamm (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Direct starting of compressors and pumps connected to the public network causes high initial currents which may result in inacceptable voltage drop. In refrigeration engineering, several starting processes are available which meet utility specifications on maximum possible starting currents. These processes and the new soft starter technology are described. [German] Beim Direktstart von Verdichtern und Pumpen am Netz entstehen hohe Anlaufstroeme, die zu unakzeptablen Spannungseinbruechen fuehren koennen. In der Kaeltetechnik gibt es mehrere Anlaufverfahren, die den Vorschriften der EVUs gerecht werden, in denen definiert ist, welche Anlaufstroeme gefahren werden duerfen. Diese Verfahren und die neue Softstarter-Technologie sollen hier beschrieben werden. (orig.)

  15. A New Starting Method of the Hybrid Power Filter for Wind Power Generation Systems with Soft Starter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroaki; Hiraki, Eiji; Tanaka, Toshihiko

    This paper proposes a new method of starting the hybrid power filter for wind power generation systems with soft starter. In the proposed method, an active filter of the hybrid power filter behaves a resistor for the source current under the starting condition. Thus the inrush phenomena of the passive filter are perfectly suppressed. The basic principle of the proposed starting method is discussed, and then confirmed by digital computer simulation using PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed starting method can overcome the inrush currents for the passive filter, building up the dc voltage of the active filter.

  16. Use of a Remote Car Starter in Relation to Smog and Climate Change Perceptions: A Population Survey in Québec (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkacem Abdous

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Remote car starters encourage motorists to warm up their vehicles by idling the motor – thus increasing atmospheric pollutants, including several greenhouse gas (GHG with impacts on public health. This study about climate change (CC adaptation and mitigation actions examined perceptions on air pollution and climate change and individual characteristics associated with the use of a remote car starter. A telephone survey (n = 2,570; response rate: 70% of adults living in Québec (Canada measured the respondents’ beliefs and current behaviours regarding CC. Approximately 32.9% (daily car users and 27.4% (occasional users reported using a remote car starter during winter. The odds of the use of a remote car starter was higher in the less densely populated central (OR: 1.5 and peripheral regions (OR: 2.7 compared to the urban centers (ex. Montreal. The odds was also higher in population with a mother tongue other than English or French (OR: 2.6 and francophones than anglophones (OR: 2.1, women than men (OR: 1.5, daily drivers than occasional ones (OR: 1.2, and respondents who at least sometimes consulted temperature/humidity reports than those who consulted them less often (OR: 1.5. In multivariate analysis, the perception of living in a region susceptible to winter smog, being aware of smog warnings, or the belief in the human contribution to CC did not significantly influence the use of a remote car starter. The use of remote car starters encourages idling which produces increased atmospheric pollution and GHG production and it should be more efficiently and vigorously managed by various activities. A five-minute daily reduction in idling is equivalent to reducing the total car emissions by 1.8%. This would constitute a “no-regrets” approach to CC as it can simultaneously reduce GHG, air pollution and their health impacts.

  17. The effects of partial replacement of soybean meal by xylose-treated soybean meal in the starter concentrate on performance, health status, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kazemi-Bonchenari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the effects of partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM with xylose-treated SBM (XSBM as a source of rumen undegradable protein (RUP in the starter concentrate of calves on performance, health status and selected blood metabolites. Twenty-one female Holstein dairy calves (body weight=39.6±2.3 kg were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=7 each: i starter concentrate with 25% SBM [control (CTR]; ii starter concentrate with 17.5% SBM +7.5% XSBM (7.5XSBM; and iii starter concentrate with 12.5% SBM+12.5% XSBM (12.5XSBM. Calves received 2 L of milk twice daily, with ad libitum access to starter concentrates from d 4 until weaning (d 56. Performance and health status were recorded throughout the experiment. Blood samples collected on d 4, 35 and 56 were assayed for concentrations of glucose, total protein (TP, and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN. Starter intake (560, 400, and 420 g/d for CTR, 7.5XSBM, and 12.5XSBM, respectively, average daily gain (0.67, 0.6 and 0.57 kg/d, and feed to gain ratio (0.83, 0.67, and 0.74 were affected by treatments (P<0.05. Hearth girth, height at withers, body length, rectal temperature, faecal score, and respiratory score did not differ among treatments. Mean plasma glucose and TP were not affected by treatments, whereas PUN in the 12.5XSBM group was lower than in the other groups (P<0.05. In conclusion, the present results showed that partial replacement of SBM by XSBM may improve efficiency of dietary protein utilisation in pre-weaned calves, which warrants further studies.

  18. Effects of yogurt starters autolysis on quality of yogurt%发酵剂菌体自溶对酸乳品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洁; 沈瑾; 王希卓; 田亚洲; 吕加平; 刘鹭

    2012-01-01

    通过研究发酵剂自溶对菌株产酸、凝乳能力,及对酸乳黏度、持水率、风味物质、后酸化程度等理化指标的影响.结果表明:自溶度较高的乳酸菌菌株在酸乳发酵过程中产酸性能更优,凝乳时间较短;菌株的自溶度对酸乳的黏度、持水率、风味物质成分及含量影响不大,但对酸乳的后酸化程度有着显著影响,高自溶度菌株发酵而成的酸乳在模拟货架期储藏条件下(10~15℃)后酸化程度相对较低.该文为开发新型复合发酵剂提供了理论依据.%For developing new composite yogurt starters and finding new lactic acid bacteria strains for starters, the effects of yogurt starters autolysis on quality of yogurt, such as acid producing ability and curd ability of strains, yogurt viscosity, water-holding ratio, flavor compounds, acidification in shelf-life were studied. The results showed that coagulation time decreased significantly by using high autolysis rate lactic acid bacteria strains fermented yogurt, were positively related to acid producing ability of lactic acid bacteria starters. There was no relative correlation between autolysis rate of strains and water-holding ratio, viscosity and flavor compounds of yogurt. However, yogurt acidities were significant influenced by autolysis rate of lactic acid bacteria starters, especially in the simulated shelf life of 10-15°C storage conditions. High autolysis rate starters could decrease acidification level of yogurt.

  19. Genome sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris strain T26, isolated from mesophilic undefined cheese starter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bæk; Kot, Witold Piotr; Hansen, L.H.;

    2014-01-01

    Leuconostoc is the main group of heterofermentative bacteria found in mesophilic dairy starters. They grow in close symbiosis with the Lactococcus population and are able to degrade citrate. Here we present a draft genome sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris strain T26.......Leuconostoc is the main group of heterofermentative bacteria found in mesophilic dairy starters. They grow in close symbiosis with the Lactococcus population and are able to degrade citrate. Here we present a draft genome sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris strain T26....

  20. THE COMPARING OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CSN1S2 PROTEIN OF FRESH MILK AND YOGHURT GOAT BREED ETHAWAH INHIBITED THE PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triprisila, Lidwina Faraline; Suharjono, Suharjono; Christianto, Antonius; Fatchiyah, Fatchiyah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Goat milk is reported to have antimicrobial activity of several pathogen bacteria that contained on food materials. The research related with antimicrobial activity of Alpha-S2 casein from goat milk is relatively less than other casein components. Herein, we reported the antimicrobial activity of caprine Alpha-S2 Casein (CSN1S2) protein from Ethawah breed goat milk and yoghurt in Gram positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and negative pathogen bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexneri). Those bacteria were known as pathogens that caused gastrointestinal infection. Methods: Serial dilution and agar diffusion analysis with three different concentrations of caprine CSN1S2, 1.25 mg/ml, 2.5 mg/ml, and 5 mg/ml were used to test the inhibition effect of protein on the viability of bacteria cells. The inhibitory activity of caprine CSN1S2 was based on dose dependent manner. Agar diffusion analysis was showed the larger diameter of clear zone at B. cereus and S. flexneri. Results: The serial dilution analysis was shown the inhibition of almost in all groups of bacteria with concentration 5 mg/ml higher by CSN1S2 protein of goat fresh milk than yogurt. The inhibitory activity caprine CSN1S2 protein of fresh milk was shown a vary inhibition clear zone with optimal concentration 5 mg/ml, however CSN1S2 protein of goat yogurt intermediate effectively was only in gram negative bacteria. The weakness bacteria against inhibition activity caprine CSN1S2 protein was B. cereus (Gram positive) and S. flexneri (Gram negative). Meanwhile the strongest bacteria against inhibition activity caprine CSN1S2 protein was S. typhi (Gram negative), may cause in this bacteria has lipopolysaccharide prevent to interact with that protein as proper. Conclusion: This study result concluded that the caprine CSN1S2 protein has inhibition activity in opposition to pathogenic bacteria by optimal concentration 5 mg/ml in all

  1. Effect of Ascaridia galli infection on histopathologic description, size of small intestines villi surface and body weight change in starters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Zalizar

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Nematode Ascaridia galli is an important parasitic disease in poultry and is responsible for considerable economic losses in retarded growth and lowered egg production. The effects of A. galli infection based on histopathologic description, size of small intestines villi surface and body weight change in starters was investigated. One hundred and thirty five day old chicks (DOC were divided into three groups for three levels of infection dose rate (0,800 and 8000 infective eggs with 3 replications of 45 DOC each. Infections were carried out every week respectively from week 2th until week 5th. Results showed that the infection of A. galli caused degeneration and necroses in villi ephitelial cells and crypts of small intestine and infiltration of leucocytes. In the heavy infection group some epithelial cells were replaced by fibrocytes. A. galli infection decreased daily body weight gain of starter lower (5.5% in light and 13.4% in heavy dosage infection compared to that of the non infected group. After six weeks of heavy infection the size of small intestine villi surface was decreasing to 20.0%, while the daily body weight gain was decreasing to 12.3% compared to that of the non infection group.

  2. Production of potential probiotic Spanish-style green table olives at pilot plant scale using multifunctional starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Romero-Gil, V; Bautista-Gallego, J; García-García, P; Garrido-Fernández, A; Arroyo-López, F N

    2014-12-01

    This work evaluates the use of two multifunctional starters of Lactobacillus pentosus species (TOMC LAB2 and TOMC LAB4) during elaboration of Manzanilla olive fruits processed according to the Spanish-style. Data show that the use of inocula at the onset of fermentation led to a proper acidification and sugar consumption of brines compared to the spontaneous process, obtaining in a shorter period of time the maximum population for lactic acid bacteria. Both inoculated L. pentosus strains were recovered at high frequencies at the end of fermentation on the olive surface, which was corroborated by RAPD-PCR analysis. In situ observation of olive epidermis slices by scanning electron microscopy revealed a strong aggregation and adhesion between microorganisms, which reached population levels of approximately 6 and 7 log10 cfu/cm(2) for yeasts and lactic acid bacteria, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae on the olive surface were also found at the onset of fermentation (∼9 log10 cfu/cm(2)), but they declined during the process and were below the detection limit at the end of fermentation. Results obtained in this study show the advantage of using multifunctional starters with the ability to adhere to the olive epidermis because, ultimately, the fruits are the food ingested by consumers. PMID:25084674

  3. Evaluation of the Effect of Operating Parameters on Thermal Performance of an Integrated Starter Generator in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The belt-driven-type integrated starter generator motor in a hybrid electric vehicle is vulnerable to thermal problems owing to its high output power and proximity to the engine. These problems may cause demagnetization and insulation breakdown, reducing the performance and durability of the motor. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the thermal performance and enhance the cooling capacity of the belt-driven type Integrated Starter Generator. In this study, the internal temperature variations of the motor were investigated with respect to the operating parameters, particularly the rotation speed and environment temperature. At a maximum ambient temperature of 105 °C and rotation speed (motor design point of 4500 rpm, the coil of the motor was heated to approximately 189 °C in generating mode. The harsh conditions of the starting mode were analyzed by assuming that the motor operates during the start-up time at a maximum ambient temperature of 105 °C and rotation speed (motor design point of 800 rpm; the coil was heated to approximately 200 °C, which is close to the insulation temperature limit. The model for analyzing the thermal performance of the ISG was verified by comparing its results with those obtained through a generating-mode-based experiment

  4. Characterization and Technological Features of Autochthonous Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci as Potential Starters for Portuguese Dry Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Carvalho, Laura; Tempera, Carolina; Fernandes, Maria H; Fernandes, Maria J; Elias, Miguel; Barreto, António S; Fraqueza, Maria J

    2016-05-01

    The manufacture of dry fermented sausages is an important part of the meat industry in Southern European countries. These products are usually produced in small shops from a mixture of pork, fat, salt, and condiments and are stuffed into natural casings. Meat sausages are slowly cured through spontaneous fermentation by autochthonous microbiota present in the raw materials or introduced during manufacturing. The aim of this work was to evaluate the technological and safety features of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from Portuguese dry fermented meat sausages in order to select autochthonous starters. Isolates (n = 104) obtained from 2 small manufacturers were identified as Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Staphylococcus carnosus. Genomically diverse isolates (n = 82) were selected for further analysis to determine the ability to produce enzymes (for example, nitrate-reductases, proteases, lipases) and antibiotic susceptibility. Autochthonous CNS producing a wide range of enzymes and showing low antibioresistance were selected as potential starters for future use in the production of dry fermented meat sausages. PMID:27095684

  5. Efecto del Salvado de Trigo en las Propiedades Fisicoquímicas y Sensoriales del Yogurt de Leche de Búfala Effect of Bran Wheat on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Buffalo Milk Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica M Simanca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la adición de salvado de trigo (en concentraciones 0, 1, 3 y 5% p/v y el tiempo de almacenamiento en las propiedades fisicoquímicas y sensoriales del yogurt de leche de búfala. Al producto obtenido se le realizaron pruebas fisicoquímicas (acidez, pH, materia grasa, sólidos totales, sinéresis y densidad y análisis de aceptación sensorial utilizando una escala hedónica de 9 puntos con 50 catadores. La adición de salvado de trigo influyó de manera directamente proporcional sobre la acidez, sinéresis, sólidos totales y densidad, e inversamente sobre el pH y la aceptación sensorial del producto. Durante el tiempo de almacenamiento se observó un aumento de la acidez y sinéresis, lo cual evidenció pérdida de calidad del producto. El análisis sensorial mostró que el yogurt de leche de búfala con 1% de adición de salvado de trigo presenta características organolépticas similares al yogurt con leche de búfala sin adición de fibra.The effect of adding wheat bran (at concentrations of 0, 1, 3 and 5% w/v and of the storage time on physicochemical and sensory properties of buffalo milk yoghurt were evaluated. Physicochemical tests, such as acidity, pH, fat, total solids, syneresis and density were done and sensory acceptance analysis using the 9-point hedonic scale with 50 tasters were performed. The addition of wheat bran directly influenced acidity, syneresis, total solids and density, and inversely influenced pH and sensory acceptance of the product. During the storage period there was an increase in acidity and syneresis, which showed loss of product quality. Sensory analyses showed that buffalo milk yoghurt with 1% of wheat bran presented organoleptic characteristics similar to that of yoghurt without bran addition.

  6. Contribution to the aroma of white wines by controlled Torulaspora delbrueckii cultures in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzolini, Michela; Tosi, Emanuele; Lorenzini, Marilinda; Finato, Fabio; Zapparoli, Giacomo

    2015-02-01

    Although the positive role of non-Saccharomyces yeasts on the overall quality of wine is encouraging research into their oenological potential, current knowledge on the topic is still far from satisfactory. This work analyzes the contribution of starter cultures of Torulaspora delbrueckii, inoculated sequentially with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (multi-starter fermentation), on the fermentation and aromas of two different white style wines, i.e., dry and sweet wines. Chemical analysis of Soave and Chardonnay wines (dry wines) showed that multi-starter fermentation greatly affected the content of several important volatile compounds, including 2-phenylethanol, isoamyl acetate, fatty acid esters, C4-C10 fatty acids and vinylphenols. Moreover, strain-specific contributions have been shown by testing two different T. delbrueckii strains. Evidence of the positive impact of T. delbrueckii activity on wine quality was also demonstrated in Vino Santo, a sweet wine. Due to its low production of acetic acid, this non-Saccharomyces yeast is recommended for the fermentation of high sugar grapes. T. delbrueckii also influenced the content of different variety of chemical groups, including lactones. From a sensory perspective, all wines produced by multi-starter fermentation have greater aromatic intensity and complexity than wines resulting from a monoculture fermentation. These results emphasize the potential of employing T. delbrueckii, in association with S. cerevisiae, for the production of white wines of different styles with improved and enhanced flavour.

  7. 汽车起动机换向器伺服压机设计%Design of Servo Press-fit Device for Automotive Starter Commutator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓红; 周理; 余深传; 徐小云

    2013-01-01

    针对当前汽车起动机换向器压装工艺及压装设备存在的问题,设计一种新型的汽车起动机换向器伺服压装设备。该设备采用激光感应传感器检测转子轴上的槽口位置,用压力传感器监测压入力,采用伺服电机作动力源,从而实现精确控制汽车起动机换向器压装的尺寸要求和对压入力实施有效的监视及控制。%Aiming at the issues existing in the current automobile starter commutator press-fit device,a new type automobile star-ter commutator servo press-fit device was developed and it was put into practical use. In the new device,laser induction sensors was used to detect the rotor axis notch position,pressure sensor was used to monitor pressure in force and servo motors was used to supply power. By using this new type automobile starter commutator press-fit device,effective monitor and precise control to the pressure in force can be realized,so the demands of the high precise control to the starter commutator push mounting are met.

  8. Iranian wheat flours from rural and industrial mills: Exploitation of the chemical and technology features, and selection of autochthonous sourdough starters for making breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontonio, Erica; Nionelli, Luana; Curiel, José Antonio; Sadeghi, Alireza; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at describing the main chemical and technology features of eight Iranian wheat flours collected from industrial and artisanal mills. Their suitability for bread making was investigated using autochthonous sourdough starters. Chemical analyses showed high concentration of fibers and ash, and technology aptitude for making breads. As shown through 2-DE analyses, gliadin and glutenin subunits were abundant and varied among the flours. According to the back slopping procedure, type I sourdoughs were prepared from Iranian flours, and lactic acid bacteria were typed and identified. Strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella cibaria, Weissella confusa, and Leuconostoc citreum were the most abundant. Based on the kinetics of growth and acidification, quotient of fermentation and concentration of total free amino acids, lactic acid bacteria were selected and used as sourdough mixed starters for bread making. Compared to spontaneous fermentation, sourdoughs fermented with selected and mixed starters favored the increase of the concentrations of organic acids and total free amino acids, the most suitable quotient of fermentation, and the most intense phytase and antioxidant activities. Although the high concentration of fibers, selected and mixed starters improved the textural features of the breads. This study might had contribute to the exploitation of the potential of Iranian wheat flours and to extend the use of sourdough, showing positive technology, nutritional and, probably, economic repercussions.

  9. Inhibition of Salmonella-induced IL-8 synthesis and expression of Hsp70 in enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells after exposure to non-starter lactobacilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemeth, Edina; Fajdiga, Sana; Malago, Joshua; Koninkx, Jos; Tooten, Peter; van Dijk, Jaap

    2006-01-01

    Oral administration of lactobacilli as probiotics is gaining importance in the treatment of intestinal inflammations. We investigated the effect of non-starter lactobacilli Lactobacillus casei subsp casei 2756, Lactobacillus curvatus 2775, and Lactobacillus plantarum 2142 as well as their spent cult

  10. Exceptional Lexical Skills but Executive Language Deficits in School Starters and Young Adults with Turners Syndrome: Implications for X Chromosome Effects on Brain Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Christine M.; Shephard, Elizabeth E.

    2012-01-01

    TS school starters had enhanced receptive and expressive language on standardised assessment (CELF-P) and enhanced rhyme judgements, spoonerisms, and lexical decision, indicating enhanced phonological skills and word representations. There was marginal but consistent advantage across lexico-semantic tasks. On executive tasks, speeded naming of…

  11. Subsequent growth performance and digestive physiology of broilers fed on starter diets containing spray-dried porcine plasma as a substitute for meat meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beski, S S M; Swick, R A; Iji, P A

    2015-01-01

    A 4 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), in lieu of meat meal, in the starter diet on performance and digestive physiology of broiler chickens between hatch and 35 d of age. Four levels of SDPP (0, 5, 10 or 20 g/kg) were included in the starter diets in lieu of meat meal on either wheat- or maize-based diets. Over the first 10 d, and throughout the 35-d experimental period, birds gained more body weight with increasing concentrations of SDPP regardless to the type of grain used. Inclusion of SDPP in the starter diet markedly improved feed per gain in the starter phase and across the 35-d study. There was no significant effect of the type of grain and its interaction with SDPP on the body weight gain and feed per gain for the two assessed periods. At d 10, the relative weight of the gizzard+proventriculus, spleen and liver increased with increasing concentrations of SDPP. At 24 d of age, the grain and SDPP inclusion significantly interacted, depressing the weight of bursa and spleen in birds that received the highest concentration of SDPP in the maize-based diet. Birds fed on the maize-based diets had higher relative weight of pancreas than those on the wheat-based diets. Increasing concentrations of SDPP in the starter diet improved the activities of maltase, sucrase and alkaline phosphatase at 24 d of age. The interaction of grain and SDPP concentration was significant for sucrase activity in birds on the wheat-based diets. Chickens on maize-based diets had higher alkaline phosphatase and maltase activities than those on wheat-based diets. Chicks that were offered SDPP-containing starter diets had longer villi, deeper crypts and lower villi/crypt than the control at 24 d of age regardless of the grain type used. Furthermore, longer villi and larger villi/crypt were found in chicken groups fed on wheat-based diets than those on maize-based diets. Chickens on maize-based diets had higher

  12. Inclusion of tallow and soybean oil to calf starters fed to dairy calves from birth to four months of age on calf performance and digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Quigley, J D; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2015-07-01

    Energy demands for calves can increase during periods of heat and cold stress. One way to potentially increase energy intake is to increase the energy density of the feed with fat. Trial 1a compared a control starter with no added fat or oil (CON) to starters with 2% tallow (TAL) and 2% soybean oil (SBO). Starters were 20% crude protein (CP) and 45 to 47% starch. Male Holstein calves that were initially 3 to 5d of age were fed a 27% CP, 17% fat milk replacer at 0.66kg of dry matter daily and fully weaned by 42d of a 56-d trial. Trial 1b estimated the digestion of the diets (employed chromic oxide as an indigestible digesta flow marker) using a subset of 5 weaned calves per treatment between d 52 and 56. Trial 2 used Holstein calves initially 59 to 61d of age fed starters CON and SBO blended with 5% chopped grass hay over a 56-d trial. Trial 3 used Holstein calves initially 59 to 61d of age fed starters CON and TAL blended with 5% chopped grass hay over a 56-d trial. Treatments were compared using repeated measures (where appropriate) in a completely randomized design. In trials 1a and 1b, preplanned contrasts compared CON versus TAL and CON versus SBO. Compared with CON, calves fed SBO had reduced starter intake, average daily gain, and digestion of dry matter, organic matter, and CP before 8wk of age. Compared with CON, calves fed SBO had reduced average daily gain and change in hip width from 2 to 4 mo of age. Compared with CON, calves fed TAL had reduced average daily gain and tended to have reduced change in hip width from 2 to 4 mo of age. Calculated metabolizable energy intake was not increased in any trial by added fat or oil. Tallow and soybean oil inclusion at 2% of the starter feed was not advantageous for calf growth before 4 mo of age.

  13. The Processing Technology of Yoghurt Beverage with Aloe and Chinese Yam%芦荟山药酸奶的加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王承莉; 朱苗苗; 李梦达; 吕玉珍

    2014-01-01

    对以新鲜芦荟、山药为原料制得的芦荟汁和山药浆按一定比例添加到牛奶中生产芦荟山药酸奶的工艺进行研究,通过正交试验确定了芦荟汁和山药浆的添加比例、稳定剂的种类和数量、加糖量及乳酸菌接种量等对酸凝乳质量的影响。结果表明:芦荟用1.5%β-环糊精包络脱苦,山药用0.2%抗坏血酸和0.1%柠檬酸的护色;芦荟山药酸奶的最佳工艺条件为:80%的鲜牛奶、8%的白砂糖、6%的山药浆、6%的芦荟汁、3%的菌种(保加利亚乳酸杆菌∶嗜热链球菌=1∶1)、0.2%的果胶(或0.2%耐酸CMC和0.1%果胶),经55℃、18 MPa条件下均质后发酵,制得的酸奶营养丰富、感官品质佳、稳定性好。%With fresh aloe,Chinese yam and fresh milk as the main raw materials,the process-ing technology of a novel aloe and Chinese yam yoghourt is studied.According to the orthogonal experiment,the paper explores the effects of the mixture ratio of aloe j uice and yam paste,the type and quantity of stabilizer,the amount of sugar,and lactic acid bacteria inocu-lum on the product quality.And the optimal processing conditions for making the yoghurt are determined as follows:aloe debittering by 1.5%β-Cycoldextrin,the yam with 0.2% ascorbic acid and 0.1% citric acid to protect color,80% of the fresh milk,8% sugar,6% yam paste, 6% aloe j uice,3% strain (Lactobacillus bulgaricus∶Streptococcus thermophilus=1∶1 ),and 0.2% pectin (or 0.2% CMC and 0.1% pectin acid),under the conditions of 5 5 ℃ and 1 8 MPa,thus the yogurt can be obtained with rich nutrient,excellent sensory quality and good stability.

  14. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Lactobacillus bulgaricus Isolated from Yoghurt%酸奶中保加利亚乳杆菌药物敏感性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宁; 张建新; 樊明涛; 王静; 李子龙; 魏新元

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus bulgaricus strains were isolated from different yoghurt brands produced in different regions in China and analyzed for genetic diversity and antibiotic susceptibility.Further,antibiotic-resistant isolates were subjected to genetic analysis.A total of 18 Lactobacillus bulgaricus strains were obtained using modified MRS medium.They were subjected to RAPD typing and analyzed for susceptibility to 11 different antibiotics.Besides,their potential antibiotic-resistance genes were detected by PCR.The results showed that 18 Lactobacillus bulgaricus isolates had considerable genetic diversity and diverse antibiotic-resistance phenotypes.All of them were susceptible to roxithromycin and resistant to kanamycin.Meanwhile,they also could resist ampicillin,penicillin G,chlortetracycline,chloramphenicol,tetracycline,lincomycin,streptomycin,neomycin and gentamycin to different extents.tet(M) gene was detected in isolate B-8,and ant(6) gene in both B-8 and B-41,and aph(3')-Ⅲa gene in B-43,B-47,B-49 and B-51.These findings suggested that 18 Lactobacillus bulgaricus isolates had serious multiple antibiotic resistance.%从酸奶中分离保加利亚乳杆菌,对其遗传多样性和药物敏感性进行分析,并进一步对耐药菌株的抗性基因进行检测。利用改良MRS培养基,从国内不同品牌酸奶中分离获得18株保加利亚乳杆菌。18株分离菌先经RAPD分型后采用琼脂稀释法测定其对11种抗生素的药敏性,并通过PCR对耐药菌株中可能存在的抗性基因进行检测。结果显示,18株受试菌具有明显的遗传多样性和耐药表型多样性。18株菌全部对罗红霉素敏感,而全部对卡那霉素耐药;对氨苄青霉素、青霉素G、金霉素、氯霉素、四环素、林克霉素、链霉素、新霉素及庆大霉素等9种抗生素均表现出不同程度的耐药性。通过检测耐药菌株的抗性基因,从1株菌(B-8)中检出四环素抗性基因tet(M),从2株菌(B-8和B-41)

  15. Characterization of non-starter lactic acid bacteria in traditionally produced home-made Radan cheese during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokovic Natasa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred thirteen non-starter lactic acid bacteria isolated from Radan cheese during ripening were identified with both a classical biochemical test and rep-PCR with (GTG5 primer. For most isolates, which belong to the Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum and Enterococcus faecium, a phenotypic identification was in good agreement with rep-PCR identification. Lactococeus lactis subsp. lactis, Enterococcus faecium and subspecies from the Lenconostoc mesenteroides group were the dominant population of lactic acid bacteria in cheese until 10 days of ripening and only one Streptococcus thermophilus strain was isolated from the 5-day-old cheese sample. As ripening progressed, Lactobacillus plantarum became the predominant species together with the group of heterofermentative species of lactobacilli that could not be precisely identified with rep-PCR.

  16. Comparative Analysis of the Physicochemical Parameters of Breast Milk, Starter Infant Formulas and Commercial Cow Milks in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarić Slavica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on the physical properties of cow milk and infant formulas are important since they indicate the differences in physicochemical and rheological characteristics and compatibility with natural breast milk. This fact is important not only for quality control but also for the use of these commercial products as infant diet supplements or as complete breast milk substitutes. This study was undertaken to determine refractive index, surface tension, pH, electrical conductivity, viscosity and titratable acidity of the UHT cow milk, starter infant formulas and breast milk of Serbian mothers in order to compare commercial milk formulations with natural human milk. The paper also presents the measured data of some physical parameters of human milk about which there is little information in the literature. It has been also demonstrated how these parameters were changed by freezing and prolonged storage of breast milk.

  17. Ten years of subproteome investigations in lactic acid bacteria: A key for food starter and probiotic typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangiapane, E.; Mazzoli, R.; Pessione, A.;

    2015-01-01

    " strains that can be employed in food making and as nutraceutical supplements for human health. Unfortunately, these techniques are not used as extensively as it should be wise. The present report describes the most significant results obtained by our research group in 10 years of study on subproteomes......The definition of safety and efficacy of food-employed bacteria as well as probiotic strains is a continuous, often unattended, challenge. Proteomic techniques such as 2DE, DIGE and LC/LC-MS/MS are suitable and powerful tools to reveal new aspects (positive and negative) of "known" and "unknown...... elucidated by analysis of cytosolic, membrane-enriched, surface and extracellular proteomes. The present review opens a window on a yet largely underexplored field and highlights the huge potential of subproteome investigations for more rational choice of microbial strains as food starters, probiotics...

  18. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in yogurt fermented with a bacteriocin-producing thermophilic starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkerroum, Noreddine; Oubel, Hafida; Mimoun, Lamiae Ben

    2002-05-01

    Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus B producing a bacteriocin active against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 and Staphylococcus aureus SAD 30 was isolated from bakery yeast. The bacteriocin was partially purified by an adsorption/desorption technique, and its spectrum of action was compared to that of a neutralized cell-free supernatant (CFS). Although the CFS inhibited a number of gram-positive and -negative bacteria of health and spoilage significance, the spectrum of action of the partially purified bacteriocin was limited to gram-positive bacteria. L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive to both preparations. The bacteriocin-producing streptococcal strain was used in combination with a Bac- Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CY strain isolated from commercial yogurt to assess the effectiveness of the resulting thermophilic starter in controlling L. monocytogenes and S. aureus in yogurt during fermentation and storage at refrigeration (ca. 7 degrees C) or abuse (ca. 22 degrees C) temperature. Yogurt samples were contaminated with L. monocytogenes or S. aureus to the approximate levels of 10(3) and 10(6) CFU/ml of milk, respectively. The results showed that in situ bacteriocin production was more active against L. monocytogenes than against S. aureus in vitro and in contaminated samples. While L. monocytogenes leveled off below the detectable limit in a 1-ml sample of yogurt within 24 h of processing, S. aureus survived in Bac+ and Bac- samples during 10 days of storage at room temperature (ca. 22 degrees C). Use of a Bac+ starter resulted in a 5-day extension of the shelf life.

  19. Biodiversity in Oscypek, a traditional Polish cheese, determined by culture-dependent and -independent approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría, Angel; Szczesny, Pawel; Mayo, Baltasar; Bardowski, Jacek; Kowalczyk, Magdalena

    2012-03-01

    Oscypek is a traditional Polish scalded-smoked cheese, with a protected-designation-of-origin (PDO) status, manufactured from raw sheep's milk without starter cultures in the Tatra Mountains region of Poland. This study was undertaken in order to gain insight into the microbiota that develops and evolves during the manufacture and ripening stages of Oscypek. To this end, we made use of both culturing and the culture-independent methods of PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The culture-dependent technique and PCR-DGGE fingerprinting detected the predominant microorganisms in traditional Oscypek, whereas the next-generation sequencing technique (454 pyrosequencing) revealed greater bacterial diversity. Besides members of the most abundant bacterial genera in dairy products, e.g., Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus, identified by all three methods, other, subdominant bacteria belonging to the families Bifidobacteriaceae and Moraxellaceae (mostly Enhydrobacter), as well as various minor bacteria, were identified by pyrosequencing. The presence of bifidobacterial sequences in a cheese system is reported for the first time. In addition to bacteria, a great diversity of yeast species was demonstrated in Oscypek by the PCR-DGGE method. Culturing methods enabled the determination of a number of viable microorganisms from different microbial groups and their isolation for potential future applications in specific cheese starter cultures.

  20. Examination of the technological properties of newly isolated strains of the genus Lactobacillus and possibilities for their application in the composition of starters

    OpenAIRE

    Denkova, Rositsa; Ilieva, Svetla; Denkova, Zapryana; Georgieva, Ljubka; Krastanov, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The ability of four Lactobacillus strains – Lactobacillus brevis LBRZ7 (isolated from fermented cabbage), Lactobacillus plantarum LBRZ12 (isolated from fermented cabbage), Lactobacillus fermentum LBRH9 (of human origin) and Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus LBRC11 (isolated from home-made cheese) – to grow in flour/water environment and to accumulate high concentrations of viable cells was examined. Two starters for sourdough were created for lab-scale production of wheat bread: a two-strain...