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Sample records for yields temperature-sensitive influenza

  1. Temperature-sensitive mutants of influenza A virus. XIV. Production and evaluation of influenza A/Georgia/74-ts-1[E] recombinant viruses in human adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, D D; Murphy, B R; Belshe, R B; Rusten, H M; Chanock, R M; Blacklow, N R; Parrino, T A; Rose, F B; Levine, M M; Caplan, E

    1977-08-01

    The two temperature-sensitive (ts) lesions present in influenza A/Hong Kong/68-ts-1[E] (H3N2 68) virus were transferred via genetic reassortment to influenza A/Georgia/74 (H3N2 74) wild-type virus. A recombinant clone possessing both ts lesions and the shutoff temperature of 38 C of the Hong Kong/68 ts donor and the two surface antigens of the Georgia/74 wild-type virus was administered to 32 seronegative adult volunteers. Thirty-one volunteers were infected, of whom only five experienced mild afebrile upper respiratory tract illness. The wild-type recipient virus was a cloned population that induced illness in five of six infected volunteers. Therfore, the attenuation exhibited by the Georgia/74-ts-1[E] virus could reasonably be assumed to be due to the acquisition of the two ts-1[E] lesions by the Georgia/74 wild-type virus. The serum and nasal wash antibody responses of the ts-1[E] vaccinees were equivalent to those of the volunteers who received wild-type virus. The two ts lesions present in the Hong Kong/68-ts-1[E] virus have now been transferred three times to a wild-type virus bearing a new hemagglutinin, and in each instance the new ts recombination exhibited a similar, satisfactory level of attenuation and antigenicity for adults. It seems likely that the transfer of the ts-1[E] lesions to any new influenza virus will regularly result in attenuation of a recombinat virus possessing the new surface antigens.

  2. Temperature sensitivity on growth and/or replication of H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 influenza A viruses isolated from pigs and birds in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massin, Pascale; Kuntz-Simon, Gaëlle; Barbezange, Cyril; Deblanc, Céline; Oger, Aurélie; Marquet-Blouin, Estelle; Bougeard, Stéphanie; van der Werf, Sylvie; Jestin, Véronique

    2010-05-19

    Influenza A viruses have been isolated from a wide range of animal species, aquatic birds being the reservoir for their genetic diversity. Avian influenza viruses can be transmitted to humans, directly or indirectly through an intermediate host like pig. This study aimed to define in vitro conditions that could prove useful to evaluate the potential of influenza viruses to adapt to a different host. Growth of H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 influenza viruses belonging to different lineages isolated from birds or pigs prior to 2005 was tested on MDCK or NPTr cell lines in the presence or absence of exogenous trypsin. Virus multiplication was compared at 33, 37 and 40 degrees C, the infection site temperatures in human, swine and avian hosts, respectively. Temperature sensitivity of PB2-, NP- and M-RNA replication was also tested by quantitative real-time PCR. Multiplication of avian viruses was cold-sensitive, whatever cell type. By contrast, temperature sensitivity of swine viruses was found to depend on the virus and the host cell: for an H1N1 swine isolate from 1982, multiplication was cold-sensitive on NPTr cells and undetectable at 40 degrees C. From genetic analyses, it appears that temperature sensitivity could involve other residues than PB2 residue 627 and could affect other steps of the replication cycle than replication. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The cold adapted and temperature sensitive influenza A/Ann Arbor/6/60 virus, the master donor virus for live attenuated influenza vaccines, has multiple defects in replication at the restrictive temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Winnie; Zhou, Helen; Kemble, George; Jin Hong

    2008-01-01

    We have previously determined that the temperature sensitive (ts) and attenuated (att) phenotypes of the cold adapted influenza A/Ann Arbor/6/60 strain (MDV-A), the master donor virus for the live attenuated influenza A vaccines (FluMist), are specified by the five amino acids in the PB1, PB2 and NP gene segments. To understand how these loci control the ts phenotype of MDV-A, replication of MDV-A at the non-permissive temperature (39 deg. C) was compared with recombinant wild-type A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (rWt). The mRNA and protein synthesis of MDV-A in the infected MDCK cells were not significantly reduced at 39 deg. C during a single-step replication, however, vRNA synthesis was reduced and the nuclear-cytoplasmic export of viral RNP (vRNP) was blocked. In addition, the virions released from MDV-A infected cells at 39 deg. C exhibited irregular morphology and had a greatly reduced amount of the M1 protein incorporated. The reduced M1 protein incorporation and vRNP export blockage correlated well with the virus ts phenotype because these defects could be partially alleviated by removing the three ts loci from the PB1 gene. The virions and vRNPs isolated from the MDV-A infected cells contained a higher level of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) than those of rWt, however, whether Hsp70 is involved in thermal inhibition of MDV-A replication remains to be determined. Our studies demonstrate that restrictive replication of MDV-A at the non-permissive temperature occurs in multiple steps of the virus replication cycle

  4. The temperature-sensitive and attenuation phenotypes conferred by mutations in the influenza virus PB2, PB1, and NP genes are influenced by the species of origin of the PB2 gene in reassortant viruses derived from influenza A/California/07/2009 and A/WSN/33 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Andrew J; Santos, Celia P; Godbout, Rachel A; Subbarao, Kanta

    2014-11-01

    Live attenuated influenza vaccines in the United States are derived from a human virus that is temperature sensitive (ts), characterized by restricted (≥ 100-fold) replication at 39 °C. The ts genetic signature (ts sig) has been mapped to 5 loci in 3 genes: PB1 (391 E, 581 G, and 661 T), PB2 (265 S), and NP (34 G). However, when transferred into avian and swine influenza viruses, only partial ts and attenuation phenotypes occur. To investigate the reason for this, we introduced the ts sig into the human origin virus A/WSN/33 (WSN), the avian-origin virus A/Vietnam/1203/04 (VN04), and the swine origin triple-reassortant 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus A/California/07/2009 (CA07), which contains gene segments from human, avian, and swine viruses. The VN04(ts sig) and CA07(ts sig) viruses replicated efficiently in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells at 39 °C, but the replication of WSN(ts sig) was restricted ≥ 100-fold compared to that at 33 °C. Reassortant CA07(ts sig) viruses were generated with individual polymerase gene segments from WSN, and vice versa. Only ts sig viruses with a PB2 gene segment derived from WSN were restricted in replication ≥ 100-fold at 39 °C. In ferrets, the CA07(ts sig) virus replicated in the upper and lower respiratory tract, but the replication of a reassortant CA07(ts sig) virus with a WSN PB2 gene was severely restricted in the lungs. Taken together, these data suggest that the origin of the PB2 gene segment influences the ts phenotype in vitro and attenuation in vivo. This could have implications for the design of novel live vaccines against animal origin influenza viruses. Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) on temperature-sensitive (ts) backbones derived from animal origin influenza viruses are being sought for use in the poultry and swine industries and to protect people against animal origin influenza. However, inserting the ts genetic signature from a licensed LAIV backbone fails to fully attenuate these viruses. Our

  5. Molecular signature of high yield (growth influenza a virus reassortants prepared as candidate vaccine seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojkumar Ramanunninair

    Full Text Available Human influenza virus isolates generally grow poorly in embryonated chicken eggs. Hence, gene reassortment of influenza A wild type (wt viruses is performed with a highly egg adapted donor virus, A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8, to provide the high yield reassortant (HYR viral 'seeds' for vaccine production. HYR must contain the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of wt virus and one to six 'internal' genes from PR8. Most studies of influenza wt and HYRs have focused on the HA gene. The main objective of this study is the identification of the molecular signature in all eight gene segments of influenza A HYR candidate vaccine seeds associated with high growth in ovo.The genomes of 14 wt parental viruses, 23 HYRs (5 H1N1; 2, 1976 H1N1-SOIV; 2, 2009 H1N1pdm; 2 H2N2 and 12 H3N2 and PR8 were sequenced using the high-throughput sequencing pipeline with big dye terminator chemistry.Silent and coding mutations were found in all internal genes derived from PR8 with the exception of the M gene. The M gene derived from PR8 was invariant in all 23 HYRs underlining the critical role of PR8 M in high yield phenotype. None of the wt virus derived internal genes had any silent change(s except the PB1 gene in X-157. The highest number of recurrent silent and coding mutations was found in NS. With respect to the surface antigens, the majority of HYRs had coding mutations in HA; only 2 HYRs had coding mutations in NA.In the era of application of reverse genetics to alter influenza A virus genomes, the mutations identified in the HYR gene segments associated with high growth in ovo may be of great practical benefit to modify PR8 and/or wt virus gene sequences for improved growth of vaccine 'seed' viruses.

  6. Comparison of egg and high yielding MDCK cell-derived live attenuated influenza virus for commercial production of trivalent influenza vaccine: in vitro cell susceptibility and influenza virus replication kinetics in permissive and semi-permissive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Althaf I; Cordeiro, Melissa; Sevilla, Elizabeth; Liu, Jonathan

    2010-05-14

    Currently MedImmune manufactures cold-adapted (ca) live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) from specific-pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. Difficulties in production scale-up and potential exposure of chicken flocks to avian influenza viruses especially in the event of a pandemic influenza outbreak have prompted evaluation and development of alternative non-egg based influenza vaccine manufacturing technologies. As part of MedImmune's effort to develop the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) using cell culture production technologies we have investigated the use of high yielding, cloned MDCK cells as a substrate for vaccine production by assessing host range and virus replication of influenza virus produced from both SPF egg and MDCK cell production technologies. In addition to cloned MDCK cells the indicator cell lines used to evaluate the impact of producing LAIV in cells on host range and replication included two human cell lines: human lung carcinoma (A549) cells and human muco-epidermoid bronchiolar carcinoma (NCI H292) cells. The influenza viruses used to infect the indicators cell lines represented both the egg and cell culture manufacturing processes and included virus strains that composed the 2006-2007 influenza seasonal trivalent vaccine (A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2) and B/Malaysia/2506/04). Results from this study demonstrate remarkable similarity between influenza viruses representing the current commercial egg produced and developmental MDCK cell produced vaccine production platforms. MedImmune's high yielding cloned MDCK cells used for the cell culture based vaccine production were highly permissive to both egg and cell produced ca attenuated influenza viruses. Both the A549 and NCI H292 cells regardless of production system were less permissive to influenza A and B viruses than the MDCK cells. Irrespective of the indicator cell line used the replication properties were similar between egg and the cell produced

  7. Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Solórzano-Santos, Fortino; Miranda-Novales, Ma. Guadalupe

    2009-01-01

    La influenza es una infección viral aguda de las vías respiratorias, altamente contagiosa. Es causada por el virus de la influenza A, B y C. Puede afectar a todos los grupos etarios durante epidemias, aunque tiene mayor morbilidad en los extremos de la vida. La enfermedad frecuentemente requiere de atención médica y hospitalización, contribuyendo sustancialmente a pérdidas económicas, exceso en el número de días/cama-hospital y muertes. Considerando la epidemia reciente en México del virus de...

  8. Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forleo-Neto Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A influenza (gripe é doença infecciosa aguda de origem viral que acomete o trato respiratório e a cada inverno atinge mais de 100 milhões de pessoas na Europa, Japão e Estados Unidos, causando anualmente a morte de cerca de 20 a 40 mil pessoas somente neste último país. O agente etiológico é o Myxovirus influenzae, ou vírus da gripe. Este subdivide-se nos tipos A, B e C, sendo que apenas os do tipo A e B apresentam relevância clínica em humanos. O vírus influenza apresenta altas taxas de mutação, o que resulta freqüentemente na inserção de novas variantes virais na comunidade, para as quais a população não apresenta imunidade. São poucas as opções disponíveis para o controle da influenza. Dentre essas, a vacinação constitui a forma mais eficaz para o controle da doença e de suas complicações. Em função das mutações que ocorrem naturalmente no vírus influenza, recomenda-se que a vacinação seja realizada anualmente. No Brasil, segundo dados obtidos pelo Projeto VigiGripe - ligado à Universidade Federal de São Paulo -, verifica-se que a influenza apresenta pico de atividade entre os meses de maio e setembro. Assim, a época mais indicada para a vacinação corresponde aos meses de março e abril. Para o tratamento específico da influenza estão disponíveis quatro medicamentos antivirais: os fármacos clássicos amantadina e rimantidina e os antivirais de segunda geração oseltamivir e zanamivir. Os últimos, acrescentam alternativas para o tratamento da influenza e ampliam as opções disponíveis para o seu controle.

  9. Divergent apparent temperature sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystem respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing Song; Shuli Niu; Ruise Luo; Yiqi Luo; Jiquan Chen; Guirui Yu; Janusz Olejnik; Georg Wohlfahrt; Gerard Kiely; Ako Noormets; Leonardo Montagnani; Alessandro Cescatti; Vincenzo Magliulo; Beverly Elizabeth Law; Magnus Lund; Andrej Varlagin; Antonio Raschi; Matthias Peichl; Mats B. Nilsson; Lutz Merbold

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies revealed convergent temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration (Re) within aquatic ecosystems and between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We do not know yet whether various terrestrial ecosystems have consistent or divergent temperature sensitivity. Here, we synthesized 163 eddy covariance flux sites across the world and...

  10. Ultrahigh temperature-sensitive silicon MZI with titania cladding

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    Jong-Moo eLee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a possibility of intensifying temperature sensitivity of a silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI by using a highly negative thermo-optic property of titania (TiO2. Temperature sensitivity of an asymmetric silicon MZI with a titania cladding is experimentally measured from +18pm/C to -340 pm/C depending on design parameters of MZI.

  11. High-yield production of a stable Vero cell-based vaccine candidate against the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Fangye; Zhou, Jian; Ma, Lei; Song, Shaohui; Zhang, Xinwen; Li, Weidong; Jiang, Shude; Wang, Yue; Liao, Guoyang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine with stable high yield. ► Stable high yield derived from the YNVa H3N2 backbone. ► H5N1/YNVa has a similar safety and immunogenicity to H5N1delta. -- Abstract: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses pose a global pandemic threat, for which rapid large-scale vaccine production technology is critical for prevention and control. Because chickens are highly susceptible to HPAI viruses, the supply of chicken embryos for vaccine production might be depleted during a virus outbreak. Therefore, developing HPAI virus vaccines using other technologies is critical. Meeting vaccine demand using the Vero cell-based fermentation process has been hindered by low stability and yield. In this study, a Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine candidate (H5N1/YNVa) with stable high yield was achieved by reassortment of the Vero-adapted (Va) high growth A/Yunnan/1/2005(H3N2) (YNVa) virus with the A/Anhui/1/2005(H5N1) attenuated influenza vaccine strain (H5N1delta) using the 6/2 method. The reassorted H5N1/YNVa vaccine maintained a high hemagglutination (HA) titer of 1024. Furthermore, H5N1/YNVa displayed low pathogenicity and uniform immunogenicity compared to that of the parent virus.

  12. High-yield production of a stable Vero cell-based vaccine candidate against the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Fangye; Zhou, Jian; Ma, Lei; Song, Shaohui; Zhang, Xinwen; Li, Weidong; Jiang, Shude [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People' s Republic of China (China); Wang, Yue [National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Yingxin Lane 100, Xicheng District, Beijing 100052, People' s Republic of China (China); Liao, Guoyang [No. 5, Department of Bioproducts, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Pecking Union Medical College, Jiaoling Avenue 935, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650102, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine with stable high yield. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable high yield derived from the YNVa H3N2 backbone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H5N1/YNVa has a similar safety and immunogenicity to H5N1delta. -- Abstract: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses pose a global pandemic threat, for which rapid large-scale vaccine production technology is critical for prevention and control. Because chickens are highly susceptible to HPAI viruses, the supply of chicken embryos for vaccine production might be depleted during a virus outbreak. Therefore, developing HPAI virus vaccines using other technologies is critical. Meeting vaccine demand using the Vero cell-based fermentation process has been hindered by low stability and yield. In this study, a Vero cell-based HPAI H5N1 vaccine candidate (H5N1/YNVa) with stable high yield was achieved by reassortment of the Vero-adapted (Va) high growth A/Yunnan/1/2005(H3N2) (YNVa) virus with the A/Anhui/1/2005(H5N1) attenuated influenza vaccine strain (H5N1delta) using the 6/2 method. The reassorted H5N1/YNVa vaccine maintained a high hemagglutination (HA) titer of 1024. Furthermore, H5N1/YNVa displayed low pathogenicity and uniform immunogenicity compared to that of the parent virus.

  13. Significant rising antibody titres to influenza A are associated with an acute reduction in milk yield in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Timothy R; Brown, Ian H; Essen, Steve C; Young, Stuart C L

    2008-10-01

    Sporadic cases of an acute fall in milk production, "milk drop", were investigated in a Holstein Friesian dairy herd in Devon. The investigation was a case control study with two controls per case. Paired blood samples demonstrated that rising antibody titres to human influenza A/England/333/80 (H1N1) and human influenza A/Eng/427/88 (H3N2) were associated with an acute fall in milk production. Rising titres to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVD), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and parainfluenza virus 3 (PI3) were not associated with an acute fall in milk production. Cases with rises in antibody to influenza A had significantly higher respiratory scores and rectal temperatures than their controls. The mean loss of milk production for the cases with rises in antibody to influenza A compared to their controls was 159.9L. This study provides further evidence that influenza A persists in cattle and causes clinical disease.

  14. Temperature sensitive surfaces and methods of making same

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    Liang, Liang [Richland, WA; Rieke, Peter C [Pasco, WA; Alford, Kentin L [Pasco, WA

    2002-09-10

    Poly-n-isopropylacrylamide surface coatings demonstrate the useful property of being able to switch charateristics depending upon temperature. More specifically, these coatings switch from being hydrophilic at low temperature to hydrophobic at high temperature. Research has been conducted for many years to better characterize and control the properties of temperature sensitive coatings. The present invention provides novel temperature sensitive coatings on articles and novel methods of making temperature sensitive coatings that are disposed on the surfaces of various articles. These novel coatings contain the reaction products of n-isopropylacrylamide and are characterized by their properties such as advancing contact angles. Numerous other characteristics such as coating thickness, surface roughness, and hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic transition temperatures are also described. The present invention includes articles having temperature-sensitve coatings with improved properties as well as improved methods for forming temperature sensitive coatings.

  15. Targeted drug delivery using temperature-sensitive liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magin, R.L.; Niesman, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Liposomes are receiving considerable attention as vehicles for selective drug delivery. One method of targeting liposomal contents involves the combination of local hyperthermia with temperature-sensitive liposomes. Such liposomes have been used to increase the uptake of methotrexate and cis-platinum into locally heated mouse tumors. However, additional information is needed on the mechanism of liposome drug release and the physiologic deposition of liposomes in vivo before clinical trails are begun. Current research is directed at studying the encapsulation and release of water soluble drugs from temperature-sensitive liposomes. The influence of liposome size, structure, and composition on the rapid release in plasma of cytosine arabinoside, cis-platinum, and the radiation sensitizer SR-2508 are described. These results demonstrate potential applications for temperature-sensitive liposomes in selective drug delivery

  16. Fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer with controllable temperature sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinpu; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Yang

    2015-12-01

    We proposed a fiber taper based on the Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometer structure with controllable temperature sensitivity. The FP interferometer is formed by inserting a segment of tapered fiber tip into the capillary and subsequently splicing the other end of the capillary to a single-mode fiber (SMF), the tapered fiber endface, and the spliced face form the FP cavity. Through controlling the inserted tapered fiber length, a series of FP interferometers were made. Because the inserted taper tip has the degree of freedom along the fiber axial, when the FP interferometer is subjected to temperature variation, the thermal expansion of the fiber taper tip will resist the FP cavity length change caused by the evolution of capillary length, and we can control the temperature sensitivity by adjusting the inserted taper length. In this structure, the equivalent thermal expansion coefficient of the FP interferometer can be defined; it was used to evaluate the temperature sensitivity of the FP interferometer, which provides an effective method to eliminate the temperature effect and to enhance other measurement accuracy. We fabricated the FP interferometers and calibrated their temperature characters by measuring the wavelength shift of the resonance dips in the reflection spectrum. In a temperature range of 50°C to 150°C, the corresponding temperature sensitivities can be controlled between 0 and 1.97 pm/°C when the inserted taper is between 75 and 160 μm. Because of its controllable temperature sensitivity, ease of fabrication, and low cost, this FP interferometer can meet different temperature sensitivity requirements in various application areas, especially in the fields which need temperature insensitivity.

  17. Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prevey, Janet; Vellend, Mark; Ruger, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance...

  18. Temperature sensitivity of respiration scales with organic matter recalcitrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craine, J. M.; Fierer, N.; McLauchlan, K. K.

    2010-12-01

    Microbial decomposition of soil organic matter is a key process in determining the carbon sequestration potential of ecosystems and carbon fluxes to the atmosphere. Since microbial decomposition is highly sensitive to short-term changes in temperature, predicting the temperature sensitivity of microbial decomposition is critical to predicting future atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and feedbacks to anthropogenic warming. Fundamental principles of enzyme kinetics, embodied in the carbon-quality temperature hypothesis, predict that the temperature sensitivity of microbial decomposition should increase with increasing biochemical recalcitrance of a substrate. To test the generality of this principle, we measured the temperature sensitivity of microbial respiration of soil organic matter with serial short-term temperature manipulations over 365 days for 28 North American soils. When joined with data from similar studies that represent a wide variety of contrasts, we show that the temperature sensitivity of organic matter decomposition scales with biochemical recalcitrance. With physico-chemical protection likely an important covariate for relating plant and soil organic matter decomposition scalars, biochemically recalcitrant organic matter is highly susceptible to short-term increases in temperature, a key link in predicting the effects of warming on carbon cycling.

  19. Dopamine modulates metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Ueno

    Full Text Available Homeothermal animals, such as mammals, maintain their body temperature by heat generation and heat dissipation, while poikilothermal animals, such as insects, accomplish it by relocating to an environment of their favored temperature. Catecholamines are known to regulate thermogenesis and metabolic rate in mammals, but their roles in other animals are poorly understood. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used as a model system for the genetic studies of temperature preference behavior. Here, we demonstrate that metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity of some temperature sensitive behaviors are regulated by dopamine in Drosophila. Temperature-sensitive molecules like dTrpA1 and shi(ts induce temperature-dependent behavioral changes, and the temperature at which the changes are induced were lowered in the dopamine transporter-defective mutant, fumin. The mutant also displays a preference for lower temperatures. This thermophobic phenotype was rescued by the genetic recovery of the dopamine transporter in dopamine neurons. Flies fed with a dopamine biosynthesis inhibitor (3-iodo-L-tyrosine, which diminishes dopamine signaling, exhibited preference for a higher temperature. Furthermore, we found that the metabolic rate is up-regulated in the fumin mutant. Taken together, dopamine has functions in the temperature sensitivity of behavioral changes and metabolic rate regulation in Drosophila, as well as its previously reported functions in arousal/sleep regulation.

  20. Temperature sensitive riboflavin mutants of Penicillium vermiculatum Dangeard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, J.; Chaudhari, K.L.

    1974-01-01

    Two temperature sensitive UV induced riboflavin mutants rib 1 and rib 6 have been physiologically and genetically characterized. The two mutants behave differently with regard to their temperature sensitivity. The rib 1 mutant exhibits a leaky growth in minimal medium between 15 0 C and 30 0 C but grows well when the medium is supplemented with riboflavin. At 35 0 C the growth response of the mutant is at its max. and at 40 0 C and below 15 0 C it ceases to grow. The rib 6 mutant which is red brown in colour shows wild type character at temp. below 25 0 C in minimal medium but requires riboflavin at 30 0 C and above. Heterokaryotic analysis revealed the nonallelic nature of the two temperature mutants. Genetic tests of allelic relationship between riboflavin markers by crossing were also done. (author)

  1. Water Recycling removal using temperature-sensitive hydronen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana B. Gupta

    2002-10-30

    The overall objective of this project was to study the proposed Water Recycling/Removal Using Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogels. The main element of this technology is the design of a suitable hydrogel that can perform needed water separation for pulp and paper industry. The specific topics studied are to answer following questions: (a) Can water be removed using hydrogel from large molecules such as lignin? (b) Can the rate of separation be made faster? (c) What are the molecular interactions with hydrogel surface? (d) Can a hydrogel be designed for a high ionic strength and high temperature? Summary of the specific results are given.

  2. The relationship between virtual body ownership and temperature sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llobera, Joan; Sanchez-Vives, M. V.; Slater, Mel

    2013-01-01

    In the rubber hand illusion, tactile stimulation seen on a rubber hand, that is synchronous with tactile stimulation felt on the hidden real hand, can lead to an illusion of ownership over the rubber hand. This illusion has been shown to produce a temperature decrease in the hidden hand, suggesting that such illusory ownership produces disownership of the real hand. Here, we apply immersive virtual reality (VR) to experimentally investigate this with respect to sensitivity to temperature change. Forty participants experienced immersion in a VR with a virtual body (VB) seen from a first-person perspective. For half the participants, the VB was consistent in posture and movement with their own body, and in the other half, there was inconsistency. Temperature sensitivity on the palm of the hand was measured before and during the virtual experience. The results show that temperature sensitivity decreased in the consistent compared with the inconsistent condition. Moreover, the change in sensitivity was significantly correlated with the subjective illusion of virtual arm ownership but modulated by the illusion of ownership over the full VB. This suggests that a full body ownership illusion results in a unification of the virtual and real bodies into one overall entity—with proprioception and tactile sensations on the real body integrated with the visual presence of the VB. The results are interpreted in the framework of a ‘body matrix’ recently introduced into the literature. PMID:23720537

  3. Computational design and characterization of a temperature-sensitive plasmid replicon for gram positive thermophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Daniel G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temperature-sensitive (Ts plasmids are useful tools for genetic engineering, but there are currently none compatible with the gram positive, thermophilic, obligate anaerobe, Clostridium thermocellum. Traditional mutagenesis techniques yield Ts mutants at a low frequency, and therefore requires the development of high-throughput screening protocols, which are also not available for this organism. Recently there has been progress in the development of computer algorithms which can predict Ts mutations. Most plasmids currently used for genetic modification of C. thermocellum are based on the replicon of plasmid pNW33N, which replicates using the RepB replication protein. To address this problem, we set out to create a Ts plasmid by mutating the gene coding for the RepB replication protein using an algorithm designed by Varadarajan et al. (1996 for predicting Ts mutants based on the amino-acid sequence of the protein. Results A library of 34 mutant plasmids was designed, synthesized and screened, resulting in 6 mutants which exhibited a Ts phenotype. Of these 6, the one with the most temperature-sensitive phenotype (M166A was compared with the original plasmid. It exhibited lower stability at 48°C and was completely unable to replicate at 55°C. Conclusions The plasmid described in this work could be useful in future efforts to genetically engineer C. thermocellum, and the method used to generate this plasmid may be useful for others trying to make Ts plasmids.

  4. Hypomorphic temperature-sensitive alleles of NSDHL cause CK syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarren, Keith W; Severson, Tesa M; du Souich, Christèle; Stockton, David W; Kratz, Lisa E; Cunningham, David; Hendson, Glenda; Morin, Ryan D; Wu, Diane; Paul, Jessica E; An, Jianghong; Nelson, Tanya N; Chou, Athena; DeBarber, Andrea E; Merkens, Louise S; Michaud, Jacques L; Waters, Paula J; Yin, Jingyi; McGillivray, Barbara; Demos, Michelle; Rouleau, Guy A; Grzeschik, Karl-Heinz; Smith, Raffaella; Tarpey, Patrick S; Shears, Debbie; Schwartz, Charles E; Gecz, Jozef; Stratton, Michael R; Arbour, Laura; Hurlburt, Jane; Van Allen, Margot I; Herman, Gail E; Zhao, Yongjun; Moore, Richard; Kelley, Richard I; Jones, Steven J M; Steiner, Robert D; Raymond, F Lucy; Marra, Marco A; Boerkoel, Cornelius F

    2010-12-10

    CK syndrome (CKS) is an X-linked recessive intellectual disability syndrome characterized by dysmorphism, cortical brain malformations, and an asthenic build. Through an X chromosome single-nucleotide variant scan in the first reported family, we identified linkage to a 5 Mb region on Xq28. Sequencing of this region detected a segregating 3 bp deletion (c.696_698del [p.Lys232del]) in exon 7 of NAD(P) dependent steroid dehydrogenase-like (NSDHL), a gene that encodes an enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. We also found that males with intellectual disability in another reported family with an NSDHL mutation (c.1098 dup [p.Arg367SerfsX33]) have CKS. These two mutations, which alter protein folding, show temperature-sensitive protein stability and complementation in Erg26-deficient yeast. As described for the allelic disorder CHILD syndrome, cells and cerebrospinal fluid from CKS patients have increased methyl sterol levels. We hypothesize that methyl sterol accumulation, not only cholesterol deficiency, causes CKS, given that cerebrospinal fluid cholesterol, plasma cholesterol, and plasma 24S-hydroxycholesterol levels are normal in males with CKS. In summary, CKS expands the spectrum of cholesterol-related disorders and insight into the role of cholesterol in human development. Copyright © 2010 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Trends and Variability in Temperature Sensitivity of Lilac Flowering Phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanjiong; Dai, Junhu; Rutishauser, This; Gonsamo, Alemu; Wu, Chaoyang; Ge, Quansheng

    2018-03-01

    The responses of plant phenology to temperature variability have many consequences for ecological processes, agriculture, forestry, and human health. Temperature sensitivity (ST) of phenology could measure how and to what degree plant could phenologically track climate change. The long-term trends and spatial patterns in ST have been well studied for vegetative phenology such as leaf unfolding, but trends to be expected for reproductive phenology in the future remain unknown. Here we investigate trends and factors driving the temporal variation of ST of first bloom date (FBD). Using the long-term FBD records during 1963-2013 for common lilac (Syringa vulgaris) from 613 stations in Europe, we compared changes in ST from the beginning to the end of the study period. The Spearman partial correlations were used to assess the importance of four influencing factors. The results showed that the temporal changes in ST of FBD varied considerably among time scales. Mean ST decreased significantly by 0.92 days °C-1 from 1963-1972 to 2004-2013 (P plant species in other climates and environments using similar methods to our study.

  6. Influenza Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Polio Whooping cough Influenza (flu) Rabies Yellow fever Influenza Photos Photographs accompanied by text that reads "Courtesy ... of these photos are quite graphic. Shows how influenza germs spread through the air when someone coughs ...

  7. Temperature-sensitive porous membrane production through radiation co-grafting of NIPAAm on/in PVDF porous membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qi; Zhu Zhiyong; Yang Xiaomin; Chen Xiliang; Song Yufeng

    2007-01-01

    N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) monomer was grafted on and in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) micro-pore membrane by γ-irradiation. The influence of irradiation and reaction conditions on the grafting yield was investigated in detail. The chemical structure of NIPAAm-grafted PVDF (NIPAAm-g-PVDF) membrane was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectra measurements. The morphology of the sample surface as well as the cross-section before and after grafting was characterized by scanning electron microscope. The temperature sensitive properties of the membrane were monitored by measuring the conductance as well as the water flux through the sample thickness. The results show that the membrane exhibits clearly temperature-sensitive permeability to water as expected, i.e. the permeability of water changes dramatically as the temperature goes over the lower critical solution temperature of NIPAAm

  8. Temperature-sensitive elastin-mimetic dendrimers: Effect of peptide length and dendrimer generation to temperature sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Chie; Irie, Kotaro; Tada, Tomoko; Tanaka, Naoki

    2014-06-01

    Dendrimers are synthetic macromolecules with unique structure, which are a potential scaffold for peptides. Elastin is one of the main components of extracellular matrix and a temperature-sensitive biomacromolecule. Previously, Val-Pro-Gly-Val-Gly peptides have been conjugated to a dendrimer for designing an elastin-mimetic dendrimer. In this study, various elastin-mimetic dendrimers using different length peptides and different dendrimer generations were synthesized to control the temperature dependency. The elastin-mimetic dendrimers formed β-turn structure by heating, which was similar to the elastin-like peptides. The elastin-mimetic dendrimers exhibited an inverse phase transition, largely depending on the peptide length and slightly depending on the dendrimer generation. The elastin-mimetic dendrimers formed aggregates after the phase transition. The endothermal peak was observed in elastin-mimetic dendrimers with long peptides, but not with short ones. The peptide length and the dendrimer generation are important factors to tune the temperature dependency on the elastin-mimetic dendrimer. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Neighborhood properties are important determinants of temperature sensitive mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Lockwood

    Full Text Available Temperature-sensitive (TS mutants are powerful tools to study gene function in vivo. These mutants exhibit wild-type activity at permissive temperatures and reduced activity at restrictive temperatures. Although random mutagenesis can be used to generate TS mutants, the procedure is laborious and unfeasible in multicellular organisms. Further, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the TS phenotype are poorly understood. To elucidate TS mechanisms, we used a machine learning method-logistic regression-to investigate a large number of sequence and structure features. We developed and tested 133 features, describing properties of either the mutation site or the mutation site neighborhood. We defined three types of neighborhood using sequence distance, Euclidean distance, and topological distance. We discovered that neighborhood features outperformed mutation site features in predicting TS mutations. The most predictive features suggest that TS mutations tend to occur at buried and rigid residues, and are located at conserved protein domains. The environment of a buried residue often determines the overall structural stability of a protein, thus may lead to reversible activity change upon temperature switch. We developed TS prediction models based on logistic regression and the Lasso regularized procedure. Through a ten-fold cross-validation, we obtained the area under the curve of 0.91 for the model using both sequence and structure features. Testing on independent datasets suggested that the model predicted TS mutations with a 50% precision. In summary, our study elucidated the molecular basis of TS mutants and suggested the importance of neighborhood properties in determining TS mutations. We further developed models to predict TS mutations derived from single amino acid substitutions. In this way, TS mutants can be efficiently obtained through experimentally introducing the predicted mutations.

  10. Influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerhus, Sven Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted....

  11. Temperature sensitivity of the penicillin-induced autolysis mechanism in nongrowing cultures of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Kusser, W; Ishiguro, E E

    1987-01-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the ampicillin-induced autolysis of nongrowing Escherichia coli was determined. The autolysis mechanisms in amino acid-deprived relA mutant cells treated with chloramphenicol were temperature sensitive. This temperature-sensitive autolysis was demonstrated in three independent ways: turbidimetric determinations, viable cell counts, and solubilization of radiolabeled peptidoglycan.

  12. Meningitis - H. influenzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. influenzae meningitis; H. flu meningitis; Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis ... H. influenzae meningitis is caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteria. This illness is not the same ...

  13. Radiation synthesis of the water-soluble, temperature sensitive polymer, copolymer and study on their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Maolin; Yin Min; Ha Hongfei

    1994-01-01

    In order to obtain the water-soluble, temperature sensitive polymer and activated copolymer, the radiation polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm), radiation copolymerization of NIPAAm and N-acryloxysuccide (NASI) in aqueous solution or in buffer solution (PBS pH = 7.4) have been carried out by γ-rays from 60 Co source at room temperature. The optimum dose range (1-7 kGy), dose rate (>40 Gy/min) and monomer concentration (1%) were chosen through determining the monomer conversion yield and molecular weight (M w = 6.8 x 10 5 ) of product. Synthesis of the reversible linear polymer was performed in tetrahydrofuran (THF) as well. In this way a white powder product could be obtained which possesses of thermally reversible property too, when it was dissolved in water or PBS. The only disadvantages of this method is that the molecular weight of the polymer produced in THF was much lower than that in aqueous solution

  14. Avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu; H5N1; H5N2; H5N8; H7N9; Avian influenza A (HPAI) H5 ... The first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. It was called avian influenza (H5N1). The outbreak was linked ...

  15. Emerging influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. de Wit (Emmie); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn 1918 the Spanish influenza pandemic, caused by an avian H1N1 virus, resulted in over 50 million deaths worldwide. Several outbreaks of H7 influenza A viruses have resulted in human cases, including one fatal case. Since 1997, the outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)

  16. A temperature-sensitive winter wheat chlorophyll mutant derived from space mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongbin; Guo Huijun; Zhao Linshu; Gu Jiayu; Zhao Shirong; Li Junhui; Liu Luxiang

    2010-01-01

    A temperature-sensitive winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chlorophyll mutant Mt18, induced by spaceflight mutagenesis, was studied on agronomic traits, ultrastructure of chloroplast and photosynthesis characteristics. The leaf color of the mutant Mt18 showed changes from green to albino and back to green during the whole growth period. Plant height, productive tillers, spike length, grains and grain weight per plant, and 1000-grain weight of the mutant were lower than those of the wild type. The ultrastructural observation showed that no significant difference was found between the mutant and the wild type during prior albino stage, however, at the albino stage the number of granum-thylakoids and grana lamellae became fewer or completely disappeared, but the strom-thylakoid was obviously visible. After turning green,the structure of most chloroplasts recovered to normal, but number of chloroplast was still lower than that of the wild type. When exposed to photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) of 110 μmol·m -2 ·s -1 , the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of mutant was significantly lower than that of the wild type, and the non-regulated energy dissipation (Y NO ) was significantly higher than that of the wild type, while the change of the maximum photosystem II quantum yield (F v /F m ), potential activity of photosystem II (F v /F o ), photochemical quenching (q P ), effective quantum yield (Y PSI I) and regulated non-photochemical energy dissipation (Y NPQ ) were different at various stages. In addition, the differences of the electron transport rate (ETR), photochemical quenching (q P ), and effective quantum yield (Y PSI I) between mutant and wild type varied under different PAR conditions. It was concluded that with the change of chloroplast ultrastructure, the leaf color and photosynthesis of the wheat mutant Mt18 change correspondingly. The chloroplast ultrastructure was obviously different from that of wild type, and the photosynthetic efficiency

  17. Effect of Propellant Composition to the Temperature Sensitivity of Composite Propellant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Amir; Mamat, Rizalman; Amin, Makeen; Wan Ali, Wan Khairuddin

    2012-01-01

    The propellant composition is one of several parameter that influencing the temperature sensitivity of composite propellant. In this paper, experimental investigation of temperature sensitivity in burning rate of composite propellant was conducted. Four sets of different propellant compositions had been prepared with the combination of ammonium perchlorate (AP) as an oxidizer, aluminum (Al) as fuel and hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) as fuel and binder. For each mixture, HTPB binder was fixed at 15% and cured with isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). By varying AP and Al, the effect of oxidizer- fuel mixture ratio (O/F) on the whole propellant can be determined. The propellant strands were manufactured using compression molded method and burnt in a strand burner using wire technique over a range of pressure from 1 atm to 31 atm. The results obtained shows that the temperature sensitivity, a, increases with increasing O/F. Propellant p80 which has O/F ratio of 80/20 gives the highest value of temperature sensitivity which is 1.687. The results shows that the propellant composition has significant effect on the temperature sensitivity of composite propellant

  18. Influenza surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Bednarska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza surveillance was established in 1947. From this moment WHO (World Health Organization has been coordinating international cooperation, with a goal of monitoring influenza virus activity, effective diagnostic of the circulating viruses and informing society about epidemics or pandemics, as well as about emergence of new subtypes of influenza virus type A. Influenza surveillance is an important task, because it enables people to prepare themselves for battle with the virus that is constantly mutating, what leads to circulation of new and often more virulent strains of influenza in human population. As vaccination is the most effective method of fighting the virus, one of the major tasks of GISRS is developing an optimal antigenic composition of the vaccine for the current epidemic season. European Influenza Surveillance Network (EISN has also developed over the years. EISN is running integrated epidemiological and virological influenza surveillance, to provide appropriate data to public health experts in member countries, to enable them undertaking relevant activities based on the current information about influenza activity. In close cooperation with GISRS and EISN are National Influenza Centres - national institutions designated by the Ministry of Health in each country.

  19. Isolation of temperature-sensitive mutants of 16 S rRNA in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triman, K; Becker, E; Dammel, C

    1989-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive mutants have been isolated following hydroxylamine mutagenesis of a plasmid containing Escherichia coli rRNA genes carrying selectable markers for spectinomycin resistance (U1192 in 16 S rRNA) and erythromycin resistance (G2058 in 23 S rRNA). These antibiotic resistance....... The mutations were localized by in vitro restriction fragment replacement followed by in vivo marker rescue and were identified by DNA sequence analysis. We report here seven single-base alterations in 16 S rRNA (A146, U153, A350, A359, A538, A1292 and U1293), five of which produce temperature......-sensitive spectinomycin resistance and two that produce unconditional loss of resistance. In each case, loss of ribosomal function can be accounted for by disruption of base-pairing in the secondary structure of 16 S rRNA. For the temperature-sensitive mutants, there is a lag period of about two generations between...

  20. Study on temperature sensitivity of topological insulators based on long-period fiber grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianhua; Zhao, Chenghai; Li, Jianbo; He, Mengdong

    2017-06-01

    Based on a long-period fiber grating, we conducted experimental research on the temperature sensitivity of topological insulators. The long-period fiber grating and topological insulators solution were encapsulated in a capillary tube using UV glue, and the temperature response was measured. Within a range of 35 to 75 centigrade, one resonance dip of a long-period fiber grating exhibits a redshift of 1.536 nm. The temperature sensitivity is about 7.7 times of an ordinary long-period fiber grating's sensitivity (0.005 nm/°C). A numerical simulation is also performed on the basis of the experiments.

  1. Characterization of the temperature-sensitive mutations un-7 and png-1 in Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterle, Michael G; Wiest, Aric E; Plamann, Mike; McCluskey, Kevin

    2010-05-18

    The model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa has been studied for over fifty years and many temperature-sensitive mutants have been generated. While most of these have been mapped genetically, many remain anonymous. The mutation in the N. crassa temperature-sensitive lethal mutant un-7 was identified by a complementation based approach as being in the open reading frame designated NCU00651 on linkage group I. Other mutations in this gene have been identified that lead to a temperature-sensitive morphological phenotype called png-1. The mutations underlying un-7 result in a serine to phenylalanine change at position 273 and an isoleucine to valine change at position 390, while the mutation in png-1 was found to result in a serine to leucine change at position 279 although there were other conservative changes in this allele. The overall morphology of the strain carrying the un-7 mutation is compared to strains carrying the png-1 mutation and these mutations are evaluated in the context of other temperature-sensitive mutants in Neurospora.

  2. Temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor in the 720-nm region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Grossmann, Benoist E.

    1991-01-01

    Recently measured properties of water vapor (H2O) absorption lines have been used in calculations to evalute the temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar (Dial) H2O measurements. This paper estimates the temperature sensitivity of H2O lines in the 717-733-nm region for both H2O mixing ratio and number density measurements, and discusses the influence of the H2O line ground state energies E-double-prime, the H2O absorption linewidths, the linewidth temperature dependence parameter, and the atmospheric temperature and pressure variations with altitude and location on the temperature sensitivity calculations. Line parameters and temperature sensitivity calculations for 67 H2O lines in the 720-nm band are given which can be directly used in field experiments. Water vapor lines with E-double-prime values in the 100-300/cm range were found to be optimum for Dial measurements of H2O number densities, while E-double-prime values in the 250-500/cm range were found to be optimum for H2O mixing ratio measurements.

  3. Alginate microgels loaded with temperature sensitive liposomes for magnetic resonance imageable drug release and microgel visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Elk, Merel; Lorenzato, Cyril; Ozbakir, Burcin; Oerlemans, Chris; Storm, Gert; Nijsen, Frank; Deckers, Roel; Vermonden, Tina; Hennink, Wim E.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare and characterize alginate microgels loaded with temperature sensitive liposomes, which release their payload after mild hyperthermia. It is further aimed that by using these microgels both the drug release and the microgel deposition can be visualized by

  4. Temperature-Sensitive Mutants of Mouse Hepatitis Virus Strain A59: Isolation, Characterization and Neuropathogenic Properties.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.M. Koolen (Marck); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G. van Steenis (Bert); M.C. Horzinek; B.A.M. van der Zeijst (Ben)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractTwenty 5-fluorouracil-induced temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 were isolated from 1284 virus clones. Mutants were preselected on the basis of their inability to induce syncytia in infected cells at the restrictive temperature (40 degrees) vs the

  5. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study of Structural Changes in Temperature-Sensitive Microgel Colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stieger, M.A.; Richtering, W.; Pedersen, J.S.; Lindner, P.

    2004-01-01

    The structure of temperature-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) microgels in dilute suspension was investigated by means of small-angle neutron scattering. A direct modeling expression for the scattering intensity distribution was derived which describes very well the experimental data at all

  6. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration is dependent on readily decomposable C substrate concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionova, A. A.; Yevdokimov, I. V.; Bykhovets, S. S.

    2007-06-01

    Temperature acclimation of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is one of the major uncertainties in predicting soil CO2 efflux by the increase in global mean temperature. A reasonable explanation for an apparent acclimation proposed by Davidson and colleagues (2006) based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics suggests that temperature sensitivity decreases when both maximal activity of respiratory enzymes (Vmax) and half- saturation constant (Ks) cancel each other upon temperature increase. We tested the hypothesis of the canceling effect by the mathematical simulation of the data obtained in the incubation experiments with forest and arable soils. Our data confirm the hypothesis and suggest that concentration of readily decomposable C substrate as glucose equivalent is an important factor controlling temperature sensitivity. The highest temperature sensitivity was observed when C substrate concentration was much lower than Ks. Increase of substrate content to the half-saturation constant resulted in temperature acclimation associated with the canceling effect. Addition of the substrate to the level providing respiration at a maximal rate Vmax leads to the acclimation of the whole microbial community as such. However, growing microbial biomass was more sensitive to the temperature alterations. This study improves our understanding of the instability of temperature sensitivity of soil respiration under field conditions, explaining this phenomenon by changes in concentration of readily decomposable C substrate. It is worth noting that this pattern works regardless of the origin of C substrate: production by SOM decomposition, release into the soil by rhizodeposition, litter fall or drying-rewetting events.

  7. Validation of temperature-sensitive radio transmitters for measurement of body temperature in small animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Joseph B.; Tieleman, B. I.; Shobrak, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study on the core body temperature (T(b)) of desert birds, we purposed to use temperature-sensitive implantable radio transmitters. Because of the difficulty in recapturing these birds, we needed to know if these electronic devices held their calibration over the duration of normal

  8. Influenza (Flu) Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Influenza (Flu) Viruses Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ... influenza circulate and cause illness. More Information about Flu Viruses Types of Influenza Viruses Influenza A and ...

  9. Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Virus Language: English (US) Español Recommend ...

  10. Avian And Other Zoonotic Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Avian influenza: guidelines. recommendations, descriptions Global Influenza and Surveillance Response System (GISRS) Food safety authorities network OIE Avian Influenza ...

  11. Radiation synthesis of a water-soluble temperature sensitive polymer, activated copolymer and applications in immobilization of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Maolin; Ha Hongfei; Wu Jilan

    1993-01-01

    In this work the radiation polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAM) in aqueous solutions has been carried out and a water-soluble, temperature sensitive polymer and copolymer were obtained by using γ-rays from Co-60 source at room temperature. We have gained the optimum dose and dose-rate of radiation synthesis of linear polyNIPAAM through determining conversion yield and viscosity. In order to immobilize protein (BSA) and enzyme (HRP) into this water-soluble polymer, we prepared an activated copolymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N-acryloxysuccinimide). The BSA and HRP has been immobilized onto the activated copolymer. The BSA (HRP)/copolymer conjugates still kept the original thermally sensitive properties of the linear polyNIPAAM. The conjugation yield of BSA to the activated copolymer decreased with increasing dose. Immobilized HRP was stable at 0 o C for a long time and has, at least, 4 days stability at room temperature. Immobilized HRP activity was lowered when the temperature was raised. This phenomenon was reversible and the immobilized HRP regained activity. The optimum pH of the immobilized HRP shifted from ca.5 upward to ca. 7. (author)

  12. Transposition of Tn5096 from a temperature-sensitive transducible plasmid in Streptomyces spp.

    OpenAIRE

    McHenney, M A; Baltz, R H

    1991-01-01

    Transposon Tn5096 was inserted into a derivative of the temperature-sensitive plasmid pMT660 containing the bacteriophage FP43 pac site. The resulting plasmid, pRHB126, was transduced by FP43 into several Streptomyces species. Tn5096 transposed from pRHB126 into different sites in the genomes of Streptomyces ambofaciens, Streptomyces cinnamonensis, Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), Streptomyces fradiae, Streptomyces griseofuscus, and Streptomyces thermotolerans.

  13. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration rates enhanced by microbial community response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhu, Kristiina; Auffret, Marc D; Dungait, Jennifer A J; Hopkins, David W; Prosser, James I; Singh, Brajesh K; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wookey, Philip A; Agren, Göran I; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Gouriveau, Fabrice; Bergkvist, Göran; Meir, Patrick; Nottingham, Andrew T; Salinas, Norma; Hartley, Iain P

    2014-09-04

    Soils store about four times as much carbon as plant biomass, and soil microbial respiration releases about 60 petagrams of carbon per year to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. Short-term experiments have shown that soil microbial respiration increases exponentially with temperature. This information has been incorporated into soil carbon and Earth-system models, which suggest that warming-induced increases in carbon dioxide release from soils represent an important positive feedback loop that could influence twenty-first-century climate change. The magnitude of this feedback remains uncertain, however, not least because the response of soil microbial communities to changing temperatures has the potential to either decrease or increase warming-induced carbon losses substantially. Here we collect soils from different ecosystems along a climate gradient from the Arctic to the Amazon and investigate how microbial community-level responses control the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. We find that the microbial community-level response more often enhances than reduces the mid- to long-term (90 days) temperature sensitivity of respiration. Furthermore, the strongest enhancing responses were observed in soils with high carbon-to-nitrogen ratios and in soils from cold climatic regions. After 90 days, microbial community responses increased the temperature sensitivity of respiration in high-latitude soils by a factor of 1.4 compared to the instantaneous temperature response. This suggests that the substantial carbon stores in Arctic and boreal soils could be more vulnerable to climate warming than currently predicted.

  14. Temperature-sensitive host range mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koment, R.W.; Rapp, F.

    1975-01-01

    Herpesviruses are capable of several types of infection of a host cell. To investigate the early events which ultimately determine the nature of the virus-host cell interaction, a system was established utilizing temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2. Four mutants have been isolated which fail to induce cytopathic effects and do not replicate at 39 C in hamster embryo fibroblast cells. At least one mutant is virus DNA negative. Since intracellular complementation is detectable between pairs of mutants, a virus function is known to be temperature sensitive. However, all four mutants induce cytopathic effects and replicate to parental virus levels in rabbit kidney cells at 39 C. This suggests that a host cell function, lacking or nonfunctional in HEF cells but present in rabbit kidney cells at 39 C, is required for the replication of these mutants in hamster embryo fibroblast cells at 39 C. Therefore, we conclude that these mutants are both temperature sensitive and exhibit host range properties

  15. Phenotypic characterization of adenovirus type 12 temperature-sensitive mutants in productive infection and transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, S; Kimura, G

    1980-01-01

    Eleven temperature-sensitive mutants of adenovirus type 12, capable of forming plaques in human cells at 33 C but not at 39.5 C, were isolated from a stock of a wild-type strain after treatment with either nitrous acid or hydroxylamine. Complementation tests in doubly infected human cells permitted a tentative assignment of eight of these mutants to six complementation groups. Temperature-shift experiments revealed that one mutant is affected early and most of the other mutants are affected late. Only the early mutant, H12ts505, was temperature sensitive in viral DNA replication. Infectious virions of all the mutants except H12ts505 and two of the late mutants produced at 33 C, appeared to be more heat labile than those of the wild type. Only H12ts505 was temperature sensitive for the establishment of transformation of rat 3Y1 cells. One of the late mutants (H12ts504) had an increased transforming ability at the permissive temperature. Results of temperature-shift transformation experiments suggest that a viral function affected in H12ts505 is required for "initiation" of transformation. Some of the growth properties of H12ts505-transformed cells were also temperature dependent, suggesting that a functional expression of a gene mutation in H12ts505 is required to maintain at least some aspects of the transformed state.

  16. Identification of ribonucleotide reductase mutation causing temperature-sensitivity of herpes simplex virus isolates from whitlow by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daikoku, Tohru; Oyama, Yukari; Yajima, Misako; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Shimada, Yuka; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Miwa, Naoko; Okuda, Tomoko; Sata, Tetsutaro; Shiraki, Kimiyasu

    2015-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 caused a genital ulcer, and a secondary herpetic whitlow appeared during acyclovir therapy. The secondary and recurrent whitlow isolates were acyclovir-resistant and temperature-sensitive in contrast to a genital isolate. We identified the ribonucleotide reductase mutation responsible for temperature-sensitivity by deep-sequencing analysis.

  17. Low temperature sensitization behavior in the weld metal of austenitic stainless steel. Study on low temperature sensitization in weldments of austenitic stainless steels and its improvement by laser surface melting treatment. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Hiroaki; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi; Nakao, Yoshikuni

    1996-01-01

    Low temperature sensitization (LTS) behavior in the weld metal of Type308 stainless steel was investigated in this study. Three kinds of Type308 stainless steels, of which carbon contents were 0.04%, 0.06% and 0.08%, were used for this study. TIG welding method was adopted to make the weld metals. Weld metals were subjected to the sensitizing heat treatment in the temperature range between 773 K and 1073 K. The degree of sensitization were examined by the EPR method and the Strauss test. Chromium carbide was absorbed to precipitate at δ/γ grain boundaries in the as-welded weld metals Corrosion test results have shown that the higher carbon content in the weld metal is, the earlier sensitization yields in it. Sensitization in weld metals is found to occur faster than in those solution heat-treated at 1273 K prior to sensitizing heat-treatment. This fact suggests that preexisted chromium carbides have an effect to accelerate sensitization. That is, it is apparent that LTS phenomenon occur even in the weld metal. Moreover, sensitization in the weld metal has occurred in much shorter time than in HAZ, which is attributed to the preferential precipitation of chromium carbide at δ/γ grain boundaries in the weld metals. (author)

  18. Soil warming increases metabolic quotients of soil microorganisms without changes in temperature sensitivity of soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Jiménez, Sara; Soong, Jenniffer L.; Leblans, Niki I. W.; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Dauwe, Steven; Fransen, Erik; Janssens, Ivan A.

    2017-04-01

    Increasing temperatures can accelerate soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and release large amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere, potentially inducing climate change feedbacks. Alterations to the temperature sensitivity and metabolic pathways of soil microorganisms in response to soil warming can play a key role in these soil carbon (C) losses. Here, we present results of an incubation experiment using soils from a geothermal gradient in Iceland that have been subjected to different intensities of soil warming (+0, +1, +3, +5, +10 and +20 °C above ambient) over seven years. We hypothesized that 7 years of soil warming would led to a depletion of labile organic substrates, with a subsequent decrease of the "apparent" temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. Associated to this C limitation and more sub-optimal conditions for microbial growth, we also hypothesized increased microbial metabolic quotients (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass), which is associated with increases in the relative amount of C invested into catabolic pathways along the warming gradient. Soil respiration and basal respiration rates decreased with soil warming intensity, in parallel with a decline in soil C availability. Contrasting to our first hypothesis, we did not detect changes in the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration with soil warming or on the availability of nutrients and of labile C substrates at the time of incubation. However, in agreement to our second hypothesis, microbial metabolic quotients (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass) increased at warmer temperatures, while the C retained in biomass decreased as substrate became limiting. Long-term (7 years) temperature increases thus triggered a change in the metabolic functioning of the soil microbial communities towards increasing energy costs for maintenance or resource acquisition, thereby lowering the capacity of C retention and stabilization of warmed soils. These results highlight the need

  19. Avian Influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Gary Adam; Maslow, Melanie Jane

    2005-05-01

    The current epidemic of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Southeast Asia raises serious concerns that genetic reassortment will result in the next influenza pandemic. There have been 164 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza since 1996. In 2004, there were 45 cases of human H5N1 in Vietnam and Thailand, with a mortality rate more than 70%. In addition to the potential public health hazard, the current zoonotic epidemic has caused severe economic losses. Efforts must be concentrated on early detection of bird outbreaks with aggressive culling, quarantining, and disinfection. To prepare for and prevent an increase in human cases, it is essential to improve detection methods and stockpile effective antivirals. Novel therapeutic modalities, including short-interfering RNAs and new vaccine strategies that use plasmid-based genetic systems, offer promise should a pandemic occur.

  20. Species composition and forest structure explain the temperature sensitivity patterns of productivity in temperate forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Bohn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rising temperatures due to climate change influence the wood production of forests. Observations show that some temperate forests increase their productivity, whereas others reduce their productivity. This study focuses on how species composition and forest structure properties influence the temperature sensitivity of aboveground wood production (AWP. It further investigates which forests will increase their productivity the most with rising temperatures. We described forest structure by leaf area index, forest height and tree height heterogeneity. Species composition was described by a functional diversity index (Rao's Q and a species distribution index (ΩAWP. ΩAWP quantified how well species are distributed over the different forest layers with regard to AWP. We analysed 370 170 forest stands generated with a forest gap model. These forest stands covered a wide range of possible forest types. For each stand, we estimated annual aboveground wood production and performed a climate sensitivity analysis based on 320 different climate time series (of 1-year length. The scenarios differed in mean annual temperature and annual temperature amplitude. Temperature sensitivity of wood production was quantified as the relative change in productivity resulting from a 1 °C rise in mean annual temperature or annual temperature amplitude. Increasing ΩAWP positively influenced both temperature sensitivity indices of forest, whereas forest height showed a bell-shaped relationship with both indices. Further, we found forests in each successional stage that are positively affected by temperature rise. For such forests, large ΩAWP values were important. In the case of young forests, low functional diversity and small tree height heterogeneity were associated with a positive effect of temperature on wood production. During later successional stages, higher species diversity and larger tree height heterogeneity were an advantage. To achieve such a

  1. Species composition and forest structure explain the temperature sensitivity patterns of productivity in temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Friedrich J.; May, Felix; Huth, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Rising temperatures due to climate change influence the wood production of forests. Observations show that some temperate forests increase their productivity, whereas others reduce their productivity. This study focuses on how species composition and forest structure properties influence the temperature sensitivity of aboveground wood production (AWP). It further investigates which forests will increase their productivity the most with rising temperatures. We described forest structure by leaf area index, forest height and tree height heterogeneity. Species composition was described by a functional diversity index (Rao's Q) and a species distribution index (ΩAWP). ΩAWP quantified how well species are distributed over the different forest layers with regard to AWP. We analysed 370 170 forest stands generated with a forest gap model. These forest stands covered a wide range of possible forest types. For each stand, we estimated annual aboveground wood production and performed a climate sensitivity analysis based on 320 different climate time series (of 1-year length). The scenarios differed in mean annual temperature and annual temperature amplitude. Temperature sensitivity of wood production was quantified as the relative change in productivity resulting from a 1 °C rise in mean annual temperature or annual temperature amplitude. Increasing ΩAWP positively influenced both temperature sensitivity indices of forest, whereas forest height showed a bell-shaped relationship with both indices. Further, we found forests in each successional stage that are positively affected by temperature rise. For such forests, large ΩAWP values were important. In the case of young forests, low functional diversity and small tree height heterogeneity were associated with a positive effect of temperature on wood production. During later successional stages, higher species diversity and larger tree height heterogeneity were an advantage. To achieve such a development, one could plant

  2. Applicability of low-melting-point microcrystalline wax to develop temperature-sensitive formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kohei; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru

    2017-10-30

    Low-melting-point substances are widely used to develop temperature-sensitive formulations. In this study, we focused on microcrystalline wax (MCW) as a low-melting-point substance. We evaluated the drug release behavior of wax matrix (WM) particles using various MCW under various temperature conditions. WM particles containing acetaminophen were prepared using a spray congealing technique. In the dissolution test at 37°C, WM particles containing low-melting-point MCWs whose melting was starting at approx. 40°C (Hi-Mic-1045 or 1070) released the drug initially followed by the release of only a small amount. On the other hand, in the dissolution test at 20 and 25°C for WM particles containing Hi-Mic-1045 and at 20, 25, and 30°C for that containing Hi-Mic-1070, both WM particles showed faster drug release than at 37°C. The characteristic drug release suppression of WM particles containing low-melting-point MCWs at 37°C was thought attributable to MCW melting, as evidenced by differential scanning calorimetry analysis and powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Taken together, low-melting-point MCWs may be applicable to develop implantable temperature-sensitive formulations that drug release is accelerated by cooling at administered site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of temperature on the formation and encapsulation of gold nanoparticles using a temperature-sensitive template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Peter Bengzon Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article describes the synthesis of temperature-sensitive and amine-rich microgel particle as a dual reductant and template to generate smart gold/polymer nanocomposite particle. TEM images illustrate the influence of reaction temperature on the formation and in-site encapsulation of gold nanoparticles using the temperature-sensitive microgel template. Thermal stability of the resultant gold/polymer composite particles was also examined.

  4. Isolation of avian influenza virus in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S E; Naqi, S A; Grumbles, L C

    1981-01-01

    An avian influenza virus with surface antigens similar to those of fowl plague virus (Hav 1 Nav 2) was isolated in 1979 from 2 commercial turkey flocks in Central Texas. Two flocks in contact with these infected flocks developed clinical signs, gross lesions, and seroconversion but yielded no virus. This was the first recorded incidence of clinical avian influenza in Texas turkeys and only the second time that an agent with these surface antigens was isolated from turkeys in U.S.

  5. Time-temperature-sensitization and time-temperature-precipitation behavior of alloy 625

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, M.; Heubner, U.

    1996-01-01

    Time-Temperature-Sensitization diagrams have been established for a low-carbon version of alloy 625 (UNS N06625). Sensitization in terms of a 50 microm (2 mils) intergranular penetration criterion starts after about 3 h aging time at 750 C (soft annealed condition) or after less than 1 h aging time at 800 C (solution annealed condition) when tested according to ASTM-G 28 method A. Grain boundary precipitation of carbides occurs during aging of both the soft annealed and the solution annealed material, but the soft annealed material exhibits a more pronounced general precipitation of Ni 3 (Nb,Mo) phase giving rise to more distinct loss of ductility. Sensitization of alloy 625 may be retarded by lowering its iron content

  6. Temperature-sensitive mutants of fowl plague virus: isolation and genetic characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almond, J.W.; McGeoch, D.; Barry, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-nine temperature-sensitive mutants of fowl plague virus (FPV) strain Rostock and four ts mutants of FPV-strain Dobson were isolated by utilizing two methods of plaque screening, after either spontaneous or chemically induced mutagenesis. Twenty-nine of the FPV-Rostock mutants were further characterized by genetic recombination studies and were found to fall into six high frequency recombination groups. The genome segment carrying the ts mutation in each group was identified by analyzing the gene composition of ts + recombinants generated from crosses between representatives of each group and ts mutants of FPV-Dobson. It was concluded that the six groups correspond to mutations in six different genome segments, namely, those coding for the P 1 , P 2 , P 3 , HA, NP, and NS proteins

  7. Differences in SOM decomposition and temperature sensitivity among soil aggregate size classes in a temperate grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Dan; Wen, Xuefa; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Rongfu

    2015-01-01

    The principle of enzyme kinetics suggests that the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is inversely related to organic carbon (C) quality, i.e., the C quality-temperature (CQT) hypothesis. We tested this hypothesis by performing laboratory incubation experiments with bulk soil, macroaggregates (MA, 250-2000 μm), microaggregates (MI, 53-250 μm), and mineral fractions (MF, temperature and aggregate size significantly affected on SOM decomposition, with notable interactive effects (Ptemperature in the following order: MA>MF>bulk soil >MI(P classes (P temperature is closely associated withsoil aggregation and highlights the complex responses of ecosystem C budgets to future warming scenarios.

  8. Modeling programmable deformation of self-folding all-polymer structures with temperature-sensitive hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Wei; Zhou, Jinxiong; Li, Meie

    2013-01-01

    Combination of soft active hydrogels with hard passive polymers gives rise to all-polymer composites. The hydrogel is sensitive to external stimuli while the passive polymer is inert. Utilizing the different behaviors of two materials subject to environmental variation, for example temperature, results in self-folding soft machines. We report our efforts to model the programmable deformation of self-folding structures with temperature-sensitive hydrogels. The self-folding structures are realized either by constructing a bilayer structure or by incorporating hydrogels as hinges. The methodology and the results may aid the design, control and fabrication of 3D complex structures from 2D simple configurations through self-assembly. (paper)

  9. Two mutations which confer temperature-sensitive radiation sensitivity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, K.S.Y.; Mortimer, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    X-ray survival curves for two mutations, rad54 and rad55, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are presented. These mutations confer temperature sensitive X-ray sensitivity; that is, rad54 and rad55 strains display a wild type X-ray survival response at permissive temperatures and a radiosensitive X-ray survival response at restrictive temperatures. The survival response of cells which were shifted from a permissive to a restrictive temperature or vice versa at various post-irradiation times indicates that repair and fixation of X-ray induced lesions is largely complete three hours after X-irradiation. Experiments to determine the utilization sequence of the rad54 and rad55 gene products in the repair of X-ray induced damage suggest that the two products are required in an interdependent manner

  10. Refractive index and temperature sensitivity characteristics of a micro-slot fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Pouneh; Yan, Zhijun; Zhou, Kaiming; Zhang, Lin

    2012-07-10

    Fabrication and characterization of a UV inscribed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with a micro-slot liquid core is presented. Femtosecond (fs) laser patterning/chemical etching technique was employed to engrave a micro-slot with dimensions of 5.74 μm(h)×125 μm(w)×1388.72 μm(l) across the whole grating. The device has been evaluated for refractive index (RI) and temperature sensitivities and exhibited distinctive thermal response and RI sensitivity beyond the detection limit of reported fiber gratings. This structure has not just been RI sensitive, but also maintained the robustness comparing with the bare core FBGs and long-period gratings with the partial cladding etched off.

  11. Further studies on a temperature-sensitive mutant of Escherichia coli with defective repair capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfiadakis, I.; Geissler, E.; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Zentralinstitut fuer Molekularbiologie)

    1981-01-01

    A temperature-sensitive mutant of E. coli, WG24, was studied with respect to its sensitivity to photodynamic action, its capacity to perform host controlled reactivation, and its sensitivity to transduction at elevated temperatures. Mutant cells are much more sensitive than wild type cells to photodynamic action by thiopyronine and visible light at elevated temperatures. As well defined rec mutants, WG24 cells are less able to reactivate UV irradiated lambdac phages at elevated temperatures, while their ability to repair T1 phages is less impaired. Mutant cells cannot be transduced to T6 resistance at a detectable rate at elevated temperature. It is concluded, therefore, that some rec gene carries a ts mutation in this mutant. (author)

  12. Immunolocalization and distribution of functional temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhan, Ubaidus; Sato, Masaki; Shinomiya, Takashi; Okubo, Migiwa; Tsumura, Maki; Muramatsu, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Mitsuru; Tazaki, Masakazu; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki

    2013-11-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels are unique cellular sensors involved in multiple cellular functions. Their role in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. The expression and localization of temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary (submandibular, sublingual and parotid) glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The effects of various TRP channel agonists on carbachol (CCh)-induced salivary secretion in the submandibular gland and on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in a submandibular epithelial cell line were also investigated. Immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of TRP-melastatin subfamily member 8 (TRPM8) and TRP-ankyrin subfamily member 1 (TRPA1) in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in the sublingual, submandibular and parotid glands. In addition, TRP-vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), TRPV3 and TRPV4 were also expressed in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in all three types of gland. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR results demonstrated the mRNA expression of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM8 and TRPA1 in acinar and ductal cells in these salivary glands. Perfusion of the entire submandibular gland with the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (1 μM) via the submandibular artery significantly increased CCh-induced salivation, whereas perfusion with TRPM8 and TRPA1 agonists (0.5 μM WS12 and 100 μM allyl isothiocyanate) decreased it. Application of agonists for each of the thermosensitive TRP channels increased [Ca(2+)]i in a submandibular epithelial cell line. These results indicate that temperature-sensitive TRP channels are localized and distributed in acinar, ductal and myoepithelial cells in salivary glands and that they play a functional role in the regulation and/or modulation of salivary secretion.

  13. Regional Variation in the Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Organic Matter Decomposition in China's Forests and Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; He, N.; Zhu, J.; Yu, G.; Xu, L.; Niu, S.; Sun, X.; Wen, X.

    2017-12-01

    How to assess the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and its regional variation with high accuracy is one of the largest uncertainties in determining the intensity and direction of the global carbon (C) cycle in response to climate change. In this study, we collected a series of soils from 22 forest sites and 30 grassland sites across China to explore regional variation in Q10 and its underlying mechanisms. We conducted a novel incubation experiment with periodically changing temperature (5-30 °C), while continuously measuring soil microbial respiration rates. The results showed that Q10 varied significantly across different ecosystems, ranging from 1.16 to 3.19 (mean 1.63). Q10 was ordered as follows: alpine grasslands (2.01) > temperate grasslands (1.81) > tropical forests (1.59) > temperate forests (1.55) > subtropical forests (1.52). The Q10 of grasslands (1.90) was significantly higher than that of forests (1.54). Furthermore, Q10 significantly increased with increasing altitude and decreased with increasing longitude. Environmental variables and substrate properties together explained 52% of total variation in Q10 across all sites. Overall, pH and soil electrical conductivity primarily explained spatial variation in Q10. The general negative relationships between Q10 and substrate quality among all ecosystem types supported the C quality temperature (CQT) hypothesis at a large scale, which indicated that soils with low quality should have higher temperature sensitivity. Furthermore, alpine grasslands, which had the highest Q10, were predicted to be more sensitive to climate change under the scenario of global warming.

  14. Seasonal variation in the temperature sensitivity of proteolytic enzyme activity in temperate forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzostek, Edward R.; Finzi, Adrien C.

    2012-03-01

    Increasing soil temperature has the potential to alter the activity of the extracellular enzymes that mobilize nitrogen (N) from soil organic matter (SOM) and ultimately the availability of N for primary production. Proteolytic enzymes depolymerize N from proteinaceous components of SOM into amino acids, and their activity is a principal driver of the within-system cycle of soil N. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the soils of temperate forest tree species differ in the temperature sensitivity of proteolytic enzyme activity over the growing season and the role of substrate limitation in regulating temperature sensitivity. Across species and sampling dates, proteolytic enzyme activity had relatively low sensitivity to temperature with a mean activation energy (Ea) of 33.5 kJ mol-1. Ea declined in white ash, American beech, and eastern hemlock soils across the growing season as soils warmed. By contrast, Eain sugar maple soil increased across the growing season. We used these data to develop a species-specific empirical model of proteolytic enzyme activity for the 2009 calendar year and studied the interactive effects of soil temperature (ambient or +5°C) and substrate limitation (ambient or elevated protein) on enzyme activity. Declines in substrate limitation had a larger single-factor effect on proteolytic enzyme activity than temperature, particularly in the spring. There was, however, a large synergistic effect of increasing temperature and substrate supply on proteolytic enzyme activity. Our results suggest limited increases in N availability with climate warming unless there is a parallel increase in the availability of protein substrates.

  15. Pandemisk influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom; Almlund, Pernille

    danske myndigheder kommunikerede åbent og løbende om influenza-krisen og dens trusler. Indsatsen blev anerkendt fra alle sider og førte på intet tidspunkt til alvorlig og længerevarende kritik af myndighederne. Der var tale om en tilfredsstillende krisehåndtering, hvad angår den del, der fokuserede på...... kommunikation om denne tog en drejning i forhold til selve influenza-krisen. Myndighedernes kommunikation blev mere uklar, forvirringen voksede i befolkningen, og der blev rejst kritik i offentligheden. Forløbet rejser spørgsmålene om, den samlede håndtering af kommunikationsindsatsen kunne have været mere...

  16. Avian influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare; More, Simon; Bicout, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Previous introductions of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) to the EU were most likely via migratory wild birds. A mathematical model has been developed which indicated that virus amplification and spread may take place when wild bird populations of sufficient size within EU become ...... of implementing specific biosecurity measures on reducing the probability of AIV entering into a poultry holding. Human diligence is pivotal to select, implement and maintain specific, effective biosecurity measures....

  17. Influenza vaccines: from whole virus preparations to recombinant protein technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Victor C

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination against influenza represents our most effective form of prevention. Historical approaches toward vaccine creation and production have yielded highly effective vaccines that are safe and immunogenic. Despite their effectiveness, these historical approaches do not allow for the incorporation of changes into the vaccine in a timely manner. In 2013, a recombinant protein-based vaccine that induces immunity toward the influenza virus hemagglutinin was approved for use in the USA. This vaccine represents the first approved vaccine formulation that does not require an influenza virus intermediate for production. This review presents a brief history of influenza vaccines, with insight into the potential future application of vaccines generated using recombinant technology.

  18. Linking temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition to its molecular structure, accessibility, and microbial physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagai, Rota; Kishimoto-Mo, Ayaka W; Yonemura, Seiichiro; Shirato, Yasuhito; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Yagasaki, Yasumi

    2013-04-01

    Temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition may have a significant impact on global warming. Enzyme-kinetic hypothesis suggests that decomposition of low-quality substrate (recalcitrant molecular structure) requires higher activation energy and thus has greater temperature sensitivity than that of high-quality, labile substrate. Supporting evidence, however, relies largely on indirect indices of substrate quality. Furthermore, the enzyme-substrate reactions that drive decomposition may be regulated by microbial physiology and/or constrained by protective effects of soil mineral matrix. We thus tested the kinetic hypothesis by directly assessing the carbon molecular structure of low-density fraction (LF) which represents readily accessible, mineral-free SOM pool. Using five mineral soil samples of contrasting SOM concentrations, we conducted 30-days incubations (15, 25, and 35 °C) to measure microbial respiration and quantified easily soluble C as well as microbial biomass C pools before and after the incubations. Carbon structure of LFs (soil was measured by solid-state (13) C-NMR. Decomposition Q10 was significantly correlated with the abundance of aromatic plus alkyl-C relative to O-alkyl-C groups in LFs but not in bulk soil fraction or with the indirect C quality indices based on microbial respiration or biomass. The warming did not significantly change the concentration of biomass C or the three types of soluble C despite two- to three-fold increase in respiration. Thus, enhanced microbial maintenance respiration (reduced C-use efficiency) especially in the soils rich in recalcitrant LF might lead to the apparent equilibrium between SOM solubilization and microbial C uptake. Our results showed physical fractionation coupled with direct assessment of molecular structure as an effective approach and supported the enzyme-kinetic interpretation of widely observed C quality-temperature relationship for short-term decomposition. Factors

  19. UV-B-inducible and temperature-sensitive photoreactivation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Qishen; Hays, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CBPDs) in vivo from the DNA of UV-irradiated eight-leaf seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana was rapid in the presence of visible light (half-life about 1 hour); removal of CBPDs in the dark, presumably via excision repair, was an order of magnitude slower. Extracts of plants contained significant photolyase in vitro, as assayed by restoration of transforming activity to UV-irradiated Escherichia coli plasmids; activity was maximal from four-leaf to 12-leaf stages. UV-B treatment of seedlings for 6 hours increased photolyase specific activity in extracts twofold. Arabidopsis photolyase was markedly temperature-sensitive, both in vitro (half-life at 30C about 12 minutes) and in vivo (half-life at 30C, 30 to 45 minutes). The wavelength dependency of the photoreactivation cross-section showed a broad peak at 375 to 400 nm, and is thus similar to that for maize pollen; it overlaps bacterial and yeast photolyase action spectra

  20. Differential chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA synthesis in temperature-sensitive mutants of Ustilago maydis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unrau, P.

    1977-01-01

    The amount and type of residual DNA synthesis was determined in eight temperature-sensitive mutants of the smut fungus Ustilago maydis after incubation at the restrictive temperature (32/sup 0/C) for eight hours. Mutants ts-220, ts-207, ts-432 and ts-346 were found to have an overall reduction in the synthesis of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in comparison to the wild-type. In mutants ts-20, tsd 1-1, ts-84 and pol 1-1 nuclear DNA synthesis was depressed relative to mitochondrial synthesis. The DNA-polymerase mutant pol 1-1 had persistent nuclear synthesis at about 50% of the rate of synthesis of mitochondrial DNA and similar behavior was observed in a diploid homozygous strain. Mutant ts-84 had an initial burst of DNA synthesis which was reduced for nuclear but not mitochondrial synthesis after three hours preincubation at 32/sup 0/C. tsd 1-1 and ts-20 had nuclear residual synthesis amounting to about 25% of the relative rate of mitochondrial synthesis which correlates to increasing UV sensitivity of these strains on incubation at 32/sup 0/C. A pol 1-1 ts-84 double mutant had an additive loss of nuclear DNA synthesis which indicates that the steps of replication involved may be sequential.

  1. Differences in SOM decomposition and temperature sensitivity among soil aggregate size classes in a temperate grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    Full Text Available The principle of enzyme kinetics suggests that the temperature sensitivity (Q10 of soil organic matter (SOM decomposition is inversely related to organic carbon (C quality, i.e., the C quality-temperature (CQT hypothesis. We tested this hypothesis by performing laboratory incubation experiments with bulk soil, macroaggregates (MA, 250-2000 μm, microaggregates (MI, 53-250 μm, and mineral fractions (MF, MF>bulk soil >MI(P <0.05. The Q10 values were highest for MA, followed (in decreasing order by bulk soil, MF, and MI. Similarly, the activation energies (Ea for MA, bulk soil, MF, and MI were 48.47, 33.26, 27.01, and 23.18 KJ mol-1, respectively. The observed significant negative correlations between Q10 and C quality index in bulk soil and soil aggregates (P<0.05 suggested that the CQT hypothesis is applicable to soil aggregates. Cumulative C emission differed significantly among aggregate size classes (P <0.0001, with the largest values occurring in MA (1101 μg g-1, followed by MF (976 μg g-1 and MI (879 μg g-1. These findings suggest that feedback from SOM decomposition in response to changing temperature is closely associated withsoil aggregation and highlights the complex responses of ecosystem C budgets to future warming scenarios.

  2. Effect of Low-Temperature Sensitization on Hydrogen Embrittlement of 301 Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh Yu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of metastable austenite on the hydrogen embrittlement (HE of cold-rolled (30% reduction in thickness 301 stainless steel (SS was investigated. Cold-rolled (CR specimens were hydrogen-charged in an autoclave at 300 or 450 °C under a pressure of 10 MPa for 160 h before tensile tests. Both ordinary and notched tensile tests were performed in air to measure the tensile properties of the non-charged and charged specimens. The results indicated that cold rolling caused the transformation of austenite into α′ and ε-martensite in the 301 SS. Aging at 450 °C enhanced the precipitation of M23C6 carbides, G, and σ phases in the cold-rolled specimen. In addition, the formation of α′ martensite and M23C6 carbides along the grain boundaries increased the HE susceptibility and low-temperature sensitization of the 450 °C-aged 301 SS. In contrast, the grain boundary α′-martensite and M23C6 carbides were not observed in the as-rolled and 300 °C-aged specimens.

  3. Low temperature sensitization of austenitic stainless steel: an ageing effect during BWR service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, B.K.; Sinha, A.K.; Rastogi, P.K.; Kulkarni, P.G.

    1994-01-01

    Sensitization in austenitic stainless steel refers to chromium carbide precipitation at the grain boundaries with concomitant depletion of chromium below 12% near grain boundaries. This makes the material susceptible to either intergranular corrosion (IGC) or intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). This effect is predominant whenever austenitic stainless steel is subjected to thermal exposure in the temperature range 723-1073K either during welding or during heat treatment. Low temperature sensitization (LTS) refers to sensitization at temperature below the typical range of sensitization i.e. 723-1073K. A prerequisite for LTS phenomenon is reported to be the presence of chromium carbide nuclei at the grain boundaries which can grow during boiling water reactor service even at a relatively lower temperature of around 560K. LTS can lead to failure of BWR pipe due to IGSCC. The paper reviews the phenomenological and mechanistic aspects of LTS. Studies carried out regarding effect of prior cold work on LTS are reported. Summary of the studies reported in literature to examine the occurrence of LTS during BWR service has also been included. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs

  4. Temperature sensitivity analysis of polarity controlled electrostatically doped tunnel field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Kaushal; Pandey, Sunil; Kondekar, P. N.; Sharma, Dheeraj

    2016-09-01

    The conventional tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) have shown potential to scale down in sub-22 nm regime due to its lower sub-threshold slope and robustness against short-channel effects (SCEs), however, sensitivity towards temperature variation is a major concern. Therefore, for the first time, we investigate temperature sensitivity analysis of a polarity controlled electrostatically doped tunnel field-effect transistor (ED-TFET). Different performance metrics and analog/RF figure-of-merits were considered and compared for both devices, and simulations were performed using Silvaco ATLAS device tool. We found that the variation in ON-state current in ED-TFET is almost temperature independent due to electrostatically doped mechanism, while, it increases in conventional TFET at higher temperature. Above room temperature, the variation in ION, IOFF, and SS sensitivity in ED-TFET are only 0.11%/K, 2.21%/K, and 0.63%/K, while, in conventional TFET the variations are 0.43%/K, 2.99%/K, and 0.71%/K, respectively. However, below room temperature, the variation in ED-TFET ION is 0.195%/K compared to 0.27%/K of conventional TFET. Moreover, it is analysed that the incomplete ionization effect in conventional TFET severely affects the drive current and the threshold voltage, while, ED-TFET remains unaffected. Hence, the proposed ED-TFET is less sensitive towards temperature variation and can be used for cryogenics as well as for high temperature applications.

  5. An Updated Collection of Sequence Barcoded Temperature-Sensitive Alleles of Yeast Essential Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Megan; Milbury, Karissa L; Chiang, Jennifer H; Sinha, Sunita; Ben-Aroya, Shay; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Hieter, Philip; Stirling, Peter C

    2015-07-14

    Systematic analyses of essential gene function using mutant collections in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been conducted using collections of heterozygous diploids, promoter shut-off alleles, through alleles with destabilized mRNA, destabilized protein, or bearing mutations that lead to a temperature-sensitive (ts) phenotype. We previously described a method for construction of barcoded ts alleles in a systematic fashion. Here we report the completion of this collection of alleles covering 600 essential yeast genes. This resource covers a larger gene repertoire than previous collections and provides a complementary set of strains suitable for single gene and genomic analyses. We use deep sequencing to characterize the amino acid changes leading to the ts phenotype in half of the alleles. We also use high-throughput approaches to describe the relative ts behavior of the alleles. Finally, we demonstrate the experimental usefulness of the collection in a high-content, functional genomic screen for ts alleles that increase spontaneous P-body formation. By increasing the number of alleles and improving the annotation, this ts collection will serve as a community resource for probing new aspects of biology for essential yeast genes. Copyright © 2015 Kofoed et al.

  6. In vivo non-invasive optical imaging of temperature-sensitive co-polymeric nanohydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyan; Zhang, Jian; Qian, Zhiyu; Liu, Fei; Chen, Xinyang; Hu, Yuzhu; Gu, Yueqing

    2008-05-01

    Assessment of hyperthermia in pathological tissue is a promising strategy for earlier diagnosis of malignant tumors. In this study, temperature-sensitive co-polymeric nanohydrogel poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (PNIPA-co-AA) was successfully synthesized by the precipitation polymerization method. The diameters of nanohydrogels were controlled to be less than 100 nm. Also the lower critical solution temperature (LCST, 40 °C) was manipulated above physiological temperature after integration of near-infrared (NIR) organic dye (heptamethine cyanine dye, HMCD) within its interior cores. NIR laser light (765 nm), together with sensitive charge coupled device (CCD) cameras, were designed to construct an NIR imaging system. The dynamic behaviors of PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites in denuded mice with or without local hyperthermia treatment were real-time monitored by an NIR imager. The results showed that the PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites accumulated in the leg treated with local heating and diffused much slower than that in the other leg without heating. The results demonstrated that the temperature-responsive PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites combining with an NIR imaging system could be an effective temperature mapping technique, which provides a promising prospect for earlier tumor diagnosis and thermally related therapeutic assessment.

  7. In vivo non-invasive optical imaging of temperature-sensitive co-polymeric nanohydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haiyan; Hu Yuzhu; Zhang Jian; Liu Fei; Chen Xinyang; Gu Yueqing; Qian Zhiyu

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of hyperthermia in pathological tissue is a promising strategy for earlier diagnosis of malignant tumors. In this study, temperature-sensitive co-polymeric nanohydrogel poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (PNIPA-co-AA) was successfully synthesized by the precipitation polymerization method. The diameters of nanohydrogels were controlled to be less than 100 nm. Also the lower critical solution temperature (LCST, 40 deg. C) was manipulated above physiological temperature after integration of near-infrared (NIR) organic dye (heptamethine cyanine dye, HMCD) within its interior cores. NIR laser light (765 nm), together with sensitive charge coupled device (CCD) cameras, were designed to construct an NIR imaging system. The dynamic behaviors of PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites in denuded mice with or without local hyperthermia treatment were real-time monitored by an NIR imager. The results showed that the PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites accumulated in the leg treated with local heating and diffused much slower than that in the other leg without heating. The results demonstrated that the temperature-responsive PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites combining with an NIR imaging system could be an effective temperature mapping technique, which provides a promising prospect for earlier tumor diagnosis and thermally related therapeutic assessment

  8. Isolation of temperature-sensitive mutations in murC of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Mihoko; Kurokawa, Kenji; Nishida, Satoshi; Ueno, Kohji; Matsuo, Miki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2007-09-01

    Enzymes in the bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway are important targets for novel antibiotics. Of 750 temperature-sensitive (TS) mutants of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, six were complemented by the murC gene, which encodes the UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid:l-alanine ligase. Each mutation resulted in a single amino acid substitution and, in all cases, the TS phenotype was suppressed by high osmotic stress. In mutant strains with the G222E substitution, a decrease in the viable cell number immediately after shift to the restrictive temperature was observed. These results suggest that S. aureus MurC protein is essential for cell growth. The MurC H343Y mutation is located in the putative alanine recognition pocket. Consistent with this, allele-specific suppression was observed of the H343Y mutation by multiple copies of the aapA gene, which encodes an alanine transporter. The results suggest an in vivo role for the H343 residue of S. aureus MurC protein in high-affinity binding to L-alanine.

  9. Numerical simulation of temperature's sensitivity of chamfer hole's resistance on hydraulic step cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinhua, Wang; Hanliang, Bo; Wenxiang, Zheng; Jinnong, Yang

    2003-01-01

    The control rod drive is a very important device for controlling nuclear reactor startup, operation, shut down, and power change. The ability of the control rod drive to move safely and reliably directly relates to reactor safety. The Hydraulic Control Rod Drive System (HCRDS) is a new type of control rod drive system developed by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University for Nuclear Heating Reactors. The HCRDS, designed using the hydrodynamic principle, has many advantages, including having the structure complete in the vessel, no possible ejection accident, short drive line, simple movable parts structure and safe shutdown during accidents. The hydraulic step cylinder is the key part for the HCRDS. In the process of reactor startup, the variation of temperature could make the water's density and viscosity change, and the force from the water flow would change accordingly. These factors could influence the performance of the hydraulic step cylinder. In this paper, the temperature sensitivity of the chamfer hole's resistance in the hydraulic step cylinder was studied with the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) program CFX5.5. The results were satisfactory: the discipline of variation of the chamfer hole's resistance with the outer tube's position was the same at different temperatures, the discrepancy of the chamfer hole's resistance was small for the same position at different temperatures, the chamfer hole's resistance decreased gradually with the increase of temperature, and the decrease extent was relatively small

  10. Effect of soil moisture on the temperature sensitivity of Northern soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minions, C.; Natali, S.; Ludwig, S.; Risk, D.; Macintyre, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic and boreal ecosystems are vast reservoirs of carbon and are particularly sensitive to climate warming. Changes in the temperature and precipitation regimes of these regions could significantly alter soil respiration rates, impacting atmospheric concentrations and affecting climate change feedbacks. Many incubation studies have shown that both temperature and soil moisture are important environmental drivers of soil respiration; this relationship, however, has rarely been demonstrated with in situ data. Here we present the results of a study at six field sites in Alaska from 2016 to 2017. Low-power automated soil gas systems were used to measure soil surface CO2 flux from three forced diffusion chambers and soil profile concentrations from three soil depth chambers at hourly intervals at each site. HOBO Onset dataloggers were used to monitor soil moisture and temperature profiles. Temperature sensitivity (Q10) was determined at each site using inversion analysis applied over different time periods. With highly resolved data sets, we were able to observe the changes in soil respiration in response to changes in temperature and soil moisture. Through regression analysis we confirmed that temperature is the primary driver in soil respiration, but soil moisture becomes dominant beyond a certain threshold, suppressing CO2 flux in soils with high moisture content. This field study supports the conclusions made from previous soil incubation studies and provides valuable insights into the impact of both temperature and soil moisture changes on soil respiration.

  11. Effect of cold work on low-temperature sensitization behaviour of austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kain, V. E-mail: vivkain@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Chandra, K.; Adhe, K.N.; De, P.K

    2004-09-01

    The effects of cold work and low-temperature sensitization heat treatment of non-sensitized austenitic stainless steels have been investigated and related to the cracking in nuclear power reactors. Types 304, 304L and 304LN developed martensite after 15% cold working. Heat treatment of these cold worked steels at 500 deg. C led to sensitization of grain boundaries and the matrix and a desensitization effect was seen in 11 days due to fast diffusion rate of chromium in martensite. Types 316L and 316LN did not develop martensite upon cold rolling due to its chemical composition suppressing the martensite transformation (due to deformation) temperature, hence these were not sensitized at 500 deg. C. The sensitization of the martensite phase was always accompanied by a hump in the reactivation current peak in the double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation test, thus providing a test to detect such sensitization. It was shown that bending does not produce martensite and therefore, is a better method to simulate weld heat affected zone. Bending and heating at 500 deg. C for 11 days led to fresh precipitation due to increased retained strain and desensitization of 304LN due to faster diffusion rate of chromium along dislocations. The as received or solution annealed 304 and 304LN with 0.15% nitrogen showed increased sensitization after heat treatment at 500 deg. C, indicating the presence of carbides/nitrides.

  12. Temperature Sensitivity of an Atomic Vapor Cell-Based Dispersion-Enhanced Optical Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, K.; Smith, D. D.; Chang, H.; Luckay, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancement of the response of an optical cavity to a change in optical path length, through the use of an intracavity fast-light medium, has previously been demonstrated experimentally and described theoretically for an atomic vapor cell as the intracavity resonant absorber. This phenomenon may be used to enhance both the scale factor and sensitivity of an optical cavity mode to the change in path length, e.g. in gyroscopic applications. We study the temperature sensitivity of the on-resonant scale factor enhancement, S(sub o), due to the thermal sensitivity of the lower-level atom density in an atomic vapor cell, specifically for the case of the Rb-87 D(sub 2) transition. A semi-empirical model of the temperature-dependence of the absorption profile, characterized by two parameters, a(sub o)(T) and gamma(sub a)(T) allows the temperature-dependence of the cavity response, S(sub o)(T) and dS(sub o)/dT to be predicted over a range of temperature. We compare the predictions to experiment. Our model will be useful in determining the useful range for S(sub o), given the practical constraints on temperature stability for an atomic vapor cell.

  13. Lattice Boltzmann simulation for temperature-sensitive magnetic fluids in a porous square cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Licong; Zhang Xinrong; Niu Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    A lattice Boltzmann method is developed to simulate temperature-sensitive magnetic fluids in a porous cavity. In the simulation, the magnetic force, efficient gravity, viscous loss term and geometric loss term in porous medium are imported to the momentum equation. To test the reliability of the method, a validation with water in porous cavity is carried out. Good agreements with the previous results verify that the present lattice Boltzmann method is promising for simulation of magnetic fluids in porous medium. In this study, we investigate the change of magnetization with external magnetic field, and we present numerical results for the streamlines, isotherms, and magnetization at vertical or horizontal mid-profiles for different values of Ram. In addition, Nusselt numbers changing with magnetic Rayleigh numbers are also investigated. - Highlights: → Developed a lattice Boltzmann method for magnetic nano-fluids in porous cavity. → Clarified flow and heat transfer for different values of (magnetic) Rayleigh numbers. → Heat transfer enhancement for magnetic fluid in porous cavity.

  14. Human body temperature and new approaches to constructing temperature-sensitive bacterial vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Matthew D; Bosio, Catharine M; Duplantis, Barry N; Nano, Francis E

    2011-09-01

    Many of the live human and animal vaccines that are currently in use are attenuated by virtue of their temperature-sensitive (TS) replication. These vaccines are able to function because they can take advantage of sites in mammalian bodies that are cooler than the core temperature, where TS vaccines fail to replicate. In this article, we discuss the distribution of temperature in the human body, and relate how the temperature differential can be exploited for designing and using TS vaccines. We also examine how one of the coolest organs of the body, the skin, contains antigen-processing cells that can be targeted to provoke the desired immune response from a TS vaccine. We describe traditional approaches to making TS vaccines, and highlight new information and technologies that are being used to create a new generation of engineered TS vaccines. We pay particular attention to the recently described technology of substituting essential genes from Arctic bacteria for their homologues in mammalian pathogens as a way of creating TS vaccines.

  15. The Role of Extracellular Histones in Influenza Virus Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashar, Harshini K; Mueller, Nathan C; Rudd, Jennifer M; Snider, Timothy A; Achanta, Mallika; Prasanthi, Maram; Pulavendran, Sivasami; Thomas, Paul G; Ramachandran, Akhilesh; Malayer, Jerry R; Ritchey, Jerry W; Rajasekhar, Rachakatla; Chow, Vincent T K; Esmon, Charles T; Teluguakula, Narasaraju

    2018-01-01

    Although exaggerated host immune responses have been implicated in influenza-induced lung pathogenesis, the etiologic factors that contribute to these events are not completely understood. We previously demonstrated that neutrophil extracellular traps exacerbate pulmonary injury during influenza pneumonia. Histones are the major protein components of neutrophil extracellular traps and are known to have cytotoxic effects. Here, we examined the role of extracellular histones in lung pathogenesis during influenza. Mice infected with influenza virus displayed high accumulation of extracellular histones, with widespread pulmonary microvascular thrombosis. Occluded pulmonary blood vessels with vascular thrombi often exhibited endothelial necrosis surrounded by hemorrhagic effusions and pulmonary edema. Histones released during influenza induced cytotoxicity and showed strong binding to platelets within thrombi in infected mouse lungs. Nasal wash samples from influenza-infected patients also showed increased accumulation of extracellular histones, suggesting a possible clinical relevance of elevated histones in pulmonary injury. Although histones inhibited influenza growth in vitro, in vivo treatment with histones did not yield antiviral effects and instead exacerbated lung pathology. Blocking with antihistone antibodies caused a marked decrease in lung pathology in lethal influenza-challenged mice and improved protection when administered in combination with the antiviral agent oseltamivir. These findings support the pathogenic effects of extracellular histones in that pulmonary injury during influenza was exacerbated. Targeting histones provides a novel therapeutic approach to influenza pneumonia. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic Reassortment Among the Influenza Viruses (Avian Influenza, Human Influenza and Swine Influenza in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus is a hazardous virus and harm to respiratory tract. The virus infect birds, pigs, horses, dogs, mammals and humans. Pigs are important hosts in ecology of the influenza virus because they have two receptors, namely NeuAc 2,3Gal and NeuAc 2,6Gal which make the pigs are sensitive to infection of influenza virus from birds and humans and genetic reassortment can be occurred. Classical swine influenza H1N1 viruses had been circulated in pigs in North America and other countries for 80 years. In 1998, triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza viruses that contains genes of human influenza A virus (H3N2, swine influenza virus (H1N1 and avian influenza are reported as cause an outbreaks in pigs in North America. Furthermore, the circulation of triple reassortant H3N2 swine influenza virus resulting reassortant H1N1 swine influenza and reassortant H1N2 swine influenza viruses cause infection in humans. Humans who were infected by triple reassortant swine influenza A virus (H1N1 usually made direct contact with pigs. Although without any clinical symptoms, pigs that are infected by triple reassortant swine influenza A (H1N1 can transmit infection to the humans around them. In June 2009, WHO declared that pandemic influenza of reassortant H1N1 influenza A virus (novel H1N1 has reached phase 6. In Indonesia until 2009, there were 1005 people were infected by H1N1 influenza A and 5 of them died. Novel H1N1 and H5N1 viruses have been circulated in humans and pigs in Indonesia. H5N1 reassortant and H1N1 viruses or the seasonal flu may could arise because of genetic reassortment between avian influenza and humans influenza viruses that infect pigs together.

  17. A Defective Interfering Influenza RNA Inhibits Infectious Influenza Virus Replication in Human Respiratory Tract Cells: A Potential New Human Antiviral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Smith

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective interfering (DI viruses arise during the replication of influenza A virus and contain a non-infective version of the genome that is able to interfere with the production of infectious virus. In this study we hypothesise that a cloned DI influenza A virus RNA may prevent infection of human respiratory epithelial cells with infection by influenza A. The DI RNA (244/PR8 was derived by a natural deletion process from segment 1 of influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1; it comprises 395 nucleotides and is packaged in the DI virion in place of a full-length genome segment 1. Given intranasally, 244/PR8 DI virus protects mice and ferrets from clinical influenza caused by a number of different influenza A subtypes and interferes with production of infectious influenza A virus in cells in culture. However, evidence that DI influenza viruses are active in cells of the human respiratory tract is lacking. Here we show that 244/PR8 DI RNA is replicated by an influenza A challenge virus in human lung diploid fibroblasts, bronchial epithelial cells, and primary nasal basal cells, and that the yield of challenge virus is significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner indicating that DI influenza virus has potential as a human antiviral.

  18. Effects of Soil Moisture on the Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Heterotrophic Respiration: A Laboratory Incubation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiping; Hui, Dafeng; Shen, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    The temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh) is an important ecological model parameter and may vary with temperature and moisture. While Q10 generally decreases with increasing temperature, the moisture effects on Q10 have been controversial. To address this, we conducted a 90-day laboratory incubation experiment using a subtropical forest soil with a full factorial combination of five moisture levels (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% water holding capacity - WHC) and five temperature levels (10, 17, 24, 31, and 38°C). Under each moisture treatment, Rh was measured several times for each temperature treatment to derive Q10 based on the exponential relationships between Rh and temperature. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial community structure and soil nutrients were also measured several times to detect their potential contributions to the moisture-induced Q10 variation. We found that Q10 was significantly lower at lower moisture levels (60%, 40% and 20% WHC) than at higher moisture level (80% WHC) during the early stage of the incubation, but became significantly higher at 20%WHC than at 60% WHC and not significantly different from the other three moisture levels during the late stage of incubation. In contrast, soil Rh had the highest value at 60% WHC and the lowest at 20% WHC throughout the whole incubation period. Variations of Q10 were significantly associated with MBC during the early stages of incubation, but with the fungi-to-bacteria ratio during the later stages, suggesting that changes in microbial biomass and community structure are related to the moisture-induced Q10 changes. This study implies that global warming’s impacts on soil CO2 emission may depend upon soil moisture conditions. With the same temperature rise, wetter soils may emit more CO2 into the atmosphere via heterotrophic respiration. PMID:24647610

  19. What is the Right Temperature Sensitivity for Foraminiferal Mg/ca Paleothermometry in Ancient Oceans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggins, S.; Holland, K.; Hoenisch, B.; Spero, H. J.; Allen, K. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mg/Ca seawater thermometry has become a cornerstone of modern paleoceanography. Laboratory experiments, seafloor core-top samples, plankton trap and tow collected materials all indicate consistent temperature sensitivity (9-10% increase in Mg/Ca per °C) for a full range of modern planktic foraminifer species. While these results demonstrate the overall robustness of Mg/Ca paleothermometry for the modern ocean, it is an empirical tool for which there is limited understanding of its bio-physio-chemical basis and its applicability to ancient oceans. We have undertaken experimental cultures of Orbulina universa, Globigerinoides sacculifer and Globigerinoides ruber (pink) across a range of seawater compositions (temperature, carbonate chemistry and Mg/Casw) that encompass modern and ancient Paleogene and Cretaceous ocean compositions (Mg/Casw 0.25x to 2x modern and pCO2 = 200 to 1500 ppmv). Our results reveal that the sensitivity of the Mg/Ca-thermometer for planktic foraminifers reduces significantly with Mg/Casw, rather than remaining constant as has been widely assumed or, increasing at lower Mg/Casw as proposed recently by Evans and Müller (2012). These results indicate that the modern sensitivity of 9-10% increase in Mg/Ca per °C cannot yet be applied to obtain reliable relative temperature change estimates to ancient oceans. These results further suggest that variations in foraminiferal Mg/Ca compositions in ancient oceans with lower Mg/Casw may correspond to larger temperature variations than in the modern ocean. Evans D. and Müller W., Paleoceanography, vol. 27, PA4205, doi:10.1029/2012PA002315, 2012

  20. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type="submit" value="Submit" /> Archived Flu Emails Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Information on Avian Influenza Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  1. Universal antibodies against the highly conserved influenza fusion peptide cross-neutralize several subtypes of influenza A virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, Anwar M. [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Van Domselaar, Gary [National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Li, Changgui; Wang, Junzhi [National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Beijing (China); She, Yi-Min; Cyr, Terry D. [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Sui, Jianhua [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); He, Runtao [National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Marasco, Wayne A. [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Li, Xuguang, E-mail: Sean.Li@hc-sc.gc.ca [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} The fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza viral hemagglutinins. {yields} Anti-fusion peptide antibodies are universal antibodies that cross-react with all influenza HA subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies cross-neutralize different influenza A subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies inhibit the fusion process between the viruses and the target cells. -- Abstract: The fusion peptide of influenza viral hemagglutinin plays a critical role in virus entry by facilitating membrane fusion between the virus and target cells. As the fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza A and B viruses, it could be an attractive target for vaccine-induced immune responses. We previously reported that antibodies targeting the first 14 amino acids of the N-terminus of the fusion peptide could bind to virtually all influenza virus strains and quantify hemagglutinins in vaccines produced in embryonated eggs. Here we demonstrate that these universal antibodies bind to the viral hemagglutinins in native conformation presented in infected mammalian cell cultures and neutralize multiple subtypes of virus by inhibiting the pH-dependant fusion of viral and cellular membranes. These results suggest that this unique, highly-conserved linear sequence in viral hemagglutinin is exposed sufficiently to be attacked by the antibodies during the course of infection and merits further investigation because of potential importance in the protection against diverse strains of influenza viruses.

  2. Advances in influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Reperant (Leslie); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInfluenza virus infections yearly cause high morbidity and mortality burdens in humans, and the development of a new influenza pandemic continues to threaten mankind as a Damoclean sword. Influenza vaccines have been produced by using egg-based virus growth and passaging techniques that

  3. Bird Flu (Avian Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu (avian influenza) Overview Bird flu is caused by a type of influenza virus that rarely infects humans. More than a ... for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that seasonal influenza is responsible for ... heat destroys avian viruses, cooked poultry isn't a health threat. ...

  4. Enzymatic- and temperature-sensitive controlled release of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxides (USPIOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shann S; Scherer, Randy L; Ortega, Ryan A; Bell, Charleson S; O'Neil, Conlin P; Hubbell, Jeffrey A; Giorgio, Todd D

    2011-02-27

    Drug and contrast agent delivery systems that achieve controlled release in the presence of enzymatic activity are becoming increasingly important, as enzymatic activity is a hallmark of a wide array of diseases, including cancer and atherosclerosis. Here, we have synthesized clusters of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxides (USPIOs) that sense enzymatic activity for applications in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To achieve this goal, we utilize amphiphilic poly(propylene sulfide)-bl-poly(ethylene glycol) (PPS-b-PEG) copolymers, which are known to have excellent properties for smart delivery of drug and siRNA. Monodisperse PPS polymers were synthesized by anionic ring opening polymerization of propylene sulfide, and were sequentially reacted with commercially available heterobifunctional PEG reagents and then ssDNA sequences to fashion biofunctional PPS-bl-PEG copolymers. They were then combined with hydrophobic 12 nm USPIO cores in the thin-film hydration method to produce ssDNA-displaying USPIO micelles. Micelle populations displaying complementary ssDNA sequences were mixed to induce crosslinking of the USPIO micelles. By design, these crosslinking sequences contained an EcoRV cleavage site. Treatment of the clusters with EcoRV results in a loss of R2 negative contrast in the system. Further, the USPIO clusters demonstrate temperature sensitivity as evidenced by their reversible dispersion at ~75°C and re-clustering following return to room temperature. This work demonstrates proof of concept of an enzymatically-actuatable and thermoresponsive system for dynamic biosensing applications. The platform exhibits controlled release of nanoparticles leading to changes in magnetic relaxation, enabling detection of enzymatic activity. Further, the presented functionalization scheme extends the scope of potential applications for PPS-b-PEG. Combined with previous findings using this polymer platform that demonstrate controlled drug release in oxidative

  5. Increase of ozone concentrations, its temperature sensitivity and the precursor factor in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised about the possible connections between the local and regional photochemical problem and global warming. The current study assesses the trend of ozone in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta (PRD in South China and investigates the interannual changes of sensitivity of ozone to air temperature, as well as the trends in regional precursors. Results reveal, at the three monitoring sites from the mid-1990s to 2010, an increase in the mean ozone concentrations from 1.0 to 1.6 µg m−3 per year. The increase occurred in all seasons, with the highest rate in autumn. This is consistent with trends and temperature anomalies in the region. The increase in the sensitivity of ozone to temperature is clearly evident from the correlation between ozone (OMI [Ozone Monitoring Instrument] column amount and surface air temperature (from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder displayed in the correlation maps for the PRD during the prominently high ozone period of July–September. It is observed to have increased from 2005 to 2010, the latter being the hottest year on record globally. To verify this temporal change in sensitivity, the ground-level trends of correlation coefficients/regression slopes are analysed. As expected, results reveal a statistically significant upward trend over a 14-year period (1997–2010. While the correlation revealed in the correlation maps is in agreement with the corresponding OMI ozone maps when juxtaposed, temperature sensitivity of surface ozone also shows an association with ozone concentration, with R=0.5. These characteristics of ozone sensitivity are believed to have adverse implications for the region. As shown by ground measurements and/or satellite analyses, the decrease in nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx in Hong Kong is not statistically significant while NO2 of the PRD has only very slightly changed. However, carbon dioxide has remarkably declined in the whole region. While these observations concerning

  6. Enzymatic- and temperature-sensitive controlled release of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxides (USPIOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega Ryan A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug and contrast agent delivery systems that achieve controlled release in the presence of enzymatic activity are becoming increasingly important, as enzymatic activity is a hallmark of a wide array of diseases, including cancer and atherosclerosis. Here, we have synthesized clusters of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxides (USPIOs that sense enzymatic activity for applications in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. To achieve this goal, we utilize amphiphilic poly(propylene sulfide-bl-poly(ethylene glycol (PPS-b-PEG copolymers, which are known to have excellent properties for smart delivery of drug and siRNA. Results Monodisperse PPS polymers were synthesized by anionic ring opening polymerization of propylene sulfide, and were sequentially reacted with commercially available heterobifunctional PEG reagents and then ssDNA sequences to fashion biofunctional PPS-bl-PEG copolymers. They were then combined with hydrophobic 12 nm USPIO cores in the thin-film hydration method to produce ssDNA-displaying USPIO micelles. Micelle populations displaying complementary ssDNA sequences were mixed to induce crosslinking of the USPIO micelles. By design, these crosslinking sequences contained an EcoRV cleavage site. Treatment of the clusters with EcoRV results in a loss of R2 negative contrast in the system. Further, the USPIO clusters demonstrate temperature sensitivity as evidenced by their reversible dispersion at ~75°C and re-clustering following return to room temperature. Conclusions This work demonstrates proof of concept of an enzymatically-actuatable and thermoresponsive system for dynamic biosensing applications. The platform exhibits controlled release of nanoparticles leading to changes in magnetic relaxation, enabling detection of enzymatic activity. Further, the presented functionalization scheme extends the scope of potential applications for PPS-b-PEG. Combined with previous findings using this polymer platform that

  7. Locally Targeted Delivery of a Micron-Size Radiation Therapy Source Using Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yusung, E-mail: yusung-kim@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Seol, Dong Rim [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Mohapatra, Sucheta [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Sunderland, John J. [Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Schultz, Michael K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Domann, Frederick E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Department of Surgery, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Lim, Tae-Hong [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To propose a novel radiation therapy (RT) delivery modality: locally targeted delivery of micron-size RT sources by using temperature-sensitive hydrogel (RT-GEL) as an injectable vehicle. Methods and Materials: Hydrogel is a water-like liquid at room temperature but gels at body temperature. Two US Food and Drug Administration-approved polymers were synthesized. Indium-111 (In-111) was used as the radioactive RT-GEL source. The release characteristics of In-111 from polymerized RT-GEL were evaluated. The injectability and efficacy of RT-GEL delivery to human breast tumor were tested using animal models with control datasets of RT-saline injection. As proof-of-concept studies, a total of 6 nude mice were tested by injecting 4 million tumor cells into their upper backs after a week of acclimatization. Three mice were injected with RT-GEL and 3 with RT-saline. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and CT scans were performed on each mouse at 0, 24, and 48 h after injection. The efficacy of RT-GEL was determined by comparison with that of the control datasets by measuring kidney In-111 accumulation (mean nCi/cc), representing the distant diffusion of In-111. Results: RT-GEL was successfully injected into the tumor by using a 30-gauge needle. No difficulties due to polymerization of hydrogel during injection and intratumoral pressure were observed during RT-GEL injection. No back flow occurred for either RT-GEL or RT-saline. The residual tumor activities of In-111 were 49% at 24 h (44% at 48 h, respectively) for RT-GEL and 29% (22%, respectively) for RT-saline. Fused SPECT-CT images of RT-saline showed considerable kidney accumulation of In-111 (2886%, 261%, and 262% of RT-GEL at 0, 24, and 48 h, respectively). Conclusions: RT-GEL was successfully injected and showed much higher residual tumor activity: 170% (200%, respectively), than that of RT-saline at 24 h (48 h, respectively) after injection with a minimal accumulation of In-111 to the

  8. Comparison of conventional chemotherapy, stealth liposomes and temperature-sensitive liposomes in a mathematical model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Gasselhuber

    Full Text Available Various liposomal drug carriers have been developed to overcome short plasma half-life and toxicity related side effects of chemotherapeutic agents. We developed a mathematical model to compare different liposome formulations of doxorubicin (DOX: conventional chemotherapy (Free-DOX, Stealth liposomes (Stealth-DOX, temperature sensitive liposomes (TSL with intra-vascular triggered release (TSL-i, and TSL with extra-vascular triggered release (TSL-e. All formulations were administered as bolus at a dose of 9 mg/kg. For TSL, we assumed locally triggered release due to hyperthermia for 30 min. Drug concentrations were determined in systemic plasma, aggregate body tissue, cardiac tissue, tumor plasma, tumor interstitial space, and tumor cells. All compartments were assumed perfectly mixed, and represented by ordinary differential equations. Contribution of liposomal extravasation was negligible in the case of TSL-i, but was the major delivery mechanism for Stealth-DOX and for TSL-e. The dominant delivery mechanism for TSL-i was release within the tumor plasma compartment with subsequent tissue- and cell uptake of released DOX. Maximum intracellular tumor drug concentrations for Free-DOX, Stealth-DOX, TSL-i, and TSL-e were 3.4, 0.4, 100.6, and 15.9 µg/g, respectively. TSL-i and TSL-e allowed for high local tumor drug concentrations with reduced systemic exposure compared to Free-DOX. While Stealth-DOX resulted in high tumor tissue concentrations compared to Free-DOX, only a small fraction was bioavailable, resulting in little cellular uptake. Consistent with clinical data, Stealth-DOX resulted in similar tumor intracellular concentrations as Free-DOX, but with reduced systemic exposure. Optimal release time constants for maximum cellular uptake for Stealth-DOX, TSL-e, and TSL-i were 45 min, 11 min, and <3 s, respectively. Optimal release time constants were shorter for MDR cells, with ∼4 min for Stealth-DOX and for TSL-e. Tissue concentrations

  9. Mass rearing of the Medfly temperature sensitive lethal genetic sexing strain in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caceres, C.; Fisher, K.; Rendon, P.

    2000-01-01

    Field tests have demonstrated the increased efficiency of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.), when only male Medflies are released (Robinson et al. 1986, Nitzan et al. 1993, McInnis et al. 1994, Rendon 1996). Genetic sexing strains (GSS) of Medflies, containing temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) and white pupae colour (wp) mutations (Franz et al. 1994) developed by FAO/IAEA, allow the separation of male flies from female flies. GSS technology has reached a stage where it is being used in large-scale operational programmes, such as the Moscamed Program in Guatemala. GSS based on the wp/tsl have the advantages of: 1) not requiring sophisticated equipment for sex separation, 2) a high accuracy of separation (> 99.5% males) is possible and, 3) separation is achieved during egg development, which excludes the unnecessary rearing of females (Franz et al. 1996). It was shown by Franz et al. (1994) that tsl GSS are genetically stable for many generations under small-scale rearing conditions. However, under the large-scale rearing of operational programmes such as Moscamed (Hentze and Mata 1987), a gradual loss of the sex separation mechanism through recombination remains a problem, as has been demonstrated in Guatemala during 1994-1996. This in no way precludes the use of GSS technology, but it does mean that a management system must be used to control this gradual loss of stability; a strategy for colony management which maintains a stable and high level of accuracy of male-only production. The El Pino facility, which mass produces sterile flies for the Guatemala Medflies SIT Program, has introduced a filter rearing system (FRS) (Fisher and Caceres 1999), and has demonstrated in a Medfly tsl GSS known as VIENNA 4/Tol-94, that genetic stability can be maintained. We report the operation of the FRS and its impact upon genetic stability and male-only production. The concept of the FRS has the potential to improve the

  10. Use of recombinant nucleoproteins in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of virus-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibodies in influenza virus A- or B-infected patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Groen (Jan); D. van Alphen; E.C.J. Claas (Eric); R. de Groot (Ronald); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); J.T.M. Voeten; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe nucleoprotein genes of influenza virus A/Netherlands/018/94 (H3N2) and influenza virus B/Harbin/7/94 were cloned into the bacterial expression vector pMalC to yield highly purified recombinant influenza virus A and B nucleoproteins. With these recombinant influenza

  11. Influenza forecasting with Google Flu Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Andrea Freyer; Jalalpour, Mehdi; Gel, Yulia; Levin, Scott; Torcaso, Fred; Igusa, Takeru; Rothman, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    We developed a practical influenza forecast model based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, designed to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the expected number of influenza cases, thus allowing for sufficient time to implement interventions. Secondly, we evaluated the effects of incorporating a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, and meteorological and temporal information on forecast accuracy. Forecast models designed to predict one week in advance were developed from weekly counts of confirmed influenza cases over seven seasons (2004-2011) divided into seven training and out-of-sample verification sets. Forecasting procedures using classical Box-Jenkins, generalized linear models (GLM), and generalized linear autoregressive moving average (GARMA) methods were employed to develop the final model and assess the relative contribution of external variables such as, Google Flu Trends, meteorological data, and temporal information. A GARMA(3,0) forecast model with Negative Binomial distribution integrating Google Flu Trends information provided the most accurate influenza case predictions. The model, on the average, predicts weekly influenza cases during 7 out-of-sample outbreaks within 7 cases for 83% of estimates. Google Flu Trend data was the only source of external information to provide statistically significant forecast improvements over the base model in four of the seven out-of-sample verification sets. Overall, the p-value of adding this external information to the model is 0.0005. The other exogenous variables did not yield a statistically significant improvement in any of the verification sets. Integer-valued autoregression of influenza cases provides a strong base forecast model, which is enhanced by the addition of Google Flu Trends confirming the predictive capabilities of search query based syndromic surveillance. This accessible and flexible forecast model can be used by

  12. Temperature sensitivity of extracellular enzyme kinetics in subtropical wetland soils under different nutrient and water level conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, S.; Inglett, K.; Inglett, P.

    2012-12-01

    Microbial extracellular enzymes play an important role in the initial steps of soil organic matter decomposition and are involved in regulating nutrient cycle processes. Moreover, with the recent concern of climate change, microbial extracellular enzymes may affect the functioning (C losses, C sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions, vegetation changes) of different ecosystems. Hence, it is imperative to understand the biogeochemical processes that may be climate change sensitive. Here, we have measured the Michaelis Menten Kinetics [maximal rate of velocity (Vmax) and half-saturation constant (Km)] of 6 enzymes involved in soil organic matter decomposition (phosphatase, phosphodiesterase, β-D-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, leucine aminopeptidase, N-Acetyl-β-D glucosaminidase) in different nutrient(P) concentration both aerobically and anaerobically in Everglade water conservation area 2A (F1, F4-slough and U3-slough). Temperature sensitivity of different enzymes is assessed within soil of different P concentrations. We hypothesized that the temperature sensitivity of the enzyme changes with the biogeochemical conditions including water level and nutrient condition. Furthermore, we have tested specific hypothesis that higher P concentration will initiate more C demand for microbes leading to higher Vmax value for carbon processing enzymes in high P site. We found temperature sensitivity of all enzymes for Vmax and Km under both aerobic and anaerobic condition ranges from 0.6 to 3.2 for Vmax and 0.5 to 2.5 for Km. Q10 values of Km for glucosidase indicate more temperature sensitivity under anaerobic condition. Under aerobic condition higher temperature showed significant effect on Vmax for bisphosphatase between high P and low P site. Decreasing P concentration from F1 site to U3-S site had showed significant effect in all temperature on carbon processing enzyme. This suggests that in high P site, microbes will use more carbon-processing enzyme to get more carbon

  13. Temperature sensitivity of extreme precipitation events in the south-eastern Alpine forelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeer, Katharina; Kirchengast, Gottfried

    2016-04-01

    factors leads to the urgent questions of what we might expect from future heavy precipitation, particularly summertime convective storms, and how the associated risks will change if the observed trends persist. Working on an event basis allows us to consider a robust diversity of indicators such as storm duration, total sums, and peak intensities of the individual rainfall events in our analysis. First results suggest that the temperature sensitivity of precipitation events in the study region generally rises in accordance with the CC rate, but rates diverge dependent on the spatio-temporal properties of the sampling. At high temperatures above about 25 °C, the heaviest events do not show increases beyond the CC rate, as have been reported in some other studies for temperatures below 25°C. This is likely due to limitations of moisture availability in hot summer conditions. Observations of relative humidity available for 77 out of the 188 stations used support this hypothesis. When events where humidity is well below saturation are excluded from the sample, quantile regression results show higher scaling rates. The preliminary findings underline the need for a more sophisticated analysis of the temperature-precipitation relationship especially in heterogeneous regions with complex terrain.

  14. Behavioural thermoregulation in a temperature-sensitive coral reef fish, the five-lined cardinalfish (Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nay, Tiffany J.; Johansen, Jacob L.; Habary, Adam

    2015-01-01

    provide a strategy to cope with changing conditions. A temperature-sensitive coral reef cardinalfish (Cheilodipterusquinquelineatus) was exposed to 28 °C (average at collection site) or 32 °C (predicted end-of-century) for 6 weeks. Tpref was determined using a shuttlebox system, which allowed fish...... than night-time movements. Understanding temperature-mediated movements is imperative for predicting how ocean warming will influence coral reef species and distribution patterns....

  15. Arabidopsis ZED1-related kinases mediate the temperature-sensitive intersection of immune response and growth homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhicai; Cui, Dayong; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Jingbo; Liu, Cheng; Xin, Wei; Li, Yuan; Liu, Na; Ren, Dongtao; Tang, Dingzhong; Hu, Yuxin

    2017-07-01

    Activation of the immune response in plants antagonizes growth and development in the absence of pathogens, and such an autoimmune phenotype is often suppressed by the elevation of ambient temperature. However, molecular regulation of the ambient temperature-sensitive intersection of immune response and growth is largely elusive. A genetic screen identified an Arabidopsis mutant, zed1-D, by its high temperature-dependent growth retardation. A combination of molecular, cytological and genetic approaches was used to investigate the molecular basis behind the temperature-sensitive growth and immune response in zed1-D. A dominant mutation in HOPZ-ETI-DEFICIENT 1 (ZED1) is responsible for a high temperature-dependent autoimmunity and growth retardation in zed1-D. The autoimmune phenotype in zed1-D is dependent on the HOPZ-ACTIVATED RESISTANCE 1 (ZAR1). ZED1 and some ZED1-related kinases (ZRKs) are induced by elevated temperature and function cooperatively to suppress the immune response by modulating the transcription of SUPPRESSOR OF NPR1-1 CONSTITUTIVE 1 (SNC1) in the absence of pathogens. Our data reveal a previously unidentified role of ZRKs in the ambient temperature-sensitive immune response in the absence of pathogens, and thus reveals a possible molecular mechanism underlying the temperature-mediated intersection of immune response and growth in plants. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  17. Evaluation of a new point-of-care test for influenza A and B virus in travellers with influenza-like symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, T; Schnabel, E; Dieckmann, S; Börner, U; Schweiger, B

    2007-07-01

    Point-of-care (POC) tests for influenza facilitate clinical case management, and might also be helpful in the care of travellers who are at special risk for influenza infection. To evaluate influenza POC testing in travellers, a new assay, the ImmunoCard STAT! Flu A and B, was used to investigate travellers presenting with influenza-like symptoms. Influenza virus infection was diagnosed in 27 (13%) of 203 patients by influenza virus-specific PCR and viral culture. The POC test had sensitivity and specificity values of 64% and 99% for influenza A, and 67% and 100% for influenza B, respectively. Combined sensitivity and specificity were 67% and 99%, respectively, yielding positive and negative predictive values of 95%, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of 117 and 0.34, respectively. The convenient application, excellent specificity and high positive likelihood ratio of the POC test allowed rapid identification of influenza cases. However, negative test results might require confirmation by other methods because of limitations in sensitivity. Overall, influenza POC testing appeared to be a useful tool for the management of travellers with influenza-like symptoms.

  18. Host adaptation and transmission of influenza A viruses in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauwen, Eefje JA; Fouchier, Ron AM

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of influenza A viruses of pigs and birds have infected humans in the last decade, sometimes with severe clinical consequences. Each of these so-called zoonotic infections provides an opportunity for virus adaptation to the new host. Fortunately, most of these human infections do not yield viruses with the ability of sustained human-to-human transmission. However, animal influenza viruses have acquired the ability of sustained transmission between humans to cause pandemics on rare occasions in the past, and therefore, influenza virus zoonoses continue to represent threats to public health. Numerous recent studies have shed new light on the mechanisms of adaptation and transmission of avian and swine influenza A viruses in mammals. In particular, several studies provided insights into the genetic and phenotypic traits of influenza A viruses that may determine airborne transmission. Here, we summarize recent studies on molecular determinants of virulence and adaptation of animal influenza A virus and discuss the phenotypic traits associated with airborne transmission of newly emerging influenza A viruses. Increased understanding of the determinants and mechanisms of virulence and transmission may aid in assessing the risks posed by animal influenza viruses to human health, and preparedness for such risks. PMID:26038511

  19. The evolving history of influenza viruses and influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannoun, Claude

    2013-09-01

    The isolation of influenza virus 80 years ago in 1933 very quickly led to the development of the first generation of live-attenuated vaccines. The first inactivated influenza vaccine was monovalent (influenza A). In 1942, a bivalent vaccine was produced after the discovery of influenza B. It was later discovered that influenza viruses mutated leading to antigenic changes. Since 1973, the WHO has issued annual recommendations for the composition of the influenza vaccine based on results from surveillance systems that identify currently circulating strains. In 1978, the first trivalent vaccine included two influenza A strains and one influenza B strain. Currently, there are two influenza B lineages circulating; in the latest WHO recommendations, it is suggested that a second B strain could be added to give a quadrivalent vaccine. The history of influenza vaccine and the associated technology shows how the vaccine has evolved to match the evolution of influenza viruses.

  20. Influenza A Subtyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Karen L.; Mangold, Kathy A.; Du, Hongyan; Pesavento, Kristen M.; Nawrocki, John; Nowak, Jan A.

    2010-01-01

    Influenza virus subtyping has emerged as a critical tool in the diagnosis of influenza. Antiviral resistance is present in the majority of seasonal H1N1 influenza A infections, with association of viral strain type and antiviral resistance. Influenza A virus subtypes can be reliably distinguished by examining conserved sequences in the matrix protein gene. We describe our experience with an assay for influenza A subtyping based on matrix gene sequences. Viral RNA was prepared from nasopharyngeal swab samples, and real-time RT-PCR detection of influenza A and B was performed using a laboratory developed analyte-specific reagent-based assay that targets a conserved region of the influenza A matrix protein gene. FluA-positive samples were analyzed using a second RT-PCR assay targeting the matrix protein gene to distinguish seasonal influenza subtypes based on differential melting of fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes. The novel H1N1 influenza strain responsible for the 2009 pandemic showed a melting profile distinct from that of seasonal H1N1 or H3N2 and compatible with the predicted melting temperature based on the published novel H1N1 matrix gene sequence. Validation by comparison with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention real-time RT-PCR for swine influenza A (novel H1N1) test showed this assay to be both rapid and reliable (>99% sensitive and specific) in the identification of the novel H1N1 influenza A virus strain. PMID:20595627

  1. Arctic sea ice signatures: L-band brightness temperature sensitivity comparison using two radiation transfer models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Richter

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice is a crucial component for short-, medium- and long-term numerical weather predictions. Most importantly, changes of sea ice coverage and areas covered by thin sea ice have a large impact on heat fluxes between the ocean and the atmosphere. L-band brightness temperatures from ESA's Earth Explorer SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity have been proven to be a valuable tool to derive thin sea ice thickness. These retrieved estimates were already successfully assimilated in forecasting models to constrain the ice analysis, leading to more accurate initial conditions and subsequently more accurate forecasts. However, the brightness temperature measurements can potentially be assimilated directly in forecasting systems, reducing the data latency and providing a more consistent first guess. As a first step towards such a data assimilation system we studied the forward operator that translates geophysical parameters provided by a model into brightness temperatures. We use two different radiative transfer models to generate top of atmosphere brightness temperatures based on ORAP5 model output for the 2012/2013 winter season. The simulations are then compared against actual SMOS measurements. The results indicate that both models are able to capture the general variability of measured brightness temperatures over sea ice. The simulated brightness temperatures are dominated by sea ice coverage and thickness changes are most pronounced in the marginal ice zone where new sea ice is formed. There we observe the largest differences of more than 20 K over sea ice between simulated and observed brightness temperatures. We conclude that the assimilation of SMOS brightness temperatures yields high potential for forecasting models to correct for uncertainties in thin sea ice areas and suggest that information on sea ice fractional coverage from higher-frequency brightness temperatures should be used simultaneously.

  2. Arctic sea ice signatures: L-band brightness temperature sensitivity comparison using two radiation transfer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Friedrich; Drusch, Matthias; Kaleschke, Lars; Maaß, Nina; Tian-Kunze, Xiangshan; Mecklenburg, Susanne

    2018-03-01

    Sea ice is a crucial component for short-, medium- and long-term numerical weather predictions. Most importantly, changes of sea ice coverage and areas covered by thin sea ice have a large impact on heat fluxes between the ocean and the atmosphere. L-band brightness temperatures from ESA's Earth Explorer SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) have been proven to be a valuable tool to derive thin sea ice thickness. These retrieved estimates were already successfully assimilated in forecasting models to constrain the ice analysis, leading to more accurate initial conditions and subsequently more accurate forecasts. However, the brightness temperature measurements can potentially be assimilated directly in forecasting systems, reducing the data latency and providing a more consistent first guess. As a first step towards such a data assimilation system we studied the forward operator that translates geophysical parameters provided by a model into brightness temperatures. We use two different radiative transfer models to generate top of atmosphere brightness temperatures based on ORAP5 model output for the 2012/2013 winter season. The simulations are then compared against actual SMOS measurements. The results indicate that both models are able to capture the general variability of measured brightness temperatures over sea ice. The simulated brightness temperatures are dominated by sea ice coverage and thickness changes are most pronounced in the marginal ice zone where new sea ice is formed. There we observe the largest differences of more than 20 K over sea ice between simulated and observed brightness temperatures. We conclude that the assimilation of SMOS brightness temperatures yields high potential for forecasting models to correct for uncertainties in thin sea ice areas and suggest that information on sea ice fractional coverage from higher-frequency brightness temperatures should be used simultaneously.

  3. A survey of new temperature-sensitive, embryonic-lethal mutations in C. elegans: 24 alleles of thirteen genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M O'Rourke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To study essential maternal gene requirements in the early C. elegans embryo, we have screened for temperature-sensitive, embryonic lethal mutations in an effort to bypass essential zygotic requirements for such genes during larval and adult germline development. With conditional alleles, multiple essential requirements can be examined by shifting at different times from the permissive temperature of 15°C to the restrictive temperature of 26°C. Here we describe 24 conditional mutations that affect 13 different loci and report the identity of the gene mutations responsible for the conditional lethality in 22 of the mutants. All but four are mis-sense mutations, with two mutations affecting splice sites, another creating an in-frame deletion, and one creating a premature stop codon. Almost all of the mis-sense mutations affect residues conserved in orthologs, and thus may be useful for engineering conditional mutations in other organisms. We find that 62% of the mutants display additional phenotypes when shifted to the restrictive temperature as L1 larvae, in addition to causing embryonic lethality after L4 upshifts. Remarkably, we also found that 13 out of the 24 mutations appear to be fast-acting, making them particularly useful for careful dissection of multiple essential requirements. Our findings highlight the value of C. elegans for identifying useful temperature-sensitive mutations in essential genes, and provide new insights into the requirements for some of the affected loci.

  4. Temperature-sensitive microemulsion gel: an effective topical delivery system for simultaneous delivery of vitamins C and E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Branka; Zvonar, Alenka; Falson, Francoise; Gasperlin, Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Microemulsions (ME)--nanostructured systems composed of water, oil, and surfactants--have frequently been used in attempts to increase cutaneous drug delivery. The primary objective addressed in this work has been the development of temperature-sensitive microemulsion gel (called gel-like ME), as an effective and safe delivery system suitable for simultaneous topical application of a hydrophilic vitamin C and a lipophilic vitamin E. By changing water content of liquid o/w ME (o/w ME), a gel-like ME with temperature-sensitive rheological properties was formed. The temperature-driven changes in its microstructure were confirmed by rotational rheometry, viscosity measurements, and droplet size determination. The release studies have shown that the vitamins' release at skin temperature from gel-like ME were comparable to those from o/w ME and were much faster and more complete than from o/w ME conventionally thickened with polymer (o/w ME carbomer). According to effectiveness in skin delivery of both vitamins, o/w ME was found the most appropriate, followed by gel-like ME and by o/w ME carbomer, indicating that no simple correlation between vitamins release and skin absorption could be found. The cytotoxicity studies revealed good cell viability after exposure to ME and confirmed all tested microemulsions as nonirritant.

  5. Avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  6. Seasonal Influenza: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Christina; Freedman, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It also has major social and economic consequences in the form of high rates of absenteeism from school and work as well as significant treatment and hospitalization costs. In fact, annual influenza epidemics and the resulting deaths and lost days of productivity…

  7. ADULT INFLUENZA VACCINATION GUIDELINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infections with the influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae are associated with ... .well as the potential benefit and the safety of the vaccine ..... 4.6 Antiviral agents for influenza A2 ... persons who are to travel to other areas, e.g. northern.

  8. Combination Chemotherapy for Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Webster

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in April 2009 and the continuous evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses underscore the urgency of novel approaches to chemotherapy for human influenza infection. Anti-influenza drugs are currently limited to the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir and to M2 ion channel blockers (amantadine and rimantadine, although resistance to the latter class develops rapidly. Potential targets for the development of new anti-influenza agents include the viral polymerase (and endonuclease, the hemagglutinin, and the non-structural protein NS1. The limitations of monotherapy and the emergence of drug-resistant variants make combination chemotherapy the logical therapeutic option. Here we review the experimental data on combination chemotherapy with currently available agents and the development of new agents and therapy targets.

  9. Development and application of genetic sexing systems for the Mediterranean fruit fly based on a temperature sensitive lethal mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.; Willhoeft, U.; Kerremans, P.; Hendrichs, J.; Rendon, P.

    1997-01-01

    The present status in genetic sexing for the Mediterranean fruit fly is discussed. This includes the selection of the appropriate sexing gene (which determines the feasibility and practical applicability of the sexing system) as well as the selection of the appropriate Y-autosome translocation (which determines the stability of the sexing system). A temperature sensitive lethal mutation is used to eliminate females during the egg stage. This mutation in combination with new Y-autosome translocations allowed the construction of a genetic sexing strain, named VIENNA-42, that is stable enough for large scale mass rearing. Also described are the analysis of this strain under field cage and field conditions and, in preparation for large scale tests in Guatemala, the outcrossing of VIENNA-42 with genetic material from the target area. (author)

  10. Fabrication of a microfluidic chip by UV bonding at room temperature for integration of temperature-sensitive layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlautmann, S.; Besselink, G. A. J.; Radhakrishna Prabhu, G.; Schasfoort, R. B. M.

    2003-07-01

    A method for the bonding of a microfluidic device at room temperature is presented. The wafer with the fluidic structures was bonded to a sensor wafer with gold pads by means of adhesive bonding, utilizing an UV-curable glue layer. To avoid filling the fluidic channels with the glue, a stamping process was developed which allows the selective application of a thin glue layer. In this way a microfluidic glass chip was fabricated that could be used for performing surface plasmon resonance measurements without signs of leakage. The advantage of this method is the possibility of integration of organic layers as well as other temperature-sensitive layers into a microfluidic glass device.

  11. Temperature-sensitive gating of hCx26: high-resolution Raman spectroscopy sheds light on conformational changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniggendorf, Ann-Kathrin; Meinhardt-Wollweber, Merve; Yuan, Xiaogang; Roth, Bernhard; Seifert, Astrid; Fertig, Niels; Zeilinger, Carsten

    2014-07-01

    The temperature-sensitive gating of human Connexin 26 (hCx26) was analyzed with confocal Raman microscopy. High-resolution Raman spectra covering the spectral range between 400 and 1500 rel. cm(-1) with a spectral resolution of 1 cm(-1) were fully annotated, revealing notable differences between the spectrum recorded from solubilized hCx26 in Ca(2+)-buffered POPC at 10°C and any other set of protein conditions (temperature, Ca(2+) presence, POPC presence). Spectral components originating from specific amino acids show that the TM1/EL1 parahelix and probably the TM4 trans-membrane helix and the plug domain are involved in the gating process responsible for fully closing the hemichannel.

  12. A major QTL affects temperature sensitive adult lethality and inbreeding depression in life span in Drosophila melanogaster.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Bijlsma, R.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2008-01-01

    of inbreeding effects in specific traits, such as age-specific mortality and life span, provide a good starting point, as a limited set of genes is expected to be involved. Results Here we report on a QTL mapping study on inbreeding related and temperature sensitive lethality in male Drosophila melanogaster...... and the molecular properties of genes that give rise to or modulate its deleterious effects is lacking. These questions warrant the detailed study of genetic loci giving rise to inbreeding depression. However, the complex and polygenic nature of general inbreeding depression makes this a daunting task. Study...... simple, being due mainly to a single recessive QTL on the left arm of chromosome 2. This locus colocalised with a QTL that conditioned variation in female life span, acting as an overdominant locus for this trait. Male life span was additionally affected by variation at the X-chromosome. Conclusion...

  13. Pandemic influenza: certain uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY For at least five centuries, major epidemics and pandemics of influenza have occurred unexpectedly and at irregular intervals. Despite the modern notion that pandemic influenza is a distinct phenomenon obeying such constant (if incompletely understood) rules such as dramatic genetic change, cyclicity, “wave” patterning, virus replacement, and predictable epidemic behavior, much evidence suggests the opposite. Although there is much that we know about pandemic influenza, there appears to be much more that we do not know. Pandemics arise as a result of various genetic mechanisms, have no predictable patterns of mortality among different age groups, and vary greatly in how and when they arise and recur. Some are followed by new pandemics, whereas others fade gradually or abruptly into long-term endemicity. Human influenza pandemics have been caused by viruses that evolved singly or in co-circulation with other pandemic virus descendants and often have involved significant transmission between, or establishment of, viral reservoirs within other animal hosts. In recent decades, pandemic influenza has continued to produce numerous unanticipated events that expose fundamental gaps in scientific knowledge. Influenza pandemics appear to be not a single phenomenon but a heterogeneous collection of viral evolutionary events whose similarities are overshadowed by important differences, the determinants of which remain poorly understood. These uncertainties make it difficult to predict influenza pandemics and, therefore, to adequately plan to prevent them. PMID:21706672

  14. Vegetation types alter soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity at the field scale in an estuary wetland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxuan Han

    Full Text Available Vegetation type plays an important role in regulating the temporal and spatial variation of soil respiration. Therefore, vegetation patchiness may cause high uncertainties in the estimates of soil respiration for scaling field measurements to ecosystem level. Few studies provide insights regarding the influence of vegetation types on soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity in an estuary wetland. In order to enhance the understanding of this issue, we focused on the growing season and investigated how the soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity are affected by the different vegetation (Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa and bare soil in the Yellow River Estuary. During the growing season, there were significant linear relationships between soil respiration rates and shoot and root biomass, respectively. On the diurnal timescale, daytime soil respiration was more dependent on net photosynthesis. A positive correlation between soil respiration and net photosynthesis at the Phragmites australis site was found. There were exponential correlations between soil respiration and soil temperature, and the fitted Q10 values varied among different vegetation types (1.81, 2.15 and 3.43 for Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa and bare soil sites, respectively. During the growing season, the mean soil respiration was consistently higher at the Phragmites australis site (1.11 µmol CO2 m(-2 s(-1, followed by the Suaeda salsa site (0.77 µmol CO2 m(-2 s(-1 and the bare soil site (0.41 µmol CO2 m(-2 s(-1. The mean monthly soil respiration was positively correlated with shoot and root biomass, total C, and total N among the three vegetation patches. Our results suggest that vegetation patchiness at a field scale might have a large impact on ecosystem-scale soil respiration. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the differences in vegetation types when using models to evaluate soil respiration in an estuary wetland.

  15. Interspecific Differences in Metabolic Rate and Metabolic Temperature Sensitivity Create Distinct Thermal Ecological Niches in Lizards (Plestiodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charles M; Burggren, Warren W

    2016-01-01

    Three congeneric lizards from the southeastern United States (Plestiodon fasciatus, P. inexpectatus, and P. laticeps) exhibit a unique nested distribution. All three skink species inhabit the US Southeast, but two extend northward to central Ohio (P. fasciatus and P. laticeps) and P. fasciatus extends well into Canada. Distinct interspecific differences in microhabitat selection and behavior are associated with the cooler temperatures of the more Northern ranges. We hypothesized that interspecific differences in metabolic temperature sensitivity locally segregates them across their total range. Resting oxygen consumption was measured at 20°, 25° and 30°C. Plestiodon fasciatus, from the coolest habitats, exhibited greatly elevated oxygen consumption compared to the other species at high ecologically-relevant temperatures (0.10, 0.17 and 0.83 ml O2. g-1. h-1 at 20°, 25° and 30°C, respectively). Yet, P. inexpectatus, from the warmest habitats, exhibited sharply decreased oxygen consumption compared to the other species at lower ecologically-relevant temperatures (0.09, 0.27 and 0.42 ml O2. g-1. h-1 at 20°, 25° and 30°C, respectively). Plestiodon laticeps, from both open and closed microhabitats and intermediate latitudinal range, exhibited oxygen consumptions significantly lower than the other two species (0.057, 0.104 and 0.172 ml O2. g-1. h-1 at 20°, 25° and 30°C, respectively). Overall, Plestiodon showed metabolic temperature sensitivities (Q10s) in the range of 2-3 over the middle of each species' normal temperature range. However, especially P. fasciatus and P. inexpectatus showed highly elevated Q10s (9 to 25) at the extreme ends of their temperature range. While morphologically similar, these skinks are metabolically distinct across the genus' habitat, likely having contributed to their current distribution.

  16. Evolution of vertebrate transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 channels: opposite temperature sensitivity between mammals and western clawed frogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Saito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient Receptor Potential (TRP channels serve as temperature receptors in a wide variety of animals and must have played crucial roles in thermal adaptation. The TRP vanilloid (TRPV subfamily contains several temperature receptors with different temperature sensitivities. The TRPV3 channel is known to be highly expressed in skin, where it is activated by warm temperatures and serves as a sensor to detect ambient temperatures near the body temperature of homeothermic animals such as mammals. Here we performed comprehensive comparative analyses of the TRPV subfamily in order to understand the evolutionary process; we identified novel TRPV genes and also characterized the evolutionary flexibility of TRPV3 during vertebrate evolution. We cloned the TRPV3 channel from the western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis to understand the functional evolution of the TRPV3 channel. The amino acid sequences of the N- and C-terminal regions of the TRPV3 channel were highly diversified from those of other terrestrial vertebrate TRPV3 channels, although central portions were well conserved. In a heterologous expression system, several mammalian TRPV3 agonists did not activate the TRPV3 channel of the western clawed frog. Moreover, the frog TRPV3 channel did not respond to heat stimuli, instead it was activated by cold temperatures. Temperature thresholds for activation were about 16 °C, slightly below the lower temperature limit for the western clawed frog. Given that the TRPV3 channel is expressed in skin, its likely role is to detect noxious cold temperatures. Thus, the western clawed frog and mammals acquired opposite temperature sensitivity of the TRPV3 channel in order to detect environmental temperatures suitable for their respective species, indicating that temperature receptors can dynamically change properties to adapt to different thermal environments during evolution.

  17. Vegetation Types Alter Soil Respiration and Its Temperature Sensitivity at the Field Scale in an Estuary Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guangxuan; Xing, Qinghui; Luo, Yiqi; Rafique, Rashad; Yu, Junbao; Mikle, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation type plays an important role in regulating the temporal and spatial variation of soil respiration. Therefore, vegetation patchiness may cause high uncertainties in the estimates of soil respiration for scaling field measurements to ecosystem level. Few studies provide insights regarding the influence of vegetation types on soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity in an estuary wetland. In order to enhance the understanding of this issue, we focused on the growing season and investigated how the soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity are affected by the different vegetation (Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa and bare soil) in the Yellow River Estuary. During the growing season, there were significant linear relationships between soil respiration rates and shoot and root biomass, respectively. On the diurnal timescale, daytime soil respiration was more dependent on net photosynthesis. A positive correlation between soil respiration and net photosynthesis at the Phragmites australis site was found. There were exponential correlations between soil respiration and soil temperature, and the fitted Q 10 values varied among different vegetation types (1.81, 2.15 and 3.43 for Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa and bare soil sites, respectively). During the growing season, the mean soil respiration was consistently higher at the Phragmites australis site (1.11 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1), followed by the Suaeda salsa site (0.77 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1) and the bare soil site (0.41 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1). The mean monthly soil respiration was positively correlated with shoot and root biomass, total C, and total N among the three vegetation patches. Our results suggest that vegetation patchiness at a field scale might have a large impact on ecosystem-scale soil respiration. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the differences in vegetation types when using models to evaluate soil respiration in an estuary wetland. PMID:24608636

  18. Continuous cooling and low temperature sensitization of AISI types 316 SS and 304 SS with different degrees of cold work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvathavarthini, N.; Dayal, R.K.; Gnanamoorthy, J.B. (Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Metallurgy and Materials Programme); Seshadri, S.K. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering)

    This paper presents the results of investigations carried out to study the sensitization behaviour of AISI Types 316 SS and 304 SS with various degrees of cold work ranging from 0 to 25%. Initially Time-Temperature-Sensitization (TTS) diagrams were established using ASTM standard A262 Practice A and E tests. From these diagrams it was found that the rate of sensitization and overall susceptibility to intergranular corrosion increases up to 15% cold work and above that starts decreasing. Desensitization was observed to be faster for higher levels of cold work, especially in the higher sensitization temperature range. From the TTS diagrams, the critical linear cooling rate below which sensitization occurs was calculated. From these data, Continuous Cooling Sensitization (CCS) diagrams were established. The results show that as the degree of cold work increases up to 15%, time needed for sensitization decreases and hence faster cooling rates must be used in order to avoid sensitization. At temperatures sufficiently below the nose temperature of the TTS diagram, log t versus 1/T plots follow a linear relationship where t is the time needed for the onset of sensitization at temperature T. From the slope, the apparent activation energy for sensitization was estimated. The validity of extrapolating these linear plots to lower temperatures (725 to 775 K) (which lie in the operating temperature regime of fast reactors) has been verified by experiment. The effect of heat treatment and microstructure on the Low Temperature Sensitization (LTS) behaviour was investigated. The results indicate that carbides of optimum size and distribution are the essential pre-requisites for LTS and cold work enhances susceptibility of stainless steels to LTS. (orig.).

  19. Surgical implantation of temperature-sensitive transmitters and data-loggers to record body temperature in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, D; Johnston, S D; Beard, L; Nicholson, V; Lisle, A; Gaughan, J; Larkin, R; Theilemann, P; Mckinnon, A; Ellis, W

    2016-01-01

    Under predicted climate change scenarios, koala distribution in Australia is expected to be adversely affected. Recent studies have attempted to identify suitable habitat, based on models of bioclimatic regions, but to more accurately reflect the thermal tolerance and behavioural adaptations of the various regional populations, the koala's response to periods of heat stress will need to be investigated at the individual animal level. To explore the safety and suitability of temperature-sensitive intra-abdominal implants for monitoring core body temperature in the koala. A temperature-sensitive radio transmitter and thermal iButton data-logger, waxed together as a package, were surgically implanted into the abdominal cavity of four captive koalas. In one animal the implant was tethered and in the other three, it was left free-floating. After 3 months, the implants were removed and all four koalas recovered without complications. The tethering of the package in the one koala resulted in minor inflammation and adhesion, so this practice was subsequently abandoned. The free-floating deployments were complication-free and revealed a diurnal body temperature rhythm, with daily ranges of 0.4-2.8°C. The minimum recorded body temperature was 34.2°C and the maximum was 37.7°C. The difference in the readings obtained from the transmitters and iButtons never exceeded 0.3°C. The suitability of the surgical approach was confirmed, from both the animal welfare and data collection points of view. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  20. Avian influenza: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer K; Noppenberger, Jennifer

    2007-01-15

    A review of the avian influenza A/H5N1 virus, including human cases, viral transmission, clinical features, vaccines and antivirals, surveillance plans, infection control, and emergency response plans, is presented. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers the avian influenza A/H5N1 virus a public health risk with pandemic potential. The next human influenza pandemic, if caused by the avian influenza A/H5N1 virus, is estimated to have a potential mortality rate of more than a hundred million. Outbreaks in poultry have been associated with human transmission. WHO has documented 258 confirmed human infections with a mortality rate greater than 50%. Bird-to-human transmission of the avian influenza virus is likely by the oral-fecal route. The most effective defense against an influenza pandemic would be a directed vaccine to elicit a specific immune response toward the strain or strains of the influenza virus. However, until there is an influenza pandemic, there is no evidence that vaccines or antivirals used in the treatment or prevention of such an outbreak would decrease morbidity or mortality. Surveillance of the bird and human populations for the highly pathogenic H5N1 is being conducted. Infection-control measures and an emergency response plan are discussed. Avian influenza virus A/H5N1 is a public health threat that has the potential to cause serious illness and death in humans. Understanding its pathology, transmission, clinical features, and pharmacologic treatments and preparing for the prevention and management of its outbreak will help avoid its potentially devastating consequences.

  1. New treatments for influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barik Sailen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Influenza has a long history of causing morbidity and mortality in the human population through routine seasonal spread and global pandemics. The high mutation rate of the RNA genome of the influenza virus, combined with assortment of its multiple genomic segments, promote antigenic diversity and new subtypes, allowing the virus to evade vaccines and become resistant to antiviral drugs. There is thus a continuing need for new anti-influenza therapy using novel targets and creative strategies. In this review, we summarize prospective future therapeutic regimens based on recent molecular and genomic discoveries.

  2. New treatments for influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sailen

    2012-09-13

    Influenza has a long history of causing morbidity and mortality in the human population through routine seasonal spread and global pandemics. The high mutation rate of the RNA genome of the influenza virus, combined with assortment of its multiple genomic segments, promote antigenic diversity and new subtypes, allowing the virus to evade vaccines and become resistant to antiviral drugs. There is thus a continuing need for new anti-influenza therapy using novel targets and creative strategies. In this review, we summarize prospective future therapeutic regimens based on recent molecular and genomic discoveries.

  3. Influenza and IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to person worldwide, most likely in a similar fashion to regular seasonal influenza viruses. For the this ... endorsement of a particular individual, group, company or product. Related Resources Order Patient Brochures Education & Support for ...

  4. Avian Influenza in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the United States Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service . Surveillance for Avian Influenza CDC, ... maintained by: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Digital Media Branch, Division of Public Affairs Email ...

  5. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not pr...

  6. Vírus influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de-Paris

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Um dos registros mais antigos da gripe descrita como doença é de autoria de Hipócrates, em meados do ano 412 a.C. Desta forma, seu agente etiológico, o vírus influenza, tem circulação entre a população humana há muito tempo.  Entretanto, o primeiro isolamento do vírus influenza humano ocorreu somente em 1933, realizado por Smith, Andrewes e Laidlaw, pesquisadores do “National Institute for Medical Research” – Londres. Este vírus isolado foi considerado o primeiro vírus influenza humano e denominado de “influenza A”.

  7. Underutilization of Influenza Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall K. Cheney

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Yearly influenza vaccination continues to be underutilized by those who would most benefit from it. The Health Belief Model was used to explain differences in beliefs about influenza vaccination among at-risk individuals resistant to influenza vaccination. Survey data were collected from 74 members of at-risk groups who were not vaccinated for influenza during the previous flu season. Accepting individuals were more likely to perceive flu as a threat to health and perceive access barriers, and cues to action were the most important influence on whether they plan to get vaccinated. In comparison, resistant individuals did not feel threatened by the flu, access barriers were not a problem, and they did not respond favorably to cues to action. Perceived threat, perceived access barriers, and cues to action were significantly associated with plans to be vaccinated for influenza in the next flu season. Participants who saw influenza as a threat to their health had 5.4 times the odds of planning to be vaccinated than those who did not. Participants reporting barriers to accessing influenza vaccination had 7.5 times the odds of reporting plans to be vaccinated. Those responding positively to cues to action had 12.2 times the odds of planning to be vaccinated in the next flu season than those who did not. Accepting and resistant individuals have significant differences in their beliefs, which require different intervention strategies to increase vaccination rates. These findings provide important information to researchers and practitioners working to increase influenza vaccination rates.

  8. [Temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon mineralization and β-glucosidase enzymekinetics in the northern temperate forests at different altitudes, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jin-juan; Li, Dan-dan; Zhang, Xin-yu; He, Nian-peng; Bu, Jin-feng; Wang, Qing; Sun, Xiao-min; Wen, Xue-fa

    2016-01-01

    Soil samples, which were collected from three typical forests, i.e., Betula ermanii forest, coniferous mixed broad-leaved forest, and Pinus koraiensis forest, at different altitudes along the southern slope of Laotuding Mountain of Changbai Mountain range in Liaoning Province of China, were incubated over a temperature gradient in laboratory. Soil organic carbon mineralization rates (Cmin), soil β-1,4-glucosidase (βG) kinetics and their temperature sensitivity (Q₁₀) were measured. The results showed that both altitude and temperature had significant effects on Cmin · Cmin increased with temperature and was highest in the B. ermanii forest. The temperature sensitivity of Cmin [Q₁₀(Cmin)] ranked in order of B. ermanii forest > P. koraiensis forest > coniferous mixed broad-leaved forest, but did not differ significantly among the three forests. Both the maximum activity (Vmax) and the Michaelis constant (Km) of the βG responded positively to temperature for all the forests. The temperature sensitivity of Vmax [Q₁₀(Vmax)] ranged from 1.78 to 1.90, and the temperature sensitivity of Km [Q₁₀(Km)] ranged from 1.79 to 2.00. The Q₁₀(Vmax)/Q10(Km) ratios were significantly greater in the B. ermanii soil than in the other two forest soils, suggesting that the βG kinetics-dependent impacts of the global warming or temperature increase on the decomposition of soil organic carbon were temperature sensitive for the forests at the higher altitudes.

  9. Animal and human influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, M; Yen, H-L

    2014-08-01

    Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security.

  10. Temperature sensitivity differences with depth and season between carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycling enzyme activities in an ombrotrophic peatland system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinweg, J. M.; Kostka, J. E.; Hanson, P. J.; Schadt, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    Northern peatlands have large amounts of soil organic matter due to reduced decomposition. Breakdown of organic matter is initially mediated by extracellular enzymes, the activity of which may be controlled by temperature, moisture, and substrate availability, all of which vary seasonally throughout the year and with depth. In typical soils the majority of the microbial biomass and decomposition occurs within the top 30cm due to reduced organic matter inputs in the subsurface however peatlands by their very nature contain large amounts of organic matter throughout their depth profile. We hypothesized that potential enzyme activity would be greatest at the surface of the peat due to a larger microbial biomass compared to 40cm and 175cm below the surface and that temperature sensitivity would be greatest at the surface during winter but lowest during the summer due to high temperatures and enzyme efficiency. Peat samples were collected in February, July, and August 2012 from the DOE Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change project at Marcell Experimental Forest S1 bog. We measured potential activity of hydrolytic enzymes involved in three different nutrient cycles: beta-glucosidase (carbon), leucine amino peptidase (nitrogen), and phosphatase (phosphorus) at 15 temperature points ranging from 3°C to 65°C. Enzyme activity decreased with depth as expected but there was no concurrent change in activation energy (Ea). The reduction in enzyme activity with depth indicates a smaller pool which coincided with a decreased microbial biomass. Differences in enzyme activity with depth also mirrored the changes in peat composition from the acrotelm to the catotelm. Season did play a role in temperature sensitivity with Ea of β-glucosidase and phosphatase being the lowest in August as expected but leucine amino peptidase (a nitrogen acquiring enzyme) Ea was not influenced by season. As temperatures rise, especially in winter months, enzymatic

  11. A broadening temperature sensitivity range with a core-shell YbEr@YbNd double ratiometric optical nanothermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, L.; Prorok, K.; Francés-Soriano, L.; Pérez-Prieto, J.; Bednarkiewicz, A.

    2016-02-01

    The chemical architecture of lanthanide doped core-shell up-converting nanoparticles can be engineered to purposely design the properties of luminescent nanomaterials, which are typically inaccessible to their homogeneous counterparts. Such an approach allowed to shift the up-conversion excitation wavelength from ~980 to the more relevant ~808 nm or enable Tb or Eu up-conversion emission, which was previously impossible to obtain or inefficient. Here, we address the issue of limited temperature sensitivity range of optical lanthanide based nano-thermometers. By covering Yb-Er co-doped core nanoparticles with the Yb-Nd co-doped shell, we have intentionally combined temperature dependent Er up-conversion together with temperature dependent Nd --> Yb energy transfer, and thus have expanded the temperature response range ΔT of a single nanoparticle based optical nano-thermometer under single ~808 nm wavelength photo-excitation from around ΔT = 150 K to over ΔT = 300 K (150-450 K). Such engineered nanocrystals are suitable for remote optical temperature measurements in technology and biotechnology at the sub-micron scale.The chemical architecture of lanthanide doped core-shell up-converting nanoparticles can be engineered to purposely design the properties of luminescent nanomaterials, which are typically inaccessible to their homogeneous counterparts. Such an approach allowed to shift the up-conversion excitation wavelength from ~980 to the more relevant ~808 nm or enable Tb or Eu up-conversion emission, which was previously impossible to obtain or inefficient. Here, we address the issue of limited temperature sensitivity range of optical lanthanide based nano-thermometers. By covering Yb-Er co-doped core nanoparticles with the Yb-Nd co-doped shell, we have intentionally combined temperature dependent Er up-conversion together with temperature dependent Nd --> Yb energy transfer, and thus have expanded the temperature response range ΔT of a single nanoparticle

  12. Soil respiration fluxes in a temperate mixed forest: seasonality and temperature sensitivities differ among microbial and root-rhizosphere respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehr, Nadine K; Buchmann, Nina

    2010-02-01

    Although soil respiration, a major CO(2) flux in terrestrial ecosystems, is known to be highly variable with time, the response of its component fluxes to temperature and phenology is less clear. Therefore, we partitioned soil respiration (SR) into microbial (MR) and root-rhizosphere respiration (RR) using small root exclusion treatments in a mixed mountain forest in Switzerland. In addition, fine root respiration (FRR) was determined with measurements of excised roots. RR and FRR were strongly related to each other (R(2) = 0.92, n = 7), with RR contributing about 46% and FRR about 32% to total SR. RR rates increased more strongly with temperature (Q(10) = 3.2) than MR rates (Q(10) = 2.3). Since the contribution of RR to SR was found to be higher during growing (50%) than during dormant periods (40%), we separated the 2-year data set into phenophases. During the growing period of 2007, the temperature sensitivity of RR (Q(10) = 2.5, R(2) = 0.62) was similar to that of MR (Q(10) = 2.2, R(2) = 0.57). However, during the dormant period of 2006/2007, RR was not related to soil temperature (R(2) = 0.44, n.s.), in contrast to MR (Q(10) = 7.2; R(2) = 0.92). To better understand the influence of plant activity on root respiration, we related RR and FRR rates to photosynthetic active radiation (both R(2) = 0.67, n = 7, P = 0.025), suggesting increased root respiration rates during times with high photosynthesis. During foliage green-up in spring 2008, i.e., from bud break to full leaf expansion, RR increased by a factor of 5, while soil temperature increased only by about 5 degrees C, leading to an extraordinary high Q(10) of 10.6; meanwhile, the contribution of RR to SR increased from 29 to 47%. This clearly shows that root respiration and its apparent temperature sensitivity highly depend on plant phenology and thus on canopy assimilation and carbon allocation belowground.

  13. Influenza pandemics and avian flu

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Douglas Fleming is general practitioner in a large suburban practice in Birmingham. In this article he seeks to clarify clinical issues relating to potential pandemics of influenza, including avian influenza

  14. Needle-free influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Hinrichs, Wouter L.J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Wilschut, Jan C.; Huckriede, Anke

    2010-01-01

    Vaccination is the cornerstone of influenza control in epidemic and pandemic situations. Influenza vaccines are typically given by intramuscular injection. However, needle-free vaccinations could offer several distinct advantages over intramuscular injections: they are pain-free, easier to

  15. Influenza | Florida Department of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Women's Health WIC Program Community Health Minority Health & Health Equity People with influenza A viruses since early March. * This late-season circulation of influenza B is expected. View the

  16. Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type="submit" value="Submit" /> Archived Flu Emails Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español ...

  17. Egg-Independent Influenza Vaccines and Vaccine Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Manini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination remains the principal way to control seasonal infections and is the most effective method of reducing influenza-associated morbidity and mortality. Since the 1940s, the main method of producing influenza vaccines has been an egg-based production process. However, in the event of a pandemic, this method has a significant limitation, as the time lag from strain isolation to final dose formulation and validation is six months. Indeed, production in eggs is a relatively slow process and production yields are both unpredictable and highly variable from strain to strain. In particular, if the next influenza pandemic were to arise from an avian influenza virus, and thus reduce the egg-laying hen population, there would be a shortage of embryonated eggs available for vaccine manufacturing. Although the production of egg-derived vaccines will continue, new technological developments have generated a cell-culture-based influenza vaccine and other more recent platforms, such as synthetic influenza vaccines.

  18. RDF gasification with water vapour: influence of process temperature on yield and products composition; Gassificazione con vapore del CDR: influenza della temperatura di processo su rese e composizione dei prodotti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvagno, S.; Casciaro, G.; Russo, A.; Casu, S.; Martino, M.; Portofino, S. [C. R. ENEA Trisaglia, Rotondella (Italy). PROT-STP

    2005-08-01

    The opportunity of using RDF (Refused Derived Fuel) to produce fuel gas seems to be promising and particular attention has been focused on alternative process technologies such as pyrolysis and gasification. Within this frame, present work relates to experimental tests and obtained results of a series of experimental surveys on RDF gasification with water vapour, carried out by means of a bench scale rotary kiln plant at different process temperature, using thermogravimetry (TG) and infrared spectrometry (FTIR), in order to characterize the incoming material, and online gas chromatography to qualify the gaseous stream. Experimental data show that gas yield rise with temperature and, with respect to the gas composition, hydrogen content grows up mainly at the expense of the other gaseous compound, pointing out the major extension of secondary cracking reactions into the gaseous fraction at higher temperature. Syngas obtained at process temperature of 950{sup o}C or higher seems to be suitable for fuel cells applications; at lower process temperature, gas composition suggest a final utilisation for feedstock recycling. The low organic content of solid residue does not suggest any other exploitation of the char apart from the land filling. [Italian] La possibilita' di usare il CDR (combustibile derivato dai rifiuti) per produrre gas combustibile, sembra particolarmente promettente e particolare attenzione si sta rivolgendo a tecnologie alternative di trattamento termico, quali la pirolisi e la gassificazione. In questo ambito, il presente lavoro riporta le prove sperimentali e i risultati ottenuti in una campagna di prove di gassificazione di CDR con vapor d'acqua, effettuate su scala banco in un forno a tamburo rotante a temperatura di processo variabile, utilizzando tecniche di analisi termogravimetrica (TG) e di spettrometria infrarossa in trasformata di Fourier (FTIR), per la caratterizzazione del materiale di ingresso, e analisi gascromatografiche on

  19. Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing the pandemic risk posed by specific non-human influenza A viruses remains a complex challenge. As influenza virus genome sequencing becomes cheaper, faster and more readily available, the ability to predict pandemic potential from sequence data could transform pandemic influenza risk asses...

  20. Behavioural thermoregulation in a temperature-sensitive coral reef fish, the five-lined cardinalfish ( Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, Tiffany J.; Johansen, Jacob L.; Habary, Adam; Steffensen, John F.; Rummer, Jodie L.

    2015-12-01

    As global temperatures increase, fish populations at low latitudes are thought to be at risk as they are adapted to narrow temperature ranges and live at temperatures close to their thermal tolerance limits. Behavioural movements, based on a preference for a specific temperature ( T pref), may provide a strategy to cope with changing conditions. A temperature-sensitive coral reef cardinalfish ( Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus) was exposed to 28 °C (average at collection site) or 32 °C (predicted end-of-century) for 6 weeks. T pref was determined using a shuttlebox system, which allowed fish to behaviourally manipulate their thermal environment. Regardless of treatment temperature, fish preferred 29.5 ± 0.25 °C, approximating summer average temperatures in the wild. However, 32 °C fish moved more frequently to correct their thermal environment than 28 °C fish, and daytime movements were more frequent than night-time movements. Understanding temperature-mediated movements is imperative for predicting how ocean warming will influence coral reef species and distribution patterns.

  1. Temperature sensitivity of gaseous elemental mercury in the active layer of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Zhijia; Peng, Fei; Xue, Xian; Zhang, Xiaoshan

    2018-07-01

    Soils represent the single largest mercury (Hg) reservoir in the global environment, indicating that a tiny change of Hg behavior in soil ecosystem could greatly affect the global Hg cycle. Climate warming is strongly altering the structure and functions of permafrost and then would influence the Hg cycle in permafrost soils. However, Hg biogeochemistry in climate-sensitive permafrost is poorly investigated. Here we report a data set of soil Hg (0) concentrations in four different depths of the active layer in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau permafrost. We find that soil Hg (0) concentrations exhibited a strongly positive and exponential relationship with temperature and showed different temperature sensitivity under the frozen and unfrozen condition. We conservatively estimate that temperature increases following latest temperature scenarios of the IPCC could result in up to a 54.9% increase in Hg (0) concentrations in surface permafrost soils by 2100. Combining the simultaneous measurement of air-soil Hg (0) exchange, we find that enhanced Hg (0) concentrations in upper soils could favor Hg (0) emissions from surface soil. Our findings indicate that Hg (0) emission could be stimulated by permafrost thawing in a warmer world. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Temperature-sensitive mutations for live-attenuated Rift Valley fever vaccines: Implications from other RNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko eNishiyama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease endemic to the African continent. RVF is characterized by high rate of abortions in ruminants and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis or blindness in humans. RVF is caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV: genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae. Vaccination is the only known effective strategy to prevent the disease, but there are no licensed RVF vaccines available for humans. A live-attenuated vaccine candidate derived from the wild-type pathogenic Egyptian ZH548 strain, MP-12, has been conditionally licensed for veterinary use in the United States. MP-12 displays a temperature-sensitive (ts phenotype and does not replicate at 41oC. The ts mutation limits viral replication at a specific body temperature and may lead to an attenuation of the virus. Here we will review well-characterized ts mutations for RNA viruses, and further discuss the potential in designing novel live-attenuated vaccines for RVF.

  3. Temperature sensitive molecularly imprinted microspheres for solid-phase dispersion extraction of malachite green, crystal violet and their leuko metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Lei; Chen, Kuncai; He, Rong; Peng, Rongfei; Huang, Cong

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates the feasibility of an alternative strategy for producing temperature sensitive molecularly imprinted microspheres (MIMs) for solid-phase dispersion extraction of malachite green, crystal violet and their leuko metabolites. Thermo-sensitive MIMs can change their structure following temperature stimulation. This allows capture and release of target molecules to be controlled by temperature. The fabrication technique provides surface molecular imprinting in acetonitrile using vinyl modified silica microspheres as solid supports, methacrylic acid and N-isopropyl acrylamide as the functional monomers, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, and malachite green as the template. After elution of the template, the MIMs can be used for fairly group-selective solid phase dispersion extraction of malachite green, crystal violet, leucomalachite green, and leucocrystal violet from homogenized fish samples at a certain temperature. Following centrifugal separation of the microspheres, the analytes were eluted with a 95:5 mixture of acetonitrile and formic acid, and then quantified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with isotope internal calibration. The detection limits for malachite green, crystal violet and their metabolites typically are 30 ng·kg −1 . Positive samples were identified by UHPLC-MS/MS in the positive ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring. The method was applied to the determination of the dyes and the respective leuko dyes in fish samples, and accuracy and precision were validated by comparative analysis of the samples by using aluminum neutral columns. (author)

  4. Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Respiration to Nitrogen Fertilization: Varying Effects between Growing and Non-Growing Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingfang; Wang, Rui; Li, Rujian; Hu, Yaxian; Guo, Shengli

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization has a considerable effect on food production and carbon cycling in agro-ecosystems. However, the impacts of N fertilization rates on the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10) were controversial. Five N rates (N0, N45, N90, N135, and N180) were applied to a continuous winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop on the semi-arid Loess Plateau, and the in situ soil respiration was monitored during five consecutive years from 2008 to 2013. During the growing season, the mean soil respiration rates increased with increasing N fertilization rates, peaking at 1.53 μmol m−2s−1 in the N135 treatment. A similar dynamic pattern was observed during the non-growing season, yet on average with 7.3% greater soil respiration rates than the growing season. In general for all the N fertilization treatments, the mean Q10 value during the non-growing season was significantly greater than that during the growing season. As N fertilization rates increased, the Q10 values did not change significantly in the growing season but significantly decreased in the non-growing season. Overall, N fertilization markedly influenced soil respirations and Q10 values, in particular posing distinct effects on the Q10 values between the growing and non-growing seasons. PMID:27992576

  5. Temperature sensitivity and enzymatic mechanisms of soil organic matter decomposition along an altitudinal gradient on Mount Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, Еvgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Khomyakov, Nikita; Myachina, Olga; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-02-01

    Short-term acceleration of soil organic matter decomposition by increasing temperature conflicts with the thermal adaptation observed in long-term studies. Here we used the altitudinal gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro to demonstrate the mechanisms of thermal adaptation of extra- and intracellular enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose, chitin and phytate and oxidize monomers (14C-glucose) in warm- and cold-climate soils. We revealed that no response of decomposition rate to temperature occurs because of a cancelling effect consisting in an increase in half-saturation constants (Km), which counteracts the increase in maximal reaction rates (Vmax with temperature). We used the parameters of enzyme kinetics to predict thresholds of substrate concentration (Scrit) below which decomposition rates will be insensitive to global warming. Increasing values of Scrit, and hence stronger canceling effects with increasing altitude on Mt. Kilimanjaro, explained the thermal adaptation of polymer decomposition. The reduction of the temperature sensitivity of Vmax along the altitudinal gradient contributed to thermal adaptation of both polymer and monomer degradation. Extrapolating the altitudinal gradient to the large-scale latitudinal gradient, these results show that the soils of cold climates with stronger and more frequent temperature variation are less sensitive to global warming than soils adapted to high temperatures.

  6. A preliminary study on induction and identification of chlorophyll mutants of indica type temperature sensitive genie male-sterile rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yingwu; Liu Guifu; Shu Qingyao; Jiang Ronghua; Xie Jiahua

    1995-01-01

    Chlorophyll mutants of different type were obtained from indica type temperature sensitive genie male-sterile rice (cv. 2177s) by using 60 Co γ-rays irradiation. The total chlorophyll mutation frequency reached to 0.26% in M 2 generation. However only about 4.50% of these mutants could survived. Among them, 33 heritable chlorophyll mutant lines were easily distinguished, and were screened and studied. The mutants either showed chlorosis or yellowing or expressed only at seedling period or persisted all growth cycle. The expression of mutant character was stable under different environment. It is suggested that they are useful as the marker traits in two-line hybrid rice. Moreover, the agronomic traits of most of these lines changed in different levels compared with the parent line 2177S. Every mutation line seemed to be controlled by one recessive gene as the F 1 plants of reciprocal crosses between mutant and 2177S showed normal leaf color. And the ratio of green plants/mutant plants was 3:1 in the segregated F 2 population

  7. Temperature-sensitive defects of the GSP1gene, yeast Ran homologue, activate the Tel1-dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Naoyuki; Murakami, Seishi; Tsurusaki, Susumu; Nagaura, Zen-ichiro; Oki, Masaya; Nishitani, Hideo; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Shimizu, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi; Nishimoto, Takeharu

    2007-01-01

    RanGTPase is involved in many cellular processes. It functions in nuclear-cytosolic transport and centrosome formation. Ran also localizes to chromatin as RCC1 does, its guanine nucleotide exchange factor, but Ran's function on chromatin is not known. We found that gsp1, a temperature-sensitive mutant of GSP1, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ran homologue, suppressed the hydroxyurea (HU) and ultra violet (UV) sensitivities of the mec1 mutant. In UV-irradiated mec1 gsp1 cells, Rad53 was phosphorylated despite the lack of Mec1. This suppression depended on the TEL1 gene, given that the triple mutant, mec1 gsp1 tel1, was unable to grow. The gsp1 mutations also suppressed the HU sensitivity of the rad9 mutant in a Tel1-dependent manner, but not the HU sensitivity of the rad53 mutant. These results indicated that Rad53 was activated by the Tel1 pathway in mec1 gsp1 cells, suggesting that Gsp1 helps regulate the role switching the ATM family kinases Mec1 and Tel1

  8. Boundary-Layer Detection at Cryogenic Conditions Using Temperature Sensitive Paint Coupled with a Carbon Nanotube Heating Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kyle Z.; Lipford, William E.; Watkins, Anthony Neal

    2016-01-01

    Detection of flow transition on aircraft surfaces and models can be vital to the development of future vehicles and computational methods for evaluating vehicle concepts. In testing at ambient conditions, IR thermography is ideal for this measurement. However, for higher Reynolds number testing, cryogenic facilities are often used, in which IR thermography is difficult to employ. In these facilities, temperature sensitive paint is an alternative with a temperature step introduced to enhance the natural temperature change from transition. Traditional methods for inducing the temperature step by changing the liquid nitrogen injection rate often change the tunnel conditions. Recent work has shown that adding a layer consisting of carbon nanotubes to the surface can be used to impart a temperature step on the model surface with little change in the operating conditions. Unfortunately, this system physically degraded at 130 K and lost heating capability. This paper describes a modification of this technique enabling operation down to at least 77 K, well below the temperature reached in cryogenic facilities. This is possible because the CNT layer is in a polyurethane binder. This was tested on a Natural Laminar Flow model in a cryogenic facility and transition detection was successfully visualized at conditions from 200 K to 110 K. Results were also compared with the traditional temperature step method.

  9. Boundary-Layer Detection at Cryogenic Conditions Using Temperature Sensitive Paint Coupled with a Carbon Nanotube Heating Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Z. Goodman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of flow transition on aircraft surfaces and models can be vital to the development of future vehicles and computational methods for evaluating vehicle concepts. In testing at ambient conditions, IR thermography is ideal for this measurement. However, for higher Reynolds number testing, cryogenic facilities are often used, in which IR thermography is difficult to employ. In these facilities, temperature sensitive paint is an alternative with a temperature step introduced to enhance the natural temperature change from transition. Traditional methods for inducing the temperature step by changing the liquid nitrogen injection rate often change the tunnel conditions. Recent work has shown that adding a layer consisting of carbon nanotubes to the surface can be used to impart a temperature step on the model surface with little change in the operating conditions. Unfortunately, this system physically degraded at 130 K and lost heating capability. This paper describes a modification of this technique enabling operation down to at least 77 K, well below the temperature reached in cryogenic facilities. This is possible because the CNT layer is in a polyurethane binder. This was tested on a Natural Laminar Flow model in a cryogenic facility and transition detection was successfully visualized at conditions from 200 K to 110 K. Results were also compared with the traditional temperature step method.

  10. Assignment of simian rotavirus SA11 temperature-sensitive mutant groups B and E to genome segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombold, J.L.; Estes, M.K.; Ramig, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Recombinant (reassortant) viruses were selected from crosses between temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of simian rotavirus SA11 and wild-type human rotavirus Wa. The double-stranded genome RNAs of the reassortants were examined by electrophoresis in Tris-glycine-buffered polyacrylamide gels and by dot hybridization with a cloned DNA probe for genome segment 2. Analysis of replacements of genome segments in the reassortants allowed construction of a map correlating genome segments providing functions interchangeable between SA11 and Wa. The reassortants revealed a functional correspondence in order of increasing electrophoretic mobility of genome segments. Analysis of the parental origin of genome segments in ts+ SA11/Wa reassortants derived from the crosses SA11 tsB(339) X Wa and SA11 tsE(1400) X Wa revealed that the group B lesion of tsB(339) was located on genome segment 3 and the group E lesion of tsE(1400) was on segment 8

  11. Assignment of simian rotavirus SA11 temperature-sensitive mutant groups B and E to genome segments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombold, J.L.; Estes, M.K.; Ramig, R.F.

    1985-05-01

    Recombinant (reassortant) viruses were selected from crosses between temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of simian rotavirus SA11 and wild-type human rotavirus Wa. The double-stranded genome RNAs of the reassortants were examined by electrophoresis in Tris-glycine-buffered polyacrylamide gels and by dot hybridization with a cloned DNA probe for genome segment 2. Analysis of replacements of genome segments in the reassortants allowed construction of a map correlating genome segments providing functions interchangeable between SA11 and Wa. The reassortants revealed a functional correspondence in order of increasing electrophoretic mobility of genome segments. Analysis of the parental origin of genome segments in ts+ SA11/Wa reassortants derived from the crosses SA11 tsB(339) X Wa and SA11 tsE(1400) X Wa revealed that the group B lesion of tsB(339) was located on genome segment 3 and the group E lesion of tsE(1400) was on segment 8.

  12. Stabilization of influenza vaccine enhances protection by microneedle delivery in the mouse skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Shi Quan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple and effective vaccine administration is particularly important for annually recommended influenza vaccination. We hypothesized that vaccine delivery to the skin using a patch containing vaccine-coated microneedles could be an attractive approach to improve influenza vaccination compliance and efficacy.Solid microneedle arrays coated with inactivated influenza vaccine were prepared for simple vaccine delivery to the skin. However, the stability of the influenza vaccine, as measured by hemagglutination activity, was found to be significantly damaged during microneedle coating. The addition of trehalose to the microneedle coating formulation retained hemagglutination activity, indicating stabilization of the coated influenza vaccine. For both intramuscular and microneedle skin immunization, delivery of un-stabilized vaccine yielded weaker protective immune responses including viral neutralizing antibodies, protective efficacies, and recall immune responses to influenza virus. Immunization using un-stabilized vaccine also shifted the pattern of antibody isotypes compared to the stabilized vaccine. Importantly, a single microneedle-based vaccination using stabilized influenza vaccine was found to be superior to intramuscular immunization in controlling virus replication as well as in inducing rapid recall immune responses post challenge.The functional integrity of hemagglutinin is associated with inducing improved protective immunity against influenza. Simple microneedle influenza vaccination in the skin produced superior protection compared to conventional intramuscular immunization. This approach is likely to be applicable to other vaccines too.

  13. The defective phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase in a temperature-sensitive prs-2 mutant of Escherichia coli is compensated by increased enzyme synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, David A.; Switzer, Robert L.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1996-01-01

    An Escherichia coli strain which is temperature-sensitive for growth due to a mutation (prs-2) causing a defective phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) synthase has been characterized. The temperature-sensitive mutation was mapped to a 276 bp HindIII-BssHII DNA fragment located within the open reading...... temperature shift to 42 degrees C. The other mutation was a C -> T transition located 39 bp upstream of the G -> A mutation, i.e. outside the coding sequence and close to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence. Cells harbouring only the C -> T mutation in a plasmid contained approximately three times as much PRPP...

  14. Influenza Pandemic Infrastructure Response in Thailand

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Influenza viruses change antigenic properties, or drift, every year and they create seasonal outbreaks. Occasionally, influenza viruses change in a major way, called a “shift." If an influenza virus shifts, the entire human population is susceptible to the new influenza virus, creating the potential for a pandemic. On this podcast, CDC's Dr. Scott Dowell discusses responding to an influenza pandemic.

  15. Measurement of bovine body and scrotal temperature using implanted temperature sensitive radio transmitters, data loggers and infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallage, A. L.; Gaughan, J. B.; Lisle, A. T.; Beard, L.; Collins, C. W.; Johnston, S. D.

    2017-07-01

    Synchronous and continuous measurement of body (BT) and scrotal temperature (ST) without adverse welfare or behavioural interference is essential for understanding thermoregulation of the bull testis. This study compared three technologies for their efficacy for long-term measurement of the relationship between BT and ST by means of (1) temperature sensitive radio transmitters (RT), (2) data loggers (DL) and (3) infrared imaging (IRI). After an initial pilot study on two bulls to establish a surgical protocol, RTs and DLs were implanted into the flank and mid-scrotum of six Wagyu bulls for between 29 and 49 days. RT frequencies were scanned every 15 min, whilst DLs logged every 30 min. Infrared imaging of the body (flank) and scrotum of each bull was recorded hourly for one 24-h period and compared to RT and DL data. After a series of subsequent heat stress studies, bulls were castrated and testicular tissue samples processed for evidence of histopathology. Radio transmitters were less reliable than DLs; RTs lost >11 % of data, whilst 11 of the 12 DLs had 0 % data loss. IRI was only interpretable in 35.8 % of images recorded. Pearson correlations between DL and RT were strong for both BT ( r > 0.94, P 0.80, P animals post-surgery. Whilst scar tissue was observed at all surgical sutured sites when bulls were castrated, there was no evidence of testicular adhesion and normal active spermatogenesis was observed in six of the eight implanted testicles. There was no significant correlation of IRI with either DL or RT. We conclude that DLs provided to be a reliable continuous source of data for synchronous measurement of BT and ST.

  16. Temperature sensitive lethal factors and puparial colour sex separation mechanisms in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch-Petersen, E.

    1990-01-01

    A programme to develop genetic sexing mechanisms in the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was initiated at the IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf, in 1983. Because of the potential benefits arising from the elimination of females early in the developmental cycle, combined with the anticipated relative ease of inducing temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) factors, it was decided to attempt to induce and isolate tsl factors active in the egg or early larval stages. Initially, five recombination suppressor (RS) strains were isolated. The degree of recombination suppression ranged from 77.6% to 99.1%. The viability of each of the five RS strains was assessed and RS 30/55 was selected as the most suitable strain. Ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) was used to induce the tsl factors, by feeding two-day old adult males with a suspension of EMS in a 10% solution of sugar in the drinking water supply. Temperature tolerance tests indicated a discriminating temperature of 32 deg. C when isolating tsl factors active in the egg stage and 35 deg. C when isolating such factors in the early larval stage. A total of 39 and 22 tsl factors have been isolated in the two stages, respectively. However, none has yet proved stable. Induction of tsl factors with a reduced dose of EMS is now being attempted. An alternative genetic sexing programme was initiated in 1985, based on the use of pupal colour dimorphisms. Previously, a genetic sexing strain, T:Y(wp + )101, based on a white female/brown male puparial colour dimorphism, had twice been assessed for stability under mass rearing conditions. In both cases the sexual colour dimorphism disintegrated immediately. Another similarly dimorphic strain, T:Y(wp + )30C, was developed. This strain remained stable for seven generations of mass rearing, after which it started to disintegrate. Disintegration of this strain was probably caused by accidental contamination by wild type medflies. 34 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Characterization of the rate and temperature sensitivities of bacterial remineralization of dissolved organic phosphorus by natural populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelicque E. White

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Production, transformation, and degradation are the principal components of the cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM in marine systems. Heterotrophic Bacteria (and Archaea play a large part in this cycling via enzymatic decomposition and intracellular transformations of organic material to inorganic carbon (C, nitrogen (N , and phosphorus (P. The rate and magnitude of inorganic nutrient regeneration from DOM is related to the elemental composition and lability of DOM substrates as well as the nutritional needs of the mediating organisms. While many previous efforts have focused on C and N cycling of DOM, less is known in regards to the controls of organic P utilization and remineralization by natural populations of bacteria. In order to constrain the relative time scales and degradation of select dissolved organic P (DOP compounds we have conducted a series of experiments focused on (1 assessment of the short-term lability of a range of DOP compounds, (2 characterization of labile DOP remineralization rates and (3 examination of temperature sensitivities of labile DOP remineralization for varying bacterial populations. Results reinforce previous findings of monoester and polyphosphate lability and the relative recalcitrance of a model phosphonate: 2-aminoethylphosphonate. High resolution time-series of P monoester remineralization indicates decay constants on the order of 0.67-7.04 d-1 for bacterial populations isolated from coastal and open ocean surface waters. The variability of these rates is predictably related to incubation temperature and initial concentrations of heterotrophic bacteria. Additional controls on DOP hydrolysis included seasonal shifts in bacterial populations and the physiological state of bacteria at the initiation of DOP addition experiments. Composite results indicate that bacterial hydrolysis of P-monoesters exceeds bacterial P demand and thus DOP remineralization efficiency may control P availability to autotrophs.

  18. Temperature sensitivity of drought-induced tree mortality portends increased regional die-off under global-change-type drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Henry D.; Guardiola-Claramonte, Maite; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Villegas, Juan Camilo; Breshears, David D.; Zou, Chris B.; Troch, Peter A.; Huxman, Travis E.

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale biogeographical shifts in vegetation are predicted in response to the altered precipitation and temperature regimes associated with global climate change. Vegetation shifts have profound ecological impacts and are an important climate-ecosystem feedback through their alteration of carbon, water, and energy exchanges of the land surface. Of particular concern is the potential for warmer temperatures to compound the effects of increasingly severe droughts by triggering widespread vegetation shifts via woody plant mortality. The sensitivity of tree mortality to temperature is dependent on which of 2 non-mutually-exclusive mechanisms predominates—temperature-sensitive carbon starvation in response to a period of protracted water stress or temperature-insensitive sudden hydraulic failure under extreme water stress (cavitation). Here we show that experimentally induced warmer temperatures (≈4 °C) shortened the time to drought-induced mortality in Pinus edulis (piñon shortened pine) trees by nearly a third, with temperature-dependent differences in cumulative respiration costs implicating carbon starvation as the primary mechanism of mortality. Extrapolating this temperature effect to the historic frequency of water deficit in the southwestern United States predicts a 5-fold increase in the frequency of regional-scale tree die-off events for this species due to temperature alone. Projected increases in drought frequency due to changes in precipitation and increases in stress from biotic agents (e.g., bark beetles) would further exacerbate mortality. Our results demonstrate the mechanism by which warmer temperatures have exacerbated recent regional die-off events and background mortality rates. Because of pervasive projected increases in temperature, our results portend widespread increases in the extent and frequency of vegetation die-off. PMID:19365070

  19. Modelling tree ring cellulose δ18O variations in two temperature-sensitive tree species from North and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lavergne

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen isotopes in tree rings (δ18OTR are widely used to reconstruct past climates. However, the complexity of climatic and biological processes controlling isotopic fractionation is not yet fully understood. Here, we use the MAIDENiso model to decipher the variability in δ18OTR of two temperature-sensitive species of relevant palaeoclimatological interest (Picea mariana and Nothofagus pumilio and growing at cold high latitudes in North and South America. In this first modelling study on δ18OTR values in both northeastern Canada (53.86° N and western Argentina (41.10° S, we specifically aim at (1 evaluating the predictive skill of MAIDENiso to simulate δ18OTR values, (2 identifying the physical processes controlling δ18OTR by mechanistic modelling and (3 defining the origin of the temperature signal recorded in the two species. Although the linear regression models used here to predict daily δ18O of precipitation (δ18OP may need to be improved in the future, the resulting daily δ18OP values adequately reproduce observed (from weather stations and simulated (by global circulation model δ18OP series. The δ18OTR values of the two species are correctly simulated using the δ18OP estimation as MAIDENiso input, although some offset in mean δ18OTR levels is observed for the South American site. For both species, the variability in δ18OTR series is primarily linked to the effect of temperature on isotopic enrichment of the leaf water. We show that MAIDENiso is a powerful tool for investigating isotopic fractionation processes but that the lack of a denser isotope-enabled monitoring network recording oxygen fractionation in the soil–vegetation–atmosphere compartments limits our capacity to decipher the processes at play. This study proves that the eco-physiological modelling of δ18OTR values is necessary to interpret the recorded climate signal more reliably.

  20. Influenza pandemic planning guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    An influenza pandemic will have serious economic impacts on the natural gas industry due to absenteeism as well as downstream effects due to supply disruption.This guide was prepared to assist gas distribution companies in planning for an influenza epidemic. The guide aimed to minimize the risks that an influenza pandemic might pose to the health and safety of employees and the continuity of business operations. The guide discussed 5 critical aspects of emergency planning: (1) prevention and threat mitigation; (2) preparedness; (3) response; (4) business continuity; and (5) communication. The legal context of the emergency plans were discussed. The plans were also discussed to other essential infrastructure emergency response plans. Recommendations were presented for infection control, decentralization and access restriction. Outlines for pandemic response planning teams and training and exercise programs were provided. Issues related to alert, mobilization, and response procedures were also discussed. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  1. Equine influenza in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Filippsen Favaro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus (EIV (H3N8 and H7N7 is the causative agent of equine influenza, or equine flu. The H7N7 subtype has been considered to be extinct worldwide since 1980. Affected animals have respiratory symptoms that can be worsened by secondary bacterial respiratory infection, thereby leading to great economic losses in the horse-breeding industry. In Brazil, equine influenza outbreaks were first reported in 1963 and studies on hemagglutination antibodies against viral subtypes in Brazilian horses have been conducted since then. The objective of the present review was to present the history of the emergence of EIV around the world and in Brazil and the studies that have thus far been developed on EIV in Brazilian equines.

  2. Highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, D E; Suarez, D L

    2000-08-01

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza (AI) (HPAI) is an extremely contagious, multi-organ systemic disease of poultry leading to high mortality, and caused by some H5 and H7 subtypes of type A influenza virus, family Orthomyxoviridae. However, most AI virus strains are mildly pathogenic (MP) and produce either subclinical infections or respiratory and/or reproductive diseases in a variety of domestic and wild bird species. Highly pathogenic avian influenza is a List A disease of the Office International des Epizooties, while MPAI is neither a List A nor List B disease. Eighteen outbreaks of HPAI have been documented since the identification of AI virus as the cause of fowl plague in 1955. Mildly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are maintained in wild aquatic bird reservoirs, occasionally crossing over to domestic poultry and causing outbreaks of mild disease. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses do not have a recognised wild bird reservoir, but can occasionally be isolated from wild birds during outbreaks in domestic poultry. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been documented to arise from MPAI viruses through mutations in the haemagglutinin surface protein. Prevention of exposure to the virus and eradication are the accepted methods for dealing with HPAI. Control programmes, which imply allowing a low incidence of infection, are not an acceptable method for managing HPAI, but have been used during some outbreaks of MPAI. The components of a strategy to deal with MPAI or HPAI include surveillance and diagnosis, biosecurity, education, quarantine and depopulation. Vaccination has been used in some control and eradication programmes for AI.

  3. Clinical and microbiological features of Haemophilus influenzae vulvovaginitis in young girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, R A; Slack, M P E

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To define the clinical and microbiological features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls whose genital swabs yielded Haemophilus influenzae. Methods: Laboratory based study and retrospective collection of clinical data from the requesting doctors. Results: Thirty eight isolates of non-capsulate Haemophilus influenzae and one of H parainfluenzae were isolated from 32 girls aged 18 months to 11 years. No other pathogens, such as β haemolytic streptococci or yeasts, were present with H influenzae. The most common biotype was biotype II, comprising 57% of the 26 isolates biotyped. Six children had more than one episode of vulvovaginitis caused by H influenzae and a total of 14 children had recurrent vaginal symptoms. Conclusion: Children who have H influenzae vulvovaginitis are at risk of recurrent symptoms. Biotype II is the one most commonly associated with this condition. PMID:12461068

  4. Contrasting effects of elevated CO2 and warming on temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition in a Chinese paddy field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaozhi; Wang, Bingyu; Wang, Jinyang; Pan, Genxing; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2015-10-01

    Climate changes including elevated CO2 and temperature have been known to affect soil carbon (C) storage, while the effects of climate changes on the temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) are unclear. A 365-day laboratory incubation was used to investigate the temperature sensitivity for decomposition of labile (Q 10-L) and recalcitrant (Q 10-R) SOMs by comparing the time required to decompose a given amount of C at 25 and 35 °C. Soils were collected from a paddy field that was subjected to four treatments: ambient CO2 and temperature, elevated CO2 (500 μmol/mol), enhanced temperature (+2 °C), and their combination. The results showed that the temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition increased with increasing SOM recalcitrance in this paddy soil (Q 10-L = 2.21 ± 0.16 vs. Q 10-R = 2.78 ± 0.42; mean ± SD). Elevated CO2 and enhanced temperature showed contrasting effects on the temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition. Elevated CO2 stimulated Q 10-R but had no effect on Q 10-L; in contrast, enhanced temperature increased Q 10-L but had no effect on Q 10-R. Furthermore, the elevated CO2 combined with enhanced temperature treatment significantly increased Q 10-L and Q 10-R by 18.9 and 10.2 %, respectively, compared to the ambient conditions. Results suggested that the responses of SOM to temperature, especially for the recalcitrant SOM pool, were altered by climate changes. The greatly enhanced temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition by elevated CO2 and temperature indicates that more CO2 will be released to the atmosphere and losses of soil C may be even greater than that previously expected in paddy field.

  5. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people has ranged from mild to severe. Avian Influenza Transmission Avian Influenza Transmission Infographic [555 KB, 2 pages] Spanish [ ... important for public health. Signs and Symptoms of Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans The reported signs ...

  6. Alginate Microspheres Containing Temperature Sensitive Liposomes (TSL for MR-Guided Embolization and Triggered Release of Doxorubicin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merel van Elk

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop and characterize alginate microspheres suitable for embolization with on-demand triggered doxorubicin (DOX release and whereby the microspheres as well as the drug releasing process can be visualized in vivo using MRI.For this purpose, barium crosslinked alginate microspheres were loaded with temperature sensitive liposomes (TSL/TSL-Ba-ms, which release their payload upon mild hyperthermia. These TSL contained DOX and [Gd(HPDO3A(H2O], a T1 MRI contrast agent, for real time visualization of the release. Empty alginate microspheres crosslinked with holmium ions (T2* MRI contrast agent, Ho-ms were mixed with TSL-Ba-ms to allow microsphere visualization. TSL-Ba-ms and Ho-ms were prepared with a homemade spray device and sized by sieving. Encapsulation of TSL in barium crosslinked microspheres changed the triggered release properties only slightly: 95% of the loaded DOX was released from free TSL vs. 86% release for TSL-Ba-ms within 30 seconds in 50% FBS at 42°C. TSL-Ba-ms (76 ± 41 μm and Ho-ms (64 ± 29 μm had a comparable size, which most likely will result in a similar in vivo tissue distribution after an i.v. co-injection and therefore Ho-ms can be used as tracer for the TSL-Ba-ms. MR imaging of a TSL-Ba-ms and Ho-ms mixture (ratio 95:5 before and after hyperthermia allowed in vitro and in vivo visualization of microsphere deposition (T2*-weighted images as well as temperature-triggered release (T1-weighted images. The [Gd(HPDO3A(H2O] release and clusters of microspheres containing holmium ions were visualized in a VX2 tumor model in a rabbit using MRI.In conclusion, these TSL-Ba-ms and Ho-ms are promising systems for real-time, MR-guided embolization and triggered release of drugs in vivo.

  7. Old and stable soil organic matter is not necessarily chemically recalcitrant: Implications for modeling concepts and temperature sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleber, M.; Nico, P.S.; Plante, A.; Filley, T.; Kramer, M.; Swanston, C.; Sollins, P.

    2010-03-01

    of complex or 'recalcitrant' compounds will erroneously attribute a greater temperature sensitivity to those materials than they may actually possess.

  8. Equine influenza: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Waghmare

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus is a leading cause of respiratory disease in the horses. The disease is the OIE listed disease of equines, ponies, mules and donkeys and spreads very fast. The sporadic outbreaks of the disease have occurred all over the country. Many cases have been reported in Delhi, Meerut, Saharanpur, Jaipur, Hisar, Calcutta, Ahmedabad. Nearly all the horses at Matheran (Hill station were infected with influenza. The disease has spread like wildfire at the stables of Royal Western India Turf Club (RWITC at Pune and suspended the Mumbai racing season for prolonged period of time resulting in marked economic losses. After affecting racing in Mumbai, Calcutta and New Delhi, the dreaded equine influenza has spread to Karnataka and Mysore. An outbreak of disease has marred the racing season across the country. The disease was first detected in Jammu & Kashmir before entering the central region Horses at the army polo clubs and Delhi equestrian center were also affected. As per the recent survey conducted by the army across India, it has been found that 5400 horses are infected so far, especially thoroughbred most severely. Nearly, 95 % of horses on a major farm in India are suspected of suffering from equine influenza. The government also banned inter-state movement of horses for three months to contain the disease. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 194-197

  9. Hablemos de la Influenza

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-12-08

    En la charla, un médico responde a las preguntas frecuentes sobre la vacuna contra la influenza (gripe).  Created: 12/8/2010 by Centro Nacional para la Inmunización y Enfermedades Respiratorias (NCIRD).   Date Released: 12/8/2010.

  10. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not provide protection against the...

  11. MANAGEMENT PATIENT OF SWINE INFLUENZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endra Gunawan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is an acute respiratory diseases caused by various influenza virus which infect the upper and lower respiratory tract and often accompanied by systemic symptoms such as fever, headache and muscle pain. Influenza spreads through the air. Swine influenza comes from swine and can cause an outbreaks in pig flocks. Even this is a kind of a rare case but the swine influenza could be transmitted to human by direct contact with infected swine or through environment that already being contaminated by swine influenza virus. There are 3 types of swine influenza virus namely H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2. Type H1N1 swine-virus had been known since 1918. Avian influenza virus infection is transmitted from one person to another through secret containing virus. Virus is binded into the mucous cells of respiratory tract before it is finally infecting the cells itself. Management patients with H1N1 influenza is based on the complications and the risk. Besides, it is also need to consider the clinical criteria of the patient. Therapy medicamentosa is applied to the patients by giving an antiviral, antibiotics and symptomatic therapy. Prevention can be done by avoid contact with infected animal or environment, having antiviral prophylaxis and vaccination.

  12. The microbial temperature sensitivity to warming is controlled by thermal adaptation and is independent of C-quality across a pan-continental survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Eva; Rousk, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    Climate models predict that warming will result in an increased loss of soil organic matter (SOM). However, field experiments suggest that although warming results in an immediate increase in SOM turnover, the effect diminishes over time. Although the use and subsequent turnover of SOM is dominated by the soil microbial community, the underlying physiology underpinning warming responses are not considered in current climate models. It has been suggested that a reduction in the perceived quality of SOM to the microbial community, and changes in the microbial thermal adaptation, could be important feed-backs to soil warming. Thus, studies distinguishing between temperature relationships and how substrate quality influences microbial decomposition are a priority. We examined microbial communities and temperature sensitivities along a natural climate gradient including 56 independent samples from across Europe. The gradient included mean annual temperatures (MAT) from ca -4 to 18 ˚ C, along with wide spans of environmental factors known to influence microbial communities, such as pH (4.0 to 8.8), nutrients (C/N from 7 to 50), SOM (from 4 to 94%), and plant communities, etc. The extensive ranges of environmental conditions resulted in wide ranges of substrate quality, indexed as microbial respiration per unit SOM, from 5-150 μg CO2g-1 SOM g-1 h-1. We hypothesised microbial communities to (1) be adapted to the temperature of their climate, leading to warm adapted bacterial communities that were more temperature sensitive (higher Q10s) at higher MAT; (2) have temperature sensitivities affected by the quality of SOM, with higher Q10s for lower quality SOM. To determine the microbial use of SOM and its dependence on temperature, we characterized microbial temperature dependences of bacterial growth (leu inc), fungal growth (ac-in-erg) and soil respiration in all 56 sites. Temperature dependences were determined using brief (ca. 1-2 h at 25˚ C) laboratory incubation

  13. Use of a temperature-sensitive p53 mutant to evaluate mechanisms of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine-mediated radiosensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naida, J.D.; Davis, M.A.; Lawrence, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Evidence exists that fluorodeoxyuridine (FdUrd)-mediated radiosensitization occurs in HT29 human colon carcinoma cells (which are p53 mutant) when these cells progress past the G 1 /S boundary in the presence of the drug. It has been demonstrated that wild type p53 levels increase following fluoropyrimidine treatment and that G 1 arrest is associated with increased p53 levels. We hypothesized that the restoration of wild type p53 function might restore G 1 /S arrest after FdUrd treatment, and that this would prevent FdUrd-mediated radiosensitization. Similarly, we hypothesized that cells containing wild type p53 would not be radiosensitized by FdUrd. Materials and Methods: Two clones of HT29 human colon cancer cells (ts29-A and ts29-G) containing murine temperature-sensitive p53 were constructed using electroporation and Geneticin selection. Incubation of these cells at the permissive temperature of 32 deg. C produces wild type p53 function and at the non permissive temperature of 38 deg. C causes mutant p53 function. A G418 resistant control cell line was also constructed (HT29neo). Cells were incubated at either 32 deg. C or 38 deg. C for 24 hours prior to irradiation and with FdUrd (100 nM) or medium only during the last 14 hours of the temperature shift. To assess progression into S phase, single-parameter (propidium iodide (PI)) and two-parameter (PI and bromodeoxyuridine) flow cytometry were performed at the end of drug exposure. A standard clonogenic assay was used. Results: We found that when ts29-A and ts29-G cells were incubated at the non-permissive (inactive p53 conformation) temperature, they progressed into S phase following exposure to FdUrd and were radiosensitized (enhancement ratio 1.5) to a degree similar to that seen in parental HT29 cells. Cells incubated at the permissive (wild-type p53 conformation) temperature demonstrated G 1 arrest, S phase depletion, and G2 arrest. In addition, FdUrd-mediated radiosensitization was

  14. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the global influenza B study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Sue Huang, Q.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.P.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.; Feng, L.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kasjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Hereaud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, L.T.Q.; Schellevis, F.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. Methods Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n = 5)

  15. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the Global Influenza B Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Huang, Q.S.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.P.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.J.; Feng, L.Z.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kadjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Heraud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, L.T.Q.; Schellevis, F.G.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. Methods: Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n=5)

  16. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the Global Influenza B Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Huang, Q.S.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.; Feng, L.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kadjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Heraud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, T.Q. le; Schellevis, F.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. METHODS: Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n =

  17. Influenza vaccinations : who needs them and when?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, Eelko; Hoes, Arno W; Verheij, Theo J M

    2002-01-01

    Influenza vaccination programmes should aim at reducing the burden from influenza among those who need it most. The primary aim of this literature review is to identify who should receive priority in influenza vaccination programmes. Risk factors for severe post-influenza complications include

  18. Influenza Virus Infection in Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Engel, Gregory A.; Feeroz, M.M.; San, Sorn; Rompis, Aida; Lee, Benjamin P. Y.-H.; Shaw, Eric; Oh, Gunwha; Schillaci, Michael A.; Grant, Richard; Heidrich, John; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether nonhuman primates are infected with influenza viruses in nature, we conducted serologic and swab studies among macaques from several parts of the world. Our detection of influenza virus and antibodies to influenza virus raises questions about the role of nonhuman primates in the ecology of influenza. PMID:23017256

  19. [Summary of Guangdong provincial seminar on avian influenza and influenza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shou-yi; Chen, Qing; Hu, Gui-fang

    2005-12-01

    On 8th November 2005, an academic seminar on avian influenza and influenza in Guangdong Province was held by Guangdong Society of Tropical Medicine and the Epidemiology Committee of the Guangdong Preventive Medicine Society in Southern Medical University, addressing the current problems in epidemics of avian influenza. The specialists attending the conference arrived at the common consideration that at present, the avian influenza virus H5N1 has not the capacity to trigger an pandemic in human population, but scattered cases had been reported to increase the suspicions of H5N1 virus transmission between humans. Due attention should be paid to the tendency of expansion of the host range and epidemic area, and the possibility of disastrous influenza pandemic among human populations persists, for which rational consideration is called for, and the role of specialists should be fully recognized who are endeavoring to examine the possible scale of influenza occurrence and devise strategy to deal with the epidemic in Guangdong province according to the practical situation in China. Increased funds and investment in scientific research on avian influenza is urged for influenza prediction and surveillance, rapid and early diagnostic assays, understanding of virus variation, mechanism of H5N1 virus adaptation to human hosts, effective medicines and vaccines for prevention and therapy of avian influenza. Laboratory bio-safety control should be enforced to prevent infections originated from laboratories. The specialists appeal that the media report the news objectively and issue the public warnings against avian influenza after consulting specialists, so as to avoid unnecessary social panic.

  20. Influenza: prevention, prophylaxis and treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    three and five million cases of severe illness and between a quarter and half a million ... period from 1997 to 2001, influenza and pneumonia combined was one of the top five ... be a consequence of the influenza or due to secondary bacterial .... community-acquired pneumonia in children – South African Thoracic Society.

  1. Avian influenza surveillance and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid detection and accurate identification of low (LPAI) and high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) is critical to controlling infections and disease in poultry. Test selection and algorithms for the detection and diagnosis of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry may vary somewhat among differ...

  2. Influenza as a human disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Influenza as a human disease. Commonly perceived as a mild disease, affects every one, sometimes a couple of times in a year. Globally, seasonal influenza epidemics result in about three to five million yearly cases of severe illness and about 250,000 to 500,000 yearly ...

  3. Investigation of technology for manufacturing the non-magnetic temperature-sensitive composite materials and their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobelev, A.G.; Kolesnikov, F.V.; Gul'bin, V.N.; Nikitin, I.S.

    2004-01-01

    Investigation results are presented on structure and properties of nonmagnetic thermobimetals on the basis of beryllium bronze which is used both as active and passive layers. The second layer of thermosensitive element consists of stainless steel 12Kh18N10T, titanium base alloy VT1-0 and aluminum base alloy AD1. The manufacturing of the layered composite materials includes explosion welding, plastic deformation and heat treatment. It is established that strain hardening of the thermobimetals results in an increase of yield strength, microstresses, hardness and specific resistance [ru

  4. Influenza-associated thrombotic microangiopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzan, Martin; Zieg, Jakub

    2017-09-07

    Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) refers to phenotypically similar disorders, including hemolytic uremic syndromes (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). This review explores the role of the influenza virus as trigger of HUS or TTP. We conducted a literature survey in PubMed and Google Scholar using HUS, TTP, TMA, and influenza as keywords, and extracted and analyzed reported epidemiological and clinical data. We identified 25 cases of influenza-associated TMA. Five additional cases were linked to influenza vaccination and analyzed separately. Influenza A was found in 83%, 10 out of 25 during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic. Two patients had bona fide TTP with ADAMTS13 activity rational treatment approaches.

  5. viruses associated with human and animal influenza - a review 40

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    These include Influenza A,B and C. Influenza viruses are members of the family. Orthomyxoviridae. .... low pathogenicity avian influenza may be as mild as ruffled feathers, a ... influenza A viruses are zoonotic agents recognized as continuing ...

  6. A flow-through chromatography process for influenza A and B virus purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Thomas; Solomaier, Thomas; Peuker, Alessa; Pathapati, Trinath; Wolff, Michael W; Reichl, Udo

    2014-10-01

    Vaccination is still the most efficient measure to protect against influenza virus infections. Besides the seasonal wave of influenza, pandemic outbreaks of bird or swine flu represent a high threat to human population. With the establishment of cell culture-based processes, there is a growing demand for robust, economic and efficient downstream processes for influenza virus purification. This study focused on the development of an economic flow-through chromatographic process avoiding virus strain sensitive capture steps. Therefore, a three-step process consisting of anion exchange chromatography (AEC), Benzonase(®) treatment, and size exclusion chromatography with a ligand-activated core (LCC) was established, and tested for purification of two influenza A virus strains and one influenza B virus strain. The process resulted in high virus yields (≥68%) with protein contamination levels fulfilling requirements of the European Pharmacopeia for production of influenza vaccines for human use. DNA was depleted by ≥98.7% for all strains. The measured DNA concentrations per dose were close to the required limits of 10ng DNA per dose set by the European Pharmacopeia. In addition, the added Benzonase(®) could be successfully removed from the product fraction. Overall, the presented downstream process could potentially represent a simple, robust and economic platform technology for production of cell culture-derived influenza vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Low soil moisture during hot periods drives apparent negative temperature sensitivity of soil respiration in a dryland ecosystem: A multi-model comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Colin; Reed, Sasha C.

    2016-01-01

    Arid and semiarid ecosystems (drylands) may dominate the trajectory of biosphere-to-atmosphere carbon (C) flux over the coming century. Accordingly, understanding dryland CO2 efflux controls is important for understanding C cycling at the global-scale: key unknowns regarding how temperature and moisture interact to regulate dryland C cycling remain. Further, the patchiness of dryland vegetation can create ‘islands of fertility’, with spatially heterogeneous rates of soil respiration (Rs). At our study site in southeastern Utah, USA we added or removed litter (0 to 650% of control) in paired plots that were either associated with a shrub or with interspaces between vascular plants. We measured Rs, soil temperature, and water content (θ) on eight sampling dates between October 2013 and November 2014. Rs was highest following monsoon rains in late summer when soil temperature was ~30°C. During mid-summer, Rs was low, associated with high soil temperatures (>40°C), resulting in an apparent negative temperature sensitivity of Rs at high temperatures, and positive temperature sensitivity at low-moderate temperatures. We used Bayesian statistical methods to compare multiple competing models capturing a wide range of hypothesized relationships between temperature, moisture, and Rs. The best fit model indicates apparent negative temperature sensitivity of soil respiration at high temperatures reflects the control of soil moisture – not high temperatures – in limiting Rs. The modeled Q10 ranged from 2.7 at 5°C to 1.4 at 45°C. Litter addition had no effect on temperature sensitivity or reference respiration (Rref = Rs at 20°C and optimum moisture) beneath shrubs, and little effect on Rref in interspaces, yet Rref was 1.5 times higher beneath shrubs than in interspaces. Together, these results suggest reduced Rs often observed at high temperatures in drylands is dominated by the control of moisture, and that variable litter inputs – at least over the short

  8. Now and future influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, F L

    1990-03-01

    Influenza is a modern day plague. In the young, the clinical picture is classical, but in the elderly, the disease may go unsuspected until complications such as pneumonia develop. Influenza A and B viruses are responsible, and these viruses mutate with great regularity. Antibodies to the HA and NA surface antigens of influenza viruses, both naturally and vaccine induced, are protective. The earliest influenza vaccines were crude, toxic, and ineffective. With modern purification techniques, the egg-grown viruses have been turned into safe, immunogenic, and effective killed-virus vaccines--whole virus and split virus. Surveillance permits the correct virus strains to be incorporated into each new vaccine. Those who have been experiencing the worst effects of influenza have been identified. These individuals need to be immunized each year. In the future, live influenza virus vaccines may offer the benefits of ease of administration and longer-lasting protection. Synthetic peptides, genetically engineered antigens, and even nonantigen (anti-idiotype) vaccines are possible, but such vaccines will require adjuvant enhancement. For the present, greater efforts must be made to use existing influenza vaccines.

  9. Avian influenza viruses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik Peiris, J S

    2009-04-01

    Past pandemics arose from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In more recent times, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and both HPAI and LPAI H7 viruses have repeatedly caused zoonotic disease in humans. Such infections did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission. Experimental infection of human volunteers and seroepidemiological studies suggest that avian influenza viruses of other subtypes may also infect humans. Viruses of the H7 subtype appear to have a predilection to cause conjunctivitis and influenza-like illness (ILI), although HPAI H7N7 virus has also caused fatal respiratory disease. Low pathogenic H9N2 viruses have caused mild ILI and its occurrence may be under-recognised for this reason. In contrast, contemporary HPAI H5N1 viruses are exceptional in their virulence for humans and differ from human seasonal influenza viruses in their pathogenesis. Patients have a primary viral pneumonia progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Over 380 human cases have been confirmed to date, with an overall case fatality of 63%. The zoonotic transmission of avian influenza is a rare occurrence, butthe greater public health concern is the adaptation of such viruses to efficient human transmission, which could lead to a pandemic. A better understanding of the ecology of avian influenza viruses and the biological determinants of transmissibility and pathogenicity in humans is important for pandemic preparedness.

  10. Modeling the airborne survival of influenza virus in a residential setting: the impacts of home humidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Laboratory research studies indicate that aerosolized influenza viruses survive for longer periods at low relative humidity (RH) conditions. Further analysis has shown that absolute humidity (AH) may be an improved predictor of virus survival in the environment. Maintaining airborne moisture levels that reduce survival of the virus in the air and on surfaces could be another tool for managing public health risks of influenza. Methods A multi-zone indoor air quality model was used to evaluate the ability of portable humidifiers to control moisture content of the air and the potential related benefit of decreasing survival of influenza viruses in single-family residences. We modeled indoor AH and influenza virus concentrations during winter months (Northeast US) using the CONTAM multi-zone indoor air quality model. A two-story residential template was used under two different ventilation conditions - forced hot air and radiant heating. Humidity was evaluated on a room-specific and whole house basis. Estimates of emission rates for influenza virus were particle-size specific and derived from published studies and included emissions during both tidal breathing and coughing events. The survival of the influenza virus was determined based on the established relationship between AH and virus survival. Results The presence of a portable humidifier with an output of 0.16 kg water per hour in the bedroom resulted in an increase in median sleeping hours AH/RH levels of 11 to 19% compared to periods without a humidifier present. The associated percent decrease in influenza virus survival was 17.5 - 31.6%. Distribution of water vapor through a residence was estimated to yield 3 to 12% increases in AH/RH and 7.8-13.9% reductions in influenza virus survival. Conclusion This modeling analysis demonstrates the potential benefit of portable residential humidifiers in reducing the survival of aerosolized influenza virus by controlling humidity indoors. PMID:20815876

  11. Modeling the airborne survival of influenza virus in a residential setting: the impacts of home humidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myatt Theodore A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laboratory research studies indicate that aerosolized influenza viruses survive for longer periods at low relative humidity (RH conditions. Further analysis has shown that absolute humidity (AH may be an improved predictor of virus survival in the environment. Maintaining airborne moisture levels that reduce survival of the virus in the air and on surfaces could be another tool for managing public health risks of influenza. Methods A multi-zone indoor air quality model was used to evaluate the ability of portable humidifiers to control moisture content of the air and the potential related benefit of decreasing survival of influenza viruses in single-family residences. We modeled indoor AH and influenza virus concentrations during winter months (Northeast US using the CONTAM multi-zone indoor air quality model. A two-story residential template was used under two different ventilation conditions - forced hot air and radiant heating. Humidity was evaluated on a room-specific and whole house basis. Estimates of emission rates for influenza virus were particle-size specific and derived from published studies and included emissions during both tidal breathing and coughing events. The survival of the influenza virus was determined based on the established relationship between AH and virus survival. Results The presence of a portable humidifier with an output of 0.16 kg water per hour in the bedroom resulted in an increase in median sleeping hours AH/RH levels of 11 to 19% compared to periods without a humidifier present. The associated percent decrease in influenza virus survival was 17.5 - 31.6%. Distribution of water vapor through a residence was estimated to yield 3 to 12% increases in AH/RH and 7.8-13.9% reductions in influenza virus survival. Conclusion This modeling analysis demonstrates the potential benefit of portable residential humidifiers in reducing the survival of aerosolized influenza virus by controlling humidity

  12. Simultaneous and complete genome sequencing of influenza A and B with high coverage by Illumina MiSeq Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Chinnawirotpisan, Piyawan; Simasathien, Sriluck; Shrestha, Sanjaya K; Yoon, In-Kyu; Klungthong, Chonticha; Fernandez, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Active global surveillance and characterization of influenza viruses are essential for better preparation against possible pandemic events. Obtaining comprehensive information about the influenza genome can improve our understanding of the evolution of influenza viruses and emergence of new strains, and improve the accuracy when designing preventive vaccines. This study investigated the use of deep sequencing by the next-generation sequencing (NGS) Illumina MiSeq Platform to obtain complete genome sequence information from influenza virus isolates. The influenza virus isolates were cultured from 6 respiratory acute clinical specimens collected in Thailand and Nepal. DNA libraries obtained from each viral isolate were mixed and all were sequenced simultaneously. Total information of 2.6 Gbases was obtained from a 455±14 K/mm2 density with 95.76% (8,571,655/8,950,724 clusters) of the clusters passing quality control (QC) filters. Approximately 93.7% of all sequences from Read1 and 83.5% from Read2 contained high quality sequences that were ≥Q30, a base calling QC score standard. Alignments analysis identified three seasonal influenza A H3N2 strains, one 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 strain and two influenza B strains. The nearly entire genomes of all six virus isolates yielded equal or greater than 600-fold sequence coverage depth. MiSeq Platform identified seasonal influenza A H3N2, 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1and influenza B in the DNA library mixtures efficiently. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Haemophilus influenzae: an underrated cause of vulvovaginitis in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, R A

    1997-01-01

    AIMS: To establish the common pathogens associated with infective vulvovaginitis in young girls in the local population and to determine current management of this condition. METHODS: A prospective laboratory based survey was carried out over 19 months. A questionnaire was then sent to local general practitioners and hospital doctors. RESULTS: One hundred and six swabs were received during the study period of which 43 (40.5%) yielded organisms recognised as causes of vulvovaginitis. The most common pathogen was group A beta haemolytic streptococcus (19), with Haemophilus influenzae the second most common (11). Candida was isolated on nine occasions. The users' questionnaire had an overall response rate of 52%. Forty one per cent of respondents nominated candida as the most common cause of this condition. Forty six per cent were aware that beta haemolytic streptococci caused juvenile vulvovaginitis, but only four (3.6%) knew that H influenzae was a possible pathogen. The most popular agent for empirical treatment of vulvovaginitis was topical clotrimazole cream, although 24 respondents (22%) prescribed antibiotics that are active against both group A beta haemolytic streptococci and H influenzae. CONCLUSIONS: Although H influenzae is the second most common infective cause of juvenile vulvovaginitis in the local population, most doctors managing these patients were unaware of its importance and may not be prescribing appropriate empirical treatment. Images PMID:9389978

  14. Influenza em animais heterotérmicos Influenza in heterothermics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi pesquisar Ortomyxovirus em animais heterotérmicos. Coletou-se sangue de serpentes dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus e de sapo e rãs dos gêneros Bufo e Rana, para a detecção dos receptores de hemácias e anticorpos específicos, ao vírus influenza, pelos testes de hemaglutinação e inibição da hemaglutinação, respectivamente. Pelo teste de hemaglutinação, verificou-se que serpentes e sapos em cativeiro apresentaram receptores em suas hemácias para o vírus influenza, humano e eqüino do tipo A e tipo B. O mesmo ocorreu com serpentes recém chegadas. Quanto ao teste de inibição da hemaglutinação dos soros dos répteis observou-se títulos protetores de anticorpos aos vírus influenza tipo A (origens humana e eqüina e tipo B. Com soro de sapo não se observou reação de inibição da hemaglutinação porém, 83,3% das rãs obtiveram médias de 40UIH para algumas cepas. Conclui-se que animais heterotérmicos podem oferecer condições de hospedeiros aos vírus influenza, assim como susceptibilidade à infecção.The objective was to study Orthomyxovirus in heterothermic animals. Blood samples from snakes (genus Bothrops and Crotalus and from toads and frogs (genus Bufo and Rana were collected to evaluate the red cell receptors and antibodies specific to influenza virus by the hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests, respectively. Both snakes and toads kept in captivity presented receptors in their red cells and antibodies specific to either influenza virus type A (human and equine origin or influenza type B. The same was observed with recently captured snakes. Concerning the influenza hemagglutination inhibition antibodies protective levels were observed in the reptiles' serum, against influenza type A and type B. Unlike the toads, 83.3% of the frogs presented mean levels of Ab 40HIU for some influenza strains. It was concluded that heterothermic animals could offer host conditions to the influenza

  15. Influenza Vaccination Strategies: Comparing Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Sridhar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen causing annual outbreaks and occasional pandemics. Influenza vaccination is the major method of prophylaxis. Currently annual influenza vaccination is recommended for groups at high risk of complications from influenza infection such as pregnant women, young children, people with underlying disease and the elderly, along with occupational groups such a healthcare workers and farm workers. There are two main types of vaccines available: the parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine and the intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine. The inactivated vaccines are licensed from 6 months of age and have been used for more than 50 years with a good safety profile. Inactivated vaccines are standardized according to the presence of the viral major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and protection is mediated by the induction of vaccine strain specific antibody responses. In contrast, the live attenuated vaccines are licensed in Europe for children from 2–17 years of age and provide a multifaceted immune response with local and systemic antibody and T cell responses but with no clear correlate of protection. Here we discuss the immunological immune responses elicited by the two vaccines and discuss future work to better define correlates of protection.

  16. Flu (Influenza): Information for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PARENTS | DISEASES and the VACCINES THAT PREVENT THEM | Flu (Influenza) and the Vaccine to Prevent It Last updated October 2017 The best way to protect against flu is by getting a flu vaccine. Doctors recommend ...

  17. Pandemic Influenza: Domestic Preparedness Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lister, Sarah A

    2005-01-01

    .... Though influenza pandemics occur with some regularity, and the United States has been involved in specific planning efforts since the early 1990s, the H5N1 situation has created a sense of urgency...

  18. Characteristics of seasonal influenza A and B in Latin America: influenza surveillance data from ten countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Alonso, W.J.; Balmaseda, A.; Bruno, A.; Busto, P.; Castillo, L.; Lozano, C. de; Mora, D. de; Fasce, R. A.; Ferreira de Almeida, W.A.; Kusznierz, G.F.; Lara, J.; Matute, M.L.; Moreno, B.; Pessanha Henriques, C.M.; Rudi, J.M.; El-Guerche Séblain, C.; Schellevis, F.; Paget, J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The increased availability of influenza surveillance data in recent years justifies an actual and more complete overview of influenza epidemiology in Latin America. We compared the influenza surveillance systems and assessed the epidemiology of influenza A and B, including the

  19. Characteristics of seasonal influenza A and B in Latin America: Influenza surveillance data from ten countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Alonso, W.J.; Balmaseda, A.; Bruno, A.; Bustos, P.; Castillo, L.; Lozano, C.; Mora, D. De; Fasce, R.A.; Ferreira de Almeida, W.A.; Kusznierz, G.F.; Lara, J.; Matute, M.L.; Moreno, B.; Henriques, C.M.; Rudi, J.M.; El-Guerche Seblain, C.; Schellevis, F.; Paget, J.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The increased availability of influenza surveillance data in recent years justifies an actual and more complete overview of influenza epidemiology in Latin America. We compared the influenza surveillance systems and assessed the epidemiology of influenza A and B, including the

  20. Hib Disease (Haemophilus Influenzae Type b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hib Disease (Haemophilus Influenzae Type b) KidsHealth / For Teens / Hib Disease (Haemophilus Influenzae ...

  1. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English (US) Español ...

  2. Emerging influenza virus: A global threat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Emerging influenza virus: A global threat. 475. J. Biosci. ... pathogens and are of major global health concern. Recently, ..... cases among persons in 14 countries in Asia, the Middle ... of influenza, investment in pandemic vaccine research and.

  3. Cold-Adapted Viral Attenuation (CAVA): Highly Temperature Sensitive Polioviruses as Novel Vaccine Strains for a Next Generation Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Barbara P; de Los Rios Oakes, Isabel; van Hoek, Vladimir; Bockstal, Viki; Kamphuis, Tobias; Uil, Taco G; Song, Yutong; Cooper, Gillian; Crawt, Laura E; Martín, Javier; Zahn, Roland; Lewis, John; Wimmer, Eckard; Custers, Jerome H H V; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Cello, Jeronimo; Edo-Matas, Diana

    2016-03-01

    The poliovirus vaccine field is moving towards novel vaccination strategies. Withdrawal of the Oral Poliovirus Vaccine and implementation of the conventional Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (cIPV) is imminent. Moreover, replacement of the virulent poliovirus strains currently used for cIPV with attenuated strains is preferred. We generated Cold-Adapted Viral Attenuation (CAVA) poliovirus strains by serial passage at low temperature and subsequent genetic engineering, which contain the capsid sequences of cIPV strains combined with a set of mutations identified during cold-adaptation. These viruses displayed a highly temperature sensitive phenotype with no signs of productive infection at 37°C as visualized by electron microscopy. Furthermore, decreases in infectious titers, viral RNA, and protein levels were measured during infection at 37°C, suggesting a block in the viral replication cycle at RNA replication, protein translation, or earlier. However, at 30°C, they could be propagated to high titers (9.4-9.9 Log10TCID50/ml) on the PER.C6 cell culture platform. We identified 14 mutations in the IRES and non-structural regions, which in combination induced the temperature sensitive phenotype, also when transferred to the genomes of other wild-type and attenuated polioviruses. The temperature sensitivity translated to complete absence of neurovirulence in CD155 transgenic mice. Attenuation was also confirmed after extended in vitro passage at small scale using conditions (MOI, cell density, temperature) anticipated for vaccine production. The inability of CAVA strains to replicate at 37°C makes reversion to a neurovirulent phenotype in vivo highly unlikely, therefore, these strains can be considered safe for the manufacture of IPV. The CAVA strains were immunogenic in the Wistar rat potency model for cIPV, inducing high neutralizing antibody titers in a dose-dependent manner in response to D-antigen doses used for cIPV. In combination with the highly productive

  4. Methods for molecular surveillance of influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ruixue; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2010-01-01

    Molecular-based techniques for detecting influenza viruses have become an integral component of human and animal surveillance programs in the last two decades. The recent pandemic of the swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1) and the continuing circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (H5N1) further stress the need for rapid and accurate identification and subtyping of influenza viruses for surveillance, outbreak management, diagnosis and treatment. There has been remarkable pr...

  5. Screening for influenza viruses in 7804 patients with influenza-like symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuehui Li; Nan Lv; Chen Hangwe; Lanhua You; Huimin Wang

    2010-01-01

    To screen a large number of patients with influenza-like symptoms by using the gold-immunochromatographic assay kit. All patients with influenza-like symptoms visiting the outpatient department of the General Hospital of Beijing Military Region, Beijing, China between May 2009 and January 2010 were enrolled in the study. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected immediately after the patient visited, then a gold-immunochromatographic assay was performed for screening of influenza A and B viruses according to the kit protocol. Among the 7804 patients enrolled in this study, 202 patients were influenza virus-positive; the positive cases accounted for 2.6% of all cases detected. Among the 202 influenza virus-positive patients, 171 patients were influenza virus A-positive, 24 were influenza virus B-positive, and 7 were co-infected with influenza virus A and B. More than 57% of the virus-positive patients were younger than 30 years old. Symptoms such as fever, sore throat, nasal congestion, sneezing, runny nose, and joint pain were more frequently observed in influenza virus A-positive patients than in influenza virus B-positive and influenza virus-negative patients. The gold immunochromatographic assay kit is very useful for screening a large number of patients with influenza-like symptoms. A higher number of influenza virus A-positive patients have sore throat, nasal congestion, sneezing, runny nose, and joint pain than influenza virus B-positive and influenza virus-negative patients (Author).

  6. Rapid Diagnostic Assay for Intact Influenza Virus Using a High Affinity Hemagglutinin Binding Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Caitlin E; Holstein, Carly A; Strauch, Eva-Maria; Bennett, Steven; Chevalier, Aaron; Nelson, Jorgen; Fu, Elain; Baker, David; Yager, Paul

    2017-06-20

    Influenza is a ubiquitous and recurring infection that results in approximately 500 000 deaths globally each year. Commercially available rapid diagnostic tests are based upon detection of the influenza nucleoprotein, which are limited in that they are unable to differentiate by species and require an additional viral lysis step. Sample preprocessing can be minimized or eliminated by targeting the intact influenza virus, thereby reducing assay complexity and leveraging the large number of hemagglutinin proteins on the surface of each virus. Here, we report the development of a paper-based influenza assay that targets the hemagglutinin protein; the assay employs a combination of antibodies and novel computationally designed, recombinant affinity proteins as the capture and detection agents. This system leverages the customizability of recombinant protein design to target the conserved receptor-binding pocket of the hemagglutinin protein and to match the trimeric nature of hemagglutinin for improved avidity. Using this assay, we demonstrate the first instance of intact influenza virus detection using a combination of antibody and affinity proteins within a porous network. The recombinant head region binder based assays yield superior analytical sensitivity as compared to the antibody based assay, with lower limits of detection of 3.54 × 10 7 and 1.34 × 10 7 CEID 50 /mL for the mixed and all binder stacks, respectively. Not only does this work describe the development of a novel influenza assay, it also demonstrates the power of recombinant affinity proteins for use in rapid diagnostic assays.

  7. Economic evaluation of pediatric influenza immunization program compared with other pediatric immunization programs: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Edward; Begum, Najida; Sigmundsson, Birgir; Sackeyfio, Alfred; Hackett, Judith; Rajaram, Sankarasubramanian

    2016-05-03

    This study compared the economic value of pediatric immunisation programmes for influenza to those for rotavirus (RV), meningococcal disease (MD), pneumococcal disease (PD), human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B (Hep B), and varicella reported in recent (2000 onwards) cost-effectiveness (CE) studies identified in a systematic review of PubMed, health technology, and vaccination databases. The systematic review yielded 51 economic evaluation studies of pediatric immunisation - 10 (20%) for influenza and 41 (80%) for the other selected diseases. The quality of the eligible articles was assessed using Drummond's checklist. Although inherent challenges and limitations exist when comparing economic evaluations of immunisation programmes, an overall comparison of the included studies demonstrated cost-effectiveness/cost saving for influenza from a European-Union-Five (EU5) and United States (US) perspective; point estimates for cost/quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) from dominance (cost-saving with more effect) to ≤45,444 were reported. The economic value of influenza programmes was comparable to the other vaccines of interest, with cost/QALY in general considerably lower than RV, Hep B, MD and PD. Independent of the perspective and type of analysis, the economic impact of a pediatric influenza immunisation program was influenced by vaccine efficacy, immunisation coverage, costs, and most significantly by herd immunity. This review suggests that pediatric influenza immunisation may offer a cost effective strategy when compared with HPV and varicella and possibly more value compared with other childhood vaccines (RV, Hep B, MD and PD).

  8. The expression of essential components for human influenza virus internalisation in Vero and MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugiyadi, Maharani; Tan, Marselina I; Giri-Rachman, Ernawati A; Zuhairi, Fawzi R; Sumarsono, Sony H

    2014-05-01

    MDCK and Vero cell lines have been used as substrates for influenza virus replication. However, Vero cells produced lower influenza virus titer yield compared to MDCK. Influenza virus needs molecules for internalisation of the virus into the host cell, such as influenza virus receptor and clathrin. Human influenza receptor is usually a membrane protein containing Sia(α2,6) Gal, which is added into the protein in the golgi apparatus by α2,6 sialyltransferase (SIAT1). Light clathrin A (LCA), light clathrin B (LCB) and heavy clathrin (HC) are the main components needed for virus endocytosis. Therefore, it is necessary to compare the expression of SIAT1 and clathrin in Vero and MDCK cells. This study is reporting the expression of SIAT1 and clathrin observed in both cells with respect to the levels of (1) RNA by using RT-PCR, (2) protein by using dot blot analysis and confocal microscope. The results showed that Vero and MDCK cells expressed both SIAT1 and clathrin proteins, and the expression of SIAT1 in MDCK was higher compared to Vero cells. On the other hand, the expressions of LCA, LCB and HC protein in MDCK cells were not significantly different to Vero cells. This result showed that the inability of Vero cells to internalize H1N1 influenza virus was possibly due to the lack of transmembrane protein receptor which contained Sia(α2,6) Gal.

  9. CONSTRUCTION AND ADAPTATION OF GENETIC SEXING STRAIN OF THE MEDFLY CERATITIS CAPITATA (WIED.)BASED ON TEMPERATURE SENSITIVE MUTATION IN THE EGYPTIAN FRUITFLY LABORATORIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHOMAN, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Special strains that produce only males are used now for the control of the medfly Ceratitis capitata using the sterile insect technique. The use of these strains has a major impact on the overall efficiency of SIT, by increasing significantly the amount of sterility induced in field population comparing by using bisexual strains. Genetic sexing strains (GSS) are based on the use of male-linked chromosomal translocations which enable selectable marker genes to be linked to the male sex. Two basic components are required in the medfly to construct and adapt a laboratory strain which exhibits genetic sexing properties. The first is Y-auto some translocation strain, which enables male and female pupae to be differentiated on the basis of colour and the second is temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation strain, which enables females to be killed by an increase in ambient temperature

  10. Data on the experiments of temperature-sensitive hydrogels for pH-sensitive drug release and the characterizations of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article contains experimental data on the strain sweep, the calibration curve of drug (doxorubicin, DOX and the characterizations of materials. Data included are related to the research article “Injectable and body temperature sensitive hydrogels based on chitosan and hyaluronic acid for pH sensitive drug release” (Zhang et al., 2017 [1]. The strain sweep experiments were performed on a rotational rheometer. The calibration curves were obtained by analyzing the absorbance of DOX solutions on a UV–vis-NIR spectrometer. Molecular weight (Mw of the hyaluronic acid (HA and chitosan (CS were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The deacetylation degree of CS was measured by acid base titration.

  11. Adsorption of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluoranthene and anthracenemethanol) by functional graphene oxide and removal by pH and temperature-sensitive coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caili; Wu, Lin; Cai, Dongqing; Zhang, Caiyun; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2013-06-12

    A new kind of functional graphene oxide with fine stability in water was fabricated by mixing graphene oxide (GO) and brilliant blue (BB) with a certain weight ratio. The adsorption performance of this mixture of BB and GO (BBGO) to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (anthracenemethanol (AC) and fluoranthene (FL)) was investigated, and the results indicated BBGO possessed adsorption capacity of 1.676 mmol/g and removal efficiency of 72.7% as to AC and adsorption capacity of 2.212 mmol/g and removal efficiency of 93.2% as to FL. After adsorption, pH and temperature-sensitive coagulation (PTC) method was used to remove the AC/BBGO or FL/BBGO complex and proved to be an effective approach to flocculate the AC/BBGO or FL/BBGO complex into large flocs, which tended to be removed from the aqueous solution.

  12. Chromosome condensation may enhance X-ray-related cell lethality in a temperature-sensitive mutant (tsBN2) of baby hamster kidney cells (BHK21)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, H.; Nishimoto, T.

    1987-01-01

    In the tsBN2 cell line, which has a temperature-sensitive defect in the regulatory mechanism for chromosome condensation, the lethal effect of X rays was enhanced by incubating the cells at a nonpermissive temperature (40 degrees C) following X irradiation. This enhancement was suppressed in the presence of cycloheximide, which inhibits induction of premature chromosome condensation. The findings obtained in the case of delayed incubation at 40 degrees C and in synchronized cells indicate that X-ray-related potentially lethal damage, which can be expressed by chromosome condensation, is produced in the cells at any stage of the cell cycle, but it is repairable for all cells except those at around the late G2-M phase, where chromosome condensation occurs at a permissive temperature (33.5 degrees C). These observations suggest that the high sensitivity of late G2-M cells to X rays is caused by the events associated with chromosome condensation

  13. Current situation on highly pathogenic avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza is one of the most important diseases affecting the poultry industry worldwide. Avian influenza viruses can cause a range of clinical disease in poultry. Viruses that cause severe disease and mortality are referred to as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. The Asian ...

  14. Influenza and risk of later celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kårhus, Line Lund; Gunnes, Nina; Størdal, Ketil

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Influenza has been linked to autoimmune conditions, but its relationship to subsequent celiac disease (CD) is unknown. Our primary aim was to determine the risk of CD after influenza. A secondary analysis examined the risk of CD following pandemic influenza vaccination. METHODS...

  15. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Reeth, Van Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M.; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S.; Brown, Ian H.; Loeffen, Willie; Meulen, Van der Karen; Schlegel, Michael; Bublot, Michel; Kellam, Paul; Watson, Simon; Lewis, Nicola S.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Webby, Richard; Chen, Hualan; Vincent, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs

  16. Pandemic swine influenza virus: Preparedness planning | Ojogba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The novel H1N1 influenza virus that emerged in humans in Mexico in early 2009 and transmitted efficiently in the human population with global spread was declared a pandemic strain. The introduction of different avian and human influenza virus genes into swine influenza viruses often result in viruses of increased fitness ...

  17. Influenza Vaccination in Community Dwelling Elderly Persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.G. Voordouw (Bettie)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAn influenza epidemic was first described in 1173, although there are reports of influenza as early as 412 BC. Recurrent epidemics and incidental pandemics caused by influenza virus are documented since the last 400 years. These were based upon clinical observation and epidemiology.

  18. 76 FR 24793 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    .... APHIS-2006-0074] RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza is considered to exist. The interim rule also imposed... avian influenza, or that have moved through regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian...

  19. 77 FR 34783 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0074] RIN 0579-AC36 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza AGENCY: Animal and Plant... regions where any subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is considered to exist. The interim... avian influenza (HPAI). On January 24, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 4046-4056...

  20. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Santa Fe, NM

    2011-12-20

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  1. History and evolution of influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovari, P; Alberti, M; Alicino, C

    2011-09-01

    Since the isolation of influenza virus in 1933, a great deal of work was carried out in order to develop influenza vaccines and improve these fundamental tools of prevention in terms of production, quality control, safety and tolerability, and immunogenicity. The paper summarizes the cornerstones of the continuous evolution of influenza vaccines and the most recent and promising developments in this field.

  2. Influenza B viruses : not to be discounted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sandt, Carolien E; Bodewes, Rogier; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; de Vries, Rory D

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to influenza A viruses, which have been investigated extensively, influenza B viruses have attracted relatively little attention. However, influenza B viruses are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population and full understanding of their biological and

  3. [Temperature sensitivity of wheat plant respiration and soil respiration influenced by increased UV-B radiation from elongation to flowering periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Tao; Hu, Zheng-Hua; Li, Han-Mao; Ji, Yu-Hong; Yang, Yan-Ping

    2009-05-15

    Field experiment was carried out in the spring of 2008 in order to investigate the effects of increased UV-B radiation on the temperature sensitivity of wheat plant respiration and soil respiration from elongation to flowering periods. Static chamber-gas chromatography method was used to measure ecosystem respiration and soil respiration under 20% UV-B radiation increase and control. Environmental factors such as temperature and moisture were also measured. Results indicated that supplemental UV-B radiation inhibited the ecosystem respiration and soil respiration from wheat elongation to flowering periods, and the inhibition effect was more obvious for soil respiration than for ecosystem respiration. Ecosystem respiration rates, on daily average, were 9%, 9%, 3%, 16% and 30% higher for control than for UV-B treatment forthe five measurement days, while soil respiration rates were 99%, 93%, 106%, 38% and 10% higher for control than for UV-B treatment. The Q10s (temperature sensitivity coefficients) for plant respiration under control and UV-B treatments were 1.79 and 1.59, respectively, while the Q10s for soil respiration were 1.38 and 1.76, respectively. The Q10s for ecosystem respiration were 1.65 and 1.63 under CK and UV-B treatments, respectively. Supplemental UV-B radiation caused a lower Q10 for plant respiration and a higher Q10 for soil respiration, although no significant effect of supplemental UV-B radiation on the Q10 for ecosystem respiration was found.

  4. A temperature-sensitive dcw1 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is cell cycle arrested with small buds which have aberrant cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagaki, Hiroshi; Ito, Kiyoshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2004-10-01

    Dcw1p and Dfg5p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are homologous proteins that were previously shown to be involved in cell wall biogenesis and to be essential for growth. Dcw1p was found to be a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein. To investigate the roles of these proteins in cell wall biogenesis and cell growth, we constructed mutant alleles of DCW1 by random mutagenesis, introduced them into a Deltadcw1 Deltadfg5 background, and isolated a temperature-sensitive mutant, DC61 (dcw1-3 Deltadfg5). When DC61 cells were incubated at 37 degrees C, most cells had small buds, with areas less than 20% of those of the mother cells. This result indicates that DC61 cells arrest growth with small buds at 37 degrees C. At 37 degrees C, fewer DC61 cells had 1N DNA content and most of them still had a single nucleus located apart from the bud neck. In addition, in DC61 cells incubated at 37 degrees C, bipolar spindles were not formed. These results indicate that DC61 cells, when incubated at 37 degrees C, are cell cycle arrested after DNA replication and prior to the separation of spindle pole bodies. The small buds of DC61 accumulated chitin in the bud cortex, and some of them were lysed, which indicates that they had aberrant cell walls. A temperature-sensitive dfg5 mutant, DF66 (Deltadcw1 dfg5-29), showed similar phenotypes. DCW1 and DFG5 mRNA levels peaked in the G1 and S phases, respectively. These results indicate that Dcw1p and Dfg5p are involved in bud formation through their involvement in biogenesis of the bud cell wall.

  5. The impacts of email reminder/recall on adolescent influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombkowski, Kevin J; Cowan, Anne E; Reeves, Sarah L; Foley, Matthew R; Dempsey, Amanda F

    2017-05-25

    We sought to: (1) explore the feasibility of using email for seasonal influenza vaccination reminders to parents of adolescents and (2) assess influenza vaccination rates among adolescents whose parents were randomized to either receive or not receive email reminders. Email addresses were obtained for parents of patients 10-18years from 4 practices in Michigan. Addresses were randomized to either receive email reminders, or not. Reminder messages were sent during October 2012-March 2013 (Season 1) and October 2013-March 2014 (Season 2). Vaccination status was determined 60days following the last email reminder for each season using the statewide Michigan Care Improvement Registry (MCIR); per protocol bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate reminder notification. After email cleaning, testing, and matching with MCIR, approximately half of email addresses (2348 of 5312 in Season 1; 3457 of 6549 in Season 2) were randomized. Bivariate analyses found that influenza vaccination within 60days after notification date was similar among those notified (34%) versus not notified (29%) in both Season 1 (p=0.06) and Season 2 (39% vs. 37%, p=0.20). However, multivariate models adjusted for season, site, and receipt of notification in two seasons found a higher likelihood of influenza vaccination among children that received notification (aOR=1.28, 95% CI=1.09, 1.51); in addition, differences in influenza vaccination were also observed between practice sites (range: p=0.15 to pemail influenza vaccine reminders to parents of adolescents are feasible, but not without complications. Our study demonstrates that email reminders from practices can yield increases in influenza vaccination rates among adolescents. Practices should consider email as an option for influenza reminders and establish business practices for collecting and maintaining patient email addresses. This study is registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov id #NCT01732315. Copyright

  6. In vitro capability of faropenem to select for resistant mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosowska-Shick, Klaudia; Clark, Catherine; Credito, Kim; Dewasse, Bonifacio; Beachel, Linda; Ednie, Lois; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2008-02-01

    When tested against nine strains of pneumococci and six of Haemophilus influenzae of various resistotypes, faropenem failed to select for resistant mutants after 50 days of consecutive subculture in subinhibitory concentrations. Faropenem also yielded low rates of spontaneous mutations against all organisms of both species. By comparison, resistant clones were obtained with macrolides, ketolides, and quinolones.

  7. Universal influenza vaccines, science fiction or soon reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rory D; Altenburg, Arwen F; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F

    2015-01-01

    Currently used influenza vaccines are only effective when the vaccine strains match the epidemic strains antigenically. To this end, seasonal influenza vaccines must be updated almost annually. Furthermore, seasonal influenza vaccines fail to afford protection against antigenically distinct pandemic influenza viruses. Because of an ever-present threat of the next influenza pandemic and the continuous emergence of drift variants of seasonal influenza A viruses, there is a need for an universal influenza vaccine that induces protective immunity against all influenza A viruses. Here, we summarize some of the efforts that are ongoing to develop universal influenza vaccines.

  8. Effective influenza vaccines for children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhoff, Angelika; Stoddard, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal influenza causes clinical illness and hospitalization in all age groups; however, conventional inactivated vaccines have only limited efficacy in young children. MF59®, an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant, has been used since the 1990s to enhance the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in the elderly, a population with waning immune function due to immunosenescence.   Clinical trials now provide information to support a favorable immunogenicity and safety profile of MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine in young children. Published data indicate that Fluad®, a trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine with MF59, was immunogenic and well tolerated in young children, with a benefit/risk ratio that supports routine clinical use. A recent clinical trial also shows that Fluad provides high efficacy against PCR-confirmed influenza. Based on the results of clinical studies in children, the use of MF59-adjuvanted vaccine offers the potential to enhance efficacy and make vaccination a viable prevention and control strategy in this population. PMID:22327501

  9. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    create a favourable environment for rice ... developing lines adaptable to many ... have stable, not too short crop duration with ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant ..... and yield components.

  10. Influenza Pandemic Infrastructure Response in Thailand

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-05

    Influenza viruses change antigenic properties, or drift, every year and they create seasonal outbreaks. Occasionally, influenza viruses change in a major way, called a “shift." If an influenza virus shifts, the entire human population is susceptible to the new influenza virus, creating the potential for a pandemic. On this podcast, CDC's Dr. Scott Dowell discusses responding to an influenza pandemic.  Created: 3/5/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/5/2009.

  11. Influenza vaccine coverage, influenza-associated morbidity and all-cause mortality in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, M Pilar; Soldevila, Núria; Martínez, Anna; Carmona, Glòria; Batalla, Joan; Acosta, Lesly M; Domínguez, Angela

    2011-07-12

    The objective of this work was to study the behaviour of influenza with respect to morbidity and all-cause mortality in Catalonia, and their association with influenza vaccination coverage. The study was carried out over 13 influenza seasons, from epidemiological week 40 of 1994 to week 20 of 2007, and included confirmed cases of influenza and all-cause mortality. Two generalized linear models were fitted: influenza-associated morbidity was modelled by Poisson regression and all-cause mortality by negative binomial regression. The seasonal component was modelled with the periodic function formed by the sum of the sinus and cosines. Expected influenza mortality during periods of influenza virus circulation was estimated by Poisson regression and its confidence intervals using the Bootstrap approach. Vaccination coverage was associated with a reduction in influenza-associated morbidity (pcase of influenza-associated morbidity, an increase of 5% in vaccination coverage represented a reduction of 3% in the incidence rate of influenza. There was a positive association between influenza-associated morbidity and all-cause mortality. Excess mortality attributable to influenza epidemics was estimated as 34.4 (95% CI: 28.4-40.8) weekly deaths. In conclusion, all-cause mortality is a good indicator of influenza surveillance and vaccination coverage is associated with a reduction in influenza-associated morbidity but not with all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Temperature sensitivity of nitrogen productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ladanai, Svetlana; Ågren, Göran

    2002-01-01

    Environmental conditions control physiological processes in plants and thus their growth. The predicted global warming is expected to accelerate tree growth. However, the growth response is a complex function of several processes. To circumvent this problem we have used the nitrogen productivity (dry matter production per unit of nitrogen in the plant), which is an aggregate parameter. Data on needle dry matter, production, and nitrogen content in needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) from...

  13. Modeling Influenza Transmission Using Environmental Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Kiang, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Influenza is an acute viral respiratory disease that has significant mortality, morbidity and economic burden worldwide. It infects approximately 5-15% of the world population, and causes 250,000 500,000 deaths each year. The role of environments on influenza is often drawn upon the latitude variability of influenza seasonality pattern. In regions with temperate climate, influenza epidemics exhibit clear seasonal pattern that peak during winter months, but it is not as evident in the tropics. Toward this end, we developed mathematical model and forecasting capabilities for influenza in regions characterized by warm climate Hong Kong (China) and Maricopa County (Arizona, USA). The best model for Hong Kong uses Land Surface Temperature (LST), precipitation and relative humidity as its covariates. Whereas for Maricopa County, we found that weekly influenza cases can be best modelled using mean air temperature as its covariates. Our forecasts can further guides public health organizations in targeting influenza prevention and control measures such as vaccination.

  14. On the epidemiology of influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scragg Robert

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidemiology of influenza swarms with incongruities, incongruities exhaustively detailed by the late British epidemiologist, Edgar Hope-Simpson. He was the first to propose a parsimonious theory explaining why influenza is, as Gregg said, "seemingly unmindful of traditional infectious disease behavioral patterns." Recent discoveries indicate vitamin D upregulates the endogenous antibiotics of innate immunity and suggest that the incongruities explored by Hope-Simpson may be secondary to the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency. We identify – and attempt to explain – nine influenza conundrums: (1 Why is influenza both seasonal and ubiquitous and where is the virus between epidemics? (2 Why are the epidemics so explosive? (3 Why do they end so abruptly? (4 What explains the frequent coincidental timing of epidemics in countries of similar latitude? (5 Why is the serial interval obscure? (6 Why is the secondary attack rate so low? (7 Why did epidemics in previous ages spread so rapidly, despite the lack of modern transport? (8 Why does experimental inoculation of seronegative humans fail to cause illness in all the volunteers? (9 Why has influenza mortality of the aged not declined as their vaccination rates increased? We review recent discoveries about vitamin D's effects on innate immunity, human studies attempting sick-to-well transmission, naturalistic reports of human transmission, studies of serial interval, secondary attack rates, and relevant animal studies. We hypothesize that two factors explain the nine conundrums: vitamin D's seasonal and population effects on innate immunity, and the presence of a subpopulation of "good infectors." If true, our revision of Edgar Hope-Simpson's theory has profound implications for the prevention of influenza.

  15. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    This year, as usual, the Medical Service is helping to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal flu is especially recommended for anyone who suffers from chronic pulmonary, cardio-vascular or kidney disease or diabetes, is recovering from a serious illness or major surgery, or is over 65 years of age. The flu virus is transmitted through the air and through contact with contaminated surfaces, so frequent hand-washing with soap and/or an antiseptic hand wash is of great importance. As soon as the first symptoms appear (fever above 38°, shivering, coughing, muscle and/or joint pains, generalised weakness), you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. Anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor), with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA...

  16. Yield stress fluids slowly yield to analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonn, D.; Denn, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We are surrounded in everyday life by yield stress fluids: materials that behave as solids under small stresses but flow like liquids beyond a critical stress. For example, paint must flow under the brush, but remain fixed in a vertical film despite the force of gravity. Food products (such as

  17. High growth reassortant influenza vaccine viruses: new approaches to their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J S; Nicolson, C; Newman, R; Major, D; Dunleavy, U; Wood, J M

    1992-09-01

    When a new strain of an influenza virus is required to be incorporated into influenza vaccine, attempts are made to recombine such strains with laboratory adapted viruses, which will grow to high titre in order to improve the yield of the vaccine strain. It is important that such high growth reassortant vaccine strains are not contaminated with genes coding for the antigenic determinants of the high growth laboratory strain. We describe the characterization of two recent high growth reassortants and the application of the polymerase chain reaction to ensure their genetic identity and purity.

  18. Contrasting responses of soil respiration and temperature sensitivity to land use types: Cropland vs. apple orchard on the Chinese Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Qiqi; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Wei; Yao, Lunguang; Hu, Yaxian; Guo, Shengli

    2018-04-15

    Land use plays an essential role in regional carbon cycling, potentially influencing the exchange rates of CO 2 flux between soil and the atmosphere in terrestrial ecosystems. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q 10 ), as an efficient parameter to reflect the possible feedback between the global carbon cycle and climate change, has been extensively studied. However, very few reports have assessed the difference in temperature sensitivity of soil respiration under different land use types. In this study, a three-year field experiment was conducted in cropland (winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L.) and apple orchard (Malus domestica Borkh) on the semi-arid Loess Plateau from 2011 to 2013. Soil respiration (measured using Li-Cor 8100), bacterial community structure (represented by 16S rRNA), soil enzyme activities, and soil physicochemical properties of surface soil were monitored. The average annual soil respiration rate in the apple orchard was 12% greater than that in the cropland (2.01 vs. 1.80μmolm -2 s -1 ), despite that the average Q 10 values in the apple orchard was 15% lower than that in the cropland (ranging from 1.63 to 1.41). As to the differences among predominant phyla, Proteobacteria was 26% higher in the apple orchard than that in the cropland, whereas Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria were 18% and 36% lower in the apple orchard. The β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase activity were 15% (44.92 vs. 39.09nmolh -1 g -1 ) and 22% greater (21.39 vs. 17.50nmolh -1 g -1 ) in the apple orchard than that in the cropland. Compared to the cropland, the lower Q 10 values in the apple orchard resulted from the variations of bacterial community structure and β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase activity. In addition, the lower C: N ratios in the apple orchard (6.50 vs. 8.40) possibly also contributed to its lower Q 10 values. Our findings call for further studies to include the varying effects of land use types into consideration when applying Q 10 values

  19. Influenza virus infection among pediatric patients reporting diarrhea and influenza-like illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyeki Timothy M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization among children. While less often reported in adults, gastrointestinal symptoms have been associated with influenza in children, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Methods From September 2005 and April 2008, pediatric patients in Indonesia presenting with concurrent diarrhea and influenza-like illness were enrolled in a study to determine the frequency of influenza virus infection in young patients presenting with symptoms less commonly associated with an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI. Stool specimens and upper respiratory swabs were assayed for the presence of influenza virus. Results Seasonal influenza A or influenza B viral RNA was detected in 85 (11.6% upper respiratory specimens and 21 (2.9% of stool specimens. Viable influenza B virus was isolated from the stool specimen of one case. During the time of this study, human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1 virus were common in the survey area. However, among 733 enrolled subjects, none had evidence of H5N1 virus infection. Conclusions The detection of influenza viral RNA and viable influenza virus from stool suggests that influenza virus may be localized in the gastrointestinal tract of children, may be associated with pediatric diarrhea and may serve as a potential mode of transmission during seasonal and epidemic influenza outbreaks.

  20. Anti-influenza Hyperimmune Immunoglobulin Enhances Fc-functional Antibody Immunity during Human Influenza Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderven, Hillary A; Wragg, Kathleen; Ana-Sosa-Batiz, Fernanda; Kristensen, Anne B; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Wheatley, Adam K; Wentworth, Deborah; Wines, Bruce D; Hogarth, P Mark; Rockman, Steve; Kent, Stephen J

    2018-05-31

    New treatments for severe influenza are needed. Passive transfer of influenza-specific hyperimmune pooled immunoglobulin (Flu-IVIG) boosts neutralising antibody responses to past strains in influenza-infected subjects. The effect of Flu-IVIG on antibodies with Fc-mediated functions, which may target diverse influenza strains, is unclear. We studied the capacity of Flu-IVIG, relative to standard IVIG, to bind to Fc receptors and mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in vitro. The effect of Flu-IVIG infusion, compared to placebo infusion, was examined in serial plasma samples from 24 subjects with confirmed influenza infection in the INSIGHT FLU005 pilot study. Flu-IVIG contains higher concentrations of Fc-functional antibodies than IVIG against a diverse range of influenza hemagglutinins. Following infusion of Flu-IVIG into influenza-infected subjects, a transient increase in Fc-functional antibodies was present for 1-3 days against infecting and non-infecting strains of influenza. Flu-IVIG contains antibodies with Fc-mediated functions against influenza virus and passive transfer of Flu-IVIG increases anti-influenza Fc-functional antibodies in the plasma of influenza-infected subjects. Enhancement of Fc-functional antibodies to a diverse range of influenza strains suggests that Flu-IVIG infusion could prove useful in the context of novel influenza virus infections, when there may be minimal or no neutralising antibodies in the Flu-IVIG preparation.

  1. Influenza (Flu) vaccine (Live, Intranasal): What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC Influenza Live, Intranasal Flu Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... flulive.html . CDC review information for Live, Intranasal Influenza VIS: Vaccine Information Statement Influenza Page last reviewed: ...

  2. Flu (Influenza) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/fluinfluenzatest.html Flu (Influenza) Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Flu (Influenza) Test? Influenza, known as the flu , is ...

  3. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  4. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  5. A temperature-sensitive allele of a putative mRNA splicing helicase down-regulates many cell wall genes and causes radial swelling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howles, Paul A; Gebbie, Leigh K; Collings, David A; Varsani, Arvind; Broad, Ronan C; Ohms, Stephen; Birch, Rosemary J; Cork, Ann H; Arioli, Tony; Williamson, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    The putative RNA helicase encoded by the Arabidopsis gene At1g32490 is a homolog of the yeast splicing RNA helicases Prp2 and Prp22. We isolated a temperature-sensitive allele (rsw12) of the gene in a screen for root radial swelling mutants. Plants containing this allele grown at the restrictive temperature showed weak radial swelling, were stunted with reduced root elongation, and contained reduced levels of cellulose. The role of the protein was further explored by microarray analysis. By using both fold change cutoffs and a weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) to investigate coexpression of genes, we found that the radial swelling phenotype was not linked to genes usually associated with primary cell wall biosynthesis. Instead, the mutation has strong effects on expression of secondary cell wall related genes. Many genes potentially associated with secondary walls were present in the most significant WGCNA module, as were genes coding for arabinogalactans and proteins with GPI anchors. The proportion of up-regulated genes that possess introns in rsw12 was above that expected if splicing was unrelated to the activity of the RNA helicase, suggesting that the helicase does indeed play a role in splicing in Arabidopsis. The phenotype may be due to a change in the expression of one or more genes coding for cell wall proteins.

  6. Testing the Metabolic Theory of Ecology with marine bacteria: Different temperature sensitivity of major phylogenetic groups during the spring phytoplankton bloom

    KAUST Repository

    Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor

    2017-08-24

    Although temperature is a key driver of bacterioplankton metabolism, the effect of ocean warming on different bacterial phylogenetic groups remains unclear. Here, we conducted monthly short-term incubations with natural coastal bacterial communities over an annual cycle to test the effect of experimental temperature on the growth rates and carrying capacities of four phylogenetic groups: SAR11, Rhodobacteraceae, Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. SAR11 was the most abundant group year-round as analysed by CARD-FISH, with maximum abundances in summer, while the other taxa peaked in spring. All groups, including SAR11, showed high temperature-sensitivity of growth rates and/or carrying capacities in spring, under phytoplankton bloom or post-bloom conditions. In that season, Rhodobacteraceae showed the strongest temperature response in growth rates, estimated here as activation energy (E, 1.43 eV), suggesting an advantage to outcompete other groups under warmer conditions. In summer E values were in general lower than 0.65 eV, the value predicted by the Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE). Contrary to MTE predictions, carrying capacity tended to increase with warming for all bacterial groups. Our analysis confirms that resource availability is key when addressing the temperature response of heterotrophic bacterioplankton. We further show that even under nutrient-sufficient conditions, warming differentially affected distinct bacterioplankton taxa. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Poliovirus RNA polymerase: in vitro enzymatic activities, fidelity of replication, and characterization of a temperature-sensitive RNA-negative mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, M.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro activities of the purified poliovirus RNA polymerase were investigated in this study. The polymerase was shown to be a strict RNA dependent RNA polymerase. It only copied RNA templates but used either a DNA or RNA primer to initiate RNA synthesis. Partially purified polymerase has some DNA polymerase activities. Additional purification of the enzyme and studies with a mutant poliovirus RNA polymerase indicated that the DNA polymerase activities were due to a cellular polymerase. The fidelity of RNA replication in vitro by the purified poliovirus RNA polymerase was studied by measuring the rate of misincorporation of noncomplementary ribonucleotide monophosphates on synthetic homopolymeric RNA templates. The results showed that the ratio of noncomplementary to complementary ribonucleotides incorporated was 1-5 x 10 -3 . The viral polymerase of a poliovirus temperature sensitive RNA-negative mutant, Ts 10, was isolated. This study confirmed that the mutant was viable 33 0 , but was RNA negative at 39 0 . Characterization of the Ts 10 polymerase showed it was significantly more sensitive to heat inactivation than was the old-type polymerase. Highly purified poliovirions were found to contain several noncapsid proteins. At least two of these proteins were labeled by [ 35 S]methionine infected cells and appeared to be virally encoded proteins. One of these proteins was immunoprecipitated by anti-3B/sup vpg/ antiserum. This protein had the approximate Mr = 50,000 and appeared to be one of the previously identified 3B/sup vpg/ precursor proteins

  8. Suitability of thermal plasmas for large-area bacteria inactivation on temperature-sensitive surfaces – first results with Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulc, M; Schein, S; Schaup, J; Zimmermann, S; Schein, J

    2017-01-01

    The application of thermal plasma for large-area bacteria inactivation on temperature-sensitive surfaces is not a common one. Nonetheless, there are thermal plasma generators which offer a high sheath homogeneity and have proven to be suitable for treatment of thermally sensitive materials in the past. To investigate the suitability of such plasmas, agar dishes plated with endospores of Geobacillus stearothermophilus have been treated with a long arc plasma generator called LARGE. The achieved results have been compared with a commercially available non-thermal plasma generator. A significant inactivation of the endospores could be observed only after 60 s of treatment with the thermal plasma source. This was not possible with the non-thermal generator. Moreover, no temperature damage or increase of the specimen could be detected. An attempt to determine the main agents responsible for the microbicidal effects have been made – the influence of plasma gas composition, discharge current and treatment time has been investigated. Significant improvements in the disinfection rates after adding small amounts of nitrogen to the plasma gas could be observed. A first discussion regarding the suitability of thermal plasmas for bacteria inactivation has been given. (paper)

  9. Alterations of DNA content in human endometrial stromal cells transfected with a temperature-sensitive SV40: tetraploidization and physiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, C A; Mayben, J P; Butler, T D; Haskill, J S; Kaufman, D G

    1992-01-01

    The normal genomic stability of human cells is reversed during neoplastic transformation. The SV40 large T antigen alters the DNA content in human endometrial stromal cells in a manner that relates to neoplastic progression. Human endometrial stromal cells were transfected with a plasmid containing the A209 temperature-sensitive mutant of SV40 (tsSV40), which is also defective in the viral origin of replication. Ninety-seven clonal transfectants from seven different primary cell strains were isolated. Initial analysis revealed that 20% of the clonal populations (19/97) had an apparent diploid DNA content, 35% (34/97) had an apparent tetraploid DNA content, and the remainder were mixed populations of diploid and tetraploid cells. No aneuploid populations were observed. Diploid tsSV40 transformed cells always give rise to a population of cells with a tetraploid DNA content when continuously cultured at the permissive temperature. The doubling of DNA content can be vastly accelerated by the sudden reintroduction of large T antigen activity following a shift from non-permissive to permissive temperature. Tetraploid tsSV40 transfected cells have a lower capacity for anchorage-independent growth and earlier entry into 'crisis' than diploid cells. These results indicate that during the pre-crisis, extended lifespan phase of growth, the SV40 large T antigen causes a doubling of DNA content. This apparent doubling of DNA content does not confer growth advantage during the extended lifespan that precedes 'crisis'.

  10. Measurements of fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, H.O.

    2000-01-01

    After some historical introductory remarks on the discovery of nuclear fission and early fission yield determinations, the present status of knowledge on fission yields is briefly reviewed. Practical and fundamental reasons motivating the pursuit of fission yield measurements in the coming century are pointed out. Recent results and novel techniques are described that promise to provide new interesting insights into the fission process during the next century. (author)

  11. Formulation of influenza T cell peptides : in search of a universal influenza vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soema, Peter Christiaan

    2015-01-01

    Current seasonal influenza vaccines rely on the induction of antibodies to neutralize the virus. However, influenza viruses frequently undergo genetic mutations due to antigenic drift and shift, altering the surface proteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase to which antibodies usually bind. This

  12. Fission product yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenta, V.; Hep, J.

    1978-01-01

    Data are summed up necessary for determining the yields of individual fission products from different fissionable nuclides. Fractional independent yields, cumulative and isobaric yields are presented here for the thermal fission of 235 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu and for fast fission (approximately 1 MeV) of 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu; these values are included into the 5th version of the YIELDS library, supplementing the BIBFP library. A comparison is made of experimental data and possible improvements of calculational methods are suggested. (author)

  13. Control strategies against avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1959, 40 epizootics of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) have occurred (Figure 1). Thirty-five of these epizootic HPAI viruses were geographically-limited (mostly to single countries), involved farm-to-farm spread and were eradicated from poultry by stamping-out programs; i.e. the HPAI...

  14. Efficacy of Influenza Vaccination and Tamiflu? Treatment ? Comparative Studies with Eurasian Swine Influenza Viruses in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Duerrwald, Ralf; Schlegel, Michael; Bauer, Katja; Vissiennon, Th?ophile; Wutzler, Peter; Schmidtke, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological developments demonstrated that gene segments of swine influenza A viruses can account for antigenic changes as well as reduced drug susceptibility of pandemic influenza A viruses. This raises questions about the efficacy of preventive measures against swine influenza A viruses. Here, the protective effect of vaccination was compared with that of prophylactic Tamiflu® treatment against two Eurasian swine influenza A viruses. 11-week-old pigs were infected by aerosol nebu...

  15. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Hall et al. (2012) Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750‐2659.2012.00358.x. Background  Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are l...

  16. Chemistry, manufacturing and control (CMC) and clinical trial technical support for influenza vaccine manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Rahnuma; Holt, Renee; Hjorth, Richard; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco

    2016-10-26

    With the support of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) of the US Department of Health and Human Services, PATH has contributed to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP) by providing technical and clinical assistance to several developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs). GAP builds regionally based independent and sustainable influenza vaccine production capacity to mitigate the overall global shortage of influenza vaccines. The program also ensures adequate influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity in the event of an influenza pandemic. Since 2009, PATH has worked closely with two DCVMs in Vietnam: the Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals (IVAC) and VABIOTECH. Beginning in 2013, PATH also began working with Torlak Institute in Serbia; Instituto Butantan in Brazil; Serum Institute of India Private Ltd. in India; and Changchun BCHT Biotechnology Co. (BCHT) in China. The DCVMs supported under the GAP program all had existing influenza vaccine manufacturing capability and required technical support from PATH to improve vaccine yield, process efficiency, and product formulation. PATH has provided customized technical support for the manufacturing process to each DCVM based on their respective requirements. Additionally, PATH, working with BARDA and WHO, supported several DCVMs in the clinical development of influenza vaccine candidates progressing toward national licensure or WHO prequalification. As a result of the activities outlined in this review, several companies were able to make excellent progress in developing state-of-the-art manufacturing processes and completing early phase clinical trials. Licensure trials are currently ongoing or planned for several DCVMs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Health Newscasts for Increasing Influenza Vaccination Coverage: An Inductive Reasoning Game Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breban, Romulus

    2011-01-01

    Both pandemic and seasonal influenza are receiving more attention from mass media than ever before. Topics such as epidemic severity and vaccination are changing the way in which we perceive the utility of disease prevention. Voluntary influenza vaccination has been recently modeled using inductive reasoning games. It has thus been found that severe epidemics may occur because individuals do not vaccinate and, instead, attempt to benefit from the immunity of their peers. Such epidemics could be prevented by voluntary vaccination if incentives were offered. However, a key assumption has been that individuals make vaccination decisions based on whether there was an epidemic each influenza season; no other epidemiological information is available to them. In this work, we relax this assumption and investigate the consequences of making more informed vaccination decisions while no incentives are offered. We obtain three major results. First, individuals will not cooperate enough to constantly prevent influenza epidemics through voluntary vaccination no matter how much they learned about influenza epidemiology. Second, broadcasting epidemiological information richer than whether an epidemic occurred may stabilize the vaccination coverage and suppress severe influenza epidemics. Third, the stable vaccination coverage follows the trend of the perceived benefit of vaccination. However, increasing the amount of epidemiological information released to the public may either increase or decrease the perceived benefit of vaccination. We discuss three scenarios where individuals know, in addition to whether there was an epidemic, (i) the incidence, (ii) the vaccination coverage and (iii) both the incidence and the vaccination coverage, every influenza season. We show that broadcasting both the incidence and the vaccination coverage could yield either better or worse vaccination coverage than broadcasting each piece of information on its own. PMID:22205944

  18. Health newscasts for increasing influenza vaccination coverage: an inductive reasoning game approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breban, Romulus

    2011-01-01

    Both pandemic and seasonal influenza are receiving more attention from mass media than ever before. Topics such as epidemic severity and vaccination are changing the way in which we perceive the utility of disease prevention. Voluntary influenza vaccination has been recently modeled using inductive reasoning games. It has thus been found that severe epidemics may occur because individuals do not vaccinate and, instead, attempt to benefit from the immunity of their peers. Such epidemics could be prevented by voluntary vaccination if incentives were offered. However, a key assumption has been that individuals make vaccination decisions based on whether there was an epidemic each influenza season; no other epidemiological information is available to them. In this work, we relax this assumption and investigate the consequences of making more informed vaccination decisions while no incentives are offered. We obtain three major results. First, individuals will not cooperate enough to constantly prevent influenza epidemics through voluntary vaccination no matter how much they learned about influenza epidemiology. Second, broadcasting epidemiological information richer than whether an epidemic occurred may stabilize the vaccination coverage and suppress severe influenza epidemics. Third, the stable vaccination coverage follows the trend of the perceived benefit of vaccination. However, increasing the amount of epidemiological information released to the public may either increase or decrease the perceived benefit of vaccination. We discuss three scenarios where individuals know, in addition to whether there was an epidemic, (i) the incidence, (ii) the vaccination coverage and (iii) both the incidence and the vaccination coverage, every influenza season. We show that broadcasting both the incidence and the vaccination coverage could yield either better or worse vaccination coverage than broadcasting each piece of information on its own.

  19. Effects of influenza vaccination and influenza illness on exacerbations in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Zwanikken, C

    1998-01-01

    Despite reports that influenza vaccination appears to be safe in multiple sclerosis there is uncertainty which patients may benefit from it. By using a questionnaire we compared the effects of influenza illness (1995-1996 season) and influenza vaccination (autumn of 1996) on neurologic symptoms in

  20. Molecular detection and typing of influenza viruses. Are we ready for an influenza pandemic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacKay, W.G.; Loon, A.M. van; Niedrig, M.; Meijer, A.; Lina, B.; Niesters, H.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We cannot predict when an influenza pandemic will occur or which variant of the virus will cause it. Little information is currently available on the ability of laboratories to detect and subtype influenza viruses including the avian influenza viruses. OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability

  1. Evolution of Therapeutic Antibodies, Influenza Virus Biology, Influenza, and Influenza Immunotherapy

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    Urai Chaisri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This narrative review article summarizes past and current technologies for generating antibodies for passive immunization/immunotherapy. Contemporary DNA and protein technologies have facilitated the development of engineered therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in a variety of formats according to the required effector functions. Chimeric, humanized, and human monoclonal antibodies to antigenic/epitopic myriads with less immunogenicity than animal-derived antibodies in human recipients can be produced in vitro. Immunotherapy with ready-to-use antibodies has gained wide acceptance as a powerful treatment against both infectious and noninfectious diseases. Influenza, a highly contagious disease, precipitates annual epidemics and occasional pandemics, resulting in high health and economic burden worldwide. Currently available drugs are becoming less and less effective against this rapidly mutating virus. Alternative treatment strategies are needed, particularly for individuals at high risk for severe morbidity. In a setting where vaccines are not yet protective or available, human antibodies that are broadly effective against various influenza subtypes could be highly efficacious in lowering morbidity and mortality and controlling unprecedented epidemic/pandemic. Prototypes of human single-chain antibodies to several conserved proteins of influenza virus with no Fc portion (hence, no ADE effect in recipients are available. These antibodies have high potential as a novel, safe, and effective anti-influenza agent.

  2. Low Prevalence of Enzootic Equine Influenza Virus among Horses in Mongolia

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    Alexandra Sack

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Horses are critically important for Mongolian herders’ livelihoods, providing transportation and food products, and playing important cultural roles. Equine influenza virus (EIV epizootics have been frequent among Mongolia’s horses, with five occurring since 1970. We sought to estimate the prevalence for EIV infection among horses and Bactrian camels with influenza-like illness between national epizootics. In 2016–2017, active surveillance for EIV was periodically performed in four aimags (provinces. Nasal swabs were collected from 680 horses and 131 camels. Seven of the horse swabs were “positive” for qRT-PCR evidence of influenza A (Ct value ≤ 38. Two more were “suspect positive” (Ct value > 38 and ≤ 40. These nine specimens were collected from four aimags. None of the camel specimens had molecular evidence of infection. Despite serial blind passage in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells (MDCK cells, none of the nine horse specimens yielded an influenza A virus. None of the 131 herder households surveyed had recently vaccinated their horses against EIV. It seems likely that sporadic EIV is enzootic in multiple Mongolian aimags. This finding, the infrequent use of EIV vaccination, periodic prevalence of highly pathogenic avian influenza, and the mixing of domestic and wild equid herds suggest that Mongolia may be a hot spot for novel EIV emergence.

  3. A cell culture-derived whole virus influenza A vaccine based on magnetic sulfated cellulose particles confers protection in mice against lethal influenza A virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieler, Michael M; Frentzel, Sarah; Bruder, Dunja; Wolff, Michael W; Reichl, Udo

    2016-12-07

    Downstream processing and formulation of viral vaccines employs a large number of different unit operations to achieve the desired product qualities. The complexity of individual process steps involved, the need for time consuming studies towards the optimization of virus yields, and very high requirements regarding potency and safety of vaccines results typically in long lead times for the establishment of new processes. To overcome such obstacles, to enable fast screening of potential vaccine candidates, and to explore options for production of low cost veterinary vaccines a new platform for whole virus particle purification and formulation based on magnetic particles has been established. Proof of concept was carried out with influenza A virus particles produced in suspension Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The clarified, inactivated, concentrated, and diafiltered virus particles were bound to magnetic sulfated cellulose particles (MSCP), and directly injected into mice for immunization including positive and negative controls. We show here, that in contrast to the mock-immunized group, vaccination of mice with antigen-loaded MSCP (aMSCP) resulted in high anti-influenza A antibody responses and full protection against a lethal challenge with replication competent influenza A virus. Antiviral protection correlated with a 400-fold reduced number of influenza nucleoprotein gene copies in the lungs of aMSCP immunized mice compared to mock-treated animals, indicating the efficient induction of antiviral immunity by this novel approach. Thus, our data proved the use of MSCP for purification and formulation of the influenza vaccine to be fast and efficient, and to confer protection of mice against influenza A virus infection. Furthermore, the method proposed has the potential for fast purification of virus particles directly from bioreactor harvests with a minimum number of process steps towards formulation of low-cost veterinary vaccines, and for screening

  4. Influenza vaccines for preventing cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Clar,Christine; Oseni,Zainab; Flowers,Nadine; Keshtkar-Jahromi,Maryam; Rees,Karen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: This is an update of the original review published in 2008. The risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes is increased with influenza-like infection, and vaccination against influenza may improve cardiovascular outcomes.OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential benefits of influenza vaccination for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.METHODS:Search methods:We searched the following electronic databases on 18 October 2013: The Cochrane Library (including Coch...

  5. Influenza in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Spencer T; Torabi, Mina J; Gabardi, Steven

    2012-02-01

    To review available data describing the epidemiology, outcomes, prevention, and treatment of influenza virus in the solid organ transplant population and to evaluate the strengths and limitations of the current literature, with a focus on literature reviewing annual influenza strains and the recent pandemic novel influenza A/H1N1 strain. A systematic literature search (July 1980-June 2011) was performed via PubMed using the following key words: influenza, human; influenza; novel influenza A H1/N1; transplantation; solid organ transplantation; kidney transplant; renal transplant; lung transplant; heart transplant; and liver transplant. Papers were excluded if they were not written in English or were animal studies or in vitro studies. Data from fully published studies and recent reports from international conferences were included. The influenza virus presents a constant challenge to immunocompromised patients and their health care providers. The annual influenza strain introduces a highly infectious and pathogenic risk to solid organ transplant recipients. In 2009, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic as a result of a novel influenza A/H1N1 strain. The pandemic introduced an additional viral threat to solid organ transplant patients at increased risk for infectious complications. The mainstay for prevention of influenza infection in all at-risk populations is appropriate vaccination. Antiviral therapies against influenza for chemoprophylaxis and treatment of infection are available; however, dosing strategies in the solid organ transplant population are not well defined. The solid organ transplant population is at an increased risk of severe complications from influenza infection. Identifying risks, preventing illness, and appropriately treating active infection is essential in this patient population.

  6. Influenza Seasonal Summary, 2014-2015 Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-14

    Influenza Seasonal Summarv 2014-2015 Season EpiData Center Department Communicable Disease Division NMCPHC-EDC-TR-394-2015 REPORT DOCUMENTATION... Influenza Seasonal Summary, 2014-2015 Season Sb. GRANT NUMBER $c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHORjS) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Ashleigh K McCabe, Kristen R...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 1<l. ABSTRACT This report summartzes influenza activity among Department of Navy (DON) and Depar1ment of Defense (DOD

  7. Impact of quadrivalent influenza vaccine on public health and influenza-related costs in Australia

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    Aurélien Jamotte

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annual trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV containing three influenza strains (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and one B have been recommended for the prevention of influenza. However, worldwide co-circulation of two distinct B lineages (Victoria and Yamagata and difficulties in predicting which lineage will predominate each season have led to the development of quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIV, which include both B lineages. Our analysis evaluates the public health benefit and associated influenza-related costs avoided which would have been obtained by using QIV rather than TIV in Australia over the period 2002–2012. Methods A static model stratified by age group was used, focusing on people at increased risk of influenza as defined by the Australian vaccination recommendations. B-lineage cross-protection was accounted for. We calculated the potential impact of QIV compared with TIV over the seasons 2002–2012 (2009 pandemic year excluded using Australian data on influenza circulation, vaccine coverage, hospitalisation and mortality rates as well as unit costs, and international data on vaccine effectiveness, influenza attack rate, GP consultation rate and working days lost. Third-party payer and societal influenza-related costs were estimated in 2014 Australian dollars. Sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results Using QIV instead of TIV over the period 2002–2012 would have prevented an estimated 68,271 additional influenza cases, 47,537 GP consultations, 3,522 hospitalisations and 683 deaths in the population at risk of influenza. These results translate into influenza-related societal costs avoided of $46.5 million. The estimated impact of QIV was higher for young children and the elderly. The overall impact of QIV depended mainly on vaccine effectiveness and the influenza attack rate attributable to the mismatched B lineage. Conclusion The broader protection offered by QIV would have reduced the number of influenza infections

  8. Virulence determinants of pandemic influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscherne, Donna M.; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2011-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause recurrent, seasonal epidemics and occasional global pandemics with devastating levels of morbidity and mortality. The ability of influenza A viruses to adapt to various hosts and undergo reassortment events ensures constant generation of new strains with unpredictable degrees of pathogenicity, transmissibility, and pandemic potential. Currently, the combination of factors that drives the emergence of pandemic influenza is unclear, making it impossible to foresee the details of a future outbreak. Identification and characterization of influenza A virus virulence determinants may provide insight into genotypic signatures of pathogenicity as well as a more thorough understanding of the factors that give rise to pandemics. PMID:21206092

  9. Molecular characterization of a nuclear topoisomerase II from Nicotiana tabacum that functionally complements a temperature-sensitive topoisomerase II yeast mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B N; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Sopory, S K; Reddy, M K

    2003-07-01

    We have successfully expressed enzymatically active plant topoisomerase II in Escherichia coli for the first time, which has enabled its biochemical characterization. Using a PCR-based strategy, we obtained a full-length cDNA and the corresponding genomic clone of tobacco topoisomerase II. The genomic clone has 18 exons interrupted by 17 introns. Most of the 5' and 3' splice junctions follow the typical canonical consensus dinucleotide sequence GU-AG present in other plant introns. The position of introns and phasing with respect to primary amino acid sequence in tobacco TopII and Arabidopsis TopII are highly conserved, suggesting that the two genes are evolved from the common ancestral type II topoisomerase gene. The cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 1482 amino acids. The primary amino acid sequence shows a striking sequence similarity, preserving all the structural domains that are conserved among eukaryotic type II topoisomerases in an identical spatial order. We have expressed the full-length polypeptide in E. coli and purified the recombinant protein to homogeneity. The full-length polypeptide relaxed supercoiled DNA and decatenated the catenated DNA in a Mg(2+)- and ATP-dependent manner, and this activity was inhibited by 4'-(9-acridinylamino)-3'-methoxymethanesulfonanilide (m-AMSA). The immunofluorescence and confocal microscopic studies, with antibodies developed against the N-terminal region of tobacco recombinant topoisomerase II, established the nuclear localization of topoisomerase II in tobacco BY2 cells. The regulated expression of tobacco topoisomerase II gene under the GAL1 promoter functionally complemented a temperature-sensitive TopII(ts) yeast mutant.

  10. An analysis of the influence of logistics activities on the export cold chain of temperature sensitive fruit through the Port of Cape Town

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    Leila L. Goedhals-Gerber

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa exports a large variety of different fruit types and cultivars worldwide. Yet, there is concern in the South African fruit industry that too much fruit and money is lost each year due to breaks along the fresh fruit export cold chain. Objective: The objective of this article was to identify the influence of logistics activities on breaks along the South African fruit export cold chain. The focus is specifically on temperature sensitive fruit, exported in refrigerated containers to Europe and the United Kingdom through the Port of Cape Town. This supply chain was selected as this was the most accessible supply chain in terms of retrieving the necessary temperature data. Method: The cold chain was investigated from the cold store, through all segments, until the Port of Cape Town. Temperature data collected with temperature monitoring devices from different fruit export supply chains of grapes, plums and pome fruit (apples and pears were analysed to identify the percentage of temperature breaks and the length of temperature breaks that occur at each segment of the cold chain. Results: The results show that a large number of breaks are experienced along South Africa’s fruit export cold chain, specifically at the interface between the cold store and the truck. In addition, the findings also show that there has been an improvement in the number of breaks experienced in the Port of Cape Town following the implementation of the NAVIS and Refcon systems. Conclusion: This article concludes by providing the fruit industry with areas that require addressing to improve operational procedures along the fruit export cold chain to help ensure that the fruit arrives at its final destination at optimal quality.

  11. Genetic variation for lettuce seed thermoinhibition is associated with temperature-sensitive expression of abscisic Acid, gibberellin, and ethylene biosynthesis, metabolism, and response genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyris, Jason; Dahal, Peetambar; Hayashi, Eiji; Still, David W; Bradford, Kent J

    2008-10-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa 'Salinas') seeds fail to germinate when imbibed at temperatures above 25 degrees C to 30 degrees C (termed thermoinhibition). However, seeds of an accession of Lactuca serriola (UC96US23) do not exhibit thermoinhibition up to 37 degrees C in the light. Comparative genetics, physiology, and gene expression were analyzed in these genotypes to determine the mechanisms governing the regulation of seed germination by temperature. Germination of the two genotypes was differentially sensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) at elevated temperatures. Quantitative trait loci associated with these phenotypes colocated with a major quantitative trait locus (Htg6.1) from UC96US23 conferring germination thermotolerance. ABA contents were elevated in Salinas seeds that exhibited thermoinhibition, consistent with the ability of fluridone (an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor) to improve germination at high temperatures. Expression of many genes involved in ABA, GA, and ethylene biosynthesis, metabolism, and response was differentially affected by high temperature and light in the two genotypes. In general, ABA-related genes were more highly expressed when germination was inhibited, and GA- and ethylene-related genes were more highly expressed when germination was permitted. In particular, LsNCED4, a gene encoding an enzyme in the ABA biosynthetic pathway, was up-regulated by high temperature only in Salinas seeds and also colocated with Htg6.1. The temperature sensitivity of expression of LsNCED4 may determine the upper temperature limit for lettuce seed germination and may indirectly influence other regulatory pathways via interconnected effects of increased ABA biosynthesis.

  12. Effect of Temperature-Sensitive Poloxamer Solution/Gel Material on Pericardial Adhesion Prevention: Supine Rabbit Model Study Mimicking Cardiac Surgery.

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    Hyun Kang

    Full Text Available We investigated the mobility of a temperature-sensitive poloxamer/Alginate/CaCl2 mixture (PACM in relation to gravity and cardiac motion and the efficacy of PACM on the prevention of pericardial adhesion in a supine rabbit model.A total of 50 rabbits were randomly divided into two groups according to materials applied after epicardial abrasion: PACM and dye mixture (group PD; n = 25 and saline as the control group (group CO; n = 25. In group PD, rabbits were maintained in a supine position with appropriate sedation, and location of mixture of PACM and dye was assessed by CT scan at the immediate postoperative period and 12 hours after surgery. The grade of adhesions was evaluated macroscopically and microscopically two weeks after surgery.In group PD, enhancement was localized in the anterior pericardial space, where PACM and dye mixture was applied, on immediate post-surgical CT scans. However, the volume of the enhancement was significantly decreased at the anterior pericardial space 12 hours later (P < .001. Two weeks after surgery, group PD had significantly lower macroscopic adhesion score (P = .002 and fibrosis score (P = .018 than did group CO. Inflammation score and expression of anti-macrophage antibody in group PD were lower than those in group CO, although the differences were not significant.In a supine rabbit model study, the anti-adhesion effect was maintained at the area of PACM application, although PACM shifted with gravity and heart motion. For more potent pericardial adhesion prevention, further research and development on the maintenance of anti-adhesion material position are required.

  13. Construction of upp deletion mutant strains of Lactobacillus casei and Lactococcus lactis based on counterselective system using temperature-sensitive plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li; Cui, Hongyu; Tang, Lijie; Qiao, Xinyuan; Liu, Min; Jiang, Yanping; Cui, Wen; Li, Yijing

    2014-07-01

    Integration plasmids are often used in constructing chromosomal mutations, as it enables the alternation of genes at any location by integration or replacement. Food-grade integration vectors can integrate into the host genome without introducing any selectable markers or residual bases, and the recombination often happens in non-coding region. In this study we used the temperature-sensitive pWV01 replicon to construct 2 chloramphenicol-resistant integration plasmids (pGBHC32-upp) containing the uracil phosphoribosyl transferase (upp) gene as a counterselective marker for Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) ATCC393 and Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) MG1363. We then ligated the designed homologous arms to the pGBHC32-upp plasmids to allow their integration to the bacterial chromosome, and selected upp deletion mutants of L. casei ATCC393 and L. lactis MG1363 in the presence of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Analysis of genetic stability, growth curve, carbon utilization and scanning electronic microscopy showed that, except for 5-FU resistance, there were no significant differences between the wild type and mutant lactic acid bacteria. The integration system and the upp deletion strains could be used in the insertion or deletion of genes at any location of the chromosome of both L. casei ATCC 393 and L. lactis MG1363, and the homologous recombination would not introduce any selectable markers or residual bases. These mutant strains can be further investigated for heterologous protein expression and construction of a live mucosal vaccine carrier. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Low-Temperature Sensitization on the Corrosion Behavior of AISI Type 304L SS Weld Metal in Simulated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Girija; Nandakumar, T.; Viswanath, A.

    2018-05-01

    The manuscript presents the investigations carried out on the effect of low-temperature sensitization (LTS) of 304L SS weld metal on its corrosion behavior in simulated groundwater, for its application as a canister material for long-term storage of nuclear vitrified high-level waste in geological repositories. AISI type 304L SS weld pad was fabricated by multipass gas tungsten arc welding process using 308L SS filler wire. The as-welded specimens were subsequently subjected to carbide nucleation and further to LTS at 500 °C for 11 days to simulate a temperature of 300 °C for 100-year life of the canister in geological repositories. Delta ferrite ( δ-ferrite) content of the 304L SS weld metal substantially decreased on carbide nucleation treatment and further only a marginal decrease occurred on LTS treatment. The microstructure of the as-welded consisted of δ-ferrite as a minor phase distributed in austenite matrix. The δ-ferrite appeared fragmented in the carbide-nucleated and LTS-treated weld metal. The degree of sensitization measured by double-loop electrochemical potentokinetic reactivation method indicated an increase in carbide nucleation treatment when compared to the as-welded specimens, and further increase occurred on LTS treatment. Potentiodynamic anodic polarization investigations in simulated groundwater indicated a substantial decrease in the localized corrosion resistance of the carbide-nucleated and LTS 304L SS weld metals, when compared to the as-welded specimens. Post-experimental micrographs indicated pitting as the primary mode of attack in the as-welded, while pitting and intergranular corrosion (IGC) occurred in the carbide-nucleated weld metal. LTS-treated weld metal predominantly underwent IGC attack. The decrease in the localized corrosion resistance of the weld metal after LTS treatment was found to have a direct correlation with the degree of sensitization and the weld microstructure. The results are detailed in the manuscript.

  15. Effect of Low-Temperature Sensitization on the Corrosion Behavior of AISI Type 304L SS Weld Metal in Simulated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Girija; Nandakumar, T.; Viswanath, A.

    2018-04-01

    The manuscript presents the investigations carried out on the effect of low-temperature sensitization (LTS) of 304L SS weld metal on its corrosion behavior in simulated groundwater, for its application as a canister material for long-term storage of nuclear vitrified high-level waste in geological repositories. AISI type 304L SS weld pad was fabricated by multipass gas tungsten arc welding process using 308L SS filler wire. The as-welded specimens were subsequently subjected to carbide nucleation and further to LTS at 500 °C for 11 days to simulate a temperature of 300 °C for 100-year life of the canister in geological repositories. Delta ferrite (δ-ferrite) content of the 304L SS weld metal substantially decreased on carbide nucleation treatment and further only a marginal decrease occurred on LTS treatment. The microstructure of the as-welded consisted of δ-ferrite as a minor phase distributed in austenite matrix. The δ-ferrite appeared fragmented in the carbide-nucleated and LTS-treated weld metal. The degree of sensitization measured by double-loop electrochemical potentokinetic reactivation method indicated an increase in carbide nucleation treatment when compared to the as-welded specimens, and further increase occurred on LTS treatment. Potentiodynamic anodic polarization investigations in simulated groundwater indicated a substantial decrease in the localized corrosion resistance of the carbide-nucleated and LTS 304L SS weld metals, when compared to the as-welded specimens. Post-experimental micrographs indicated pitting as the primary mode of attack in the as-welded, while pitting and intergranular corrosion (IGC) occurred in the carbide-nucleated weld metal. LTS-treated weld metal predominantly underwent IGC attack. The decrease in the localized corrosion resistance of the weld metal after LTS treatment was found to have a direct correlation with the degree of sensitization and the weld microstructure. The results are detailed in the manuscript.

  16. O-Fucose Monosaccharide of Drosophila Notch Has a Temperature-sensitive Function and Cooperates with O-Glucose Glycan in Notch Transport and Notch Signaling Activation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishio, Akira; Sasamura, Takeshi; Ayukawa, Tomonori; Kuroda, Junpei; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki O.; Aoyama, Naoki; Matsumoto, Kenjiroo; Gushiken, Takuma; Okajima, Tetsuya; Yamakawa, Tomoko; Matsuno, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Notch (N) is a transmembrane receptor that mediates the cell-cell interactions necessary for many cell fate decisions. N has many epidermal growth factor-like repeats that are O-fucosylated by the protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (O-Fut1), and the O-fut1 gene is essential for N signaling. However, the role of the monosaccharide O-fucose on N is unclear, because O-Fut1 also appears to have O-fucosyltransferase activity-independent functions, including as an N-specific chaperon. Such an enzymatic activity-independent function could account for the essential role of O-fut1 in N signaling. To evaluate the role of the monosaccharide O-fucose modification in N signaling, here we generated a knock-in mutant of O-fut1 (O-fut1R245A knock-in), which expresses a mutant protein that lacks O-fucosyltransferase activity but maintains the N-specific chaperon activity. Using O-fut1R245A knock-in and other gene mutations that abolish the O-fucosylation of N, we found that the monosaccharide O-fucose modification of N has a temperature-sensitive function that is essential for N signaling. The O-fucose monosaccharide and O-glucose glycan modification, catalyzed by Rumi, function redundantly in the activation of N signaling. We also showed that the redundant function of these two modifications is responsible for the presence of N at the cell surface. Our findings elucidate how different forms of glycosylation on a protein can influence the protein's functions. PMID:25378397

  17. Rapid strategy for screening by pyrosequencing of influenza virus reassortants--candidates for live attenuated vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbik, Svetlana V; Pearce, Nicholas C; Levine, Marnie L; Klimov, Alexander I; Villanueva, Julie M; Bousse, Tatiana L

    2014-01-01

    Live attenuated influenza vaccine viruses (LAIVs) can be generated by classical reassortment of gene segments between a cold adapted, temperature sensitive and attenuated Master Donor Virus (MDV) and a seasonal wild-type (wt) virus. The vaccine candidates contain hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes derived from the circulating wt viruses and the remaining six genes derived from the MDV strains. Rapid, efficient selection of the viruses with 6∶2 genome compositions from the large number of genetically different viruses generated during reassortment is essential for the biannual production schedule of vaccine viruses. This manuscript describes a new approach for the genotypic analysis of LAIV reassortant virus clones based on pyrosequencing. LAIV candidate viruses were created by classical reassortment of seasonal influenza A (H3N2) (A/Victoria/361/2011, A/Ohio/02/2012, A/Texas/50/2012) or influenza A (H7N9) (A/Anhui/1/2013) wt viruses with the MDV A/Leningrad/134/17/57(H2N2). Using strain-specific pyrosequencing assays, mixed gene variations were detected in the allantoic progenies during the cloning procedure. The pyrosequencing analysis also allowed for estimation of the relative abundance of segment variants in mixed populations. This semi-quantitative approach was used for selecting specific clones for the subsequent cloning procedures. The present study demonstrates that pyrosequencing analysis is a useful technique for rapid and reliable genotyping of reassortants and intermediate clones during the preparation of LAIV candidates, and can expedite the selection of vaccine virus candidates.

  18. Rapid strategy for screening by pyrosequencing of influenza virus reassortants--candidates for live attenuated vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Shcherbik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Live attenuated influenza vaccine viruses (LAIVs can be generated by classical reassortment of gene segments between a cold adapted, temperature sensitive and attenuated Master Donor Virus (MDV and a seasonal wild-type (wt virus. The vaccine candidates contain hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes derived from the circulating wt viruses and the remaining six genes derived from the MDV strains. Rapid, efficient selection of the viruses with 6∶2 genome compositions from the large number of genetically different viruses generated during reassortment is essential for the biannual production schedule of vaccine viruses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This manuscript describes a new approach for the genotypic analysis of LAIV reassortant virus clones based on pyrosequencing. LAIV candidate viruses were created by classical reassortment of seasonal influenza A (H3N2 (A/Victoria/361/2011, A/Ohio/02/2012, A/Texas/50/2012 or influenza A (H7N9 (A/Anhui/1/2013 wt viruses with the MDV A/Leningrad/134/17/57(H2N2. Using strain-specific pyrosequencing assays, mixed gene variations were detected in the allantoic progenies during the cloning procedure. The pyrosequencing analysis also allowed for estimation of the relative abundance of segment variants in mixed populations. This semi-quantitative approach was used for selecting specific clones for the subsequent cloning procedures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study demonstrates that pyrosequencing analysis is a useful technique for rapid and reliable genotyping of reassortants and intermediate clones during the preparation of LAIV candidates, and can expedite the selection of vaccine virus candidates.

  19. The environmental deposition of influenza virus from patients infected with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09: Implications for infection prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingley, Benjamin; Greatorex, Jane; Digard, Paul; Wise, Helen; Garcia, Fayna; Varsani, Harsha; Cauchemez, Simon; Enstone, Joanne E; Hayward, Andrew; Curran, Martin D; Read, Robert C; Lim, Wei S; Nicholson, Karl G; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S

    2016-01-01

    In a multi-center, prospective, observational study over two influenza seasons, we sought to quantify and correlate the amount of virus recovered from the nares of infected subjects with that recovered from their immediate environment in community and hospital settings. We recorded the symptoms of adults and children with A(H1N1)pdm09 infection, took nasal swabs, and sampled touched surfaces and room air. Forty-two infected subjects were followed up. The mean duration of virus shedding was 6.2 days by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and 4.2 days by culture. Surface swabs were collected from 39 settings; 16 (41%) subject locations were contaminated with virus. Overall, 33 of the 671 (4.9%) surface swabs were PCR positive for influenza, of which two (0.3%) yielded viable virus. On illness Day 3, subjects yielding positive surface samples had significantly higher nasal viral loads (geometric mean ratio 25.7; 95% CI 1.75, 376.0, p=0.021) and a positive correlation (r=0.47, p=0.006) was observed between subject nasal viral loads and viral loads recovered from the surfaces around them. Room air was sampled in the vicinity of 12 subjects, and PCR positive samples were obtained for five (42%) samples. Influenza virus shed by infected subjects did not detectably contaminate the vast majority of surfaces sampled. We question the relative importance of the indirect contact transmission of influenza via surfaces, though our data support the existence of super-spreaders via this route. The air sampling results add to the accumulating evidence that supports the potential for droplet nuclei (aerosol) transmission of influenza. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of Seasonal Influenza Virus Type and Subtypes Isolated from Influenza Like Illness Cases of 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, B P; Ghimire, P; Tashiro, M; Banjara, M R

    Background Seasonal influenza is one of the increasing public health burdens in Nepal. Objective The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize the influenza virus type and subtypes of Nepal. Method A total of 1536 throat swab specimens were collected from January to December 2012. Total ribonucleic acid was extracted using Qiagen viral nucleic acid extraction kit and polymerase chain reaction assay was performed following the US; CDC Real-time PCR protocol. Ten percent of positive specimens were inoculated onto Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells. Isolates were characterized by using reference ferret antisera. Result Of the total specimens (n=1536), influenza virus type A was detected in 196 (22%) cases; of which 194 (99%) were influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and 2 (1 %) were influenza A/H3 subtype. Influenza B was detected in 684 (76.9%) cases. Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, A/H3 and influenza B virus were antigenically similar to the recommended influenza virus vaccine candidate of the year 2012. Although sporadic cases of influenza were observed throughout the year, peak was observed during July to November. Conclusion Similar to other tropical countries, A (H1N1) pdm09, A/H3 and influenza B viruses were co-circulated in Nepal.

  1. Influenza Vaccination in Young Children Reduces Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations in Older Adults, 2002–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Steven A.; Chui, Kenneth K.H.; Naumova, Elena N.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess how influenza vaccination coverage in children is related to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) in US seniors and if these associations are modified by sociodemographic factors. DESIGN We abstracted approximately 5 million hospitalization records from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for four influenza years, 2002–2006. We estimated a single year age distribution of rates of P&I hospitalization by state for each influenza season and observed an exponential acceleration in the P&I rates with age for each influenza season. State-and season-specific P&I rate accelerations were regressed against the percentage of vaccinated children, seniors, or both using mixed effects models. SETTING United States population, 2002–2006 PARTICIPANTS US population aged 65 and above MEASUREMENTS State-level influenza annual vaccination coverage data in children and seniors were obtained from the National Immunization Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respectively. RESULTS Child influenza vaccination coverage was negatively associated with age acceleration in P&I, whereas influenza vaccination in the seniors themselves was not significantly associated with P&I in seniors. CONCLUSION Vaccination of children against influenza may induce herd immunity against influenza for seniors and has the potential to be more beneficial to seniors than the existing policy to prevent influenza by vaccinating seniors themselves. PMID:21275932

  2. Soviet test yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergino, Eileen S.

    Soviet seismologists have published descriptions of 96 nuclear explosions conducted from 1961 through 1972 at the Semipalatinsk test site, in Kazakhstan, central Asia [Bocharov et al., 1989]. With the exception of releasing news about some of their peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) the Soviets have never before published such a body of information.To estimate the seismic yield of a nuclear explosion it is necessary to obtain a calibrated magnitude-yield relationship based on events with known yields and with a consistent set of seismic magnitudes. U.S. estimation of Soviet test yields has been done through application of relationships to the Soviet sites based on the U.S. experience at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), making some correction for differences due to attenuation and near-source coupling of seismic waves.

  3. Travellers and influenza: risks and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeijenbier, M; van Genderen, P; Ward, B J; Wilder-Smith, A; Steffen, R; Osterhaus, A D M E

    2017-01-01

    Influenza viruses are among the major causes of serious human respiratory tract infection worldwide. In line with the high disease burden attributable to influenza, these viruses play an important, but often neglected, role in travel medicine. Guidelines and recommendations regarding prevention and management of influenza in travellers are scarce. Of special interest for travel medicine are risk populations and also circumstances that facilitate influenza virus transmission and spread, like travel by airplane or cruise ship and mass gatherings. We conducted a PUBMED/MEDLINE search for a combination of the MeSH terms Influenza virus, travel, mass gathering, large scale events and cruise ship. In addition we gathered guidelines and recommendations from selected countries and regarding influenza prevention and management in travellers. By reviewing these search results in the light of published knowledge in the fields of influenza prevention and management, we present best practice advice for the prevention and management of influenza in travel medicine. Seasonal influenza is among the most prevalent infectious diseases in travellers. Known host-associated risk factors include extremes of age and being immune-compromised, while the most relevant environmental factors are associated with holiday cruises and mass gatherings. Pre-travel advice should address influenza and its prevention for travellers, whenever appropriate on the basis of the epidemiological situation concerned. Preventative measures should be strongly recommended for travellers at high-risk for developing complications. In addition, seasonal influenza vaccination should be considered for any traveller wishing to reduce the risk of incapacitation, particularly cruise ship crew and passengers, as well as those participating in mass gatherings. Besides advice concerning preventive measures and vaccination, advice on the use of antivirals may be considered for some travellers. © International Society of

  4. Stockpiling Ventilators for Influenza Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Chan; Araz, Ozgur M; Morton, David P; Johnson, Gregory P; Damien, Paul; Clements, Bruce; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2017-06-01

    In preparing for influenza pandemics, public health agencies stockpile critical medical resources. Determining appropriate quantities and locations for such resources can be challenging, given the considerable uncertainty in the timing and severity of future pandemics. We introduce a method for optimizing stockpiles of mechanical ventilators, which are critical for treating hospitalized influenza patients in respiratory failure. As a case study, we consider the US state of Texas during mild, moderate, and severe pandemics. Optimal allocations prioritize local over central storage, even though the latter can be deployed adaptively, on the basis of real-time needs. This prioritization stems from high geographic correlations and the slightly lower treatment success assumed for centrally stockpiled ventilators. We developed our model and analysis in collaboration with academic researchers and a state public health agency and incorporated it into a Web-based decision-support tool for pandemic preparedness and response.

  5. Transmission of Influenza A Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to ‘novel’ viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  6. Live, Attenuated Influenza A H5N1 Candidate Vaccines Provide Broad Cross-Protection in Mice and Ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Kimberly L; Jin, Hong; Duke, Greg; Lu, Bin; Luke, Catherine J; Murphy, Brian; Swayne, David E; Kemble, George; Subbarao, Kanta

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 viruses in humans and avian species that began in Asia and have spread to other continents underscore an urgent need to develop vaccines that would protect the human population in the event of a pandemic. Methods and Findings Live, attenuated candidate vaccines possessing genes encoding a modified H5 hemagglutinin (HA) and a wild-type (wt) N1 neuraminidase from influenza A H5N1 viruses isolated in Hong Kong and Vietnam in 1997, 2003, and 2004, and remaining gene segments derived from the cold-adapted (ca) influenza A vaccine donor strain, influenza A/Ann Arbor/6/60 ca (H2N2), were generated by reverse genetics. The H5N1 ca vaccine viruses required trypsin for efficient growth in vitro, as predicted by the modification engineered in the gene encoding the HA, and possessed the temperature-sensitive and attenuation phenotypes specified by the internal protein genes of the ca vaccine donor strain. More importantly, the candidate vaccines were immunogenic in mice. Four weeks after receiving a single dose of 106 50% tissue culture infectious doses of intranasally administered vaccines, mice were fully protected from lethality following challenge with homologous and antigenically distinct heterologous wt H5N1 viruses from different genetic sublineages (clades 1, 2, and 3) that were isolated in Asia between 1997 and 2005. Four weeks after receiving two doses of the vaccines, mice and ferrets were fully protected against pulmonary replication of homologous and heterologous wt H5N1 viruses. Conclusions The promising findings in these preclinical studies of safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the H5N1 ca vaccines against antigenically diverse H5N1 vaccines provide support for their careful evaluation in Phase 1 clinical trials in humans. PMID:16968127

  7. Live, attenuated influenza A H5N1 candidate vaccines provide broad cross-protection in mice and ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorsolo L Suguitan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 viruses in humans and avian species that began in Asia and have spread to other continents underscore an urgent need to develop vaccines that would protect the human population in the event of a pandemic.Live, attenuated candidate vaccines possessing genes encoding a modified H5 hemagglutinin (HA and a wild-type (wt N1 neuraminidase from influenza A H5N1 viruses isolated in Hong Kong and Vietnam in 1997, 2003, and 2004, and remaining gene segments derived from the cold-adapted (ca influenza A vaccine donor strain, influenza A/Ann Arbor/6/60 ca (H2N2, were generated by reverse genetics. The H5N1 ca vaccine viruses required trypsin for efficient growth in vitro, as predicted by the modification engineered in the gene encoding the HA, and possessed the temperature-sensitive and attenuation phenotypes specified by the internal protein genes of the ca vaccine donor strain. More importantly, the candidate vaccines were immunogenic in mice. Four weeks after receiving a single dose of 10(6 50% tissue culture infectious doses of intranasally administered vaccines, mice were fully protected from lethality following challenge with homologous and antigenically distinct heterologous wt H5N1 viruses from different genetic sublineages (clades 1, 2, and 3 that were isolated in Asia between 1997 and 2005. Four weeks after receiving two doses of the vaccines, mice and ferrets were fully protected against pulmonary replication of homologous and heterologous wt H5N1 viruses.The promising findings in these preclinical studies of safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the H5N1 ca vaccines against antigenically diverse H5N1 vaccines provide support for their careful evaluation in Phase 1 clinical trials in humans.

  8. Development of stable influenza vaccine powder formulations : Challenges and possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amorij, J-P; Huckriede, A; Wilschut, J; Frijlink, H W; Hinrichs, W L J

    2008-01-01

    Influenza vaccination represents the cornerstone of influenza prevention. However, today all influenza vaccines are formulated as liquids that are unstable at ambient temperatures and have to be stored and distributed under refrigeration. In order to stabilize influenza vaccines, they can be brought

  9. Recommendations pertaining to the use of influenza vaccines and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaccination is the most effective strategy to prevent influenza. It is recommended that influenza vaccine be administered each year before the influenza season, i.e. from March to June, although for individuals at increased risk of severe influenza in whom vaccination was missed, vaccine may be administered later.

  10. Viruses associated with human and animal influenza - a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this review, the most important viruses associated with human and animal influenza are reported. These include Influenza A,B and C. Influenza viruses are members of the family Orthomyxoviridae. Influenza A virus being the most pathogenic and wide spread with many subtypes has constantly cause epidemics in several ...

  11. MicroRNA-Based Attenuation of Influenza Virus across Susceptible Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Barbara M; Sjaastad, Louisa E; Fiege, Jessica K; Fay, Elizabeth J; Reyes, Ismarc; Moriarity, Branden; Langlois, Ryan A

    2018-01-15

    Influenza A virus drives significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock. Annual circulation of the virus in livestock and waterfowl contributes to severe economic disruption and increases the risk of zoonotic transmission of novel strains into the human population, where there is no preexisting immunity. Seasonal vaccinations in humans help prevent infection and can reduce symptoms when infection does occur. However, current vaccination regimens available for livestock are limited in part due to safety concerns regarding reassortment/recombination with circulating strains. Therefore, inactivated vaccines are used instead of the more immunostimulatory live attenuated vaccines. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been used previously to generate attenuated influenza A viruses for use as a vaccine. Here, we systematically targeted individual influenza gene mRNAs using the same miRNA to determine the segment(s) that yields maximal attenuation potential. This analysis demonstrated that targeting of NP mRNA most efficiently ablates replication. We further increased the plasticity of miRNA-mediated attenuation of influenza A virus by exploiting a miRNA, miR-21, that is ubiquitously expressed across influenza-susceptible hosts. In order to construct this targeted virus, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to eliminate the universally expressed miR-21 from MDCK cells. miR-21-targeted viruses were attenuated in human, mouse, canine, and avian cells and drove protective immunity in mice. This strategy has the potential to enhance the safety of live attenuated vaccines in humans and zoonotic reservoirs. IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus circulates annually in both avian and human populations, causing significant morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. High incidence of zoonotic infections greatly increases the potential for transmission to humans, where no preexisting immunity or vaccine exists. There is a critical need for new vaccine strategies to combat emerging influenza outbreaks. Micro

  12. Deriving a model for influenza epidemics from historical data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Jaideep; Lefantzi, Sophia

    2011-09-01

    In this report we describe how we create a model for influenza epidemics from historical data collected from both civilian and military societies. We derive the model when the population of the society is unknown but the size of the epidemic is known. Our interest lies in estimating a time-dependent infection rate to within a multiplicative constant. The model form fitted is chosen for its similarity to published models for HIV and plague, enabling application of Bayesian techniques to discriminate among infectious agents during an emerging epidemic. We have developed models for the progression of influenza in human populations. The model is framed as a integral, and predicts the number of people who exhibit symptoms and seek care over a given time-period. The start and end of the time period form the limits of integration. The disease progression model, in turn, contains parameterized models for the incubation period and a time-dependent infection rate. The incubation period model is obtained from literature, and the parameters of the infection rate are fitted from historical data including both military and civilian populations. The calibrated infection rate models display a marked difference in which the 1918 Spanish Influenza pandemic differed from the influenza seasons in the US between 2001-2008 and the progression of H1N1 in Catalunya, Spain. The data for the 1918 pandemic was obtained from military populations, while the rest are country-wide or province-wide data from the twenty-first century. We see that the initial growth of infection in all cases were about the same; however, military populations were able to control the epidemic much faster i.e., the decay of the infection-rate curve is much higher. It is not clear whether this was because of the much higher level of organization present in a military society or the seriousness with which the 1918 pandemic was addressed. Each outbreak to which the influenza model was fitted yields a separate set of

  13. A simple Pichia pastoris fermentation and downstream processing strategy for making recombinant pandemic Swine Origin Influenza a virus Hemagglutinin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmaram, T N; Singh, Anil Kumar; Saraswat, Shweta; Srivastava, Saurabh; Misra, Princi; Kameswara Rao, M; Gopalan, N; Rao, P V L

    2013-02-01

    The present Influenza vaccine manufacturing process has posed a clear impediment to initiation of rapid mass vaccination against spreading pandemic influenza. New vaccine strategies are therefore needed that can accelerate the vaccine production. Pichia offers several advantages for rapid and economical bulk production of recombinant proteins and, hence, can be attractive alternative for producing an effective influenza HA based subunit vaccine. The recombinant Pichia harboring the transgene was subjected to fed-batch fermentation at 10 L scale. A simple fermentation and downstream processing strategy is developed for high-yield secretory expression of the recombinant Hemagglutinin protein of pandemic Swine Origin Influenza A virus using Pichia pastoris via fed-batch fermentation. Expression and purification were optimized and the expressed recombinant Hemagglutinin protein was verified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blot and MALDI-TOF analysis. In this paper, we describe a fed-batch fermentation protocol for the secreted production of Swine Influenza A Hemagglutinin protein in the P. pastoris GS115 strain. We have shown that there is a clear relationship between product yield and specific growth rate. The fed-batch fermentation and downstream processing methods optimized in the present study have immense practical application for high-level production of the recombinant H1N1 HA protein in a cost effective way using P. pastoris.

  14. Increasing Influenza Vaccine Uptake. A Comprehensive Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looijmans - van den Akker, I.

    2009-01-01

    General introduction: To prevent influenza virus infection, immunization against influenza has been recommended for individuals with increased risk of complications. These groups comprise individuals of 60 years and older, individuals with risk-elevating co-morbid conditions, residents of nursing

  15. Protective immunity against influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, Peter Paul

    2002-01-01

    Swine influenza is a highly contagious acute viral disease of the respiratory tract in pigs, which is prevalent world-wide. The disease causes considerable economic damage primarily due to reduced weight gain in finishing pigs and reduced reproductive performance of sows. In addition, influenza is a

  16. Societal and economic consequences of influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedra, Pedro A

    2008-10-01

    High rates of vaccination coverage for preschool and school-aged children can reduce morbidity and mortality related to influenza outbreak. More focused and effective influenza prevention strategies are necessary to improve quality of life and to limit the burden of flu complications.

  17. Dried influenza vaccines : Over the counter vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, Vinay; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2010-01-01

    Since last year influenza pandemic has struck again after 40 years, this is the right moment to discuss the different available formulation options for influenza vaccine. Looking back to the last 4 decades, most vaccines are still formulated as liquid solution. These vaccines have shown a poor

  18. Spontaneous Subconjunctival Abscess Because of Haemophilus influenzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    any recent sexually transmitted diseases, vaginal discharge, or sores. Her past medical history included mild seasonal allergies and no history of...culture confirmed a nontypeable strain of H. influenzae. DISCUSSION H. influenzae is a small aerobic Gram-negative cocco- bacillus found mainly in the

  19. Global spread and control of avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    H5 and H7 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses emerge from the mutation of H5 and H7 low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAI) after circulation in terrestrial poultry for a few weeks to years. There have been 42 distinct HPAI epizootics since 1959. The largest being the H5N1 A/G...

  20. Avian Influenza: A growing threat to Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) is probably the most widespread avian influenza subtype in poultry around the world being endemic in a large part of Asia, the Middle East, Northern Africa, and in Germany. Currently, there is no standardized clade system to describe the antigenic vari...

  1. Pandemic Influenza Pediatric Office Plan Template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    This is a planning tool developed by pediatric stakeholders that is intended to assist pediatric medical offices that have no pandemic influenza plan in place, but may experience an increase in patient calls/visits or workload due to pandemic influenza.

  2. Influenza-associated encephalopathy: no evidence for neuroinvasion by influenza virus nor for reactivation of human herpesvirus 6 or 7.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeijl, J.H.; Bakkers, J.; Wilbrink, B.; Melchers, W.J.; Mullaart, R.A.; Galama, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    During 2 consecutive influenza seasons we investigated the presence of influenza virus, human herpesvirus (HHV) type 6, and HHV-7 in cerebrospinal fluid samples from 9 white children suffering from influenza-associated encephalopathy. We conclude that it is unlikely that neuroinvasion by influenza

  3. Viral vector-based influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rory D.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses and the occasional introduction of influenza viruses of novel subtypes into the human population complicate the timely production of effective vaccines that antigenically match the virus strains that cause epidemic or pandemic outbreaks. The development of game-changing vaccines that induce broadly protective immunity against a wide variety of influenza viruses is an unmet need, in which recombinant viral vectors may provide. Use of viral vectors allows the delivery of any influenza virus antigen, or derivative thereof, to the immune system, resulting in the optimal induction of virus-specific B- and T-cell responses against this antigen of choice. This systematic review discusses results obtained with vectored influenza virus vaccines and advantages and disadvantages of the currently available viral vectors. PMID:27455345

  4. [An overview on swine influenza viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Zhu, Wen-Fei; Shu, Yue-Long

    2013-05-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIVs) are respiratory pathogens of pigs. They cause both economic bur den in livestock-dependent industries and serious global public health concerns in humans. Because of their dual susceptibility to human and avian influenza viruses, pigs are recognized as intermediate hosts for genetic reassortment and interspecies transmission. Subtypes H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 circulate in swine populations around the world, with varied origin and genetic characteristics among different continents and regions. In this review, the role of pigs in evolution of influenza A viruses, the genetic evolution of SIVs and interspecies transmission of SIVs are described. Considering the possibility that pigs might produce novel influenza viruses causing more outbreaks and pandemics, routine epidemiological surveillance of influenza viruses in pig populations is highly recommended.

  5. Concepts and applications for influenza antigenic cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Influenza antigenic cartography projects influenza antigens into a two or three dimensional map based on immunological datasets, such as hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. A robust antigenic cartography can facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection since the antigenic map can simplify data interpretation through intuitive antigenic map. However, antigenic cartography construction is not trivial due to the challenging features embedded in the immunological data, such as data incompleteness, high noises, and low reactors. To overcome these challenges, we developed a computational method, temporal Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS), by adapting the low rank MC concept from the movie recommendation system in Netflix and the MDS method from geographic cartography construction. The application on H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses demonstrates that temporal MC-MDS is effective and efficient in constructing influenza antigenic cartography. The web sever is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap. PMID:21761589

  6. (Highly pathogenic) Avian Influenza as a zoonotic agent

    OpenAIRE

    Kalthoff , Donata; Globig , Anja; Beer , Martin

    2010-01-01

    Summary Zoonotic agents challenging the world every year afresh are influenza A viruses. In the past, human pandemics caused by influenza A viruses had been occurring periodically. Wild aquatic birds are carriers of the full variety of influenza virus A subtypes, and thus, most probably constitute the natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses. Whereas avian influenza viruses in their natural avian reservoir are generally of low pathogenicity (LPAIV), some have gained virulence b...

  7. Enhancement of HHG yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrat, C.; Biegert, J.

    2011-01-01

    A static electric field periodically distributed in space controls and enhances the yield in high harmonic generation. The method is relatively simple to implement and allows tuning from the extreme-ultraviolet to soft X-ray. The radiation yield is selectively enhanced due to symmetry breaking induced by a static electric field on the interaction between the driving laser and the medium. The enhanced spectral region is tuned by varying the periodicity of the static electric field. Simulations predict an increase of more than two orders of magnitude for harmonics in the water window spectral range.

  8. Contribution of murine innate serum inhibitors toward interference within influenza virus immune assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwach, Kevin T; Sandbulte, Heather R; Klonoski, Joshua M; Huber, Victor C

    2012-03-01

    Prior to detection of an antibody response toward influenza viruses using the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI), sera are routinely treated to inactivate innate inhibitors using both heat inactivation (56°C) and recombinant neuraminidase [receptor-destroying enzyme (RDE)]. We revisited the contributions of innate serum inhibitors toward interference with influenza viruses in immune assays, using murine sera, with emphasis on the interactions with influenza A viruses of the H3N2 subtype. We used individual serum treatments: 56°C alone, RDE alone, or RDE + 56°C, to treat sera prior to evaluation within HAI, microneutralization, and macrophage uptake assays. Our data demonstrate that inhibitors present within untreated murine sera interfere with the HAI assay in a manner that is different from that seen for the microneutralization assay. Specifically, the γ class inhibitor α(2) -Macroglobulin (A2-M) can inhibit H3N2 viruses within the HAI assay, but not in the microneutralization assay. Based on these findings, we used a macrophage uptake assay to demonstrate that these inhibitors can increase uptake by macrophages when the influenza viruses express an HA from a 1968 H3N2 virus isolate, but not a 1997 H3N2 isolate. The practice of treating sera to inactivate innate inhibitors of influenza viruses prior to evaluation within immune assays has allowed us to effectively detect influenza virus-specific antibodies for decades. However, this practice has yielded an under-appreciation for the contribution of innate serum inhibitors toward host immune responses against these viruses, including contributions toward neutralization and macrophage uptake. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Systematic review of influenza resistance to the neuraminidase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boivin Guy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antivirals play a critical role in the prevention and the management of influenza. One class of antivirals, neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs, is effective against all human influenza viruses. Currently there are two NAI drugs which are licensed worldwide: oseltamivir (Tamiflu® and zanamivir (Relenza®; and two drugs which have received recent approval in Japan: peramivir and laninamivir. Until recently, the prevalence of antiviral resistance has been relatively low. However, almost all seasonal H1N1 strains that circulated in 2008-09 were resistant to oseltamivir whereas about 1% of tested 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses were found to be resistant to oseltamivir. To date, no studies have demonstrated widespread resistance to zanamivir. It seems likely that the literature on antiviral resistance associated with oseltamivir as well as zanamivir is now sufficiently comprehensive to warrant a systematic review. The primary objectives were to systematically review the literature to determine the incidence of resistance to oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir in different population groups as well as assess the clinical consequences of antiviral resistance. Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE without language restrictions in September 2010 to identify studies reporting incidence of resistance to oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir. We used forest plots and meta-analysis of incidence of antiviral resistance associated with the three NAIs. Subgroup analyses were done across a number of population groups. Meta-analysis was also performed to evaluate associations between antiviral resistance and clinical complications and symptoms. Results We identified 19 studies reporting incidence of antiviral resistance. Meta-analysis of 15 studies yielded a pooled incidence rate for oseltamivir resistance of 2.6% (95%CI 0.7% to 5.5%. The incidence rate for all zanamivir resistance studies was 0%. Only one study measured incidence of antiviral

  10. Understanding influenza vaccine protection in the community: an assessment of the 2013 influenza season in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carville, Kylie S; Grant, Kristina A; Sullivan, Sheena G; Fielding, James E; Lane, Courtney R; Franklin, Lucinda; Druce, Julian; Kelly, Heath A

    2015-01-03

    The influenza virus undergoes frequent antigenic drift, necessitating annual review of the composition of the influenza vaccine. Vaccination is an important strategy for reducing the impact and burden of influenza, and estimating vaccine effectiveness (VE) each year informs surveillance and preventative measures. We aimed to describe the influenza season and to estimate the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in Victoria, Australia, in 2013. Routine laboratory notifications, general practitioner sentinel surveillance (including a medical deputising service) data, and sentinel hospital admission surveillance data for the influenza season (29 April to 27 October 2013) were collated in Victoria, Australia, to describe influenza-like illness or confirmed influenza during the season. General practitioner sentinel surveillance data were used to estimate VE against medically-attended laboratory confirmed influenza. VE was estimated using the case test negative design as 1-adjusted odds ratio (odds of vaccination in cases compared with controls) × 100%. Cases tested positive for influenza while non-cases (controls) tested negative. Estimates were adjusted for age group, week of onset, time to swabbing and co-morbidities. The 2013 influenza season was characterised by relatively low activity with a late peak. Influenza B circulation preceded that of influenza A(H1)pdm09, with very little influenza A(H3) circulation. Adjusted VE for all influenza was 55% (95%CI: -11, 82), for influenza A(H1)pdm09 was 43% (95%CI: -132, 86), and for influenza B was 56% (95%CI: -51, 87) Imputation of missing data raised the influenza VE point estimate to 64% (95%CI: 13, 85). Clinicians can continue to promote a positive approach to influenza vaccination, understanding that inactivated influenza vaccines prevent at least 50% of laboratory-confirmed outcomes in hospitals and the community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance of the Quidel Sofia Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Test During the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 Influenza Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-23

    Performance of the Quidel Sofia rapid influenza diagnostic test during the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 influenza seasons Peter E. Kammerer, Jennifer M... Influenza A+B Fluorescent Immunoassay was used to test nasal swab specimens from patients with influenza -like illness at US–Mexico border-area clinics in...the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 influenza seasons. Compared with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the overall sensitivities and

  12. Neuraminidase inhibitor R-125489 - A promising drug for treating influenza virus: Steered molecular dynamics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Binh Khanh [Institute for Computational Science and Technology, 6 Quarter, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Li, Mai Suan, E-mail: masli@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We study binding affinity of R-125489 and its prodrug CS-8958 to neuraminidase of pathogenic influenza viruses by molecular dynamics simulations. {yields} It is shown that, in agreement with experiments, R-125489 binds to neuraminidase more tightly than CS-8958. {yields} We predict that R-125489 can be used to treat not only wild-type but also tamiflu-resistant N294S, H274Y variants of A/H5N1 virus. {yields} The high correlation between theoretical and experimental data implies that SMD is a very promising tool for drug design. -- Abstract: Two neuraminidase inhibitors, oseltamivir and zanamivir, are important drug treatments for influenza. Oseltamivir-resistant mutants of the influenza virus A/H1N1 and A/H5N1 have emerged, necessitating the development of new long-acting antiviral agents. One such agent is a new neuraminidase inhibitor R-125489 and its prodrug CS-8958. An atomic level understanding of the nature of this antiviral agents binding is still missing. We address this gap in our knowledge by applying steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations to different subtypes of seasonal and highly pathogenic influenza viruses. We show that, in agreement with experiments, R-125489 binds to neuraminidase more tightly than CS-8958. Based on results obtained by SMD and the molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area method, we predict that R-125489 can be used to treat not only wild-type but also tamiflu-resistant N294S, H274Y variants of A/H5N1 virus as its binding affinity does not vary much across these systems. The high correlation level between theoretically determined rupture forces and experimental data on binding energies for the large number of systems studied here implies that SMD is a promising tool for drug design.

  13. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-03-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  14. Avian influenza virus transmission to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfst, S; Imai, M; Kawaoka, Y; Fouchier, R A M

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause yearly epidemics and occasional pandemics. In addition, zoonotic influenza A viruses sporadically infect humans and may cause severe respiratory disease and fatalities. Fortunately, most of these viruses do not have the ability to be efficiently spread among humans via aerosols or respiratory droplets (airborne transmission) and to subsequently cause a pandemic. However, adaptation of these zoonotic viruses to humans by mutation or reassortment with human influenza A viruses may result in airborne transmissible viruses with pandemic potential. Although our knowledge of factors that affect mammalian adaptation and transmissibility of influenza viruses is still limited, we are beginning to understand some of the biological traits that drive airborne transmission of influenza viruses among mammals. Increased understanding of the determinants and mechanisms of airborne transmission may aid in assessing the risks posed by avian influenza viruses to human health, and preparedness for such risks. This chapter summarizes recent discoveries on the genetic and phenotypic traits required for avian influenza viruses to become airborne transmissible between mammals.

  15. Nonlinear dynamics of avian influenza epidemic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sanhong; Ruan, Shigui; Zhang, Xinan

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza is a zoonotic disease caused by the transmission of the avian influenza A virus, such as H5N1 and H7N9, from birds to humans. The avian influenza A H5N1 virus has caused more than 500 human infections worldwide with nearly a 60% death rate since it was first reported in Hong Kong in 1997. The four outbreaks of the avian influenza A H7N9 in China from March 2013 to June 2016 have resulted in 580 human cases including 202 deaths with a death rate of nearly 35%. In this paper, we construct two avian influenza bird-to-human transmission models with different growth laws of the avian population, one with logistic growth and the other with Allee effect, and analyze their dynamical behavior. We obtain a threshold value for the prevalence of avian influenza and investigate the local or global asymptotical stability of each equilibrium of these systems by using linear analysis technique or combining Liapunov function method and LaSalle's invariance principle, respectively. Moreover, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the occurrence of periodic solutions in the avian influenza system with Allee effect of the avian population. Numerical simulations are also presented to illustrate the theoretical results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Brazilian Soybean Yields and Yield Gaps Vary with Farm Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, G. R.; Cohn, A.; Griffin, T. S.; Bragança, A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the farm size-specific characteristics of crop yields and yield gaps may help to improve yields by enabling better targeting of technical assistance and agricultural development programs. Linking remote sensing-based yield estimates with property boundaries provides a novel view of the relationship between farm size and yield structure (yield magnitude, gaps, and stability over time). A growing literature documents variations in yield gaps, but largely ignores the role of farm size as a factor shaping yield structure. Research on the inverse farm size-productivity relationship (IR) theory - that small farms are more productive than large ones all else equal - has documented that yield magnitude may vary by farm size, but has not considered other yield structure characteristics. We examined farm size - yield structure relationships for soybeans in Brazil for years 2001-2015. Using out-of-sample soybean yield predictions from a statistical model, we documented 1) gaps between the 95th percentile of attained yields and mean yields within counties and individual fields, and 2) yield stability defined as the standard deviation of time-detrended yields at given locations. We found a direct relationship between soy yields and farm size at the national level, while the strength and the sign of the relationship varied by region. Soybean yield gaps were found to be inversely related to farm size metrics, even when yields were only compared to farms of similar size. The relationship between farm size and yield stability was nonlinear, with mid-sized farms having the most stable yields. The work suggests that farm size is an important factor in understanding yield structure and that opportunities for improving soy yields in Brazil are greatest among smaller farms.

  17. Characterization of influenza virus among influenza like illness cases in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Soumen; Dahake, Ritwik; Patil, Deepak; Tawde, Shweta; Mukherjee, Sandeepan; Athlekar, Shrikant; Chowdhary, Abhay; Deshmukh, Ranjana

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to monitor influenza viruses by identifying the virus and studying the seasonal variation during 2007-2009 in Mumbai. A total of 193 clinical respiratory samples (nasal and throat swab) were collected from patients having influenza like illness in Mumbai region. One-step real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (rRTPCR) was used to detect Influenza type A (H1 and H3) and Influenza type B virus. Isolation of the virus was carried out using in vitro system which was further confirmed and typed by hemagglutination assay and hemagglutination inhibition assay. Out of 193 samples 24 (12.4 3%) samples tested positive for influenza virus, of which 13 (6.73 %) were influenza type A virus and 10 (5.18 %) were influenza type B virus, while 1 sample (0.51 %) was positive for both. By culture methods, 3 (1.55 %) viral isolates were obtained. All the three isolates were found to be Influenza type B/Malaysia (Victoria lineage) by Hemagglutination Inhibition Assay. The data generated from the present study reveals that both Influenza type A and B are prevalent in Mumbai with considerable activity. The peak activity was observed during monsoon season.

  18. Characterization of influenza virus among influenza like illness cases in Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Soumen; Dahake, Ritwik; Patil, Deepak; Tawde, Shweta; Mukherjee, Sandeepan; Athlekar, Shrikant; Chowdhary, Abhay; Deshmukh, Ranjana

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to monitor influenza viruses by identifying the virus and studying the seasonal variation during 2007–2009 in Mumbai. A total of 193 clinical respiratory samples (nasal and throat swab) were collected from patients having influenza like illness in Mumbai region. One-step real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (rRTPCR) was used to detect Influenza type A (H1 and H3) and Influenza type B virus. Isolation of the virus was carried out using in vitro system which was...

  19. Protocol: Transmission and prevention of influenza in Hutterites: Zoonotic transmission of influenza A: swine & swine workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeb Mark

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among swine, reassortment of influenza virus genes from birds, pigs, and humans could generate influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Humans with acute infection might also be a source of infection for swine production units. This article describes the study design and methods being used to assess influenza A transmission between swine workers and pigs. We hypothesize that transmission of swine influenza viruses to humans, transmission of human influenza viruses to swine, and reassortment of human and swine influenza A viruses is occurring. The project is part of a Team Grant; all Team Grant studies include active surveillance for influenza among Hutterite swine farmers in Alberta, Canada. This project also includes non-Hutterite swine farms that are experiencing swine respiratory illness. Methods/Design Nurses conduct active surveillance for influenza-like-illness (ILI, visiting participating communally owned and operated Hutterite swine farms twice weekly. Nasopharyngeal swabs and acute and convalescent sera are obtained from persons with any two such symptoms. Swabs are tested for influenza A and B by a real time RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction at the Alberta Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab. Test-positive participants are advised that they have influenza. The occurrence of test-positive swine workers triggers sampling (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology of the swine herd by veterinarians. Specimens obtained from swine are couriered to St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN for testing. Veterinarians and herd owners are notified if animal specimens are test-positive for influenza. If swine ILI occurs, veterinarians obtain samples from the pigs; test-positives from the animals trigger nurses to obtain specimens (swabbing, acute and convalescent serology from the swine workers. ProvLab cultures influenza virus from human specimens, freezes these cultures and

  20. Estimating Corporate Yield Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Antionio Diaz; Frank Skinner

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first study of retail deposit spreads of UK financial institutions using stochastic interest rate modelling and the market comparable approach. By replicating quoted fixed deposit rates using the Black Derman and Toy (1990) stochastic interest rate model, we find that the spread between fixed and variable rates of interest can be modeled (and priced) using an interest rate swap analogy. We also find that we can estimate an individual bank deposit yield curve as a spr...

  1. Little evidence of subclinical avian influenza virus infections among rural villagers in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C Gray

    Full Text Available In 2008, 800 adults living within rural Kampong Cham Province, Cambodia were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. After enrollment, participants were contacted weekly for 24 months to identify acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI. Follow-up sera were collected at 12 and 24 months. A transmission substudy was also conducted among the family contacts of cohort members reporting ILI who were influenza A positive. Samples were assessed using serological or molecular techniques looking for evidence of infection with human and avian influenza viruses. Over 24 months, 438 ILI investigations among 284 cohort members were conducted. One cohort member was hospitalized with a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus infection and withdrew from the study. Ninety-seven ILI cases (22.1% were identified as influenza A virus infections by real-time RT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV. During the 2 years of follow-up, 21 participants (3.0% had detectable antibody titers (≥ 1:10 against the studied AIVs: 1 against an avian-like A/Migratory duck/Hong Kong/MPS180/2003(H4N6, 3 against an avian-like A/Teal/Hong Kong/w312/97(H6N1, 9 (3 of which had detectible antibody titers at both 12- and 24-month follow-up against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2, 6 (1 detected at both 12- and 24-month follow-up against an avian-like A/Duck/Memphis/546/74(H11N9, and 2 against an avian-like A/Duck/Alberta/60/76(H12N5. With the exception of the one hospitalized cohort member with H5N1 infection, no other symptomatic avian influenza infections were detected among the cohort. Serological evidence for subclinical infections was sparse with only one subject showing a 4-fold rise in microneutralization titer over time against AvH12N5. In summary, despite conducting this closely monitored cohort study in a region enzootic for H5N1 HPAI, we were unable to detect subclinical avian influenza infections, suggesting either that these

  2. Naturligt forekommende oseltamivirresistens hos influenza A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Laura; Nielsen, Alex; Lundgren, Jens

    2010-01-01

    in the development of resistance. The best prevention strategy remains vaccination of the general population to avoid immunity. Future antiviral treatment calls for knowledge about resistance to existing types of influenza and the availability of all three types of antiviral medication.......During the last two influenza seasons, one of the predominant influenza A types (H1N1) has developed complete resistance to oseltamivir, the primary treatment option. The virus does, however, remain sensitive to zanamavir and amantadine. There is no unequivocal explanation for this slide...

  3. [Naturally occurring oseltamivir resistance in influenza A.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Laura; Nielsen, Alex; Lundgren, Jens

    2010-01-01

    in the development of resistance. The best prevention strategy remains vaccination of the general population to avoid immunity. Future antiviral treatment calls for knowledge about resistance to existing types of influenza and the availability of all three types of antiviral medication. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Aug......During the last two influenza seasons, one of the predominant influenza A types (H1N1) has developed complete resistance to oseltamivir, the primary treatment option. The virus does, however, remain sensitive to zanamavir and amantadine. There is no unequivocal explanation for this slide...

  4. [Naturally occurring oseltamivir resistance in influenza A.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Laura; Nielsen, Alex; Lundgren, Jens

    2010-01-01

    During the last two influenza seasons, one of the predominant influenza A types (H1N1) has developed complete resistance to oseltamivir, the primary treatment option. The virus does, however, remain sensitive to zanamavir and amantadine. There is no unequivocal explanation for this slide...... in the development of resistance. The best prevention strategy remains vaccination of the general population to avoid immunity. Future antiviral treatment calls for knowledge about resistance to existing types of influenza and the availability of all three types of antiviral medication. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Aug...

  5. Naturligt forekommende oseltamivirresistens hos influenza A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Laura; Nielsen, Alex; Lundgren, Jens

    2010-01-01

    During the last two influenza seasons, one of the predominant influenza A types (H1N1) has developed complete resistance to oseltamivir, the primary treatment option. The virus does, however, remain sensitive to zanamavir and amantadine. There is no unequivocal explanation for this slide...... in the development of resistance. The best prevention strategy remains vaccination of the general population to avoid immunity. Future antiviral treatment calls for knowledge about resistance to existing types of influenza and the availability of all three types of antiviral medication....

  6. Physician's knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding seasonal influenza, pandemic influenza, and highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infections of humans in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mangiri, Amalya; Iuliano, A. Danielle; Wahyuningrum, Yunita; Praptiningsih, Catharina Y.; Lafond, Kathryn E.; Storms, Aaron D.; Samaan, Gina; Ariawan, Iwan; Soeharno, Nugroho; Kreslake, Jennifer M.; Storey, J. Douglas; Uyeki, Timothy M.

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia has reported highest number of fatal human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N1) virus infection worldwide since 2005. There are limited data available on seasonal and pandemic influenza in Indonesia. During 2012, we conducted a survey of clinicians in two districts in western Java, Indonesia, to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of clinical diagnosis, testing, and treatment of patients with seasonal influenza, pandemic influenza, or HPAI H5N1 vir...

  7. A novel, colorimetric neutralization assay for measuring antibodies to influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtoranta, Liisa; Villberg, Anja; Santanen, Riitta; Ziegler, Thedi

    2009-08-01

    A colorimetric cell proliferation assay for measuring neutralizing antibodies to influenza viruses in human sera is described. Following a 90-min incubation, the serum-virus mixture was transferred to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells cultured in 96-well plates. After further incubation for three days, a tetrazolium salt was added to the wells. Cellular mitochondrial dehydrogenases cleave the tetrazolium salt to formazan, and the resulting color change is read by a spectrophotometer. The absorbance values correlate directly to the number of viable cells in the assay well and thus also to the neutralizing activity of influenza-specific antibodies present in the serum. With the few hands-on manipulations required, this assay allows simultaneous testing of a considerable number of sera, offers opportunities for automation, and is suitable for use under biosafety level-3 conditions. The test was used to study the antibody response after the administration of seasonal, inactivated, trivalent influenza vaccine. Antibody titers determined by the neutralization test in pre- and post-vaccination serum pairs were compared with those obtained by the hemagglutination inhibition assay. The neutralization test yielded higher pre- and post-vaccination titers and a larger number of significant increases in post-vaccination antibody titer than the hemagglutination inhibition test. This new test format could serve as a valuable laboratory tool for influenza vaccine studies.

  8. Pretreatment of Mice with Oligonucleotide prop5 Protects Them from Influenza Virus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus is a successful parasite and requires host factors to complete its life cycle. Prop5 is an antisense oligonucleotide, targeting programmed cell death protein 5 (PDCD5. In this study, we tested the antiviral activity of prop5 against mouse-adapted A/FM/1/47 strain of influenza A virus in a mouse model. Prop5 intranasally administered the mice at dosages of 10 and 20 mg/kg/d at 24 h and 30 min before infection, provided 80% and 100% survival rates and prolonged mean survival days in comparison with influenza virus-infected mice (both p < 0.01. Moreover, viral titres in mice pretreated with prop5, at dose of 10 and 20 mg/kg/d, had declined significantly on day two, four, and six post-infection compared with the yields in infected mice (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01; lung index in mice pretreated with prop5 (20 mg/kg/d had been inhibited on day six post-infection (p < 0.05. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry showed that prop5 could down-regulate the PDCD5 protein expression levels in lung tissues of infected mice. These data indicate that antisense oligonucleotide prop5 is a promising drug for prophylaxis and control influenza virus infections and provides an insight into the host-pathogen interaction.

  9. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine and Live, Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in Preventing Influenza-Like Illness among US Service Members, 2006-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    controlled studies. Vaccine 2012; 30:886–92. 11. Piedra PA, Gaglani MJ, Kozinetz CA, et al. Trivalent live attenuated intranasal influenza vaccine...120:e553–64. 12. Halloran ME, Piedra PA, Longini IM Jr, et al. Efficacy of trivalent, cold-adapted, influenza virus vaccine against influenza A (Fujian

  10. An overview on avian influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Rodrigo da Silva Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza (AI is considered an exotic disease in the Brazilian poultry industry, according to the National Avian Health Program (PNSA, with permanent monitoring of domestic, exotic and native avian species. Brazil presents privileged environmental conditions of reduced risk. In addition, all commercial poultry and conservation holdings are registered in state or national inventories and geographically located (GPS for health control. Poultry health standards are adopted for the conformity to the international market, mostly for the intensified poultry destined for exportation, but also for companion exotic and native conservation facilities. Guidelines for monitoring and the diagnosis of AI are published by the PNSA and follow the standards proposed by the international health code (World Organization for Animal Health, Organization International des Epizooties - OIE and insure the free of status for avian influenza virus (AIV of LPAIV-low pathogenicity AIV and HPAIV-high pathogenicity AIV. In addition, the infections by mesogenic and velogenic Newcastle disease virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. synoviae and M. meleagridis, Salmonella enteric subspecies enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum are eradicated from reproduction. Controlled infections by S.enterica subspecies enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are monitored for breeders. The vaccination of chickens in ovo or at hatch against Marek's disease is mandatory. Broiler production is an indoor activity, confinement which insures biosecurity, with safe distances from the potential AIV reservoir avian species. Worldwide HPAIV H5N1 notifications to the OIE, in March 2011, included 51 countries.

  11. Swine influenza virus: zoonotic potential and vaccination strategies for the control of avian and swine influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Eileen; Janke, Bruce

    2008-02-15

    Influenza viruses are able to infect humans, swine, and avian species, and swine have long been considered a potential source of new influenza viruses that can infect humans. Swine have receptors to which both avian and mammalian influenza viruses bind, which increases the potential for viruses to exchange genetic sequences and produce new reassortant viruses in swine. A number of genetically diverse viruses are circulating in swine herds throughout the world and are a major cause of concern to the swine industry. Control of swine influenza is primarily through the vaccination of sows, to protect young pigs through maternally derived antibodies. However, influenza viruses continue to circulate in pigs after the decay of maternal antibodies, providing a continuing source of virus on a herd basis. Measures to control avian influenza in commercial poultry operations are dictated by the virulence of the virus. Detection of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus results in immediate elimination of the flock. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses are controlled through vaccination, which is done primarily in turkey flocks. Maintenance of the current HPAI virus-free status of poultry in the United States is through constant surveillance of poultry flocks. Although current influenza vaccines for poultry and swine are inactivated and adjuvanted, ongoing research into the development of newer vaccines, such as DNA, live-virus, or vectored vaccines, is being done. Control of influenza virus infection in poultry and swine is critical to the reduction of potential cross-species adaptation and spread of influenza viruses, which will minimize the risk of animals being the source of the next pandemic.

  12. Avian Influenza Policy Analysis | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... to the loss of tens of millions of birds, either to disease or preventive culling. ... is to stimulate regional collaboration on avian influenza prevention and control. ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  13. NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  14. Influenza in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansbury, Louise E; Brown, Caroline S; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S

    2017-09-01

    Long-term care facility environments and the vulnerability of their residents provide a setting conducive to the rapid spread of influenza virus and other respiratory pathogens. Infections may be introduced by staff, visitors or new or transferred residents, and outbreaks of influenza in such settings can have devastating consequences for individuals, as well as placing extra strain on health services. As the population ages over the coming decades, increased provision of such facilities seems likely. The need for robust infection prevention and control practices will therefore remain of paramount importance if the impact of outbreaks is to be minimised. In this review, we discuss the nature of the problem of influenza in long-term care facilities, and approaches to preventive and control measures, including vaccination of residents and staff, and the use of antiviral drugs for treatment and prophylaxis, based on currently available evidence. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Secondary Bacterial Infections Associated with Influenza Pandemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Denise E.; Cleary, David W.; Clarke, Stuart C.

    2017-01-01

    Lower and upper respiratory infections are the fourth highest cause of global mortality (Lozano et al., 2012). Epidemic and pandemic outbreaks of respiratory infection are a major medical concern, often causing considerable disease and a high death toll, typically over a relatively short period of time. Influenza is a major cause of epidemic and pandemic infection. Bacterial co/secondary infection further increases morbidity and mortality of influenza infection, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus reported as the most common causes. With increased antibiotic resistance and vaccine evasion it is important to monitor the epidemiology of pathogens in circulation to inform clinical treatment and development, particularly in the setting of an influenza epidemic/pandemic. PMID:28690590

  16. Secondary Bacterial Infections Associated with Influenza Pandemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise E. Morris

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lower and upper respiratory infections are the fourth highest cause of global mortality (Lozano et al., 2012. Epidemic and pandemic outbreaks of respiratory infection are a major medical concern, often causing considerable disease and a high death toll, typically over a relatively short period of time. Influenza is a major cause of epidemic and pandemic infection. Bacterial co/secondary infection further increases morbidity and mortality of influenza infection, with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus reported as the most common causes. With increased antibiotic resistance and vaccine evasion it is important to monitor the epidemiology of pathogens in circulation to inform clinical treatment and development, particularly in the setting of an influenza epidemic/pandemic.

  17. NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza - 2014. In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000...

  18. NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  19. NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  20. NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Giardiasis to Haemophilus influenza - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  1. Carcass Management During Avian Influenza Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page on Avian Influenza (AI) describes carcass management during Avian Flu outbreaks, including who oversees carcass management, how they're managed, environmental concerns from carcass management, and disinfection. The page also describes what AI is.

  2. Potent peptidic fusion inhibitors of influenza virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadam, Rameshwar U.; Juraszek, Jarek; Brandenburg, Boerries; Buyck, Christophe; Schepens, Wim B. G.; Kesteleyn, Bart; Stoops, Bart; Vreeken, Rob J.; Vermond, Jan; Goutier, Wouter; Tang, Chan; Vogels, Ronald; Friesen, Robert H. E.; Goudsmit, Jaap; van Dongen, Maria J. P.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2017-09-28

    Influenza therapeutics with new targets and mechanisms of action are urgently needed to combat potential pandemics, emerging viruses, and constantly mutating strains in circulation. We report here on the design and structural characterization of potent peptidic inhibitors of influenza hemagglutinin. The peptide design was based on complementarity-determining region loops of human broadly neutralizing antibodies against the hemagglutinin (FI6v3 and CR9114). The optimized peptides exhibit nanomolar affinity and neutralization against influenza A group 1 viruses, including the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and avian H5N1 strains. The peptide inhibitors bind to the highly conserved stem epitope and block the low pH–induced conformational rearrangements associated with membrane fusion. These peptidic compounds and their advantageous biological properties should accelerate the development of new small molecule– and peptide-based therapeutics against influenza virus.

  3. Influenza [Perspectives in medical virology, v. 7

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potter, C. W

    2002-01-01

    ..." [publisher's web site]. "Since the influenza virus was first isolated in the laboratory some 70 years ago, the disease has been the subject of intense study, and our knowledge has escalated as the newer techniques...

  4. Uptake of the Influenza Vaccination in Pregnancy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Crosby, DA

    2016-09-01

    Influenza is caused by a highly infectious RNA virus, which usually occurs in a seasonal pattern with epidemics in the winter months. The objective of this study was to determine the uptake of the influenza vaccine in a pregnant population and ascertain the reasons why some women did not receive it. A prospective cohort study was conducted over a two-week period in January 2016 in the National Maternity Hospital Dublin, a tertiary referral maternity hospital delivering over 9000 infants per year. There were 504 women studied over the 2-week period. Overall, 197(39.1%) women received the vaccine at a mean gestational age 20.9 weeks (SD 7.0). Given the increased rates of influenza in the community and the associated implications for mother and infant, it is important that pregnant women are educated regarding the risks of influenza in pregnancy and encourage this cohort to be vaccinated.

  5. Mink kan også have influenza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Krog, Jesper Schak; Larsen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    , hvis der opstår mistanke om influenza ved obduktionen, eller hvis der er alvorlige langvarige udbrud. For at kunne iværksætte foranstaltninger, der begrænser forekomsten af influenza hos mink, er det nødvendigt at kende udbredelsen af influenzavirus blandt farmede mink i Danmark. Formålet med denne...... minkobduktionskursus, samt vilde mink. Der blev påvist influenza A virus i mink fra otte farme. Genetiske analyser indikerede, at disse virus stammede fra både danske svin og mennesker. For at forebygge udbrud af influenza i farmede mink anbefales det, at undgå kontakt mellem mink og influenzasyge personer, samt sikre...

  6. Metabolic and Kinetic analyses of influenza production in perfusion HEK293 cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohr Verena

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell culture-based production of influenza vaccine remains an attractive alternative to egg-based production. Short response time and high production yields are the key success factors for the broader adoption of cell culture technology for industrial manufacturing of pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccines. Recently, HEK293SF cells have been successfully used to produce influenza viruses, achieving hemagglutinin (HA and infectious viral particle (IVP titers in the highest ranges reported to date. In the same study, it was suggested that beyond 4 × 106 cells/mL, viral production was limited by a lack of nutrients or an accumulation of toxic products. Results To further improve viral titers at high cell densities, perfusion culture mode was evaluated. Productivities of both perfusion and batch culture modes were compared at an infection cell density of 6 × 106 cells/mL. The metabolism, including glycolysis, glutaminolysis and amino acids utilization as well as physiological indicators such as viability and apoptosis were extensively documented for the two modes of culture before and after viral infection to identify potential metabolic limitations. A 3 L bioreactor with a perfusion rate of 0.5 vol/day allowed us to reach maximal titers of 3.3 × 1011 IVP/mL and 4.0 logHA units/mL, corresponding to a total production of 1.0 × 1015 IVP and 7.8 logHA units after 3 days post-infection. Overall, perfusion mode titers were higher by almost one order of magnitude over the batch culture mode of production. This improvement was associated with an activation of the cell metabolism as seen by a 1.5-fold and 4-fold higher consumption rates of glucose and glutamine respectively. A shift in the viral production kinetics was also observed leading to an accumulation of more viable cells with a higher specific production and causing an increase in the total volumetric production of infectious influenza particles. Conclusions These results

  7. Safety and immunogenicity in man of a cell culture derived trivalent live attenuated seasonal influenza vaccine: a Phase I dose escalating study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldens, Jacco; Hulskotte, Ellen; Voeten, Theo; Breedveld, Belinda; Verweij, Pierre; van Duijnhoven, Wilbert; Rudenko, Larissa; van Damme, Pierre; van den Bosch, Han

    2014-09-03

    Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) offers the promise of inducing a variety of immune responses thereby conferring protection to circulating field strains. LAIVs are based on cold adapted and temperature sensitive phenotypes of master donor viruses (MDVs) containing the surface glycoprotein genes of seasonal influenza strains. Two types of MDV lineages have been described, the Ann Arbor lineages and the A/Leningrad/17 and B/USSR/60 lineages. Here the safety and immunogenicity of a Madin Darby Canine Kidney - cell culture based, intranasal LAIV derived from A/Leningrad/17 and B/USSR, was evaluated in healthy influenza non-naive volunteers 18-50 years of age. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled design, single escalating doses of 1×10(5), 1×10(6), or 1×10(7) tissue culture infectious dose 50% (TCID50) of vaccine containing each of the three influenza virus re-assortants recommended by the World Health Organization for the 2008-2009 season were administered intranasally. A statistically significant geometric mean increase in hemagglutination inhibition titer was reached for influenza strain A/H3N2 after immunization with all doses of LAIV. For the A/H1N1 and B strains, the GMI in HI titer did not increase for any of the doses. Virus neutralization antibody titers showed a similar response pattern. A dose-response effect could not be demonstrated for any of the strains, neither for the HI antibody nor for the VN antibody responses. No influenza like symptoms, no nasal congestions, no rhinorrhea, or other influenza related upper respiratory tract symptoms were observed. In addition, no difference in the incidence or nature of adverse events was found between vaccine and placebo treated subjects. Overall, the results indicated that the LAIV for nasal administration is immunogenic (i.e. able to provoke an immune response) and safe both from the perspective of the attenuated virus and the MDCK cell line from which it was derived, and it warrants

  8. [Contemporary threat of influenza virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2010-01-01

    Swine-origine H1N1 influenza virus (S-OIV) caused a great mobilization of health medical service over the world. Now it is well known that a vaccine against novel virus is expected as a key point in that battle. In the situation when recommended treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors is not sufficient to control influenza A/H1N1 viral infection the quick and precisely diagnostic procedures should be applied to save and protect our patients.

  9. Reverse Genetics Approaches for the Development of Influenza Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales, Aitor; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics of human respiratory disease. Influenza virus infections represent a serious public health and economic problem, which are most effectively prevented through vaccination. However, influenza viruses undergo continual antigenic variation, which requires either the annual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines or the rapid generation of vaccines against potential pandemic virus strains. The segmented nature of influenza virus allows for the reassortment between two or more viruses within a co-infected cell, and this characteristic has also been harnessed in the laboratory to generate reassortant viruses for their use as either inactivated or live-attenuated influenza vaccines. With the implementation of plasmid-based reverse genetics techniques, it is now possible to engineer recombinant influenza viruses entirely from full-length complementary DNA copies of the viral genome by transfection of susceptible cells. These reverse genetics systems have provided investigators with novel and powerful approaches to answer important questions about the biology of influenza viruses, including the function of viral proteins, their interaction with cellular host factors and the mechanisms of influenza virus transmission and pathogenesis. In addition, reverse genetics techniques have allowed the generation of recombinant influenza viruses, providing a powerful technology to develop both inactivated and live-attenuated influenza vaccines. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of state-of-the-art, plasmid-based, influenza reverse genetics approaches and their implementation to provide rapid, convenient, safe and more effective influenza inactivated or live-attenuated vaccines. PMID:28025504

  10. Status of fission yield measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeck, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Fission yield measurement and yield compilation activities in the major laboratories of the world are reviewed. In addition to a general review of the effort of each laboratory, a brief summary of yield measurement activities by fissioning nuclide is presented. A new fast reactor fission yield measurement program being conducted in the US is described

  11. siRNA for Influenza Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailen Barik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus is one of the most prevalent and ancient infections in humans. About a fifth of world's population is infected by influenza virus annually, leading to high morbidity and mortality, particularly in infants, the elderly and the immunocompromised. In the US alone, influenza outbreaks lead to roughly 30,000 deaths each year. Current vaccines and anti-influenza drugs are of limited use due to high mutation rate of the virus and side effects. In recent years, RNA interference, triggered by synthetic short interfering RNA (siRNA, has rapidly evolved as a potent antiviral regimen. Properly designed siRNAs have been shown to function as potent inhibitors of influenza virus replication. The siRNAs outperform traditional small molecule antivirals in a number of areas, such as ease of design, modest cost, and fast turnaround. Although specificity and tissue delivery remain major bottlenecks in the clinical applications of RNAi in general, intranasal application of siRNA against respiratory viruses including, but not limited to influenza virus, has experienced significant success and optimism, which is reviewed here.

  12. siRNA for Influenza Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sailen

    2010-07-01

    Influenza virus is one of the most prevalent and ancient infections in humans. About a fifth of world's population is infected by influenza virus annually, leading to high morbidity and mortality, particularly in infants, the elderly and the immunocompromised. In the US alone, influenza outbreaks lead to roughly 30,000 deaths each year. Current vaccines and anti-influenza drugs are of limited use due to high mutation rate of the virus and side effects. In recent years, RNA interference, triggered by synthetic short interfering RNA (siRNA), has rapidly evolved as a potent antiviral regimen. Properly designed siRNAs have been shown to function as potent inhibitors of influenza virus replication. The siRNAs outperform traditional small molecule antivirals in a number of areas, such as ease of design, modest cost, and fast turnaround. Although specificity and tissue delivery remain major bottlenecks in the clinical applications of RNAi in general, intranasal application of siRNA against respiratory viruses including, but not limited to influenza virus, has experienced significant success and optimism, which is reviewed here.

  13. History of Swine influenza viruses in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huachen; Webby, Richard; Lam, Tommy T Y; Smith, David K; Peiris, Joseph S M; Guan, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The pig is one of the main hosts of influenza A viruses and plays important roles in shaping the current influenza ecology. The occurrence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus demonstrated that pigs could independently facilitate the genesis of a pandemic influenza strain. Genetic analyses revealed that this virus was derived by reassortment between at least two parent swine influenza viruses (SIV), from the northern American triple reassortant H1N2 (TR) and European avian-like H1N1 (EA) lineages. The movement of live pigs between different continents and subsequent virus establishment are preconditions for such a reassortment event to occur. Asia, especially China, has the largest human and pig populations in the world, and seems to be the only region frequently importing pigs from other continents. Virological surveillance revealed that not only classical swine H1N1 (CS), and human-origin H3N2 viruses circulated, but all of the EA, TR and their reassortant variants were introduced into and co-circulated in pigs in this region. Understanding the long-term evolution and history of SIV in Asia would provide insights into the emergence of influenza viruses with epidemic potential in swine and humans.

  14. [History of pandemic influenza in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Keizo

    2010-09-01

    In Japan, influenza like epidemics were described many times since Heian era. However, Spanish flu as the modern medicine invaded Japan in 1918, thus almost infected 390,000 patients died with associated pneumonia. After the discovery of influenza virus in 1933, Japan experienced pandemic influenza--Asian flu(H2N2) in 1957. After about 10 years, Hong Kong flu (H3N2) came to Japan at 1968. However, we had many reliable antibiotics but had not any antiviral drug at the early time. After year 2000, we fortunately obtained reliable three antiviral drugs such as amantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir. Moreover, very useful rapid test kits for influenza A and B viruses were developed and used in Japan. 2009 H1N1 influenza epidemic occured in Japan after the great epidemic in Mexico and North America but elderly patient was few. With together, host conditions regarding with high risk are changing. Lessons from past several pandemic influenza are those that many issues for changing high risk conditions, viral genetic changes, developing antiviral agents, developing new useful vaccins and determinating bacterial secondary pathogens are important.

  15. I costi dell’influenza in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lucioni

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The influenza is an acute viral infection that strikes respiratory tract and its diffusion is characteristic of epidemic and pandemic reoccurence. Globally the influenza represents, for the entity of its social impact (measurable in terms of morbility, hospitalization and mortality, a heavy healt care problem. In Italy the estimated incidence is 10-15%: the influenza is the third death cause for infectiuos disease, after AIDS and tubercolosis. This study is based on the Studio 606, the first italian study that allow us to pass from the presumptive phase to the observational one. The Studio 606 has been projected and realized by the Società Italiana di Medicina Generale (SIMG, involving about 200 general practitioners (MMG in two sample region, Lombardia and Puglia. The study has been developed between December the 15th, 1998 and March the 15th, 1999. The influenza causes especially indirect costs: most of people affected with influenza doesn’t go to work for about five days and these absences create an average cost per capita of £558.000. This indirect cost represents 87% of total average cost of one single influenza event.

  16. Influenza research database: an integrated bioinformatics resource for influenza virus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Influenza Research Database (IRD) is a U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-sponsored Bioinformatics Resource Center dedicated to providing bioinformatics support for influenza virus research. IRD facilitates the research and development of vaccines, diagnostics, an...

  17. Seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine protects against 1918 Spanish influenza virus in ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influenza H1N1 pandemic of 1918 was one of the worst medical disasters in human history. Recent studies have demonstrated that the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the 1918 virus and 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus, the latter now a component of the seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV),...

  18. Annually repeated influenza vaccination improves humoral responses to several influenza virus strains in healthy elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. de Bruijn (Iris); E.J. Remarque (Edmond); W.E.Ph. Beyer (Walter); S. le Cessie (Saskia); N. Masurel (Nic); G.L. Ligthart (Gerard)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe benefit of annually repeated influenza vaccination on antibody formation is still under debate. In this study the effect of annually repeated influenza vaccination on haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibody formation in the elderly is investigated. Between 1990 and 1993 healthy

  19. Emerging influenza viruses and the prospect of a universal influenza virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, Florian

    2015-05-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and pandemics at irregular intervals. Several cases of human infections with avian and swine influenza viruses have been detected recently, warranting enhanced surveillance and the development of more effective countermeasures to address the pandemic potential of these viruses. The most effective countermeasure against influenza virus infection is the use of prophylactic vaccines. However, vaccines that are currently in use for seasonal influenza viruses have to be re-formulated and re-administered in a cumbersome process every year due to the antigenic drift of the virus. Furthermore, current seasonal vaccines are ineffective against novel pandemic strains. This paper reviews zoonotic influenza viruses with pandemic potential and technological advances towards better vaccines that induce broad and long lasting protection from influenza virus infection. Recent efforts have focused on the development of broadly protective/universal influenza virus vaccines that can provide immunity against drifted seasonal influenza virus strains but also against potential pandemic viruses. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The Influenza NS1 Protein: What Do We Know in Equine Influenza Virus Pathogenesis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Barba

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus remains a serious health and potential economic problem throughout most parts of the world, despite intensive vaccination programs in some horse populations. The influenza non-structural protein 1 (NS1 has multiple functions involved in the regulation of several cellular and viral processes during influenza infection. We review the strategies that NS1 uses to facilitate virus replication and inhibit antiviral responses in the host, including sequestering of double-stranded RNA, direct modulation of protein kinase R activity and inhibition of transcription and translation of host antiviral response genes such as type I interferon. Details are provided regarding what it is known about NS1 in equine influenza, especially concerning C-terminal truncation. Further research is needed to determine the role of NS1 in equine influenza infection, which will help to understand the pathophysiology of complicated cases related to cytokine imbalance and secondary bacterial infection, and to investigate new therapeutic and vaccination strategies.

  1. Impact of influenza vaccination on mortality risk among the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenwold, R. H. H.; Hoes, A. W.; Hak, E.

    Estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness have mostly been derived from nonrandomised studies and therefore are potentially confounded. The aim of the current study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing mortality among the elderly, taking both measured and unmeasured

  2. Key Facts about Influenza (Flu) and Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts About Influenza (Flu) Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Flu Treating Flu What is Influenza (also called Flu)? The flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused ...

  3. Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swine Variant Pandemic Other Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Influenza viruses that normally circulate in pigs are called “variant” ...

  4. Mapping of the US Domestic Influenza Virologic Surveillance Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Barbara; Schwerzmann, Joy; Mustaquim, Desiree; Aden, Tricia; Brammer, Lynnette; Humes, Rosemary; Shult, Pete; Shahangian, Shahram; Gubareva, Larisa; Xu, Xiyan; Miller, Joseph; Jernigan, Daniel

    2018-07-17

    Influenza virologic surveillance is critical each season for tracking influenza circulation, following trends in antiviral drug resistance, detecting novel influenza infections in humans, and selecting viruses for use in annual seasonal vaccine production. We developed a framework and process map for characterizing the landscape of US influenza virologic surveillance into 5 tiers of influenza testing: outpatient settings (tier 1), inpatient settings and commercial laboratories (tier 2), state public health laboratories (tier 3), National Influenza Reference Center laboratories (tier 4), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention laboratories (tier 5). During the 2015-16 season, the numbers of influenza tests directly contributing to virologic surveillance were 804,000 in tiers 1 and 2; 78,000 in tier 3; 2,800 in tier 4; and 3,400 in tier 5. With the release of the 2017 US Pandemic Influenza Plan, the proposed framework will support public health officials in modeling, surveillance, and pandemic planning and response.

  5. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3330 Influenza... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to influenza in serum...

  6. tion and/or treatment of influenza virus infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    more frequent in children and more seri- ous in the elderly, ... The main option for the prevention of influenza and ... rapid development of influenza virus resistance ... drugs that affect the CNS, particu- .... include employees of hospitals, clinics ...

  7. Influenza Virus and Glycemic Variability in Diabetes: A Killer Combination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katina D. Hulme

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus pandemic, numerous studies identified the striking link between diabetes mellitus and influenza disease severity. Typically, influenza virus is a self-limiting infection but in individuals who have a pre-existing chronic illness, such as diabetes mellitus, severe influenza can develop. Here, we discuss the latest clinical and experimental evidence for the role of diabetes in predisposing the host to severe influenza. We explore the possible mechanisms that underlie this synergy and highlight the, as yet, unexplored role that blood glucose oscillations may play in disease development. Diabetes is one of the world’s fastest growing chronic diseases and influenza virus represents a constant and pervasive threat to human health. It is therefore imperative that we understand how diabetes increases influenza severity in order to mitigate the burden of future influenza epidemics and pandemics.

  8. Novel Platforms for the Development of a Universal Influenza Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite advancements in immunotherapeutic approaches, influenza continues to cause severe illness, particularly among immunocompromised individuals, young children, and elderly adults. Vaccination is the most effective way to reduce rates of morbidity and mortality caused by influenza viruses. Frequent genetic shift and drift among influenza-virus strains with the resultant disparity between circulating and vaccine virus strains limits the effectiveness of the available conventional influenza vaccines. One approach to overcome this limitation is to develop a universal influenza vaccine that could provide protection against all subtypes of influenza viruses. Moreover, the development of a novel or improved universal influenza vaccines may be greatly facilitated by new technologies including virus-like particles, T-cell-inducing peptides and recombinant proteins, synthetic viruses, broadly neutralizing antibodies, and nucleic acid-based vaccines. This review discusses recent scientific advances in the development of next-generation universal influenza vaccines.

  9. Cross talk between animal and human influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Makoto; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Although outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in wild and domestic birds have been posing the threat of a new influenza pandemic for the past decade, the first pandemic of the twenty-first century came from swine viruses. This fact emphasizes the complexity of influenza viral ecology and the difficulty of predicting influenza viral dynamics. Complete control of influenza viruses seems impossible. However, we must minimize the impact of animal and human influenza outbreaks by learning lessons from past experiences and recognizing the current status. Here, we review the most recent influenza virology data in the veterinary field, including aspects of zoonotic agents and recent studies that assess the pandemic potential of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

  10. Identification of novel conserved functional motifs across most Influenza A viral strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Azab Iman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza A virus poses a continuous threat to global public health. Design of novel universal drugs and vaccine requires a careful analysis of different strains of Influenza A viral genome from diverse hosts and subtypes. We performed a systematic in silico analysis of Influenza A viral segments of all available Influenza A viral strains and subtypes and grouped them based on host, subtype, and years isolated, and through multiple sequence alignments we extrapolated conserved regions, motifs, and accessible regions for functional mapping and annotation. Results Across all species and strains 87 highly conserved regions (conservation percentage > = 90% and 19 functional motifs (conservation percentage = 100% were found in PB2, PB1, PA, NP, M, and NS segments. The conservation percentage of these segments ranged between 94 - 98% in human strains (the most conserved, 85 - 93% in swine strains (the most variable, and 91 - 94% in avian strains. The most conserved segment was different in each host (PB1 for human strains, NS for avian strains, and M for swine strains. Target accessibility prediction yielded 324 accessible regions, with a single stranded probability > 0.5, of which 78 coincided with conserved regions. Some of the interesting annotations in these regions included sites for protein-protein interactions, the RNA binding groove, and the proton ion channel. Conclusions The influenza virus has evolved to adapt to its host through variations in the GC content and conservation percentage of the conserved regions. Nineteen universal conserved functional motifs were discovered, of which some were accessible regions with interesting biological functions. These regions will serve as a foundation for universal drug targets as well as universal vaccine design.

  11. Global Surveillance of Emerging Influenza Virus Genotypes by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-30

    Intercontinental circulation of human influenza A( H1N2 ) reassortant viruses during the 2001–2002 influenza season. J Infect Dis 186: 1490–1493. 6. Taubenberger...Global Surveillance of Emerging Influenza Virus Genotypes by Mass Spectrometry Rangarajan Sampath1*, Kevin L. Russell2, Christian Massire1, Mark W...Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, United States of America Background. Effective influenza surveillance requires

  12. Differences in Influenza Seasonality by Latitude, Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broor, Shobha; Saha, Siddhartha; Barnes, John; Smith, Catherine; Shaw, Michael; Chadha, Mandeep; Lal, Renu B.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonality of influenza in the tropics complicates vaccination timing. We investigated influenza seasonality in northern India and found influenza positivity peaked in Srinagar (34.09°N) in January–March but peaked in New Delhi (28.66°N) in July–September. Srinagar should consider influenza vaccination in October–November, but New Delhi should vaccinate in May–June. PMID:25279651

  13. A cost effective model for appropriate administration of red cell units and salvaging un-transfused red cell units by using temperature sensitive indicators for blood component transportation in a hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem K Tiwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A rule called "30-min rule" defines that red cell unit cannot be used if it has been out of blood bank refrigerator for over 30 min. This rule is useful to guide initiation of transfusion, but is inadequate for deciding whether to reuse or discard units received-back at blood transfusion services (BTS. A simple cost-effective temperature-sensitive indicator was evaluated to decide upon reuse (cold chain was uninterrupted or discard (where cold chain was interrupted in a simulation exercise. Materials and Methods: Temperature-sensitive indicators TH-F™ that irreversibly changed color from white to red demonstrated that heat excursion has occurred and the cumulative temperature has exceeded 10°C for over 30 min, were used in outdated red cells for simulating units, which are not used and received-back. These units were also tagged with a standard temperature monitoring device, which was a re-usable credit card sized device, which would log the actual time and temperature. In few units percent hemolysis was also calculated. Results: Statistically insignificant elevation in average temperature was noted in 102 simulated units at the time of return to BTS (Δ 0.04°C, despite the fact that these units were in the transport box for over 4 h. The average supernatant hemoglobin in these units was 0.24%, much below the prescribed threshold. Conclusion: Transportation of blood in controlled conditions with temperature-sensitive indicator is a cost-effective model to save blood, a precious human resource.

  14. Isolation of Panels of Llama Single-Domain Antibody Fragments Binding All Nine Neuraminidase Subtypes of Influenza A Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus Koch

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza A virus comprises sixteen hemagglutinin (HA and nine neuraminidase (NA subtypes (N1–N9. To isolate llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs against all N subtypes, four llamas were immunized with mixtures of influenza viruses. Selections using influenza virus yielded predominantly VHHs binding to the highly immunogenic HA and nucleoprotein. However, selection using enzymatically active recombinant NA (rNA protein enabled us to isolate NA binding VHHs. Some isolated VHHs cross-reacted to other N subtypes. These were subsequently used for the capture of N subtypes that could not be produced as recombinant protein (rN6 or were enzymatically inactive (rN1, rN5 in phage display selection, yielding novel VHHs. In total we isolated 188 NA binding VHHs, 64 of which were expressed in yeast. Most VHHs specifically recognize a single N subtype, but some VHHs cross-react with other N-subtypes. At least one VHH bound to all N subtypes, except N4, identifying a conserved antigenic site. Thus, this work (1 describes methods for isolating NA binding VHHs, (2 illustrates the suitability of llama immunization with multiple antigens for retrieving many binders against different antigens and (3 describes 64 novel NA binding VHHs, including a broadly reactive VHH, which can be used in various assays for influenza virus subtyping, detection or serology.

  15. The essential Escherichia coli msgB gene, a multicopy suppressor of a temperature-sensitive allele of the heat shock gene grpE, is identical to dapE.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, B; Georgopoulos, C; Ang, D

    1992-01-01

    The grpE gene product is one of three Escherichia coli heat shock proteins (DnaK, DnaJ, and GrpE) that are essential for both bacteriophage lambda DNA replication and bacterial growth at all temperatures. In an effort to determine the role of GrpE and to identify other factors that it may interact with, we isolated multicopy suppressors of the grpE280 point mutation, as judged by their ability to reverse the temperature-sensitive phenotype of grpE280. Here we report the characterization of on...

  16. Epidemiological characteristics of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A novel influenza A virus strain (H1N1-2009) spread first in Mexico and the United Stated in late April 2009, leading to the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological and virological characteristics of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1-2009) in ...

  17. Marketing paediatric influenza vaccination: results of a major metropolitan trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buynder, Paul G.; Carcione, Dale; Rettura, Vince; Daly, Alison; Woods, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Van Buynder et al. (2010) Marketing paediatric influenza vaccination: results of a major metropolitan trial. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(1), 33–38. Objectives  After a cluster of rapidly fulminant influenza related toddler deaths in a Western Australian metropolis, children aged six to 59 months were offered influenza vaccination in subsequent winters. Some parental resistance was expected and previous poor uptake of paediatric influenza vaccination overseas was noted. A marketing campaign addressing barriers to immunization was developed to maximise uptake. Design  Advertising occurred in major statewide newspapers, via public poster displays and static ‘eye‐lite’ displays, via press releases, via a series of rolling radio advertisements, via direct marketing to child care centres, and via a linked series of web‐sites. Parents were subsequently surveyed to assess reasons for vaccination. Main Outcome Results  The campaign produced influenza vaccination coverage above that previously described elsewhere and led to a proportionate reduction in influenza notifications in this age group compared to previous seasons. Conclusions  Influenza in children comes with significant morbidity and some mortality. Paediatric influenza vaccination is safe, well tolerated and effective if two doses are given. A targeted media campaign can increase vaccine uptake if it reinforces the seriousness of influenza and addresses community ‘myths’ about influenza and influenza vaccine. The lessons learned enabling enhancements of similar programs elsewhere. PMID:21138538

  18. Epidemiological characteristics of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... novel influenza A virus strain (H1N1-2009) spread first in Mexico and the United Stated in late April 2009, leading to the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological and virological characteristics of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1-2009) in Zhanjiang, China ...

  19. Influenza: the next pandemic?: a review | Adungo, | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the diversity of susceptible reservoirs of influenza viruses and the interspecies transmission recently reported, a mutated strain of the virus to which people have no immunity could cause an influenza pandemic once the virus gains efficient and sustained human-to-human transmission. The fear that avian influenza ...

  20. 77 FR 13329 - Pandemic Influenza Vaccines-Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Pandemic Influenza Vaccines... Secretary issued a declaration for pandemic influenza vaccines, which has been amended a number of times. The original pandemic influenza vaccine declaration was published on January 26, 2007,\\1\\ and was...

  1. Haemophilus influenzae Type a Meningitis in Immunocompetent Child, Oman, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawardekar, Kiran P

    2017-07-01

    Meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was eliminated in Oman after the introduction of Hib vaccine in 2001. However, a case of H. influenzae type a meningitis was diagnosed in a child from Oman in 2015, which highlights the need to monitor the incidence of invasive non-Hib H. influenzae disease.

  2. Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Planning Template for Primary Care Offices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HCTT CHE

    2010-01-01

    The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.

  3. Workplace health and safety during pandemic influenza : CAGC guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    Pandemic influenza is a possible biological hazard that employers must take into account during hazard assessment and emergency planning. This report presented a guideline to all workplaces in Alberta and provided information on legislated requirements, best practices, guidelines and strategies in workplace health and safety and employment standards in the event of a pandemic influenza. The report explained the difference between a pandemic and a pandemic influenza, and why scientists expect another pandemic influenza. Pandemic influenza was described as being different from seasonal influenza. This document also explained how pandemic influenza relates to the worker and the workplace, and how the workplace can prepare for and respond to pandemic influenza. Pandemic influenza hazard categories were also listed along with steps in the hazard assessment and control of pandemic influenza. The steps involve listing the types of work and work-related activities; identifying the hazard; assessing the hazards; implementing controls; communicating the information to workers and providing training; and evaluating the effectiveness of controls. The guide also addressed emergency response plan development for pandemic influenza; first aid; and employment standards during pandemic influenza. refs., tabs.

  4. Bestrijding van aviaire influenza onder pluimvee: vaccinatie als aanvullende mogelijkheid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarle, P van; Breytenbach, J; Schueller, S

    2006-01-01

    Since mid-December 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has caused an epidemic in the Asian poultry sector and avian influenza cases have been reported in Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Human fatalities catapulted avian influenza into the public arena with fears of a possible global

  5. Considerable progress in European preparations for a potential influenza pandemic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paget, J.

    2005-01-01

    The threat of an influenza pandemic has been heightened in the past two years by outbreaks of avian influenza concentrated in South East Asia which have resulted in human deaths. So far, the avian influenza virus seems difficult to transmit from human to human, but changes in the virus genome may

  6. Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Yield and Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Declining soil fertility is one of the major problems causing yield reduction of barley ... (VC) with inorganic NP on growth, yield and yield components of food barley. ... The experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with ...

  7. Influenza A induced cellular signal transduction pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Paul; Brabant, Danielle; Bleiblo, Farag; Ramana, Chilakamarti V.; Rutherford, Michael; Khurana, Sandhya; Tai, T.C.; Kumar, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A is a negative sense single stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Orthomyxoviridae Family. This enveloped virus contains 8 segments of viral RNA which encodes 11 viral proteins. Influenza A infects humans and is the causative agent of the flu. Annually it infects approximately 5% to 15% of the population world wide and results in an estimated 250,000 to 500,000 deaths a year. The nature of influenza A replication results in a high mutation rate which results in the need for seasonal vaccinations. In addition the zoonotic nature of the influenza virus allows for recombination of viral segments from different strains creating new variants that have not been encountered before. This type of mutation is the method by which pandemic strains of the flu arises. Infection with influenza results in a respiratory illness that for most individuals is self limiting. However in susceptible populations which include individuals with pre-existing pulmonary or cardiac conditions, the very young and the elderly fatal complications may arise. The most serious of these is the development of viral pneumonia which may be accompanied by secondary bacterial infections. Progression of pneumonia leads to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute lung injury (ALI) and potentially respiratory failure. This progression is a combined effect of the host immune system response to influenza infection and the viral infection itself. This review will focus on molecular aspects of viral replication in alveolar cells and their response to infection. The response of select innate immune cells and their contribution to viral clearance and lung epithelial damage will also be discussed. Molecular aspects of antiviral response in the cells in particular the protein kinase RNA dependent response, and the oligoadenylate synthetase RNAse L system in relation to influenza infection. PMID:23977434

  8. School-based influenza vaccination: parents' perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace Lind

    Full Text Available School-age children are important drivers of annual influenza epidemics yet influenza vaccination coverage of this population is low despite universal publicly funded influenza vaccination in Alberta, Canada. Immunizing children at school may potentially increase vaccine uptake. As parents are a key stakeholder group for such a program, it is important to consider their concerns.We explored parents' perspectives on the acceptability of adding an annual influenza immunization to the immunization program that is currently delivered in Alberta schools, and obtained suggestions for structuring such a program.Forty-eight parents of children aged 5-18 years participated in 9 focus groups. Participants lived in urban areas of the Alberta Health Services Calgary Zone.Three major themes emerged: Advantages of school-based influenza vaccination (SBIV, Disadvantages of SBIV, and Implications for program design & delivery. Advantages were perceived to occur for different populations: children (e.g. emotional support, families (e.g. convenience, the community (e.g. benefits for school and multicultural communities, the health sector (e.g. reductions in costs due to burden of illness and to society at large (e.g. indirect conduit of information about health services, building structure for pandemic preparedness, building healthy lifestyles. Disadvantages, however, might also occur for children (e.g. older children less likely to be immunized, families (e.g. communication challenges, perceived loss of parental control over information, choices and decisions and the education sector (loss of instructional time. Nine second-level themes emerged within the major theme of Implications for program design & delivery: program goals/objectives, consent process, stakeholder consultation, age-appropriate program, education, communication, logistics, immunizing agent, and clinic process.Parents perceived advantages and disadvantages to delivering annual seasonal

  9. Predictive validation of an influenza spread model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaz Hyder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modeling plays a critical role in mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. Complex simulation models are currently at the forefront of evaluating optimal mitigation strategies at multiple scales and levels of organization. Given their evaluative role, these models remain limited in their ability to predict and forecast future epidemics leading some researchers and public-health practitioners to question their usefulness. The objective of this study is to evaluate the predictive ability of an existing complex simulation model of influenza spread. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used extensive data on past epidemics to demonstrate the process of predictive validation. This involved generalizing an individual-based model for influenza spread and fitting it to laboratory-confirmed influenza infection data from a single observed epidemic (1998-1999. Next, we used the fitted model and modified two of its parameters based on data on real-world perturbations (vaccination coverage by age group and strain type. Simulating epidemics under these changes allowed us to estimate the deviation/error between the expected epidemic curve under perturbation and observed epidemics taking place from 1999 to 2006. Our model was able to forecast absolute intensity and epidemic peak week several weeks earlier with reasonable reliability and depended on the method of forecasting-static or dynamic. CONCLUSIONS: Good predictive ability of influenza epidemics is critical for implementing mitigation strategies in an effective and timely manner. Through the process of predictive validation applied to a current complex simulation model of influenza spread, we provided users of the model (e.g. public-health officials and policy-makers with quantitative metrics and practical recommendations on mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. This methodology may be applied to other models of communicable infectious diseases to test and potentially improve

  10. Predictive Validation of an Influenza Spread Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Ayaz; Buckeridge, David L.; Leung, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Background Modeling plays a critical role in mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. Complex simulation models are currently at the forefront of evaluating optimal mitigation strategies at multiple scales and levels of organization. Given their evaluative role, these models remain limited in their ability to predict and forecast future epidemics leading some researchers and public-health practitioners to question their usefulness. The objective of this study is to evaluate the predictive ability of an existing complex simulation model of influenza spread. Methods and Findings We used extensive data on past epidemics to demonstrate the process of predictive validation. This involved generalizing an individual-based model for influenza spread and fitting it to laboratory-confirmed influenza infection data from a single observed epidemic (1998–1999). Next, we used the fitted model and modified two of its parameters based on data on real-world perturbations (vaccination coverage by age group and strain type). Simulating epidemics under these changes allowed us to estimate the deviation/error between the expected epidemic curve under perturbation and observed epidemics taking place from 1999 to 2006. Our model was able to forecast absolute intensity and epidemic peak week several weeks earlier with reasonable reliability and depended on the method of forecasting-static or dynamic. Conclusions Good predictive ability of influenza epidemics is critical for implementing mitigation strategies in an effective and timely manner. Through the process of predictive validation applied to a current complex simulation model of influenza spread, we provided users of the model (e.g. public-health officials and policy-makers) with quantitative metrics and practical recommendations on mitigating impacts of seasonal influenza epidemics. This methodology may be applied to other models of communicable infectious diseases to test and potentially improve their predictive

  11. Yield enhancement with DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok

    2012-03-01

    A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

  12. Adolescent Attitudes toward Influenza Vaccination and Vaccine Uptake in a School-Based Influenza Vaccination Intervention: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Julia E.; Sales, Jessica M.; Pazol, Karen; Wingood, Gina M.; Windle, Michael; Orenstein, Walter A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: School-based vaccination programs may provide an effective strategy to immunize adolescents against influenza. This study examined whether adolescent attitudes toward influenza vaccination mediated the relationship between receipt of a school-based influenza vaccination intervention and vaccine uptake. Methods: Participants were…

  13. Effectiveness of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine in adults recommended for annual influenza vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, G.; Tacken, M.; Bos, J.; Stirbu-Wagner, I.; Korevaar, J.C.; Stolk, R.P.; Wolters, B.; Bijl, M.; Postma, M.J.; Wilschut, J.; Nichol, K.L.; Hak, E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Because of variability in published A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates, we conducted a study in the adults belonging to the risk groups to assess the A(H1N1)pdm09 MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine effectiveness. Methods: VE against influenza and/or pneumonia was

  14. Seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness against influenza in 2012-2013 : A hospital-based case-control study in Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, Giedre; Rahamat-Langendoen, Janette; Ambrozaitis, Arvydas; Mickiene, Aukse; Jancoriene, Ligita; Kuliese, Monika; Velyvyte, Daiva; Niesters, Hubert; Stolk, Ronald P.; Zagminas, Kestutis; Hak, Eelko

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to scarce information on seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (SIVE) against severe clinical influenza outcomes in risk populations, we conducted a case-control study to assess its effects against laboratory-confirmed influenza in hospitalized patients during the 2012-2013

  15. Influenza in the immediate post-pandemic era : A comparison with seasonal and pandemic influenza in hospitalized patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahamat-Langendoen, J. C.; Tutuhatunewa, E. D.; Scholvinck, E. H.; Hak, E.; Koopmans, M.; Niesters, H. G. M.; Riezebos-Brilman, A.

    Background: Comparative data on severity and treatment of seasonal, pandemic and post-pandemic influenza virus infections are scarce. Objectives: To systematically analyze characteristics of hospitalized patients with influenza in the post-pandemic period compared to seasonal and pandemic influenza.

  16. Flow cytometric monitoring of influenza A virus infection in MDCK cells during vaccine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichl Udo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cell culture-based influenza vaccine production the monitoring of virus titres and cell physiology during infection is of great importance for process characterisation and optimisation. While conventional virus quantification methods give only virus titres in the culture broth, data obtained by fluorescence labelling of intracellular virus proteins provide additional information on infection dynamics. Flow cytometry represents a valuable tool to investigate the influences of cultivation conditions and process variations on virus replication and virus yields. Results In this study, fluorescein-labelled monoclonal antibodies against influenza A virus matrix protein 1 and nucleoprotein were used for monitoring the infection status of adherent Madin-Darby canine kidney cells from bioreactor samples. Monoclonal antibody binding was shown for influenza A virus strains of different subtypes (H1N1, H1N2, H3N8 and host specificity (human, equine, swine. At high multiplicity of infection in a bioreactor, the onset of viral protein accumulation in adherent cells on microcarriers was detected at about 2 to 4 h post infection by flow cytometry. In contrast, a significant increase in titre by hemagglutination assay was detected at the earliest 4 to 6 h post infection. Conclusion It is shown that flow cytometry is a sensitive and robust method for the monitoring of viral infection in fixed cells from bioreactor samples. Therefore, it is a valuable addition to other detection methods of influenza virus infection such as immunotitration and RNA hybridisation. Thousands of individual cells are measured per sample. Thus, the presented method is believed to be quite independent of the concentration of infected cells (multiplicity of infection and total cell concentration in bioreactors. This allows to perform detailed studies on factors relevant for optimization of virus yields in cell cultures. The method could also be used for process

  17. Dual Infection of Novel Influenza Viruses A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 in a Cluster of Cambodian Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    influenza viruses as well as the avian influenza virus A/H5N1...on full genome sequencing. This incident confirms dual influenza virus infections and highlights the risk of zoonotic and seasonal influenza viruses ...North American swine influenza viruses , North American avian influenza viruses , human influenza viruses , and a Eurasian swine influenza virus . 18

  18. Sentinel surveillance for influenza in Senegal, 1996-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, Mbayame Ndiaye; Dosseh, Annick; Ndiaye, Kader; Sagna, Monique; Gregory, Victoria; Goudiaby, Deborah; Hay, Alan; Diop, Ousmane M

    2012-12-15

    Data on influenza in tropical and resource-limited countries are scarce. In this study we present results from 14 years of influenza surveillance in Senegal, one of the few tropical countries in Africa from which longitudinal data are available. From 1996 to 2009, we collected respiratory specimens from outpatients presenting with influenza-like illness at 13 facilities in order to investigate the epidemiology of seasonal influenza and the characteristics of the circulating influenza viruses. Specimens were tested for influenza using viral isolation and/or reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). From 1996 to 2009, specimens were obtained from 9176 patients; 1233 (13%) were influenza-positive by virus isolation and/or RT-PCR. Among positive samples, 958 (77%) were influenza A, 268 (22%) influenza B, and 7 (1%) influenza type C; of influenza A viruses, 619 (65%) were A(H3) and 339 (35%) A(H1), of which 13 (1%) were identified as H1N2. The proportion positive was similar for children 55 years (9%). Although influenza A(H1), A(H3), and B all circulated during most years, influenza A(H3N2) predominated during 9 of the 14 years. Influenza activity consistently peaked during the rainy season (July-September). Phylogenetic analysis showed that viruses circulating in Senegal were similar to contemporary viruses circulating elsewhere in the world. Our data confirm that influenza is prevalent in Senegal, occurs in seasonal epidemics, and contributes to the burden of respiratory diseases in all age groups.

  19. Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Krauss, Scott; Franson, J. Christian; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Stallknecht, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones. Methods: We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird. Results: Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation. Conclusions: These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.

  20. A note on hypoplastic yielding

    OpenAIRE

    Nader, José Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This note discusses briefly the definition of yield surface in hypoplasticity in connection with the physical notion of yielding. The relation of yielding with the vanishing of the material time derivative of the stress tensor and the vanishing of the corotational stress rate is investigated.

  1. Influenza newspaper reports and the influenza epidemic: an observational study in Fukuoka City, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Akihito; Onozuka, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Shougo; Abe, Takeru

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether the weekly number of newspaper articles reporting on influenza was related to the incidence of influenza in a large city. Design Prospective, non-randomised, observational study. Setting Registry data of influenza cases in Fukuoka City, Japan. Participants A total of 83 613 cases of influenza cases that occurred between October 1999 and March 2007 in Fukuoka City, Japan. Main outcome measure A linear model with autoregressive time series errors was fitted to time series data on the incidence of influenza and the accumulated number of influenza-related newspaper articles with different time lags in Fukuoka City, Japan. In order to obtain further evidence that the number of newspaper articles a week with specific time lags is related to the incidence of influenza, Granger causality was also tested. Results Of the 16 models including ‘number of newspaper articles’ with different time lags between 2 and 17 weeks (xt-2 to t-17), the β coefficients of ‘number of newspaper articles’ at time lags between t-5 and t-13 were significant. However, the β coefficients of ‘number of newspaper articles’ that are significant with respect to the Granger causality tests (pnewspaper articles at time lags between t-6 and t-10 (time shift of 10 weeks, β=−0.301, pnewspaper articles reporting on influenza in a week was related to the incidence of influenza 6–10 weeks after media coverage in a large city in Japan. PMID:26719323

  2. Human influenza is more effective than avian influenza at antiviral suppression in airway cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Alan Chen-Yu; Barr, Ian; Hansbro, Philip M; Wark, Peter A

    2011-06-01

    Airway epithelial cells are the initial site of infection with influenza viruses. The innate immune responses of airway epithelial cells to infection are important in limiting virus replication and spread. However, relatively little is known about the importance of this innate antiviral response to infection. Avian influenza viruses are a potential source of future pandemics; therefore, it is critical to examine the effectiveness of the host antiviral system to different influenza viruses. We used a human influenza (H3N2) and a low-pathogenic avian influenza (H11N9) to assess and compare the antiviral responses of Calu-3 cells. After infection, H3N2 replicated more effectively than the H11N9 in Calu-3 cells. This was not due to differential expression of sialic acid residues on Calu-3 cells, but was attributed to the interference of host antiviral responses by H3N2. H3N2 induced a delayed antiviral signaling and impaired type I and type III IFN induction compared with the H11N9. The gene encoding for nonstructural (NS) 1 protein was transfected into the bronchial epithelial cells (BECs), and the H3N2 NS1 induced a greater inhibition of antiviral responses compared with the H11N9 NS1. Although the low-pathogenic avian influenza virus was capable of infecting BECs, the human influenza virus replicated more effectively than avian influenza virus in BECs, and this was due to a differential ability of the two NS1 proteins to inhibit antiviral responses. This suggests that the subversion of human antiviral responses may be an important requirement for influenza viruses to adapt to the human host and cause disease.

  3. Pacific region influenza surveillance for oseltamivir resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Heather B; Gose, Remedios B; Nagata, Mark T; Sciulli, Rebecca H; Whelen, A Christian

    2012-05-01

    Hawaii and the United States-affiliated Pacific islands (USAPI) host over 8 million travelers annually, most of whom originate in Asia, Australia, and the Americas where prevalence of oseltamivir resistance in 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) has been reported to be 2.5-3.5%. To survey a collection of samples from Hawaii and the USAPI that had tested positive for the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus by RTI-PCR to assess whether antiviral resistance emerged in these island communities during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We examined RNA extracted from Hawaiian and USAPI cases for the neuraminidase H275Y mutation associated with oseltamivir resistance by pyrosequencing. Two hundred and sixty-three (263) 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) positive specimens were tested and 263/263 (100%) were shown to lack the mutation most commonly associated with oseltamivir resistance. There was no evidence of oseltamivir resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 virus during the 2009 pandemic in the Pacific islands despite considerable travel exposure. Geographic isolation, the lack of a "second wave" of pandemic influenza, judicious antiviral use, aggressive vaccination, and below average tourism due to the global economic crisis may have been contributing factors. Continued surveillance and vigilance is necessary to monitor unpredictable influenza activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Employee influenza vaccination in residential care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apenteng, Bettye A; Opoku, Samuel T

    2014-03-01

    The organizational literature on infection control in residential care facilities is limited. Using a nationally representative dataset, we examined the organizational factors associated with implementing at least 1 influenza-related employee vaccination policy/program, as well as the effect of vaccination policies on health care worker (HCW) influenza vaccine uptake in residential care facilities. The study was a cross-sectional study using data from the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to address the study's objectives. Facility size, director's educational attainment, and having a written influenza pandemic preparedness plan were significantly associated with the implementation of at least 1 influenza-related employee vaccination policy/program, after controlling for other facility-level factors. Recommending vaccination to employees, providing vaccination on site, providing vaccinations to employees at no cost, and requiring vaccination as a condition of employment were associated with higher employee influenza vaccination rates. Residential care facilities can improve vaccination rates among employees by adopting effective employee vaccination policies. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Survival of influenza virus on banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yves; Vogel, Guido; Wunderli, Werner; Suter, Patricia; Witschi, Mark; Koch, Daniel; Tapparel, Caroline; Kaiser, Laurent

    2008-05-01

    Successful control of a viral disease requires knowledge of the different vectors that could promote its transmission among hosts. We assessed the survival of human influenza viruses on banknotes given that billions of these notes are exchanged daily worldwide. Banknotes were experimentally contaminated with representative influenza virus subtypes at various concentrations, and survival was tested after different time periods. Influenza A viruses tested by cell culture survived up to 3 days when they were inoculated at high concentrations. The same inoculum in the presence of respiratory mucus showed a striking increase in survival time (up to 17 days). Similarly, B/Hong Kong/335/2001 virus was still infectious after 1 day when it was mixed with respiratory mucus. When nasopharyngeal secretions of naturally infected children were used, influenza virus survived for at least 48 h in one-third of the cases. The unexpected stability of influenza virus in this nonbiological environment suggests that unusual environmental contamination should be considered in the setting of pandemic preparedness.

  6. Survival of Influenza Virus on Banknotes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yves; Vogel, Guido; Wunderli, Werner; Suter, Patricia; Witschi, Mark; Koch, Daniel; Tapparel, Caroline; Kaiser, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Successful control of a viral disease requires knowledge of the different vectors that could promote its transmission among hosts. We assessed the survival of human influenza viruses on banknotes given that billions of these notes are exchanged daily worldwide. Banknotes were experimentally contaminated with representative influenza virus subtypes at various concentrations, and survival was tested after different time periods. Influenza A viruses tested by cell culture survived up to 3 days when they were inoculated at high concentrations. The same inoculum in the presence of respiratory mucus showed a striking increase in survival time (up to 17 days). Similarly, B/Hong Kong/335/2001 virus was still infectious after 1 day when it was mixed with respiratory mucus. When nasopharyngeal secretions of naturally infected children were used, influenza virus survived for at least 48 h in one-third of the cases. The unexpected stability of influenza virus in this nonbiological environment suggests that unusual environmental contamination should be considered in the setting of pandemic preparedness. PMID:18359825

  7. Influenza vaccinations of health care personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Nitsch-Osuch

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is one of the most common respiratory diseases affecting people of all age groups all over the world. Seasonal influenza leads to substantial morbidity and mortality on a global scale. Vaccines are undeniably one of the most important health advances of the past century, however, managing influenza in working populations remains a difficult issue. Vaccination of health care workers (HCW is an efficient way to reduce the risk of occupational infection and to prevent nosocomial transmission to vulnerable patients. Despite this, achieving high immunization rates among those professionals is a challenge. Knowledge and attitudes of healthcare providers have significant impact on the frequency with which vaccines are offered and accepted, but many HCWs are poorly equipped to make informed recommendations about vaccine merits and risks. Principal reasons for vaccination are the willing not to be infected and avoiding transmission to patients and the family. The main reasons for refusing is lack of time, a feeling of invulnerability to vaccination, conviction of not being at risk, of being too young or in good health. Misconceptions about influenza vaccine efficacy, like adverse effects, and fear of contracting illness from the vaccine are significantly associated with noncompliance with vaccination. Therefore, strategies to increase awareness of the importance of recommending influenza immunization among health professionals are required. Med Pr 2013;64(1:119–129

  8. Original antigenic sin responses to influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyang; Skountzou, Ioanna; Compans, Richard; Jacob, Joshy

    2009-09-01

    Most immune responses follow Burnet's rule in that Ag recruits specific lymphocytes from a large repertoire and induces them to proliferate and differentiate into effector cells. However, the phenomenon of "original antigenic sin" stands out as a paradox to Burnet's rule of B cell engagement. Humans, upon infection with a novel influenza strain, produce Abs against older viral strains at the expense of responses to novel, protective antigenic determinants. This exacerbates the severity of the current infection. This blind spot of the immune system and the redirection of responses to the "original Ag" rather than to novel epitopes were described fifty years ago. Recent reports have questioned the existence of this phenomenon. Hence, we revisited this issue to determine the extent to which original antigenic sin is induced by variant influenza viruses. Using two related strains of influenza A virus, we show that original antigenic sin leads to a significant decrease in development of protective immunity and recall responses to the second virus. In addition, we show that sequential infection of mice with two live influenza virus strains leads to almost exclusive Ab responses to the first viral strain, suggesting that original antigenic sin could be a potential strategy by which variant influenza viruses subvert the immune system.

  9. Polyarteritis nodosa related with influenza vaccine = Poliarteritis nodosa relacionada con vacuna contra la influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Escobar, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasculitis can be secondary to various processes, among them infections, malignancies, connective tissue diseases or medications, or primary, generally idiopathic. The reported adverse events after vaccination can be mild and transient or more serious such as autoimmune diseases. Possibly the most frequently described autoimmune phenomena after influenza vaccination are different forms of vasculitis. We report the case of a patient who presented a clinical picture of vasculitis classified as polyarteritis nodosa that began two weeks after receiving the influenza vaccine. After critically reviewing the literature, this would be the first clearly documented case of polyarteritis nodosa associated with vaccination against influenza.

  10. Evaluation of clinical features scoring system as screening tool for influenza A (H1N1 in epidemic situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influenza A (H1N1 hit the headlines in recent times and created mass hysteria and general panic. The high cost and non-availability of diagnostic laboratory tests for swine flu, especially in the developing countries underlines the need of having a cheaper, easily available, yet reasonably accurate screening test. Aims: This study was carried out to develop a clinical feature-based scoring system (CFSS for influenza A (H1N1 and to evaluate its suitability as a screening tool when large numbers of influenza-like illness cases are suspect. Settings and Design: Clinical-record based study, carried out retrospectively in post-pandemic period on subject′s case-sheets who had been quarantined at IG International Airport′s quarantine center at Delhi. Materials and Methods: Clinical scoring of each suspected case was done by studying their case record sheet and compared with the results of RT-PCR. RT-PCR was used to confirm the diagnosis (Gold Standard. Statistical Analysis: We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the clinical feature-based scoring system (the proposed new screening tool at different cut-off values. The most discriminant cut-off value was determined by plotting the ROC curve. Results: Of the 638 suspected cases, 127 (20% were confirmed to have H1N1 by RT-PCR examination. On the basis of ROC, the most discriminant clinical feature score for diagnosing Influenza A was found to be 7, which yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of 86%, 88%, 64%, and 96%, respectively. Conclusion: The clinical features scoring system (CFSS can be used as a valid and cost-effective tool for screening swine flu (influenza A (H1N1 cases from large number of influenza-like illness suspects.

  11. Wind-Mediated Spread of Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus into the Environment during Outbreaks at Commercial Poultry Farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Jonges

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus-infected poultry can release a large amount of virus-contaminated droppings that serve as sources of infection for susceptible birds. Much research so far has focused on virus spread within flocks. However, as fecal material or manure is a major constituent of airborne poultry dust, virus-contaminated particulate matter from infected flocks may be dispersed into the environment. We collected samples of suspended particulate matter, or the inhalable dust fraction, inside, upwind and downwind of buildings holding poultry infected with low-pathogenic avian influenza virus, and tested them for the presence of endotoxins and influenza virus to characterize the potential impact of airborne influenza virus transmission during outbreaks at commercial poultry farms. Influenza viruses were detected by RT-PCR in filter-rinse fluids collected up to 60 meters downwind from the barns, but virus isolation did not yield any isolates. Viral loads in the air samples were low and beyond the limit of RT-PCR quantification except for one in-barn measurement showing a virus concentration of 8.48 x 10(4 genome copies/m(3. Air samples taken outside poultry barns had endotoxin concentrations of ~50 EU/m(3 that declined with increasing distance from the barn. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of particulate matter, using location-specific meteorological data for the sampling days, demonstrated a positive correlation between endotoxin measurements and modeled particulate matter concentrations, with an R(2 varying from 0.59 to 0.88. Our data suggest that areas at high risk for human or animal exposure to airborne influenza viruses can be modeled during an outbreak to allow directed interventions following targeted surveillance.

  12. Productive infection of human skeletal muscle cells by pandemic and seasonal influenza A(H1N1 viruses.

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    Marion Desdouits

    Full Text Available Besides the classical respiratory and systemic symptoms, unusual complications of influenza A infection in humans involve the skeletal muscles. Numerous cases of acute myopathy and/or rhabdomyolysis have been reported, particularly following the outbreak of pandemic influenza A(H1N1 in 2009. The pathogenesis of these influenza-associated myopathies (IAM remains unkown, although the direct infection of muscle cells is suspected. Here, we studied the susceptibility of cultured human primary muscle cells to a 2009 pandemic and a 2008 seasonal influenza A(H1N1 isolate. Using cells from different donors, we found that differentiated muscle cells (i. e. myotubes were highly susceptible to infection by both influenza A(H1N1 isolates, whereas undifferentiated cells (i. e. myoblasts were partially resistant. The receptors for influenza viruses, α2-6 and α2-3 linked sialic acids, were detected on the surface of myotubes and myoblasts. Time line of viral nucleoprotein (NP expression and nuclear export showed that the first steps of the viral replication cycle could take place in muscle cells. Infected myotubes and myoblasts exhibited budding virions and nuclear inclusions as observed by transmission electron microscopy and correlative light and electron microscopy. Myotubes, but not myoblasts, yielded infectious virus progeny that could further infect naive muscle cells after proteolytic treatment. Infection led to a cytopathic effect with the lysis of muscle cells, as characterized by the release of lactate dehydrogenase. The secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by muscle cells was not affected following infection. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis of a direct muscle infection causing rhabdomyolysis in IAM patients.

  13. Laboratory-supported influenza surveillance in Victorian sentinel general practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, H; Murphy, A; Leong, W; Leydon, J; Tresise, P; Gerrard, M; Chibo, D; Birch, C; Andrews, R; Catton, M

    2000-12-01

    Laboratory-supported influenza surveillance is important as part of pandemic preparedness, for identifying and isolating candidate vaccine strains, for supporting trials of anti-influenza drugs and for refining the influenza surveillance case definition in practice. This study describes the implementation of laboratory-supported influenza surveillance in Victorian sentinel general practices and provides an estimate of the proportion of patients with an influenza-like illness proven to have influenza. During 1998 and 1999, 25 sentinel general practices contributed clinical surveillance data and 16 metropolitan practices participated in laboratory surveillance. Serological, virus-antigen detection, virus culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction procedures were used to establish the diagnosis of influenza. Two laboratories at major teaching hospitals in Melbourne provided additional data on influenza virus identification. General practice sentinel surveillance and laboratory identification of influenza provided similar data on the pattern of influenza in the community between May and September. The clinical suspicion of influenza was confirmed in 49 to 54 per cent of cases seen in general practice.

  14. Epidemiology of Hospital Admissions with Influenza during the 2013/2014 Northern Hemisphere Influenza Season: Results from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Barberà, Joan; Natividad-Sancho, Angels; Trushakova, Svetlana; Sominina, Anna; Pisareva, Maria; Ciblak, Meral A.; Badur, Selim; Yu, Hongjie; Cowling, Benjamin J.; El Guerche-Séblain, Clotilde; Mira-Iglesias, Ainara; Kisteneva, Lidiya; Stolyarov, Kirill; Yurtcu, Kubra; Feng, Luzhao; López-Labrador, Xavier; Burtseva, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Background The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network was established in 2012 to obtain valid epidemiologic data on hospital admissions with influenza-like illness. Here we describe the epidemiology of admissions with influenza within the Northern Hemisphere sites during the 2013/2014 influenza season, identify risk factors for severe outcomes and complications, and assess the impact of different influenza viruses on clinically relevant outcomes in at-risk populations. Methods Eligible consecutive admissions were screened for inclusion at 19 hospitals in Russia, Turkey, China, and Spain using a prospective, active surveillance approach. Patients that fulfilled a common case definition were enrolled and epidemiological data were collected. Risk factors for hospitalization with laboratory-confirmed influenza were identified by multivariable logistic regression. Findings 5303 of 9507 consecutive admissions were included in the analysis. Of these, 1086 were influenza positive (534 A(H3N2), 362 A(H1N1), 130 B/Yamagata lineage, 3 B/Victoria lineage, 40 untyped A, and 18 untyped B). The risk of hospitalization with influenza (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) was elevated for patients with cardiovascular disease (1.63 [1.33–2.02]), asthma (2.25 [1.67–3.03]), immunosuppression (2.25 [1.23–4.11]), renal disease (2.11 [1.48–3.01]), liver disease (1.94 [1.18–3.19], autoimmune disease (2.97 [1.58–5.59]), and pregnancy (3.84 [2.48–5.94]). Patients without comorbidities accounted for 60% of admissions with influenza. The need for intensive care or in-hospital death was not significantly different between patients with or without influenza. Influenza vaccination was associated with a lower risk of confirmed influenza (adjusted odds ratio = 0.61 [0.48–0.77]). Conclusions Influenza infection was detected among hospital admissions with and without known risk factors. Pregnancy and underlying comorbidity increased the risk of detecting influenza

  15. Universal Influenza Vaccines, a Dream to Be Realized Soon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to frequent viral antigenic change, current influenza vaccines need to be re-formulated annually to match the circulating strains for battling seasonal influenza epidemics. These vaccines are also ineffective in preventing occasional outbreaks of new influenza pandemic viruses. All these challenges call for the development of universal influenza vaccines capable of conferring broad cross-protection against multiple subtypes of influenza A viruses. Facilitated by the advancement in modern molecular biology, delicate antigen design becomes one of the most effective factors for fulfilling such goals. Conserved epitopes residing in virus surface proteins including influenza matrix protein 2 and the stalk domain of the hemagglutinin draw general interest for improved antigen design. The present review summarizes the recent progress in such endeavors and also covers the encouraging progress in integrated antigen/adjuvant delivery and controlled release technology that facilitate the development of an affordable universal influenza vaccine.

  16. Influenza vaccine strategies for solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirzel, Cédric; Kumar, Deepali

    2018-05-15

    The aim of this study was to highlight recent evidence on important aspects of influenza vaccination in solid organ transplant recipients. Influenza vaccine is the most evaluated vaccine in transplant recipients. The immunogenicity of the vaccine is suboptimal after transplantation. Newer formulations such as inactivated unadjuvanted high-dose influenza vaccine and the administration of a booster dose within the same season have shown to increase response rates. Intradermal vaccination and adjuvanted vaccines did not show clear benefit over standard influenza vaccines. Recent studies in transplant recipients do not suggest a higher risk for allograft rejection, neither after vaccination with a standard influenza vaccine nor after the administration of nonstandard formulation (high-dose, adjuvanted vaccines), routes (intradermally) or a booster dose. Nevertheless, influenza vaccine coverage in transplant recipients is still unsatisfactory low, potentially due to misinterpretation of risks and benefits. Annual influenza vaccination is well tolerated and is an important part of long-term care of solid organ transplant recipients.

  17. Characteristics and management of patients with influenza in a German hospital during the 2014/2015 influenza season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Stefan; Ludewig, Katrin; Moeser, Anne; Baier, Michael; Löffler, Bettina; Schleenvoigt, Benjamin; Forstner, Christina; Pletz, Mathias W

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to review the management of patients with influenza during the influenza season 2014/2015 (n = 197). Our study revealed a high rate of healthcare-associated influenza infection (35.5 %) and a correlation between the total number of patients with HA influenza and the number of nurses on sick leave. The results of the study underline the importance of strict hygiene management. Furthermore, widespread influenza vaccination for both high-risk patients and health care workers is recommended.

  18. Influenza vaccines: Evaluation of the safety profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Claudia Maria; Gianchecchi, Elena; Montomoli, Emanuele

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The safety of vaccines is a critical factor in maintaining public trust in national vaccination programs. Vaccines are recommended for children, adults and elderly subjects and have to meet higher safety standards, since they are administered to healthy subjects, mainly healthy children. Although vaccines are strictly monitored before authorization, the possibility of adverse events and/or rare adverse events cannot be totally eliminated. Two main types of influenza vaccines are currently available: parenteral inactivated influenza vaccines and intranasal live attenuated vaccines. Both display a good safety profile in adults and children. However, they can cause adverse events and/or rare adverse events, some of which are more prevalent in children, while others with a higher prevalence in adults. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of influenza vaccine safety according to target groups, vaccine types and production methods. PMID:29297746

  19. Microneedle and mucosal delivery of influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Moo; Song, Jae-Min; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2017-01-01

    In recent years with the threat of pandemic influenza and other public health needs, alternative vaccination methods other than intramuscular immunization have received great attention. The skin and mucosal surfaces are attractive sites probably because of both non-invasive access to the vaccine delivery and unique immunological responses. Intradermal vaccines using a microinjection system (BD Soluvia) and intranasal vaccines (FluMist) are licensed. As a new vaccination method, solid microneedles have been developed using a simple device that may be suitable for self-administration. Because coated micorneedle influenza vaccines are administered in the solid state, developing formulations maintaining the stability of influenza vaccines is an important issue to be considered. Marketable microneedle devices and clinical trials remain to be developed. Other alternative mucosal routes such as oral and intranasal delivery systems are also attractive for inducing cross protective mucosal immunity but effective non-live mucosal vaccines remain to be developed. PMID:22697052

  20. Burden of paediatric influenza in Western Europe: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova Evgeniya N

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza illness in children causes significant clinical and economic burden. Although some European countries have adopted influenza immunisation policies for healthy children, the debate about paediatric influenza vaccination in most countries of the European Union is ongoing. Our aim was to summarise influenza burden (in terms of health outcomes and economic burden in children in Western Europe via a systematic literature review. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (1970-April 2011 and extracted data on influenza burden in children (defined as aged ≤ 18 years from 50 publications (13 reporting laboratory-confirmed influenza; 37 reporting influenza-like illness. Results Children with laboratory-confirmed influenza experienced hospitalisations (0.3%-20%, medical visits (1.7-2.8 visits per case, antibiotic prescriptions (7%-55%, and antipyretic or other medications for symptomatic relief (76%-99%; young children and those with severe illness had the highest rates of health care use. Influenza in children also led to absenteeism from day care, school, or work for the children, their siblings, and their parents. Average (mean or median length of absence from school or day care associated with confirmed influenza ranged from 2.8 to 12.0 days for the children, from 1.3 to 6.0 days for their siblings, and from 1.3 to 6.3 days for their parents. Influenza negatively affected health-related quality of life in children with asthma, including symptoms and activities; this negative effect was smaller in vaccinated children than in non-vaccinated children. Conclusions Influenza burden in children is substantial and has a significant direct impact on the ill children and an indirect impact on their siblings and parents. The identified evidence regarding the burden of influenza may help inform both influenza antiviral use in children and paediatric immunisation policies in

  1. Characterisation and Identification of Avian Influenza Virus (AI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza is caused by Influenza A virus which is a member of Orthomyxoviridae family. Influenza A virus is enveloped single stranded RNA with eight-segmented, negative polarity and filament or oval form, 50 – 120 by 200 – 300 nm diameters. Influenza A viruses have been found to infect birds, human, pig, horse and sometimes in the other mammalian such as seal and whale. The viruses are divided into different subtypes based on the antigenic protein which covers the virus surface i.e. Haemaglutinin (HA and Neuraminidase (NA. In addition, the nomenclature of subtype virus is based on HA and NA i.e HxNx, for example H5N1, H9N2 and the others. According to pathogenic, it could be divided into two distinct groups, they are Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI and Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI. The Avian Influenza viruses have been continuously occurred and spread out in some continents such us America, Europe, Africa and Asian countries. The outbreak of Avian Influenza caused high mortality on birds and it has been reported that in human case Avian Influenza subtype H5N1 virus has caused several deaths. To anticipate this condition, an effort to prevent the transmission of Avian Influenza is needed. These strategic attempts include biosecurity, depopulation, vaccination, control of virus movement, monitoring and evaluation. Laboratory diagnostic plays an important role for successful prevention, control and eradication programs of Avian Influenza. Recently, there are two diagnostic methods for Avian Influenza. They are conventional (virological diagnosis and molecular methods. The conventional method is usually used for initial diagnostic of Avian Influenza. The conventional method takes more time and more costly, whereas the molecular method is more effective than conventional method. Based on the available diagnostic technique, basically diagnostic of Avian Influenza is done by serology test, isolation and identification as well

  2. Ultraviolet air disinfection for protection against influenza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Three converging lines of evidence support the belief that it may be possible, under appropriate circumstances, to interrupt the airborne transmission of influenza by ultraviolet (UV) air disinfection. These lines of evidence are: (a) that influenza is airborne; (b) that UV irradiation of the upper air of a room can provide safe and effective disinfection of air in the lower part of the room; and (c) that epidemic spread of airborne viral infections in humans can be prevented if the population under consideration remains in the UV-protected environment

  3. Future directions for the European influenza reference laboratory network in influenza surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, N; Rebelo-de-Andrade, H; Meijer, A; McCauley, J; Daniels, R; Zambon, M

    2015-07-30

    By defining strategic objectives for the network of influenza laboratories that have national influenza centre status or national function within European Union Member States, Iceland and Norway, it is possible to align their priorities in undertaking virological surveillance of influenza. This will help maintain and develop the network to meet and adapt to new challenges over the next 3-5 years and underpin a longer-term strategy over 5-10 years. We analysed the key activities undertaken by influenza reference laboratories in Europe and categorised them into a framework of four key strategic objectives areas: enhancing laboratory capability, ensuring laboratory capacity, providing emergency response and translating laboratory data into information for public health action. We make recommendations on the priority areas for future development.

  4. Rheumatoid arthritis and the incidence of influenza and influenza-related complications: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blumentals William A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA are known to be at increased risk of infection, particularly if they are taking drugs with immunomodulatory effects. There is a need for more information on the risk of influenza in patients with RA. Methods A retrospective cohort study was carried out using data gathered from a large US commercial health insurance database (Thomson Reuters Medstat MarketScan from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2007. Patients were ≥18 years of age, with at least two RA claims diagnoses. The database was scanned for incidence of seasonal influenza and its complications on or up to 30 days after an influenza diagnosis in RA patients and matched controls. Other factors accounted for included medical conditions, use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs, use of biological agents, influenza vaccination and high- or low-dose corticosteroids. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs were calculated for influenza and its complications in patients with RA. Results 46,030 patients with RA and a matching number of controls had a median age of 57 years. The incidence of influenza was higher in RA patients than in controls (409.33 vs 306.12 cases per 100,000 patient-years, and there was a 2.75-fold increase in incidence of complications in RA. Presence or absence of DMARDs or biologics had no significant effect. The adjusted IRR of influenza was statistically significant in patients aged 60–69 years, and especially among men. A significantly increased rate of influenza complications was observed in women and in both genders combined (but not in men only when all age groups were combined. In general, the risk of influenza complications was similar in RA patients not receiving DMARDs or biologics to that in all RA patients. Pneumonia rates were significantly higher in women with RA. Rates of stroke/myocardial infarction (MI were higher in men, although statistical significance was borderline. Conclusions RA is

  5. Effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in elderly persons in years of low influenza activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Brith; Pauksen, Karlis; Sylvan, Staffan P E

    2008-04-28

    The present prospective study was conducted from 2003-2005, among all individuals 65 years and older in Uppsala County, a region with 300 000 inhabitants situated close to the Stockholm urban area.The objective of this study was to assess the preventive effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in reducing hospitalisation and length of hospital stay (LOHS) even during periods of low influenza activity. The specificity of the apparent vaccine associations were evaluated in relation to the influenza seasons. In 2003, the total study population was 41,059, of which 12,907 (31%) received influenza vaccine of these, 4,447 (11%) were administered the pneumococcal vaccine. In 2004, 14,799 (34%) individuals received the influenza vaccine and 8,843 (21%) the pneumococcal vaccine and in 2005 16,926 (39%) individuals were given the influenza vaccine and 12,340 (28%) the pneumococcal vaccine.Our findings indicated that 35% of the vaccinated cohort belonged to a medical risk category (mainly those persons that received the pneumococcal vaccine). Data on hospitalisation and mortality during the 3-year period were obtained from the administrative database of the Uppsala county council. During the influenza seasons, reduction of hospital admissions and significantly shorter in-hospital stay for influenza was observed in the vaccinated cohort (below 80 years of age). For individuals who also had received the pneumococcal vaccine, a significant reduction of hospital admissions and of in-hospital stay was observed for invasive pneumococcal disease and for pneumococcal pneumonia. Effectiveness was observed for cardiac failure even in persons that also had received the pneumococcal vaccine, despite that the pneumococcal vaccinated mainly belonged to a medical risk category. Reduction of death from all causes was observed during the influenza season of 2004, in the 75-84-year old age group and in all age-groups during the influenza season 2005. The present study confirmed the

  6. Effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in elderly persons in years of low influenza activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvan Staffan PE

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present prospective study was conducted from 2003–2005, among all individuals 65 years and older in Uppsala County, a region with 300 000 inhabitants situated close to the Stockholm urban area. The objective of this study was to assess the preventive effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in reducing hospitalisation and length of hospital stay (LOHS even during periods of low influenza activity. The specificity of the apparent vaccine associations were evaluated in relation to the influenza seasons. Results In 2003, the total study population was 41,059, of which 12,907 (31% received influenza vaccine of these, 4,447 (11% were administered the pneumococcal vaccine. In 2004, 14,799 (34% individuals received the influenza vaccine and 8,843 (21% the pneumococcal vaccine and in 2005 16,926 (39% individuals were given the influenza vaccine and 12,340 (28% the pneumococcal vaccine. Our findings indicated that 35% of the vaccinated cohort belonged to a medical risk category (mainly those persons that received the pneumococcal vaccine. Data on hospitalisation and mortality during the 3-year period were obtained from the administrative database of the Uppsala county council. During the influenza seasons, reduction of hospital admissions and significantly shorter in-hospital stay for influenza was observed in the vaccinated cohort (below 80 years of age. For individuals who also had received the pneumococcal vaccine, a significant reduction of hospital admissions and of in-hospital stay was observed for invasive pneumococcal disease and for pneumococcal pneumonia. Effectiveness was observed for cardiac failure even in persons that also had received the pneumococcal vaccine, despite that the pneumococcal vaccinated mainly belonged to a medical risk category. Reduction of death from all causes was observed during the influenza season of 2004, in the 75–84-year old age group and in all age-groups during the influenza

  7. Codon usage bias and the evolution of influenza A viruses. Codon Usage Biases of Influenza Virus

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    Wong Emily HM

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influenza A virus is an important infectious cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and was responsible for 3 pandemics in the 20th century. As the replication of the influenza virus is based on its host's machinery, codon usage of its viral genes might be subject to host selection pressures, especially after interspecies transmission. A better understanding of viral evolution and host adaptive responses might help control this disease. Results Relative Synonymous Codon Usage (RSCU values of the genes from segment 1 to segment 6 of avian and human influenza viruses, including pandemic H1N1, were studied via Correspondence Analysis (CA. The codon usage patterns of seasonal human influenza viruses were distinct among their subtypes and different from those of avian viruses. Newly isolated viruses could be added to the CA results, creating a tool to investigate the host origin and evolution of viral genes. It was found that the 1918 pandemic H1N1 virus contained genes with mammalian-like viral codon usage patterns, indicating that the introduction of this virus to humans was not through in toto transfer of an avian influenza virus. Many human viral genes had directional changes in codon usage over time of viral isolation, indicating the effect of host selection pressures. These changes reduced the overall GC content and the usage of G at the third codon position in the viral genome. Limited evidence of translational selection pressure was found in a few viral genes. Conclusions Codon usage patterns from CA allowed identification of host origin and evolutionary trends in influenza viruses, providing an alternative method and a tool to understand the evolution of influenza viruses. Human influenza viruses are subject to selection pressure on codon usage which might assist in understanding the characteristics of newly emerging viruses.

  8. Prospective surveillance for influenza. virus in Chinese swine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin D; Ma, Mai-Juan; Wang, Guo-Lin; Bi, Zhen-Qiang; Lu, Bing; Wang, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chuang-Xin; Chen, Shan-Hui; Qian, Yan-Hua; Song, Shao-Xia; Li, Min; Zhao, Teng; Wu, Meng-Na; Borkenhagen, Laura K; Cao, Wu-Chun; Gray, Gregory C

    2018-05-16

    Pork production in China is rapidly increasing and swine production operations are expanding in size and number. However, the biosecurity measures necessary to prevent swine disease transmission, particularly influenza. viruses (IAV) that can be zoonotic, are often inadequate. Despite this risk, few studies have attempted to comprehensively study IAV ecology in swine production settings. Here, we present environmental and animal sampling data collected in the first year of an ongoing five-year prospective epidemiological study to assess IAV ecology as it relates to swine workers, their pigs, and the farm environment. From March 2015 to February 2016, we collected 396 each of environmental swab, water, bioaerosol, and fecal/slurry samples, as well as 3300 pig oral secretion samples from six farms in China. The specimens were tested with molecular assays for IAV. Of these, 46 (11.6%) environmental swab, 235 (7.1%) pig oral secretion, 23 (5.8%) water, 20 (5.1%) bioaerosol, and 19 (4.8%) fecal/slurry specimens were positive for influenza. by qRT-PCR. Risk factors for IAV detection among collected samples were identified using bivariate logistic regression. Overall, these first year data suggest that IAV is quite ubiquitous in the swine production environment and demonstrate an association between the different types of environmental sampling used. Given the mounting evidence that some of these viruses freely move between pigs and swine workers, and that mixing of these viruses can yield progeny viruses with pandemic potential, it seems imperative that routine surveillance for novel IAVs be conducted in commercial swine farms.

  9. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus among Wild Birds in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Martin; Jambal, Losolmaa; Karesh, William B.; Fine, Amanda; Shiilegdamba, Enkhtuvshin; Dulam, Purevtseren; Sodnomdarjaa, Ruuragchaa; Ganzorig, Khuukhenbaatar; Batchuluun, Damdinjav; Tseveenmyadag, Natsagdorj; Bolortuya, Purevsuren; Cardona, Carol J.; Leung, Connie Y. H.; Peiris, J. S. Malik; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E.; Joly, Damien O.

    2012-01-01

    Mongolia combines a near absence of domestic poultry, with an abundance of migratory waterbirds, to create an ideal location to study the epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in a purely wild bird system. Here we present the findings of active and passive surveillance for HPAIV subtype H5N1 in Mongolia from 2005–2011, together with the results of five outbreak investigations. In total eight HPAIV outbreaks were confirmed in Mongolia during this period. Of these, one was detected during active surveillance employed by this project, three by active surveillance performed by Mongolian government agencies, and four through passive surveillance. A further three outbreaks were recorded in the neighbouring Tyva Republic of Russia on a lake that bisects the international border. No HPAIV was isolated (cultured) from 7,855 environmental fecal samples (primarily from ducks), or from 2,765 live, clinically healthy birds captured during active surveillance (primarily shelducks, geese and swans), while four HPAIVs were isolated from 141 clinically ill or dead birds located through active surveillance. Two low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) were cultured from ill or dead birds during active surveillance, while environmental feces and live healthy birds yielded 56 and 1 LPAIV respectively. All Mongolian outbreaks occurred in 2005 and 2006 (clade 2.2), or 2009 and 2010 (clade 2.3.2.1); all years in which spring HPAIV outbreaks were reported in Tibet and/or Qinghai provinces in China. The occurrence of outbreaks in areas deficient in domestic poultry is strong evidence that wild birds can carry HPAIV over at least moderate distances. However, failure to detect further outbreaks of clade 2.2 after June 2006, and clade 2.3.2.1 after June 2010 suggests that wild birds migrating to and from Mongolia may not be competent as indefinite reservoirs of HPAIV, or that HPAIV did not reach susceptible populations during our study. PMID:22984464

  10. Influenza vaccines for preventing cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Clar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: This is an update of the original review published in 2008. The risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes is increased with influenza-like infection, and vaccination against influenza may improve cardiovascular outcomes.OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential benefits of influenza vaccination for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.METHODS:Search methods:We searched the following electronic databases on 18 October 2013: The Cochrane Library (including Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE, Economic Evaluation Database (EED and Health Technology Assessment database (HTA, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science and ongoing trials registers (www.controlled-trials.com/ and www.clinicaltrials.gov. We examined reference lists of relevant primary studies and systematic reviews. We performed a limited PubMed search on 20 February 2015, just before publication.Selection criteria:Randomised controlled trials (RCTs of influenza vaccination compared with placebo or no treatment in participants with or without cardiovascular disease, assessing cardiovascular death or non-fatal cardiovascular events.Data collection and analysis:We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We carried out meta-analyses only for cardiovascular death, as other outcomes were reported too infrequently. We expressed effect sizes as risk ratios (RRs, and we used random-effects models.MAIN RESULTS: We included eight trials of influenza vaccination compared with placebo or no vaccination, with 12,029 participants receiving at least one vaccination or control treatment. We included six new studies (n = 11,251, in addition to the two included in the previous version of the review. Four of these trials (n = 10,347 focused on prevention of influenza in the general or elderly population

  11. Influenza vaccines for preventing cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clar, Christine; Oseni, Zainab; Flowers, Nadine; Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Rees, Karen

    2015-05-05

    This is an update of the original review published in 2008. The risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes is increased with influenza-like infection, and vaccination against influenza may improve cardiovascular outcomes. To assess the potential benefits of influenza vaccination for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. We searched the following electronic databases on 18 October 2013: The Cochrane Library (including Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Economic Evaluation Database (EED) and Health Technology Assessment database (HTA)), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science and ongoing trials registers (www.controlled-trials.com/ and www.clinicaltrials.gov). We examined reference lists of relevant primary studies and systematic reviews. We performed a limited PubMed search on 20 February 2015, just before publication. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of influenza vaccination compared with placebo or no treatment in participants with or without cardiovascular disease, assessing cardiovascular death or non-fatal cardiovascular events. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We carried out meta-analyses only for cardiovascular death, as other outcomes were reported too infrequently. We expressed effect sizes as risk ratios (RRs), and we used random-effects models. We included eight trials of influenza vaccination compared with placebo or no vaccination, with 12,029 participants receiving at least one vaccination or control treatment. We included six new studies (n = 11,251), in addition to the two included in the previous version of the review. Four of these trials (n = 10,347) focused on prevention of influenza in the general or elderly population and reported cardiovascular outcomes among their safety analyses; four trials (n = 1682) focused on prevention of

  12. 76 FR 78658 - Webinar Overview of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee Healthcare Personnel Influenza...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Committee Healthcare Personnel Influenza Vaccination Subgroup's Draft Report and Draft Recommendations for Achieving the Healthy People 2020 Annual Coverage Goals for Influenza Vaccination in Healthcare Personnel... Influenza Vaccination Subgroup (HCPIVS), will host an informational webinar to introduce the committee's...

  13. Implementation of the community network of reference laboratories for human influenza in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.; Valette, M.; Manuguerra, J.C.; Perez-Brena, P.; Paget, J.; Brown, C.; Velden, K. van der

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increased need for accurate influenza laboratory surveillance data in the European Union required formalisation of the existing network of collaborating national influenza reference laboratories participating in the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS). OBJECTIVE: To

  14. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  15. Influenza-Like Illnesses in Senegal: Not Only Focus on Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Ndongo; Diene Sarr, Fatoumata; Thiam, Diamilatou; Faye Sarr, Tening; Espié, Emmanuelle; OmarBa, Ibrahim; Coly, Malang; Niang, Mbayame; Richard, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Influenza surveillance in African countries was initially restricted to the identification of circulating strains. In Senegal, the network has recently been enhanced (i) to include epidemiological data from Dakar and other regions and (ii) to extend virological surveillance to other respiratory viruses. Epidemiological data from the sentinel sites is transmitted daily by mobile phone. The data include those for other febrile syndromes similar to influenza-like illnesses (ILI), corresponding to integrated approach. Also, clinical samples are randomly selected and analyzed for influenza and other respiratory viruses. There were 101,640 declared visits to the 11 sentinel sites between week 11-2012 and week 35-2013; 22% of the visits were for fever syndromes and 23% of the cases of fever syndrome were ILI. Influenza viruses were the second most frequent cause of ILI (20%), after adenoviruses (21%) and before rhinoviruses (18%) and enteroviruses (15%). Co-circulation and co-infection were frequent and were responsible for ILI peaks. The first months of implementation of the enhanced surveillance system confirmed that viruses other the influenza make large contributions to influenza-like illnesses. It is therefore important to consider these etiologies in the development of strategies to reduce respiratory infections. More informative tools and research studies are required to assess the burden of respiratory infections in developing countries. PMID:24675982

  16. VARIABILITY OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN “EGUSI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    Estimate of expected genetic advance in seed yield plant-1 ranged between. 25.90-48.40%. ..... values in fruit and seed yield characters have been reported in culinary melon, ... and Khund, A. 2004. Extent of heterosis and heritability in some.

  17. Response of Yield and Yield Components of Tef [Eragrostis Tef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partial budget analysis also indicates that applications of 46 kg. N ha-1 and 10 kg P ha-1 are ..... (1994) indicated that where the grain yield response is negative, yield reduction is primarily caused by a .... An Economic Training. Manual.

  18. On yield gaps and yield gains in intercropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gou, Fang; Yin, Wen; Hong, Yu; Werf, van der Wopke; Chai, Qiang; Heerink, Nico; Ittersum, van Martin K.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat-maize relay intercropping has been widely used by farmers in northwest China, and based on field experiments agronomists report it has a higher productivity than sole crops. However, the yields from farmers’ fields have not been investigated yet. Yield gap analysis provides a framework to

  19. 7755 EFFECT OF NPK FERTILIZER ON FRUIT YIELD AND YIELD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... peasant farmers in Nigeria. With the increased ... did not significantly (p=0.05) increase the fruit yield nor the seed yield. Key words: NPK fertilizer, Fruit ..... SAS (Statistical Analysis System) Version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, ...

  20. SLIFER measurement for explosive yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, R.C.; Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.; Breding, D.R.

    1976-04-01

    This report describes the shorted location indicator by frequency of electrical resonance (SLIFER) system used at Sandia Laboratories for determination of explosive yield of under ground nuclear tests

  1. Replication of avian, human and swine influenza viruses in porcine respiratory explants and association with sialic acid distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauwynck Hans J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout the history of human influenza pandemics, pigs have been considered the most likely "mixing vessel" for reassortment between human and avian influenza viruses (AIVs. However, the replication efficiencies of influenza viruses from various hosts, as well as the expression of sialic acid (Sia receptor variants in the entire porcine respiratory tract have never been studied in detail. Therefore, we established porcine nasal, tracheal, bronchial and lung explants, which cover the entire porcine respiratory tract with maximal similarity to the in vivo situation. Subsequently, we assessed virus yields of three porcine, two human and six AIVs in these explants. Since our results on virus replication were in disagreement with the previously reported presence of putative avian virus receptors in the trachea, we additionally studied the distribution of sialic acid receptors by means of lectin histochemistry. Human (Siaα2-6Gal and avian virus receptors (Siaα2-3Gal were identified with Sambucus Nigra and Maackia amurensis lectins respectively. Results Compared to swine and human influenza viruses, replication of the AIVs was limited in all cultures but most strikingly in nasal and tracheal explants. Results of virus titrations were confirmed by quantification of infected cells using immunohistochemistry. By lectin histochemistry we found moderate to abundant expression of the human-like virus receptors in all explant systems but minimal binding of the lectins that identify avian-like receptors, especially in the nasal, tracheal and bronchial epithelium. Conclusions The species barrier that restricts the transmission of influenza viruses from one host to another remains preserved in our porcine respiratory explants. Therefore this system offers a valuable alternative to study virus and/or host properties required for adaptation or reassortment of influenza viruses. Our results indicate that, based on the expression of Sia

  2. Comparison of chest-CT findings of Influenza virus-associated pneumonia in immunocompetent vs. immunocompromised patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloth, C., E-mail: christopher.kloth@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Forler, S.; Gatidis, S. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Beck, R. [Institute of Medical Virology and Epidemiology of Viral Diseases, Eberhard-Karls-University, Elfriede-Aulhorn-Straße 6, 72076 Tübingen (Germany); Spira, D.; Nikolaou, K.; Horger, M. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Patterns of pulmonary infiltration caused by Influenza viruses do not significantly differ between immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients or between different types and subtypes of Influenza virus. • Patterns of pulmonary infiltration caused by Influenza viruses seem to be interchangeable which might in part explain the great overlap in CT-imaging findings that has been reported in the past. • Interestingly, pattern transition from interstitial into airway-centric pattern seems to be frequent in immunocompromised patients receiving specific antiviral therapy, whereas the conversion of the airway-centric pattern into an interstitial pattern was observed more frequent in immunocompetent patients developing ARDS. - Abstract: Purpose: To retrospectively compare CT-patterns of pulmonary infiltration caused by different Influenza virus types and subtypes in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients for possible discrimination. Materials and methods: Retrospective database search at our institution yielded 237 patients who were tested positive for Influenza virus type A or type B by bronchoalveolar lavage between January 2009 and April 2014. Fifty-six of these patients (female 26; male 30; median age 55.8 y, range 17–86 y; SD ± 14.4 y) underwent chest-HRCT due to a more severe clinical course of pulmonary infection. We registered all CT-findings compatible with pulmonary infection classifying them as airway predominant (tree-in-bud, centrilobular nodules, bronchial wall thickening ± peribronchial ground-glass opacity and consolidation) vs. interstitial-parenchymal predominant (bilateral, symmetrical GGO, consolidation, crazy paving and/or interlobular septal thickening). Twenty-six patients (46.4%) had follow-up CT-studies (0.78 mean, SD ± 5.8 scans). Results: Thirty-six patients were immunocompromised (group I) whereas 20 patients were immunocompetent (group II). An airway-centric pattern of infection was found in 15 patients (group

  3. The possible macroeconomic impact on the UK of an influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh-Brown, Marcus R; Wren-Lewis, Simon; Edmunds, W John; Beutels, Philippe; Smith, Richard D

    2010-11-01

    Little is known about the possible impact of an influenza pandemic on a nation's economy. We applied the UK macroeconomic model 'COMPACT' to epidemiological data on previous UK influenza pandemics, and extrapolated a sensitivity analysis to cover more extreme disease scenarios. Analysis suggests that the economic impact of a repeat of the 1957 or 1968 pandemics, allowing for school closures, would be short-lived, constituting a loss of 3.35 and 0.58% of GDP in the first pandemic quarter and year, respectively. A more severe scenario (with more than 1% of the population dying) could yield impacts of 21 and 4.5%, respectively. The economic shockwave would be gravest when absenteeism (through school closures) increases beyond a few weeks, creating policy repercussions for influenza pandemic planning as the most severe economic impact is due to policies to contain the pandemic rather than the pandemic itself.Accounting for changes in consumption patterns made in an attempt to avoid infection worsens the potential impact. Our mild disease scenario then shows first quarter/first year reductions in GDP of 9.5/2.5%, compared with our severe scenario reductions of 29.5/6%. These results clearly indicate the significance of behavioural change over disease parameters. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Purification of influenza deoxyribonucleic acid-based vaccine using agmatine monolith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicho, D; Caramelo-Nunes, C; Sousa, A; Sousa, F; Queiroz, J A; Tomaz, C T

    2016-02-15

    Lately, researchers have made several efforts to improve vaccine production to fight highly contagious respiratory diseases like influenza. One of the most promising options for reducing the impact of this virus is DNA vaccination. However, a large quantity of highly pure plasmid DNA (pDNA) is necessary to attain this goal. The present work describes the production and purification of the plasmid NTC7482-41H-VA2HA expressing influenza virus hemagglutinin using an agmatine monolith. This ligand was chosen to purify supercoiled (sc) pDNA from complex lysates because of its versatile multimodal character. Its natural intervention in several biological systems together with its similarity with the highly studied arginine ligand allowed the development of a simpler and more specific purification process. Agmatine works under two strategies: descending ammonium sulfate gradient and ascending sodium chloride gradient. Furthermore, pH manipulation revealed an important role in pDNA isoforms selectivity. Dynamic binding capacity (DBC) experiments were performed varying different parameters and showed an increase with pDNA concentration, while high flow rate and high pH had the opposite effect. Sc pDNA was purified with high yield and was efficient with respect to cell transfection and cell viability. This monolith showed to be appropriate to purify the plasmid NTC7482-41H-VA2HA, providing a valuable tool for pDNA influenza vaccines preparation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Economic benefits of sharing and redistributing influenza vaccines when shortages occurred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-I

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent influenza outbreak has been a concern for government health institutions in Taiwan. Over 10% of the population is infected by influenza viruses every year, and the infection has caused losses to both health and the economy. Approximately three million free vaccine doses are ordered and administered to high-risk populations at the beginning of flu season to control the disease. The government recommends sharing and redistributing vaccine inventories when shortages occur. While this policy intends to increase inventory flexibility, and has been proven as widely valuable, its impact on vaccine availability has not been previously reported. This study developed an inventory model adapted to vaccination protocols to evaluate government recommended polices under different levels of vaccine production. Demands were uncertain and stratified by ages and locations according to the demographic data in Taiwan. When vaccine supply is sufficient, sharing pediatric vaccine reduced vaccine unavailability by 43% and overstock by 54%, and sharing adult vaccine reduced vaccine unavailability by 9% and overstock by 15%. Redistributing vaccines obtained greater gains for both pediatrics and adults (by 75%). When the vaccine supply is in short, only sharing pediatric vaccine yielded a 48% reduction of unused inventory, while other polices do not improve performances. When implementing vaccination activities for seasonal influenza intervention, it is important to consider mismatches of demand and vaccine inventory. Our model confirmed that sharing and redistributing vaccines can substantially increase availability and reduce unused vaccines.

  6. Sunspot activity and influenza pandemics: a statistical assessment of the purported association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, S

    2017-10-01

    Since 1978, a series of papers in the literature have claimed to find a significant association between sunspot activity and the timing of influenza pandemics. This paper examines these analyses, and attempts to recreate the three most recent statistical analyses by Ertel (1994), Tapping et al. (2001), and Yeung (2006), which all have purported to find a significant relationship between sunspot numbers and pandemic influenza. As will be discussed, each analysis had errors in the data. In addition, in each analysis arbitrary selections or assumptions were also made, and the authors did not assess the robustness of their analyses to changes in those arbitrary assumptions. Varying the arbitrary assumptions to other, equally valid, assumptions negates the claims of significance. Indeed, an arbitrary selection made in one of the analyses appears to have resulted in almost maximal apparent significance; changing it only slightly yields a null result. This analysis applies statistically rigorous methodology to examine the purported sunspot/pandemic link, using more statistically powerful un-binned analysis methods, rather than relying on arbitrarily binned data. The analyses are repeated using both the Wolf and Group sunspot numbers. In all cases, no statistically significant evidence of any association was found. However, while the focus in this particular analysis was on the purported relationship of influenza pandemics to sunspot activity, the faults found in the past analyses are common pitfalls; inattention to analysis reproducibility and robustness assessment are common problems in the sciences, that are unfortunately not noted often enough in review.

  7. Economic benefits of sharing and redistributing influenza vaccines when shortages occurred.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-I Chen

    Full Text Available Recurrent influenza outbreak has been a concern for government health institutions in Taiwan. Over 10% of the population is infected by influenza viruses every year, and the infection has caused losses to both health and the economy. Approximately three million free vaccine doses are ordered and administered to high-risk populations at the beginning of flu season to control the disease. The government recommends sharing and redistributing vaccine inventories when shortages occur. While this policy intends to increase inventory flexibility, and has been proven as widely valuable, its impact on vaccine availability has not been previously reported.This study developed an inventory model adapted to vaccination protocols to evaluate government recommended polices under different levels of vaccine production. Demands were uncertain and stratified by ages and locations according to the demographic data in Taiwan.When vaccine supply is sufficient, sharing pediatric vaccine reduced vaccine unavailability by 43% and overstock by 54%, and sharing adult vaccine reduced vaccine unavailability by 9% and overstock by 15%. Redistributing vaccines obtained greater gains for both pediatrics and adults (by 75%. When the vaccine supply is in short, only sharing pediatric vaccine yielded a 48% reduction of unused inventory, while other polices do not improve performances.When implementing vaccination activities for seasonal influenza intervention, it is important to consider mismatches of demand and vaccine inventory. Our model confirmed that sharing and redistributing vaccines can substantially increase availability and reduce unused vaccines.

  8. Marketing paediatric influenza vaccination: results of a major metropolitan trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buynder, Paul G; Carcione, Dale; Rettura, Vince; Daly, Alison; Woods, Emily

    2011-01-01

    After a cluster of rapidly fulminant influenza related toddler deaths in a Western Australian metropolis, children aged six to 59 months were offered influenza vaccination in subsequent winters. Some parental resistance was expected and previous poor uptake of paediatric influenza vaccination overseas was noted. A marketing campaign addressing barriers to immunization was developed to maximise uptake. Advertising occurred in major statewide newspapers, via public poster displays and static 'eye-lite' displays, via press releases, via a series of rolling radio advertisements, via direct marketing to child care centres, and via a linked series of web-sites. Parents were subsequently surveyed to assess reasons for vaccination. The campaign produced influenza vaccination coverage above that previously described elsewhere and led to a proportionate reduction in influenza notifications in this age group compared to previous seasons. Influenza in children comes with significant morbidity and some mortality. Paediatric influenza vaccination is safe, well tolerated and effective if two doses are given. A targeted media campaign can increase vaccine uptake if it reinforces the seriousness of influenza and addresses community 'myths' about influenza and influenza vaccine. The lessons learned enabling enhancements of similar programs elsewhere. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Universal immunity to influenza must outwit immune evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Manuel Quinones-Parra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although an influenza vaccine has been available for 70 years, influenza virus still causes seasonal epidemics and worldwide pandemics. Currently available vaccines elicit strain-specific antibody responses to the surface haemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA proteins, but these can be ineffective against serologically-distinct viral variants and novel subtypes. Thus, there is a need for cross-protective or universal influenza vaccines to overcome the necessity for annual immunisation against seasonal influenza and to provide immunity to reduce the severity of infection with pandemic or outbreak viruses. It is well established that natural influenza infection can provide cross-reactive immunity that can reduce the impact of infection with distinct influenza type A strains and subtypes, including H1N1, H3N2, H2N2, H5N1 and H7N9. The key to generating universal influenza immunity via vaccination is to target functionally-conserved regions of the virus, which include epitopes on the internal proteins for cross-reactive T cell immunity or on the HA stem for broadly reactive antibody responses. In the wake of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, broadly neutralizing antibodies have been characterized and isolated from convalescent and vaccinated individuals, inspiring development of new vaccination techniques to elicit such responses. Induction of influenza-specific T cell responses through vaccination has also been examined in clinical trials. Strong evidence is available from human and animal models of influenza to show that established influenza-specific T cell memory can reduce viral shedding and symptom severity. However, the published evidence also shows that CD8+ T cells can efficiently select immune escape mutants early after influenza virus infection. Here, we discuss universal immunity to influenza viruses mediated by both cross-reactive T cells and antibodies, the mechanisms of immune evasion in influenza, and how to counteract commonly occurring

  10. Rational design of a comprehensive cancer therapy platform using temperature-sensitive polymer grafted hollow gold nanospheres: simultaneous chemo/photothermal/photodynamic therapy triggered by a 650 nm laser with enhanced anti-tumor efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaoran; Chen, Yinyin; Cheng, Ziyong; Deng, Kerong; Ma, Ping'an; Hou, Zhiyao; Liu, Bei; Huang, Shanshan; Jin, Dayong; Lin, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Combining multi-model treatments within one single system has attracted great interest for the purpose of synergistic therapy. In this paper, hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNs) coated with a temperature-sensitive polymer, poly(oligo(ethylene oxide) methacrylate-co-2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate) (p(OEGMA-co-MEMA)), co-loaded with DOX and a photosensitizer Chlorin e6 (Ce6) were successfully synthesized. As high as 58% DOX and 6% Ce6 by weight could be loaded onto the HAuNs-p(OEGMA-co-MEMA) nanocomposites. The grafting polymer brushes outside the HAuNs play the role of ``gate molecules'' for controlled drug release by 650 nm laser radiation owing to the temperature-sensitive property of the polymer and the photothermal effect of HAuNs. The HAuNs-p(OEGMA-co-MEMA)-Ce6-DOX nanocomposites with 650 nm laser radiation show effective inhibition of cancer cells in vitro and enhanced anti-tumor efficacy in vivo. In contrast, control groups without laser radiation show little cytotoxicity. The nanocomposite demonstrates a way of ``killing three birds with one stone'', that is, chemotherapy, photothermal and photodynamic therapy are triggered simultaneously by the 650 nm laser stimulation. Therefore, the nanocomposites show the great advantages of multi-modal synergistic effects for cancer therapy by a remote-controlled laser stimulus.Combining multi-model treatments within one single system has attracted great interest for the purpose of synergistic therapy. In this paper, hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNs) coated with a temperature-sensitive polymer, poly(oligo(ethylene oxide) methacrylate-co-2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate) (p(OEGMA-co-MEMA)), co-loaded with DOX and a photosensitizer Chlorin e6 (Ce6) were successfully synthesized. As high as 58% DOX and 6% Ce6 by weight could be loaded onto the HAuNs-p(OEGMA-co-MEMA) nanocomposites. The grafting polymer brushes outside the HAuNs play the role of ``gate molecules'' for controlled drug release by 650 nm laser radiation

  11. Influenza virus neutralizing antibodies and IgG isotype profiles after immunization of mice with influenza A subunit vaccine using various adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benne, CA; Harmsen, M; vanderGraaff, W; Verheul, AFM; Snippe, H; Kraaijeveld, CA

    The influence of various adjuvants on the development of influenza virus neutralizing antibodies and distribution of anti-influenza virus IgG isotypes after immunization of mice with influenza A (H3N2) subunit vaccine was investigated. Serum titres of influenza virus neutralizing antibodies and

  12. Influenzanet: Citizens Among 10 Countries Collaborating to Monitor Influenza in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppeschaar, Carl E; Colizza, Vittoria; Guerrisi, Caroline; Turbelin, Clément; Duggan, Jim; Edmunds, W John; Kjelsø, Charlotte; Mexia, Ricardo; Moreno, Yamir; Meloni, Sandro; Paolotti, Daniela; Perrotta, Daniela; van Straten, Edward; Franco, Ana O

    2017-09-19

    youngest and oldest age groups in 7 countries). The incidence of ILI in Influenzanet was found to be closely correlated although quantitatively higher than that obtained by the sentinel medical practice networks. Various risk factors for acquiring an ILI infection were identified. The VE studies performed with Influenzanet data suggest that this surveillance system could develop into a complementary tool to measure the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine, eventually in real time. Results from these analyses illustrate that Influenzanet has developed into a fast and flexible monitoring system that can complement the traditional influenza surveillance performed by sentinel medical practices. The uniformity of Influenzanet allows for direct comparison of ILI rates between countries. It also has the important advantage of yielding individual data, which can be used to identify risk factors. The way in which the Influenzanet system is constructed allows the collection of data that could be extended beyond those of ILI cases to monitor pandemic influenza and other common or emerging diseases. ©Carl E Koppeschaar, Vittoria Colizza, Caroline Guerrisi, Clément Turbelin, Jim Duggan, W John Edmunds, Charlotte Kjelsø, Ricardo Mexia, Yamir Moreno, Sandro Meloni, Daniela Paolotti, Daniela Perrotta, Edward van Straten, Ana O Franco. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 19.09.2017.

  13. Widespread detection of highly pathogenic H5 influenza viruses in wild birds from the Pacific Flyway of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, S N; Dusek, R J; White, C L; Gidlewski, T; Bodenstein, B; Mansfield, K G; DeBruyn, P; Kraege, D; Rowan, E; Gillin, C; Thomas, B; Chandler, S; Baroch, J; Schmit, B; Grady, M J; Miller, R S; Drew, M L; Stopak, S; Zscheile, B; Bennett, J; Sengl, J; Brady, Caroline; Ip, H S; Spackman, E; Killian, M L; Torchetti, M K; Sleeman, J M; Deliberto, T J

    2016-07-06

    A novel highly pathogenic avian influenza virus belonging to the H5 clade 2.3.4.4 variant viruses was detected in North America in late 2014. Motivated by the identification of these viruses in domestic poultry in Canada, an intensive study was initiated to conduct highly pathogenic avian influenza surveillance in wild birds in the Pacific Flyway of the United States. A total of 4,729 hunter-harvested wild birds were sampled and highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was detected in 1.3% (n = 63). Three H5 clade 2.3.4.4 subtypes were isolated from wild birds, H5N2, H5N8, and H5N1, representing the wholly Eurasian lineage H5N8 and two novel reassortant viruses. Testing of 150 additional wild birds during avian morbidity and mortality investigations in Washington yielded 10 (6.7%) additional highly pathogenic avian influenza isolates (H5N8 = 3 and H5N2 = 7). The geographically widespread detection of these viruses in apparently healthy wild waterfowl suggest that the H5 clade 2.3.4.4 variant viruses may behave similarly in this taxonomic group whereby many waterfowl species are susceptible to infection but do not demonstrate obvious clinical disease. Despite these findings in wild waterfowl, mortality has been documented for some wild bird species and losses in US domestic poultry during the first half of 2015 were unprecedented.

  14. Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Tom; Rivetti, Alessandro; Di Pietrantonj, Carlo; Demicheli, Vittorio

    2018-02-01

    The consequences of influenza in children and adults are mainly absenteeism from school and work. However, the risk of complications is greatest in children and people over 65 years of age. This is an update of a review published in 2011. Future updates of this review will be made only when new trials or vaccines become available. Observational data included in previous versions of the review have been retained for historical reasons but have not been updated because of their lack of influence on the review conclusions. To assess the effects (efficacy, effectiveness, and harm) of vaccines against influenza in healthy children. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 12), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to 31 December 2016), Embase (1974 to 31 December 2016), WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; 1 July 2017), and ClinicalTrials.gov (1 July 2017). Randomised controlled trials comparing influenza vaccines with placebo or no intervention in naturally occurring influenza in healthy children under 16 years. Previous versions of this review included 19 cohort and 11 case-control studies. We are no longer updating the searches for these study designs but have retained the observational studies for historical purposes. Review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We used GRADE to rate the certainty of evidence for the key outcomes of influenza, influenza-like illness (ILI), complications (hospitalisation, ear infection), and adverse events. Due to variation in control group risks for influenza and ILI, absolute effects are reported as the median control group risk, and numbers needed to vaccinate (NNVs) are reported accordingly. For other outcomes aggregate control group risks are used. We included 41 clinical trials (> 200,000 children). Most of the studies were conducted in children over the

  15. Promoting Influenza Vaccination to Restaurant Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Meredith C; Harris, Jeffrey R; Hannon, Peggy A; Hammerback, Kristen; Parrish, Amanda T; Ahmed, Faruque; Zhou, Chuan; Allen, Claire L

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate an evidence-based workplace approach to increasing adult influenza vaccination levels applied in the restaurant setting We implemented an intervention and conducted a pre/post analysis to determine effect on vaccination. Eleven Seattle-area restaurants. Restaurants with 25+ employees speaking English or Spanish and over 18 years. Restaurants received influenza vaccination promotion materials, assistance arranging on-site vaccination events, and free influenza vaccinations for employees. Pre/post employee surveys of vaccination status with direct observation and employer interviews to evaluate implementation. We conducted descriptive analysis of employee survey data and performed qualitative analysis of implementation data. To assess intervention effect, we used a mixed-effects logistic regression model with a restaurant-specific random effect. Vaccination levels increased from 26% to 46% (adjusted odds ratio 2.33, 95% confidence interval 1.69, 3.22), with 428 employees surveyed preintervention, 305 surveyed postintervention, and response rates of 73% and 55%, respectively. The intervention was effective across subgroups, but there were restaurant-level differences. An access-based workplace intervention can increase influenza vaccination levels in restaurant employees, but restaurant-level factors may influence success. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

  16. Conducting polymers as sorbents of influenza viruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ivanova, V. T.; Garina, E. O.; Burtseva, E. I.; Kirillova, E. S.; Ivanova, M. V.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Sapurina, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 495-503 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14199 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : influenza viruses * conducting polymers * polyaniline Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  17. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in Port Shepstone, South Africa. Introduction. Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 'swine flu' variant is currently a global pandemic.1 The infection associated with this virus is usually a mild, self-limiting illness. However, it may progress to severe pneumonia requiring intensive care unit (ICU) therapy in 31% of patients.2 This may.

  18. Preventing drug resistance in severe influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolny, Hana; Deecke, Lucas

    2015-03-01

    Severe, long-lasting influenza infections are often caused by new strains of influenza. The long duration of these infections leads to an increased opportunity for the emergence of drug resistant mutants. This is particularly problematic for new strains of influenza since there is often no vaccine, so drug treatment is the first line of defense. One strategy for trying to minimize drug resistance is to apply periodic treatment. During treatment the wild-type virus decreases, but resistant virus might increase; when there is no treatment, wild-type virus will hopefully out-compete the resistant virus, driving down the number of resistant virus. We combine a mathematical model of severe influenza with a model of drug resistance to study emergence of drug resistance during a long-lasting infection. We apply periodic treatment with two types of antivirals: neuraminidase inhibitors, which block release of virions; and adamantanes, which block replication of virions. We compare the efficacy of the two drugs in reducing emergence of drug resistant mutants and examine the effect of treatment frequency on the emergence of drug resistant mutants.

  19. The shifting demographic landscape of pandemic influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Bansal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As Pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza spreads around the globe, it strikes school-age children more often than adults. Although there is some evidence of pre-existing immunity among older adults, this alone may not explain the significant gap in age-specific infection rates.Based on a retrospective analysis of pandemic strains of influenza from the last century, we show that school-age children typically experience the highest attack rates in primarily naive populations, with the burden shifting to adults during the subsequent season. Using a parsimonious network-based mathematical model which incorporates the changing distribution of contacts in the susceptible population, we demonstrate that new pandemic strains of influenza are expected to shift the epidemiological landscape in exactly this way.Our analysis provides a simple demographic explanation for the age bias observed for H1N1/09 attack rates, and suggests that this bias may shift in coming months. These results have significant implications for the allocation of public health resources for H1N1/09 and future influenza pandemics.

  20. Medical students' attitude towards influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Birthe A; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wicker, Sabine; Chapman, Gretchen; Kok, Gerjo

    2015-04-15

    Influenza vaccination is recommended for all healthcare personnel (HCP) and most institutions offer vaccination for free and on site. However, medical students do not always have such easy access, and the predictors that might guide the motivation of medical students to get vaccinated are largely unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study among pre-clinical medical students in a German University hospital to assess the social cognitive predictors of influenza vaccination, as well as reasons for refusal and acceptance of the vaccine. Findings show that pre-clinical medical students have comparable knowledge gaps and negative attitudes towards influenza vaccination that have previously been reported among HCP. Lower injunctive norms and higher feelings of autonomy contribute to no intention to get vaccinated against influenza, while a positive instrumental attitude and higher feelings of autonomy contribute to a high intention to get vaccinated. The variables in the regression model explained 20% of the variance in intention to get vaccinated. The identified factors should be addressed early in medical education, and hospitals might benefit from a more inclusive vaccination program and accessibility of free vaccines for their medical students.

  1. Avian influenza A (H5N1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Menno D.; Hien, Tran Tinh

    2006-01-01

    Since their reemergence in 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses have reached endemic levels among poultry in several southeast Asian countries and have caused a still increasing number of more than 100 reported human infections with high mortality. These developments have ignited

  2. Serological diagnosis of avian influenza in poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comin, Arianna; Toft, Nils; Stegeman, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Background The serological diagnosis of avian influenza (AI) can be performed using different methods, yet the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is considered the gold standard' for AI antibody subtyping. Although alternative diagnostic assays have been developed, in most cases, their accuracy...

  3. H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine flu; H1N1 type A influenza ... The H1N1 virus is now considered a regular flu virus. It is one of the three viruses included in the regular (seasonal) flu vaccine . You cannot get H1N1 flu virus from ...

  4. Planar Hall Sensor for Influenza Immunoassay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing, Louise Wellendorph

    2006-01-01

    følsomt kan detektere magnetiske nanokugler. Indledende biodetektionsforsøg rettet mod detektion af influenza-virus blev udført i samarbejde med Statens Serum-Institut. Det blev demonstreret, at sensorerne har et stort potentiale til biodetektion men også at den uspecifikke binding af magnetiske kugler...

  5. Getting Beyond Getting Ready for Pandemic Influenza

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2009-01-01

    .... We watch avian influenza move across the world, worry about how more than 60% of those people that contract the disease die from it, and realize that further mutations in currently circulating strains could cause them to easily infect human beings...

  6. Invasive Disease Caused by Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-12

    Dr. Elizabeth Briere discusses Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae which causes a variety of infections in children and adults.  Created: 11/12/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2015.

  7. INFLUENZA IMMUNISATION IN HIV-INFECTED PERSONS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in 1997' (surpassing the 6O'lb vaccine coverage goal for the country's Healthy People 2000 Project). ... (i) are HIV-infected persons at special risk for influenza complications and is annual immunisation .... virus type' 1 rep :cation can be increased in peripheral 0100d of sero- positive patiems aher influenrc. vacdnation.

  8. Rapid detection of pandemic influenza in the presence of seasonal influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Chris

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Key to the control of pandemic influenza are surveillance systems that raise alarms rapidly and sensitively. In addition, they must minimise false alarms during a normal influenza season. We develop a method that uses historical syndromic influenza data from the existing surveillance system 'SERVIS' (Scottish Enhanced Respiratory Virus Infection Surveillance for influenza-like illness (ILI in Scotland. Methods We develop an algorithm based on the weekly case ratio (WCR of reported ILI cases to generate an alarm for pandemic influenza. From the seasonal influenza data from 13 Scottish health boards, we estimate the joint probability distribution of the country-level WCR and the number of health boards showing synchronous increases in reported influenza cases over the previous week. Pandemic cases are sampled with various case reporting rates from simulated pandemic influenza infections and overlaid with seasonal SERVIS data from 2001 to 2007. Using this combined time series we test our method for speed of detection, sensitivity and specificity. Also, the 2008-09 SERVIS ILI cases are used for testing detection performances of the three methods with a real pandemic data. Results We compare our method, based on our simulation study, to the moving-average Cumulative Sums (Mov-Avg Cusum and ILI rate threshold methods and find it to be more sensitive and rapid. For 1% case reporting and detection specificity of 95%, our method is 100% sensitive and has median detection time (MDT of 4 weeks while the Mov-Avg Cusum and ILI rate threshold methods are, respectively, 97% and 100% sensitive with MDT of 5 weeks. At 99% specificity, our method remains 100% sensitive with MDT of 5 weeks. Although the threshold method maintains its sensitivity of 100% with MDT of 5 weeks, sensitivity of Mov-Avg Cusum declines to 92% with increased MDT of 6 weeks. For a two-fold decrease in the case reporting rate (0.5% and 99% specificity, the WCR and

  9. Rapid detection of pandemic influenza in the presence of seasonal influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Key to the control of pandemic influenza are surveillance systems that raise alarms rapidly and sensitively. In addition, they must minimise false alarms during a normal influenza season. We develop a method that uses historical syndromic influenza data from the existing surveillance system 'SERVIS' (Scottish Enhanced Respiratory Virus Infection Surveillance) for influenza-like illness (ILI) in Scotland. Methods We develop an algorithm based on the weekly case ratio (WCR) of reported ILI cases to generate an alarm for pandemic influenza. From the seasonal influenza data from 13 Scottish health boards, we estimate the joint probability distribution of the country-level WCR and the number of health boards showing synchronous increases in reported influenza cases over the previous week. Pandemic cases are sampled with various case reporting rates from simulated pandemic influenza infections and overlaid with seasonal SERVIS data from 2001 to 2007. Using this combined time series we test our method for speed of detection, sensitivity and specificity. Also, the 2008-09 SERVIS ILI cases are used for testing detection performances of the three methods with a real pandemic data. Results We compare our method, based on our simulation study, to the moving-average Cumulative Sums (Mov-Avg Cusum) and ILI rate threshold methods and find it to be more sensitive and rapid. For 1% case reporting and detection specificity of 95%, our method is 100% sensitive and has median detection time (MDT) of 4 weeks while the Mov-Avg Cusum and ILI rate threshold methods are, respectively, 97% and 100% sensitive with MDT of 5 weeks. At 99% specificity, our method remains 100% sensitive with MDT of 5 weeks. Although the threshold method maintains its sensitivity of 100% with MDT of 5 weeks, sensitivity of Mov-Avg Cusum declines to 92% with increased MDT of 6 weeks. For a two-fold decrease in the case reporting rate (0.5%) and 99% specificity, the WCR and threshold methods

  10. Clinical outcomes of seasonal influenza and pandemic influenza A (H1N1 in pediatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budd Alicia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In April 2009, a novel influenza A H1N1 (nH1N1 virus emerged and spread rapidly worldwide. News of the pandemic led to a heightened awareness of the consequences of influenza and generally resulted in enhanced infection control practices and strengthened vaccination efforts for both healthcare workers and the general population. Seasonal influenza (SI illness in the pediatric population has been previously shown to result in significant morbidity, mortality, and substantial hospital resource utilization. Although influenza pandemics have the possibility of resulting in considerable illness, we must not ignore the impact that we can experience annually with SI. Methods We compared the outcomes of pediatric patients ≤18 years of age at a large urban hospital with laboratory confirmed influenza and an influenza-like illness (ILI during the 2009 pandemic and two prior influenza seasons. The primary outcome measure was hospital length of stay (LOS. All variables potentially associated with LOS based on univariable analysis, previous studies, or hypothesized relationships were included in the regression models to ensure adjustment for their effects. Results There were 133 pediatric cases of nH1N1 admitted during 2009 and 133 cases of SI admitted during the prior 2 influenza seasons (2007-8 and 2008-9. Thirty-six percent of children with SI and 18% of children with nH1N1 had no preexisting medical conditions (p = 0.14. Children admitted with SI had 1.73 times longer adjusted LOS than children admitted for nH1N1 (95% CI 1.35 - 2.13. There was a trend towards more children with SI requiring mechanical ventilation compared with nH1N1 (16 vs.7, p = 0.08. Conclusions This study strengthens the growing body of evidence demonstrating that SI results in significant morbidity in the pediatric population. Pandemic H1N1 received considerable attention with strong media messages urging people to undergo vaccination and encouraging improved

  11. Multiplex quantitative PCR for detection of lower respiratory tract infection and meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldaim, Guma M K; Strålin, Kristoffer; Korsgaard, Jens; Blomberg, Jonas; Welinder-Olsson, Christina; Herrmann, Björn

    2010-12-03

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae cause pneumonia and as Neisseria meningitidis they are important agents of meningitis. Although several PCR methods have been described for these bacteria the specificity is an underestimated problem. Here we present a quantitative multiplex real-time PCR (qmPCR) for detection of S. pneumoniae (9802 gene fragment), H. influenzae (omp P6 gene) and N. meningitidis (ctrA gene). The method was evaluated on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 156 adults with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and 31 controls, and on 87 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from meningitis patients. The analytical sensitivity was not affected by using a combined mixture of reagents and a combined DNA standard (S. pneumoniae/H. influenzae/N. meningitidis) in single tubes. By blood- and BAL-culture and S. pneumoniae urinary antigen test, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae were aetiological agents in 21 and 31 of the LTRI patients, respectively. These pathogens were identified by qmPCR in 52 and 72 of the cases, respectively, yielding sensitivities and specificities of 95% and 75% for S. pneumoniae, and 90% and 65% for H. influenzae, respectively. When using a cut-off of 10⁵ genome copies/mL for clinical positivity the sensitivities and specificities were 90% and 80% for S. pneumoniae, and 81% and 85% for H. influenzae, respectively. Of 44 culture negative but qmPCR positive for H. influenzae, 41 were confirmed by fucK PCR as H. influenzae. Of the 103 patients who had taken antibiotics prior to sampling, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae were identified by culture in 6% and 20% of the cases, respectively, and by the qmPCR in 36% and 53% of the cases, respectively.In 87 CSF samples S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis were identified by culture and/or 16 S rRNA in 14 and 10 samples and by qmPCR in 14 and 10 samples, respectively, giving a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% for both bacteria. The PCR provides increased

  12. Multiplex quantitative PCR for detection of lower respiratory tract infection and meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welinder-Olsson Christina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae cause pneumonia and as Neisseria meningitidis they are important agents of meningitis. Although several PCR methods have been described for these bacteria the specificity is an underestimated problem. Here we present a quantitative multiplex real-time PCR (qmPCR for detection of S. pneumoniae (9802 gene fragment, H. influenzae (omp P6 gene and N. meningitidis (ctrA gene. The method was evaluated on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL samples from 156 adults with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI and 31 controls, and on 87 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from meningitis patients. Results The analytical sensitivity was not affected by using a combined mixture of reagents and a combined DNA standard (S. pneumoniae/H. influenzae/N. meningitidis in single tubes. By blood- and BAL-culture and S. pneumoniae urinary antigen test, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae were aetiological agents in 21 and 31 of the LTRI patients, respectively. These pathogens were identified by qmPCR in 52 and 72 of the cases, respectively, yielding sensitivities and specificities of 95% and 75% for S. pneumoniae, and 90% and 65% for H. influenzae, respectively. When using a cut-off of 105 genome copies/mL for clinical positivity the sensitivities and specificities were 90% and 80% for S. pneumoniae, and 81% and 85% for H. influenzae, respectively. Of 44 culture negative but qmPCR positive for H. influenzae, 41 were confirmed by fucK PCR as H. influenzae. Of the 103 patients who had taken antibiotics prior to sampling, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae were identified by culture in 6% and 20% of the cases, respectively, and by the qmPCR in 36% and 53% of the cases, respectively. In 87 CSF samples S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis were identified by culture and/or 16 S rRNA in 14 and 10 samples and by qmPCR in 14 and 10 samples, respectively, giving a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% for both

  13. Virions and intracellular nucleocapsids produced during mixed heterotypic influenza infection of MDCK cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklyanskaya, E.I.; Varich, N.L.; Amvrosieva, T.V.; Kaverin, N.V.

    1985-01-01

    Phenotypically mixed virus yields, obtained by coinfection of MDCK cells with influenza A/WSN/33 and B/Lee/40 viruses, contained both A/WSN/33 and B/Lee/40 NP proteins, as revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified 14 C-amino acids-labeled virus. Virions were lysed with 0.6 M KCl-Triton X-100 buffer, and nucleocapsids were immunoprecipitated with antibodies against NP protein of influenza A virus. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the immunoprecipitate revealed NP protein of A/WSN/33 but not of B/Lee/40 virus. However, in similar experiments with the lysates of doubly infected cells, the band of B/Lee/40 NP protein was revealed in the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of the immunoprecipitates. In an attempt to analyze the RNA content of the immune complexes, the authors absorbed the lysates of doubly infected [ 3 H]uridine-labeled cells with protein A-containing Staphylococcus aureus covered with antibodies against the NP protein of influenza A virus. RNA extracted from the immune complexes contained genomic RNA segments of both A/WSN/33 and B/Lee/40 viruses. In control samples containing an artificial mixture of cell lysates separately infected with each virus, the analysis revealed homologous components (i.e., A/WSN/33 NP protein or RNA segments) in the immune complexes. The results suggest the presence of phenotypically mixed nucleocapsids in the cells doubly infected with influenza A and B viruses; in the course of the virion formation, the nucleocapsids lacking the heterologous NP protein are selected

  14. Extended viral shedding of a low pathogenic avian influenza virus by striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jeffrey Root

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis are susceptible to infection with some influenza A viruses. However, the viral shedding capability of this peri-domestic mammal and its potential role in influenza A virus ecology are largely undetermined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Striped skunks were experimentally infected with a low pathogenic (LP H4N6 avian influenza virus (AIV and monitored for 20 days post infection (DPI. All of the skunks exposed to H4N6 AIV shed large quantities of viral RNA, as detected by real-time RT-PCR and confirmed for live virus with virus isolation, from nasal washes and oral swabs (maximum ≤ 10(6.02 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL and ≤ 10(5.19 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL, respectively. Some evidence of potential fecal shedding was also noted. Following necropsy on 20 DPI, viral RNA was detected in the nasal turbinates of one individual. All treatment animals yielded evidence of a serological response by 20 DPI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that striped skunks have the potential to shed large quantities of viral RNA through the oral and nasal routes following exposure to a LP AIV. Considering the peri-domestic nature of these animals, along with the duration of shedding observed in this species, their presence on poultry and waterfowl operations could influence influenza A virus epidemiology. For example, this species could introduce a virus to a naive poultry flock or act as a trafficking mechanism of AIV to and from an infected poultry flock to naive flocks or wild bird populations.

  15. Validation of statistical models for estimating hospitalization associated with influenza and other respiratory viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reliable estimates of disease burden associated with respiratory viruses are keys to deployment of preventive strategies such as vaccination and resource allocation. Such estimates are particularly needed in tropical and subtropical regions where some methods commonly used in temperate regions are not applicable. While a number of alternative approaches to assess the influenza associated disease burden have been recently reported, none of these models have been validated with virologically confirmed data. Even fewer methods have been developed for other common respiratory viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, parainfluenza and adenovirus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We had recently conducted a prospective population-based study of virologically confirmed hospitalization for acute respiratory illnesses in persons <18 years residing in Hong Kong Island. Here we used this dataset to validate two commonly used models for estimation of influenza disease burden, namely the rate difference model and Poisson regression model, and also explored the applicability of these models to estimate the disease burden of other respiratory viruses. The Poisson regression models with different link functions all yielded estimates well correlated with the virologically confirmed influenza associated hospitalization, especially in children older than two years. The disease burden estimates for RSV, parainfluenza and adenovirus were less reliable with wide confidence intervals. The rate difference model was not applicable to RSV, parainfluenza and adenovirus and grossly underestimated the true burden of influenza associated hospitalization. CONCLUSION: The Poisson regression model generally produced satisfactory estimates in calculating the disease burden of respiratory viruses in a subtropical region such as Hong Kong.

  16. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  17. Transmission of Influenza B Viruses in the Guinea Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Natalie; Chou, Yi-Ying; Bouvier, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemic influenza is typically caused by infection with viruses of the A and B types and can result in substantial morbidity and mortality during a given season. Here we demonstrate that influenza B viruses can replicate in the upper respiratory tract of the guinea pig and that viruses of the two main lineages can be transmitted with 100% efficiency between inoculated and naïve animals in both contact and noncontact models. Our results also indicate that, like in the case for influenza A virus, transmission of influenza B viruses is enhanced at colder temperatures, providing an explanation for the seasonality of influenza epidemics in temperate climates. We therefore present, for the first time, a small animal model with which to study the underlying mechanisms of influenza B virus transmission. PMID:22301149

  18. Novel Platforms for the Development of a Universal influenza vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Arun; Meldgaard, Trine Sundebo; Bertholet, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    Despite advancements in immunotherapeutic approaches, influenza continues to cause severe illness, particularly among immunocompromised individuals, young children, and elderly adults. Vaccination is the most effective way to reduce rates of morbidity and mortality caused by influenza viruses....... Frequent genetic shift and drift among influenzavirus strains with the resultant disparity between circulating and vaccine virus strains limits the effectiveness of the available conventional influenza vaccines. One approach to overcome this limitation is to develop a universal influenza vaccine that could...... provide protection against all subtypes of influenza viruses. Moreover, the development of a novel or improved universal influenza vaccines may be greatly facilitated by new technologies including virus-like particles, T-cell-inducing peptides and recombinant proteins, synthetic viruses, broadly...

  19. CXCR1/2 Antagonism Is Protective during Influenza and Post-Influenza Pneumococcal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana P. Tavares

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available RationaleInfluenza A infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide especially when associated with secondary pneumococcal infections. Inflammation is important to control pathogen proliferation but may also cause tissue injury and death. CXCR1/2 are chemokine receptors relevant for the recruitment of neutrophils. We investigated the role of CXCR1/2 during influenza, pneumococcal, and post-influenza pneumococcal infections.MethodsMice were infected with influenza A virus (IAV or Streptococcus pneumoniae and then treated daily with the CXCR1/2 antagonist DF2162. To study secondary pneumococcal infection, mice were infected with a sublethal inoculum of IAV then infected with S. pneumoniae 14 days later. DF2162 was given in a therapeutic schedule from days 3 to 6 after influenza infection. Lethality, weight loss, inflammation, virus/bacteria counts, and lung injury were assessed.ResultsCXCL1 and CXCL2 were produced at high levels during IAV infection. DF2162 treatment decreased morbidity and this was associated with decreased infiltration of neutrophils in the lungs and reduced pulmonary damage and viral titers. During S. pneumoniae infection, DF2162 treatment decreased neutrophil recruitment, pulmonary damage, and lethality rates, without affecting bacteria burden. Therapeutic treatment with DF2162 during sublethal IAV infection reduced the morbidity associated with virus infection and also decreased the magnitude of inflammation, lung damage, and number of bacteria in the blood of mice subsequently infected with S. pneumoniae.ConclusionModulation of the inflammatory response by blocking CXCR1/2 improves disease outcome during respiratory influenza and pneumococcal infections, without compromising the ability of the murine host to deal with infection. Altogether, inhibition of CXCR1/2 may be a valid therapeutic strategy for treating lung infections caused by these pathogens, especially controlling secondary bacterial

  20. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Gan et al., 2003). Nitrogen increases yield by influencing a variety of agronomic and quality parameters. In general, there was an increase in plant height and dry matter accumulation per plant in soybean (Manral and Saxena, ...